WorldWideScience

Sample records for prolonged life span

  1. Effects of low dose rate irradiation on life span prolongation of human premature-aging syndrome model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaharu

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that Type II diabetes model mice prolonged of their life span by life long low dose rate irradiation. We also found that antioxidant function in variety tissues of some strain of mice were enhancement after low dose/low dose rate irradiation. The prolongation of life span might depend on certain damaged level of reactive oxygen species. We thought the effect of the prolongation was due to the enhancement of the antioxidant activities after irradiation. We investigated whether the enhancement of antioxidant activities after low dose rate irradiation had an effect on life span prolongation. Four-week-old female human premature-aging syndrome model mice, kl/kl (klotho) mice, which the life span of this model mouse is about 65 days, were irradiated with gamma rays at 0.35, 0.70 or 1.2 mGy/hr. The 0.70 mGy/hr-irradiated group remarkably effected on the prolongation of their life span. Some mice of the group were extremely survived for about and more 100 days. Antioxidant activities in the irradiated groups were enhancement by low dose rate irradiation, however the dependence of the dose rates were not clearly difference. These results suggest that the antioxidant activities in this model mouse were enhanced by the low dose rate irradiation, and may make it possible to prolong the life span of this mouse. (author)

  2. The Japanese diet from 1975 delays senescence and prolongs life span in SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazushi; E, Shuang; Hatakeyama, Yu; Sakamoto, Yu; Honma, Taro; Jibu, Yuri; Kawakami, Yuki; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in Japan is high, suggesting that the Japanese diet, Nihon shoku (Japanese food), has significant health benefits. However, these benefits have been called into question over the past 50 y, during which time the Japanese diet has become increasingly Westernized. The aim of the present study was to focus on senescence delay and to examine the effects of Japanese diets from different years to identify which Japanese diet is most effective in enhancing life expectancy and delaying senescence. Weekly menus from the years 1960, 1975, 1990, and 2005 were reproduced based on the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan and prepared as powdered foods. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were fed standard laboratory chow supplemented with a 30% mix of Japanese meals from various years ad libitum throughout their lifetime. Additionally, the control group was given standard laboratory chow only, to examine the development of mice reared under standard conditions. In the group that ingested the traditional 1975 Japanese diet, life span was prolonged, senescence was delayed, and learning and memory capacities were maintained compared with the group fed the 2005 Japanese diet. The life span of the group that ingested the 1990 Japanese diet showed a tendency to be longer than SAMP8 mice fed the 2005 diet. The results of the present study suggested that the traditional Japanese diet is more effective in enhancing life expectancy and delaying senescence than the current Japanese diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The life span-prolonging effect of sirtuin-1 is mediated by autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Markaki, Maria; Megalou, Evgenia; Pasparaki, Angela; Palikaras, Konstantinos; Criollo, Alfredo; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Vitale, Ilio; Michaud, Mickael; Madeo, Frank; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Kroemer, Guido

    2010-01-01

    The life span of various model organisms can be extended by caloric restriction as well as by autophagy-inducing pharmacological agents. Life span-prolonging effects have also been observed in yeast cells, nematodes and flies upon the overexpression of the deacetylase Sirtuin-1. Intrigued by these observations and by the established link between caloric restriction and Sirtuin-1 activation, we decided to investigate the putative implication of Sirtuin-1 in the response of human cancer cells and Caenorhabditis elegans to multiple triggers of autophagy. Our data indicate that the activation of Sirtuin-1 (by the pharmacological agent resveratrol and/or genetic means) per se ignites autophagy, and that Sirtuin-1 is required for the autophagic response to nutrient deprivation, in both human and nematode cells, but not for autophagy triggered by downstream signals such as the inhibition of mTOR or p53. Since the life spanextending effects of Sirtuin-1 activators are lost in autophagy-deficient C. elegans, our results suggest that caloric restriction and resveratrol extend longevity, at least in experimental settings, by activating autophagy.

  4. New strategies to prolong the in vivo life span of iron-based contrast agents for MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Antonelli

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO and ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO nanoparticles have been developed as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. Iron oxide nanoparticles, that become superparamagnetic if the core particle diameter is ~ 30 nm or less, present R1 and R2 relaxivities which are much higher than those of conventional paramagnetic gadolinium chelates. Generally, these magnetic particles are coated with biocompatible polymers that prevent the agglomeration of the colloidal suspension and improve their blood distribution profile. In spite of their potential as MRI blood contrast agents, the biomedical application of iron oxide nanoparticles is still limited because of their intravascular half-life of only few hours; such nanoparticles are rapidly cleared from the bloodstream by macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system (RES. To increase the life span of these MRI contrast agents in the bloodstream we proposed the encapsulation of SPIO nanoparticles in red blood cells (RBCs through the transient opening of cell membrane pores. We have recently reported results obtained by applying our loading procedure to several SPIO nanoparticles with different chemical physical characteristics such as size and coating agent. In the current investigation we showed that the life span of iron-based contrast agents in the mice bloodstream was prolonged to 12 days after the intravenous injection of murine SPIO-loaded RBCs. Furthermore, we developed an animal model that implicates the pretreatment of animals with clodronate to induce a transient suppression of tissue macrophages, followed by the injection of human SPIO-loaded RBCs which make it possible to encapsulate nanoparticle concentrations (5.3-16.7 mM Fe higher than murine SPIO-loaded RBCs (1.4-3.55 mM Fe. The data showed that, when human RBCs are used as more capable SPIO nanoparticle containers combined with a depletion of tissue macrophages, Fe concentration in

  5. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  6. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  7. The Life Span Dwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Peter Hebensperger-Hüther; Gabriele Franger-Huhle

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the findings from a survey of 10 different experimental housing projects in Bavaria. In 2005 students of architecture and students of social work at the University of Applied Science in Coburg approached the topic of “Life Span Dwelling” using interdisciplinary research methods. The scope of the research ranges from urban planning concepts to common spaces in the different neighborhoods, documenting user satisfaction with the individual unit and feasibility of rooms offered...

  8. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen prolongs the life span of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Sugaya, Makoto; Atkins, April M; Aquilino, Elisabeth A; Yang, Aparche; Borris, Debra L; Brady, John; Blauvelt, Andrew

    2003-06-01

    Tumor spindle cells in all clinical types of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) are infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Although KSHV contains more than 80 genes, only a few are expressed in tumor spindle cells, including latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and k-cyclin (kCYC). To assess the oncogenic potential of LANA and kCYC, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and murine NIH 3T3 cells were stably transduced by using recombinant retroviruses expressing these genes or the known viral oncogene simian virus 40 large T antigen (LTAg). Interestingly, LANA-transduced HUVEC proliferated faster and demonstrated a greatly prolonged life span (mean +/- standard deviation, 38.3 +/- 11.0 passages) than untransduced cells and vector-transduced cells (<20 passages). By contrast, kCYC-transduced HUVEC did not proliferate faster or live longer than control cells. LANA- and kCYC-transduced HUVEC, but not LTAg-transduced HUVEC, retained the ability to form normal vessel-like structures in an in vitro model of angiogenesis. In cellular assays of transformation, LANA- and kCYC-transduced NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated minimal or no anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and no tumorigenicity when injected into nude mice, unlike LTAg-transduced NIH 3T3 cells. Lastly, gene expression profiling revealed down-regulation, or silencing, of a number of genes within LANA-transduced HUVEC. Taken together, these results suggest that KSHV LANA is capable of inducing prolonged life span, but not transformation, in primary human cells. These findings may explain why LANA-expressing spindle cells proliferate within KS tumors, yet most often do not demonstrate biologic characteristics of transformation or true malignant conversion.

  9. Stimulation of anti-tumor effect by low-dose irradiation. Pt. 2. The prolongation of life span in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Misonoh, Jun; Hosoi, Yoshio; Ono, Tetsuya; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko.

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate the antileukemic effect of low-dose X-irradiation, we studied the influence of periodical low-dose X-irradiation on survival and tumor incidence of thymus using AKR mice. The findings of the experiments were as follows; (1) The median survival time of control AKR mice was 283±3 days. It of irradiation group of 15 cGy/week and 30cGy was 309±14 days and 316±10 days respectively. The life span was significantly prolonged (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively by Wilcoxon test) by periodical low-dose X-irradiation in term of breeding. (2) The incidence of thymus tumor which is observed remarkably in control AKR mice was 48.8%. It of irradiation group of 15 cGy/week and 30 cGy/week was 40% and 20% respectively. Inversely, the non-tumor incidence of tymus in control AKR mice was 19.5%. It of irradiation group of 15 cGy/week and 30 cGy/week was 32.5% and 51.4% respectively. The thymic tumor incidence was significantly decreased (p < 0.01 by chi-square test) in irradiation group of 30 cGy/week. (3) The incidence of thymic lymphoma as a death cause in control AKR mice was 80.4%. It of irradiation group of 15 cGy/week and 30cGy/week was 67.5% and 48.6% respectively. The incidence of thymic lymphoma was significantly decreased (p < 0.05 by chi-square test) in irradiation group of 30 cGy/week. (author)

  10. Thermodynamics and life span estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuddusi, Lütfullah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey is estimated by applying the first and second laws of thermodynamics to the human body. The people living in different regions of Turkey have different food habits. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to calculate the entropy generation rate per unit mass of a human due to the food habits. The lifetime entropy generation per unit mass of a human was previously found statistically. The two entropy generations, lifetime entropy generation and entropy generation rate, enable one to determine the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey with different food habits. In order to estimate the life span, some statistics of Turkish Statistical Institute regarding the food habits of the people living in seven regions of Turkey are used. The life spans of people that live in Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia regions are the longest and shortest, respectively. Generally, the following inequality regarding the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey is found: Eastern Anatolia < Southeast Anatolia < Black Sea < Mediterranean < Marmara < Aegean < Central Anatolia. - Highlights: • The first and second laws of thermodynamics are applied to the human body. • The entropy generation of a human due to his food habits is determined. • The life span of Turks is estimated by using the entropy generation method. • Food habits of a human have effect on his life span

  11. Deep sea minerals prolong life span of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by compensatory augmentation of the IGF-I-survival signaling and inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Pai, Pei-Ying; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lin, Jing-Ying; Wen, Su-Ying; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-07-01

    Consumption of deep sea minerals (DSM), such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium, is known to reduce hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac-apoptosis and provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. Heart diseases develop as a lethal complication among diabetic patients usually due to hyperglycemia-induced cardiac-apoptosis that causes severe cardiac-damages, heart failure, and reduced life expectancy. In this study, we investigated the potential of DSM and its related cardio-protection to increase the life expectancy in diabetic rats. In this study, a heart failure rat model was developed by using streptozotocin (65 mg kg(-1) ) IP injection. Different doses of DSM-1× (37 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), 2× (74 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) and 3× (111 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), were administered to the rats through gavages for 4 weeks. The positive effects of DSM on the survival rate of diabetes rats were determined with respect to the corresponding effects of MgSO4 . Further, to understand the mechanism by which DSM enhances the survival of diabetic rats, their potential to regulate cardiac-apoptosis and control cardiac-dysfunction were examined. Echocardiogram, tissue staining, TUNEL assay, and Western blotting assay were used to investigate modulations in the myocardial contractile function and related signaling protein expression. The results showed that DSM regulate apoptosis and complement the cardiomyocyte proliferation by enhancing survival mechanisms. Moreover DSM significantly reduced the mortality rate and enhanced the survival rate of diabetic rats. Experimental results show that DSM administration can be an effective strategy to improve the life expectancy of diabetic subjects by improving cardiac-cell proliferation and by controlling cardiac-apoptosis and associated cardiac-dysfunction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 769-781, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A decrease in ubiquitination and resulting prolonged life-span of KIT underlies the KIT overexpression-mediated imatinib resistance of KIT mutation-driven canine mast cell tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Kuroki, Shiori; Kurita, Sena; Miyamoto, Ryo; Tani, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Kyoichi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2017-10-01

    Overexpression of KIT is one of the mechanisms that contributes to imatinib resistance in KIT mutation-driven tumors. Here, the mechanism underlying this overexpression of KIT was investigated using an imatinib-sensitive canine mast cell tumor (MCT) line CoMS, which has an activating mutation in KIT exon 11. A KIT-overexpressing imatinib-resistant subline, rCoMS1, was generated from CoMS cells by their continuous exposure to increasing concentrations of imatinib. Neither a secondary mutation nor upregulated transcription of KIT was detected in rCoMS1 cells. A decrease in KIT ubiquitination, a prolonged KIT life-span, and KIT overexpression were found in rCoMS1 cells. These events were suppressed by withdrawal of imatinib and were re-induced by re‑treatment with imatinib. These findings suggest that imatinib elicited overexpression of KIT via suppression of its ubiquitination. These results also indicated that imatinib-induced overexpression of KIT in rCoMS1 cells was not a permanently acquired feature but was a reversible response of the cells. Moreover, the pan deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor PR619 prevented imatinib induction of KIT overexpression, suggesting that the imatinib-induced decrease in KIT ubiquitination could be mediated by upregulation and/or activation of deubiquitinating enzyme(s). It may be possible that a similar mechanism of KIT overexpression underlies the acquisition of imatinib resistance in some human tumors that are driven by KIT mutation.

  13. Sexual conflict, life span, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Margo I; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-06-17

    The potential for sexual conflict to influence the evolution of life span and aging has been recognized for more than a decade, and recent work also suggests that variation in life span and aging can influence sexually antagonistic coevolution. However, empirical exploration of these ideas is only beginning. Here, we provide an overview of the ideas and evidence linking inter- and intralocus sexual conflicts with life span and aging. We aim to clarify the conceptual basis of this research program, examine the current state of knowledge, and suggest key questions for further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. 'Localised creativity: a life span perspective'

    OpenAIRE

    Worth, Piers J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is based around a biographic study of the lives of 40 individuals (24 men and 16 women) with a reputation for creative work in a localised context (such as an organisation). The study examines life span development patterns from birth to middle age (45 - 60 years of age) with data gained by biographic interview and thematic analysis. Participants selected for this study are creative in that they have a reputation for producing new, novel and useful or appropriate contributions in ...

  15. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  16. Life span study report, 11, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1988-12-01

    ABCC and its successor, RERF, have followed since 1959 and retrospectively to 1950 the mortality in a fixed cohort of survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the so-called Life Span Study sample. The present study, the 11th in a series that began in 1961, extends the surveillance period three more years and covers the period 1950-85. It is based on the recently revised dose system, called DS86, that has replaced previous estimates of individual exposures. The impact of the change from the old system of dosimetry, the T65DR, to the new on the dose-response relationships for cancer mortality was described in the first of this series of reports. Here, the focus is on cancer mortality among the 76,000 A-bomb survivors within the LSS sample for whom DS86 doses have been estimated, with the emphasis on biological issues associated with radiation carcinogenesis. (author)

  17. What prolongs a butterfly's life?: Trade-offs between dormancy, fecundity and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Haeler

    Full Text Available In butterflies, life span often increases only at the expense of fecundity. Prolonged life span, on the other hand, provides more opportunities for oviposition. Here, we studied the association between life span and summer dormancy in two closely related species of Palearctic Meadow Brown butterflies, the endemic Maniola nurag and the widespread M. jurtina, from two climatic provenances, a Mediterranean and a Central European site, and tested the relationships between longevity, body size and fecundity. We experimentally induced summer dormancy and hence prolonged the butterflies' life in order to study the effects of such a prolonged life. We were able to modulate longevity only in Mediterranean females by rearing them under summer photoperiodic conditions (light 16 h : dark 8 h, thereby more than doubling their natural life span, to up to 246 days. Central European individuals kept their natural average live span under all treatments, as did Mediterranean individuals under autumn treatment (light 11: dark 13. Body size only had a significant effect in the smaller species, M. nurag, where it affected the duration of dormancy and lifetime fecundity. In the larger species, M. jurtina, a prolonged adult life span did, surprisingly, not convey any fecundity loss. In M. nurag, which generally deposited fewer eggs, extended life had a fecundity cost. We conclude that Mediterranen M. jurtina butterflies have an extraordinary plasticity in aging which allows them to extend life span in response to adverse environmental conditions and relieve the time limitation on egg-laying while maintaining egg production at equal levels.

  18. Life span study report 9, part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Toshiro; Kato, Hiroo; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Schull, W.J.

    1983-04-01

    The incidence of malignant tumors in the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) sample in Nagasaki as revealed by the Nagasaki Tumor Registry (Registry) has been investigated for the period 1959-78. No exposure status bias in data collection has been revealed. Neither method of diagnosis, reporting hospitals, nor the frequency of doubtful cases differ by exposure dose. Thus, the effect of a bias, if one exists, must be small and should not affect the interpretation of the results obtained in the present analysis. The risk of radiogenic cancer definitely increases with radiation dose for leukemia, cancer of the breast, lung, stomach, and thyroid, and suggestively so for cancer of the colon and urinary tract and multiple myeloma. However, there is no increase as yet for cancer of the esophagus, liver, gall bladder, uterus, ovary, and salivary gland, or for malignant lymphoma. For fatal cancers, these results strengthen those of the recent analysis of mortality based on death certificates on the same LSS cohort. In general, the relative risks based on incidence (that is, on Registry data) are either the same or slightly higher than those based on mortality for the same years; however, the absolute risk estimates (excess cancer per million person-year per rad) are far higher. (author)

  19. Working memory and inhibitory control across the life span: Intrusion errors in the Reading Span Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Christelle; Borella, Erika; Fagot, Delphine; Lecerf, Thierry; de Ribaupierre, Anik

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine to what extent inhibitory control and working memory capacity are related across the life span. Intrusion errors committed by children and younger and older adults were investigated in two versions of the Reading Span Test. In Experiment 1, a mixed Reading Span Test with items of various list lengths was administered. Older adults and children recalled fewer correct words and produced more intrusions than did young adults. Also, age-related differences were found in the type of intrusions committed. In Experiment 2, an adaptive Reading Span Test was administered, in which the list length of items was adapted to each individual's working memory capacity. Age groups differed neither on correct recall nor on the rate of intrusions, but they differed on the type of intrusions. Altogether, these findings indicate that the availability of attentional resources influences the efficiency of inhibition across the life span.

  20. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  1. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  2. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the…

  3. Decision making across the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.C.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Samanez-Larkin, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to choose adaptively between different behavioral options in order to reach goals is a pervasive task in life for people of all ages. Individuals are often confronted with complex, uncertain situations that nonetheless require decisive actions that would facilitate the pursuit of short-term

  4. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  6. Correcting magnesium deficiencies may prolong life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe WJ

    2012-02-01

    , both on maintaining telomere length and extending the life span, can be evaluated. Similar studies in astronauts would be fruitful.Keywords: magnesium, life span, telomeres, telomerase, catecholamines

  7. Life span extension and neuronal cell protection by Drosophila nicotinamidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F A; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-10-10

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone deacetylases. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockdown of a pnc1 homolog was shown recently to shorten the worm life span, whereas its overexpression increased survival under conditions of oxidative stress. The function and regulation of nicotinamidases in higher organisms has not been determined. Here, we report the identification and biochemical characterization of the Drosophila nicotinamidase, D-NAAM, and demonstrate that its overexpression significantly increases median and maximal fly life span. The life span extension was reversed in Sir2 mutant flies, suggesting Sir2 dependence. Testing for physiological effectors of D-NAAM in Drosophila S2 cells, we identified oxidative stress as a primary regulator, both at the transcription level and protein activity. In contrast to the yeast model, stress factors such as high osmolarity and heat shock, calorie restriction, or inhibitors of TOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways do not appear to regulate D-NAAM in S2 cells. Interestingly, the expression of D-NAAM in human neuronal cells conferred protection from oxidative stress-induced cell death in a sirtuin-dependent manner. Together, our findings establish a life span extending the ability of nicotinamidase in flies and offer a role for nicotinamide-modulating genes in oxidative stress regulated pathways influencing longevity and neuronal cell survival.

  8. Radiation effects on life span in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.E.; Hartman, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Wild-type and radiation-sensitive (Rad) mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans were irradiated using a 137 Cs source (2.7 krads/min.) at several developmental stages and subsequently monitored for life span. Acute doses of radiation ranged from 1 krad to 300 krads. All stages required doses above 100 krads to reduce mean life span. Dauers and third stage larvae were more sensitive, and 8-day-old adults were the most resistant. Occasional statistically significant but nonrepeatable increases in survival were observed after intermediate levels of irradiation (10-30 krads). Unirradiated rad-4 and rad-7 had life spans similar to wild-type; all others had a significant reduction in survival. The mutants were about as sensitive as wild-type to the effects of ionizing radiation including occasional moderate life span extensions at intermediate doses. We conclude that the moderate life span extensions sometimes observed after irradiation are likely to be mediated by a means other than the induction of DNA repair enzymes

  9. Individual differences in personality change across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaba, Ted; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2018-06-01

    A precise and comprehensive description of personality continuity and change across the life span is the bedrock upon which theories of personality development are built. Little research has quantified the degree to which individuals deviate from mean-level developmental trends. In this study, we addressed this gap by examining individual differences in personality trait change across the life span. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 9,636 Dutch participants who provided Big Five self-reports at five assessment waves across 7 years. We divided our sample into 14 age groups (ages 16-84 at initial measurement) and estimated latent growth curve models to describe individual differences in personality change across the study period for each trait and age group. Across the adult life span, individual differences in personality change were small but significant until old age. For Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, individual differences in change were most pronounced in emerging adulthood and decreased throughout midlife and old age. For Emotional Stability, individual differences in change were relatively consistent across the life span. These results inform theories of life span development and provide future directions for research on the causes and conditions of personality change. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  11. Understanding retirement: the promise of life-span developmental frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E

    2012-09-01

    The impending retirement of large population cohorts creates a pressing need for practical interventions to optimize outcomes at the individual and societal level. This necessitates comprehensive theoretical models that acknowledge the multi-layered nature of the retirement process and shed light on the dynamic mechanisms that drive longitudinal patterns of adjustment. The present commentary highlights ways in which contemporary life-span developmental frameworks can inform retirement research, drawing on the specific examples of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model, Baltes and Baltes Selective Optimization with Compensation Framework, Schulz and Heckhausen's Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development, and Carstensen's Socioemotional Selectivity Theory. Ultimately, a life-span developmental perspective on retirement offers not only new interpretations of known phenomena but may also help to identify novel directions for future research as well as promising pathways for interventions.

  12. Life span of animals under acute and chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.; Borisova, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The study has been designed to see to what extent a single and long-term external and internal irradiations shorten the life span of animals. LDsub(50/30) for certain radionuclides whose absorbed doses show different spatiotemporal distributions are considered. It has been found that as far as the average life span is concerned, 137 Cs and 90 Sr have approximately the same effect whether they enter the body on a single occasion or repeatedly. With chronic total-body external gamma-irradiation, the decrease in life span is 5 times smaller than than with single-occasion irradiation. The main reason for the observed differences are found to be differences in the rates with which the absorbed doses are formed

  13. Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Smith-Osborne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006. Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limitation of life span and other developmental theory is lack of attention to resilience (Greene, 2007; Robbins et al., 1998. The concept of resilience was developed to “describe relative resistance to psychosocial risk experiences” (Rutter, 1999b, p. 119. Longitudinal studies focused on typical and atypical child development informed theory formulation in developmental psychopathology (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983; Luthar, Cichetti,& Becker, 2000 and in an evolving resilience model (Richardson, 2002; Werner & Smith, 1992. Research on resilience has found a positive relationship between a number of individual traits and contextual variables and resistance to a variety of risk factors among children and adolescents. More recently, resilience research has examined the operation of these same factors in the young adult, middle-age, and elder life stages. This article examines the historical and conceptual progression of the two developmental theories—life span and resiliency—and discusses their application to social work practice and education in human behavior in the social environment.

  14. Friendship in childhood and adulthood: lessons across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, A M; de Vries, B; Lansford, J E

    2000-01-01

    Friendship occupies an important place in the growing body of literature in child development and gerontological research. As such, it may be useful for researchers from both fields to consider what can be learned from work carried out in each tradition. Therefore, we present a selected review of topics in friendship research across the life span. Through discussion of the value of friendship, the development of friendship, challenges to friendship, the gendered nature of friendship, and the connection between friends and family, points of commonality and contrast are identified. We conclude by presenting possible avenues for future investigation for researchers interested in friendship at any point in the life span.

  15. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; Karns, Tara E.; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2013-01-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases—the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people’s everyday lives. PMID:22023568

  16. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, Jonell; Karns, Tara E; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2011-10-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases-the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people's everyday lives. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Life Span Approach to Growth and Human Development: A Broad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change in childhood. ... the paper draws the reader's attention to the fact that by adopting the life-span perspective, we gain insights into what our lives will be like as we grow into middle age or old age, who we are, how we came to be this way and ...

  18. Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

  19. Fatigue life assessment of free spanning pipelines containing corrosion defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Rita de Kassia D.; Campello, Georga C.; Matt, Cyntia G. da Costa; Benjamin, Adilson C.; Franciss, Ricardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2009-12-19

    The free spanning pipelines assessment is a highlighted issue to be considered during the project and maintenance of the submarine pipelines. It is required to evaluate the fatigue life and the maximum stress due to VIV (Vortex Induced Vibration) as well as wave forces when applicable in case of shallow water. The code DNV-RP-F105 (2006) presents a methodology to calculate the fatigue life for free spanning pipelines. Such methodology however considers the pipe with no kind of defects. Nevertheless, sometimes corrosion defects are detected in periodic inspections and therefore their effects need to be taken into account in the fatigue life evaluation. The purpose of this paper thus is to present a procedure to assess the influence of the corrosion defects in the fatigue life of free spanning pipelines. Some FE analyses were performed to determine the stress concentrate factor (SCF) of the corrosion defects, which were used as input in the methodology presented in the code DNV-RP-F105 (2006). Curves of damage and so lifetime have been generated as function of the span length and water depth. As a practical application, this methodology was applied to a sub sea pipeline with several corrosion defects, localized in shallow water offshore Brazil. (author)

  20. DIRECT SELECTION ON LIFE-SPAN IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWAAN, B; BIJLSMA, R; HOEKSTRA, RE

    An important issue in the study of the evolution of aging in Drosophila melanogaster is whether decreased early fecundity is inextricably coupled with increased life span in selection experiments on age at reproduction. Here, this problem has been tackled using an experimental design in which

  1. Age differences in five personality domains across the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allemand, Mathias; Zimprich, Daniel; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn

    The present study addresses the issue of age differences in 5 personality domains across the-life span in a cross-sectional study. In contrast to most previous studies, the present study follows a methodologically more rigorous approach to warrant that age-related differences in personality

  2. Redesign of a Life Span Development Course Using Fink's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared a traditional lecture-based life span development course to the same course redesigned using Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning. The goals, activities, and feedback within the course corresponded to Fink's 6 taxa (knowledge, application, integration, human dimension, caring, learning how to learn). Undergraduates in…

  3. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  4. Orion: a glimpse of hope in life span extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradian, K; Bondar, V; Bezrukov, V; Zhukovsky, O; Polyakov, V; Utko, N

    2010-01-01

    Orion is a multicomponent drug based on derivatives of taurocholic acid and several other compounds. Application of Orion into the feeding medium of Drosophila melanogaster resulted in increased life span and survival at stressful conditions. Two paradoxical features of the drug should be stressed: The "age-threshold" (life span extension was observed only when the drug was applied starting from the second half of life) and induction of "centenarian" flies (older 100 days). Orion enhanced survival at heat shock (38 degrees C) and acidic (pH = 1.6) or alkaline (pH = 11.8) feeding mediums, but not at oxidative stresses modeled by 100% oxygen or application of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)).

  5. [The evolution of plant life span: facts and hypotheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    There are two different views on the evolution of life forms in Cormophyta: from woody plants to herbaceous ones or in opposite direction - from herbs to trees. In accordance with these views it is supposed that life span in plants changed in the course of evolution from many years (perennials) to few years (annuals, biennials), or went in reverse - from few years to many years. The author discusses the problems of senescence and longevity in Cormophyta in the context of various hypotheses of ageing (programmed death theory, mutation accumulation, antagonistic pleiotropy, disposable soma, genes of ageing, genes of longevity). Special attention is given to bio-morphological aspects of longevity and cases of non-ageing plants ("negative senescence", "potential immortality"). It is proposed to distinguish seven models of simple ontogenesis in Cormophyta that can exemplify the diversity of mechanisms of ageing and longevity. The evolution of life span in plants is considered as an indirect result of natural selection of other characteristics of organisms or as a consequence of fixation of modifications (episelectional evolution). It seems that short life span could emerge several times during evolution of one group of plants, thus favoring its adaptive radiation.

  6. The Life Span of the BD-PND Bubble Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Loos, M.; Thierens, H.

    1999-01-01

    BD-PND bubble detectors from Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) were used to conduct a study of the life span of these detectors. The manufacturer guarantees an optimum detector performance for three months after receipt. Nevertheless, it is important to know the evolution of their characteristics with time, also after those three months. On a standard set-up with a 252 Cf source the bubble detectors were irradiated until they reached the end of their life span. During this period, the evolution in sensitivity was monitored. The temperature compensating system seems to be the limiting factor with time for the use of the BTI bubble detectors. The change in temperature dependence with age was determined. The same parameters were also checked with several batches of detectors that were used in practice. (author)

  7. Life spans of planktonic foraminifers: New sight through sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.; Mazumder, A.

    ), indicated by black arrows are remarkably present for all three trap locations. (Modified after Curry et l.t 1992). 2002; Eguchi, Ujiie, Kawahata and Taira 2003), (ii) all the traps can not stop functioning simultaneously and that for the same time... estimates of the life spans of planktonic foraminifera based on extrapolation of lab culture observations. According to Be et al (1981), an inverse relationship exists between feeding frequency and survival time, and that planktonic foraminifers under...

  8. Homeless Aging Veterans in Transition: A Life-Span Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for counseling and career/educational services for homeless veterans has captured political and economic venues for more than 25 years. Veterans are three times more likely to become homeless than the general population if veterans live in poverty or are minority veterans. This mixed methods study emphasized a life-span perspective approach for exploring factors influencing normative aging and life-quality of 39 homeless veterans in Alabama and Florida. Seven descriptive quantitative and qualitative research questions framed the investigation. Study participants completed a quantitative survey reflecting their preferences and needs with a subset of the sample (N=12 also participating in individual qualitative interview sessions. Thirty-two service providers and stakeholders completed quantitative surveys. Empirical and qualitative data with appropriate triangulation procedures provided interpretive information relative to a life-span development perspective. Study findings provide evidence of the need for future research efforts to address strategies that focus on the health and economic challenges of veterans before they are threatened with the possibility of homelessness. Implications of the study findings provide important information associated with the premise that human development occurs throughout life with specific characteristics influencing the individual’s passage. Implications for aging/homelessness research are grounded in late-life transitioning and human development intervention considerations.

  9. From menarche to menopause: the fertile life span of celiac women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonicola, Antonella; Iovino, Paola; Cappello, Carmelina; Capone, Pietro; Andreozzi, Paolo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated menopause-associated disorders and fertile life span in women with celiac disease (CD) under untreated conditions and after long-term treatment with a gluten-free diet. The participants were 33 women with CD after menopause (untreated CD group), 25 celiac women consuming a gluten-free diet at least 10 years before menopause (treated CD group), and 45 healthy volunteers (control group). The Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire was used to gather information on menopause-associated disorders. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to acquire information on physical activity. Untreated celiac women had a shorter duration of fertile life span than did the control women because of an older age of menarche and a younger age of menopause (P menopause causes a shorter fertile period in untreated celiac women compared with control women. A gluten-free diet that started at least 10 years before menopause prolongs the fertile life span of celiac women. The perception of intensity of hot flushes and irritability is more severe in untreated celiac women than in controls. Low physical exercise and/or poorer quality of life frequently reported by untreated celiac women might be the cause of reduced discomfort tolerance, thus increasing the subjective perception of menopausal symptoms.

  10. C. elegans VANG-1 modulates life span via insulin/IGF-1-like signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Honnen

    Full Text Available The planar cell polarity (PCP pathway is highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and a PCP-like pathway has recently been described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The developmental function of this pathway is to coordinate the orientation of cells or structures within the plane of an epithelium or to organize cell-cell intercalation required for correct morphogenesis. Here, we describe a novel role of VANG-1, the only C. elegans ortholog of the conserved PCP component Strabismus/Van Gogh. We show that two alleles of vang-1 and depletion of the protein by RNAi cause an increase of mean life span up to 40%. Consistent with the longevity phenotype vang-1 animals also show enhanced resistance to thermal- and oxidative stress and decreased lipofuscin accumulation. In addition, vang-1 mutants show defects like reduced brood size, decreased ovulation rate and prolonged reproductive span, which are also related to gerontogenes. The germline, but not the intestine or neurons, seems to be the primary site of vang-1 function. Life span extension in vang-1 mutants depends on the insulin/IGF-1-like receptor DAF-2 and DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor. RNAi against the phase II detoxification transcription factor SKN-1/Nrf2 also reduced vang-1 life span that might be explained by gradual inhibition of insulin/IGF-1-like signaling in vang-1. This is the first time that a key player of the PCP pathway is shown to be involved in the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling dependent modulation of life span in C. elegans.

  11. Heritability of life span in the Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B D; Hsueh, W C; King, T M; Pollin, T I; Sorkin, J; Agarwala, R; Schäffer, A A; Shuldiner, A R

    2001-09-01

    Although a familial contribution to human longevity is recognized, the nature of this contribution is largely unknown. We have examined the familial contribution to life span in the Old Order Amish (OOA) population of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Analyses were conducted on 1,655 individuals, representing all those born prior to 1890 and appearing in the most widely available genealogy, surviving until at least age 30 years, and with known date of death. Mean age at death (+/-SD) in this population was 70.7 +/- 15.6 years, and this did not change appreciably over time. Parental and offspring ages at death were significantly correlated, as were ages of death among siblings. Offspring longevity was correlated with longevity of both parents, and in more or less additive fashion. For example, mean offspring age at death was 69.4 +/- 15.3 years in individuals for whom both parents died before the age of 75 years (n = 280) and increased to 73.5 +/- 16.0 years in individuals for whom neither parent died before the age of 75 years (n = 311). These differences were highly significant (P = 0.006). We estimated heritability of life span to be 25% +/- 5%, suggesting that the additive effects of genes account for one quarter of the total variability in life span in the OOA. We conclude that longevity is moderately heritable in the OOA, that the genetic effects are additive, and that genetic influences on longevity are likely to be expressed across a broad range of ages. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Emotional Egocentricity Bias across the life-span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eRiva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In our daily lives, we often have to quickly estimate the emotions of our conspecifics in order to have successful social interactions. While this estimation process seems quite easy when we are ourselves in a neutral or equivalent emotional state, it has recently been shown that in case of incongruent emotional states between ourselves and the others, our judgments can be biased. This phenomenon, introduced to the literature with the term Emotional Egocentricity Bias (EEB, has been found to occur in young adults and, to a greater extent, in children. However, how EEB changes across the life-span from adolescence to old age has been largely unexplored. In this study, we recruited 114 female participants subdivided in four cohorts (adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, older adults to examine EEB age-related changes. Participants were administered with a paradigm which, by making use of visuo-tactile stimulation that elicits conflicting feelings in paired participants, allows the valid and reliable exploration of EEB. Results highlighted a U-shaped relation between age and EEB, revealing higher emotional egocentricity in adolescents and older adults compared to young and middle-aged adults. These results are in line with the neuroscientific literature which has recently shown that overcoming EEB is associated with a greater activation of a portion of the parietal lobe, namely the right Supramarginal Gyrus (rSMG. This is an area that reaches full maturation only by the end of adolescence, and displays an early decay in older age. Thus, the age-related changes of the EEB could be possibly due to the life-span development of the rSMG. This study is the first one to show the quadratic relation between age and the EEB and set a milestone for further research exploring the neural correlates of the life-span development of the EEB. Future studies are needed in order to generalize these results to the male population and to explore gender

  13. Life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    In 1970 a life-span study with over 300 beagle dogs was begun to gain an understanding of long-term health effects resulting from respiratory tract intakes of plutonium and to derive risk estimates that might be applied to plutonium and other transuranic elements. Groups of beagle dogs were given single exposures to 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens ranging from 1 to 1800 Bq lung. The objective of this paper is to give you a progress report on the current life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. I will describe the biokinetics of inhaled plutonium in dogs and the resulting health effects. I will also mention some studies directed towards understanding the mechanism leading to these effects. Finally, I will discuss the current risk estimates derived from these studies and how they might relate to plutonium exposures in humans. 5 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  14. SNEV overexpression extends the life span of human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voglauer, Regina; Chang, Martina Wei-Fen; Dampier, Brigitta; Wieser, Matthias; Baumann, Kristin; Sterovsky, Thomas; Schreiber, Martin; Katinger, Hermann; Grillari, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    In a recent screening for genes downregulated in replicatively senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we have isolated the novel protein SNEV. Since then SNEV has proven as a multifaceted protein playing a role in pre-mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin/proteosome system. Here, we report that SNEV mRNA decreases in various cell types during replicative senescence, and that it is increased in various immortalized cell lines, as well as in breast tumors, where SNEV transcript levels also correlate with the survival of breast cancer patients. Since these mRNA profiles suggested a role of SNEV in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effect of its overexpression was tested. Thereby, a significant extension of the cellular life span was observed, which was not caused by altered telomerase activity or telomere dynamics but rather by enhanced stress resistance. When SNEV overexpressing cells were treated with bleomycin or bleomycin combined with BSO, inducing DNA damage as well as reactive oxygen species, a significantly lower fraction of apoptotic cells was found in comparison to vector control cells. These data suggest that high levels of SNEV might extend the cellular life span by increasing the resistance to stress or by improving the DNA repair capacity of the cells

  15. Connecting Life Span Development with the Sociology of the Life Course: A New Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The life course has become a topic of growing interest within the social sciences. Attempts to link this sub-discipline with life span developmental psychology have been called for but with little sign of success. In this paper, we seek to address three interlinked issues concerning the potential for a more productive interchange between life course sociology and life span psychology. The first is to try to account for the failure of these two sub-disciplines to achieve any deepening engagement with each other, despite the long-expressed desirability of that goal; the second is to draw attention to the scope for enriching the sociology of the life course through Erik Erikson's model of life span development; and the last is the potential for linking Eriksonian theory with current debates within mainstream sociology about the processes involved in 'individualisation' and 'self-reflexivity' as an alternative entry point to bring together these two fields of work.

  16. Phenomenon of life span instability in Drosophila melanogaster: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmaylov, D.M.; Obukhova, L.K.; Okladnova, O.V.; Akifyev, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of life span (LS) have been studied in successive generations of postirradiation and control groups of Drosophila melanogaster, strain D-32, after a single exposure to Co 60 γ-quantum irradiation. It has been shown using mathematical procedures that in all postirradiation generations, with one exception, survival curves retain their canonical shape. This is indicative of the unchangeable nature of LS distribution. The means LS of the progeny of irradiated parents either coincides with control values or can be higher or lower. Moreover, single irradiation results in an altered time-scanning of LS variations in successive generations as compared with controls. The possible origin of LS instability is discussed. (author)

  17. Preferences for Prolonging Life: A Prospect Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Laraine; Lawton, M. Powell; Ruckdeschel, Katy

    2003-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect theory was tested as a model of preferences for prolonging life under various hypothetical health statuses. A sample of 384 elderly people living in congregate housing (263 healthy, 131 frail) indicated how long (if at all) they would want to live under each of nine hypothetical health conditions (e.g.,…

  18. Age differences in five personality domains across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Mathias; Zimprich, Daniel; Hendriks, A A Jolijn

    2008-05-01

    The present study addresses the issue of age differences in 5 personality domains across the life span in a cross-sectional study. In contrast to most previous studies, the present study follows a methodologically more rigorous approach to warrant that age-related differences in personality structure and mean level can be meaningfully compared. It uses data on 50 items of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) available from a study in a large and representative Dutch sample (N = 2,494; age range: 16 to 91 years) conducted in 1996 for the purpose of establishing norms for the FFPI. After having established strict measurement invariance, tests were made for factor covariances to be equal across age groups, revealing structural continuity of personality. Additionally, factor variances were shown to be equal across age groups. A number of age differences in the mean level of the five personality domains emerged. Specifically, older adults were, on average, more agreeable and, especially, more conscientious than middle-aged and younger adults. Findings from our study suggest that both continuity and change may mark personality over the course of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Childhood Self-Control and Unemployment Throughout the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  20. Coping strategies: gender differences and development throughout life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sancho, Patricia; Tomás, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    Development during life-span implies to cope with stressful events, and this coping may be done with several strategies. It could be useful to know if these coping strategies differ as a consequence of personal characteristics. This work uses the Coping with Stress Questionnaire with this aim using a sample of 400 participants. Specifically, the effects of gender and age group (young people, middle age and elderly), as well as its interaction on coping strategies is studied. With regard to age, on one hand, it is hypothesised a decrement in the use of coping strategies centred in problem solving and social support seeking as age increases. On the other hand, the use of emotional coping is hypothesised to increase with age. With respect to gender, it is hypothesised a larger use of emotional coping and social support seeking within women, and a larger use of problem solving within men. A MANOVA found significant effects for the two main effects (gender and age) as well as several interactions. Separate ANOVAs allowed us to test for potential differences in each of the coping strategies measured in the CAE. These results partially supported the hypotheses. Results are discussed in relation to scientific literature on coping, age and gender.

  1. Life Span Extension and Neuronal Cell Protection by Drosophila Nicotinamidase*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S.; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F. A.; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D. Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-01-01

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone ...

  2. Life-span studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    In 1970 a life-span study with over 300 beagle dogs was begun. Groups of beagle dogs were given single exposures to 239 PuO 2 , 238 PuO 2 , or 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens ranging from 1 to 1800 Bq lung. After 16 years, the lungs contained about 2% of the initial lung burden of 239 PuO 2 , the thoracic lymph nodes 20%, skeleton 1% and liver 10%. After 15 years the lungs contained about 0.2% of the initial lung burden of 238 PuO 2 , thoracic lymph nodes 5%, skeleton 10%, and liver 10%. After 10 years the lungs contained about 0.29% of the initial lung burden of 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , thoracic lymph nodes 0.17%, skeleton 18% and liver 13%. Chronic lymphopenia has been one of the earliest biological effects observed. Other effects associated with plutonium exposure included sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. In 16 years, mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and/or lung tumor increased with deposition of 24 Bq of 239 PuO 2 . In 15 years, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased with deposition of 96 Bq of 238 PuO 2 . In 11 years, after exposure, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased with deposition of 18 Bq of 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . Lung cancers appeared to originate in the parenchymal regions of the lungs and were of several types; bronchiolar alveolar carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinomas, adenosquamous carcinoma, and epidermoid carcinoma. Metastases were primarily to the thoracic lymph nodes. Sites of osteosarcomas in the 238 PuO 2 and 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 dogs were in the lumbar cervical and thoracic vertebrae, humerus, pelvis, facial bones, ribs and nasal turbinates. The risk of lung cancer, based on cumulative dose to the lungs, was about 12 times higher for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 than from inhaled 239 PuO 2 , and 50 times higher than for inhaled 238 PuO 2 . (J.P.N.)

  3. Families enriched for exceptional longevity also have increased health span: Findings from the Long Life Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eSebastiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesizing that members of families enriched for longevity delay morbidity compared to population controls and approximate the health-span of centenarians, we compared the health spans of older generation subjects of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS to controls without family history of longevity and to centenarians of the New England Centenarian Study (NECS using Bayesian parametric survival analysis. We estimated hazard ratios, the ages at which specific percentiles of subjects had onsets of diseases, and the gain of years of disease-free survival in the different cohorts compared to referent controls. Compared to controls, LLFS subjects had lower hazards for cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe dementia, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and stroke. The age at which 20% of the LLFS siblings and probands had one or more age-related diseases was approximately 10 years later than NECS controls. While female NECS controls generally delayed the onset of age-related diseases compared with males controls, these gender differences became much less in the older generation of the LLFS and disappeared amongst the centenarians of the NECS. The analyses demonstrate extended health-span in the older subjects of the LLFS and suggest that this aging cohort provides an important resource to discover genetic and environmental factors that promote prolonged health-span in addition to longer life-span.

  4. Qualitative Exploration of Acculturation and Life-Span Issues of Elderly Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Hyang; Heo, Nanseol; Lu, Junfei; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    2013-01-01

    Awareness of aging issues across diverse populations begins the journey toward counselors becoming culturally competent across client life spans. Understanding the life-span experiences of cultural groups is important for helping professionals. The purpose of this research was to gain insight into the qualitative experiences of Asian American…

  5. Exploratory and problem-solving consumer behavior across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, J A; Kunkel, S R

    1991-09-01

    Different cognitive functioning, social, and personality changes appear to occur systematically during the adult life span. This article synthesizes research on life span changes in order to develop age-specific models of shopping behavior. The models are tested within a naturalistic field study of shoppers.

  6. Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F

    2012-06-01

    We examined the life-span development of self-esteem and tested whether self-esteem influences the development of important life outcomes, including relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, occupational status, salary, positive and negative affect, depression, and physical health. Data came from the Longitudinal Study of Generations. Analyses were based on 5 assessments across a 12-year period of a sample of 1,824 individuals ages 16 to 97 years. First, growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem increases from adolescence to middle adulthood, reaches a peak at about age 50 years, and then decreases in old age. Second, cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that self-esteem is best modeled as a cause rather than a consequence of life outcomes. Third, growth curve analyses, with self-esteem as a time-varying covariate, suggested that self-esteem has medium-sized effects on life-span trajectories of affect and depression, small to medium-sized effects on trajectories of relationship and job satisfaction, a very small effect on the trajectory of health, and no effect on the trajectory of occupational status. These findings replicated across 4 generations of participants--children, parents, grandparents, and their great-grandparents. Together, the results suggest that self-esteem has a significant prospective impact on real-world life experiences and that high and low self-esteem are not mere epiphenomena of success and failure in important life domains. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  7. The Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Life Span in Calorie Restricted Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Domínguez, José A; Ramsey, Jon J; Tran, Dianna; Imai, Denise M; Koehne, Amanda; Laing, Steven T; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Hagopian, Kevork; Villalba, José M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; McDonald, Roger B

    2015-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends life span in several animal models. It has been proposed that a decrease in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and especially n-3 fatty acids, in membrane phospholipids may contribute to life span extension with CR. Phospholipid PUFAs are sensitive to dietary fatty acid composition, and thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary lipids on life span in CR mice. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups (a 5% CR control group and three 40% CR groups) and fed diets with soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFAs), fish oil (high in n-3 PUFAs), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) as the primary lipid source. Life span was increased (p Life span was also increased (p life span in mice on CR, and suggest that a diet containing a low proportion of PUFAs and high proportion of monounsaturated and saturated fats may maximize life span in animals maintained on CR. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sex differences in life span: Females homozygous for the X chromosome do not suffer the shorter life span predicted by the unguarded X hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengdahl, Martin; Kimber, Christopher M; Maguire-Baxter, Jack; Friberg, Urban

    2018-03-01

    Life span differs between the sexes in many species. Three hypotheses to explain this interesting pattern have been proposed, involving different drivers: sexual selection, asymmetrical inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes, and hemizygosity of the X(Z) chromosome (the unguarded X hypothesis). Of these, the unguarded X has received the least experimental attention. This hypothesis suggests that the heterogametic sex suffers a shortened life span because recessive deleterious alleles on its single X(Z) chromosome are expressed unconditionally. In Drosophila melanogaster, the X chromosome is unusually large (∼20% of the genome), providing a powerful model for evaluating theories involving the X. Here, we test the unguarded X hypothesis by forcing D. melanogaster females from a laboratory population to express recessive X-linked alleles to the same degree as males, using females exclusively made homozygous for the X chromosome. We find no evidence for reduced life span or egg-to-adult viability due to X homozygozity. In contrast, males and females homozygous for an autosome both suffer similar, significant reductions in those traits. The logic of the unguarded X hypothesis is indisputable, but our results suggest that the degree to which recessive deleterious X-linked alleles depress performance in the heterogametic sex appears too small to explain general sex differences in life span. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Ancestral telomere shortening: a countdown that will increase mean life span?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Radu G

    2006-01-01

    Like cells, all mammals have a limited life span. Among cells there are a few exceptions (e.g., immortal cells), among mammals not, even if some of them live longer. Many in vitro and in vivo studies support the consensus that telomere length is strongly correlated with life span. At the somatic cellular level, long telomeres have been associated with longer life span. A different situation can be seen in immortal cells, such as cancer, germ and stem cells, where telomeres are maintained by telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase that is involved in synthesis of telomeres. Irrespective of telomere length, if telomerase is active, telomeres can be maintained at a sufficient length to ensure cell survival. To the contrary, telomeres shorten progressively with each cell division and when a critical telomere length (Hayflick limit) is reached, the cells undergo senescence and subsequently apoptosis. In mammals, those with the longest telomeres (e.g., mice) have the shortest life span. Furthermore, the shorter the mean telomere length, the longer the mean life span, as observed in humans (10-14 kpb) and bowhead-whales (undetermined telomere length), which have the longest mean life span among mammals. Over the past centuries, human average life span has increased. The hypothesis presented here suggests that this continual increase in the mean life span could be due to a decrease of mean telomere length over the last hundreds years. Actually, the life span is not directly influenced by length of telomeres, but rather by telomere length - dependent gene expression pattern. According to Greider, "rather than average telomere length, it is the shortest telomere length that makes the biggest difference to a cell". In the context of fast-growing global elderly population due to increase in life expectancy, it also seem to be an age related increase in cancer incidence. Nevertheless, extending healthy life span could depend on how good cells achieve, during the

  10. Corrigendum: Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Original article: Zilioli, S., Slatcher, R. B., Chi, P., Li, X., Zhao, J., & Zhao, G. (2016). Childhood adversity, self-esteem, and diurnal cortisol profiles across the life span. Psychological Science, 27, 1249-1265. doi:10.1177/0956797616658287.

  11. Endosomal protein sorting and autophagy genes contribute to the regulation of yeast life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Valter D; Nislow, Corey; Fabrizio, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Accumulating evidence from various organisms points to a role for autophagy in the regulation of life span. By performing a genome-wide screen to identify novel life span determinants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have obtained further insights into the autophagy-related and -unrelated degradation processes that may be important for preventing cellular senescence. The generation of multivesicular bodies and their fusion with the vacuole in the endosomal pathway emerged as novel cell functions involved in yeast chronological survival and longevity extension.

  12. Low doze γ-irradiation influence on drosophila life span in different genetics background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalev, A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The main goal of this work was to study in Drosophila melanogaster the contribution of DNA damage sensing and repair, apoptosis and heat shock defence into life span and physical activity alteration after gamma-irradiation at low doze rate. In our experiments, the strains were exposed to chronic gamma-irradiation from a 226Ra source (50 R/h) at doze rate 0.17 cGy/h at pre-imago development stages only. The absorbed radiation dose per generation (from embryo to imago, 12 days) was 60 cGy. Life span estimation was prepared in adult males and females separately. We compared the life span of apoptotic (p53, DIAP-1, dApaf-1, Dcp-1, reaper, grim and hid), heat shock defence (HSP70, HSP23, HSF), DNA damage sensing (ATR) and repair (XPF, XPC, PCNA, DSB repair helicase homologs) mutants after chronic irradiation with the control. On the basis of our investigation we have concluded: 1) Low doze irradiation alter the life span depending on genetic background (mutant alleles, heterozygosity level and sex); 2) Age dynamics of physical activity positively correlates with the life span; 3) Longevity potential forms at early development stages; 4) DNA damage sensing, DNA repair, heat shock defence and apoptosis as aging preventing mechanisms play crucial role in radiation-induced life span hormesis.

  13. Leaf life span plasticity in tropical seedlings grown under contrasting light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gregoire

    2006-02-01

    The phenotypic plasticity of leaf life span in response to low resource conditions has a potentially large impact on the plant carbon budget, notably in evergreen species not subject to seasonal leaf shedding, but has rarely been well documented. This study evaluates the plasticity of leaf longevity, in terms of its quantitative importance to the plant carbon balance under limiting light. Seedlings of four tropical tree species with contrasting light requirements (Alstonia scholaris, Hevea brasiliensis, Durio zibethinus and Lansium domesticum) were grown under three light regimes (full sunlight, 45 % sunlight and 12 % sunlight). Their leaf dynamics were monitored over 18 months. All species showed a considerable level of plasticity with regard to leaf life span: over the range of light levels explored, the ratio of the range to the mean value of life span varied from 29 %, for the least plastic species, to 84 %, for the most. The common trend was for leaf life span to increase with decreasing light intensity. The plasticity apparent in leaf life span was similar in magnitude to the plasticity observed in specific leaf area and photosynthetic rate, implying that it has a significant impact on carbon gain efficiency when plants acclimate to different light regimes. In all species, median survival time was negatively correlated with leaf photosynthetic capacity (or its proxy, the nitrogen content per unit area) and leaf emergence rate. Longer leaf life spans under low light are likely to be a consequence of slower ageing as a result of a slower photosynthetic metabolism.

  14. Does having children extend life span? A genealogical study of parity and longevity in the Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Patrick F; Pollin, Toni I; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Sorkin, John D; Agarwala, Richa; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Streeten, Elizabeth A; King, Terri M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2006-02-01

    The relationship between parity and life span is uncertain, with evidence of both positive and negative relationships being reported previously. We evaluated this issue by using genealogical data from an Old Order Amish community in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, a population characterized by large nuclear families, homogeneous lifestyle, and extensive genealogical records. The analysis was restricted to the set of 2,015 individuals who had children, were born between 1749 and 1912, and survived until at least age 50 years. Pedigree structures and birth and death dates were extracted from Amish genealogies, and the relationship between parity and longevity was examined using a variance component framework. Life span of fathers increased in linear fashion with increasing number of children (0.23 years per additional child; p =.01), while life span of mothers increased linearly up to 14 children (0.32 years per additional child; p =.004) but decreased with each additional child beyond 14 (p =.0004). Among women, but not men, a later age at last birth was associated with longer life span (p =.001). Adjusting for age at last birth obliterated the correlation between maternal life span and number of children, except among mothers with ultrahigh (>14 children) parity. We conclude that high parity among men and later menopause among women may be markers for increased life span. Understanding the biological and/or social factors mediating these relationships may provide insights into mechanisms underlying successful aging.

  15. Herbal supplement extends life span under some environmental conditions and boosts stress resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Villeponteau

    Full Text Available Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100 that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span.

  16. Life-span adjustment of children to their parents' divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, P R

    1994-01-01

    Children who experience parental divorce, compared with children in intact two-parent families, exhibit more conduct problems, more symptoms of psychological maladjustment, lower academic achievement, more social difficulties, and poorer self-concepts. Similarly, adults who experienced parental divorce as children, compared with adults raised in continuously intact two-parent families, score lower on a variety of indicators of psychological, interpersonal, and socioeconomic well-being. However, the overall group differences between offspring from divorced and intact families are small, with considerable diversity existing in children's reactions to divorce. Children's adjustment to divorce depends on several factors, including the amount and quality of contact with noncustodial parents, the custodial parents' psychological adjustment and parenting skills, the level of interparental conflict that precedes and follows divorce, the degree of economic hardship to which children are exposed, and the number of stressful life events that accompany and follow divorce. These factors can be used as guides to assess the probable impact of various legal and therapeutic interventions to improve the well-being of children of divorce.

  17. Studies on the life spans of atom-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    A shortening of whole life as late injuries of atom-bomb survivors was discussed from the aspects of aging and the studies on the causes of leukemia and cancers. Twenty-one thousands four hundreds and forty-seven of 109000 subjects died during the period between 1950 and 1970. Mortality by exposure doses presented a high value with exposure doses. Mortality of subjects which had received exposure doses of more than 200 rads rose to a level which was 1.27 times in all causes of deaths of the control which had received exposure doses of 0 to 9 rads, and it showed 1.32 times in all deaths of sickness, 18.3 times in leukemia, and 1.48 times in death from cancer. Mortality due to leukemia decreases after 1950-1954, but in the group which had received exposure doses over 100 rads, the mortality was significantly higher than that in all districts in Japan. The shape of dose-reaction curve in Hiroshima was different from that in Nagasaki. In the same dose, mortality due to leukemia in Hiroshima was higher than that in Nagasaki. The younger the age at exposure was, the higher the risk rate of occurring cancer was. Especially, the risk rate of cancer was high in the patients who were exposed to atomic bomb during the age of 0 to 9 years old. Mortality due to cancer increased with the dose. Cancers which statistically showed higher mortality than that in the control group are lung cancer, cancer of the breast (100-199 rad), carcinoma of the esophagus, cancer of the urinary organ (200-299 rad) and gastric cancer (over 300 rads). There are not so clear difference in the mortality due to cancer between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comparing with the mortality due to leukemia. (Kanao, N.)

  18. Studies on the life spans of atom-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, H [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-12-01

    A shortening of whole life as late injuries of atom-bomb survivors was discussed from the aspects of aging and the studies on the causes of leukemia and cancers. Twenty-one thousands four hundreds and forty-seven of 109000 subjects died during the period between 1950 and 1970. Mortality by exposure doses presented a high value with exposure doses. Mortality of subjects which had received exposure doses of more than 200 rads rose to a level which was 1.27 times in all causes of deaths of the control which had received exposure doses of 0 to 9 rads, and it showed 1.32 times in all deaths of sickness, 18.3 times in leukemia, and 1.48 times in death from cancer. Mortality due to leukemia decreases after 1950-1954, but in the group which had received exposure doses over 100 rads, the mortality was significantly higher than that in all districts in Japan. The shape of dose-reaction curve in Hiroshima was different from that in Nagasaki. In the same dose, mortality due to leukemia in Hiroshima was higher than that in Nagasaki. The younger the age at exposure was, the higher the risk rate of occurring cancer was. Especially, the risk rate of cancer was high in the patients who were exposed to atomic bomb during the age of 0 to 9 years old. Mortality due to cancer increased with the dose. Cancers which statistically showed higher mortality than that in the control group are lung cancer, cancer of the breast (100-199 rad), carcinoma of the esophagus, cancer of the urinary organ (200-299 rad) and gastric cancer (over 300 rads). There are not so clear difference in the mortality due to cancer between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comparing with the mortality due to leukemia.

  19. Life Span Extension and Neuronal Cell Protection by Drosophila Nicotinamidase*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S.; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F. A.; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D. Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-01-01

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone deacetylases. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockdown of a pnc1 homolog was shown recently to shorten the worm life span, whereas its overexpression increased survival under conditions of oxidative stress. The function and regulation of nicotinamidases in higher organisms has not been determined. Here, we report the identification and biochemical characterization of the Drosophila nicotinamidase, D-NAAM, and demonstrate that its overexpression significantly increases median and maximal fly life span. The life span extension was reversed in Sir2 mutant flies, suggesting Sir2 dependence. Testing for physiological effectors of D-NAAM in Drosophila S2 cells, we identified oxidative stress as a primary regulator, both at the transcription level and protein activity. In contrast to the yeast model, stress factors such as high osmolarity and heat shock, calorie restriction, or inhibitors of TOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways do not appear to regulate D-NAAM in S2 cells. Interestingly, the expression of D-NAAM in human neuronal cells conferred protection from oxidative stress-induced cell death in a sirtuin-dependent manner. Together, our findings establish a life span extending the ability of nicotinamidase in flies and offer a role for nicotinamide-modulating genes in oxidative stress regulated pathways influencing longevity and neuronal cell survival. PMID:18678867

  20. Increased Life Span due to Calorie Restriction in Respiratory-Deficient Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A model for replicative life span extension by calorie restriction (CR in yeast has been proposed whereby reduced glucose in the growth medium leads to activation of the NAD-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2. One mechanism proposed for this putative activation of Sir2 is that CR enhances the rate of respiration, in turn leading to altered levels of NAD or NADH, and ultimately resulting in enhanced Sir2 activity. An alternative mechanism has been proposed in which CR decreases levels of the Sir2 inhibitor nicotinamide through increased expression of the gene coding for nicotinamidase, PNC1. We have previously reported that life span extension by CR is not dependent on Sir2 in the long-lived BY4742 strain background. Here we have determined the requirement for respiration and the effect of nicotinamide levels on life span extension by CR. We find that CR confers robust life span extension in respiratory-deficient cells independent of strain background, and moreover, suppresses the premature mortality associated with loss of mitochondrial DNA in the short-lived PSY316 strain. Addition of nicotinamide to the medium dramatically shortens the life span of wild type cells, due to inhibition of Sir2. However, even in cells lacking both Sir2 and the replication fork block protein Fob1, nicotinamide partially prevents life span extension by CR. These findings (1 demonstrate that respiration is not required for the longevity benefits of CR in yeast, (2 show that nicotinamide inhibits life span extension by CR through a Sir2-independent mechanism, and (3 suggest that CR acts through a conserved, Sir2-independent mechanism in both PSY316 and BY4742.

  1. Increased life span due to calorie restriction in respiratory-deficient yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Kaeberlein

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A model for replicative life span extension by calorie restriction (CR in yeast has been proposed whereby reduced glucose in the growth medium leads to activation of the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2. One mechanism proposed for this putative activation of Sir2 is that CR enhances the rate of respiration, in turn leading to altered levels of NAD+ or NADH, and ultimately resulting in enhanced Sir2 activity. An alternative mechanism has been proposed in which CR decreases levels of the Sir2 inhibitor nicotinamide through increased expression of the gene coding for nicotinamidase, PNC1. We have previously reported that life span extension by CR is not dependent on Sir2 in the long-lived BY4742 strain background. Here we have determined the requirement for respiration and the effect of nicotinamide levels on life span extension by CR. We find that CR confers robust life span extension in respiratory-deficient cells independent of strain background, and moreover, suppresses the premature mortality associated with loss of mitochondrial DNA in the short-lived PSY316 strain. Addition of nicotinamide to the medium dramatically shortens the life span of wild type cells, due to inhibition of Sir2. However, even in cells lacking both Sir2 and the replication fork block protein Fob1, nicotinamide partially prevents life span extension by CR. These findings (1 demonstrate that respiration is not required for the longevity benefits of CR in yeast, (2 show that nicotinamide inhibits life span extension by CR through a Sir2-independent mechanism, and (3 suggest that CR acts through a conserved, Sir2-independent mechanism in both PSY316 and BY4742.

  2. The importance of adult life-span perspective in explaining variations in political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedek, Grzegorz; Kossowska, Malgorzata; Rydzewska, Klara

    2014-06-01

    As a comment on Hibbing et al.'s paper, we discuss the evolution of political and social views from more liberal to more conservative over the span of adulthood. We show that Hibbing et al.'s theoretical model creates a false prediction from this developmental perspective, as increased conservatism in the adult life-span trajectory is accompanied by the avoidance of negative bias.

  3. How long will my mouse live? Machine learning approaches for prediction of mouse life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, William R; Harper, James M; Miller, Richard A

    2008-09-01

    Prediction of individual life span based on characteristics evaluated at middle-age represents a challenging objective for aging research. In this study, we used machine learning algorithms to construct models that predict life span in a stock of genetically heterogeneous mice. Life-span prediction accuracy of 22 algorithms was evaluated using a cross-validation approach, in which models were trained and tested with distinct subsets of data. Using a combination of body weight and T-cell subset measures evaluated before 2 years of age, we show that the life-span quartile to which an individual mouse belongs can be predicted with an accuracy of 35.3% (+/-0.10%). This result provides a new benchmark for the development of life-span-predictive models, but improvement can be expected through identification of new predictor variables and development of computational approaches. Future work in this direction can provide tools for aging research and will shed light on associations between phenotypic traits and longevity.

  4. Structural covariance networks across the life span, from 6 to 94 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPre, Elizabeth; Spreng, R Nathan

    2017-10-01

    Structural covariance examines covariation of gray matter morphology between brain regions and across individuals. Despite significant interest in the influence of age on structural covariance patterns, no study to date has provided a complete life span perspective-bridging childhood with early, middle, and late adulthood-on the development of structural covariance networks. Here, we investigate the life span trajectories of structural covariance in six canonical neurocognitive networks: default, dorsal attention, frontoparietal control, somatomotor, ventral attention, and visual. By combining data from five open-access data sources, we examine the structural covariance trajectories of these networks from 6 to 94 years of age in a sample of 1,580 participants. Using partial least squares, we show that structural covariance patterns across the life span exhibit two significant, age-dependent trends. The first trend is a stable pattern whose integrity declines over the life span. The second trend is an inverted-U that differentiates young adulthood from other age groups. Hub regions, including posterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula, appear particularly influential in the expression of this second age-dependent trend. Overall, our results suggest that structural covariance provides a reliable definition of neurocognitive networks across the life span and reveal both shared and network-specific trajectories.

  5. Structural covariance networks across the life span, from 6 to 94 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth DuPre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural covariance examines covariation of gray matter morphology between brain regions and across individuals. Despite significant interest in the influence of age on structural covariance patterns, no study to date has provided a complete life span perspective—bridging childhood with early, middle, and late adulthood—on the development of structural covariance networks. Here, we investigate the life span trajectories of structural covariance in six canonical neurocognitive networks: default, dorsal attention, frontoparietal control, somatomotor, ventral attention, and visual. By combining data from five open-access data sources, we examine the structural covariance trajectories of these networks from 6 to 94 years of age in a sample of 1,580 participants. Using partial least squares, we show that structural covariance patterns across the life span exhibit two significant, age-dependent trends. The first trend is a stable pattern whose integrity declines over the life span. The second trend is an inverted-U that differentiates young adulthood from other age groups. Hub regions, including posterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula, appear particularly influential in the expression of this second age-dependent trend. Overall, our results suggest that structural covariance provides a reliable definition of neurocognitive networks across the life span and reveal both shared and network-specific trajectories. The importance of life span perspectives is increasingly apparent in understanding normative interactions of large-scale neurocognitive networks. Although recent work has made significant strides in understanding the functional and structural connectivity of these networks, there has been comparatively little attention to life span trajectories of structural covariance networks. In this study we examine patterns of structural covariance across the life span for six neurocognitive networks. Our results suggest that networks exhibit

  6. Baicalein modulates stress-resistance and life span in C. elegans via SKN-1 but not DAF-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermann, Susannah; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Wätjen, Wim

    2016-09-01

    The flavonoid baicalein has been demonstrated to be an activator of the transcription factor Nrf2 in mammalian cell lines. We show that it further modulates the Nrf2 homolog SKN-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans and by this pathway mediates beneficial effects in the nematode: baicalein enhances the resistance of C. elegans against lethal thermal and sodium arsenite stress and dose-dependently prolongs the life span of the nematode. Using RNA interference against SKN-1 we were able to show that the induction of longevity and the enhanced stress-resistance were dependent on this transcription factor. DAF-16 (homolog to mammalian FOXO) is another pivotal aging-related transcription factor in the nematode. We demonstrate that DAF-16 does not participate in the beneficial effects of baicalein: since baicalein causes no increase in the nuclear translocation of DAF-16 (DAF-16::GFP expressing strain, incubation time: 1h) and it still induces longevity even in a DAF-16 loss-of-function strain, we conclude, that baicalein increases stress-resistance and life span in C. elegans via SKN-1 but not DAF-16. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ISO celebrates its prolonged life with a video of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This is excellent news for astronomers and especially for the multinational teams, with leaders in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, who spent many years devising the four instruments served by ISO's telescope. The camera ISOCAM, the photometer ISOPHOT, the Short Wavelength Spectrometer and the Long Wavelength Spectrometer span between them an unprecedented range of infrared wavelengths from 2 to 200 microns. The atmosphere of Jupiter is one of the cool and cloudy places attracting ISO's attention, and ESA today releases a video of unprecedented images of Jupiter. The planet changes its appearance drastically as the camera ISOCAM scans a range of 90 different infrared wavelengths. Picture by picture, ISOCAM picks out different features of the atmosphere's composition and behaviour. These and other results from ISO will enable scientists to sharpen their ideas about how Jupiter's weather works. "ISO is giving us a new impression of the giant planets of the Solar System," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "Not just Jupiter, but Saturn, Uranus and Neptune too. By observing the planets across its very wide range of infrared wavelengths, ISO can see features overlooked even by spacecraft visiting the planets. The remarkable movie of Jupiter released today represents only a few per cent of ISO's wavelength range, yet every image tells its own story." More information about the Jupiter video appears later in this Information Note. How ISO's cold telescope beat the calendar The need to keep ISO's telescope and instruments chilled to a very low temperature sets a limit to their useful operating life. ISO was supplied with more than 2000 litres of superfluid helium to cool it. Slow evaporation maintains key parts of the spacecraft at temperatures close to absolute zero, below minus 271 degrees C. The rate of loss of helium was expected to be about 3 litres a day, but the cryogenic system could not be tested in exactly the conditions

  8. Quantifying the Structure of Free Association Networks across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubossarsky, Haim; De Deyne, Simon; Hills, Thomas T.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how the mental lexicon changes over the life span using free association data from over 8,000 individuals, ranging from 10 to 84 years of age, with more than 400 cue words per age group. Using network analysis, with words as nodes and edges defined by the strength of shared associations, we find that associative networks evolve in a…

  9. Life-span radiation effects studies in animals: what can they tell us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1984-05-01

    Results from life-span studies in a variety of animal species have found relatively little application in the development of radiation risk factors for various organs of man. This paper discusses possible reasons for this situation and presents recommendations to correct it

  10. Flexible pavement rehabilitation design based on pavement service life time span left

    OpenAIRE

    Gamelyak, I.; Shevchuk, V.

    2005-01-01

    The design of flexible pavement rehabilitation is analysed in terms of durability-cost. A notion of the remaining service life span is described. the model of rehabilitation strategy selection is presented for both design project and operation stages. the results can be used in the pavement management system.

  11. Which HRM practices enhance employee outcomes at work across the life-span?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth, Klaske; Korzilius, Hubert P.L.M.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I.J.M.; Emans, Ben; de Lange, Annet H.

    Based on the social exchange theory and on ageing and life-span theories, this paper aims to examine: (1) the relationships between perceived availability and use of HRM practices, and employee outcomes (i.e. work engagement and employability); and (2) how employee age moderates these relationships.

  12. Which HRM practices enhance employee outcomes at work across the life-span?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth, K.N.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Lange, A.H. de; Emans, B.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the social exchange theory and on ageing and life-span theories, this paper aims to examine: (1) the relationships between perceived availability and use of HRM practices, and employee outcomes (i.e. work engagement and employability); and (2) how employee age moderates these relationships.

  13. Body Image across the Life Span in Adult Women: The Role of Self-Objectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lynch, Jessica E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated body image across life span in cross-section of women ages 20-84 years. Found that although body dissatisfaction remained stable, self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, appearance anxiety, and disordered eating all significantly decreased with age. Self- objectification mediated the relationship between age and disordered…

  14. The Development of Attentional Networks: Cross-Sectional Findings from a Life Span Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Florian; Li, Shu-Chen; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Using a population-based sample of 263 individuals ranging from 6 to 89 years of age, we investigated the gains and losses in the abilities to (a) use exogenous cues to shift attention covertly and (b) ignore conflicting information across the life span. The participants' ability to shift visual attention was tested by a typical Posner-type…

  15. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  16. Developmental Change in Proactive Interference across the Life Span: Evidence from Two Working Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V.; Rahm, Benjamin; Unterrainer, Josef M.; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) as the ability to temporarily maintain and manipulate various kinds of information is known to be affected by proactive interference (PI) from previously relevant contents, but studies on developmental changes in the susceptibility to PI are scarce. In the present study, we investigated life span development of item-specific…

  17. Re-use and life span of gloves | van Palenstein Helderman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use and life span of gloves. WH van Palenstein Helderman. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  18. Life span effects of Hypericum perforatum extracts on Caenorhabditis elegans under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçgün, Hasan; Göksen, Gülden

    2012-10-01

    The beneficial effects of antioxidants in plants are mainly extrapolated from in vitro studies or short-term dietary supplementation studies. Due to cost and duration, relatively little is known about whether dietary antioxidants are beneficial in whole animals' life span or not. To address this question, under heat stress (35°C), Hypericum perforatum was extracted with petroleum ether and the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to three different extract concentrations (1mg/mL, 0.1mg/mL, 0.01mg/mL) of H. perforatum. We report that Hypericum perforatum extracts did not increase life span and slow aging related increase in C. elegans. Moreover, one fraction (1mg/mL) increased declines of C. elegans life span and thermotolerance. Given this mounting evidence for life span role of H. perforatum in the presence of heat stress in vivo, the question whether H. perforatum acts as a prooxidant or an antioxidant in vivo under heat stress arises.

  19. Attachment and the Processing of Social Information across the Life Span: Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the…

  20. On personality stability and change: main results of Brno longitudinal study on life-span development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, Supplement (2007), s. 37-49 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA406/06/1408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : life-span development * personality stability and change Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.133, year: 2007

  1. Investigating the life-span of cork products through a longitudinal approach with users- Interim results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva Pereira, A.C.; Brezet, J.C.; Pereira, H.; Vogtlander, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Products with long life-spans are generally preferred form an environmental perspective. This paper addresses the longevity of cork products, and the respective influencing aspects. This is accomplished through a longitudinal study where several cork products are used, and at different moments in

  2. Influence of incorporated radionuclides on the life span of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshel', N.M.; Vajserman, O.M.; Vojtenko, V.P.; Kutlakhmedov, Yu.O.; Mikhjejev, O.M.

    2004-01-01

    Influence of incorporated radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) on the life span of Drosophila melanogaster was studied. External irradiation modified the formation of cumulative dose of incorporated radionuclides. All influences leaded to significant (p 90 Sr was higher comparing to 137 Cs

  3. Like cognitive function, decision making across the life span shows profound age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymula, Agnieszka; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior A; Ruderman, Lital; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2013-10-15

    It has long been known that human cognitive function improves through young adulthood and then declines across the later life span. Here we examined how decision-making function changes across the life span by measuring risk and ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains, as well as choice consistency, in an urban cohort ranging in age from 12 to 90 y. We identified several important age-related patterns in decision making under uncertainty: First, we found that healthy elders between the ages of 65 and 90 were strikingly inconsistent in their choices compared with younger subjects. Just as elders show profound declines in cognitive function, they also show profound declines in choice rationality compared with their younger peers. Second, we found that the widely documented phenomenon of ambiguity aversion is specific to the gain domain and does not occur in the loss domain, except for a slight effect in older adults. Finally, extending an earlier report by our group, we found that risk attitudes across the life span show an inverted U-shaped function; both elders and adolescents are more risk-averse than their midlife counterparts. Taken together, these characterizations of decision-making function across the life span in this urban cohort strengthen the conclusions of previous reports suggesting a profound impact of aging on cognitive function in this domain.

  4. Vocabulary Skills in Adulthood: Longitudinal Relations with Cognitive and Personality Measures Across the Life-Span

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Filip; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Millová, Katarína; Sobotková, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2016), s. 97-105 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : vocabulary * personality * life-span development * verbal IQ Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.242, year: 2016

  5. Repeated intraspecific divergence in life span and aging of African annual fishes along an aridity gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Kačer, P.; Cellerino, A.; Řežucha, Radomil; Methling, Caroline; Tomášek, Oldřich; Syslová, K.; Terzibasi Tozzini, E.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Vrtílek, Milan; Reichard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 386-402 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00291S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Intraspecific variation * life span * neoplasia * pace-of-life syndrome * parallel evolution * reproductive senescence Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.201, year: 2016

  6. ETS-4 is a transcriptional regulator of life span in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargavi Thyagarajan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex phenotype responsive to a plethora of environmental inputs; yet only a limited number of transcriptional regulators are known to influence life span. How the downstream expression programs mediated by these factors (or others are coordinated into common or distinct set of aging effectors is an addressable question in model organisms, such as C. elegans. Here, we establish the transcription factor ETS-4, an ortholog of vertebrate SPDEF, as a longevity determinant. Adult worms with ets-4 mutations had a significant extension of mean life span. Restoring ETS-4 activity in the intestine, but not neurons, of ets-4 mutant worms rescued life span to wild-type levels. Using RNAi, we demonstrated that ets-4 is required post-developmentally to regulate adult life span; thus uncoupling the role of ETS-4 in aging from potential functions in worm intestinal development. Seventy ETS-4-regulated genes, identified by gene expression profiling of two distinct ets-4 alleles and analyzed by bioinformatics, were enriched for known longevity effectors that function in lipid transport, lipid metabolism, and innate immunity. Putative target genes were enriched for ones that change expression during normal aging, the majority of which are controlled by the GATA factors. Also, some ETS-4-regulated genes function downstream of the FOXO factor, DAF-16 and the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. However, epistasis and phenotypic analyses indicate that ets-4 functioned in parallel to the insulin/IGF-1 receptor, daf-2 and akt-1/2 kinases. Furthermore, ets-4 required daf-16 to modulate aging, suggesting overlap in function at the level of common targets that affect life span. In conclusion, ETS-4 is a new transcriptional regulator of aging, which shares transcriptional targets with GATA and FOXO factors, suggesting that overlapping pathways direct common sets of lifespan-related genes.

  7. Non-linear impact of glutathione depletion on C. elegans life span and stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Urban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The redox environment in cells and organisms is set by low-molecular mass and protein-bound thiols, with glutathione (GSH representing a major intracellular redox buffer. Subtle thiol oxidation elicits signal transduction processes and adaptive responses to cope with stressors, whereas highly oxidizing conditions may provoke cell death. We here tested how thiol depletion affects life span, stress resistance and stress signaling in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Diethyl maleate (DEM, an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that conjugates to GSH and other thiols, decreased C. elegans life span at a concentration of 1 mM. In contrast, low and moderate doses of DEM (10–100 µM increased mean and maximum life span and improved resistance against oxidative stress. DEM-induced life span extension was not detectable in worms deficient in either the FoxO orthologue, DAF-16, or the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, pointing to a collaborative role of the two transcription factors in life span extension induced by thiol depletion. Cytoprotective target genes of DAF-16 and SKN-1 were upregulated after at least 3 days of exposure to 100 µM DEM, but not 1 mM DEM, whereas only 1 mM DEM caused upregulation of egl-1, a gene controlled by a p53-orthologue, CEP-1. In order to test whether depletion of GSH may elicit effects similar to DEM, we suppressed GSH biosynthesis in worms by attenuating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gcs-1 expression through RNAi. The decline in GSH levels elicited by gcs-1 knockdown starting at young adult stage did not impair viability, but increased both stress resistance and life expectancy of the worms. In contrast, gcs-1 knockdown commencing right after hatching impaired nematode stress resistance and rendered young adult worms prone to vulval ruptures during egg-laying. Thus, modest decrease in GSH levels in young adult worms may promote stress resistance and life span, whereas depletion of GSH is detrimental to freshly

  8. Non-linear impact of glutathione depletion on C. elegans life span and stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Nadine; Tsitsipatis, Dimitrios; Hausig, Franziska; Kreuzer, Katrin; Erler, Katrin; Stein, Vanessa; Ristow, Michael; Steinbrenner, Holger; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2017-04-01

    The redox environment in cells and organisms is set by low-molecular mass and protein-bound thiols, with glutathione (GSH) representing a major intracellular redox buffer. Subtle thiol oxidation elicits signal transduction processes and adaptive responses to cope with stressors, whereas highly oxidizing conditions may provoke cell death. We here tested how thiol depletion affects life span, stress resistance and stress signaling in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Diethyl maleate (DEM), an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that conjugates to GSH and other thiols, decreased C. elegans life span at a concentration of 1mM. In contrast, low and moderate doses of DEM (10-100µM) increased mean and maximum life span and improved resistance against oxidative stress. DEM-induced life span extension was not detectable in worms deficient in either the FoxO orthologue, DAF-16, or the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, pointing to a collaborative role of the two transcription factors in life span extension induced by thiol depletion. Cytoprotective target genes of DAF-16 and SKN-1 were upregulated after at least 3 days of exposure to 100µM DEM, but not 1mM DEM, whereas only 1mM DEM caused upregulation of egl-1, a gene controlled by a p53-orthologue, CEP-1. In order to test whether depletion of GSH may elicit effects similar to DEM, we suppressed GSH biosynthesis in worms by attenuating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gcs-1) expression through RNAi. The decline in GSH levels elicited by gcs-1 knockdown starting at young adult stage did not impair viability, but increased both stress resistance and life expectancy of the worms. In contrast, gcs-1 knockdown commencing right after hatching impaired nematode stress resistance and rendered young adult worms prone to vulval ruptures during egg-laying. Thus, modest decrease in GSH levels in young adult worms may promote stress resistance and life span, whereas depletion of GSH is detrimental to freshly hatched and developing worms

  9. Effect of habitat preference on frond life span in three Cyathea tree ferns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tzu Yun; Wang, Hsiang Hua; Lun Kuo, Yao; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    It has been reported that plants living in various geographical areas had different physiological forms, as factors of microenvironment have strong impacts on physiological characters. However, the physiological characters of fronds have been scarcely reported in ferns. In this study, we investigated physiological differences in response to the habitat preference in the three tree ferns in northeast Taiwan, Cyathea lepifera, C. spinulosa, and C. podophylla, prefer to open site, edge of forest, and interior forest, respectively. The canopy openness above the individuals of C. lepifera, C. spinulosa and C. podophylla were 29.2 ± 14.10 , 7.0 ± 3.07 and 5.0 ± 2.24 %, respectively. Among three species, C. podophylla had the longest frond life span (13.0 ± 4.12 months) than the two others (C. lepifera (6.8 ± 1.29 months) and C. spinulosa (7.3 ±1.35 months). Our result supported the general patterns that shade intolerant species have a shorter leaf life span than shade tolerant species. The maximum net CO2 assimilation of C. lepifera, C. spinulosa and C. podophylla were 11.46 ± 1.34, 8.27 ± 0.69, and 6.34 ± 0.54 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively. As well, C. lepifera had the highest photosynthetic light saturation point (LSP), while C. podophylla had the lowest LSP among these three tree ferns. These suggested that C. lepifera could be more efficient for capturing and utilizing light resources under the larger canopy openness condition than the other two species. We also found that frond C : N ratio were positively correlated with frond life span among species. C. podophylla, with the longest frond life span, had the highest frond C : N ratio (22.17 ± 1.95), which was followed by C. spinulosa (18.58 ± 1.37) and C. lepifera (18.68 ± 2.63) with shorter frond life span. The results were consistent to the theory that the fronds and leaves of shade intolerant species have high photosynthetic abilities with low C : N ratio. Key words: Canopy openness, frond life span

  10. Toward an Integrative Science of Life-Span Development and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinin, Andrea M.

    2010-01-01

    The study of aging demands an integrative life-span developmental framework, involving interdisciplinary collaborations and multiple methodological approaches for understanding how and why individuals change, in both normative and idiosyncratic ways. We highlight and summarize some of the issues encountered when conducting integrative research for understanding aging-related change, including, the integration of results across different levels of analysis; the integration of theory, design, and analysis; and the synthesis of results across studies of aging. We emphasize the necessity of longitudinal designs for understanding development and aging and discuss methodological issues that should be considered for achieving reproducible research on within-person processes. It will be important that current and future studies permit opportunities for quantitative comparison across populations given the extent to which historical shifts and cultural differences influence life-span processes and aging-related outcomes. PMID:20237144

  11. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  12. Weight concern across the life-span: relationship to self-esteem and feminist identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M; Stevens, C

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlates of weight concern across the life-span. Questionnaires assessing weight concern, self-esteem, and feminist attitudes were completed in their homes by 180 women aged between 18 and 60 years. It was found that there was a negative relationship between weight concern and self-esteem for 30 to 49-year-old women, but not for younger or older women. A similar pattern held for feminist attitudes. Among 30 to 49-year-old women, a strong feminist orientation related to a lesser concern with weight. It was concluded that the meaning and experience of body weight and size change across the life-span.

  13. Radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in Caenorhabditis elegans strains with different mean life spans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, P S; Simpson, V J; Johnson, T; Mitchell, D

    1988-06-01

    The sensitivities to three DNA damaging agents (UV and ..gamma..-radiation, methyl methanesulfonate) were measured in four recombinant inbred (RI) strains of Caenorhabditis elegans with mean life spans ranging from 13 to 30.9 days, as well as in the wild-type strains used to derive these RI's. Sensitivities at several stages in the developmental cycle were tested. There were no significant correlations between mean life span and the lethal effects of these 3 agents. Excision of two UV-radiation-induced DNA photoproducts was also measured. Long-lived strains were no more repair competent than shorter-lived strains. These data indicate that DNA repair plays at best a minor role in the aging process of C. elegans. 33 refs.; 4 figs.

  14. Diabetes mellitus as a cause of life span shortening in locally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershinina, S.F.; Markochev, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the development of remote radiation pathology of pancreas in male rats after local irradiation of abdomen with doses of 5, 10 (two fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval) and 15 Gy (three fractions of 5 Gy at a 30-day interval). The clinical and morphological estimates show the dose-dependent development of diabetes mellitus and 1.8-fold shortening of the life span, as compared to biological control

  15. Implication of Ca2+ in the Regulation of Replicative Life Span of Budding Yeast*

    OpenAIRE

    Tsubakiyama, Ryohei; Mizunuma, Masaki; Gengyo, Anri; Yamamoto, Josuke; Kume, Kazunori; Miyakawa, Tokichi; Hirata, Dai

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, Ca2+-triggered signaling pathways are used to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. Calcineurin, a highly conserved Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays key roles in the regulation of diverse biological processes in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. We isolated a mutant of the SIR3 gene, implicated in the regulation of life span, as a suppressor of the Ca2+ sensitivity of zds1Δ cells in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, ...

  16. Leaf life span plasticity in tropical seedlings grown under contrasting light regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Grégoire

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims The phenotypic plasticity of leaf life span in response to low resource conditions has a potentially large impact on the plant carbon budget, notably in evergreen species not subject to seasonal leaf shedding, but has rarely been well documented. This study evaluates the plasticity of leaf longevity, in terms of its quantitative importance to the plant carbon balance under limiting light. Methods Seedlings of four tropical tree species with contrasting light requirements (...

  17. Compassionate Love for a Romantic Partner Across the Adult Life Span

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Félix; Wilks, Daniela C.

    2017-01-01

    Compassionate love has received research attention over the last decade, but it is as yet unclear how it is experienced over a lifetime. The purpose of this study was to investigate compassionate love for a romantic partner throughout the adult life span, exploring individual differences in the propensity to experience compassionate love in regard to age, gender, religion, love status, love styles, and subjective well-being. The results showed that religion and love status display significant...

  18. Life-Span Differences in the Uses and Gratifications of Tablets: Implications for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Dowd, John; Abuljadail, Mohammad; Alsulaiman, Saud; Shareefi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study extends Uses and Gratifications theory by examining the uses and gratifications of a new technological device, the tablet computer, and investigating the differential uses and gratifications of tablet computers across the life-span. First, we utilized a six-week tablet training intervention to adapt and extend existing measures to the tablet as a technological device. Next, we used paper-based and online surveys (N=847), we confirmed four main uses of tablets: 1) Information Seekin...

  19. Leaf life span and the mobility of "non-mobile" mineral nutrients - the case of boron in conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro J. Aphalo; Anna W. Schoettle; Tarja Lehto

    2002-01-01

    Nutrient conservation is considered important for the adaptation of plants to infertile environments. The importance of leaf life spans in controlling mean residence time of nutrients in plants has usually been analyzed in relation to nutrients that can be retranslocated within the plant. Longer leaf life spans increase the mean residence time of all mineral...

  20. The rate of source memory decline across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernández-Ramos, Evelia; Martínez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gómez-Fernández, Tania; Ayala-Hernández, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garcés-Flores, Lissete; Gómez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltrán-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe García-Lázaro, Haydée; García-Gutiérrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernández-Apan, Luisa; Bärtschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodríguez-Ortiz, María Dolores

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between the ages of 21 and 80. Initially, images of common objects were randomly presented on one quadrant of a screen while the participants judged whether they were natural or artificial. During the retrieval phase, these same images were mixed with new ones, and all images were displayed in the center of the screen. The participants were asked to judge whether each image was new or old, and whether it was old, to indicate in which quadrant of the screen it had originally been presented. Source accuracy decreased linearly with advancing age at a rate of 0.6% per year across all decades even after controlling for educational level; this decline was unaffected by sex. These results reveal that either spatial information becomes less efficiently bound to episodic representations over time or that the ability to retrieve this information decreases gradually throughout the adult life span.

  1. Loss of the clock protein PER2 shortens the erythrocyte life span in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Yunxia; Yang, Xiao; Li, Minghui; Xu, Xi; Wen, Dan; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Jianfa

    2017-07-28

    Cell proliferation and release from the bone marrow have been demonstrated to be controlled by circadian rhythms in both humans and mice. However, it is unclear whether local circadian clocks in the bone marrow influence physiological functions and life span of erythrocytes. Here, we report that loss of the clock gene Per2 significantly decreased erythrocyte life span. Mice deficient in Per2 were more susceptible to acute stresses in the erythrocytes, becoming severely anemic upon phenylhydrazine, osmotic, and H 2 O 2 challenges. 1 H NMR-based metabolomics analysis revealed that the Per2 depletion causes significant changes in metabolic profiles of erythrocytes, including increased lactate and decreased ATP levels compared with wild-type mice. The lower ATP levels were associated with hyperfunction of Na + /K + -ATPase activity in Per2 -null erythrocytes, and inhibition of Na + /K + -ATPase activity by ouabain efficiently rescued ATP levels. Per2 -null mice displayed increased levels of Na + /K + -ATPase α1 (ATP1A1) in the erythrocyte membrane, and transfection of Per2 cDNA into the erythroleukemic cell line TF-1 inhibited Atp1a1 expression. Furthermore, we observed that PER2 regulates Atp1a1 transcription through interacting with trans-acting transcription factor 1 (SP1). Our findings reveal that Per2 function in the bone marrow is required for the regulation of life span in circulating erythrocytes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Trade-off between cellular immunity and life span in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrikis KRAMS, Janīna DAUKŠTE, Inese KIVLENIECE, Ants KAASIK, Tatjana KRAMA, Todd M. REEBERG, Markus J. RANTALA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is a nonspecific, cellular response through which insects defend themselves against multicellular pathogens. During this immune reaction, haemocytes recognize an object as foreign and cause other haemocytes to aggregate and form a capsule around the object, often consisting of melanized cells. The process of melanisation is accompanied by the formation of potentially toxic reactive oxygen species, which can kill not only pathogens but also host cells. In this study we tested whether the encapsulation response is costly in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor. We found a negative relationship between the duration of implantation via a nylon monofilament and remaining life span. We also found a negative relationship between the strength of immune response and remaining life span, suggesting that cellular immunity is costly in T. molitor, and that there is a trade-off between immune response and remaining life span. However, this relationship disappeared at 31-32 hours of implantation at 25 ± 2℃. As the disappearance of a relationship between duration of implantation and lifespan coincided with the highest values of encapsulation response, we concluded that the beetles stopped investment in the production of melanotic cells, as the implant, a synthetic parasite, was fully isolated from the host’s tissues [Current Zoology 59 (3: 340–346, 2013].

  3. Implication of Ca2+ in the regulation of replicative life span of budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubakiyama, Ryohei; Mizunuma, Masaki; Gengyo, Anri; Yamamoto, Josuke; Kume, Kazunori; Miyakawa, Tokichi; Hirata, Dai

    2011-08-19

    In eukaryotic cells, Ca(2+)-triggered signaling pathways are used to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. Calcineurin, a highly conserved Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays key roles in the regulation of diverse biological processes in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. We isolated a mutant of the SIR3 gene, implicated in the regulation of life span, as a suppressor of the Ca(2+) sensitivity of zds1Δ cells in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, we investigated a relationship between Ca(2+) signaling and life span in yeast. Here we show that Ca(2+) affected the replicative life span (RLS) of yeast. Increased external and intracellular Ca(2+) levels caused a reduction in their RLS. Consistently, the increase in calcineurin activity by either the zds1 deletion or the constitutively activated calcineurin reduced RLS. Indeed, the shortened RLS of zds1Δ cells was suppressed by the calcineurin deletion. Further, the calcineurin deletion per se promoted aging without impairing the gene silencing typically observed in short-lived sir mutants, indicating that calcineurin plays an important role in a regulation of RLS even under normal growth condition. Thus, our results indicate that Ca(2+) homeostasis/Ca(2+) signaling are required to regulate longevity in budding yeast.

  4. Life-Span Differences in the Uses and Gratifications of Tablets: Implications for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Dowd, John; Abuljadail, Mohammad; Alsulaiman, Saud; Shareefi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study extends Uses and Gratifications theory by examining the uses and gratifications of a new technological device, the tablet computer, and investigating the differential uses and gratifications of tablet computers across the life-span. First, we utilized a six-week tablet training intervention to adapt and extend existing measures to the tablet as a technological device. Next, we used paper-based and online surveys (N=847), we confirmed four main uses of tablets: 1) Information Seeking, 2) Relationship Maintenance, 3) Style, 4) Amusement and Killing time, and added one additional use category 5) Organization. We discovered differences among the five main uses of tablets across the life-span, with older adults using tablets the least overall. Builders, Boomers, GenX and GenY all reported the highest means for information seeking. Finally, we used a structural equation model to examine how uses and gratifications predicts hours of tablet use. The study provides limitations and suggestions for future research and marketers. In particular, this study offers insight to the relevancy of theory as it applies to particular information and communication technologies and consideration of how different periods in the life-span affect tablet motivations. PMID:26113769

  5. "Pull and push back" concepts of longevity and life span extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradian, Khachik

    2013-12-01

    The negative relation between metabolism and life span is a fundamental gerontological discovery well documented in a variety of ontogenetic and phylogenetic models. But how the long-lived species and populations sustain lower metabolic rate and, in more general terms, what is the efficient way to decline the metabolism? The suggested 'pull and push back' hypothesis assumes that decreased Po2 (hypoxia) and/or increased [Formula: see text] (hypercapnia) may create preconditions for the declined metabolic and aging rates. However, wider implementation of such ideas is compromised because of little advances in modification of the metabolic rate. Artificial atmosphere with controlled [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] could be a promising approach because of the minimal external invasions and involvement of the backward and forward loops ensuring physiological self-regulation of the metabolic perturbations. General considerations and existing data indicate that manipulations of [Formula: see text] may be more efficient in life span extension than [Formula: see text]. Thus, maximum life span of mammals positively correlates with the blood [Formula: see text] and HCO3 (-) but not with [Formula: see text]. Yet, proportional decease of the body [Formula: see text] and increase of [Formula: see text] seems the most optimal regime ensuring lower losses of the energy equivalents. Furthermore, especially rewarding results could be expected when such changes are modeled without major external invasions using the animals' inner capacity to consume O2 and generate CO2, as it is typical for the extreme longevity.

  6. Life-Span Differences in the Uses and Gratifications of Tablets: Implications for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Dowd, John; Abuljadail, Mohammad; Alsulaiman, Saud; Shareefi, Adnan

    2015-11-01

    This study extends Uses and Gratifications theory by examining the uses and gratifications of a new technological device, the tablet computer, and investigating the differential uses and gratifications of tablet computers across the life-span. First, we utilized a six-week tablet training intervention to adapt and extend existing measures to the tablet as a technological device. Next, we used paper-based and online surveys ( N =847), we confirmed four main uses of tablets: 1) Information Seeking, 2) Relationship Maintenance, 3) Style, 4) Amusement and Killing time, and added one additional use category 5) Organization. We discovered differences among the five main uses of tablets across the life-span, with older adults using tablets the least overall. Builders, Boomers, GenX and GenY all reported the highest means for information seeking. Finally, we used a structural equation model to examine how uses and gratifications predicts hours of tablet use. The study provides limitations and suggestions for future research and marketers. In particular, this study offers insight to the relevancy of theory as it applies to particular information and communication technologies and consideration of how different periods in the life-span affect tablet motivations.

  7. Psychosocial stressors and the short life spans of legendary jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, F

    2000-04-01

    Mean age at death of 168 legendary jazz musicians and 100 renowned classical musicians were compared to examine whether psychosocial stressors such as severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of jazz as an art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style may have contributed to shortened life spans for the jazz musicians. Analysis indicated that the jazz musicians died at an earlier age (57.2 yr.) than the classical musicians (73.3 yr.).

  8. Tool Wear and Life Span Variations in Cold Forming Operations and Their Implications in Microforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders E. W. Jarfors

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to review tooling life span, failure modes and models in cold microforming processes. As there is nearly no information available on tool-life for microforming the starting point was conventional cold forming. In cold forming common failures are (1 over stressing of the tool; (2 abrasive wear; (3 galling or adhesive wear, and (4 fatigue failure. The large variation in tool life observed in production and how to predict this was reviewed as this is important to the viability of microforming based on that the tooling cost takes a higher portion of the part cost. Anisotropic properties of the tool materials affect tool life span and depend on both the as-received and in-service conditions. It was concluded that preconditioning of the tool surface, and coating are important to control wear and fatigue. Properly managed, the detrimental effects from surface particles can be reduced. Under high stress low-cycle fatigue conditions, fatigue failure form internal microstructures and inclusions are common. To improve abrasive wear resistance larger carbides are commonly the solution which will have a negative impact on tooling life as these tend to be the root cause of fatigue failures. This has significant impact on cold microforming.

  9. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Physical Performance Across the Adult Life Span: Correlates With Age and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katherine S; Cohen, Harvey J; Pieper, Carl F; Fillenbaum, Gerda G; Kraus, William E; Huffman, Kim M; Cornish, Melissa A; Shiloh, Andrew; Flynn, Christy; Sloane, Richard; Newby, L Kristin; Morey, Miriam C

    2017-04-01

    A number of large-scale population studies have provided valuable information about physical performance in aged individuals; however, there is little information about trajectories of function and associations with age across the adult life span. We developed a mobility-focused physical performance screener designed to be appropriate for the adult life span. The physical performance battery includes measures of mobility, strength, endurance, and balance. Physical activity (PA) was assessed with accelerometry. We examined age-related trends in physical performance and PA, and the relationship between physical performance and PA across the age range (30-90+), by decade, in 775 participants enrolled in the study 2012-2014. Physical performance was worse with increasing age decade. Although men performed better than women across all ages, the decrement by age group was similar between genders. Worsening physical performance was observed as early as the fifth decade for chair stands and balance and in the sixth decade for gait speed and aerobic endurance. The number and strength of significant associations between physical performance and PA increased with greater age: the greatest number of significant associations was seen in the 60-79 age groups, with fewer reported in the 30-59 and 80-90+ age groups. More PA was associated with better physical function. These results emphasize the importance of a life span approach to studies of function and aging. This work points to the need for a physical performance screener that spans across adulthood as a clinical tool for identifying functional decline. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Second Life - problems with the prolongation of reality

    OpenAIRE

    Klimczuk, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Linden Lab studies massive online game "Second Life" unexpectedly gained worldwide fame after a few years after release. To the surprise of many game has met with great interest, despite the lack of promotional campaigns. It can be assumed that the reason why "second life" reached a wider audience was a special type of offered entertainment. Network game proved to be no longer a game that was known so far, but an example of a mass media, whose central element is a dynamic virtual world whi...

  12. Holistic life-span health outcomes among elite intercollegiate student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Shawn C; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M; Martin, Brandon E; Gordon, James E; Azen, Stanley P; Schroeder, E Todd; Salem, George J

    2014-01-01

    Competitive sports are recognized as having unique health benefits and risks, and the effect of sports on life-span health among elite athletes has received increasing attention. However, supporting scientific data are sparse and do not represent modern athletes. To assess holistic life-span health and health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) among current and former National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes (SAs). Cross-sectional study. A large Division I university. Population-based sample of 496 university students and alumni (age 17-84 years), including SAs and an age-matched and sex-matched nonathlete (NA) control group. Participants completed anonymous, self-report questionnaires. We measured the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) physical and mental component HRQL scores and cumulative lifetime experience and relative risk of treatment for joint, cardiopulmonary, and psychosocial health concerns. Older alumni (age 43+ years) SAs reported greater joint health concerns than NAs (larger joint summary scores; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.69; probability of clinically important difference [pCID] = 77%; treatment odds ratio [OR] = 14.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 126). Joint health for current and younger alumni SAs was similar to that for NAs. Older alumni reported greater cardiopulmonary health concerns than younger alumni (summary score P students (P 99.5%; OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 3.3, 15), but the risk was similar for SAs and NAs. Current SAs demonstrated evidence of better psychosocial health (summary score P = .006; d = -0.52; pCID = 40%) and mental component HRQL (P = .008; d = 0.50; pCID = 48%) versus NAs but similar psychosocial treatment odds (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.9). Psychosocial health and mental component HRQL were similar between alumni SAs and NAs. No differences were observed between SAs and NAs in physical component HRQL. The SAs demonstrated significant, clinically meaningful evidence of greater joint health concerns later in life, comparable

  13. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  14. Partner preferences across the life span: online dating by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterovitz, Sheyna Sears-Roberts; Mendelsohn, Gerald A

    2009-06-01

    Stereotypes of older adults as withdrawn or asexual fail to recognize that romantic relationships in later life are increasingly common. The authors analyzed 600 Internet personal ads from 4 age groups: 20-34, 40-54, 60-74, and 75+ years. Predictions from evolutionary theory held true in later life, when reproduction is no longer a concern. Across the life span, men sought physical attractiveness and offered status-related information more than women; women were more selective than men and sought status more than men. With age, men desired women increasingly younger than themselves, whereas women desired older men until ages 75 and over, when they sought men younger than themselves. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. From Children to Adults: Motor Performance across the Life-Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversen, Jonas S. R.; Haga, Monika; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2012-01-01

    The life-span approach to development provides a theoretical framework to examine the general principles of life-long development. This study aims to investigate motor performance across the life span. It also aims to investigate if the correlations between motor tasks increase with aging. A cross-sectional design was used to describe the effects of aging on motor performance across age groups representing individuals from childhood to young adult to old age. Five different motor tasks were used to study changes in motor performance within 338 participants (7–79 yrs). Results showed that motor performance increases from childhood (7–9) to young adulthood (19–25) and decreases from young adulthood (19–25) to old age (66–80). These results are mirroring results from cognitive research. Correlation increased with increasing age between two fine motor tasks and two gross motor tasks. We suggest that the findings might be explained, in part, by the structural changes that have been reported to occur in the developing and aging brain and that the theory of Neural Darwinism can be used as a framework to explain why these changes occur. PMID:22719958

  16. Two-carbon metabolites, polyphenols and vitamins influence yeast chronological life span in winemaking conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco Helena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viability in a non dividing state is referred to as chronological life span (CLS. Most grape juice fermentation happens when Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells have stopped dividing; therefore, CLS is an important factor toward winemaking success. Results We have studied both the physical and chemical determinants influencing yeast CLS. Low pH and heat shorten the maximum wine yeast life span, while hyperosmotic shock extends it. Ethanol plays an important negative role in aging under winemaking conditions, but additional metabolites produced by fermentative metabolism, such as acetaldehyde and acetate, have also a strong impact on longevity. Grape polyphenols quercetin and resveratrol have negative impacts on CLS under winemaking conditions, an unexpected behavior for these potential anti-oxidants. We observed that quercetin inhibits alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, and that resveratrol performs a pro-oxidant role during grape juice fermentation. Vitamins nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are precursors of NAD+, and their addition reduces mean longevity during fermentation, suggesting a metabolic unbalance negative for CLS. Moreover, vitamin mix supplementation at the end of fermentation shortens CLS and enhances cell lysis, while amino acids increase life span. Conclusions Wine S. cerevisiae strains are able to sense changes in the environmental conditions and adapt their longevity to them. Yeast death is influenced by the conditions present at the end of wine fermentation, particularly by the concentration of two-carbon metabolites produced by the fermentative metabolism, such as ethanol, acetic acid and acetaldehyde, and also by the grape juice composition, particularly its vitamin content.

  17. Life span and tumorigenesis in mice exposed to continuous low dose-rate gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Braga-Tanaka III, Ignacia; Takabatake, Takashi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Kimio; Matsumoto, Tsuneya; Sato, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate late biological effects of chronic low dose-rate radiation. 1: Late effects of chronic low dose-rate gamma-ray irradiation on SPF mice, using life span and pathological changes as parameters. Continuous irradiation for approximately 400 days was performed using 137 Cs gamma-rays at dose-rates of 20 mGy/day, 1 mGy/day and 0.05 mGy/day with accumulated doses equivalent to 8000 mGy, 400 mGy and 20 mGy, respectively. All mice were kept until their natural death. Statistical analyses show that the life spans of the both sexes irradiated at 20 mGy/day (p<0.0001) and of females irradiated at 1 mGy/day (p<0.05) were significantly shorter than those of the control group. There was no evidence of lengthened life span in mice continuously exposed to very low dose-rates of gama-rays. Pathodological examinations showed that the most frequently observed lethal neoplasms in males were malignant lymphomas, liver, lung, and soft tissue neoplasms, whereas, in females, malignant lymphomas and soft tissue neoplasms were common. No significant difference in the causes of death and mortality rates between groups. Hematopoietic neoplasms (malignant lymphoma and myeloid leukemia), liver, lung and soft tissue neoplasms, showed a tendency to appear at a younger age in both sexes irradiated at 20 mGy/day. Experiment 2: effects on the progeny of chronic low dose-rate gamma-ray irradiated SPF mice: preliminary study. No significant difference was observed between non-irradiated group and irradiated group with regards to litter size, sex ratio and causes of death in F1 and F2 mice. (author)

  18. Dissociable Changes of Frontal and Parietal Cortices in Inherent Functional Flexibility across the Human Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dazhi; Liu, Wenjing; Zeljic, Kristina; Wang, Zhiwei; Lv, Qian; Fan, Mingxia; Cheng, Wenhong; Wang, Zheng

    2016-09-28

    Extensive evidence suggests that frontoparietal regions can dynamically update their pattern of functional connectivity, supporting cognitive control and adaptive implementation of task demands. However, it is largely unknown whether this flexibly functional reconfiguration is intrinsic and occurs even in the absence of overt tasks. Based on recent advances in dynamics of resting-state functional resonance imaging (fMRI), we propose a probabilistic framework in which dynamic reconfiguration of intrinsic functional connectivity between each brain region and others can be represented as a probability distribution. A complexity measurement (i.e., entropy) was used to quantify functional flexibility, which characterizes heterogeneous connectivity between a particular region and others over time. Following this framework, we identified both functionally flexible and specialized regions over the human life span (112 healthy subjects from 13 to 76 years old). Across brainwide regions, we found regions showing high flexibility mainly in the higher-order association cortex, such as the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), lateral parietal cortex, and lateral temporal lobules. In contrast, visual, auditory, and sensory areas exhibited low flexibility. Furthermore, we observed that flexibility of the right LPFC improved during maturation and reduced due to normal aging, with the opposite occurring for the left lateral parietal cortex. Our findings reveal dissociable changes of frontal and parietal cortices over the life span in terms of inherent functional flexibility. This study not only provides a new framework to quantify the spatiotemporal behavior of spontaneous brain activity, but also sheds light on the organizational principle behind changes in brain function across the human life span. Recent neuroscientific research has demonstrated that the human capability of adaptive task control is primarily the result of the flexible operation of frontal brain networks. However

  19. Life-Span Development of Visual Working Memory: When is Feature Binding Difficult?

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Nelson; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Saults, J. Scott

    2006-01-01

    We asked whether the ability to keep in working memory the binding between a visual object and its spatial location changes with development across the life span more than memory for item information. Paired arrays of colored squares were identical or differed in the color of one square and, in the latter case, the changed color was unique on that trial (item change) or was duplicated elsewhere in the array (color-location binding change). Children (8–10 and 11–12 years old) and older adults ...

  20. The history of life and death: a 'spiritual' history from invisible matter to prolongation of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemelli, Benedino

    2012-01-01

    Over a long period of time, particularly from the nineteenth century on, Francis Bacon's philosophy has been interpreted as centred on the Novum organum and focused on the role that a well-organized method may play in securing a reliable knowledge of nature. In fact, if we examine Bacon's oeuvre as a whole, including some recent manuscript findings (De vijs mortis), we can safely argue that the issues addressed in the Novum organum represent only a part of Bacon's agenda, and not even the most important ones. By contrast, it is apparent that, from the very beginning of his investigations, he emphasized the central role of medicine, the need to establish new approaches in the study of the vital functions and the importance of promoting new discoveries in the medical field, not so much to find a cure for the many illnesses that plagued mankind as to prolong human life. In this sense, Historia vitae et mortis plays a central role in Bacon's programme to extend human knowledge and power, for, in his opinion, human beings could recover their lost ability to live a long and healthy life by embarking on careful investigations of nature. Far from being a purely descriptive or abstract exercise, Bacon's historia can therefore be seen as an operative tool to attain some of mankind's basic aims.

  1. Life satisfaction, distress, and resiliency across the life span of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Glaesmer, Heide; Decker, Oliver; Fischbeck, Sabine; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine (1) the relationship between life satisfaction, mental disorders, and aging in the female community and (2) to identify the impact of vulnerability factors, personal (resilience, self-esteem), and social resources on life satisfaction and distress. A stratified random sample of the German female population (N = 2,540) was investigated using standardized questionnaires of life satisfaction (Questions on Life Satisfaction), depression, anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire), resilience scale (RS-11), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). When participants were divided into six age groups (18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and >70 y), we found lower life satisfaction, satisfaction with partnership, and sexuality beyond the age of 50 years. Satisfaction with health was decreased already at early adulthood. Although the importance of partnership/sexuality was reduced around midlife, the importance of health increased. Depression was highest in the oldest group, whereas anxiety remained fairly stable across the cohorts. Life satisfaction was strongly associated with resilience, a good household income, the presence of a partnership, absence of anxiety and depression, lack of unemployment, positive self-esteem, religious affiliation, and-least-age. Personal and social resources and the absence of anxiety and depression are of crucial importance for the maintenance of life satisfaction in aging women.

  2. Vasoprotective effects of life span-extending peripubertal GH replacement in Lewis dwarf rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Gautam, Tripti; Koncz, Peter; Henthorn, Jim C; Pinto, John T; Ballabh, Praveen; Yan, Han; Mitschelen, Matthew; Farley, Julie; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna

    2010-11-01

    In humans, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) significantly increase the risk for cerebrovascular disease. Genetic growth hormone (GH)/IGF-1 deficiency in Lewis dwarf rats significantly increases the incidence of late-life strokes, similar to the effects of GHD in elderly humans. Peripubertal treatment of Lewis dwarf rats with GH delays the occurrence of late-life stroke, which results in a significant extension of life span. The present study was designed to characterize the vascular effects of life span-extending peripubertal GH replacement in Lewis dwarf rats. Here, we report, based on measurements of dihydroethidium fluorescence, tissue isoprostane, GSH, and ascorbate content, that peripubertal GH/IGF-1 deficiency in Lewis dwarf rats increases vascular oxidative stress, which is prevented by GH replacement. Peripubertal GHD did not alter superoxide dismutase or catalase activities in the aorta nor the expression of Cu-Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and catalase in the cerebral arteries of dwarf rats. In contrast, cerebrovascular expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 was significantly decreased in dwarf vessels, and this effect was reversed by GH treatment. Peripubertal GHD significantly decreases expression of the Nrf2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC in the cerebral arteries, whereas it does not affect expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular expression of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins, and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interluekin-6, interluekin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1). In conclusion, peripubertal GH/IGF-1 deficiency confers pro-oxidative cellular effects, which likely promote an adverse functional and structural phenotype in the vasculature, and results in accelerated vascular impairments later in life.

  3. Life satisfaction, anxiety, depression and resilience across the life span of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Glaesmer, Heide; Wiltink, Jörg; Marian, Hanna; Brähler, Elmar

    2010-03-01

    To determine (a) the relationship between life satisfaction, anxiety, depression and ageing in the male community and (b) to identify the impact of vulnerability factors, personal and social resources on life satisfaction and distress. A stratified random sample of the German male population (N = 2144) was investigated by standardized questionnaires of life satisfaction (FLZ(M)), depression, anxiety (PHQ), resilience (RS-11) and self-esteem (RSS). No age-related change was found regarding overall life satisfaction. Satisfaction with health decreased in midlife (51-60 years), while the importance of health increased. Importance of and satisfaction with partnership and sexuality were only reduced in the oldest group (70+). Anxiety was highest around midlife (51-60 years), accompanied by reduced resilience and self-esteem. No clear age-related change was found regarding depression. Life satisfaction was strongly associated with resilience, lack of unemployment, the presence of a partnership, positive self-esteem, a good household income, the absence of anxiety and depression and living in the Eastern states. Personal and social resources and the absence of anxiety and depression are of crucial importance for the maintenance of life satisfaction in ageing men. There is also evidence for a crisis around midlife manifested by health concerns, anxiety and reduced resilience.

  4. Defining futile life-prolonging treatments through Neo-Socratic Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Kuniko; Asai, Atsushi; Bito, Seiji

    2013-12-09

    In Japan, people are negative towards life-prolonging treatments. Laws that regulate withholding or discontinuing life-prolonging treatments and advance directives do not exist. Physicians, however, view discontinuing life-prolonging treatments negatively due to fears of police investigations. Although ministerial guidelines were announced regarding the decision process for end-of-life care in 2007, a consensus could not be reached on the definition of end-of-life and conditions for withholding treatment. We established a forum for extended discussions and consensus building on this topic. We used the Neo-Socratic Dialogue (NSD) method which promotes philosophical discussion based on a case-study to address a question and formulate a consensus and answer in a group. The question chosen for the dialogue was: "What is a life-prolonging treatment?" A series of dialogues took place over a period of one and a half days. It was carried out by three groups in 2010 and 2011. Seven participants with diverse backgrounds were recruited per group. We analyzed the content of the discussion. Based on three case studies concerning different opinions about treatment options for an older dementia patient, a patient demanding chemotherapy, and a severely ill neonate, conditions for futile life-prolonging treatment were elucidated through NSD. Such treatments are those carried out for the sole purpose of prolonging life and are detrimental to the patient, and should be decided based foremost on the patient's lack of desire for treatment, the consensus of those involved, and through social acceptance. These arguments are essentially consistent with ones on medical futility in the United States. By expressing the objective of healthcare and the requirement of social acceptance, participants were also able to elucidate issues related to the awareness of those involved and the medical environment. Compared to the end-of-life guidelines in Japan, the objective of treatment, its effects

  5. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Causes of decreased life expectancy over the life span in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; McIntyre, Roger S; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-07-15

    Accelerated aging has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the increased prevalence of comorbid general medical illnesses in bipolar disorder. To test the hypothesis that lost life years due to natural causes starts in early and mid-adulthood, supporting the hypothesis of accelerated aging. Using individual data from nationwide registers of patient with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder we calculated remaining life expectancies before age 90 years for values of age 15, 25, 35…75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. Further, we estimated the reduction in life expectancy due to natural causes (physical illnesses) and unnatural causes (suicide and accidents) in relation to age. A total of 22,635 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the study in addition to data from the entire Danish general population of 5.4 million people. At age 15 years, remaining life expectancy before age 90 years was decreased 12.7 and 8.9 life years, respectively, for men and women with bipolar disorder. For 15-year old boys with bipolar disorder, natural causes accounted for 58% of all lost life years and for 15-year old girls, natural causes accounted for 67% increasing to 74% and 80% for 45-year old men and women, respectively. Data concern patients who get contact to hospital psychiatry only. Natural causes of death is the most prevalent reason for lost life years already from adolescence and increases substantially during early and mid-adulthood, in this way supporting the hypothesis of accelerated aging. Early intervention in bipolar disorder should not only focus on improving outcome of the bipolar disorder but also on decreasing the risk of comorbid general medical illnesses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation between DNA repair of embryonic fibroblasts and different life span of 3 inbred mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenholz, V.

    1978-02-01

    Primary mouse fibroblast cultures were established from 10 day old embryos of 3 inbred strains with a genetically determined different life expectancy. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis following uv irradiation was studied in these cells at various passage levels of the in vitro ageing process. The mouse fibroblasts show considerable repair synthesis corresponding to the duration of exposure time. The capacity for induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis was different in the cells of each strain and correlated to the natural life span of the animal. In each case, however, the ability to perform repair synthesis was subjected to an age-associated decline, although semiconservative DNA synthesis and proliferative potential of the cell was not changed until the cultures entered phase III passages.

  8. Exposure To Harmful Workplace Practices Could Account For Inequality In Life Spans Across Different Demographic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Joel; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Zenios, Stefanos

    2015-10-01

    The existence of important socioeconomic disparities in health and mortality is a well-established fact. Many pathways have been adduced to explain inequality in life spans. In this article we examine one factor that has been somewhat neglected: People with different levels of education get sorted into jobs with different degrees of exposure to workplace attributes that contribute to poor health. We used General Social Survey data to estimate differential exposures to workplace conditions, results from a meta-analysis that estimated the effect of workplace conditions on mortality, and a model that permitted us to estimate the overall effects of workplace practices on health. We conclude that 10-38 percent of the difference in life expectancy across demographic groups can be explained by the different job conditions their members experience. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. Stochastic variation in telomere shortening rate causes heterogeneity of human fibroblast replicative life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Saretzki, Gabriele; Petrie, Joanne; Ladhoff, Juliane; Jeyapalan, Jessie; Wei, Wenyi; Sedivy, John; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2004-04-23

    The replicative life span of human fibroblasts is heterogeneous, with a fraction of cells senescing at every population doubling. To find out whether this heterogeneity is due to premature senescence, i.e. driven by a nontelomeric mechanism, fibroblasts with a senescent phenotype were isolated from growing cultures and clones by flow cytometry. These senescent cells had shorter telomeres than their cycling counterparts at all population doubling levels and both in mass cultures and in individual subclones, indicating heterogeneity in the rate of telomere shortening. Ectopic expression of telomerase stabilized telomere length in the majority of cells and rescued them from early senescence, suggesting a causal role of telomere shortening. Under standard cell culture conditions, there was a minor fraction of cells that showed a senescent phenotype and short telomeres despite active telomerase. This fraction increased under chronic mild oxidative stress, which is known to accelerate telomere shortening. It is possible that even high telomerase activity cannot fully compensate for telomere shortening in all cells. The data show that heterogeneity of the human fibroblast replicative life span can be caused by significant stochastic cell-to-cell variation in telomere shortening.

  10. Younger and older adults' beliefs about the experience and expression of emotions across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montepare, Joann M; Dobish, Heidi

    2014-11-01

    Although theorists acknowledge that beliefs about emotions may play a role in age-related emotion behavior, no research has explored these beliefs. This research examined beliefs about the experience and expression of emotions across the life span, especially across the adult years. Younger and older adults rated the extent to which infants, children, adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults were likely to experience and express a range of emotions. Younger and older adults held similar beliefs about the course of emotions across the life span. Moreover, these beliefs differed across emotion categories. In particular, although older adults were believed to experience and express fewer highly charged, negative emotions, they were expected to be more likely to experience and express positive, low arousal emotions, as well as negative, low arousal emotions. The experience and expression of positive, high arousal emotions were seen as more characteristic of very young age groups as opposed to older age groups. These findings beg questions about if and how beliefs about emotion may affect age-related emotion regulation strategies and other everyday emotion-focused behaviors, as well as social reactions to older adults observed experiencing and expressing particular types of emotions. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. DOE life-span radiation effects studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F.; Sanders, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Major life-span radiation effects studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory fall into three categories: (1) studies with beagle dogs exposed to plutonium compounds via a single inhalation; (2) studies with dogs and rats exposed chronically via inhalation to various combinations and concentrations of radon, radon daughters, and other components of uranium mine atmospheres; and (3) a study in which rats are exposed via single inhalation, in very large numbers, to very low concentrations of 239 PuO 2 . Exposure of beagles currently on study was initiated in 1970 with 239 PuO 2 , in 1973 with 238 PuO 2 , and in 1976 with 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 . These experiments involve more than 500 animals, many of them still alive. Experiments seeking to explain the increased incidence of lung cancer in uranium miners have been in progress since 1966. Present emphasis is on studies with rats, in an attempt to define dose-effect relationships at the lowest feasible radon-daughter exposure levels. Our very-low-level experiment with inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, with exposures still under way, includes 1000 rats in the control group and 1000 rats in the lowest-exposure group, where life-span lung doses of <5 rads are anticipated

  12. Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. II. Rats exposed in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, D.F.; Wright, J.F.; Godbold, J.H.; Ward, J.M.; Laskey, J.W.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on neoplasia incidence and life-span of exposure in utero to a major environmental radionuclide. Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) from conception through birth in doses of 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 μCi HTO/ml body water. HTO administration was terminated at birth. Calculated cumulative doses during gestation were approximately 0, 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads of total body irradiation. Under these exposure conditions, the two highest doses resulted in sterile offspring. Animals surviving through 30 days postnatally were defined as the study population and observed until their deaths. Intrauterine exposures to doses up to 66 rads had no significant effects on either sex with respect to lifespan, overall neoplasia incidence, incidence rate, or onset of mammary fibroadenomas. Females exposed to 330 or 660 rads were sterile and had lower incidence rates of mammary fibroadenomas than did controls; at 660 rads females had a lower incidence of overall neoplasia and reduced mean lifespans. Sterile male offspring had reduced mean longevity after irradiation at 660 rads. Regardless of dose group, females had significantly higher incidences of neoplasia and longer life-spans than males

  13. Studies on the life span, reproduction, tissue biochemistry and diesel oil toxicity in the estuarine cladocera Diaphanosoma celebensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhuKonkar, S.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    , neonate production, tissue biochemistry and toxicity of diesel oil have been described in the paper. Variations were observed in the life span and rate of neonate production between individuals of the 1 st and 2 nd generations. Both were found...

  14. Causes of decreased life expectancy over the life span in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; McIntyre, Roger S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accelerated aging has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the increased prevalence of comorbid general medical illnesses in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that lost life years due to natural causes starts in early and mid-adulthood, supporting the hypothesis...... of accelerated aging. METHODS: Using individual data from nationwide registers of patient with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder we calculated remaining life expectancies before age 90 years for values of age 15, 25, 35…75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. Further, we estimated the reduction in life...... expectancy due to natural causes (physical illnesses) and unnatural causes (suicide and accidents) in relation to age. RESULTS: A total of 22,635 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the study in addition to data from the entire Danish general population of 5.4 million people. At age 15 years...

  15. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, C.M.; Doroszuk, A.; Zwaan, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and

  16. Safety and Efficacy of BAY 94-9027, a Prolonged-Half-Life Factor VIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reding, M T; Ng, H J; Poulsen, Lone Hvitfeldt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BAY 94-9027 is a B-domain-deleted prolonged-half-life recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) conjugates in a site-specific manner with polyethylene glycol. OBJECTIVE: Assess efficacy and safety of BAY 94-9027 for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with severe hemophilia A PATIEN...

  17. The structure of late-life depressive symptoms across a 20-year span: a taxometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jason M; Schutte, Kathleen K; Brennan, Penny L; Moos, Rudolf H

    2010-03-01

    Past studies of the underlying structure of depressive symptoms have yielded mixed results, with some studies supporting a continuous conceptualization and others supporting a categorical one. However, no study has examined this research question with an exclusively older adult sample, despite the potential uniqueness of late-life depressive symptoms. In the present study, the underlying structure of late-life depressive symptoms was examined among a sample of 1,289 individuals across 3 waves of data collection spanning 20 years. The authors employed a taxometric methodology using indicators of depression derived from the Research Diagnostic Criteria (R. L. Spitzer, J. Endicott, & E. Robins, 1978). Maximum eigenvalue analyses and inchworm consistency tests generally supported a categorical conceptualization and identified a group that was primarily characterized by thoughts about death and suicide. However, compared to a categorical depression variable, depressive symptoms treated continuously were generally better predictors of relevant criterion variables. These findings suggest that thoughts of death and suicide may characterize a specific type of late-life depression, yet a continuous conceptualization still typically maximizes the predictive utility of late-life depressive symptoms.

  18. Linguistic Evidence for the Failure Mindset as a Predictor of Life Span Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, Ian B; Persich, Michelle R; Boyd, Ryan L; Robinson, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    When people think that their efforts will fail to achieve positive outcomes, they sometimes give up their efforts after control, which can have negative health consequences. Problematic orientations of this type, such as pessimism, helplessness, or fatalism, seem likely to be associated with a cognitive mindset marked by higher levels of accessibility for failure words or concepts. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to determine whether there are individual differences in the frequency with which people think about failure, which in turn are likely to impact health across large spans of time. Following self-regulatory theories of health and the learned helplessness tradition, two archival studies (total n = 197) scored texts (books or speeches) for their use of failure words, a category within the Harvard IV dictionary of the General Inquirer. People who used failure words more frequently exhibited shorter subsequent life spans, and this relationship remained significant when controlling for birth year. Furthermore, study 2 implicated behavioral factors. For example, the failure/longevity relationship was numerically stronger among people whose causes of death appeared to be preventable rather than non-preventable. These results significantly extend our knowledge of the personality/longevity relationship while highlighting the value of individual differences in word usage as predictors of health and mortality.

  19. Metabotypes with properly functioning mitochondria and anti-inflammation predict extended productive life span in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, K.; Dänicke, S.; Rehage, J.; Sauerwein, H.; Otto, W.; Rolle-Kampczyk, U.; von Bergen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The failure to adapt metabolism to the homeorhetic demands of lactation is considered as a main factor in reducing the productive life span of dairy cows. The so far defined markers of production performance and metabolic health in dairy cows do not predict the length of productive life span satisfyingly. This study aimed to identify novel pathways and biomarkers related to productive life in dairy cows by means of (targeted) metabolomics. In a longitudinal study from 42 days before up to 100 days after parturition, we identified metabolites such as long-chain acylcarnitines and biogenic amines associated with extended productive life spans. These metabolites are mainly secreted by the liver and depend on the functionality of hepatic mitochondria. The concentrations of biogenic amines and some acylcarnitines differed already before the onset of lactation thus indicating their predictive potential for continuation or early ending of productive life. PMID:27089826

  20. Significance of Building Maintenance Management on Life-Span of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Azree Othuman Mydin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The attentions and skills of maintenance are required for the construction of buildings in this twenty-first century. Because much architectural education is still focused on the one-of-a-kind assignment, encouraging the notion of personal fulfillment through leaving a mark for off-springs and obtaining a design award by means of concept drawings. Due to the reason that many building designers (architects, engineers, technicians are not encompassed in the subsequent maintenance of the building, they just regard it as other specialists’ responsibilities. In all likelihood, the building user-to-be has no formal role: the building contractors just fulfill their accountabilities to complete the building in compliance with the contract documents, not to care occupier’s needs and wants. This paper will focus on the important of building maintenance management on the life-span of buildings.

  1. Life spans of a Bellman-Harris branching process with immigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalbaev, I.S.; Mashrabbaev, A.

    1987-01-01

    One considers two schemes of the Bellman-Harris process with immigration when a) the lifetime of the particles is an integral-valued random variable and the immigration is defined by a sequence of independent random variables; b) the distribution of the lifetime of the particles is nonlattice and the immigration is a process with continuous time. One investigates the properties of the life spans of such processes. The results obtained here are a generalization to the case of Bellman-Harris processes of the results of A.M. Zubkov, obtained for Markov branching processes. For the proof one makes use in an essential manner of the known inequalities of Goldstein, estimating the generating function of the Bellman-Harris process in terms of the generating functions of the imbedded Galton-Watson process

  2. Life Span Studies of ADHD-Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caye, Arthur; Swanson, James; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD. Estimates of persistence vary widely in the literature, and diagnostic criteria, sample characteristics, and information source are the most important factors explaining variability among studies...... in adulthood among children with ADHD. Three recent population studies suggested the existence of a significant proportion of individuals who report onset of ADHD symptoms and impairments after childhood. Finally, we highlight areas for improvement to increase our understanding of ADHD across the life span....... the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative...

  3. Compassionate Love for a Romantic Partner Across the Adult Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Félix; Wilks, Daniela C.

    2017-01-01

    Compassionate love has received research attention over the last decade, but it is as yet unclear how it is experienced over a lifetime. The purpose of this study was to investigate compassionate love for a romantic partner throughout the adult life span, exploring individual differences in the propensity to experience compassionate love in regard to age, gender, religion, love status, love styles, and subjective well-being. The results showed that religion and love status display significant effects on compassionate love. Believers experienced greater compassionate love than nonbelievers, and individuals in love presented greater compassionate love than those who were not in love. Love styles and subjective well-being were found to be related to compassionate love. These findings corroborate studies that indicate that individuals who experience higher compassionate love for a romantic partner are more likely to report Eros, Agape, and subjective well-being. PMID:29358977

  4. Mice selectively bred for open-field thigmotaxis: life span and stability of the selection trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Pia K; Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M; Selander, Ritva-Kajsa

    2005-04-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors examined 69 mice selectively bred for high or low levels of open-field (OF) thigmotactic behavior (high open-field thigmotaxis [HOFT] and low open-field thigmotaxis [LOFT], respectively). They found that the strains differed in defecation during the 60-min exposure to the OF. Furthermore, the strains differed with regard to their life spans: The more thigmotactic HOFT mice lived longer than the LOFT mice. The strains were not differentiated by food intake or excretion. The strain difference in thigmotaxis was not age dependent, and it persisted in the home-cage condition as well. Neither the location (center or wall) of the starting point nor the shape (circular or square) of the OF arena affected the difference in wall-seeking behavior between the two strains. The authors concluded that the difference in thigmotaxis (or emotionality) between the HOFT and LOFT mice is a stable and robust feature of these animals.

  5. Virtual navigation strategies from childhood to senescence: evidence for changes across the life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique D Bohbot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate navigational strategies across the life span, by testing 8-year old children to 80-year old healthy older adults on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8VM. The 4/8VM was previously developed to assess spontaneous navigational strategies, i.e. hippocampal-dependent spatial strategies (navigation by memorizing relationships between landmarks versus caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies (memorizing a series of left and right turns from a given starting position. With the 4/8VM, we previously demonstrated greater fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus of spatial learners relative to response learners. A sample of 599 healthy participants was tested in the current study. Results showed that 84.4% of children, 46.3% of young adults, and 39.3% of older adults spontaneously used spatial strategies (p < 0.0001. Our results suggest that while children predominantly use spatial strategies, the proportion of participants using spatial strategies decreases across the life span, in favor of response strategies. Factors promoting response strategies include repetition, reward and stress. Since response strategies can result from successful repetition of a behavioral pattern, we propose that the increase in response strategies is a biological adaptive mechanism that allows for the automatization of behavior such as walking in order to free up hippocampal-dependent resources. However, the downside of this shift from spatial to response strategies occurs if people stop building novel relationships, which occurs with repetition and routine, and thereby stop stimulating their hippocampus. Reduced fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus were shown to correlate with cognitive deficits in normal aging. Therefore, these results have important implications regarding factors involved in healthy and successful aging.

  6. Stability and change: Stress responses and the shaping of behavioral phenotypes over the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Kaiser, Sylvia; Tiedtke, Tobias; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, maternal signals conveyed via influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity may shape behavior of the young to be better adapted for prevailing environmental conditions. However, the mother's influence extends beyond classic stress response systems. In guinea pigs, several hours (h) of separation from the mother activates not only the HPA axis, but also the innate immune system, which effects immediate behavioral change, as well as modifies behavioral responsiveness in the future. Moreover, the presence of the mother potently suppresses the behavioral consequences of this innate immune activation. These findings raise the possibility that long-term adaptive behavioral change can be mediated by the mother's influence on immune-related activity of her pups. Furthermore, the impact of social partners on physiological stress responses and their behavioral outcomes are not limited to the infantile period. A particularly crucial period for social development in male guinea pigs is that surrounding the attainment of sexual maturation. At this time, social interactions with adults can dramatically affect circulating cortisol concentrations and social behavior in ways that appear to prepare the male to best cope in its likely future social environment. Despite such multiple social influences on the behavior of guinea pigs at different ages, inter-individual differences in the magnitude of the cortisol response remain surprisingly stable over most of the life span. Together, it appears that throughout the life span, physiological stress responses may be regulated by social stimuli. These influences are hypothesized to adjust behavior for predicted environmental conditions. In addition, stable individual differences might provide a means of facilitating adaptation to less predictable conditions.

  7. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  8. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  9. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the life span of Drosophila melanogaster (Demonstration of threshold and sexual sensitivity differences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giess, M.-C.; Planel, H.

    1977-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is irradiated by 5 to 75 krads of 60 Co gamma radiation at a dose rate of 1,000 rads/mn, on the fourth day of its imaginal life. As a result, the life span of the flies is reduced for both sexes. However, females are more radiosensitive than males. On the other hand, the radiosensitivity threshold in females is lower than in males: a life span decrease starts in males at a dose of 10 krads and at a dose of 25 krads in females [fr

  11. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors. The RERF Life Span Study. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.

    1990-01-01

    This article summarizes the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We focus primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation from 1950 through 1985 based on recently revised dosimetry procedures. We report the risk of cancer other than leukemia among the atomic bomb survivors. We note that the number of excess deaths of radiation-induced malignant tumors other than leukemia increases with age. Survivors who were exposed in the first or second decade of life have just entered the cancer-prone age and have so far exhibited a high relative risk in association with radiation dose. Whether the elevated risk will continue or will fall with time is not yet clear, although some evidence suggests that the risk may be declining. It is important to continue long-term follow-up of this cohort to document the changes with time since exposure and to provide direct rather than projected risks over the lifetime of an exposed individual

  12. Radiation effects on cancer risks in the life span study cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, K.; Ozasa, K.; Katayama, H.; Shore, R. E.; Okubo, T.

    2012-01-01

    To determine late health effects of radiation in atomic bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been conducting studies on the Life Span Study (LSS) population, which consists of 93 000 atomic bomb survivors and 27.000 controls. A recent report on the incidence of solid cancers estimates that at the age of 70 y, after exposure at the age of 30 y, solid-cancer rates increase by about 35 % per Gy for men and 58 % per Gy for women. The age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. Furthermore, it seems that radiation-associated increases in cancer rates persist throughout life. In addition, radiation has similar effects upon first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. A recent report on leukemia mortality suggested that the effect of radiation on leukemia mortality persisted for more than five decades. In addition, a significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome is found in Nagasaki LSS members 40-60 y after radiation exposure. In view of the nature of the continuing increase in solid cancers, the LSS should continue to provide important new information on cancer risks, as most survivors still alive today were exposed to the atomic bomb radiation under the age of 20 y and are now entering their cancer-prone years. (authors)

  13. Chips in black boxes? Convenience life span, parafood, brandwidth, families, and co-creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Any consumer who opens a bag of potato or corn chips (or crisps in the UK) knows there is no time to waste to enjoy or share them. The convenience life span of chips is limited: it is the shelf or storage life and a very limited time once outside the bag. Many technologies converge to generate the desired effect as a black box, not only of the packaging but also of the chips themselves. The concept of paratext can be applied to printed messages on the package, including the brand name and other texts like advertising (epitexts), which can be expanded into the concept of parafood. These concepts help to discuss technological developments and interpret why this has recently become a negotiation zone for co-creation (see the Do us a flavor campaigns). They are symptoms of changing relations between production, research and development, marketing, and consumption. This paper pays special attention to back stories, underdog brand biographies and narratives about origin. The concept of brandwidth is introduced to sensitize about the limits of combining different stories about chips. A recent brand biography, a family history and a cookery book are used to discuss the phenomenon of cooking with Fritos. Together with the concepts of parafood, brandwidth and black boxes, more reflection and dialogue about the role of history and heritage in marketing put new challenging perspectives on the agenda. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Everyday problem solving across the adult life span: solution diversity and efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienaltowski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Everyday problem solving involves examining the solutions that individuals generate when faced with problems that take place in their everyday experiences. Problems can range from medication adherence and meal preparation to disagreeing with a physician over a recommended medical procedure or compromising with extended family members over where to host Thanksgiving dinner. Across the life span, research has demonstrated divergent patterns of change in performance based on the type of everyday problems used as well as based on the way that problem-solving efficacy is operationally defined. Advancing age is associated with worsening performance when tasks involve single-solution or fluency-based definitions of effectiveness. However, when efficacy is defined in terms of the diversity of strategies used, as well as by the social and emotional impact of solution choice on the individual, performance is remarkably stable and sometimes even improves in the latter half of life. This article discusses how both of these approaches to everyday problem solving inform research on the influence that aging has on everyday functioning. PMID:22023569

  15. A major QTL affects temperature sensitive adult lethality and inbreeding depression in life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding effects in specific traits, such as age-specific mortality and life span, provide a good starting point, as a limited set of genes is expected to be involved. Results Here we report on a QTL mapping study on inbreeding related and temperature sensitive lethality in male Drosophila melanogaster...... and the molecular properties of genes that give rise to or modulate its deleterious effects is lacking. These questions warrant the detailed study of genetic loci giving rise to inbreeding depression. However, the complex and polygenic nature of general inbreeding depression makes this a daunting task. Study...... simple, being due mainly to a single recessive QTL on the left arm of chromosome 2. This locus colocalised with a QTL that conditioned variation in female life span, acting as an overdominant locus for this trait. Male life span was additionally affected by variation at the X-chromosome. Conclusion...

  16. Mortality pattern and life span in case of combined effect of incorporated radioisotopes, smoking and ethanol in the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanova, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    It is established that life span and mortality pattern of animals subjected to chronic intake of 90 Sr, to the effect of ethanol, and smoking depend on the intensity of radiation and radiation doses, character of harmful factors, age and sex dependences. The mean life span of animals subjected to the combined effect of 90 Sr(10 -3 LD50/30) of ethanol and smoking was by 18-22 % lower in comparison with intact animals. Alongside with the mean life span decrease latent period of carcinogenesis is shortened. A high tendency to metastases formation was noted in case of combined action of these factors than in comparison with isolated effect of them. 3 refs.; 1 tab

  17. Analysis of NPP pipes and equipment damage in life time prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.V.; Zheltukhin, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Paper describes a procedure to calculate the probability of pipes and equipment failure taking account of both the service records of the structures under various conditions and their aging. The parameters characterizing applied loads, failures, as well as metal strength, mechanical and thermal properties serve as the arbitrary values used in the described procedure. Paper presents an example of the probability calculation of failure of the RBMK emergency feed pump recirculation pipes when their service life is prolonged [ru

  18. Resting-State Network Topology Differentiates Task Signals across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Micaela Y; Alhazmi, Fahd H; Park, Denise C; Savalia, Neil K; Wig, Gagan S

    2017-03-08

    Brain network connectivity differs across individuals. For example, older adults exhibit less segregated resting-state subnetworks relative to younger adults (Chan et al., 2014). It has been hypothesized that individual differences in network connectivity impact the recruitment of brain areas during task execution. While recent studies have described the spatial overlap between resting-state functional correlation (RSFC) subnetworks and task-evoked activity, it is unclear whether individual variations in the connectivity pattern of a brain area (topology) relates to its activity during task execution. We report data from 238 cognitively normal participants (humans), sampled across the adult life span (20-89 years), to reveal that RSFC-based network organization systematically relates to the recruitment of brain areas across two functionally distinct tasks (visual and semantic). The functional activity of brain areas (network nodes) were characterized according to their patterns of RSFC: nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in their own functional system ("non-connector" nodes) exhibited greater activity than nodes with relatively greater connections to nodes in other systems ("connector" nodes). This "activation selectivity" was specific to those brain systems that were central to each of the tasks. Increasing age was accompanied by less differentiated network topology and a corresponding reduction in activation selectivity (or differentiation) across relevant network nodes. The results provide evidence that connectional topology of brain areas quantified at rest relates to the functional activity of those areas during task. Based on these findings, we propose a novel network-based theory for previous reports of the "dedifferentiation" in brain activity observed in aging. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Similar to other real-world networks, the organization of brain networks impacts their function. As brain network connectivity patterns differ across

  19. Measuring the genetic influence on human life span: gene-environment interaction and sex-specific genetic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; De Benedictis, G; Yashin, Annatoli

    2001-01-01

    New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic and demographicinf......New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic...

  20. Drug therapy for congestive heart failure:appropriate choices can prolong life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, M

    1997-01-01

    Between one purpose of the insufficiency congestive heart is improve and prolong the quality life. A good multidisciplinary health equipment can help to the improving patients with this disease referred to effective handling interned and ambulatory patients groups. The inhibition mechanism compensate that perpetuate heart congestive insufficiency are a way for reach treatment purposes. Between patients with symptomatic cardiac insufficiency and overload volume is indicated digoxin(Lanoxin) and vasodilators. The enzyme inhibition angiotensin converted improve over life range more than an others vasodilators and is preferred for the systole dysfunction patients

  1. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  2. Determination of life-span reserve of main steam ducts in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demian, Mihai; Trusculescu, Marin;

    2002-01-01

    The safe operation of the active vapour ducts requires periodic inspections of the structural conditions and of the properties of the used materials. There are possibilities to establish the structural evolution and that of the materials' properties through destructive or non - destructive methods. Currently, we mostly employ destructive methods by which we can establish the microstructure of the material and the mechanical properties at the temperature of operation for certain periods of time. Lately, we employ non-destructive methods of approaching the structural evolution as a function of operation temperature and work duration. The paper presents the determination of the reserve of the life span of a duct with a 426 mm diameter and 16 mm thickness, which works for 84,556 hours at a temperature of 540 deg. C and a pressure of 2.44 MPa within a thermo - electric power station. By creep trials we established that this duct could also be operated for 16,000 - 28,000 hours. Using the Struers replicas and establishing the 'A' parameter of the degradation of the microstructure in time, we determined a maximum duration of safe exploitation of this duct, of 16,065 hours. Although the non - destructive method is less laborious and does not require sampling from the ducts, it should be adjusted with moderation until there is perfected the methodology of the establishment of the degradation of the grains limits. We recommend that the non - destructive method be available in order to be employed currently with informative character. (authors)

  3. Leukemia incidence in the atomic bomb survivor Life Span Study, 1950 - 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, K.; Kusumi, S.; Izumi, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) is currently preparing a series of reports on cancer incidence in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors for the period from 1950 to 1987. One of these reports will present analyses of the data on the risk of hematopoietic cancers including leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. These analyses add an additional 11 years of follow-up to the previous comprehensive analysis of the LSS leukemia data. In this presentation, these data are presented and the methods being used modeling the leukemia risks are outlined. An analysis of the leukemia data pooled over subtypes will be used to illustrate these methods. It is shown that the data suggest a non-linear, concave upward dose response and that the temporal pattern of the radiation-induced excess absolute risks (EARs) depends on age-at-exposure and sex. There is no evidence of city differences in the EAR in this pooled analysis. The results suggest that the EARs for the youngest survivors were initially much higher and have declined more rapidly than those for older survivors. The same general pattern is seen both sexes, but the initial peak incidence is somewhat lower and the rate of decline less rapid for women than for men. (author)

  4. Childhood self-control and unemployment throughout the life span: evidence from two British cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-06-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Life Span Studies of ADHD—Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caye, Arthur; Swanson, James; Thapar, Anita; Sibley, Margaret; Arseneault, Louise; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene; Niclasen, Janni; Moffitt, Terrie

    2018-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD. Estimates of persistence vary widely in the literature, and diagnostic criteria, sample characteristics, and information source are the most important factors explaining variability among studies. Evidence indicates that ADHD severity, comorbid conduct disorder and major depressive disorder, and treatment for ADHD are the main predictors of ADHD persistence from childhood to adulthood. Comorbid conduct disorder and ADHD severity in childhood are the most important predictors of adverse outcomes in adulthood among children with ADHD. Three recent population studies suggested the existence of a significant proportion of individuals who report onset of ADHD symptoms and impairments after childhood. Finally, we highlight areas for improvement to increase our understanding of ADHD across the life span. PMID:27783340

  6. The Development of Regional Dialect Locality Judgments and Language Attitudes Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Elizabeth A; Clopper, Cynthia G; Wagner, Laura

    2017-10-20

    The development of language attitudes and perception of talker regional background was investigated across the life span (N = 240, age range = 4-75 years). Participants rated 12 talkers on dimensions of geographic locality, status, and solidarity. Children could classify some dialects by locality by age 6-7 years and showed adult-like patterns by age 8 years. Children showed adult-like status ratings for some dialects by age 4-5 years but were not fully adult-like until age 12 years. Solidarity ratings were more variable and did not exhibit a clear developmental trajectory, although some adult-like patterns were in place by age 6-7 years. Locality ratings were a significant but modest predictor of attitude ratings, suggesting that geographic knowledge is one contributor to language attitudes throughout development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Object-based encoding in visual working memory: a life span study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Shen, Mowei; Tang, Ning; Zhao, Guohua; Gao, Zaifeng

    2013-08-20

    Recent studies on development of visual working memory (VWM) predominantly focus on VWM capacity and spatial-based information filtering in VWM. Here we explored another new aspect of VWM development: object-based encoding (OBE), which refers to the fact that even if one feature dimension is required to be selected into VWM, the other irrelevant dimensions are also extracted. We explored the OBE in children, young adults, and old adults, by probing an "irrelevant-change distracting effect" in which a change of stored irrelevant feature dramatically affects the performance of task-relevant features in a change-detection task. Participants were required to remember two or four simple colored shapes, while color was used as the relevant dimension. We found that changes to irrelevant shapes led to a significant distracting effect across the three age groups in both load conditions; however, children showed a greater degree of OBE than did young and old adults. These results suggest that OBE exists in VWM over the life span (6-67 years), yet continues to develop along with VWM.

  8. Mixed emotions across the adult life span in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed emotions involve the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect, such that people feel happy and sad at the same time. The purpose of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in the experience of mixed emotions across the adult life span in two nationally representative samples of U.S. residents. Data collected by the Princeton Affect and Time Survey (PATS, n = 3,948) and by the 2010 Wellbeing Module of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS, n = 12,828) were analyzed. In both surveys, respondents (aged 15 years or older) provided a detailed time diary about the preceding day and rated their happiness and sadness for three of the day's episodes. From these reports, three different indices of mixed emotions were derived. Results indicated small, but robust, increases in mixed emotions with age. Linear age increases were consistently evident in both PATS and ATUS, and replicated across the different indices of mixed emotions. There was no significant evidence for curvilinear age trends in either study. Several sociodemographic factors that could plausibly explain age-differences in mixed emotions (e.g., retirement, disability) did not alter the age-effects. The present study adds to the growing literature documenting vital changes in the complexity of emotional experience over the lifespan. PMID:25894487

  9. Evaluative ratings and attention across the life span: emotional arousal and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bruno, Nicola; Chattat, Rabih; Codispoti, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the evolution of emotional processing over the whole adult life span as a function of stimulus arousal and participants' gender. To this end, self-reported affective evaluation and attentional capture prompted by pleasant and unpleasant pictures varying in arousal were measured in a large sample of participants (n = 211) balanced by gender and equally spread across seven decades from 20 to 90 years. Results showed age differences only for affective evaluation of pleasant stimuli, with opposite patterns depending on stimulus arousal. As age increased, low-arousing pleasant cues (e.g. images of babies) were experienced as more pleasant and arousing by both males and females, whereas high-arousing stimuli (e.g. erotic images) were experienced as less pleasant only by females. In contrast, emotional pictures (both pleasant and unpleasant) were effective at capturing attention in a similar way across participants, regardless of age and gender. Taken together, these findings suggest that specific emotional cues prompt different subjective responses across different age groups, while basic mechanisms involved in attentional engagement towards both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli are preserved in healthy ageing.

  10. Tracking the trajectory of shame, guilt, and pride across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Soto, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    The authors examined age differences in shame, guilt, and 2 forms of pride (authentic and hubristic) from age 13 years to age 89 years, using cross-sectional data from 2,611 individuals. Shame decreased from adolescence into middle adulthood, reaching a nadir around age 50 years, and then increased in old age. Guilt increased from adolescence into old age, reaching a plateau at about age 70 years. Authentic pride increased from adolescence into old age, whereas hubristic pride decreased from adolescence into middle adulthood, reaching a minimum around age 65 years, and then increased in old age. On average, women reported experiencing more shame and guilt; Blacks reported experiencing less shame and Asians more hubristic pride than other ethnicities. Across the life span, shame and hubristic pride tended to be negatively related to psychological well-being, and shame-free guilt and authentic pride showed positive relations with well-being. Overall, the findings support the maturity principle of personality development and suggest that as people age they become more prone to experiencing psychologically adaptive self-conscious emotions, such as guilt and authentic pride, and less prone to experiencing psychologically maladaptive ones, such as shame and hubristic pride. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Anthony D; Knutson, Brian

    2011-04-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span.

  12. Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Rawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome and Emblica officinalis (fruit. The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging activities.

  13. Effects of x-irradiation of young female beagles on life span and tumor incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblatt, L.S.; Book, S.A.; Goldman, M.

    1986-01-01

    Causes of death and the occurrence of neoplasia in female beagle dogs were evaluated retrospectively for 57 unexposed and 296 exposed dogs given single or fractionated whole-body x-irradiation exposures of 100 or 300 R. Some dogs subsequently were bred, and all were observed for the duration of their lives. The pathology for these dogs was derived from clinical records, gross-necropsy reports, tissue slides, and Formalin-fixed tissues. The results of this study indicated dose-related shortening of life span was clearly evident; causes of death due to either neoplasia (50%) or nonneoplastic disease (50%), with few exceptions, were similar in control and irradiated dogs; the incidences of neoplasms were not significantly greater for irradiated dogs than for controls, but the latency period decreased as dose increased; protraction increased survival in dogs given 300 R but not 100 R, which is attributable solely to amelioration of incidence rates of nonmammary neoplasia; and the cumulative rates of death due to mammary tumors were the same in dogs exposed to 100 R and 300 R. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Eyewitness identification across the life span: A meta-analysis of age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Ryan J; Price, Heather L

    2015-11-01

    Lineup identifications are often a critical component of criminal investigations. Over the past 35 years, researchers have been conducting empirical studies to assess the impact of witness age on identification accuracy. A previous meta-analysis indicated that children are less likely than adults to correctly reject a lineup that does not contain the culprit, but children 5 years and older are as likely as adults to make a correct identification if the culprit is in the lineup (Pozzulo & Lindsay, 1998). We report an updated meta-analysis of age differences in eyewitness identification, summarizing data from 20,244 participants across 91 studies. Contrary to extant reviews, we adopt a life span approach and examine witnesses from early childhood to late adulthood. Children's increased tendency to erroneously select a culprit-absent lineup member was replicated. Children were also less likely than young adults to correctly identify the culprit. Group data from culprit-absent and culprit-present lineups were used to produce signal detection measures, which indicated young adults were better able than children to discriminate between guilty and innocent suspects. A strikingly similar pattern emerged for older adults, who had even stronger deficits in discriminability than children, relative to adults. Although identifications by young adults were the most reliable, identifications by all witnesses had probative value. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. General Slowing and Education Mediate Task Switching Performance Across the Life-Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Moretti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study considered the potential role of both protective factors (cognitive reserve, CR and adverse ones (general slowing in modulating cognitive flexibility in the adult life-span.Method: Ninety-eight individuals performed a task-switching (TS paradigm in which we adopted a manipulation concerning the timing between the cue and the target. Working memory demands were minimized by using transparent cues. Additionally, indices of cognitive integrity, depression, processing speed and different CR dimensions were collected and used in linear models accounting for TS performance under the different time constraints.Results: The main results showed similar mixing costs and higher switching costs in older adults, with an overall age-dependent effect of general slowing on these costs. The link between processing speed and TS performance was attenuated when participants had more time to prepare. Among the different CR indices, formal education only was associated with reduced switch costs under time pressure.Discussion: Even though CR is often operationalized as a unitary construct, the present research confirms the benefits of using tools designed to distinguish between different CR dimensions. Furthermore, our results provide empirical support to the assumption that processing speed influence on executive performance depends on time constraints. Finally, it is suggested that whether age differences appear in terms of switch or mixing costs depends on working memory demands (which were low in our tasks with transparent cues.

  16. Individual Differences in Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures of Binaural Processing Across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roup, Christina M; Leigh, Elizabeth D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine individual differences in binaural processing across the adult life span. Sixty listeners (aged 23-80 years) with symmetrical hearing were tested. Binaural behavioral processing was measured by the Words-in-Noise Test, the 500-Hz masking level difference, and the Dichotic Digit Test. Electrophysiologic responses were assessed by the auditory middle latency response binaural interaction component. No correlations among binaural measures were found. Age accounted for the greatest amount of variability in speech-in-noise performance. Age was significantly correlated with the Words-in-Noise Test binaural advantage and dichotic ear advantage. Partial correlations, however, revealed that this was an effect of hearing status rather than age per se. Inspection of individual results revealed that 20% of listeners demonstrated reduced binaural performance for at least 2 of the binaural measures. The lack of significant correlations among variables suggests that each is an important measurement of binaural abilities. For some listeners, binaural processing was abnormal, reflecting a binaural processing deficit not identified by monaural audiologic tests. The inclusion of a binaural test battery in the audiologic evaluation is supported given that these listeners may benefit from alternative forms of audiologic rehabilitation.

  17. Retention of high tactile acuity throughout the life span in blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Gordon E; Madison, Cindee; Vaughn, Brenna N; Cheong, Allen M Y; Miller, Joseph C

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip, using passive touch, have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have reexamined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity charts that require active exploration of the test symbols. One chart used dot patterns similar to braille, and the other used embossed Landolt rings. Groups of blind braille readers and sighted subjects ranging from 12 to 85 years old were tested in two experiments. We replicated previous findings for sighted subjects by showing an age-related decrease in tactile acuity by nearly 1% per year. Surprisingly, the blind subjects retained high acuity into old age, showing no age-related decline. For the blind subjects, tactile acuity did not correlate with braille reading speed, the amount of daily reading, or the age at which braille was learned. We conclude that when measured with active touch, blind subjects retain high tactile acuity into old age, unlike their aging sighted peers. We propose that blind people's use of active touch in daily activities, not specifically braille reading, results in preservation of tactile acuity across the life span.

  18. [Intention for self-change across the life span: Focusing on concern about self-change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishima, Yuta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine intention for self-change across the life span using measures of self-esteem, frequency of self-reflection, and concern about self-change. We hypothesized that: (a) Intention for self-change decreases with age because of increased self-esteem, decreased self-reflection and concern about self-change, and (b) Associations among self-esteem, frequency of self-reflection, and intention for self-change are mediated by concern about self-change. Participants (N = 997; age range, 15 to 69 yrs) completed an internet survey. ANOVA results suggested that intention for self-change, concern about self-change, and frequency of self-reflection decreased with age, and that self-esteem-scores increased with age. Simultaneous analysis of multiple age groups showed that for all groups of low self-esteem and frequent self-reflection promoted intention for self-change and that there were significant mediating effects for concern about self-change. Therefore, these findings supported out research hypotheses.

  19. Age Differences in Explicit and Implicit Age Attitudes Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J; Giasson, Hannah L

    2017-08-01

    Biased judgments about others can operate both within and outside of our conscious awareness. However, little attention has been paid to how implicit and explicit attitudes differ across the life span, particularly with respect to age bias. In the current study, we examined age differences in implicit and explicit attitudes towards older individuals. Participants (N = 704,151) ranging from age 15 to 94 completed the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures of bias against older adults. The associations between age bias and several demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, education) were also examined. A preference for younger people was found among participants of all ages; however, implicit and explicit attitudes showed divergent associations with age. Implicit preference for younger people was highest among older adults; explicit preference for younger people was lowest among older adults. Examining age differences in implicit and explicit attitudes sheds light into the development and complexities of aging perceptions in different age groups. The current study's findings are discussed in the context of applications to and implications of reducing prejudice toward older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A Fasting-Responsive Signaling Pathway that Extends Life Span in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Uno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting is one of the most effective dietary restriction regimens that extend life span in C. elegans and mammals. Fasting-stimulus responses are key to the longevity response; however, the mechanisms that sense and transduce the fasting stimulus remain largely unknown. Through a comprehensive transcriptome analysis in C. elegans, we find that along with the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, AP-1 (JUN-1/FOS-1 plays a central role in fasting-induced transcriptional changes. KGB-1, one of the C. elegans JNKs, acts as an activator of AP-1 and is activated in response to fasting. KGB-1 and AP-1 are involved in intermittent fasting-induced longevity. Fasting-induced upregulation of the components of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex via AP-1 and DAF-16 enhances protein ubiquitination and reduces protein carbonylation. Our results thus identify a fasting-responsive KGB-1/AP-1 signaling pathway, which, together with DAF-16, causes transcriptional changes that mediate longevity, partly through regulating proteostasis.

  1. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Multimodal neuroimaging of male and female brain structure in health and disease across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M

    2017-01-02

    Sex differences in brain development and aging are important to identify, as they may help to understand risk factors and outcomes in brain disorders that are more prevalent in one sex compared with the other. Brain imaging techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years, yielding detailed structural and functional maps of the living brain. Even so, studies are often limited in sample size, and inconsistent findings emerge, one example being varying findings regarding sex differences in the size of the corpus callosum. More recently, large-scale neuroimaging consortia such as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis Consortium have formed, pooling together expertise, data, and resources from hundreds of institutions around the world to ensure adequate power and reproducibility. These initiatives are helping us to better understand how brain structure is affected by development, disease, and potential modulators of these effects, including sex. This review highlights some established and disputed sex differences in brain structure across the life span, as well as pitfalls related to interpreting sex differences in health and disease. We also describe sex-related findings from the ENIGMA consortium, and ongoing efforts to better understand sex differences in brain circuitry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. β-N-methylamino-L-alanine induces neurological deficits and shortened life span in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianchong; Escala, Wilfredo; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon; Zhai, R Grace

    2010-11-01

    The neurotoxic non-protein amino acid, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), was first associated with the high incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) in Guam. Recently, BMAA has been implicated as a fierce environmental factor that contributes to the etiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, in addition to ALS. However, the toxicity of BMAA in vivo has not been clearly demonstrated. Here we report our investigation of the neurotoxicity of BMAA in Drosophila. We found that dietary intake of BMAA reduced life span, locomotor functions, and learning and memory abilities in flies. The severity of the alterations in phenotype is correlated with the concentration of BMAA detected in flies. Interestingly, developmental exposure to BMAA had limited impact on survival rate, but reduced fertility in females, and caused delayed neurological impairment in aged adults. Our studies indicate that BMAA exposure causes chronic neurotoxicity, and that Drosophila serves as a useful model in dissecting the pathogenesis of ALS/PDC.

  4. Effects of kaolin particle films on the life span of an orb-weaver spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhadi-Marín, Jacinto; Pereira, José Alberto; Santos, Sónia A P

    2016-02-01

    Araniella cucurbitina (Araneae: Araneidae) is a widespread orb-weaver spider commonly found in agroecosystems. Mineral particle films such as kaolin, due to their protective or anti-feeding action, can represent an alternative to pesticides, especially in organic farming systems, but little is known about its effects on A. cucurbitina. Therefore, we tested the effect of kaolin sprays on the life span of A. cucurbitina under laboratory conditions. Four treatments were tested encompassing different exposure routes. Thus, kaolin sprays were applied on (i) the surface, (ii) the prey (fly), (iii) the spider and (iv) both spider & prey. A control group was tested with water in each treatment. Results showed that sprays of kaolin significantly affected the survival of A. curcubitina when applications were done on the surface and on both spider & prey registering a reduction of 48% and 56%, respectively. Spiders in control obtained higher probability of reaching alive at the end of the assay than those treated with kaolin. Differences observed can be explained by the feeding behavior of the species and may depend on the consumption of the web by the spider and the ratio spider/fly for body size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidative stress and the evolution of sex differences in life span and ageing in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Catharine R; Sakaluk, Scott K; Selman, Colin; Royle, Nick J; Hunt, John

    2013-03-01

    The Free Radical Theory of Ageing (FRTA) predicts that oxidative stress, induced when levels of reactive oxygen species exceed the capacity of antioxidant defenses, causes ageing. Recently, it has also been argued that oxidative damage may mediate important life-history trade-offs. Here, we use inbred lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, to estimate the genetic (co)variance between age-dependent reproductive effort, life span, ageing, oxidative damage, and total antioxidant capacity within and between the sexes. The FRTA predicts that oxidative damage should accumulate with age and negatively correlate with life span. We find that protein oxidation is greater in the shorter lived sex (females) and negatively genetically correlated with life span in both sexes. However, oxidative damage did not accumulate with age in either sex. Previously we have shown antagonistic pleiotropy between the genes for early-life reproductive effort and ageing rate in both sexes, although this was stronger in females. In females, we find that elevated fecundity early in life is associated with greater protein oxidation later in life, which is in turn positively correlated with the rate of ageing. Our results provide mixed support for the FRTA but suggest that oxidative stress may mediate sex-specific life-history strategies in G. sigillatus. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. The influence of sensorimotor experience on the aesthetic evaluation of dance across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Louise P; Cross, Emily S

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how action perception, embodiment, and emotion interact is essential for advancing knowledge about how we perceive and interact with each other in a social world. One tool that has proved particularly useful in the past decade for exploring the relationship between perception, action, and affect is dance. Dance is, in its essence, a rich and multisensory art form that can be used to help answer not only basic questions about social cognition but also questions concerning how aging shapes the relationship between action perception, and the role played by affect, emotion, and aesthetics in social perception. In the present study, we used a 1-week physical and visual dance training paradigm to instill varying degrees of sensorimotor experience among non-dancers from three distinct age groups (early adolescents, young adults, and older adults). Our aim was to begin to build an understanding of how aging influences the relationship between action embodiment and affective (or aesthetic) value, at both brain and behavioral levels. On balance, our results point toward a similar positive effect of sensorimotor training on aesthetic evaluations across the life span on a behavioral level, but to rather different neural substrates supporting implicit aesthetic judgment of dance movements at different life stages. Taken together, the present study contributes valuable first insights into the relationship between sensorimotor experience and affective evaluations across ages, and underscores the utility of dance as a stimulus and training intervention for addressing key questions relevant to human neuroscience as well as the arts and humanities. © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dmp53, basket and drICE gene knockdown and polyphenol gallic acid increase life span and locomotor activity in a Drosophila Parkinson's disease model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Flavio Ortega-Arellano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism(s by which dopaminergic (DAergic neurons are eroded in Parkinson's disease (PD is critical for effective therapeutic strategies. By using the binary tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-Gal4/UAS-X RNAi Drosophila melanogaster system, we report that Dmp53, basket and drICE gene knockdown in dopaminergic neurons prolong life span (p < 0.05; log-rank test and locomotor activity (p < 0.05; χ² test in D. melanogaster lines chronically exposed to (1 mM paraquat (PQ, oxidative stress (OS generator compared to untreated transgenic fly lines. Likewise, knockdown flies displayed higher climbing performance than control flies. Amazingly, gallic acid (GA significantly protected DAergic neurons, ameliorated life span, and climbing abilities in knockdown fly lines treated with PQ compared to flies treated with PQ only. Therefore, silencing specific gene(s involved in neuronal death might constitute an excellent tool to study the response of DAergic neurons to OS stimuli. We propose that a therapy with antioxidants and selectively "switching off" death genes in DAergic neurons could provide a means for pre-clinical PD individuals to significantly ameliorate their disease condition.

  8. Biological Aging and Life Span Based on Entropy Stress via Organ and Mitochondrial Metabolic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Annamalai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy for sustaining life is released through the oxidation of glucose, fats, and proteins. A part of the energy released within each cell is stored as chemical energy of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate molecules, which is essential for performing life-sustaining functions, while the remainder is released as heat in order to maintain isothermal state of the body. Earlier literature introduced the availability concepts from thermodynamics, related the specific irreversibility and entropy generation rates to metabolic efficiency and energy release rate of organ k, computed whole body specific entropy generation rate of whole body at any given age as a sum of entropy generation within four vital organs Brain, Heart, Kidney, Liver (BHKL with 5th organ being the rest of organs (R5 and estimated the life span using an upper limit on lifetime entropy generated per unit mass of body, σM,life. The organ entropy stress expressed in terms of lifetime specific entropy generated per unit mass of body organs (kJ/(K kg of organ k was used to rank organs and heart ranked highest while liver ranked lowest. The present work includes the effects of (1 two additional organs: adipose tissue (AT and skeletal muscles (SM which are of importance to athletes; (2 proportions of nutrients oxidized which affects blood temperature and metabolic efficiencies; (3 conversion of the entropy stress from organ/cellular level to mitochondrial level; and (4 use these parameters as metabolism-based biomarkers for quantifying the biological aging process in reaching the limit of σM,life. Based on the 7-organ model and Elia constants for organ metabolic rates for a male of 84 kg steady mass and using basic and derived allometric constants of organs, the lifetime energy expenditure is estimated to be 2725 MJ/kg body mass while lifetime entropy generated is 6050 kJ/(K kg body mass with contributions of 190; 1835.0; 610; 290; 700; 1470 and 95 kJ/K contributed by AT-BHKL-SM-R7 to 1 kg body

  9. To end life or not to prolong life: the effect of message framing on attitudes toward euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal

    2013-05-01

    People ascribe "euthanasia" different values and view it differently. This study hypothesized that a different framing of objectively the same euthanasia situations would affect people's attitudes toward it. Indeed, "positive" framing of euthanasia as not prolonging life resulted in more support for both passive and active euthanasia relative to "negative" framing of the objectively same situations as ending life. Two experiments replicated this pattern using either continuous measures of attitude or dichotomous measures of choice. The article offers two theoretical explanations for the effect of message framing on attitudes toward euthanasia, discusses implications of this effect, and suggests future research.

  10. Age Stereotypes and Self-Views Revisited: Patterns of Internalization and Projection Processes Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    We investigated processes of age stereotype internalization into the self and projection of self-views onto age stereotypes from a life-span perspective, taking age-related differences in the relevance of life domains into account. Age stereotypes and self-views in eight life domains were assessed in a sample of N = 593 persons aged 30-80 years (T1) at two time points that were separated by a 4-year time interval. We estimated cross-lagged projection and internalization effects in multigroup structural equation models. Internalization and projection effects were contingent on age group and life domain: Internalization effects were strongest in the young and middle-aged groups and emerged in the domains family, personality, work, and leisure. Projection effects in different domains were most pronounced for older participants. Our findings suggest that the internalization of age stereotypes is triggered by domain-specific expectations of impending age-related changes and transitions during certain phases of the life span. Projection processes, however, seem to occur in response to changes that have already been experienced by the individual. Our study demonstrates the dynamic interrelation of age stereotypes and self-views across the life course and highlights the importance of a differentiated, life-span perspective for the understanding of these mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Proteomic profiles reveal age-related changes in coelomic fluid of sea urchin species with different life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Sea urchins have a different life history from humans and traditional model organisms used to study the process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, reproduce throughout their life span and some species have been shown to exhibit negligible senescence with no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Despite these properties, different species of sea urchins are reported to have very different natural life spans providing a unique model to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying life span determination and negligible senescence. To gain insight into the biological changes that accompany aging in these animals, proteomic profiles were examined in coelomic fluid from young and old sea urchins of three species with different life spans: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate life span. The proteomic profiles of cell-free coelomic fluid were complex with many proteins exhibiting different forms and extensive post-translational modifications. Approximately 20% of the protein spots on 2-D gels showed more than two-fold change with age in each of the species. Changes that are consistent with age in all three species may prove to be useful biomarkers for age-determination for these commercially fished marine invertebrates and also may provide clues to mechanisms of negligible senescence. Among the proteins that change with age, the ectodomain of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was significantly increased in the coelomic fluid of all three sea urchin species suggesting that the Wnt signaling pathway should be further investigated for its role in negligible senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. THE ROLE OF WORK AND LABOUR MARKET FLEXIBILITY IN WORKING LIFE PROLONGATION: CASE SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen, SIROK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the premise that the prolongation of working life presents an adequate approach to address the fast approaching challenges of population ageing, the paper presents labour market outcomes of older workers in Slovenia in order to explore the role of social system and labour market flexibility in retirement behaviour. By applying bivariate graphic analysis and series of logistic models, paper finds that decisions of older workers (aged 50 - 69 of whether to retire or to continue working up to legal retirement age is being predominately shaped by the pension system parameters. Economic activity beyond this age (or when retired on the other hand predominately correlates with flexible work arrangements and work motivation. Thus, the future policies in Slovenia aiming to prolong working careers within formal or informal sector should simultaneously do both; change pension system parameters and significantly expand the system flexibility stimulating willing and capable elderly to continue working within the formal sector.

  13. JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study, Hiroshima 1950-59. Multiple causes of death stated in medical certificates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Morihiro; Jablon, S

    1962-08-22

    The applicability to the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study of secondary causes shown in Hiroshima death certificates is discussed. The analysis is based on 5526 death certificates reported among members of Selection I and II of the Life Span Study sample. Secondary causes appear to be of only limited usefulness to the Life Span Study. Factors such as age, sex, exposure status, which may influence the frequency of entry of secondary causes in medical certificates are analyzed. Age is the only factor which shows a significant relationship and this may be interpreted as resulting from the fact that chronic diseases with multiple illnesses are most prevalent among persons at older ages. The number of secondary causes in the present study is too small to delineate in detail the pattern of complications or contributory causes. However, 9 cases of malignant neoplasms were entered only as complications and were missed in the primary tabulation, representing only about one percent of all malignancies. Secondary causes shown in the death certificates and associated causes found at postmortem examination seem not to be comparably distributed, thus raising a serious problem as to the applicability of the former to the Life Span Study. Both the magnitude and accuracy of entry of the secondary causes are influenced greatly by the ease with which illnesses may be detected clinically. 9 references, 12 tables.

  14. Dispersal and life span spectra in plant communities : a key to safe site dynamics, species coexistence and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strykstra, RJ; Bekker, RM; Van Andel, J

    Dispersal and life span of individual plant species within five plant communities were assessed to obtain a characterization of these communities in this respect. Such a characterization is important in the context of restoration and maintenance. The most frequent species of five communities were

  15. Sustained Attention Across the Life Span in a Sample of 10,000: Dissociating Ability and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; DeGutis, Joseph; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Grosso, Mallory; Russo, Kathryn; Esterman, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Normal and abnormal differences in sustained visual attention have long been of interest to scientists, educators, and clinicians. Still lacking, however, is a clear understanding of how sustained visual attention varies across the broad sweep of the human life span. In the present study, we filled this gap in two ways. First, using an unprecedentedly large 10,430-person sample, we modeled age-related differences with substantially greater precision than have prior efforts. Second, using the recently developed gradual-onset continuous performance test (gradCPT), we parsed sustained-attention performance over the life span into its ability and strategy components. We found that after the age of 15 years, the strategy and ability trajectories saliently diverge. Strategy becomes monotonically more conservative with age, whereas ability peaks in the early 40s and is followed by a gradual decline in older adults. These observed life-span trajectories for sustained attention are distinct from results of other life-span studies focusing on fluid and crystallized intelligence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Long will they live, work and learn : A scheme for understanding and influencing employability during the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Aukje; de Lange, Annet H.; Gortz, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Long will they live, work and learn. A scheme for understanding and influencing employability during the life span A. Nauta, A. H. de Lange en S. Gortz, Gedrag & Organisatie, volume 23, June 2010, nr. 2, pp. 136-157 To stimulate employees' employability until high age, knowledge is needed about what

  17. Age at menopause, reproductive life span, and type 2 diabetes risk results from the EPIC-interAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J.S.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Onland-Moret, N.; Sharp, S.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEAge at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk.RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  18. Use of linear model analysis techniques in the evaluation of radiation effects on the life span of the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The dependency of the beagle-dog life span on level of and age at exposure to 60 Co gamma radiation was analyzed by several techniques; one of these methods was linear model analysis. Beagles of both sexes were given single, bilateral exposures at 8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2, 70, or 365 days postpartum (dpp). Dogs exposed at 8, 28, or 55 dpc or at 2 dpp received 0, 20, or 100 R, whereas those exposed at 70 or 365 dpp received 0 or 100 R. Beagles were designated initially either as sacrifice or as life-span animals. All deaths of life-span study animals were classified as spontaneous, hence for this group the mean age of death was a quantitative response that can be analyzed by linear model analysis techniques. Such analyses for each age group were performed, taking into account differences due to sex, linear and quadratic dependency on dose, and interaction between sex and dose. At this time most of the animals have reached 11 years of age. No significant effects of radiation on mean life span have been detected. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Global quantification of contrasting leaf life span strategies for deciduous and evergreen species in response to environmental conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommen Kloeke, A.E.E.; Douma, J.C.; Ordonez Barragan, J.C.; Reick, P.B.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Species with deciduous and evergreen leaf habits typically differ in leaf life span (LLS). Yet quantification of the response of LLS, within each habit, to key environmental conditions is surprisingly lacking. The aim of this study is to quantify LLS strategies of the two leaf habits under

  20. Self-Esteem Development across the Life Span: A Longitudinal Study with a Large Sample from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated…

  1. Tor1/Sch9-regulated carbon source substitution is as effective as calorie restriction in life span extension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of calorie restriction (CR on life span extension, demonstrated in organisms ranging from yeast to mice, may involve the down-regulation of pathways, including Tor, Akt, and Ras. Here, we present data suggesting that yeast Tor1 and Sch9 (a homolog of the mammalian kinases Akt and S6K is a central component of a network that controls a common set of genes implicated in a metabolic switch from the TCA cycle and respiration to glycolysis and glycerol biosynthesis. During chronological survival, mutants lacking SCH9 depleted extracellular ethanol and reduced stored lipids, but synthesized and released glycerol. Deletion of the glycerol biosynthesis genes GPD1, GPD2, or RHR2, among the most up-regulated in long-lived sch9Delta, tor1Delta, and ras2Delta mutants, was sufficient to reverse chronological life span extension in sch9Delta mutants, suggesting that glycerol production, in addition to the regulation of stress resistance systems, optimizes life span extension. Glycerol, unlike glucose or ethanol, did not adversely affect the life span extension induced by calorie restriction or starvation, suggesting that carbon source substitution may represent an alternative to calorie restriction as a strategy to delay aging.

  2. Accumulation of linear mitochondrial DNA fragments in the nucleus shortens the chronological life span of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Ivessa, Andreas S

    2012-10-01

    Translocation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments to the nucleus and insertion of those fragments into nuclear DNA has been observed in several organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals. Disruption of specific nuclear genes by de novo insertions of mtDNA fragments has even been linked to the initiation of several human diseases. Recently, we demonstrated that baker's yeast strains with high rates of mtDNA fragments migrating to the nucleus (yme1-1 mutant) exhibit short chronological life spans (CLS). The yeast CLS is determined by the survival of non-dividing cell populations. Here, we show that lack of the non-homologous-end-joining enzyme DNA ligase IV (DNL4) can rescue the short CLS of the yme1-1 mutant. In fission yeast, DNA ligase IV has been shown to be required for the capture of mtDNA fragments during the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks in nuclear DNA. In further analyses using pulse field gel and 2D gel electrophoresis we demonstrate that linear mtDNA fragments with likely nuclear localization accumulate in the yme1-1 mutant. The accumulation of the linear mtDNA fragments in the yme1-1 mutant is suppressed when Dnl4 is absent. We propose that the linear nuclear mtDNA fragments accelerate the aging process in the yme1-1 mutant cells by possibly affecting nuclear processes including DNA replication, recombination, and repair as well as transcription of nuclear genes. We speculate further that Dnl4 protein has besides its function as a ligase also a role in DNA protection. Dnl4 protein may stabilize the linear mtDNA fragments in the nucleus by binding to their physical ends. In the absence of Dnl4 protein the linear fragments are therefore unprotected and possibly degraded by nuclear nucleases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Ozasa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  4. Implicit motor sequence learning and working memory performance changes across the adult life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nadine Meissner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18-71 years completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task. Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result.

  5. Life span and tissue distribution of 111indium-labeled blood platelets in hypomagnesemic lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.D.; Miller, J.K.; White, P.K.; Ramsey, N.

    1983-01-01

    Circulating platelets may be activated by exposed triple-helical collagen in atherosclerotic lesions in Mg-deficient ruminants. Autologous platelets, labeled in vitro with 111In and determined to be active, were injected into 5 hypomagnesemic and 3 control lambs fed semipurified diets with 100 or 2,000 mg of Mg/kg of feed for 3 months. During the first 68 hours, 111In concentrations were 11 times higher in packed cells than in plasma. Packed-cell 111In increased 60% during the first 2 hours, probably due to initial tissue sequestration and later release of labeled platelets. Thereafter, platelet half-life span averaged 60 and 63 hours for hypomagnesemic and control lambs. After 68 hours, lambs were injected with native vascular collagen fibrils at 500 micrograms/kg of body weight to initiate reversible platelet aggregation. Within 1 minute, 83% of packed-cell 111In disappeared from circulation. Thirty minutes later, the lambs were euthanatized and necropsied and in the lungs, liver, and spleen, 111In averaged 24%, 19%, and 9%, respectively, of 111In injected 68 hours earlier. Organ deposits were not affected by Mg intake, but 111In in the lungs was somewhat lower in 2 lambs injected with inactivated collagen. Pathologic changes induced by reversible platelet aggregation were compatible with right ventricular failure complicated by pulmonary edema, similar to changes in hypomagnesemic lambs that died spontaneously. Platelets in blood exposed to vascular lesions in hypomagnesemic ruminants could be a major mortality risk factor in grass tetany disease

  6. Attachment and the processing of social information across the life span: theory and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the patterns of results that have emerged from these studies. The central proposition is that individuals who possess secure experience-based internal working models of attachment will process--in a relatively open manner--a broad range of positive and negative attachment-relevant social information. Moreover, secure individuals will draw on their positive attachment-related knowledge to process this information in a positively biased schematic way. In contrast, individuals who possess insecure internal working models of attachment will process attachment-relevant social information in one of two ways, depending on whether the information could cause the individual psychological pain. If processing the information is likely to lead to psychological pain, insecure individuals will defensively exclude this information from further processing. If, however, the information is unlikely to lead to psychological pain, then insecure individuals will process this information in a negatively biased schematic fashion that is congruent with their negative attachment-related experiences. In a comprehensive literature review, we describe studies that illustrate these patterns of attachment-related information processing from childhood to adulthood. This review focuses on studies that have examined specific components (e.g., attention and memory) and broader aspects (e.g., attributions) of social information processing. We also provide general conclusions and suggestions for future research.

  7. Age-Related Cognitive Effects of Videogame Playing Across the Adult Life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Hu, Yang; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies found positive influences of videogame playing on cognition. However, the age-related and task-related effects of videogame experience across the adult life span are still unknown. The current study aimed to systematically investigate this question. The current study used the cross-sectional approach. A total of 166 participants (84 videogame players [VGPs], 82 nonvideogame players [NVGPs]) at the age of 18-80 in the present study were recruited, including 62 young adults aged from 18 to 34 (35 VGPs, 27 NVGPs), 55 middle-aged adults aged between 35 and 59 (24 VGPs, 31 NVGPs), and 49 older adults aged between 60 and 80 (25 VGPs, 24 NVGPs). 1,2 A series of neuropsychological tests from different cognitive domains, including processing speed, visuospatial, attention, memory, and executive function, were conducted on participants. The age-related effects demonstrated that young and older adults benefited more from videogame experience than middle-aged adults. The task-related effects showed that VGPs benefited more from videogame experience in processing speed and visuospatial processing; next was executive function and attention, while no benefits in memory. The effect sizes suggested that the difference in extent between VGPs and NVGPs in processing speed and visuospatial processing is moderate, in attention and executive function is small, and in memory is negligible. The current findings support the beneficial effects and transfer effects of videogame experience; however, the effects presented age-specific and task-specific characteristics. The results provide useful insights for future videogame intervention studies for healthy adults of different ages.

  8. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors' Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-04-05

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors' children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  9. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-01-01

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young. PMID:29553058

  10. Deleting the 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 extends life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by increasing stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Skinner, Craig; Easlon, Erin; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-12-01

    Enhanced stress response has been suggested to promote longevity in many species. Calorie restriction (CR) and conserved nutrient-sensing target of rapamycin (TOR) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways have also been suggested to extend life span by increasing stress response, which protects cells from age-dependent accumulation of oxidative damages. Here we show that deleting the yeast 14-3-3 protein, Bmh1, extends chronological life span (CLS) by activating the stress response. 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved chaperone-like proteins that play important roles in many cellular processes. bmh1Delta-induced heat resistance and CLS extension require the general stress-response transcription factors Msn2, Msn4, and Rim15. The bmh1Delta mutant also displays a decreased reactive oxygen species level and increased heat-shock-element-driven transcription activity. We also show that BMH1 genetically interacts with CR and conserved nutrient-sensing TOR- and PKA-signaling pathways to regulate life span. Interestingly, the level of phosphorylated Ser238 on Bmh1 increases during chronological aging, which is delayed by CR or by reduced TOR activities. In addition, we demonstrate that PKA can directly phosphorylate Ser238 on Bmh1. The status of Bmh1 phosphorylation is therefore likely to play important roles in life-span regulation. Together, our studies suggest that phosphorylated Bmh1 may cause inhibitory effects on downstream longevity factors, including stress-response proteins. Deleting Bmh1 may eliminate the inhibitory effects of Bmh1 on these longevity factors and therefore extends life span.

  11. A simple method to prolong the service life of radioactive sources for external radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingjie; Tian, Yuan; Dai, Jianrong

    2014-07-08

    A radioactive source is usually replaced and disposed after being used for a certain amount of time (usually a half-life). In this study, a simple method is proposed to prolong its service life. Instead of replacing the used source with a new source of full activity, a new source of less activity is added in the source holder in front of the used one, so that the total activity of two sources is equal to the initial activity of the used source or even higher. Similarly, more sources can be added to the previous ones. Attenuation of front source(s) to the back source(s) was evaluated with exponential attenuation equation, and variation of source-focus distance (SFD) with inverse square law for Leksell 4C Gamma Knife, which served as an example of external radiotherapy units. When the number of front sources increased from 1 to 3, the relative air kerma decreased from 36.5% to 5.0%. Both the attenuation effect and SFD variation contributed to the decrease in air kerma, with the former being the major factor. If the height of the source can be decreased in some way, such as increasing the specific activity of sources, the sources can be used more efficiently. The method prolongs the service life of sources by several factors, and reduces the expense of source exchange and reclamation.

  12. Life-threatening asthma attack during prolonged fingolimod treatment: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zecca C

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Zecca,1,* Matteo Caporro,1,* Sandor Györik,2 Claudio Gobbi11Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Department of Neurology, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Lugano, Switzerland; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Regionale di Bellinzona, Bellinzona, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fingolimod (FTY mediates bronchoconstriction by interacting with sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. The majority of the reported adverse respiratory events occur during the first weeks of treatment.Case presentation: A 49-year-old woman developed a life-threatening asthma attack after 6 months of continuous FTY treatment. The adverse event required prolonged hospitalization, and the patient recovered without sequelae after FTY interruption. A history of previous airway hyperreactivity and a concurrent viral respiratory infection possibly acted as predisposing factors.Conclusion: This first description of a severe, life-threatening asthma attack during prolonged FTY treatment suggests the need for long-term clinical surveillance, especially in patients with known predisposing factors.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, bronchial hyper-reactivity

  13. Agar hydrogel with silver nanoparticles to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incoronato, A L; Conte, A; Buonocore, G G; Del Nobile, M A

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimicrobial packaging system containing active nanoparticles on the quality deterioration of Fior di Latte cheese. To this aim, 3 concentrations of silver montmorillonite embedded in agar were used. The cell loads of spoilage and useful microorganisms were monitored during a refrigerated storage period. Moreover, cheese sensory quality (i.e., odor, color, consistency, and overall quality) was evaluated by means of a panel test. Results showed that the active packaging system markedly increased the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese, due to the ability of silver cations to control microbial proliferation, without affecting the functional dairy microbiota and the sensory characteristics of the product. The active packaging system developed in this work could be used to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte and boost its distribution beyond local market borders. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Attitudes towards assisted suicide and life-prolonging measures in Swiss ALS patients and their caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eStutzki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Switzerland, assisted suicide (AS is legal, provided that the person seeking assistance has decisional capacity and the person assisting is not motivated by reasons of self-interest. However, in this particular setting nothing is known about patients’ and their caregivers’ attitudes towards AS and life-prolonging measures. Methods: Data was retrieved through validated questionnaires and personal interviews in 33 patients and their caregivers covering the following domains: physical function according to the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R, demographic data, quality of life (QoL, anxiety, depression, social situation, spirituality, burden of disease, life-prolonging and life-shortening acts.Results: In patients the median time after diagnosis was 9 months (2-90 and the median ALS FRS-R score was 37 (22-48. The majority of patients (94%; n=31 had no desire to hasten death. Patients’ and caregivers’ attitudes towards Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG and Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV differed. Significantly more patients than caregivers (21.2% versus 3.1% stated that they were against NIV (p=0.049 and against PEG (27.3% versus 3.1%; p=0.031. Answers regarding tracheotomy were not significantly different (p= 0.139. Caregivers scored significantly higher levels of suffering (p=0.007, loneliness (p=0.006 and emotional distress answering the questionnaires (p<0.001. Suffering (p<0.026 and loneliness (p<0.016 were related to the score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS in patients. Conclusion: A liberal legal setting does not necessarily promote the wish for AS. However, the desire to discuss assisted suicide is prevalent in ALS patients. There is a higher level of suffering and loneliness on the caregivers’ side. A longitudinal study is warranted.

  15. Verbal and Visual-Spatial Working Memory: What Develops over a Life Span?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether age-related changes in the structure of 5 complex working memory (WM) tasks (a) reflect a general or domain specific system, (b) follows a similar trajectory across different age spans, and (c) contribute domain general or domain specific resources to achievement measures. The study parsed the sample (N = 2,471)…

  16. Dependence of the average life span, mortality and osteosarcoma occurence in rats on the radiation dose absorbed (Sr 90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedov, V.L.; Panteleev, L.I.

    1975-01-01

    The dose dependence of mortality and osteosarcoma development frequency is studied in white rats which have received 0.00005-5.0μCi/day of strontium-90 throughout their lives. It is shown that total mortality in the dose range 0-10 krad is a more sensitive test than osteosarcoma frequency, osteosarcomatosis hardly reducing the mean life span of the irradiated rats. (author)

  17. Resveratrol effects on life span and fertility of caenorhabditis elegans subject to 60Co gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Kai; Ji Chenbo; Guo Xirong; Gu Guixiong

    2011-01-01

    Caennorhabditis elegans was used as experimental model to investigate radiation effect of resveratrol on caenorhabditis elegans irradiated by 60 Co γ ray. Treatment with resveratrol can increase average life span and spawning rate, improve the survival rate of eggs, and protect their mitochondrion function of caenorhabditis elegans exposure to 60 Co γ ray. The results indicate that resveratrol has radiation protection effects, which might be related to its action on ROS decrease and mitochondrial defend. (authors)

  18. Inducible knockdown of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene expression in adult female mice extends life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Laurie K; West, Sally A; Conover, Cheryl A

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) knockout (KO) mice, generated through homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, have a significantly increased lifespan compared to wild-type littermates. However, it is unknown whether this longevity advantage would pertain to PAPP-A gene deletion in adult animals. In the present study, we used tamoxifen (Tam)-inducible Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the floxed PAPP-A (fPAPP-A) gene in mice at 5 months of age. fPAPP-A mice, which were either positive (pos) or negative (neg) for Tam-Cre, received Tam treatment with quarterly boosters. Only female mice could be used with this experimental design. fPAPP-A/neg and fPAPP-A/pos mice had similar weights at the start of the experiment and showed equivalent weight gain. We found that fPAPP-A/pos mice had a significant extension of life span (P = 0.005). The median life span was increased by 21% for fPAPP-A/pos compared to fPAPP-A/neg mice. Analysis of mortality in life span quartiles indicated that the proportion of deaths of fPAPP-A/pos mice were lower than fPAPP-A/neg mice at young adult ages (P = 0.002 for 601-800 days) and higher than fPAPP-A/neg mice at older ages (P = 0.004 for >1000 days). Thus, survival curves and age-specific mortality indicate that female mice with knockdown of PAPP-A gene expression as adults have an extended healthy life span. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Parthenogenetic reproduction of Diaphanosoma celebensis (Crustacea: Cladocera). Effect of algae and algal density on survival, growth, life span and neonate production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shrivastava, Y.; Mahambre, G.G.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Madhupratap, M.

    ) and Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin), was determined. Growth was faster in the initial stage with all three diets but slowed down in later life. Increased food concentrations resulted in higher neonate production but reduced the life span of females. However, long...

  20. The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Lee, Steve S.; Galvan, Adriana; Balota, David A.; McCabe, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A…

  1. Reduction in life span on normal human fibroblasts exposed to low-dose radiation in heavy-ion radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masao; Yamaguchi, Chizuru; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Uchihori, Yukio; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of in vitro life span in normal human fibroblasts exposed to chronically low-dose radiation in heavy-ion radiation field. Cells were cultured in a CO 2 incubator, which was set in the irradiation room for biological study of heavy ions in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), and exposed to scattered radiations produced with heavy-ion beams throughout the life span of the cell population. Absorbed dose, which was measured using a thermoluminescence dosimeter(TLD) and a Si-semiconductor detector, was to be 1.4 mGy per day when operating the HIMAC machine for biological experiments. The total population doubling number of the exposed cells reduced to 79-93% of non-exposed control cells in the three independent experiments. There is evidence that the exposure of chronically low-dose radiation in heavy-ion radiation field promotes the life-span reduction in cellular level. (author)

  2. Self-esteem development across the life span: a longitudinal study with a large sample from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem follows a quadratic trajectory across the life span, increasing during adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood, reaching a peak at age 60 years, and then declining in old age. No cohort effects on average levels of self-esteem or on the shape of the trajectory were found. Moreover, the trajectory did not differ across gender, level of education, or for individuals who had lived continuously in West versus East Germany (i.e., the 2 parts of Germany that had been separate states from 1949 to 1990). However, the results suggested that employment status, household income, and satisfaction in the domains of work, relationships, and health contribute to a more positive life span trajectory of self-esteem. The findings have significant implications, because they call attention to developmental stages in which individuals may be vulnerable because of low self-esteem (such as adolescence and old age) and to factors that predict successful versus problematic developmental trajectories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Staats

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, NADH dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2 and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2, spargel, and I’m Not Dead Yet. Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w1118 D. melanogaster.

  4. Dietary consumption of monosodium L-glutamate induces adaptive response and reduction in the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolaji, Amos O; Olaiya, Charles O; Oluwadahunsi, Oluwagbenga J; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime. Thereafter, the longevity assay, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species levels were determined. Also, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and total thiol content were evaluated in the flies. We found that MSG reduced the life span of the flies by up to 23% after continuous exposure. Also, MSG increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and H 2 O 2 generations and total thiol content as well as the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in D. melanogaster (P reduced life span of flies. This study may therefore have public health significance in humans, and thus, moderate consumption of MSG is advocated by the authors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Stefanie; Wagner, Anika E; Kowalewski, Bianca; Rieck, Florian T; Soukup, Sebastian T; Kulling, Sabine E; Rimbach, Gerald

    2018-01-11

    In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster . Male and female w 1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant ( catalase , glutathione-S-transferase , NADH dehydrogenase , glutathione peroxidase , superoxide dismutase 2 ) and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2 , spargel , and I'm Not Dead Yet . Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w 1118 D. melanogaster .

  6. Effective preservation techniques to prolong the shelf life of ready-to-eat oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristina; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Oysters have a high commercial value but owing to their short shelf life are generally commercialized as raw material within very restricted market borders. A step-by-step optimization approach was used in this work to design ready-to-eat oyster packaging. In particular, six different steps were carried out in order to extend their shelf life. The concentration of sodium alginate to realize a coating that was effective in terms of easy peeling and ability in preventing product dehydration was optimized. Coated oysters were packaged under different modified atmosphere (MAP) conditions to find the best MAP. Subsequently, to further promote product preservation, sodium acetate was selected as an effective antimicrobial agent to be applied by dipping treatment prior to coating. All preservation strategies singly tested were finally combined to assess the shelf life prolongation of ready-to-eat oysters. Dipping in sodium acetate (10 g L⁻¹), coating with sodium alginate (40 g L⁻¹) and packaging under MAP (0:75 O₂:CO₂) represent the best conditions to guarantee a significant shelf life extension to about 160 h compared with 57 h for unpackaged oysters. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The effects of constant and alternating temperatures on the reproductive potential, life span, and life expectancy of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Dipteria: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. CARDOSO

    Full Text Available Ovarian development, oviposition, larval eclosion, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, ovarian, testis and ejaculatory apodeme measurements (length, width, and area, and the number of spermatozoa of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann were analyzed at alternating (20º/6ºC and 20º/13°C and constant (6°C; 25°C temperatures. Life span and life expectancy were also analyzed for both genders. All the results suggest that temperature, especially alternating temperatures, increase not only male and female reproductive potential but also their life span and life expectancy. These changes can be a powerful strategy triggered by A. fraterculus as a means to survive the stressful temperature conditions found in winter in the apple production region in Brazil, enabling this species to increase its population density and cause apple damage when spring begins.

  8. The effects of constant and alternating temperatures on the reproductive potential, life span, and life expectancy of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann (Dipteria: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOSO V. V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian development, oviposition, larval eclosion, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC activity, ovarian, testis and ejaculatory apodeme measurements (length, width, and area, and the number of spermatozoa of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann were analyzed at alternating (20masculine/6masculineC and 20masculine/13degreesC and constant (6degreesC; 25degreesC temperatures. Life span and life expectancy were also analyzed for both genders. All the results suggest that temperature, especially alternating temperatures, increase not only male and female reproductive potential but also their life span and life expectancy. These changes can be a powerful strategy triggered by A. fraterculus as a means to survive the stressful temperature conditions found in winter in the apple production region in Brazil, enabling this species to increase its population density and cause apple damage when spring begins.

  9. Personality, self-rated health, and subjective age in a life-span sample: the moderating role of chronological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Demulier, Virginie; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The present study tested whether chronological age moderates the association between subjective age and self-rated health and personality in a community-dwelling life-span sample (N = 1,016; age range: 18-91 years). Self-rated health, extraversion, and openness to experience were associated with a younger subjective age at older ages. Conscientious individuals felt more mature early in life. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not related to subjective age at older ages. These findings suggest that with aging self-rated health and personality traits are increasingly important for subjective age. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Does SIRT-1 Mediate Calorie Restriction and Prolong Life? – A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordala Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction is the only intervention proved to prolong both average and maximum lifespan in yeast, worms, fish, rodents and possibly primates. Not only does the regimen prolong life, but it also reduces the incident of numerous age-related diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis or cancer and slows down ageing. Mechanisms by which that is thought to occur have not yet been elucidated, but they probably involve reactive oxygen species signaling, insulin growth factor and transcriptional factors. Here, special emphasis is given to SIRT1 - silent information regulator. There is sound evidence showing that SIRT1 is a key player in mediating physiological response to calorie restriction and that its overexpression is correlated with extended lifespan. The possible mechanism leading to its elevated levels is high NAD/NADH ratio, observed in Sir2 in yeast. SIRT1 increases glucose production, enhances fat mobilization, stimulates angiogenesis, prevents neuronal degeneration and rises insulin sensitivity. Therefore, it seems to be a very beneficial factor activated by such a simple intervention that is calorie restriction.

  11. Studies on Prolonging Storage life and Maintaining Fruit Quality Parameters of Zaghloul Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElSalhy, F.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation ( 1, 2 and 3 kGy) and some natural plant extracts i.e. aloe, ambrosia, cinnamon, chamomile, clove or nigella on prolonging the storage life and some parameters of Zaghloul dates quality under cold storage (5 ±2 C, 90-95 % RH). The weight loss %, decay %, T.S.S. %, total sugars and non-reducing sugars % of Zaghloul dates were increased in most cases with prolonging the storage time. Meanwhile, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were decreased during storage period (56 days). However, the lowest values of weight loss % and decay % were recorded by aloe extract treatment while the highest values of T.S.S., total sugars, non-reducing sugars, titratable acidity %, reducing sugars % and tannins content were scored by gamma irradiation at 3 kGy. It could be concluded that using irradiation at 3 kGy, aloe, cinnamon or clove can keep the dates (Zaghloul variety) fresh even after 56 days at cold storage with good quality and safety levels of microbes

  12. Dual expression of hTERT and VEGF prolongs life span and enhances angiogenic ability of aged BMSCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hao [Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Bayi Brain Hospital, The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Beijing (China); Xiang, Yongsheng [Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Jiang, Xiaodan; Ke, Yiquan; Xiao, Zongyu; Guo, Yang; Wang, Qiujing; Du, Mouxuan; Qin, Linsha; Zou, Yuxi; Cai, Yingqian [Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Zhenzhou, E-mail: czz1020@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Ruxiang, E-mail: zjxuruxiang@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Bayi Brain Hospital, The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Expression of hTERT and VEGF changed the lifespan and morphology of hBMSCs. •The expression of VEGF and hTRET promoted angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. •The expression of VEGF and hTRET in hBMSCs had few effects on tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Previous studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation on cerebral ischemia. However, the proliferative, differentiative, and homing capacity of BMSC from the elderly are significantly reduced, especially after several passages expansion in vitro. In this study, by introducing lentivirus-mediated hTERT and VEGF genes to modify human BMSCs from aged donors, we observed extended lifespan, promoted angiogenic capacity while less enhanced tumorigenicity of the genetically engineering BMSCs. These results therefore suggest that the modification of aged BMSCs by dual expression of hTERT and VEGF may be used for autologous cell replacement for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients.

  13. Dual expression of hTERT and VEGF prolongs life span and enhances angiogenic ability of aged BMSCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hao; Xiang, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xiaodan; Ke, Yiquan; Xiao, Zongyu; Guo, Yang; Wang, Qiujing; Du, Mouxuan; Qin, Linsha; Zou, Yuxi; Cai, Yingqian; Chen, Zhenzhou; Xu, Ruxiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Expression of hTERT and VEGF changed the lifespan and morphology of hBMSCs. •The expression of VEGF and hTRET promoted angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. •The expression of VEGF and hTRET in hBMSCs had few effects on tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Previous studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation on cerebral ischemia. However, the proliferative, differentiative, and homing capacity of BMSC from the elderly are significantly reduced, especially after several passages expansion in vitro. In this study, by introducing lentivirus-mediated hTERT and VEGF genes to modify human BMSCs from aged donors, we observed extended lifespan, promoted angiogenic capacity while less enhanced tumorigenicity of the genetically engineering BMSCs. These results therefore suggest that the modification of aged BMSCs by dual expression of hTERT and VEGF may be used for autologous cell replacement for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients

  14. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando; Monsalve, Gabriela C; Tse, Vincent; Saiki, Ryoichi; Weng, Emily; Lee, Laura; Srinivasan, Chandra; Frand, Alison R; Clarke, Catherine F

    2012-12-20

    Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts) as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor, influencing the ability of bacteria to colonize and

  15. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. Results The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor

  16. Postponing aging and prolonging life expectancy with the knowledge-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjuhan, Ulo

    2012-04-01

    People are interested in the aging phenomenon and hope that scientists are doing as much as they can to solve the mysteries of aging. However, this is not the case. A lot of knowledge is produced for local interests in curing specific disorders; aging is studied much less. Today's economy is undergoing a transition to a knowledge-based economy. Knowledge of aging should be integrated into the economies of contemporary societies. Aging research and intervention can ensure better health, primarily among middle-aged and older people, and prolong life. There are many reasons why postponing aging and rejuvenation research is not as widespread as it should be. Developed countries should create economic stimuli for such studies and intervention.

  17. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway systems and premature damage of these bridges is often reported, resulting in considerable maintenance and/or replacement costs. First, this paper presents a state-of-art review on the SHM of long-span PSC bridges. Monitoring strategies, methods, and previous applications for these bridges are summarized and discussed. In order to well capture the behavior of the bridge during its whole life and to maximize the use of sensors, a life-cycle monitoring strategy is proposed, in which the sensor layout is determined according to requirements for construction monitoring, completion test, and in-service monitoring. A case study is made on a three-span PSC box girder bridge in China. The system configuration, sensor layout, and data communications, and so forth, are presented. The up-to-date monitored structural responses are analyzed and compared with the design values.

  18. How stable is the personal past? Stability of most important autobiographical memories and life narratives across eight years in a life span sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köber, Christin; Habermas, Tilmann

    2017-10-01

    Considering life stories as the most individual layer of personality (McAdams, 2013) implies that life stories, similar to personality traits, exhibit some stability throughout life. Although stability of personality traits has been extensively investigated, only little is known about the stability of life stories. We therefore tested the influence of age, of the proportion of normative age-graded life events, and of global text coherence on the stability of the most important memories and of brief entire life narratives as 2 representations of the life story. We also explored whether normative age-graded life events form more stable parts of life narratives. In a longitudinal life span study covering up to 3 measurements across 8 years and 6 age groups (N = 164) the stability of important memories and of entire life narratives was measured as the percentage of events and narrative segments which were repeated in later tellings. Stability increased between ages 8 and 24, leveling off in middle adulthood. Beyond age, stability of life narratives was also predicted by proportion of normative age-graded life events and by causal-motivational text coherence in younger participants. Memories of normative developmental and social transitional life events were more stable than other memories. Stability of segments of life narratives exceeded the stability of single most important memories. Findings are discussed in terms of cognitive, personality, and narrative psychology and point to research questions in each of these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A Study on Shelf Life Prolonging Process of Chili Soy Sauce in Malaysian SMEs’ (Small Medium Enterprise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    This research paper presents the possible solutions to prolong the shelf life of spicy (chili) soy sauce. The current spicy soy sauce formulation is without adding preservative which result in shorter shelf life. It is suggested to add chemical preservative to this spicy soy sauce in order to prolong its shelf life without jeopardising its prevailing taste. The proposed preservative is sodium benzoate. It is hope that by adding sodium benzoate, it can prolong the shelf life of the products from one year to two years without jeopardising the taste and quality of the products. The problem to extend the shelf life of spicy (chilli) soy sauce was 100% solved. The product could be extended to 2 years without adding any preservative (sodium benzoate) as the main raw material (soy sauce) purchased from “Kicap Jalen” had been added sodium benzoate as their preservative to prolong the soy sauce shelf life. All the physicochemical and nutritional analysis shown good results. As for the microbiological analysis, all the 3 samples shown good results on the total plate count.

  20. Evaluating a patient's request for life-prolonging treatment: an ethical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Eva C; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Marckmann, Georg

    2012-11-01

    Contrary to the widespread concern about over-treatment at the end of life, today, patient preferences for palliative care at the end of life are frequently respected. However, ethically challenging situations in the current healthcare climate are, instead, situations in which a competent patient requests active treatment with the goal of life-prolongation while the physician suggests best supportive care only. The argument of futility has often been used to justify unilateral decisions made by physicians to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment. However, we argue that neither the concept of futility nor that of patient autonomy alone is apt for resolving situations in which physicians are confronted with patients' requests for active treatment. Instead, we integrate the relevant arguments that have been put forward in the academic discussion about 'futile' treatment into an ethical algorithm with five guiding questions: (1) Is there a chance that medical intervention will be effective in achieving the patient's treatment goal? (2) How does the physician evaluate the expected benefit and the potential harm of the treatment? (3) Does the patient understand his or her medical situation? (4) Does the patient prefer receiving treatment after evaluating the benefit-harm ratio and the costs? (5) Does the treatment require many resources? This algorithm shall facilitate approaching patients' requests for treatments deemed futile by the physician in a systematic way, and responding to these requests in an ethically appropriate manner. It thereby adds substantive considerations to the current procedural approaches of conflict resolution in order to improve decision making among physicians, patients and families.

  1. Identifying genes that extend life span using a high-throughput screening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuiying; Contreras, Roland

    2007-01-01

    We developed a high-throughput functional genomic screening system that allows identification of genes prolonging lifespan in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method is based on isolating yeast mother cells with a higher than average number of cell divisions as indicated by the number of bud scars on their surface. Fluorescently labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was used for specific staining of chitin, a major component of bud scars. The critical new steps in our bud-scar-sorting system are the use of small microbeads, which allows successive rounds of purification and regrowth of the mother cells (M-cell), and utilization of flow cytometry to sort and isolate cells with a longer lifespan based on the number of bud scars specifically labeled with WGA.

  2. Genetic manipulation of longevity-related genes as a tool to regulate yeast life span and metabolite production during winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Helena; Matallana, Emilia; Aranda, Agustín

    2013-01-02

    Yeast viability and vitality are essential for different industrial processes where the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as a biotechnological tool. Therefore, the decline of yeast biological functions during aging may compromise their successful biotechnological use. Life span is controlled by a variety of molecular mechanisms, many of which are connected to stress tolerance and genomic stability, although the metabolic status of a cell has proven a main factor affecting its longevity. Acetic acid and ethanol accumulation shorten chronological life span (CLS), while glycerol extends it. Different age-related gene classes have been modified by deletion or overexpression to test their role in longevity and metabolism. Overexpression of histone deacetylase SIR2 extends CLS and reduces acetate production, while overexpression of SIR2 homolog HST3 shortens CLS, increases the ethanol level, and reduces acetic acid production. HST3 overexpression also enhances ethanol tolerance. Increasing tolerance to oxidative stress by superoxide dismutase SOD2 overexpression has only a moderate positive effect on CLS. CLS during grape juice fermentation has also been studied for mutants on several mRNA binding proteins that are regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level; we found that NGR1 and UTH4 deletions decrease CLS, while PUF3 and PUB1 deletions increase it. Besides, the pub1Δ mutation increases glycerol production and blocks stress granule formation during grape juice fermentation. Surprisingly, factors relating to apoptosis, such as caspase Yca1 or apoptosis-inducing factor Aif1, play a positive role in yeast longevity during winemaking as their deletions shorten CLS. Manipulation of regulators of gene expression at both transcriptional (i.e., sirtuins) and posttranscriptional (i.e., mRNA binding protein Pub1) levels allows to modulate yeast life span during its biotechnological use. Due to links between aging and metabolism, it also influences the

  3. Hour glass half full or half empty? Future time perspective and preoccupation with negative events across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having a limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the "here and now." Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a U.S. adult life-span sample (N = 3,933; 18-93 years), we found that a 2-factor model of future time perspective (future opportunities; limited time) fit the data better than a 1-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full-they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around Age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty-they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time, even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared with men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events, and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as 2 dimensions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Genetic manipulation of longevity-related genes as a tool to regulate yeast life span and metabolite production during winemaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco Helena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast viability and vitality are essential for different industrial processes where the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as a biotechnological tool. Therefore, the decline of yeast biological functions during aging may compromise their successful biotechnological use. Life span is controlled by a variety of molecular mechanisms, many of which are connected to stress tolerance and genomic stability, although the metabolic status of a cell has proven a main factor affecting its longevity. Acetic acid and ethanol accumulation shorten chronological life span (CLS, while glycerol extends it. Results Different age-related gene classes have been modified by deletion or overexpression to test their role in longevity and metabolism. Overexpression of histone deacetylase SIR2 extends CLS and reduces acetate production, while overexpression of SIR2 homolog HST3 shortens CLS, increases the ethanol level, and reduces acetic acid production. HST3 overexpression also enhances ethanol tolerance. Increasing tolerance to oxidative stress by superoxide dismutase SOD2 overexpression has only a moderate positive effect on CLS. CLS during grape juice fermentation has also been studied for mutants on several mRNA binding proteins that are regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level; we found that NGR1 and UTH4 deletions decrease CLS, while PUF3 and PUB1 deletions increase it. Besides, the pub1Δ mutation increases glycerol production and blocks stress granule formation during grape juice fermentation. Surprisingly, factors relating to apoptosis, such as caspase Yca1 or apoptosis-inducing factor Aif1, play a positive role in yeast longevity during winemaking as their deletions shorten CLS. Conclusions Manipulation of regulators of gene expression at both transcriptional (i.e., sirtuins and posttranscriptional (i.e., mRNA binding protein Pub1 levels allows to modulate yeast life span during its biotechnological use. Due to

  5. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonal A; Chaudhari, Amol; Gupta, Richa; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Kondratov, Roman V

    2016-04-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity in many species by unknown mechanisms. The circadian clock was proposed as a potential mediator of CR. Deficiency of the core component of the circadian clock-transcriptional factor BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator]-like protein 1)-results in accelerated aging. Here we investigated the role of BMAL1 in mechanisms of CR. The 30% CR diet increased the life span of wild-type (WT) mice by 20% compared to mice on anad libitum(AL) diet but failed to increase life span ofBmal1(-/-)mice. BMAL1 deficiency impaired CR-mediated changes in the plasma levels of IGF-1 and insulin. We detected a statistically significantly reduction of IGF-1 in CRvs.AL by 50 to 70% in WT mice at several daily time points tested, while inBmal1(-/-)the reduction was not significant. Insulin levels in WT were reduced by 5 to 9%, whileBmal1(-/-)induced it by 10 to 35% at all time points tested. CR up-regulated the daily average expression ofBmal1(by 150%) and its downstream target genesPeriods(by 470% forPer1and by 130% forPer2). We propose that BMAL1 is an important mediator of CR, and activation of BMAL1 might link CR mechanisms with biologic clocks.-Patel, S. A., Chaudhari, A., Gupta, R., Velingkaar, N., Kondratov, R. V. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms. © FASEB.

  6. Language decline across the life span: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, S; Greiner, L H; Marquis, J G; Prenovost, K; Mitzner, T L

    2001-06-01

    The present study examines language samples from the Nun Study. Measures of grammatical complexity and idea density were obtained from autobiographies written over a 60-year span. Participants who had met criteria for dementia were contrasted with those who did not. Grammatical complexity initially averaged 4.78 (on a 0-to-7-point scale) for participants who did not meet criteria for dementia and declined .04 units per year; grammatical complexity for participants who met criteria for dementia initially averaged 3.86 and declined .03 units per year. Idea density averaged 5.35 propositions per 10 words initially for participants who did not meet criteria for dementia and declined an average of .03 units per year, whereas idea density averaged 4.34 propositions per 10 words initially for participants who met criteria for dementia and declined .02 units per year. Adult experiences, in general, did not moderate these declines.

  7. Platelet associated IgG, platelet mean life span and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, U.; Syrjaelae, M.; Ikkala, E.; Myllylae, G.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical significance of platelet associated IgG in ITP detected by direct platelet suspension immunofluorescence test (PSIFT) was studied. The platelet mean life span (MLS) was measured with 111 In-labelled platelets in 17 adult patients. All the patients had shortened platelet MLS. The direct PSIFT was positive in 14 patients. Patients were initially treated with prednisone; 12 patients with poor response to the drug were splenectomised. 8 of these 12 patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) before splenectomy. The response to IvIg was as good or better in the 3 patients with negative PSIFT, than in the 5 patients with positive PSIFT. (author)

  8. Life-span studies in 226Ra-injected animals: Effect of low doses, effect of a decorporative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeters, G.E.R.; Vanderborght, O.L.J.

    1986-01-01

    A life-span radiation effects study was performed in mice injected with several doses of 226 Ra. The study included 788 male C57Bl mice. For the removal of the 226 Ra, half the mice were treated daily with a diet 5% of which was sodium-alginate. The experiment revealed that mice that received the lowest dose of 226 Ra lived significantly longer than controls, and, despite appreciable skeletal removal of 226 Ra as a result of decorporative treatment, no biological benefit was observed in treated animals. 19 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Changes in genetic architecture during relaxation in Drosophila melanogaster selected on divergent virgin life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, CJ; Bijlsma, R

    Artificial selection experiments often confer important information on the genetic correlations constraining the evolution of life history. After artificial selection has ceased however, selection pressures in the culture environment can change the correlation matrix again. Here, we reinvestigate

  10. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-19

    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose-response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age.

  11. Infantile onset Vanishing White Matter disease associated with a novel EIF2B5 variant, remarkably long life span, severe epilepsy, and hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, April L; Hsieh, David T; McIver, Harkirtin K; Thomas, Linda P; Rohena, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Vanishing White Matter disease (VWM) is an inherited progressive leukoencephalopathy caused by mutations in the genes EIF2B1-5, which encode for the 5 subunits of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B), a regulator of protein synthesis. VWM typically presents with acute neurological decline following febrile infections or minor head trauma, and subsequent progressive neurological and cognitive regression. There is a varied clinical spectrum of VWM, with earlier onset associated with more severe phenotypes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is usually diagnostic with diffusely abnormal white matter, progressing over time to cystic degeneration. We are reporting on a patient with infantile onset VWM associated with three heterozygous missense variants in EIF2B5, including a novel missense variant on exon 6 of EIF2B5 (D262N), as well as an interstitial duplication at 7q21.12. In addition, our case is unusual because of a severe epilepsy course, a novel clinical finding of hypopituitarism manifested by hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency, and a prolonged life span with current age of survival of 4 years and 11 months. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Developmental Differentiation and Binding of Mental Processes with g through the Life-Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Demetriou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration/differentiation of mental processes is major mechanism of development. Developmental theories ascribe intellectual development to it. In psychometric theory, Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates that increasing g allows increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities, because increased mental power allows variable investment in domain-specific learning. Empirical evidence has been inconsistent so far, with some studies supporting and others contradicting this mechanism. This state of affairs is due to a developmental phenomenon: Both differentiation and strengthening of relations between specific processes and g may happen but these changes are phase-specific and ability-specific, depending upon the developmental priorities in the formation of g in each phase. We present eight studies covering the age span from 4 to 85 years in support of this phenomenon. Using new powerful modeling methods we showed that differentiation and binding of mental processes in g occurs in cycles. Specific processes intertwine with g at the beginning of cycles when they are integrated into it; when well established, these processes may vary with increasing g, reflecting its higher flexibility. Representational knowledge, inductive inference and awareness of it, and grasp of logical constraints framing inference are the major markers of g, first intertwining with in their respective cycles and differentiating later during the periods of 2–6, 7–11, and 11–20 years, respectively. The implications of these findings for an overarching cognitive developmental/differential theory of human mind are discussed.

  13. Corruption analysis and life span forecast research on sylphon bellows of nuclear-powered steam system of ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chao; Chen Lisheng; Song Meicun; Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    The fracture of the corrugated pipe has a dad effect to the operation of reactor which can cause the small-break LOCA. The corrosion is the key reason of the fracture. On the base of the analysis on corruption reason of the sylphon bellows and combine the characteristic of the limited sample point of it, the Grey theory was used in the assessment of corrosion life span of corrugated pipe in nuclear steam system. Through applying the GM (1, 1) model in inferring the discipline of corrosion quantity and combining traditional statistical method, the corrosion life of steam pipe was evaluated. It indicates that the model is precise, simple and the result is reliable. (authors)

  14. Telomerase-mediated life-span extension of human primary fibroblasts by human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitara, Shingo; Kakeda, Minoru; Nagata, Keiko; Hiratsuka, Masaharu; Sano, Akiko; Osawa, Kanako; Okazaki, Akiyo; Katoh, Motonobu; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Tomizuka, Kazuma

    2008-01-01

    Telomerase-mediated life-span extension enables the expansion of normal cells without malignant transformation, and thus has been thought to be useful in cell therapies. Currently, integrating vectors including the retrovirus are used for human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-mediated expansion of normal cells; however, the use of these vectors potentially causes unexpected insertional mutagenesis and/or activation of oncogenes. Here, we established normal human fibroblast (hPF) clones retaining non-integrating human artificial chromosome (HAC) vectors harboring the hTERT expression cassette. In hTERT-HAC/hPF clones, we observed the telomerase activity and the suppression of senescent-associated SA-β-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, the hTERT-HAC/hPF clones continued growing beyond 120 days after cloning, whereas the hPF clones retaining the silent hTERT-HAC senesced within 70 days. Thus, hTERT-HAC-mediated episomal expression of hTERT allows the extension of the life-span of human primary cells, implying that gene delivery by non-integrating HAC vectors can be used to control cellular proliferative capacity of primary cultured cells

  15. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-06-19

    NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD(+) metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD(+) metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD(+)-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD(+) metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD(+) precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD(+) homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility.

  16. Partial ablation of adult Drosophila insulin-producing neurons modulates glucose homeostasis and extends life span without insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselton, Aaron; Sharmin, Effat; Schrader, Janel; Sah, Megha; Poon, Peter; Fridell, Yih-Woei C

    2010-08-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster), neurosecretory insulin-like peptide-producing cells (IPCs), analogous to mammalian pancreatic beta cells are involved in glucose homeostasis. Extending those findings, we have developed in the adult fly an oral glucose tolerance test and demonstrated that IPCs indeed are responsible for executing an acute glucose clearance response. To further develop D. melanogaster as a relevant system for studying age-associated metabolic disorders, we set out to determine the impact of adult-specific partial ablation of IPCs (IPC knockdown) on insulin-like peptide (ILP) action, metabolic outcomes and longevity. Interestingly, while IPC knockdown flies are hyperglycemic and glucose intolerant, these flies remain insulin sensitive as measured by peripheral glucose disposal upon insulin injection and serine phosphorylation of a key insulin-signaling molecule, Akt. Significant increases in stored glycogen and triglyceride levels as well as an elevated level of circulating lipid measured in adult IPC knockdown flies suggest profound modulation in energy metabolism. Additional physiological outcomes measured in those flies include increased resistance to starvation and impaired female fecundity. Finally, increased life span and decreased mortality rates measured in IPC knockdown flies demonstrate that it is possible to modulate ILP action in adult flies to achieve life span extension without insulin resistance. Taken together, we have established and validated an invertebrate genetic system to further investigate insulin action, metabolic homeostasis and regulation of aging regulated by adult IPCs.

  17. Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. I. Effects on adult rats exposed during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, D.F.; Wright, J.F.; Godbold, J.H.; Ward, J.M.; Laskey, J.W.; Tompkins, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to equilibrium levels of tritiated water (HTO) during pregnancy. The tritium activities were 1, 10, 50, and 100 μCi HTO/ml body water which provided cumulative, whole-body radiation doses of approximately 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads. Administration of the radioisotope was terminated at parturition. Throughout their life-spans and at autopsy, the dams showed an increased incidence of mammary fibroadenomas at exposure to 330 and 660 rads. Although the data for the incidence of malignant mammary neoplasms were consistent with a linear dose response, the small numbers of tumors preclude specific definition of the dose-response curve. Postexposure life-spans for dams chronically exposed to 66, 330, and 660 rads during pregnancy were reduced by 14, 24, and 22 percent, respectively. Accelerated aging was also demonstrated in these rats: The mean age for mammary fibroadenoma onset decreased with an increasing dose of radiation. (U.S.)

  18. Lifelong susceptibility to acoustic trauma: Changing patterns of chochlear damage over the life span of the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Age-related differences in susceptibility to noise-induced threshold shift (NITS) were examined over the entire life span of the CBA/J mouse. Mice of varying ages were given a single 5-min exposure to a 124-dB octave-band (12-24 kHz) noise. Susceptibility began at 15-16 days postpartum and increased rapidly until approximately 20 days of age. During this phase, NITS (as measured by increased action potential threshold) was greatest at 16 kHz. Overall susceptibility was consistently high from 20 to 90 days. During this phase, NITS became most severe at 32 kHz. From 120 days until beyond the end of its acturarial life span (527 days), NITS no longer occured at 2-16 kHz, but the 64-kHz response retained its susceptibility to acoustic trauma. Mice at 20 and 60 days of age showed the same pattern of decreasing susceptibility as the intensity of the noise exposure was reduced to 114 and 104 dB, indicating that the absence of a tightly restricted critical period is not peculiar to a particular sound pressure level.

  19. Effects of storage media on the green life span and culinary qualities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sawdust (SD) and ricehusk (RH)) used singly or mixed in varying proportions and enclosed in polyethylene were used to study the storage life of mature green plantain fruits. There were two control treatments comprising fruits sealed in polyethylene without plant residue and fruits kept on laboratory shelf. Fruits were sealed ...

  20. Bile Acid Look-Alike Controls Life Span in C. elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    2013-01-01

    Extensive transcriptional networks maintain sterol homeostasis across species, underscoring the importance of sterol balance for healthy life. Magner et al. (2013) now show that, in C. elegans, the nuclear receptor NHR-8 is key in regulation of cholesterol balance and production of dafachronic acid,

  1. APPLICATION OF DIHYDROQUERCETIN IN THE PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS WITH PROLONGED SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kostyria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the use for the production of food products with prolonged shelf-life food additives - dihydroquercetin. Dihydroquercetin is a bioflavonoid natural origin, which has the highest antioxidant activity compared with all known exogenous antioxidants, including vitamins E, A, B, C, D, K, beta-carotene. This connection is included in the list of food additives, do not have harmful effects on health when used for cooking food. Dihydroquercetin is non-toxic, physiologically harmless to human health, not give them a foreign tastes and odors, does not change their color when using it.Additive stable with respect to temperature (from minus 50 to plus 1800 с, mechanical stress , and the processes taking place in the manufacture of products, i.e., meets all the requirements applicable generally to all food additives, and in particular, to the antioxidants. Dihydroquercetin has antibacterial properties against some types of bacteria, and has a positive impact on the development and growth of the lactic microflora. Dihydroquercetin has antibacterial properties against some types of bacteria, and has a positive impact on the development and growth of the lactic microflora. Bioflavonoid is not synthesized in the human body, so you need to eat foods in which it is contained ..In addition, the use of dihydroquercetin will produce food therapeutic orientation that the positive effect of bioflavonoids on human health has been proven through years of experimental and clinical research medical institutions of Russia.

  2. Use of gamma irradiation for prolonging shelf life of Garden pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A.K.; Nair, Reena

    2008-01-01

    Garden pea pods of variety Arkel were irradiated with 5 doses of 60 Co gamma rays ranging from 0.5-3 kGy and stored at ambient temperature up to 9 days along with control to study the effect of radiation in prolonging shelf life of pea pods and stabilizing its market demand. Physiological weight loss percentage decrease as the doses of gamma radiation increased. Minimum weight loss was noted in pods treated with 3 kGy gamma radiation as compared to control. Decay loss percent showed inverse relation with dose of gamma radiation. The minimum decay loss was recorded in 3 kGy and the organisms identified for decay loss were Alternaria and Cladosporium species of fungi. With regard to sugar content, pea pods irradiated with 1 kGy gamma rays recorded maximum sugar content. Pods irradiated with 0.5 kGy and 1 kGy gamma rays retained their green colour for a long period (up to 9th day of storage). Based on 9 point's hedonic scale the overall acceptability for appearance, taste and texture was observed in 1 kGy treatment. (author)

  3. Healthy Aging After Age 65: A Life-Span Health Production Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdows, Nasim B; Jensen, Gail A; Tarraf, Wassim

    2018-06-01

    This article examines the determinants of healthy aging using Grossman's framework of a health production function. Healthy aging, sometimes described as successful aging, is produced using a variety of inputs, determined in early life, young adulthood, midlife, and later life. A healthy aging production function is estimated using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 Health and Retirement Study on 7,355 noninstitutionalized seniors. Using a simultaneous equation mediation model, we quantify how childhood factors contribute to healthy aging, both directly and indirectly through their effects on mediating adult outcomes. We find that favorable childhood conditions significantly improve healthy aging scores, both directly and indirectly, mediated through education, income, and wealth. We also find that good health habits have positive effects on healthy aging that are larger in magnitude than the effects of childhood factors. Our findings suggest that exercising, maintaining proper weight, and not smoking are likely to translate into healthier aging.

  4. Fullness of life as minimal unit: Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning across the life span.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, W.-M.; Eijck, van M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Challenged by a National Science Foundation–funded conference, 2020 Vision: The Next Generation of STEM Learning Research, in which participants were asked to recognize science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning as lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep, we draw upon 20 years of

  5. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G.; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety

  6. Increased iron supplied through Fet3p results in replicative life span extension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under conditions requiring respiratory metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Gabriela; Turn, Christina S; Quintyne, Nicholas J; Kirchman, Paul A

    2011-10-01

    We have previously shown that copper supplementation extends the replicative life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae when grown under conditions forcing cells to respire. We now show that copper's effect on life span is through Fet3p, a copper containing enzyme responsible for high affinity transport of iron into yeast cells. Life span extensions can also be obtained by supplementing the growth medium with 1mM ferric chloride. Extension by high iron levels is still dependent on the presence of Fet3p. Life span extension by iron or copper requires growth on media containing glycerol as the sole carbon source, which forces yeast to respire. Yeast grown on glucose containing media supplemented with iron show no extension of life span. The iron associated with cells grown in media supplemented with copper or iron is 1.4-1.8 times that of cells grown without copper or iron supplementation. As with copper supplementation, iron supplementation partially rescues the life span of superoxide dismutase mutants. Cells grown with copper supplementation display decreased production of superoxide as measured by dihydroethidium staining. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of continuous exposure to very low dose rates of gamma rays on life span and neoplasia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, I.B. III; Tanaka, Satoshi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tsuneya; Otsu, Hiroshi; Oghiso, Yoichi; Sato, Fumiaki; Matsushita, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    Late effects of continuous exposure to ionizing radiation are potential hazards to workers in radiation facilities as well as to the general public. In the recent years, low-dose-rate and low-dose effects have become a serious concern. Using a total of 4,000 mice, we studied the late biological effects of chronic exposure to low-dose-rate radiation on life span and neoplasia. Two thousand male and 2000 female 8-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) B6C3F1 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups, one non-irradiated (control) and three irradiated. The irradiated groups were exposed to 137 Cs gamma rays at dose-rates of 21, 1.1 and 0.05 mGy day -1 for approximately 400 days with total doses equivalent to 8000, 400 and 20 mGy, respectively. All mice were kept under SPF conditions until natural death and pathological examination was performed to determine the cause of death. Statistical analyses showed that the life spans of mice of both sexes irradiated with 21 mGy day -1 (P -1 (P 86.7% of all deaths. Compared to the non-irradiated controls, incidences of lethal neoplasms were significantly increased for myeloid leukaemia and hemangiosarcoma in males, soft tissue neoplasms and malignant granulosa cell tumors in females exposed to 21 mGy day -1 . The number of multiple primary neoplasms per mouse was significantly increased in mice irradiated at 21 mGy day -1 . Our results suggest that life shortening in mice continuously exposed to low dose-rate gamma rays is due to early death from a variety of neoplasms and not from increased incidence of specific lethal neoplasms. (author)

  8. Delayed radiation injury of gut-exposed and gut-shielded mice. II. The decrement in life span

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Archuleta, R.F.; Prine, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Two mouse strains (RF/J and C57B1/6J) were exposed to x-ray doses totaling 400, 800, and 1200 rad. Total doses were given in 200-rad fractions at 7-day intervals to the whole body, gut only, or bone tissue with the gut shielded. Animals were anesthetized during exposure. Two control groups were used. A sham control group was anesthetized but not exposed to x rays, and another control group received neither anesthesia nor x-radiation. All mice were retained in a standard laboratory environment for observations on life span and histopathology at death. Life shortening was observed in all irradiated groups of strain RF/J mice and was attributed primarily to an increase in incidence and/or earlier onset of neoplasia. Life shortening was observed in the C57B1/6J whole-body exposed mice, but the effect appeared to be noncarcinogenic. Shielding of the bone or gut tissue proved to have a 100% sparing effect in strain C57 mice and none in strain RF mice. In both mouse strains, the sham control groups (anesthetized but not irradiated) showed approximately 8% life shortening below the non-anesthetized control groups and increased incidences of neoplasia of approximately 40%, suggesting that sodium pentabarbital may be as carcinogenic as x-radiation

  9. A drastic reduction in the life span of cystatin C L68Q carriers due to life-style changes during the last two centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astridur Palsdottir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy (HCCAA is an autosomal dominant disease with high penetrance, manifest by brain hemorrhages in young normotensive adults. In Iceland, this condition is caused by the L68Q mutation in the cystatin C gene, with contemporary carriers reaching an average age of only 30 years. Here, we report, based both on linkage disequilibrium and genealogical evidence, that all known copies of this mutation derive from a common ancestor born roughly 18 generations ago. Intriguingly, the genealogies reveal that obligate L68Q carriers born 1825 to 1900 experienced a drastic reduction in life span, from 65 years to the present-day average. At the same time, a parent-of-origin effect emerged, whereby maternal inheritance of the mutation was associated with a 9 year reduction in life span relative to paternal inheritance. As these trends can be observed in several different extended families, many generations after the mutational event, it seems likely that some environmental factor is responsible, perhaps linked to radical changes in the life-style of Icelanders during this period. A mutation with such radically different phenotypic effects in reaction to normal variation in human life-style not only opens the possibility of preventive strategies for HCCAA, but it may also provide novel insights into the complex relationship between genotype and environment in human disease.

  10. Research of the low dose gamma-irradiation influence on life span and aging speed of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalev, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Researches of radioinduced life span alteration of Drosophila which is carried out in our laboratory in 1996-2003 years, have revealed interrelation between mutations of several genes of DNA repair and apoptosis pathways with low doses ionizing irradiation and speed of aging. It was used Drosophila individuals, developing in conditions of a chronic low dose irradiation or on nutrition medium with apoptosis inducer etoposide addition. The exposition doze was 0.17 sGy/h. The absorbed doze for one generation (from an embryo stage up to an imago start, 10-12 days) corresponded 60 sGy. Etoposide treatment carried out on preimago stages (5 mkM in a nutrient medium n concentration). We investigated the life span after irradiation and etoposide treatment of Drosophila melanogaster laboratory populations with defects of some genes of DNA repair machinery and apoptosis pathways in homozygous and heterozygous state, such as mei-41 (ATM homolog), two alleles of Dcp-1 (Drosophila caspase), dArk (Apaf-1 homolog), rpr, grim, hid, three alleles of th (IAP homolog), wg (Wnt family member). It is shown, that the irradiation and etoposide treatment of these strains results in life span change depending on a genotype of the investigated line. The results will be considering in the report. As well, the analysis of age-dependent change of nervous system activity (as the test of aging speed) of Drosophila melanogaster imago was carried out. It was shown, that the irradiation of strains with the increased apoptosis sensitivity results in elevated nervous - muscular activity of imago during all experiment periods. At th1 strain increase of activity in comparison with the control in the first week has made 41 %, and in two subsequent - about 80 %. Last week authentic increase did not observe. At th4 strain statistically significant increase of activity in comparison with the control observed in the first week of experiment (18 %), in the second (67 %) and the fourth (88 %). The

  11. Differential effects of the extracellular microenvironment on human embryonic stem cell differentiation into keratinocytes and their subsequent replicative life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi; Kidwai, Fahad Karim; Zou, Yu; Tong, Huei Jinn; Liu, Xiaochen; Islam, Intekhab; Toh, Wei Seong; Raghunath, Michael; Cao, Tong

    2015-04-01

    Culture microenvironment plays a critical role in the propagation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their differentiated progenies. Although high efficiency of hESC differentiation to keratinocytes (hESC-Kert) has been achieved, little is known regarding the effects of early culture microenvironment and pertinent extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions during epidermal commitment on subsequent proliferative capacity of hESC-Kert. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the different ECM microenvironments during hESC differentiation on subsequent replicative life span of hESC-Kert. In doing so, H1-hESCs were differentiated to keratinocytes (H1-Kert) in two differentiation systems. The first system employed autologous fibroblast feeder support, in which keratinocytes (H1-Kert(ACC)) were derived by coculture of hESCs with hESC-derived fibroblasts (H1-ebFs). The second system employed a novel decellularized matrix from H1-ebFs to create a dermoepidermal junction-like (DEJ) matrix. H1-Kert(AFF) were derived by differentiation of hESCs on the feeder-free system employing the DEJ matrix. Our study indicated that the feeder-free system with the use of DEJ matrix was more efficient in differentiation of hESCs toward epidermal progenitors. However, the feeder-free system was not sufficient to support the subsequent replicative capacity of differentiated keratinocytes. Of note, H1-Kert(AFF) showed limited replicative capacity with reduced telomere length and early cellular senescence. We further showed that the lack of cell-cell interactions during epidermal commitment led to heightened production of TGF-β1 by hESC-Kert during extended culture, which in turn was responsible for resulting in the limited replicative life span with cellular senescence of hESC-Kert derived under the feeder-free culture system. This study highlights for the first time the importance of the culture microenvironment and cell-ECM interactions during

  12. Motivation for social contact across the life span: a theory of socioemotional selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, L L

    1992-01-01

    Older people engage in social interaction less frequently than their younger counterparts. As I mentioned at the start, the change has been interpreted in largely negative terms. Yet when asked about their social relationships, older people describe them as satisfying, supportive, and fulfilling. Marriages are less negative and more positive. Close relationships with siblings are renewed, and relationships with children are better than ever before. Even though older people interact with others less frequently than younger people do, old age is not a time of misery, rigidity, or melancholy. Rather than present a paradox, I argue here that decreasing rates of contact reflect a reorganization of the goal hierarchies that underlie motivation for social contact and lead to greater selectivity in social partners. This reorganization does not occur haphazardly. Self-definition, information seeking, and emotion regulation are ranked differently depending not only on past experiences, but on place in the life cycle and concomitant expectations about the future. I contend that the emphasis on emotion in old age results from a recognition of the finality of life. In most people's lives this does not appear suddenly in old age but occurs gradually across adulthood. At times, however, life events conspire to bring about endings more quickly. Whether as benign as a geographical relocation or as sinister as a fatal disease, endings heighten the salience of surrounding emotions. When each interaction with a grandchild or good-bye kiss to a spouse may be the last, a sense of poignancy may permeate even the most casual everyday experiences. When the regulation of emotion assumes greatest priority among social motives, social partners are carefully chosen. The most likely choices will be long-term friends and loved ones, because they are most likely to provide positive emotional experiences and affirm the self. Information seeking will motivate some social behavior, but for reasons

  13. Life span studies on mice exposed to heavy charged particles or photons: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the results currently available where dose-dependent mortality is compared among the single cohort that received fractionated doses of carbon ions and the first replicate that received single doses. At this time, 17% mortality has occurred in both groups and had enhanced life shortening been produced by fractionation of the carbon ion dose, somewhat higher mortality might be expected. Cautious interpretation of these preliminary results is necessary, but the mortality data available at this time provides no evidence for enhancement by dose fractionation with carbon ions. In sum, at this time, it appears the Q factor used for fission spectrum neutrons could be conservative if it were used for assessment of risk following exposure to 400 MeV carbon ions

  14. Current health and preferences for life-prolonging treatments: an application of prospect theory to end-of-life decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Laraine; Parker, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    As a substantial body of research attests, the acceptability of life-prolonging treatment (e.g., tube feeding) tends to be greater among people in worse health than among healthier ones. Because a decision for or against a life-prolonging treatment represents a choice between two prospects-life (usually in poor health) and death-we propose a decision model, Prospect Theory, as a theoretical account of this phenomenon. Prospect Theory postulates that pairs of distant prospects are less distinguishable than pairs of closer ones. Thus, to healthy individuals, the prospects of death and life in poor health would both be remote, and therefore, the distinction between them, small. To less healthy individuals, however, the difference between the same pairs of prospects would appear greater, and therefore, life-prolonging treatment may be more acceptable. In a cross-sectional study of 304 community-dwelling people, aged 60 years and over in the Philadelphia area, USA, preferences for 4 life-prolonging treatments in 9 health scenarios were examined in relation to participants' current health, operationalized as number of deficits in physical functioning. As predicted, less healthy people expressed stronger preferences for all life-prolonging treatments compared with healthier ones, with differences greatest in the worse-health scenarios. Preferences also varied by health scenario, with any treatment preferred in the better health scenarios. Treatment preferences did not differ by type of treatment, depressed mood or any demographic characteristic except race, with African-Americans expressing stronger treatment preferences. Implications for advance care planning are discussed.

  15. Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Rosselli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Language development has been correlated with specific changes in brain development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the linguistic-brain associations that occur from birth through senescence. Findings from the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature are reviewed, and the relationship of language changes observable in human development and the corresponding brain maturation processes across age groups are examined. Two major dimensions of language development are highlighted: naming (considered a major measure of lexical knowledge and verbal fluency (regarded as a major measure of language production ability. Developmental changes in the brain lateralization of language are discussed, emphasizing that in early life there is an increase in functional brain asymmetry for language, but that this asymmetry changes over time, and that changes in the volume of gray and white matter are age-sensitive. The effects of certain specific variables, such as gender, level of education, and bilingualism are also analyzed. General conclusions are presented and directions for future research are suggested.

  16. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sparks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn, is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug’s gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål. Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes.

  17. The relationship of cancer mortality to life span and food supply rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totter, J.R.; Adler, H.I.; Storer, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Survival curves for men and women dying from cardiovascular disease and similar curves for those dying from cancer in 47 countries were compared with the 1970-1974 per capita incomes of the inhabitants. The data were taken chiefly from 1964 life tables. The steepest survival curves were found in countries with the highest incomes. Comparison of the survival curves in different countries and comparison of cardiovascular survival with cancer survival curves indicate that both groups of diseases are probably diseases of senescence. The differences in survival slopes are interpreted as homeostatic responses in the population to rate of food intake. The response protects the population against long-term effects of changes in food supply by promoting differential reproduction of offspring best suited to the food supply rate fro the environment. The response to food supply rate complicates calculation of the effects of protracted exposure to low-level ionizing radiation because the radiation exposure appears to mimic the effec of extra food

  18. The size effect in corrosion greatly influences the predicted life span of concrete infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Ueli M; Elsener, Bernhard

    2017-08-01

    Forecasting the life of concrete infrastructures in corrosive environments presents a long-standing and socially relevant challenge in science and engineering. Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is the main cause for premature degradation of concrete infrastructures worldwide. Since the middle of the past century, this challenge has been tackled by using a conceptual approach relying on a threshold chloride concentration for corrosion initiation ( C crit ). All state-of-the-art models for forecasting chloride-induced steel corrosion in concrete are based on this concept. We present an experiment that shows that C crit depends strongly on the exposed steel surface area. The smaller the tested specimen is, the higher and the more variable C crit becomes. This size effect in the ability of reinforced concrete to withstand corrosion can be explained by the local conditions at the steel-concrete interface, which exhibit pronounced spatial variability. The size effect has major implications for the future use of the common concept of C crit . It questions the applicability of laboratory results to engineering structures and the reproducibility of typically small-scale laboratory testing. Finally, we show that the weakest link theory is suitable to transform C crit from small to large dimensions, which lays the basis for taking the size effect into account in the science and engineering of forecasting the durability of infrastructures.

  19. The relationship between women's body satisfaction and self-image across the life span: the role of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jessica; Tiggemann, Marika

    2003-06-01

    The authors examined the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-image across the life span. A sample of 106 women between the ages of 20 and 65 years completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, body importance, cognitive control over the body, self-concept, and self-esteem. The authors found that body dissatisfaction and body importance did not differ among the groups of women who were younger, middle aged, and older. Although body dissatisfaction was related to self-concept and self-esteem for the entire sample, the strength of that relationship reduced with increasing age and increasing perceptions of cognitive control. The authors concluded that the cognitive strategies of women who were older protect their self-concept and self-esteem from the influence of body dissatisfaction.

  20. Tissue characteristics of high- and low-incidence plutonium-induced osteogenic sarcoma sites in life-span beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.; Jee, W.S.S.; Smith, J.M.; Wronski, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of information gathered from the 239 Pu life-span study in beagles at the University of Utah, the tissue features were found to be characteristic of high-incidence bone-tumor sites compared to low-incidence sites included more hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow; greater trabecular bone mass; greater bone remodeling rates; greater mineral apposition rates; greater density and activity of bone surface cells; greater density of putative bone-cell precursors; greater initial uptake of plutonium on bone surfaces; and greater marrow vascular volumes and a venous sinusoidal bed. Although most of these studies are not yet complete, the information being collected should contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of radiation-induced osteogenic sarcomas. This should aid in predicting the types and characteristics of osseous tissues where radiation-induced osteogenic sarcomas may arise in humans. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Life span study. Report Number 1. Description of study mortality in the medical subsample, October 1950-June 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W; Ishida, Morihiro; Jablon, Seymour

    1961-02-15

    The Life Span Study is designed to evaluate the late mortality effects of the radiation and other trauma received by the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs. No evidence of higher general mortality was seen in the more heavily irradiated groups. When mortality from specific causes were studied the well known leukemogenic properties of radiation were clearly reflected, but for no other causes of death were radiation effects seen. An apparent effect in the area of anemia seems, at least in part, to result from diagnostic difficulties in the blood dyscrasias, inasmuch as some leukemias were so classified. It is also possible that for the blood forming organs the effects of radiation go somewhat beyond the production of classical leukemia. More intensive study of a very much larger body of data is now under way. 41 references, 1 figure, 22 tables.

  2. Statistical modeling of biomedical corpora: mining the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center Bibliography for genes related to life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan MI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The statistical modeling of biomedical corpora could yield integrated, coarse-to-fine views of biological phenomena that complement discoveries made from analysis of molecular sequence and profiling data. Here, the potential of such modeling is demonstrated by examining the 5,225 free-text items in the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center (CGC Bibliography using techniques from statistical information retrieval. Items in the CGC biomedical text corpus were modeled using the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model. LDA is a hierarchical Bayesian model which represents a document as a random mixture over latent topics; each topic is characterized by a distribution over words. Results An LDA model estimated from CGC items had better predictive performance than two standard models (unigram and mixture of unigrams trained using the same data. To illustrate the practical utility of LDA models of biomedical corpora, a trained CGC LDA model was used for a retrospective study of nematode genes known to be associated with life span modification. Corpus-, document-, and word-level LDA parameters were combined with terms from the Gene Ontology to enhance the explanatory value of the CGC LDA model, and to suggest additional candidates for age-related genes. A novel, pairwise document similarity measure based on the posterior distribution on the topic simplex was formulated and used to search the CGC database for "homologs" of a "query" document discussing the life span-modifying clk-2 gene. Inspection of these document homologs enabled and facilitated the production of hypotheses about the function and role of clk-2. Conclusion Like other graphical models for genetic, genomic and other types of biological data, LDA provides a method for extracting unanticipated insights and generating predictions amenable to subsequent experimental validation.

  3. The Effect of ACP₁-ADA₁ Genetic Interaction on Human Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Nazzareno; Napolioni, Valerio; Magrini, Andrea; Gloria, Fulvia

    2012-12-01

    Acid phosphatase (ACP₁) is a polymorphic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of flavin-mononucleotide (FMN) to riboflavin and regulates the cellular concentration of flavin-adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and, consequently, energy metabolism. Its activity is modulated by adenosine deaminase locus 1 (ADA₁) genotype. The aim of our work is to verify whether individuals with a high proportion of ACP₁ f-isozyme and carrying the ADA₁*2 allele, displaying the highest phosphatase activity, may have a higher life expectancy. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 569 females and 509 males (18 to 106 years of age) randomly recruited from Central Italy. These samples were subdivided into three sex-specific age groups (the ages of women are in square bracket): Class 1: age 88 [>91]. ACP₁and ADA₁ singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) methods and statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 14.0. The results showed a larger proportion of Class 3 individuals displaying high ACP₁ f-isozyme concentration and carrying the ADA₁*2 allele than those individuals of Class 2 and Class 2 plus Class 1. Thus, we postulate that in Class 3 individuals the high phosphatase activity, resulting from the combined presence of high ACP₁ f-isozyme concentration and the ADA₁*2 allele, lowers the rate of glycolysis that may reduce the amount of metabolic calories and, in turn, activate Sirtuin genes that protect cells against age-related diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  4. NAC-NOR mutations in tomato Penjar accessions attenuate multiple metabolic processes and prolong the fruit shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Tamboli, Vajir; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2018-09-01

    Several Penjar accessions of tomato grown in the Mediterranean exhibit prolonged shelf life and harbor alcobaca mutation. To uncover the metabolic basis underlying shelf life, we compared four Penjar accessions to Ailsa Craig. Three accessions bore alcobaca mutation, whereas the fourth was a novel NAC-NOR allele. Cuticle composition of Penjars varied widely during fruit ripening. All Penjars exhibited delayed ripening, prolonged on-vine and off-vine shelf life, low ethylene emission, and carotenoid levels. Metabolic profiling revealed shifts in Krebs cycle intermediates, amino acids, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels indicating the attenuation of respiration in Penjars during post-harvest storage. Penjar fruits also showed concerted downregulation of several cell-wall modifying genes and related metabolites. The high ABA and sucrose levels at the onset of senescence in Penjar fruits likely contribute to reduced water loss. Our analyses reveal that the attenuation of various metabolic processes by NAC-NOR mutation likely prolongs the shelf life of Penjar fruits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Late effects of selected immunosuppressants on immunocompetence, disease incidence, and mean life-span. III. Disease incidence and life expectancy. [Mice, x radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, C P; Perkins, E H; Peterson, W J; Walburg, H E; Makinodan, T

    1975-01-01

    The effect of various immunosuppressive treatments on mean life-span and disease incidence have been studied. Significant life shortening was seen only in mice which received X-irradiation early in life and can be ascribed primarily to an increased incidence of certain malignancies. Marginal life shortening was seen in cyclophosphamide-treated animals, however, survival patterns between those and control animals did not differ until 30 months of age and the magnitude of life-shortening never approached that seen in X-irradiated animals. Thymectomy, splenectomy or cortisone treatment did not alter survival. All immunosuppressive treatments enhanced mortality due to non-neoplastic diseases, however, only a small percentage of animals die with these disease entities. With the exception of cortisone all immunosuppressive treatments increased the incidence of neoplastic disease. However, their effects on various neoplastic processes were variable and unpredictable. Four primary patterns in terms of relative immune competence, disease incidence and life expectancy were seen. Thus, immunodepression may or may not correlate with increased disease incidence, which in turn may or may not have a life-shortening effect. These findings are discussed in terms of the marked reduction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity normally seen in aged mice and the significance of postulated immune surveillance mechanisms to survival.

  6. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  7. Genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, biosynthetic, and tRNA methylation genes involved in life span regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chronological life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which measures the survival of populations of non-dividing yeast, has resulted in the identification of homologous genes and pathways that promote aging in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Using a competitive genome-wide approach, we performed a screen of a complete set of approximately 4,800 viable deletion mutants to identify genes that either increase or decrease chronological life span. Half of the putative short-/long-lived mutants retested from the primary screen were confirmed, demonstrating the utility of our approach. Deletion of genes involved in vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, and mitochondrial function shortened life span, confirming that respiration and degradation processes are essential for long-term survival. Among the genes whose deletion significantly extended life span are ACB1, CKA2, and TRM9, implicated in fatty acid transport and biosynthesis, cell signaling, and tRNA methylation, respectively. Deletion of these genes conferred heat-shock resistance, supporting the link between life span extension and cellular protection observed in several model organisms. The high degree of conservation of these novel yeast longevity determinants in other species raises the possibility that their role in senescence might be conserved.

  8. Genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, biosynthetic, and tRNA methylation genes involved in life span regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Paola; Hoon, Shawn; Shamalnasab, Mehrnaz; Galbani, Abdulaye; Wei, Min; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Longo, Valter D

    2010-07-15

    The study of the chronological life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which measures the survival of populations of non-dividing yeast, has resulted in the identification of homologous genes and pathways that promote aging in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Using a competitive genome-wide approach, we performed a screen of a complete set of approximately 4,800 viable deletion mutants to identify genes that either increase or decrease chronological life span. Half of the putative short-/long-lived mutants retested from the primary screen were confirmed, demonstrating the utility of our approach. Deletion of genes involved in vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, and mitochondrial function shortened life span, confirming that respiration and degradation processes are essential for long-term survival. Among the genes whose deletion significantly extended life span are ACB1, CKA2, and TRM9, implicated in fatty acid transport and biosynthesis, cell signaling, and tRNA methylation, respectively. Deletion of these genes conferred heat-shock resistance, supporting the link between life span extension and cellular protection observed in several model organisms. The high degree of conservation of these novel yeast longevity determinants in other species raises the possibility that their role in senescence might be conserved.

  9. Life Threatening Severe QTc Prolongation in Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus due to Hydroxychloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. O’Laughlin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a syncopal episode resulting from significant QT interval prolongation in a patient on hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and end stage renal disease. The patient had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for two years prior to presentation. After thorough workup for secondary causes of QT interval prolongation hydroxychloroquine was discontinued and the patient’s QT interval shortened. The patient was treated with mexiletine to prevent sudden ventricular arrhythmias, which was unique compared to other documented cases in which lidocaine was used. The patient was noted to have mild prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiogram prior to initiation of hydroxychloroquine therapy which was exacerbated by its use and may have been caused due to toxicity from underlying renal failure.

  10. Implications of extreme life span in clonal organisms: millenary clones in meadows of the threatened seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Arnaud-Haond

    Full Text Available The maximum size and age that clonal organisms can reach remains poorly known, although we do know that the largest natural clones can extend over hundreds or thousands of metres and potentially live for centuries. We made a review of findings to date, which reveal that the maximum clone age and size estimates reported in the literature are typically limited by the scale of sampling, and may grossly underestimate the maximum age and size of clonal organisms. A case study presented here shows the occurrence of clones of slow-growing marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica at spatial scales ranging from metres to hundreds of kilometres, using microsatellites on 1544 sampling units from a total of 40 locations across the Mediterranean Sea. This analysis revealed the presence, with a prevalence of 3.5 to 8.9%, of very large clones spreading over one to several (up to 15 kilometres at the different locations. Using estimates from field studies and models of the clonal growth of P. oceanica, we estimated these large clones to be hundreds to thousands of years old, suggesting the evolution of general purpose genotypes with large phenotypic plasticity in this species. These results, obtained combining genetics, demography and model-based calculations, question present knowledge and understanding of the spreading capacity and life span of plant clones. These findings call for further research on these life history traits associated with clonality, considering their possible ecological and evolutionary implications.

  11. Life span study, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.; Kato, Hiroo; Land, C.E.

    1978-02-01

    Since the last report, covering the experience of the 82,000 A-bomb survivors for the period 1950-72, there have been 1,704 deaths (by 30 September 1974) and total deaths now stand at 20,230 since 1 October 1950. For cancer the increase was 390 and the new total 3,957. The entire 1950-74 mortality experience, supplemented by tumor registry information for Hiroshima (1957-70) and Nagasaki (1958-70), has been re-analyzed. The leukemogenic effect that dominated any consideration of late mortality effects until recently had now been exceeded by the effect of radiation on forms of cancer other than leukemia. At the end of 1974 excess deaths numbered about 85 for leukemia and 100 for other forms of cancer among the 82,000 A-bomb survivors under study. Sites of cancer that seemed especially involved in the continued increase in absolute risk estimates for all forms of cancer except leukemia were the respiratory organs, and the digestive organs. Under the linear hypothesis, which is far from proved for any form of cancer, except perhaps leukemia in Hiroshima, the estimated absolute risk for all forms of cancer, including leukemia, would suggest that the A-bomb survivor population of 285,000 registrants at the time of the 1950 census may have experienced 400 or 500 deaths from cancer induced by radiation in addition to perhaps 69,000 naturally occurring deaths in the interval 1950-74. (author)

  12. "Life-span development of visual working memory: When is feature binding difficult?": Correction to Cowan et al. (2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reports an error in "Life-span development of visual working memory: When is feature binding difficult?" by Nelson Cowan, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Angela Kilb and J. Scott Saults ( Developmental Psychology , 2006[Nov], Vol 42[6], 1089-1102). In the article, there were two errors in experiment 1a. The mean for color item information in older adults was incorrectly calculated. As a result, Figure 3 shows a mean of over .70. The true mean was .63 ( SEM =.04). This change diminishes the magnitude of the aging deficit for associative information, although this deficit still appears to remain, to a smaller extent. (For a conceptual replication see Peterson & Naveh-Benjamin, 2016). There also was an error in the experimental procedure of Experiment 1a. The older adults in that experiment received only half the number of trials specified in the methods section, and half as much as the other groups. For all groups, when there were 4 or 6 items and the probe was a binding change, the probed location was matched by the same color at 1 other location but, when there were 8 or 10 squares, the probed location was matched by the same color at 1, 2, or 3 other locations. For 8 squares the number of trials was identical for these three trial subtypes whereas, for 10 squares, most of the trials had the same color at just 1 other location. These errors suggest that the experiment should be taken as only preliminary evidence that there is an aging deficit in color-location binding in visual working memory when color and binding trials are mixed in the same trial blocks. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-20488-009.) We asked whether the ability to keep in working memory the binding between a visual object and its spatial location changes with development across the life span more than memory for item information. Paired arrays of colored squares were identical or differed in the color of one square, and in the latter case, the changed color was unique

  13. [Genome loses all 5-methylcytosine a life span. How is this connected with accumulation of mutations during aging?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, A L

    1993-01-01

    The 5-methylcytosine (5mC) content in liver DNA has been determined for rats of different age. The rate of the 5mC loss from DNA is maximal in pre- and neonatal rats, 1.28% of reduction of the 5mC content per day, then it decreases to 0.33% and becomes minimal and constant in adult rats, 0.028% per day. During pregnancy and the first 15 days of postnatal development rat genome loses 49% of all 5mC. Within the next 45 days 15% of 5mC disappears, and during maximal rat life span, about four years, 39% of the genomic 5mC may be lost. Thus, it has been found for the first time that the animal genome loses practically all 5mC residues during the life span. Analysis of the literature data shows that for embryos the rate of the 5mC loss from DNA proves to be higher than that for adult animals by 96 times for mice, 69-for rats and 28-for cows. The rate of embryonal DNA hypomethylation may be inversely proportional to the pregnancy duration of species. In adult animals the rate inversely correlates with their maximal life span and accounts for the 5mC loss from DNA of a mouse by 0.028%, of a rat by 0.024%, of a hamster by 0.007%, of a cow by 0.004% and of a human being by 0.0005% per day. During the entire ontogenesis, the genome of a mouse loses 93% of all 5mC residues, that of a rat-101% and of a cow-88%. The age-dependent loss of 5mC from DNA is also typical for cell lines aging in vitro. It is constant, as a rule, and correlates with the number of cell population doublings (PD). The removal of all 5mC from DNA corresponds to 70-130 PD for human, 40-60 PD-for hamster and 6 PD- for mouse cells. In immortal lines the level of DNA methylation is stable or grows with age. A possible mechanism of an age-related 5mC loss from DNA is discussed. DNA hypomethylation may result from 5mC deamination directly at the moment of replicative DNA methylation and subsequent reparation of the G.T mispairs which leads to accumulation of the 5mC-->T+C substitutions in the genome with each

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-α and IFN-γ immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds

  15. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Zachary J; Kim, Agnes; Huang, Liquan; Brand, Joseph; Wang, Hong

    2010-06-10

    The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds, the niche for taste progenitor

  16. The concept of homology as a basis for evaluating developmental mechanisms: exploring selective attention across the life-span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E

    2013-01-01

    Research with human infants as well as non-human animal embryos and infants has consistently demonstrated the benefits of intersensory redundancy for perceptual learning and memory for redundantly specified information during early development. Studies of infant affect discrimination, face discrimination, numerical discrimination, sequence detection, abstract rule learning, and word comprehension and segmentation have all shown that intersensory redundancy promotes earlier detection of these properties when compared to unimodal exposure to the same properties. Here we explore the idea that such intersensory facilitation is evident across the life-span and that this continuity is an example of a developmental behavioral homology. We present evidence that intersensory facilitation is most apparent during early phases of learning for a variety of tasks, regardless of developmental level, including domains that are novel or tasks that require discrimination of fine detail or speeded responses. Under these conditions, infants, children, and adults all show intersensory facilitation, suggesting a developmental homology. We discuss the challenge and propose strategies for establishing appropriate guidelines for identifying developmental behavioral homologies. We conclude that evaluating the extent to which continuities observed across development are homologous can contribute to a better understanding of the processes of development. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A review of methionine dependency and the role of methionine restriction in cancer growth control and life-span extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoto, Paul; Fenech, Michael F

    2012-10-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid with many key roles in mammalian metabolism such as protein synthesis, methylation of DNA and polyamine synthesis. Restriction of methionine may be an important strategy in cancer growth control particularly in cancers that exhibit dependence on methionine for survival and proliferation. Methionine dependence in cancer may be due to one or a combination of deletions, polymorphisms or alterations in expression of genes in the methionine de novo and salvage pathways. Cancer cells with these defects are unable to regenerate methionine via these pathways. Defects in the metabolism of folate may also contribute to the methionine dependence phenotype in cancer. Selective killing of methionine dependent cancer cells in co-culture with normal cells has been demonstrated using culture media deficient in methionine. Several animal studies utilizing a methionine restricted diet have reported inhibition of cancer growth and extension of a healthy life-span. In humans, vegan diets, which can be low in methionine, may prove to be a useful nutritional strategy in cancer growth control. The development of methioninase which depletes circulating levels of methionine may be another useful strategy in limiting cancer growth. The application of nutritional methionine restriction and methioninase in combination with chemotherapeutic regimens is the current focus of clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Life span prediction from the rate of age-related DNA demethylation in normal and cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, A L

    1995-01-01

    A method has been proposed for the Hayflick Limit prediction by the analysis of the 5-methylcytosine content in DNA at earlier and later cell passages. The following facts were used as the basis of the method: (i) the rate of m5C loss from DNA remains approximately constant during cell divisions and it does not depend on the cell donor age; (ii) this rate is inversely proportional to the Hayflick Limit as well as to the life span of cell donor species; (iii) the period corresponded to loss of all m5C residues from the genome coincides with or somewhat exceeds the Hayflick Limit of normal cells. The prognosis of the Hayflick Limit has usually been found in good agreement with the experimental evidences for various human, hamster, and mouse cell lines. The method proposed may be used for early detection of precrisis and cancer cells. The age-related m5C loss may result from accumulation of the m5C-->T+C transitions occurring with DNA methylation in every cell division.

  19. The Importance of Leisure Activities in the Relationship between Physical Health and Well-Being in a Life Span Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Michelle E; Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined the relationships between physical health and leisure activities and between leisure activities and well-being, but, to our knowledge, none has examined these relationships simultaneously. This study investigated the relationships between leisure activities, health and well-being considering the role of age, and whether leisure activities mediate the relationship between physical health and well-being. Utilizing a cross-sectional database of 259 adults (ages 18-81 years) who completed several questionnaires, linear regression models and mediation models were tested. Regression analyses indicated that physical health was related to leisure activities and leisure activities were related to well-being. When physical health was measured by subjective ratings, age had a stronger relationship with leisure activities. However, when physical health was indicated by health restrictions, physical health had a stronger relationship with leisure activities than did age. Leisure activities were a partial mediator of the relationship between physical health and well-being. The results demonstrated that the reduction in leisure activities with age has more to do with physical health limitations than with older age itself. In addition, regardless of age, the benefits of physical health for well-being are due in part to the level of leisure activity participation. These results highlight the importance of leisure activities for successful aging throughout the adult life span. Interventions designed to improve well-being through increasing leisure activity participation should take physical health into consideration, particularly for older adults. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The ALS-associated proteins FUS and TDP-43 function together to affect Drosophila locomotion and life span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Wu; Brent, Jonathan R.; Tomlinson, Andrew; Shneider, Neil A.; McCabe, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The fatal adult motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) shares some clinical and pathological overlap with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder. The RNA/DNA-binding proteins fused in sarcoma (FUS; also known as TLS) and TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) have recently been shown to be genetically and pathologically associated with familial forms of ALS and FTD. It is currently unknown whether perturbation of these proteins results in disease through mechanisms that are independent of normal protein function or via the pathophysiological disruption of molecular processes in which they are both critical. Here, we report that Drosophila mutants in which the homolog of FUS is disrupted exhibit decreased adult viability, diminished locomotor speed, and reduced life span compared with controls. These phenotypes were fully rescued by wild-type human FUS, but not ALS-associated mutant FUS proteins. A mutant of the Drosophila homolog of TDP-43 had similar, but more severe, deficits. Through cross-rescue analysis, we demonstrated that FUS acted together with and downstream of TDP-43 in a common genetic pathway in neurons. Furthermore, we found that these proteins associated with each other in an RNA-dependent complex. Our results establish that FUS and TDP-43 function together in vivo and suggest that molecular pathways requiring the combined activities of both of these proteins may be disrupted in ALS and FTD. PMID:21881207

  1. How much should we weigh for a long and healthy life span?The need to reconcile caloric restriction versus longevity with body mass index versus mortality data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello eLorenzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Total caloric restriction (CR without malnutrition is a well-established experimental approach to extend life span in laboratory animals. Although CR in humans is capable of shifting several endocrinological parameters it is not clear where the minimum inflection point of the U shaped curve linking body mass index (BMI with all-cause mortality lies. The exact trend of this curve, when used for planning preventive strategies for public health is of extreme importance. Normal BMI ranges from 18.5 to 24.9; many epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between mortality and BMI inside the normal BMI range. Other studies show that the lowest mortality in the entire range of BMI is obtained in the overweight range (25 to 29.9. Reconciling the extension of life span in laboratory animals by experimental CR with the BMI-mortality curve of human epidemiology is not trivial. In fact, one interpretation is that the CR data are identifying a known: excess fat is deleterious for health; although a second interpretation may be that: additional leanness from a normal body weight may add health and life span delaying the process of aging. This short review hope to start a discussion aimed at finding the widest consensus on which weight range should be consider the healthiest for our species, contributing in this way to the picture of what is the correct life style for a long and healthy life span.

  2. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  3. Effects of shortened host life span on the evolution of parasite life history and virulence in a microbial host-parasite system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koella Jacob C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological factors play an important role in the evolution of parasite exploitation strategies. A common prediction is that, as shorter host life span reduces future opportunities of transmission, parasites compensate with an evolutionary shift towards earlier transmission. They may grow more rapidly within the host, have a shorter latency time and, consequently, be more virulent. Thus, increased extrinsic (i.e., not caused by the parasite host mortality leads to the evolution of more virulent parasites. To test these predictions, we performed a serial transfer experiment, using the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and its bacterial parasite Holospora undulata. We simulated variation in host life span by killing hosts after 11 (early killing or 14 (late killing days post inoculation; after killing, parasite transmission stages were collected and used for a new infection cycle. Results After 13 cycles (≈ 300 generations, parasites from the early-killing treatment were less infectious, but had shorter latency time and higher virulence than those from the late-killing treatment. Overall, shorter latency time was associated with higher parasite loads and thus presumably with more rapid within-host replication. Conclusion The analysis of the means of the two treatments is thus consistent with theory, and suggests that evolution is constrained by trade-offs between virulence, transmission and within-host growth. In contrast, we found little evidence for such trade-offs across parasite selection lines within treatments; thus, to some extent, these traits may evolve independently. This study illustrates how environmental variation (experienced by the host can lead to the evolution of distinct parasite strategies.

  4. dSir2 in the Adult Fat Body, but Not in Muscles, Regulates Life Span in a Diet-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Kr. Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sir2, an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been implicated as a key factor in mediating organismal life span. However, recent contradictory findings have brought into question the role of Sir2 and its orthologs in regulating organismal longevity. In this study, we report that Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2 in the adult fat body regulates longevity in a diet-dependent manner. We used inducible Gal4 drivers to knock down and overexpress dSir2 in a tissue-specific manner. A diet-dependent life span phenotype of dSir2 perturbations (both knockdown and overexpression in the fat body, but not muscles, negates the effects of background genetic mutations. In addition to providing clarity to the field, our study contrasts the ability of dSir2 in two metabolic tissues to affect longevity. We also show that dSir2 knockdown abrogates fat-body dFOXO-dependent life span extension. This report highlights the importance of the interplay between genetic factors and dietary inputs in determining organismal life spans.

  5. Is the thrombopoietin assay useful for differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia? Analysis of a cohort of 160 patients with thrombocytopenia and defined platelet life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin-Thibault, I; Cassinat, B; Chomienne, C; Rain, J D; Najean, Y; Schlageter, M H

    2001-09-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO), the major hormone controlling platelet production, has been measured in thrombocytopenias with discordant results. The aim of our work was to assess the value of the TPO assay for differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenias in a large cohort of patients classified according to the results of their platelet isotopic study. We measured TPO (R&D Systems) in serum of 160 thrombocytopenic patients referred to our department for platelet life span isotopic studies. We classified patients as follows: (a) idiopathic or autoimmune thrombocytopenia group (ITP; patients with increased platelet destruction and shortened platelet life span; n = 67); (b) pure genetic thrombocytopenia group (patients with decreased platelet production, normal platelet life span, and without bone marrow aplasia; n = 55); (c) bone marrow aplasia group (BM; patients with decreased platelet production, normal platelet life span, and bone marrow aplasia; n = 13). In patients with pure genetic thrombocytopenia, TPO (median, 55 ng/L) was not different from TPO in patients with ITP (median, 58 ng/L) or controls (n = 54; median, 51 ng/L). Only in patients with bone marrow aplasia was TPO significantly higher (median, 155 ng/L) and negatively correlated to the platelet count (r(2) = 0.5014). Although the median serum TPO is increased in thrombocytopenia with decreased platelet production from bone marrow aplasia, it does not differentiate patients with pure genetic thrombocytopenia from those with ITP.

  6. Developmental and age-specific effects of selection on divergent virgin life span on fat content and starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Cornelis; Van de Zande, Louis; Bijlsma, R.

    Investigations into the genetic basis of longevity variation have shown life span to be positively correlated with starvation resistance and negatively with female fecundity, both of which rely on lipid content. To assess the firmness of this relation, we assayed correlated responses in age-specific

  7. Pervasive gene expression responses to a fluctuating diet in Drosophila melanogaster: The importance of measuring multiple traits to decouple potential mediators of life span and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandveld, Jelle; van den Heuvel, Joost; Mulder, Maarten; Brakefield, Paul M; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Shanley, Daryl P; Zwaan, Bas J

    2017-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is an important concept in life-history evolution, and most organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster, show a plastic life-history response to diet. However, little is known about how these life-history responses are mediated. In this study, we compared adult female flies fed an alternating diet (yoyo flies) with flies fed a constant low (CL) or high (CH) diet and tested how whole genome expression was affected by these diet regimes and how the transcriptional responses related to different life-history traits. We showed that flies were able to respond quickly to diet fluctuations throughout life span by drastically changing their transcription. Importantly, by measuring the response of multiple life-history traits we were able to decouple groups of genes associated with life span or reproduction, life-history traits that often covary with a diet change. A coexpression network analysis uncovered which genes underpin the separate and shared regulation of these life-history traits. Our study provides essential insights to help unravel the genetic architecture mediating life-history responses to diet, and it shows that the flies' whole genome transcription response is highly plastic. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study. Report 2. Mortality in selection I and II, October 1950-September 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablon, S; Ishida, Morihiro; Beebe, G W

    1963-01-23

    The present JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study is based on a sample of about 100,000 persons consisting of survivors 0 to 2499m of the hypocenter together with persons more distally located and persons not present in either city ATB. Followup is maintained by consulting official family registers kept by local authorities in Japan. Mortality rates calculated from the present data agree fairly well with Japanese national rates for 1955. Total mortality rates are not grossly different between survivors who were located at various distances, but nonexposed persons, especially males, have much lower mortality rates than do survivors. This difference is attributable to much lower mortality from tuberculosis. Leukemia mortality rates calculated from the present data confirm the well known facts as to the leukemogenic effects of radiation from the atomic bombs on survivors. Mortality from malignant neoplasms other than leukemia found by the present study differs in major ways from what would be expected from data of the Hiroshima Tumor Registry previously published by Harada and Ishida. Instead of a general increase of rather large magnitude in tumors of all sites among heavily irradiated survivors, an effect of moderate magnitude (though quite definite) is found among Hiroshima females. Among survivors nearest the hypocenter no convincing evidence was found of elevation in mortality rates for natural causes exclusive of neoplasms. Definitely increased death rates for aplastic anemia were found, especially in Nagasaki. This probably results from diagnostic difficulties in distinguishing between this disease and leukemia. Mortality from tuberculosis was elevated among male survivors 0 to 1399m in both cities, but especially in Hiroshima. 13 references, 14 figures, 16 tables.

  9. Evaluation of platelet thromboxane radioimmunoassay method to measure platelet life-span: Comparison with /sup 111/indium-platelet method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Machac, J.; Badimon, L.; Lipszyc, H.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1985-01-01

    The platelet activation during radiolabeling in vitro with Cr-51 and In-111 may affect the platelet life-span (PLS) in vivo. A new RIA method to measure PLS is being evaluated. Aspirin inhibits platelet thromboxane (TxA/sub 2/) by acetylating cyclooxygenase. The time required for the TxA/sub 2/ levels to return towards control values depends on the rate of new platelets entering circulation and is a measure of PLS. A single dose of aspirin (150mg) was given to 5 normal human subjects. Blood samples were collected for 2 days before aspirin and daily for 10 days. TxA/sub 2/ production in response to endogenous thrombin was studied by allowing 1 ml blood sample to clot at 37 0 C for 90 min. Serum TxB/sub 2/ (stable breakdown product of Tx-A/sub 2/) levels determined by RIA technique. The plot of TxB/sub 2/ levels (% control) against time showed a gradual increase. The PLS calculated by linear regression analysis assuming a 2-day lag period before cyclooxygenase recovery is 9.7 +- 2.37. In the same 5 subjects, platelets from a 50ml blood sample were labeled with /sup 111/In-tropolone in 2 ml autologous plasma. Starting at 1 hr after injection of labeled platelets, 10 blood samples were obtained over a 8 day period. The PLS calculated based on a linear regression analysis is 10.2 +. 1.4. The PLS measured from the rate of platelet disappearance from circulation and the rate of platelet regeneration into circulation are quite comparable in normal subjects. TxA/sub 2/ regeneration RIA may provide a method to measure PLS without administering radioactivity to patient

  10. Life span study report 11. part 3. noncancer mortality, 1950-85, based on the revised doses (DS86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.; Hoel, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Deaths in the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) sample have been determined for the years 1950-85 and previous reports have described analyses of cancer mortality using the revised Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) doses (LSS Report 11, Parts 1 and 2). In this report, we examine the relationship to dose of deaths from all diseases other than cancer. Although the evidence is still limited, there seems to be an excess risk for noncancer death at high doses (2 or 3 Gy and over). Statistically, a pure quadratic or a linear-threshold model (the estimated threshold dose is 1.4 Gy [0.6-2.8 Gy] is found to fit better than a simple linear or linear-quadratic model. This increase in noncancer mortality is statistically demonstrable, generally, after 1965 and among the younger survivors (< 40) at the time of the bombings, suggesting a sensitivity in this age group. For specific causes of death, an excess relative risk at the high dose level, that is, ≥ 2 Gy, is seen in circulatory and digestive diseases. The relative risk is, however, much smaller than that for cancer. These findings, based as they are on death certificates, have their limitations. Most significant, perhaps, is the possible erroneous attribution of radiation-related cancer deaths to other causes. At present, the contribution such errors may make to the apparent increase in noncancer deaths at the high doses cannot be estimated as rigorously as is obviously desirable. However, even now, this increase does not appear to be fully explicable in terms of classificatory errors. (J.P.N.)

  11. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  12. Effects of PPP1R1B (DARPP-32 Polymorphism on Feedback-related Brain Potentials across the Life Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea eHämmerer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing gains during probabilistic reinforcement learning requires the updating of choice–outcome expectations at the time when the feedback about a specific choice or action is given. Extant theories and evidence suggest that dopaminergic modulation plays a crucial role in reinforcement learning and the updating of choice–outcome expectations. Furthermore, recently a positive component of the event-related potential (ERP about 200 msec (P2 after feedback has been suggested to reflect such updating. The efficacy of dopaminergic modulation changes across the life span. However, to date investigations of age-related differences in feedback-related P2 during reinforcement learning are still scarce. The present study thus aims to investigate whether individual differences in the feedback-related P2 would be associated with polymorphic variations in a dopamine relevant gene PPP1R1B (also known as DARPP-32 and whether the genetic effect may differ between age groups. We observed larger P2 amplitudes in individuals carrying the genotype associated with higher dopamine receptor efficacy, i.e., A allele homozygotes of a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs907094 of the PPP1R1B gene. Moreover, this effect was more pronounced in children and older adults in comparison to adolescents and younger adults. Together, our findings indicate that polymorphic variations in a dopamine relevant gene are associated with individual differences in brain-evoked potentials of outcome updating and hint at the possibility that genotype effects on neurocognitive phenotypes may vary as a function of brain maturation and aging.

  13. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Peter B; Walters, Michael B; Ellsworth, David S; Vose, James M; Volin, John C; Gresham, Charles; Bowman, William D

    1998-05-01

    Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, we hypothesized that variation among species in leaf dark respiration rate (R d ) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic capacity (A max ). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is similar among disparate biomes and plant functional types. We tested this idea by examining the interspecific relationships between R d measured at a standard temperature and leaf life-span, N, SLA and A max for 69 species from four functional groups (forbs, broad-leafed trees and shrubs, and needle-leafed conifers) in six biomes traversing the Americas: alpine tundra/subalpine forest, Colorado; cold temperate forest/grassland, Wisconsin; cool temperate forest, North Carolina; desert/shrubland, New Mexico; subtropical forest, South Carolina; and tropical rain forest, Amazonas, Venezuela. Area-based R d was positively related to area-based leaf N within functional groups and for all species pooled, but not when comparing among species within any site. At all sites, mass-based R d (R d-mass ) decreased sharply with increasing leaf life-span and was positively related to SLA and mass-based A max and leaf N (leaf N mass ). These intra-biome relationships were similar in shape and slope among sites, where in each case we compared species belonging to different plant functional groups. Significant R d-mass -N mass relationships were observed in all functional groups (pooled across sites), but the relationships differed, with higher R d at any given leaf N in functional groups (such as forbs) with higher SLA and shorter leaf life-span. Regardless of biome or functional group, R d-mass was well predicted by all combinations of leaf life-span, N mass and/or SLA (r 2 ≥ 0.79, P morphological, chemical and metabolic traits.

  14. Prolonging life and delaying death: The role of physicians in the context of limited intensive care resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagshaw Sean M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Critical care is in an emerging crisis of conflict between what individuals expect and the economic burden society and government are prepared to provide. The goal of critical care support is to prevent suffering and premature death by intensive therapy of reversible illnesses within a reasonable timeframe. Recently, it has become apparent that early support in an intensive care environment can improve patient outcomes. However, life support technology has advanced, allowing physicians to prolong life (and postpone death in circumstances that were not possible in the recent past. This has been recognized by not only the medical community, but also by society at large. One corollary may be that expectations for recovery from critical illness have also become extremely high. In addition, greater numbers of patients are dying in intensive care units after having receiving prolonged durations of life-sustaining therapy. Herein lies the emerging crisis – critical care therapy must be available in a timely fashion for those who require it urgently, yet its provision is largely dependent on a finite availability of both capital and human resources. Physicians are often placed in a troubling conflict of interest by pressures to use health resources prudently while also promoting the equitable and timely access to critical care therapy. In this commentary, these issues are broadly discussed from the perspective of the individual clinician as well as that of society as a whole. The intent is to generate dialogue on the dynamic between individual clinicians navigating the complexities of how and when to use critical care support in the context of end-of-life issues, the increasing demands placed on finite critical care capacity, and the reasonable expectations of society.

  15. Health-related quality of life after prolonged pediatric intensive care unit stay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Niamh P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes for patients requiring at least 28 days of pediatric intensive care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort and prospective follow-up study. SETTING: A 21-bed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a university-affiliated, tertiary referral pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred ninety-three patients who spent 28 days or longer in the PICU between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2004. INTERVENTIONS: Quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (Peds QL 4.0) parent-proxy version at 2 to 10 yrs after discharge. The PedsQL 4.0 is a modular measure of HRQOL, which is reliable in children aged 2 to 18 yrs. It generates a total score and physical, emotional, social, school, and psychosocial subscores. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 193 patients, 41 died during their PICU admission and 27 died between PICU discharge and follow-up. Quality of life questionnaires were posted to parents of 108 of the 125 survivors and 70 were returned completed. Forty children (57.1%) had scores indicating a normal quality of life, whereas 30 (42.9%) had scores indicating impaired HRQOL. Of these, 14 (20%) had scores indicating poor quality of life with ongoing disabling health problems requiring hospitalization or the equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while long PICU stay is associated with significant mortality, the long-term HRQOL is normal for the majority of surviving children.

  16. nfi-1 affects behavior and life-span in C. elegans but is not essential for DNA replication or survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirono Keiko

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nuclear Factor I (one (NFI family of transcription/replication factors plays essential roles in mammalian gene expression and development and in adenovirus DNA replication. Because of its role in viral DNA replication NFI has long been suspected to function in host DNA synthesis. Determining the requirement for NFI proteins in mammalian DNA replication is complicated by the presence of 4 NFI genes in mice and humans. Loss of individual NFI genes in mice cause defects in brain, lung and tooth development, but the presence of 4 homologous NFI genes raises the issue of redundant roles for NFI genes in DNA replication. No NFI genes are present in bacteria, fungi or plants. However single NFI genes are present in several simple animals including Drosophila and C. elegans, making it possible to test for a requirement for NFI in multicellular eukaryotic DNA replication and development. Here we assess the functions of the single nfi-1 gene in C. elegans. Results C. elegans NFI protein (CeNFI binds specifically to the same NFI-binding site recognized by vertebrate NFIs. nfi-1 encodes alternatively-spliced, maternally-inherited transcripts that are expressed at the single cell stage, during embryogenesis, and in adult muscles, neurons and gut cells. Worms lacking nfi-1 survive but have defects in movement, pharyngeal pumping and egg-laying and have a reduced life-span. Expression of the muscle gene Ce titin is decreased in nfi-1 mutant worms. Conclusion NFI gene function is not needed for survival in C. elegans and thus NFI is likely not essential for DNA replication in multi-cellular eukaryotes. The multiple defects in motility, egg-laying, pharyngeal pumping, and reduced lifespan indicate that NFI is important for these processes. Reduction in Ce titin expression could affect muscle function in multiple tissues. The phenotype of nfi-1 null worms indicates that NFI functions in multiple developmental and behavioral systems in C

  17. Effects of prolonged fasting on fatigue and quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadifar, Masoud; Sayahi, Farnaz; Alroughani, Raed; Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Akbari, Mojtaba; Nasr, Zahra

    2016-06-01

    Fasting is one of the recommended worships of several great religions in the world. During the month of Ramadan, circadian rhythm and pattern of eating changes result in physiological, biochemical and hormonal changes in the body. Many Muslims with medical conditions ask their physicians about the feasibility and safety of fasting during Ramadan. In this study, we aim to assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on the quality of life and fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients according to McDonald's criteria who had mild disability (EDSS score ≤3) were included in this study. Fatigue and quality of life were were assessed using the validated Persian versions of modified fatigue impact scale (MFIS) and multiple sclerosis quality of life-54 (MSQOL-54) questionnaires, respectively. 218 patients (150 females and 68 males) were enrolled in our study. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean total score of MSIF before and after fasting (25.50 ± 13.81 versus 26.94 ± 16.65; p = 0.58). The mean physical health and mental health composites of quality of life increased significantly after fasting (p = 0.008 and p = 0.003 respectively). Despite the observed lack of favorable effects on fatigue, our results showed increased quality of life of MS patients once Ramadan has ended. Whether this is specifically related to Ramadan-related fasting deserves further testing in appropriately designed larger prospective clinical studies.

  18. Rituximab administration within 6 months of T cell-depleted allogeneic SCT is associated with prolonged life-threatening cytopenias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Zachariah; Stephens, Nicole; Grim, Andrew; Barrett, A John

    2010-11-01

    The monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody Rituximab (RTX) is increasingly used in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) to treat lymphoproliferative disorders and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). RTX administration can be complicated by delayed and prolonged neutropenia, but the mechanism is unclear. We report the occurrence of profound cytopenias following RTX given in the conditioning regimen or early after T cell-deplete SCT to treat B cell lymphoproliferative disorders or chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Between 2006 and 2009, 102 patients (median age: 43 years, range: 13-68 years), received a myeloablative matched-sibling T cell-deplete SCT for lymphoid or myeloid hematologic disorders. Neutropenia occurring within 4 weeks of treatment developed in 16 of 17 patients given RTX within the first 190 days after SCT. Fourteen patients developed severe neutropenia (count SCT compared to patients with cGVHD not treated with early RTX (P SCT experienced only moderate neutropenia 3 to 5 months after treatment lasting 10 to 20 days while maintaining absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1.0 × 10⁹/L. Although RTX rapidly controlled cGVHD, we conclude that its administration early after T cell-deplete SCT is associated with prolonged profound and life-threatening cytopenias, and should be avoided. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The Tölz Temporal Topography Study: mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: cognitive factors shaping visual field maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, and the size of the attention focus. Correlations with the attentional variables were substantial, particularly for variables of temporal processing. DPR thresholds depended on the size of the attention focus. The extraction of cognitive variables from the correlations between topographical variables and participant age substantially reduced those correlations. There is a systematic top-down influence on the aging of visual functions, particularly of temporal variables, that largely explains performance decline and the change of the topography over the life span.

  20. Effect of chlorella and its fractions on blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Endo, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Effects of Chlorella regularis (dried cell powder)--cultured axenically under heterotrophic conditions, and provided as a dietary supplement--and its fractions on the blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Izm) were investigated. When SHRSP were fed on diets with supplemented Chlorella to a commercial diet (Funabashi SP), elevation of blood pressure was significantly lower in the Chlorella groups than in the control group. At 21 wk of feeding, serum total cholesterol was significantly lower in the Chlorella groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination revealed cerebral vascular accidents in the brains of the control group, but those of Chlorella groups showed apparently low incidence compared to the control group. The average life-span of the Chlorella groups were significantly longer than that of the control group (p vascular function of rats.

  1. Regularity of mortality and life span of the experimental animals under the exposure of protracted internal irradiation with radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yindik, V.M.; Serkyiz, Ya.Yi.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Alyistratov, O.V.; Drozd, Yi.P.; Gerasimova, T.B.; Dudchenko, T.M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that exposure to protracted low intense irradiation with low doses, caused by radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) has negative influence on survival indices and expected life span in different groups according to age. Mortality of irradiated animals is mainly caused by development of pathological processes of tumor origin. The frequency of radiation induced tumors is the same with intact control

  2. The T?lz Temporal Topography Study: Mapping the visual field across the life span. Part II: Cognitive factors shaping visual field maps

    OpenAIRE

    Poggel, Dorothe A.; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Part I described the topography of visual performance over the life span. Performance decline was explained only partly by deterioration of the optical apparatus. Part II therefore examines the influence of higher visual and cognitive functions. Visual field maps for 95 healthy observers of static perimetry, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times, and contrast thresholds, were correlated with measures of visual attention (alertness, divided attention, spatial cueing), visual search, an...

  3. Ectopic hTERT expression extends the life span of human CD4(+) helper and regulatory T-cell clones and confers resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, Rosalie M.; Péne, Jérome; Yssel, Hans; Spits, Hergen

    2003-01-01

    Human somatic cells have a limited life span in vitro. Upon aging and with each cell division, shortening of telomeres occurs, which eventually will lead to cell cycle arrest. Ectopic hTERT expression has been shown to extend the life span of human T cells by preventing this telomere erosion. In the

  4. Changes in quality and biochemical parameters in 'Idared' apples during prolonged shelf life and 1-MCP treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Jan; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2012-12-01

    In this study, changes in quality and various biochemical parameters of 'Idared' apples during prolonged shelf life period after ultra-low oxygen (ULO) storage were investigated. Additionally, the impact of the postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on different parameters was evaluated. After the harvest, apples were stored in the ULO storage for 6 months and then exposed to room temperature. Fruit firmness, peel color, and changes in sugars, organic acids and phenolics were monitored during the 3 weeks of shelf life. Malic acid, sugars and firmness decreased at room temperature. However, the color of the apples remained unchanged. The level of citric and ascorbic acid remained constant. Levels of phenolics in the peel increased significantly, whereas remained constant in the pulp of apples. 1-MCP treatment resulted in higher amounts of fructose and glucose, malic acid and greater firmness of apples. However, 1-MCP did not influence the phenolic content, ascorbic acid or color. The results obtained indicate that the content of different health-promoting compounds of apples does not change dramatically at room temperature. At the same time these results suggest that 1-MCP could be useful for maintaining certain quality and biochemical parameters and might extend the shelf life of apples.

  5. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zheheng; Guo, Tong; Yan, Shengyou

    2015-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC) bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway...

  6. 'The brain is the organ of longevity': Introduction to G. A. Sacher's free-energy hypothesis of life-span enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    No experiment reported to date constitutes an adequate test in the sense of supplying comprehensive information on survival time, metabolic rate, food consumption and utilization, body mass, anatomical integrity (especially that of the skeletal and nervous systems), status of the immune and endocrine systems, and physiological and behavioral competence in the wake of chronic exposure to a moderately thermalizing radio field. Some reports do provide data on one or more of the important end points, usually in association with a single exposure or a limited number of brief exposures. One must distinguish between prolongation of life in senescence and enhancement of longevity based on actual retardation of the rate of aging. More, retardation of aging, if sorely taxed at the expense of quality of living, is no bargain. Some hibernators live relatively long lives, but the torpor of hibernation--a prolonged period of somnolence and greatly reduced metabolic activity--is hardly the stuff of a vibrant psychological existence.

  7. Factors Affecting Prolonged Working Life for the Older Workforce: the Swedish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Berglund

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to uncover some of the mechanisms that could make the older workforce willing and able to stay employed. Our focus is on work-related factors that predict the probability of staying in employment despite entitlement to old-age pension. The analyses are based on data from the first and second waves of the Panel Survey of Ageing and the Elderly (PSAE. The focus is on employed persons aged 52–59 years in 2002/2003 and the probability that they were still employed in 2010/2011.The analysis focuses on the work situation for the respondents in 2002–2003. Our analysis shows that physical job demands (negatively and job satisfaction (positively have an effect on the probability of staying. However, a counteracting force seems to be a norm to quit related to aging, emphasized by the institutionalized pension system, and the values and preferences connected to life as a pensioner.

  8. Active packaging from chitosan-titanium dioxide nanocomposite film for prolonging storage life of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewklin, Patinya; Siripatrawan, Ubonrat; Suwanagul, Anawat; Lee, Youn Suk

    2018-06-01

    The feasibility of active packaging from chitosan (CS) and chitosan containing nanosized titanium dioxide (CT) to maintain quality and extend storage life of climacteric fruit was investigated. The CT nanocomposite film and CS film were fabricated using a solution casting method and used as active packaging to delay ripening process of cherry tomatoes. Changes in firmness, weight loss, a*/b* color, lycopene content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, and concentration of ethylene and carbon dioxide of the tomatoes packaged in CT film, CS film, and control (without CT or CS films) were monitored during storage at 20°C. Classification of fruit quality as a function of different packaging treatments was visualized using linear discriminant analysis. Tomatoes packaged in the CT film evolved lower quality changes than those in the CS film and control. The results suggested that the CT film exhibited ethylene photodegradation activity when exposed to UV light and consequently delayed the ripening process and changes in the quality of the tomatoes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. "Where are all the lonely people?" A population-based study of high-risk groups across the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasgaard, Mathias; Friis, Karina; Shevlin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    and socio-demographic and health-related factors across multiple age groups. Methods. This was a combined population-based questionnaire survey and register data study based on a representative sample, including 33,285 Danish individuals aged 16–102 years. Loneliness was measured using the Three......Item Loneliness Scale. Results. The relation between loneliness and age took a shallow U-shaped distribution. Ethnic minority status, receiving disability pensions or being unemployed, living alone, prolonged mental disorder, and psychiatric treatment were strongly associated with severe loneliness. Socio......-demographic and health-related factors were associated with an increased risk of severe loneliness in specific age groups. Being female, having a low educational level and living in a deprived area were only associated with loneliness in adolescence/emerging adulthood. Receiving disability pensions and living alone (i...

  10. Hour Glass Half-Full or Half-Empty? Future Time Perspective and Preoccupation with Negative Events Across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Parker, Andrew M.; Lemaster, Philip; Pichayayothin, Nipat; Delaney, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    According to socioemotional selectivity theory, older adults' emotional well-being stems from having limited future time perspective that motivates them to maximize well-being in the “here and now.” Presumably, then, older adults' time horizons are associated with emotional competencies that boost positive affect and dampen negative affect, but little research has addressed this. Using a US national adult life-span sample (N= 3,933, 18-93 yrs), we found that a two-factor model of future time perspective (focus on future opportunities; focus on limited time) fit the data better than a one-factor model. Through middle age, people perceived the life-span hourglass as half full—they focused more on future opportunities than limited time. Around age 60, the balance changed to increasingly perceiving the life-span hourglass as half empty—they focused less on future opportunities and more on limited time. This pattern held even after accounting for perceived health, self-reported decision-making ability, and retirement status. At all ages, women's time horizons focused more on future opportunities compared to men's, and men's focused more on limited time. Focusing on future opportunities was associated with reporting less preoccupation with negative events, whereas focusing on limited time was associated with reporting more preoccupation. Older adults reported less preoccupation with negative events and this association was stronger after controlling for their perceptions of limited time and fewer future opportunities, suggesting that other pathways may explain older adults' reports of their ability to disengage from negative events. Insights gained and questions raised by measuring future time perspective as two dimensions are discussed. PMID:27267222

  11. Physical Activity Throughout the Adult Life Span and Domain-Specific Cognitive Function in Old Age: A Systematic Review of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Ingmann, Tobias; Banzer, Winfried

    2018-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that physical activity might alleviate the age-related neurodegeneration and decline of cognitive function. However, most of this evidence is based on data investigating the association of exercise interventions or current physical activity behavior with cognitive function in elderly subjects. We performed a systematic review and hypothesize that physical activity during the adult life span is connected with maintained domain-specific cognitive functions during late adulthood defined as age 60+ years. We performed a systematic literature search up to November 2017 in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar without language limitations for studies analyzing the association of leisure physical activity during the adult life span (age 18+ years) and domain-specific cognitive functions in older adults (age 60+ years). The literature review yielded 14,294 articles and after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, nine cross-sectional and 14 longitudinal studies were included. Moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure physical activity was associated with global cognitive function and specific cognitive domains including executive functions and memory but not attention or working memory. Most studies assessed mid- to late-adulthood physical activity, thus information concerning the influence of young adult life-span physical activity is currently lacking. Observational evidence that moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure physical activity is beneficially associated with maintained cognitive functions during old age is accumulating. Further studies are necessary to confirm a causal link by assessing objective physical activity data and the decline of cognitive functions at multiple time points during old age.

  12. The parents' ability to take care of their baby as a factor in decisions to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatment in two Dutch NICUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moratti, Sofia

    In The Netherlands, it is openly acknowledged that the parents' ability to take care of their child plays a role in the decision-making process over administration of life-prolonging treatment to severely defective newborn babies. Unlike other aspects of such decision-making process up until the

  13. "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies": Correction to Hubbard et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reports an error in "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies" by Jason Hubbard, William T. Harbaugh, Sanjay Srivastava, David Degras and Ulrich Mayr ( Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , Advanced Online Publication, Aug 11, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Task, Stimuli, and Procedures section. In the 1st sentence in the 6th paragraph, “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires meant to reflected the Prosocial Disposition construct: the agreeableness scale from the Big F, which includes empathic concern and perspective-taking, and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010).” should have read: “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires that contained scales to reflect the Prosocial Disposition construct: the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John et al., 1991), from which we used the agreeableness scale to measure prosocial disposition; the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980), from which we used the empathic concern and perspective-taking scales; and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010).” (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-39037-001.) Individual and life span differences in charitable giving are an important economic force, yet the underlying motives are not well understood. In an adult, life span sample, we assessed manifestations of prosocial tendencies across 3 different measurement domains: (a) psychological self-report measures, (b) actual giving choices, and (c) fMRI-derived, neural indicators of “pure altruism.” The latter expressed individuals’ activity in neural valuation areas when charities received money compared to when oneself received money and thus reflected an altruistic concern for

  14. Developments in human growth hormone preparations: sustained-release, prolonged half-life, novel injection devices, and alternative delivery routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yunpeng Cai,1,2 Mingxin Xu,2 Minglu Yuan,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Since the availability of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH enabled the application of human growth hormone both in clinical and research use in the 1980s, millions of patients were prescribed a daily injection of rhGH, but noncompliance rates were high. To address the problem of noncompliance, numerous studies have been carried out, involving: sustained-release preparations, prolonged half-life derivatives, new injectors that cause less pain, and other noninvasive delivery methods such as intranasal, pulmonary and transdermal deliveries. Some accomplishments have been made and launched already, such as the Nutropin Depot® microsphere and injectors (Zomajet®, Serojet®, and NordiFlex®. Here, we provide a review of the different technologies and illustrate the key points of these studies to achieve an improved rhGH product. Keywords: intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, microsphere, microneedle, hydrogel

  15. Prolonged non-metabolic heart rate variability reduction as a physiological marker of psychological stress in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Lane, R.D.; Thayer, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prolonged cardiac activity that exceeds metabolic needs can be detrimental for somatic health. Psychological stress could result in such "additional cardiac activity." PURPOSE In this study, we examined whether prolonged additional reductions in heart rate variability (AddHRVr) can be

  16. The Eyring-Stover theory of survival applied to life-span radiation effects studies in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, B.J.; Wrenn, M.E.; Jee, W.S.S.; Atherton, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Eyring-Stover theory of survival describes the observed biological phenomena of damage and repair as steady-state processes that can be expressed in the formalism of absolute reaction rate theory. The steady-state formulation, rather than that of dynamic equilibrium, is invoked since biological phenomena, in contrast with most chemical and physical phenemena, are time irreversible. The theory is appropriate for calculating life shortening that results from environmental factors such as irradiation since it does not require universality and intrinsicality as to some theories of aging. The theory gives not only midrange mortality rate values but also end-range values, which are difficult to predict empirically. The previously calculated life shortening of mice after external x-irradiation and of beagles after internal irradiation from 239 Pu or 226 Ra is reviewed; life shortening at low dose levels of 226 Ra is presented. 21 refs., 1 tab

  17. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-07-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  18. The influence of superoxide dimutase and some other radical scavengers on X-ray resistance, life span and membrane integrity of Sacharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, V.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluations of various strains of yeast showed these to differ widely in the activities of superoxide dimutase and catalase, X-ray sensitivity, reproductive capacity and malondialdehyde concentration. Higher SOD activities in reponse to increases in oxygen production under extreme physiological conditions were observed for the cells of a haploid strain and just as well seen in those of a diploid strain. There were findings pointing to mutually 'compensatory' effects in respect of the contents of CAT and thiol. When intracellular radical scavengers were 'overstrained' by exposure to high X-ray doses, untoward effects on membrane integrity could be detected after irradiation. The use of the SOD-specific inhibitor DDC led to a reduction of both X-ray resistance and life span as a result of SOD-inhibition. Exogenous SOD was seen to reduce the mean life span. Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ were found to have a dual action in that they not only increased the resistance to X-rays through an augmentation of SOD activity but also had an immediate beneficial effect on radioresistance. Exogenous H202 led to an increase in the cellular CAT contents and an enhancement of X-ray resistance. (orig./MG) [de

  19. The use of fractal dimension calculation algorithm to determine the nature of autobiographical memories distribution across the life span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitina, Olga V.; Nourkova, Veronica V.

    In the given research we offer the technique for the calculation of the density of events which people retrieve from autobiographical memory. We wanted to prove a non-uniformity nature of memories distribution in the course of time and were interested with the law of distribution of these events during life course.

  20. Performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during prolonged basic life support in military medical university students: A manikin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Zhuo, Chao-nan; Zhang, Lei; Gong, Yu-shun; Yin, Chang-lin; Li, Yong-qin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The quality of chest compressions can be significantly improved after training of rescuers according to the latest national guidelines of China. However, rescuers may be unable to maintain adequate compression or ventilation throughout a response of average emergency medical services because of increased rescuer fatigue. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in training of military medical university students during a prolonged basic life support (BLS). METHODS: A 3-hour BLS training was given to 120 military medical university students. Six months after the training, 115 students performed single rescuer BLS on a manikin for 8 minutes. The qualities of chest compressions as well as ventilations were assessed. RESULTS: The average compression depth and rate were 53.7±5.3 mm and 135.1±15.7 compressions per minute respectively. The proportion of chest compressions with appropriate depth was 71.7%±28.4%. The average ventilation volume was 847.2±260.4 mL and the proportion of students with adequate ventilation was 63.5%. Compared with male students, significantly lower compression depth (46.7±4.8 vs. 54.6±4.8 mm, PCPR was found to be related to gender, body weight, and body mass index of students in this study. The quality of chest compressions was well maintained in male students during 8 minutes of conventional CPR but declined rapidly in female students after 2 minutes according to the latest national guidelines. Physical fitness and rescuer fatigue did not affect the quality of ventilation. PMID:26401177

  1. Performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during prolonged basic life support in military medical university students: A manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Zhuo, Chao-Nan; Zhang, Lei; Gong, Yu-Shun; Yin, Chang-Lin; Li, Yong-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The quality of chest compressions can be significantly improved after training of rescuers according to the latest national guidelines of China. However, rescuers may be unable to maintain adequate compression or ventilation throughout a response of average emergency medical services because of increased rescuer fatigue. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in training of military medical university students during a prolonged basic life support (BLS). A 3-hour BLS training was given to 120 military medical university students. Six months after the training, 115 students performed single rescuer BLS on a manikin for 8 minutes. The qualities of chest compressions as well as ventilations were assessed. The average compression depth and rate were 53.7±5.3 mm and 135.1±15.7 compressions per minute respectively. The proportion of chest compressions with appropriate depth was 71.7%±28.4%. The average ventilation volume was 847.2±260.4 mL and the proportion of students with adequate ventilation was 63.5%. Compared with male students, significantly lower compression depth (46.7±4.8 vs. 54.6±4.8 mm, P<0.001) and adequate compression rate (35.5%±26.5% vs. 76.1%±25.1%, P<0.001) were observed in female students. CPR was found to be related to gender, body weight, and body mass index of students in this study. The quality of chest compressions was well maintained in male students during 8 minutes of conventional CPR but declined rapidly in female students after 2 minutes according to the latest national guidelines. Physical fitness and rescuer fatigue did not affect the quality of ventilation.

  2. Decay in chest compression quality due to fatigue is rare during prolonged advanced life support in a manikin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørshol Conrad A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to measure chest compression decay during simulated advanced life support (ALS in a cardiac arrest manikin model. Methods 19 paramedic teams, each consisting of three paramedics, performed ALS for 12 minutes with the same paramedic providing all chest compressions. The patient was a resuscitation manikin found in ventricular fibrillation (VF. The first shock terminated the VF and the patient remained in pulseless electrical activity (PEA throughout the scenario. Average chest compression depth and rate was measured each minute for 12 minutes and divided into three groups based on chest compression quality; good (compression depth ≥ 40 mm, compression rate 100-120/minute for each minute of CPR, bad (initial compression depth 120/minute or decay (change from good to bad during the 12 minutes. Changes in no-flow ratio (NFR, defined as the time without chest compressions divided by the total time of the ALS scenario over time was also measured. Results Based on compression depth, 5 (26%, 9 (47% and 5 (26% were good, bad and with decay, respectively. Only one paramedic experienced decay within the first two minutes. Based on compression rate, 6 (32%, 6 (32% and 7 (37% were good, bad and with decay, respectively. NFR was 22% in both the 1-3 and 4-6 minute periods, respectively, but decreased to 14% in the 7-9 minute period (P = 0.002 and to 10% in the 10-12 minute period (P Conclusions In this simulated cardiac arrest manikin study, only half of the providers achieved guideline recommended compression depth during prolonged ALS. Large inter-individual differences in chest compression quality were already present from the initiation of CPR. Chest compression decay and thereby fatigue within the first two minutes was rare.

  3. Cost per QALY (quality-adjusted life year and lifetime cost of prolonged mechanical ventilation in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chuan Hung

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients who require prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV are increasing and producing financial burdens worldwide. This study determines the cost per QALY (quality-adjusted life year, out-of-pocket expenses, and lifetime costs for PMV patients stratified by underlying diseases and cognition levels. METHODS: A nationwide sample of 50,481 patients with continual mechanical ventilation for more than 21 days was collected during 1997-2007. After stratifying the patients according to specific diagnoses, a latent class analysis (LCA was performed to categorise PMV patients with multiple co-morbidities into several homogeneous groups. The survival functions were estimated for individual groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and extrapolated to 300 months through a semi-parametric method. The survival functions were adjusted using an EQ-5D utility value derived from a convenience sample of 142 PMV patients to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancies (QALE. Another convenience sample of 165 patients was used to estimate the out-of-pocket expenses. The lifetime expenditures paid by the single-payer National Health Insurance (NHI system and patients' families were estimated by multiplying average monthly expenditures by the survival probabilities and summing the values over lifetime. RESULTS: PMV therapy costs more than 100,000 U.S. dollars (USD per QALY for all patients with poor cognition. For patients with partial cognition, PMV therapy costs less than 56,000 USD per QALY for those with liver cirrhosis, intracranial or spinal cord injuries, and 57,000-69,000 USD for patients with multiple co-morbidities under age of 65. The average lifetime cost of PMV was usually below 56,000 USD. The out-of-pocket expenses were often more than one-third of the total cost of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PMV treatment for patients with poor cognition would cost more than 5 times Taiwan's GDP (gross domestic products, or less cost-effective. The out

  4. Aspartame administered in feed, beginning prenatally through life span, induces cancers of the liver and lung in male Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservigi, Marco; Tibaldi, Eva; Lauriola, Michelina; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano

    2010-12-01

    Aspartame (APM) is a well-known intense artificial sweetener used in more than 6,000 products. Among the major users of aspartame are children and women of childbearing age. In previous lifespan experiments conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats we have shown that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites and that its effects are increased when exposure starts from prenatal life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of APM to induce carcinogenic effects in mice. Six groups of 62-122 male and female Swiss mice were treated with APM in feed at doses of 32,000, 16,000, 8,000, 2,000, or 0  ppm from prenatal life (12 days of gestation) until death. At death each animal underwent complete necropsy and all tissues and organs of all animals in the experiment were microscopically examined. APM in our experimental conditions induces in males a significant dose-related increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (P < 0.01), and a significant increase at the dose levels of 32,000  ppm (P < 0.01) and 16,000  ppm (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results show a significant dose-related increased incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in males (P < 0.05), and a significant increase at 32,000  ppm (P < 0.05). The results of the present study confirm that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites in rodents, and that this effect is induced in two species, rats (males and females) and mice (males). No carcinogenic effects were observed in female mice. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:1197-1206, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Age differences in big five behavior averages and variabilities across the adult life span: moving beyond retrospective, global summary accounts of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noftle, Erik E; Fleeson, William

    2010-03-01

    In 3 intensive cross-sectional studies, age differences in behavior averages and variabilities were examined. Three questions were posed: Does variability differ among age groups? Does the sizable variability in young adulthood persist throughout the life span? Do past conclusions about trait development, based on trait questionnaires, hold up when actual behavior is examined? Three groups participated: young adults (18-23 years), middle-aged adults (35-55 years), and older adults (65-81 years). In 2 experience-sampling studies, participants reported their current behavior multiple times per day for 1- or 2-week spans. In a 3rd study, participants interacted in standardized laboratory activities on 8 occasions. First, results revealed a sizable amount of intraindividual variability in behavior for all adult groups, with average within-person standard deviations ranging from about half a point to well over 1 point on 6-point scales. Second, older adults were most variable in Openness, whereas young adults were most variable in Agreeableness and Emotional Stability. Third, most specific patterns of maturation-related age differences in actual behavior were more greatly pronounced and differently patterned than those revealed by the trait questionnaire method. When participants interacted in standardized situations, personality differences between young adults and middle-aged adults were larger, and older adults exhibited a more positive personality profile than they exhibited in their everyday lives.

  6. ABCC-JNIH pathology studies, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Report III. The autopsy program and the life span study, January 1951--December 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, A; Moriyama, I M; Shimizu, K

    1973-01-01

    Of the 19,701 deaths in the Life Span cohort between 1951--70, 22% came to autopsy. The autopsy procurement rate reached 45% in 1963 and declined thereafter. Problems and bias are discussed; autopsy rates were directly associated with radiation dose, especially in Hiroshima. Favorable autopsy procurement rates did not result from the rapport with survivors in the Adult Health Study. A study was made of stroke, ischemic heart disease, and cancer. The occurrence of cancer by site and cell type agrees with other data from Japan except for those cancers associated with prior ionizing radiation. Estimated radiation exposure data reveals no significant association for any disease other than some forms of cancer. (45 tables) (DLC)

  7. An overview of a multifactor-system theory of personality and individual differences: III. Life span development and the heredity-environment issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A; Royce, J R

    1981-12-01

    In Part III of this three-part series on multifactor-system theory, multivariate, life-span development is approached from the standpoint of a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the ontogenesis of factors in each of the six systems. The pattern of quantitative development (described via the Gompertz equation and three developmental parameters) involves growth, stability, and decline, and qualitative development involves changes in the organization of factors (e.g., factor differentiation and convergence). Hereditary and environmental sources of variation are analyzed via the factor gene model and the concept of heredity-dominant factors, and the factor-learning model and environment-dominant factors. It is hypothesized that the sensory and motor systems are heredity dominant, that the style and value systems are environment dominant, and that the cognitive and affective systems are partially heredity dominant.

  8. The Tölz Temporal Topography Study: mapping the visual field across the life span. Part I: the topography of light detection and temporal-information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggel, Dorothe A; Treutwein, Bernhard; Calmanti, Claudia; Strasburger, Hans

    2012-08-01

    Temporal performance parameters vary across the visual field. Their topographical distributions relative to each other and relative to basic visual performance measures and their relative change over the life span are unknown. Our goal was to characterize the topography and age-related change of temporal performance. We acquired visual field maps in 95 healthy participants (age: 10-90 years): perimetric thresholds, double-pulse resolution (DPR), reaction times (RTs), and letter contrast thresholds. DPR and perimetric thresholds increased with eccentricity and age; the periphery showed a more pronounced age-related increase than the center. RT increased only slightly and uniformly with eccentricity. It remained almost constant up to the age of 60, a marked change occurring only above 80. Overall, age was a poor predictor of functionality. Performance decline could be explained only in part by the aging of the retina and optic media. In Part II, we therefore examine higher visual and cognitive functions.

  9. Beliefs about age-related changes in physical functioning across the adult life span and their relationship with physical activity levels of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Kugler, Jennifer; Rabellino, Alessandra; Stephan, Yannick

    2018-07-01

    Physical activity declines across the adult life span despite the well-established links between physical activity and health-related, psychological, cognitive, and social benefits. We contrasted the beliefs young and older adults hold about how aging affects both physical abilities and physical activity and determined whether older adults' beliefs about physical aging relate to their engagement in physical activity. Using visual rating scales, 56 young and 49 community-dwelling older adults indicated the extent to which a typical woman or typical man aged 20-90 possesses six different physical abilities and engages in three different types of physical activity. Stereotypes of physical aging were ability- and activity-specific, and older adults endorsed more positive views than their younger peers. Stereotypical beliefs predicted older adults' engagement in moderate-intensity activity. This study offers intriguing avenues for future research and suggests that better understanding physical aging stereotypes may contribute toward designing interventions that promote lifelong physical activity.

  10. Changes in gas exchange characteristics during the life span of giant sequoia: Implications for response to current and future concentrations of atmospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, N.E.; Miller, P.R. (USDA Forest Service, Riverside, CA (United States))

    Native stands of giant sequoia are being exposed to relatively high concentrations of atmospheric ozone produced in urban and agricultural areas upwind. The expected change in environmental conditions over the next 100 y is likely to be unprecendented in the life span (ca 2,500 y) of giant sequoia. Changes in the physiological responses of three age classes of giant sequoia (current year, 12 y and 25 y) to different concentrations of ozone were determined, and age-related differences in sensitivity to pollutants were assessed by examining physiological changes (gas exchange, water use efficiency) across the life span of giant sequoia. The CO[sub 2] exchange rate (CER) was greater in current year (12.1 [mu]mol CO[sub 2]/m[sup 2]s) and 2 year old seedlings (4.8 [mu]mol CO[sub 2]/m[sup 2]s) than in all older trees (average of 3.0 [mu]mol CO[sub 2]/m[sup 2]s). Dark respiration was highest for current year seedlings and was increased twofold in symptotic individuals exposed to elevated ozone concentrations. Stomatal conductance was greater in current-year and 2 year old seedlings (335 and 200 mmol H[sub 2]O/m[sup 2]s), respectively, than in all older trees (50 mmol H[sub 2]O/m[sup 2]s), indicating that the ozone concentration in substomatol cavities is higher in young seedlings than in older trees. Significant changes in water use efficiency occurred in trees between ages 5 and 20 years. It is concluded that giant sequoia seedlings are sensitive to atmospheric ozone until they are ca 5 y old. Low conductance, high water use efficiency, and compact mesophyll all contribute to a natural ozone tolerance, or defense, or both, in foliage of older trees. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Study on Renal Anemia: A Double Tracer Study on Metabolism and Red Cell Life Span in Chronic Renal Diseases using Radioactive Iron (59Fe) and Chromium (51Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Lee, Mun Ho

    1968-01-01

    The ferrokinetics and red cell life spans of the patients with chronic glomerulonephritis were investigated by the double tracing method using radioactive iron ( 59 Fe) and chromium ( 51 Cr). According to the serum NPN levels, the patients were subdivided into 3 groups: Group 1. 6 patients, had the levels below 40 mg/dl. Group 2. 6 patients, had the levels between 41 mg/dl to 80 mg/dl. Group 3. 10 patients had the levels above 80 mg/dl. The results were as follows: 1) Red blood cell, hematocrit and hemoglobin values were moderately reduced in patients with normal serum NPN levels, while markedly reduced in patients with elevated serum NPN levels. 2) The plasma volume was increased, while the red cell volume was decreased in patients with elevated serum NPN levels, hence, total blood volume was unchanged. 3) The serum iron level was slightly reduced in patients of groups 1 and 2, while was within the normal ranges in patients of group 3. 4) i) In patients with normal serum NPN levels, the plasma iron disappearance rate, red cell iron utilization rate, red cell iron turnover rate, daily red cell iron renewal rate, circulating red cell iron and red cell iron concentration were within the normal ranges, while the plasma iron turnover rate was slightly reduced. ii) In patients with elevated serum NPN levels, the plasma iron disappearance rate was delayed, while the plasma iron turnover rate was within the normal ranges. The red cell iron utilization rate, red cell iron turnover rate and circulating red cell iron were decreased and the period in which the red cell iron utilization rate reached its peak was delayed in Group 3 patients. The daily red cell iron renewal rate and the red cell iron concentration were unchanged. iii) The mean red cell life span was within the normal ranges in patients with normal serum NPN levels, while was shortened in patients with elevated serum NPN levels.

  12. Reperfusion injury protection during Basic Life Support improves circulation and survival outcomes in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaty, Guillaume; Lurie, Keith; Metzger, Anja; Lick, Michael; Bartos, Jason A; Rees, Jennifer N; McKnite, Scott; Puertas, Laura; Pepe, Paul; Fowler, Raymond; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-08-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (PC) using three intentional pauses at the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves outcomes after cardiac arrest in pigs when epinephrine (epi) is used before defibrillation. We hypothesized PC, performed during basic life support (BLS) in the absence of epinephrine, would reduce reperfusion injury and enhance 24h functional recovery. Prospective animal investigation. Animal laboratory Female farm pigs (n=46, 39±1kg). Protocol A: After 12min of ventricular fibrillation (VF), 28 pigs were randomized to four groups: (A) Standard CPR (SCPR), (B) active compression-decompression CPR with an impedance threshold device (ACD-ITD), (C) SCPR+PC (SCPR+PC) and (D) ACD-ITD CPR+PC. Protocol B: After 15min of VF, 18 pigs were randomized to ACD-ITD CPR or ACD-ITD+PC. The BLS duration was 2.75min in Protocol A and 5min in Protocol B. Following BLS, up to three shocks were delivered. Without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), CPR was resumed and epi (0.5mg) and defibrillation delivered. The primary end point was survival without major adverse events. Hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were also measured. Data are presented as mean±SEM. Protocol A: ACD-ITD+PC (group D) improved coronary perfusion pressure after 3min of BLS versus the three other groups (28±6, 35±7, 23±5 and 47±7 for groups A, B, C, D respectively, p=0.05). There were no significant differences in 24h survival between groups. LVEF 4h post ROSC was significantly higher with ACD-ITD+PC vs ACD-ITD alone (52.5±3% vs. 37.5±6.6%, p=0.045). Survival rates were significantly higher with ACD-ITD+PC vs. ACD-ITD alone (p=0.027). BLS using ACD-ITD+PC reduced post resuscitation cardiac dysfunction and improved functional recovery after prolonged untreated VF in pigs. 12-11. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug therapy for congestive heart failure:appropriate choices can prolong life; Tratamiento farmacologico de la insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva:las elecciones adecuadas pueden prolongar la vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrentino, M

    1997-09-01

    Between one purpose of the insufficiency congestive heart is improve and prolong the quality life. A good multidisciplinary health equipment can help to the improving patients with this disease referred to effective handling interned and ambulatory patients groups. The inhibition mechanism compensate that perpetuate heart congestive insufficiency are a way for reach treatment purposes. Between patients with symptomatic cardiac insufficiency and overload volume is indicated digoxin(Lanoxin) and vasodilators. The enzyme inhibition angiotensin converted improve over life range more than an others vasodilators and is preferred for the systole dysfunction patients.

  14. Suicide: Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jeffery

    2016-06-01

    Suicide remains a major public health issue. There have been more than 40,000 deaths by suicide in 2014. Understanding both the neuroscience and psychological development is key for nursing care so adequate interventions and treatment strategies are developed when working with people thinking about suicide. It is critical to assess and recognize risk and protective factors to ensure patient safety. The older adult, children, and adolescent populations remain vulnerable to suicide. A discussion regarding the psychiatric, psychosocial, and treatment considerations for these populations is included. An overview of communication, suicide assessment, and safety planning is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Life span in online communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosiński, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently online communities have attracted great interest and have become an important medium of information exchange between users. The aim of this work is to introduce a simple model of the evolution of online communities. This model describes (a) the time evolution of users’ activity in a web service, e.g., the time evolution of the number of online friends or written posts, (b) the time evolution of the degree distribution of a social network, and (c) the time evolution of the number of active users of a web service. In the second part of the paper we investigate the influence of the users’ lifespan (i.e., the total time in which they are active in an online community) on the process of rumor propagation in evolving social networks. Viral marketing is an important application of such method of information propagation.

  16. Neuron-specific knockdown of the Drosophila fat induces reduction of life span, deficient locomotive ability, shortening of motoneuron terminal branches and defects in axonal targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Aya; Tanaka, Ryo; Morishita, Kazushige; Yoshida, Hideki; Higuchi, Yujiro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2017-07-01

    Mutations in FAT4 gene, one of the human FAT family genes, have been identified in Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) and Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HS). The FAT4 gene encodes a large protein with extracellular cadherin repeats, EGF-like domains and Laminin G-like domains. FAT4 plays a role in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity. Drosophila contains a human FAT4 homologue, fat. Drosophila fat has been mainly studied with Drosophila eye and wing systems. Here, we specially knocked down Drosophila fat in nerve system. Neuron-specific knockdown of fat shortened the life span and induced the defect in locomotive abilities of adult flies. In consistent with these phenotypes, defects in synapse structure at neuromuscular junction were observed in neuron-specific fat-knockdown flies. In addition, aberrations in axonal targeting of photoreceptor neuron in third-instar larvae were also observed, suggesting that fat involves in axonal targeting. Taken together, the results indicate that Drosophila fat plays an essential role in formation and/or maintenance of neuron. Both VMS and HS show mental retardation and neuronal defects. We therefore consider that these two rare human diseases could possibly be caused by the defect in FAT4 function in neuronal cells. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Diet quality and cognitive function in an urban sample: findings from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Regina S; Waldstein, Shari R; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Pohlig, Ryan T; Gerassimakis, Constance S; Gaynor, Beatrice; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2017-01-01

    Poor diet quality contributes to morbidity, including poor brain health outcomes such as cognitive decline and dementia. African Americans and individuals living in poverty may be at greater risk for cognitive decrements from poor diet quality. Cross-sectional. Baltimore, MD, USA. Participants were 2090 African Americans and Whites (57 % female, mean age=47·9 years) who completed two 24 h dietary recalls. We examined cognitive performance and potential interactions of diet quality with race and poverty status using baseline data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores were calculated and interpreted using federal guidelines. A neurocognitive test battery was administered to evaluate cognitive function over several domains. Linear regression analyses showed that lower HEI-2010 scores were associated with poorer verbal learning and memory (PDiet quality within the sample was poor. Significant interactions of HEI-2010 and poverty status (all Pdiet quality was associated with higher performance on tests of attention and cognitive flexibility, visuospatial ability and perceptual speed among those below the poverty line. No significant race interactions emerged. Higher diet quality was associated with better performance on two measures of verbal learning and memory, irrespective of race and poverty status. Findings suggest that diet quality and cognitive function are likely related at the population level. Future research is needed to determine whether the association is clinically significant.

  18. JNIH-ABCC life span study of children born to atomic bomb survivors. Report 1. Influence of concomitant variables upon mortality rate comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroo; Ueda, Shoichi

    1963-04-18

    The study of mortality rates among children born to atomic bomb survivors is being conducted according to the protocol, and at present, data for those whose parents are included in the Life Span Study sample are ready for analysis. Using this portion, the influence of various concomitant factors on the infant mortality rate was investigated. The distribution of year of birth, maternal age, and birth order differs between comparison groups. The differences introduce fairly large biases into mortality rate comparisons. For example, the infant mortality rate in children, both of whose parents were atomic bomb survivors would be overestimated by 10% or more. As far as such concomitant factors are observable, the bias can be reduced to negligible magnitude. Other factors are equally important but difficult to observe. For example, environmental factors influence mortality a great deal but adequate methods for treating such factors have not yet been found. If such bias is not eliminated, conclusions to be derived from this study suffer serious limitation, namely, unless drastic radiation effects exist, neither existence nor absence of radiation effects will be demonstrable. Investigation is continuing, especially concerning: how to measure environmental factors; regression analysis on radiation dose or distance from the hypocenter; and examination of specific causes of death. 7 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  19. Little evidence for intralocus sexual conflict over the optimal intake of nutrients for life span and reproduction in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, James; Archer, C Ruth; Grant, Charles E; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Wilson, Alastair J; Hunt, John

    2017-09-01

    There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on life span (LS) and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here, we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for LS and reproduction to constrain the evolution of sex-specific nutrient regulation in the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We show clear sex differences in the effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on LS and reproduction and strong positive genetic correlations between the sexes for the regulated intake of these nutrients. However, the between-sex additive genetic covariance matrix had very little effect on the predicted evolutionary response of nutrient regulation in the sexes. Thus, IASC appears unlikely to act as an evolutionary constraint on sex-specific nutrient regulation in T. commodus. This finding is supported by clear sexual dimorphism in the regulated intake of these nutrients under dietary choice. However, nutrient regulation did not coincide with the nutritional optima for LS or reproduction in either sex, suggesting that IASC is not completely resolved in T. commodus. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Vanadium oxide based cpd. useful as a cathode active material - is used in lithium or alkali metal batteries to prolong life cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    A mixt. of metallic iron particles and vanadium pentoxide contg. V in its pentavalent state in a liq. is reacted to convert at least some of the pentavalent V to its tetravalent state and form a gel. The liq. phase is then sepd. from the oxide based gel to obtain a solid material(I) comprising Fe......, V and oxygen where at least some of the V is in the tetravalent state. USE-(I) is a cathode active material in electric current producing storage cells. ADVANTAGE-Use of (I) in Li or alkali metal batteries gives prolonged life cycles.Storage cells using (I) have improved capacity during charge...

  1. The control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers: Evidence of convergence with and divergence from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi eWong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical review of the motivational theory of life-span development reveals that this theory has undergone a series of elegant theoretical integrations. Its claim to universality nonetheless brings forth unresolved controversies. With the purpose of scrutinizing the key propositions of this theory, an empirical study was designed to examine the control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers (N = 637. The OPS-Scales (Optimization in Primary and Secondary Control Scales for the Domain of Teaching were constructed to assess patterns of control processes. Three facets of subjective well-being were investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results revealed certain aspects of alignment with and certain divergences from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development. Neither primacy of primary control nor primacy of secondary control was clearly supported. Notably, using different criteria for subjective well-being yielded different subtypes of primary and secondary control as predictors. The hypothesized life-span trajectories of primary and secondary control received limited support. To advance the theory in this area, we recommend incorporating Lakatos’ ideas about sophisticated falsification by specifying the hard core of the motivational theory of life-span development and articulating new auxiliary hypotheses.

  2. Patterns of hippocampal-neocortical interactions in the retrieval of episodic autobiographical memories across the entire life-span of aged adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Lebreton, Karine; Chételat, Gaël; Desgranges, Béatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; Young, Alan; De La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Episodic Autobiographical Memories (EAMs) rely on a network of brain regions comprising the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and distributed neocortical regions regardless of their remoteness. The findings supported the model of memory consolidation which proposes a permanent role of MTL during EAM retrieval (Multiple-Trace Theory or MTT) rather than a temporary role (standard model). Our present aim was to expand the results by examining the interactions between the MTL and neocortical regions (or MTL-neocortical links) during EAM retrieval with varying retention intervals. We used an experimental paradigm specially designed to engage aged participants in the recollection of EAMs, extracted from five different time-periods, covering their whole life-span, in order to examine correlations between activation in the MTL and neocortical regions. The nature of the memories was checked at debriefing by means of behavioral measures to control the degree of episodicity and properties of memories. Targeted correlational analyses carried out on the MTL, frontal, lateral temporal and posterior regions revealed strong links between the MTL and neocortex during the retrieval of both recent and remote EAMs, challenging the standard model of memory consolidation and supporting MTT instead. Further confirmation was given by results showing that activation in the left and right hippocampi significantly correlated during the retrieval of both recent and remote memories. Correlations among extra-MTL neocortical regions also emerged for all time-periods, confirming the critical role of the prefrontal, temporal (lateral temporal cortex and temporal pole), precuneus and posterior cingulate regions in EAM retrieval. Overall, this paper emphasizes the role of a bilateral network of MTL and neocortical areas whose activation correlate during the recollection of rich phenomenological recent and remote EAMs. PMID:19338022

  3. Measurement invariance of big-five factors over the life span: ESEM tests of gender, age, plasticity, maturity, and la dolce vita effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Nagengast, Benjamin; Morin, Alexandre J S

    2013-06-01

    This substantive-methodological synergy applies evolving approaches to factor analysis to substantively important developmental issues of how five-factor-approach (FFA) personality measures vary with gender, age, and their interaction. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) conducted at the item level often do not support a priori FFA structures, due in part to the overly restrictive assumptions of CFA models. Here we demonstrate that exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), an integration of CFA and exploratory factor analysis, overcomes these problems with the 15-item Big Five Inventory administered as part of the nationally representative British Household Panel Study (N = 14,021; age: 15-99 years, Mage = 47.1). ESEM fitted the data substantially better and resulted in much more differentiated (less correlated) factors than did CFA. Methodologically, we extended ESEM (introducing ESEM-within-CFA models and a hybrid of multiple groups and multiple indicators multiple causes models), evaluating full measurement invariance and latent mean differences over age, gender, and their interaction. Substantively the results showed that women had higher latent scores for all Big Five factors except for Openness and that these gender differences were consistent over the entire life span. Substantial nonlinear age effects led to the rejection of the plaster hypothesis and the maturity principle but did support a newly proposed la dolce vita effect in old age. In later years, individuals become happier (more agreeable and less neurotic), more self-content and self-centered (less extroverted and open), more laid back and satisfied with what they have (less conscientious, open, outgoing and extroverted), and less preoccupied with productivity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Psychological Well-Being in Italian Families: An Exploratory Approach to the Study of Mental Health Across the Adult Life Span in the Blue Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcott, Paul Kenneth; Fastame, Maria Chiara; Ferrai, Jessica; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2017-01-01

    Self-reported measures of psychological well-being and depressive symptoms were examined across differently aged family members, while controlling for the impact of marital status and personal satisfaction about family and non-family relations. Twenty-one grandchildren (i.e., ages 21-36 years) were recruited with their parents (i.e., 48-66 years old) and grandparents (i.e., 75-101 years of age) in the ‘blue zone’ of Ogliastra, an Italian area known for the longevity of its inhabitants. Each participant was individually presented a battery of questionnaires assessing their lifestyle and several perceived mental health indices, including the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS, Tennant et al., 2007), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (i.e., CES-D, Radloff, 1977). After assessing the level of concordance among adults sharing the same context, the Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) approach was used to assess the nested dataset. It was found that family membership (i.e., grandchildren versus parents and grandparents) predicted the WEMWBS score but not the CES-D when the impact of marital status and personal satisfaction about social (i.e., family and non-family) ties was controlled for. Moreover, two separate repeated-measure Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs) documented similar level of personal satisfaction about social relationships across the three family groups. In conclusions, satisfying social ties with friends and family members together with an active socially oriented life style seems to contribute to the promotion of mental health in adult span. PMID:28904594

  5. Genetic Dissection of Nutrition-Induced Plasticity in Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling and Median Life Span in a Drosophila Multiparent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Patrick D; Ng'oma, Enoch; O'Day, Siri; King, Elizabeth G

    2017-06-01

    The nutritional environments that organisms experience are inherently variable, requiring tight coordination of how resources are allocated to different functions relative to the total amount of resources available. A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that key endocrine pathways play a fundamental role in this coordination. In particular, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways have been implicated in nutrition-dependent changes in metabolism and nutrient allocation. However, little is known about the genetic basis of standing variation in IIS/TOR or how diet-dependent changes in expression in this pathway influence phenotypes related to resource allocation. To characterize natural genetic variation in the IIS/TOR pathway, we used >250 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a multiparental mapping population, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, to map transcript-level QTL of genes encoding 52 core IIS/TOR components in three different nutritional environments [dietary restriction (DR), control (C), and high sugar (HS)]. Nearly all genes, 87%, were significantly differentially expressed between diets, though not always in ways predicted by loss-of-function mutants. We identified cis ( i.e. , local) expression QTL (eQTL) for six genes, all of which are significant in multiple nutrient environments. Further, we identified trans ( i.e. , distant) eQTL for two genes, specific to a single nutrient environment. Our results are consistent with many small changes in the IIS/TOR pathways. A discriminant function analysis for the C and DR treatments identified a pattern of gene expression associated with the diet treatment. Mapping the composite discriminant function scores revealed a significant global eQTL within the DR diet. A correlation between the discriminant function scores and the median life span ( r = 0.46) provides evidence that gene expression changes in response to diet are

  6. PRESERVING THE QUALITY AND PROLONGATION THE SHELF-LIFE OF BEEF PACKED UNDER VACUUM OR MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE USING TERNARY ANTIOXIDANT BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Stoyanov Staykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the quality and prolongation the shelf-life of stored at 0  0.5ºC packed under vacuum or modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere beef m. semimembranosus sprayed with 0.02% solution, containing 10 g.l-1 dihydroquercetin from Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb, 5 g.l-1 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract and 1 g.l-1 L-ascorbic acid was studied. The experiments were carried out with five samples: control - air packaged; vacuum packaged; vacuum packaged and treated with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend; packaged under modified atmosphere (80%O2/20%CO2; and packaged under rich in oxygen modified atmosphere, after spaying with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend. Samples were stored 28 days (to 32 d post mortem at 0  0.5ºC. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend preserve the sensory scores and colour properties of beef, and inhibited total microbial growth, and development of Brochothrix termosphacta and pathogens to the end of storage (28 d at 0  0.5ºC, was found. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend was not main factors which can affect the pH and free amino nitrogen changes in fresh beef. The pre-treatment of beef with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend may be successfully used for preserving the quality and prolonging the shelf-life of beef m. semimembranosus packed under modified (80%О2/20%СО2 atmosphere. The shelf-life can extend with 75% compared to air packed meat, and with 7 days against only vacuum- or modified atmosphere packed beef.

  7. Span of control matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Deb; Jeska, Susan; Karnas, Joan; Miller, Sue E; Pechacek, Judy; Rheault, Lolita

    2004-09-01

    Prompted by manager concerns about span of control, a large, integrated health system set out to determine if span of control really mattered. Was there something to it, or was it just an excuse for poor performance? A team of middle managers studied the problem and ultimately demonstrated a strong relationship between span of control and employee engagement. Consequently, it was decided to add 4 management positions to note the effect. One year later, positive changes were observed in employee engagement scores in all 4 areas. This study suggests careful review of manager spans of control to address the untoward effects of large spans of control on employee engagement.

  8. Amine bridges grafted mesoporous silica, as a prolonged/controlled drug release system for the enhanced therapeutic effect of short life drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Fozia; Ahmed, Khalid; Airoldi, Claudio; Gaisford, Simon; Buanz, Asma; Rahim, Abdur; Muhammad, Nawshad; Volpe, Pedro L.O.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid mesoporous silica SBA-15, with surface incorporated cross-linked long hydrophobic organic bridges was synthesized using stepwise synthesis. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-rays diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The functionalized material showed highly ordered mesoporous network with a surface area of 629.0 m 2 g −1 . The incorporation of long hydrophobic amine chains on silica surface resulted in high drug loading capacity (21% Mass/Mass) and prolonged release of ibuprofen up till 75.5 h. The preliminary investigations suggests that the synthesized materials could be proposed as controlled release devices to prolong the therapeutic effect of short life drugs such as ibuprofen to increase its efficacy and to reduce frequent dosage. - Highlights: • Silica SBA-15 was synthesized and modified with long hydrophobic amine linkers. • These materials were characterized using different techniques. • The modified material showed high drug loading capacity and control ibuprofen release in biological fluids.

  9. Amine bridges grafted mesoporous silica, as a prolonged/controlled drug release system for the enhanced therapeutic effect of short life drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Fozia, E-mail: foziaics@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084–971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Ahmed, Khalid; Airoldi, Claudio [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084–971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gaisford, Simon; Buanz, Asma [UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom); Rahim, Abdur; Muhammad, Nawshad [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Volpe, Pedro L.O. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084–971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid mesoporous silica SBA-15, with surface incorporated cross-linked long hydrophobic organic bridges was synthesized using stepwise synthesis. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-rays diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The functionalized material showed highly ordered mesoporous network with a surface area of 629.0 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. The incorporation of long hydrophobic amine chains on silica surface resulted in high drug loading capacity (21% Mass/Mass) and prolonged release of ibuprofen up till 75.5 h. The preliminary investigations suggests that the synthesized materials could be proposed as controlled release devices to prolong the therapeutic effect of short life drugs such as ibuprofen to increase its efficacy and to reduce frequent dosage. - Highlights: • Silica SBA-15 was synthesized and modified with long hydrophobic amine linkers. • These materials were characterized using different techniques. • The modified material showed high drug loading capacity and control ibuprofen release in biological fluids.

  10. Recovery Effect and Life Prolong Effect of Long Term Low-Dose Rate Irradiation on Type II Diabetes Model Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.; Makino, N.; Oda, T.; Suzuki, I.; Sakai, K

    2004-01-01

    The effects of low-dose rate gamma-irradiation were investigated on model mice for type II diabetes mellitus, C57BL/KsJ-db/db. The mice develop the type II diabetes by 10 weeks of age due to obesity and are characterized by hyperinsulinemia. Female 10-week old mice, a group of 12 mice, were irradiated at 0.65 mGy/hr from 137-Cs (370 GBq). The urine glucose levels of all of the mice were strongly positive at the beginning of the irradiation. In the irradiated group, the decrease in the glucose level was observed in 3 mice. Such recovery from the diabetes was never observed in 12 mice of non-irradiated control group. There is no systematic difference in the change of body weight, food assumption, and amount of drinking water, between the irradiated group and the non-irradiated group or between the recovered mice and the non-recovered mice. The survival was better in the irradiated group: the surviving fraction at the age of 90 weeks was 75% in the irradiated group, while 40% in the non-irradiated. Marked difference was also observed in the appearance of the coat hair, skin, and tail; better condition was kept in the irradiated group. In the irradiated mice mortality was delayed and the healthy appearance was prolonged in the irradiated mice by about 20 ? 30 weeks compared with the non-irradiated mice. These results suggest that the low-dose irradiation modified the condition of the diabetic mice, which lead not only to the recovery of the diabetes, but also to the suppression of the aging process. (Author)

  11. Improved quality of life after treatment of prolonged asystole during breath holding spells with a cardiac pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kolterer

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac pacing using appropriate pacemaker settings seems effective in the prevention of LOC and reduction of the frequency of BHS. Our results imply a reduction of subjective stress levels of patients and parents as well as an increased quality of everyday life. After all, randomized controlled trials of the influence of cardiac pacemaker implantation on subjective stress levels in patients with BHS are needed.

  12. The application of high pressure-mild temperature processing for prolonging the shelf-life of strawberry purée

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, K.; Woźniak, Ł.; Skąpska, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the shelf-life and quality of strawberry purée preserved using combined high pressure processing (HPP)-mild temperature processing at 300 and 600 MPa for 15 min during cold storage (6°C). Increasing the pressure resulted in a prolonged shelf-life of from 4 to 28 weeks for HPP-preserved purée at 300 and 600 MPa, respectively. The highest inactivation of peroxidases, pectinesterases and polygalacturonases was noted when a higher pressure was used, whereas a lower pressure was more efficient for polyphenoloxidases. The degradation of vitamin C and anthocyanins was 20% and 5% higher at 600 MPa than at 300 MPa, respectively. Significantly fewer changes in the colour coefficient, expressed as ΔE, and the browning index, were observed in purée preserved at 600 MPa. Oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes are highly pressure-resistant, which suggests other inhibitors should be used to increase the shelf-life of good-quality fruit products.

  13. Starving for life: what animal studies can and cannot tell us about the use of caloric restriction to prolong human lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Hambly, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is the only experimental nongenetic paradigm known to increase lifespan. It has broad applicability and extends the life of most species through a retardation of aging. There is considerable interest in the use of CR in humans, and animal studies can potentially tell us about the impacts. In this article we highlight some of the things that animal studies can tell us about CR in humans. Rodent studies indicate that the benefits of CR on lifespan extension are related to the extent of restriction. The benefits of CR, however, decline as the age of onset of treatment is delayed. Modeling these impacts suggests that if a 48-y-old man engaged in 30% CR until his normal life expectancy of 78, he might increase his life expectancy by 2.8 y. Exercise and cold exposure induce similar energy deficits, but animals respond to these energy deficits in different ways that have a minor impact on lifespan. Measurements of animal responses when they cease restriction indicate that prolonged CR does not diminish hunger, even though the animals may have been in long-term energy balance. Neuroendocrine profiles support the idea that animals under CR are continuously hungry. The feasibility of restricting intake in humans for many decades without long-term support is questionable. However, what is unclear from animal studies is whether taking drugs that suppress appetite will generate the same impact on longevity or whether the neuroendocrine correlates of hunger play an integral role in mediating CRs effects.

  14. Acidophilus Milk Shelf-life Prolongation by the Use of Cold Sensitive Mutants of Lactobacillus acidophilus MDC 9626

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goodarzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background and Objective: The shelf-life of Acidophilus milk fermented by probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus is limited due to acidification caused by continued organic acid formation at low temperatures. Increasing of titrable acidity in turn causes reducing of the total viable count of probiotic bacteria. To overcome acidification we suggested to use coldsensitive mutants of Lactobacillus acidophilus, with limited metabolism at low temperatures. In order to facilitate the selection of cold sensitive mutants, it was decided to use Rifampicin and Streotomycin mutations affecting thermostability of the key molecules of cell metabolism the RNA polymerase and ribosome, respectively.Material and Methods: Ultra violet mutagenesis was used to enhance the yield and diversity of rifampicin and streptomycin resistant mutants of Lactobacillus acidophilus. To perform negative selection of cold sensitive mutants, antibiotic resistant colonies replica plated and incubated at 23ºC. The growth rate, milk fermenting rate, titratable acidity were measured.Results and Conclusion: Among tested resistant to either rifampicin or streptomycin clones with frequency mean of 1.0 %, ten mutants were isolated which have lost the ability to grow at minimal temperature. Fermented with cold-sensitive mutants of Lactobacillus acidophilus milks, during storage in the refrigerator, almost twice as long retained high amount of probiotic bacteria and low titratable acidity as compared to the parent strain. Thus, direct relationship between temperature sensitivity of the starter and shelf life of acidophilic milk was confirmed. Rifampicin and Streptomycin resistant mutations are powerful tools for selection of cold-sensitive dairy starters for preparing dairy fermented products with long shelf-life.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  15. Lithium as an adjunct to radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease for prolonging the intrathyroidal effective half-life of radioiodine. Useful or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelmann, S.; Kuenstner, H.; Nabavi, E.; Eberlein, U.; Groth, P.; Schuemichen, C. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Zentrum fuer Radiologie

    2006-07-01

    Aim: Evaluation of intrathyroidal kinetics of radioiodine with and without lithium as adjunct with respect to the increase in radiation dose delivered to the thyroid. Patients, methods: 267 patients in three groups were included in the study. Group I with 227 patients served as control group, Group II with 21 patients and Group III with 19 patients were distinguished by an intrathyroidal half-life of radioiodine below 3.5 days in the diagnostic test. Patients in Group III received 885 mg lithium carbonate a day for 2 weeks as adjunct to radioiodine therapy. Both diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine kinetics were followed up by at least 10 uptake measurements within a minimum of 48 h. Kinetics of radioiodine were defined mathematically as balance of the thyroidal iodine intake and excretion by a two-compartment model. Results: Under therapy the maximum uptake of radioiodine was reduced by nearly 10% in all groups, in Group I, the effective half-life as well as the product of maximum uptake x effective half-life as an equivalent of radiation dose independent of thyroid volume was lowered in the same magnitude. In Group II, the energy-dose equivalent remained constant under therapy. With adjunct lithium in Group III, the effective half-life was prolonged significantly by factor 1.61{+-}0.49 and the volume-independent energy-dose equivalent by factor 1.39{+-}0.37. No severe side effects of lithium were observed. Conclusion: Using lithium as adjunct to radio-iodine therapy increases the radiation dose delivered to the thyroid by 39% on average and nearly 30% of radioiodine activity can be saved in these patients. Lithium is recommended in patients with very short effective half-life in the diagnostic test in order to reduce the activity required and whole-body radiation dose. (orig.)

  16. An AAV9 coding for frataxin clearly improved the symptoms and prolonged the life of Friedreich ataxia mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is a genetic disease due to increased repeats of the GAA trinucleotide in intron 1 of the frataxin gene. This mutation leads to a reduced expression of frataxin. We have produced an adeno-associated virus (AAV9 coding for human frataxin (AAV9-hFXN. This AAV was delivered by intraperitoneal (IP injection to young conditionally knockout mice in which the frataxin gene had been knocked-out in some tissues during embryogenesis by breeding them with mice expressing the Cre recombinase gene under the muscle creatine kinase (MCK or the neuron-specific enolase (NSE promoter. In the first part of the study, different doses of virus were tested from 6 × 1011 v.p. to 6 × 109 v.p. in NSE-cre mice and all leading to an increase in life spent of the mice. The higher and the lower dose were also tested in MCK-cre mice. A single administration of the AAV9-hFXN at 6 × 1011 v.p. more than doubled the life of these mice. In fact the MCK-cre mice treated with the AAV9-hFXN were sacrificed for further molecular investigations at the age of 29 weeks without apparent symptoms. Echography analysis of the heart function clearly indicated that the cardiac systolic function was better preserved in the mice that received 6 × 1011 v.p. of AAV9-hFXN. The human frataxin protein was detected by ELISA in the heart, brain, muscles, kidney, and liver with the higher dose of virus in both mouse models. Thus, gene therapy with an AAV9-hFXN is a potential treatment of FRDA.

  17. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  18. A dwarf mouse model with decreased GH/IGF-1 activity that does not experience life-span extension: potential impact of increased adiposity, leptin, and insulin with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; Lubbers, Ellen R; Magon, Vishakha; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J

    2014-02-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) action is associated with extended longevity in many vertebrate species. GH receptor (GHR) null (GHR(-)(/-)) mice, which have a disruption in the GHR gene, are a well-studied example of mice that are insulin sensitive and long lived yet obese. However, unlike other mouse lines with reduced GH action, GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice have reduced GH action yet exhibit a normal, not extended, life span. Understanding why GHA mice do not have extended life span though they share many physiological attributes with GHR(-)(/-) mice will help provide clues about how GH influences aging. For this study, we examined age- and sex-related changes in body composition, glucose homeostasis, circulating adipokines, and tissue weights in GHA mice and littermate controls. Compared with previous studies with GHR(-)(/-) mice, GHA mice had more significant increases in fat mass with advancing age. The increased obesity resulted in significant adipokine changes. Euglycemia was maintained in GHA mice; however, hyperinsulinemia developed in older male GHA mice. Overall, GHA mice experience a more substantial, generalized obesity accompanied by altered adipokine levels and glucose homeostasis than GHR(-)(/-) mice, which becomes more exaggerated with advancing age and which likely contributes to the lack of life-span extension in these mice.

  19. Limitation of life-sustaining treatment in patients with prolonged admission to the ICU. Current situation in Spain as seen from the EPIPUSE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Tejedor, A; Martín Delgado, M C; Cabré Pericas, L; Algora Weber, A

    2015-10-01

    Limitation of life-sustaining treatment (LLST) is a recommended practice in certain circumstances. Limitation practices are varied, and their application differs from one center to another. The present study evaluates the current situation of LLST practices in patients with prolonged admission to the ICU who suffer worsening of their condition. A prospective, observational cohort study was carried out. Seventy-five Spanish ICUs. A total of 589 patients suffering 777 complications or adverse events with organ function impairment after day 7 of admission, during a three-month recruitment period. The timing of limitation, the subject proposing LLST, the degree of agreement within the team, the influence of LLST upon the doctor-patient-family relationship, and the way in which LLST is implemented. LLST was proposed in 34.3% of the patients presenting prolonged admission to the ICU with severe complications. The incidence was higher in patients with moderate to severe lung disease, cancer, immunosuppressive treatment or dependence for basic activities of daily living. LLST was finally implemented in 97% of the cases in which it was proposed. The decision within the medical team was unanimous in 87.9% of the cases. The doctor-patient-family relationship usually does not change or even improves in this situation. LLST in ICUs is usually carried out under unanimous decision of the medical team, is performed more frequently in patients with severe comorbidity, and usually does not have a negative impact upon the relationship with the patients and their families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. The parents' ability to take care of their baby as a factor in decisions to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatment in two Dutch NICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratti, Sofia

    2010-06-01

    In The Netherlands, it is openly acknowledged that the parents' ability to take care of their child plays a role in the decision-making process over administration of life-prolonging treatment to severely defective newborn babies. Unlike other aspects of such decision-making process up until the present time, the 'ability to take care' has not received specific attention in regulation or in empirical research. The present study is based on interviews with neonatologists in two Dutch NICUs concerning their definition of the ability to take care and its relevance in non-treatment decisions. All of the respondents think that the ability to take care consists of more than one factor. Most doctors mention the parents' emotional state, social network and cognitive abilities. Some doctors mention the presence of psychological conditions in the parents, their financial situation and physical condition. A few refer to the parents' experience and age, their chances to have another baby and their cultural background. Most doctors think the ability to take care has a secondary relevance in the decision-making process, while the primary concern is assessing the condition of the child. A substantial minority thinks the ability to take care does not play any role, while one doctor thinks it is a factor of primary importance. The study constitutes an important stepping-stone for future research in The Netherlands and elsewhere.

  1. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation for Extrahepatic Distal Cholangiocarcinoma: A Method for Prolonging Stent Patency and Achieving Better Functional Status and Quality of Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tian-tian; Li, Wei-min; Li, Hu-cheng; Ao, Guo-kun; Zheng, Fang; Lin, Hu

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThe clinical efficacy of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with Habib™ EndoHPB catheter, a newly developed intervention for malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction, remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of intraductal RFA.MethodsData from 71 patients with extrahepatic distal cholangiocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. The study patients were divided into RFA and control groups. The RFA group had undergone percutaneous transhepatic intraductal RFA with a Habib™ EndoHPB catheter, followed by placement of covered or uncovered biliary self-expandable metallic stents (SEMs) whereas the control group had undergone percutaneous transhepatic covered or uncovered SEMs placement. Procedure-related complications, stent patency, patient survival, and postoperative serum bilirubin concentrations were compared between the two groups. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary (FACT-Hep) questionnaire was administered to evaluate functional status, improvement in clinical manifestations, and quality of life.ResultsThe RFA group had a longer median stent patency than the control group (p = 0.001 for uncovered SEMs placement). Higher functional well-being, hepatobiliary-specific cancer subscale, Trial Outcome Index, and total FACT-Hep scores were observed during post-procedure follow-up in the RFA group. However, median survival did not differ significantly between the two groups (p > 0.05).ConclusionsProlongation of stent patency and better functional status and quality of life, which are all important clinical endpoints, were observed in patients treated with intraductal RFA. Prospective randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary to further investigate the clinical efficacy and long-term benefits of intraductal RFA.

  2. Percutaneous Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation for Extrahepatic Distal Cholangiocarcinoma: A Method for Prolonging Stent Patency and Achieving Better Functional Status and Quality of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tian-tian, E-mail: matthewwu1979@hotmail.com; Li, Wei-min, E-mail: weimin-li-surgery@126.com [The 309th Hospital of PLA, Hepatobiliary Surgery Department (China); Li, Hu-cheng, E-mail: hucheng-li-surgery@126.com [The 307th Hospital of PLA, General Surgery Department (China); Ao, Guo-kun, E-mail: guokun-ao-radiology@126.com [The 309th Hospital of PLA, Radiology Department (China); Zheng, Fang, E-mail: fang-zheng-surgery@126.com [The 309th Hospital of PLA, Hepatobiliary Surgery Department (China); Lin, Hu, E-mail: hu-lin-radiology@126.com [The 309th Hospital of PLA, Radiology Department (China)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeThe clinical efficacy of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with Habib™ EndoHPB catheter, a newly developed intervention for malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction, remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of intraductal RFA.MethodsData from 71 patients with extrahepatic distal cholangiocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. The study patients were divided into RFA and control groups. The RFA group had undergone percutaneous transhepatic intraductal RFA with a Habib™ EndoHPB catheter, followed by placement of covered or uncovered biliary self-expandable metallic stents (SEMs) whereas the control group had undergone percutaneous transhepatic covered or uncovered SEMs placement. Procedure-related complications, stent patency, patient survival, and postoperative serum bilirubin concentrations were compared between the two groups. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary (FACT-Hep) questionnaire was administered to evaluate functional status, improvement in clinical manifestations, and quality of life.ResultsThe RFA group had a longer median stent patency than the control group (p = 0.001 for uncovered SEMs placement). Higher functional well-being, hepatobiliary-specific cancer subscale, Trial Outcome Index, and total FACT-Hep scores were observed during post-procedure follow-up in the RFA group. However, median survival did not differ significantly between the two groups (p > 0.05).ConclusionsProlongation of stent patency and better functional status and quality of life, which are all important clinical endpoints, were observed in patients treated with intraductal RFA. Prospective randomized controlled clinical trials are necessary to further investigate the clinical efficacy and long-term benefits of intraductal RFA.

  3. Phytoseiid mites in protected crops: the effect of humidity and food availability on egg hatch and adult life span of Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiulus cucumeris, N. californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Courcy Williams, Michael E; Kravar-Garde, Lidija; Fenlon, John S; Sunderland, Keith D

    2004-01-01

    The effect of relative humidity on egg hatch success for Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiulus californicus and N. cucumeris was described by a binomial model with a parallel slope. The shape of the response differed for Phytoseiulus persimilis and a model with separate parameters gave a significantly better fit. Fitted response curves showed that I. degenerans, N. cucumeris, N. californicus and P. persimilis were ranked by decreasing tolerance to low humidity, with egg mortalities of persimilis egg duration was significantly longer at 60 and 70% than for either 82 or 90% RH. No effect of relative humidity was found on the mean life span of adult females when food was available continuously to the mites. N. californicus lived significantly longer (58 days after the first egg was laid) than the other species. No significant difference was observed in mean life span between adult females of I. degenerans and N. cucumeris (25 and 28 days respectively). The mean life span of adult female P. persimilis (19 days) was significantly shorter than the other species. In the absence of both food and water, the survival of adult female mites was reduced to 2-4 days. Survival time was at least doubled when free water was available in the absence of food. Mean survival of adult female mites with water but without food was 10 days for N. cucumeris, 18 days for N. californicus, 6 days for P. persimilis and 4 days for I. degenerans. Survival of adult female N. cucumeris and N. californicus was increased significantly, to 20 and 22 days respectively, when fungal hyphae were present along with water but in the absence of other food.

  4. A stockpile of ova in the grass frog Rana temporaria is established once for the life span. Do ovaries in amphibians and in mammals follow the same evolutionary strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogielska, Maria; Kotusz, Agnieszka; Augustyńska, Renata; Ihnatowicz, Jerzy; Paśko, Łukasz

    2013-04-01

    Most anuran amphibians produce high numbers of eggs during several consecutive breeding seasons. The question is still open whether oocytes are formed anew as a result of oogonial proliferation after each spawning or the definitive pool of oocytes is established during the juvenile period and is sufficient for the whole reproductive life span of a female. Our quantitative studies show that primary oogonia in adult female frogs can proliferate, but they fail to differentiate further and do not enter meiosis, and thereby there is no supplementation of new generations of oocytes after each spawning. Ovaries of one-year-old grass frogs contain (median) 53,447 diplotene oocytes, in two-years-old frogs this number decreased to 33,583 and eventually reached 25,679 in virgin mature females. More than 50% decrease in the total oocyte number was accompanied by massive degeneration (atresia) of oocytes. The final number of oocytes in a female forms a stock for 11-12 breeding seasons and exceeds the number of eggs produced during the potential reproductive life span of this species. The phylogenetic context of oocyte recruitment modes in the major clades of vertebrates is discussed in respect to their ability to replenish the stock (a renewable stock in ovaries named "open" vs. a non-renewable stock in ovaries named "closed"). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects.

  6. Communicating Employability Enhancement throughout the Life-Span: A National Intervention Program Aimed at Combating Age-Related Stereotypes at the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Selm, Martine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The stimulation of lifelong employability of employees is one of today's challenges in all sectors of the Dutch society. In this article, we will outline the historical context of the life-long employability issue in the Netherlands, and provide an overview of current business responses to the issue. We will discuss key obstacles for improving…

  7. Communicating employability enchancement throughout the life-span: a national intervention program aimed at combating age-related stereotypes at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Selm, M.; van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The stimulation of lifelong employability of employees is one of today's challenges in all sectors of the Dutch society. In this article, we will outline the historical context of the life-long employability issue in the Netherlands, and provide an overview of current business responses to the

  8. Communicating Employability Enhancement Throughout the Life-Span: A National Intervention Program Aimed at Combating Age-Related Stereotypes at the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Selm, Martine; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    The stimulation of lifelong employability of employees is one of today's challenges in all sectors of the Dutch society. In this article, we will outline the historical context of the life-long employability issue in the Netherlands, and provide an overview of current business responses to the

  9. Span efficiency in hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2013-07-06

    Flight in animals is the result of aerodynamic forces generated as flight muscles drive the wings through air. Aerial performance is therefore limited by the efficiency with which momentum is imparted to the air, a property that can be measured using modern techniques. We measured the induced flow fields around six hawkmoth species flying tethered in a wind tunnel to assess span efficiency, ei, and from these measurements, determined the morphological and kinematic characters that predict efficient flight. The species were selected to represent a range in wingspan from 40 to 110 mm (2.75 times) and in mass from 0.2 to 1.5 g (7.5 times) but they were similar in their overall shape and their ecology. From high spatio-temporal resolution quantitative wake images, we extracted time-resolved downwash distributions behind the hawkmoths, calculating instantaneous values of ei throughout the wingbeat cycle as well as multi-wingbeat averages. Span efficiency correlated positively with normalized lift and negatively with advance ratio. Average span efficiencies for the moths ranged from 0.31 to 0.60 showing that the standard generic value of 0.83 used in previous studies of animal flight is not a suitable approximation of aerodynamic performance in insects.

  10. Health-related quality of life in a multicenter randomized controlled comparison of telephonic disease management and automated home monitoring in patients recently hospitalized with heart failure: SPAN-CHF II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstam, Varda; Gregory, Douglas; Chen, Jie; Weintraub, Andrew; Patel, Ayan; Levine, Daniel; Venesy, David; Perry, Kathleen; Delano, Christine; Konstam, Marvin A

    2011-02-01

    Although disease management programs have been shown to provide a number of clinical benefits to patients with heart failure (HF), the incremental impact of an automated home monitoring (AHM) system on health-related quality of life (HRQL) is unknown. We performed a prospective randomized investigation, examining the additive value of AHM to a previously described nurse-directed HF disease management program (SPAN-CHF), with attention to HRQL, in patients with a recent history of decompensated HF. A total of 188 patients were randomized to receive the SPAN-CHF intervention for 90 days, either with (AHM group) or without (NAHM, standard-care group) AHM, with a 1:1 randomization ratio after HF-related hospitalization. HRQL, measured by the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) (Physical, Emotional, and Total scores on MLHFQ) was assessed at 3 time points: baseline, 45 days, and 90 days. Although both treatments (AHM and NAHM) improved HRQL at 45 and 90 days compared with baseline with respect to Physical, Emotional, and Total domain scales, no significant difference emerged between AHM and NAHM groups. AHM and NAHM treatments demonstrated improved HRQL scores at 45 and 90 days after baseline assessment. When comparing 2 state-of the-art disease management programs regarding HRQL outcomes, our results did not support the added value of AHM. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning......: whether an innovation idea is created internally or externally and whether an innovation process relies on external knowledge resources. This yields four possible types of innovation, which represent the nuanced variation of outside-in innovations. Using historical data from Canada for 1945...

  12. Chemical genetic screen identifies lithocholic acid as an anti-aging compound that extends yeast chronological life span in a TOR-independent manner, by modulating housekeeping longevity assurance processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alexander A; Richard, Vincent R; Kyryakov, Pavlo; Bourque, Simon D; Beach, Adam; Burstein, Michelle T; Glebov, Anastasia; Koupaki, Olivia; Boukh-Viner, Tatiana; Gregg, Christopher; Juneau, Mylène; English, Ann M; Thomas, David Y; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2010-07-01

    In chronologically aging yeast, longevity can be extended by administering a caloric restriction (CR) diet or some small molecules. These life-extending interventions target the adaptable target of rapamycin (TOR) and cAMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathways that are under the stringent control of calorie availability. We designed a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that increase the chronological life span of yeast under CR by targeting lipid metabolism and modulating housekeeping longevity pathways that regulate longevity irrespective of the number of available calories. Our screen identifies lithocholic acid (LCA) as one of such molecules. We reveal two mechanisms underlying the life-extending effect of LCA in chronologically aging yeast. One mechanism operates in a calorie availability-independent fashion and involves the LCA-governed modulation of housekeeping longevity assurance pathways that do not overlap with the adaptable TOR and cAMP/PKA pathways. The other mechanism extends yeast longevity under non-CR conditions and consists in LCA-driven unmasking of the previously unknown anti-aging potential of PKA. We provide evidence that LCA modulates housekeeping longevity assurance pathways by suppressing lipid-induced necrosis, attenuating mitochondrial fragmentation, altering oxidation-reduction processes in mitochondria, enhancing resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses, suppressing mitochondria-controlled apoptosis, and enhancing stability of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

  13. Leaf life spans of some conifers of the temperate forests of South America Longevidad foliar de algunas coníferas de los bosques templados de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific variation in leaf life span has wide-ranging implications for plant species sorting on resource availability gradients, and for ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. Very little is known about leaf life spans of evergreen trees in the temperate forests of South America. Leaf life spans were estimated by static demographic methods, and associated leaf traits measured, for four conifers of this region. It was expected that leaf life span variation would correlate negatively with soil fertility of habitats normally occupied by each species. This prediction was upheld by the data. The mean leaf life span determined for Araucaria araucana (24 years is among the highest figures reported for any plant species. This extreme leaf longevity was associated with very robust construction (high leaf mass per unit area and very low nitrogen content. These aspects of the ecology of A. araucana may affect its fitness in two ways. Firstly, slow foliage turnover will reduce its annual nutrient requirements for crown maintenance, a trait that is thought to be crucial for survival on nutrient-poor sites. Secondly, the low decomposability of A. araucana leaf litter is likely to cause nutrient immobilisation, possibly favouring site retention by A. araucana in the face of competition from faster-growing but more nutrient-demanding species. Interspecific variation in leaf life span appeared to be systematically related to variation in leaf mass per unit area (LMA and leaf nitrogen, in agreement with a large body of evidence that leaf evolution is constrained by a trade-off between trait combinations which optimise carbon gain and growth in resource-rich habitats, and those which favour persistence in chronically adverse environmentsLas diferencias específicas en longevidad foliar tienen importantes implicancias para la distribución de las plantas en relación con gradientes de recursos, y en procesos ecosistémicos tales como el ciclaje de

  14. Life-span effects of ionizing radiation in the beagle dog: A summary account of four decades of research funded by the US Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, the US Atomic Energy Commission made a far- reaching commitment to the support of life-span radiation-effects studies in a relatively long-lived animal, the beagle dog. Something in the range of 200 million dollars has already been spent on a group of closely related experiments, many of which are only now coming to fruition. Responsible fiscal management of these studies, directed toward securing an optimum return from past investments, and toward creative planning of future directions, requires a comprehensive view of this total effort. This report is designed to provide that comprehensive view. This is primarily intended as a research management document. Evaluation and interpretation are tasks for those directly involved in conducting these experiments. The limited objective of the present document is to describe what has been done, to give some of the background for why it was done, to describe results already realized and applications that have been made of these results -- all in a manner designed to display the total effort rather than piecemeal details. While proposing no specific answers to the questions ''Where do we go from here?''it is hoped that the document will provide a basis for approaching that question in an informed manner. The maintenance of a continuity of scientific understanding and direction in these experiments, which often continue beyond the initiating investigators' working life, is no small part of the problem involved in conducting these experiments

  15. Life-span effects of ionizing radiation in the beagle dog: A summary account of four decades of research funded by the US Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, the US Atomic Energy Commission made a far- reaching commitment to the support of life-span radiation-effects studies in a relatively long-lived animal, the beagle dog. Something in the range of 200 million dollars has already been spent on a group of closely related experiments, many of which are only now coming to fruition. Responsible fiscal management of these studies, directed toward securing an optimum return from past investments, and toward creative planning of future directions, requires a comprehensive view of this total effort. This report is designed to provide that comprehensive view. This is primarily intended as a research management document. Evaluation and interpretation are tasks for those directly involved in conducting these experiments. The limited objective of the present document is to describe what has been done, to give some of the background for why it was done, to describe results already realized and applications that have been made of these results -- all in a manner designed to display the total effort rather than piecemeal details. While proposing no specific answers to the questions ''Where do we go from here.''it is hoped that the document will provide a basis for approaching that question in an informed manner. The maintenance of a continuity of scientific understanding and direction in these experiments, which often continue beyond the initiating investigators' working life, is no small part of the problem involved in conducting these experiments.

  16. The life span of the biosphere revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Kasting, James F.

    1992-01-01

    How much longer the biosphere can survive on earth is reexamined using a more elaborate model than that of Lovelock and Whitfield (1982). The model includes a more accurate treatment of the greenhouse effect of CO2, a biologically mediated weathering parametrization, and the realization that C4 photosynthesis can persist to much lower concentrations of atmospheric CO2. It is found that a C4-plant-based biosphere could survive for at least another 0.9 Gyr to 1.5 Gyr after the present time, depending respectively on whether CO2 or temperature is the limiting factor. Within an additional 1 Gyr, earth may lose water to space, thereby following the path of Venus.

  17. Life-span of leadwood trees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, JC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available with radiocarbon from the atom bomb tests. S. Afr. J. Sci. 98, 437?438. Table 2. Summary of the dating results. Specimen Description Diameter Age Radial growth rate Survival since death (m) (yr) (mm yr?1) (yr) LW 1 Upright dead tree 0.68 1040 0.33 22 LW 2 Standing... bythecombustionoffossilfuelsthatdonotcontaintheradioactive isotope. After AD 1954, the testing of nuclear fusion bombs dramaticallyincreasedthe14Ccontentintheatmosphere,sothat material dating to after this date shows an elevated 14C level and can be pinpointed precisely to ?1 year.4 Materials and method...

  18. Life Span Personality Stability in Sibling Statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, B. G.

    Personality stability and change in sibling status in the one- and two-child-family are examined in this Study. Q-sort data were analyzed for the same 33 male and 34 female subjects during four periods of their lives-- early and late adolescence and early and middle adulthood. Results indicate that stability of personality was greatest during…

  19. Life span study report 11, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.; Preston, D.L.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Pierce, D.A.

    1987-11-01

    In 75,991 A-bomb survivors, shielded kerma and organ doses were calculated based on the new dosimetry system 1986 (DS86) and the previous tentative 1965 dose revised (T65DR) to compare risk coefficients for site-specific cancer mortality during the period 1950 - 1985. As for shielded kerma, the excess relative risk over the various sites and the excess numbers of cancer deaths per 10 4 person-year-gray were 1.35 - 1.51 and 1.38 - 1.61 times higher, respectively, under the DS86 than under the T65DR. The attributable risks did not differ in the two dosimetric systems. The risk coefficients based on the DS86 organ-absorbed doses were generally smaller than those based on the T65DR values. The difference in cancer mortality between Hiroshima and Nagasaki was smaller with the DS86 than with the T65DR; however, this was not statistically significant for either shielded kerma and organ-absorbed dose. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Life span study report 10 - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D.L.; Kato, Hiroo; Kopecky, K.J.; Fujita, Shoichiro.

    1987-08-01

    The present study extends the previous report on cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors by adding data from four additional years of follow-up (1979 - 82) and by expanding the cohort (now designated LSS-E85) to include 11,393 Nagasaki survivors located between 2,500 - 9,999 m from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing (ATB). Significant dose responses were observed for leukemia, for cancers of the lung, female breast, stomach, colon, esophagus, and urinary bladder, and for multiple myeloma. Four new categories of cancer were also investigated: the results for cancers of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts and of the ovary and other uterine adnexa were suggestive of significant radiation effects, but the positive dose responses for cancers of the gallbladder and prostate were not significant. Due to diagnostic difficulties and the lack of evidence for radiogenic effects at these sites, the results for liver and ovarian cancers do not provide convincing evidence for radiogenic effects. With the exception of multiple myeloma, the relative risk (RR) of radiation-induced cancer mortality was greater for women than for men, for each nonleukemic cancer with a significant overall dose response. These differences can be attributed in large measure to differences in the background cancer mortality rates, which are generally much higher for men than women. For leukemia there was no significant sex difference in the RR, while for multiple myeloma women had a slightly, though nonsignificantly, lower RR than males. A statistically significant interaction (p = .008) between the effects of age ATB and attained age on radiation-related mortality was also observed for cancers other than leukemia. In particular, the initially large RRs seen in those who were young ATB have decreased with time, while the smaller RRs for those who were older ATB tended to increase. (author)

  1. The Relation between Big Five Traits and Well-being across the Life Span%不同年龄群体大五人格与幸福感关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志霞; 李启明

    2014-01-01

    以毕生发展为研究视角,调查了3192位不同年龄群体被试,探讨不同年龄群体大五人格与幸福感的关系。结果发现:(1)各变量都存在显著的年龄效应,大五人格与主观幸福感相关显著;(2)在不同年龄群体里,神经质和开放性都能显著预测主观幸福感,且预测值随着年龄而增大,而外倾性、尽责性和宜人性对主观幸福感的预测存在年龄差异;(3)大五人格对主观幸福感的解释率随着年龄的增长而下降,到60岁之后其解释率上升;(4)年龄在大五人格与主观幸福感之间起了显著的调节作用。%In the current study, we examine the relationship between personality traits and subjective well-being and psy-chological well-being from a life span perspective.A total of 3192 Chinese residents took part in this study from 41 cities in the country 17 provinces and municipalities.And they completed the subjective well-being scale and big five-factor inventory.It took about 20 minutes to complete the questionnaires.The correlations among factors were calculated with SPSS 16.0 and Structural equation model was applied to deal with all data.In the analysis of struc-tural equation modeling, seven models were constructed.As predicted, personality traits were significantly associat-ed with subjective well-being with the different age groups of Chinese residents.And then Structural equation mod-els revealed that ages play a moderating role between personality traits and subjective well-being, and the total effect value was different.In conclusion, this research indicates that personality traits were associated with greater happiness across the life span, and personality traits were one of the best predictors.This study provides new in-sights into personal traits as predictors of well-being.Especially, this study addressed some limitations of previous studies.Importantly, this study also helps clarify questions about

  2. Intermittent food restriction initiated late in life prolongs lifespan and retards the onset of age-related markers in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Du, Xiaoyuan; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Su; Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui

    2017-06-01

    Two of the most studied and widely accepted conjectures on possible aging mechanisms are the oxidative stress hypothesis and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway. Intermittent fasting (IF) is known to modulate aging and to prolong lifespan in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms are still under debate. In this study, we first demonstrated that late-onset two consecutive days a week fasting, a form of IF, termed intermittent food restriction (IFR), exhibited a time-dependent effect, and long-term late-onset IFR extended the mean lifespan and maximum lifespan by approximately 3.5 and 3 weeks, respectively, in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri. We also showed that IFR reduced the accumulation of lipofuscin in the gills and the protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels in the muscles. Moreover, IFR was able to enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the fish. Finally, IFR was also able to decelerate the decrease of SirT1 and Foxo3A, but accelerate the decrease of IGF-1. Collectively, our findings suggest that late-onset IFR can retard the onset of age-related markers, and prolong the lifespan of the aging fish, via a synergistic action of an anti-oxidant system and the IIS pathway. It also proposes that the combined assessment of anti-oxidant system and IIS pathway will contribute to providing a more comprehensive view of anti-aging process.

  3. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europe...... is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...

  4. Activation of the AMPK/Sirt1 pathway by a leucine-metformin combination increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, and stimulates glucose and lipid metabolism and increases life span in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jheelam; Bruckbauer, Antje; Zemel, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    We have previously shown leucine (Leu) to activate Sirt1 by lowering its K M for NAD + , thereby amplifying the effects of other sirtuin activators and improving insulin sensitivity. Metformin (Met) converges on this pathway both indirectly (via AMPK) and by direct activation of Sirt1, and we recently found Leu to synergize with Met to improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control while achieving ~80% dose-reduction in diet-induced obese mice. Accordingly, we sought here to define the mechanism of this interaction. Muscle cells C2C12 and liver cells HepG2 were used to test the effect of Met-Leu on Sirt1 activation. Caenorhabditis elegans was used for glucose utilization and life span studies. Leu (0.5mmol/L)+Met (50-100μmol/L) synergistically activated Sirt1 (pmetformin exerted no independent effect at any concentration (0.1-0.5mmol/L). Thus, Leu and Met synergize to enable Sirt1 activation at low NAD + concentrations (typical of energy replete states). Sirt1 and AMPK activations are required for Met-Leu's full action, which result in improvements in energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Age Differences in Memory Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michelene T. H.

    1977-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine processes underlying age differences in the level of recall in a memory-span task. Five-year-olds recalled fewer items than adults in memory-span tasks involving both familiar and unfamiliar faces, even though the use of rehearsal and recoding strategies was minimized for adults. (MS)

  6. Quality of life is impaired in association with the need for prolonged postoperative therapy by somatostatin analogs in patients with acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Mark R; Netea-Maier, Romana T; van den Berg, Gerrit; Homan, Jens; Sluiter, Wim J; Wagenmakers, Margreet A; van den Bergh, Alfons C M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Hermus, Ad R M M; van Beek, André P

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of long-acting somatostatin analogs (SSTA) after initial pituitary surgery on long-term health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in relation to disease control in patients with acromegaly. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study in two tertiary referral centers in

  7. Quality of life is impaired in association with the need for prolonged postoperative therapy by somatostatin analogs in patients with acromegaly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.R.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Berg, G. van den; Homan, J.; Sluiter, W.J.; Wagenmakers, M.A.E.M.; Bergh, A.C. van den; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Beek, A.P. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of long-acting somatostatin analogs (SSTA) after initial pituitary surgery on long-term health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in relation to disease control in patients with acromegaly. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study in two tertiary referral centers in

  8. Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead sea bream fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratana, Filippo; Muscolino, Daniele; Beninati, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro; Panebianco, Antonio

    2016-11-21

    R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6-9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A matter of life and death: controversy at the interface between clinical and legal decision-making in prolonged disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2017-07-01

    Best interests decision-making and end-of-life care for patients in permanent vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS/MCS) is a complex area of clinical and legal practice, which is poorly understood by most clinicians, lawyers and members of the public. In recent weeks, the Oxford Shrieval lecture by Mr Justice Baker ('A Matter of Life and Death', 11 October 2016) and its subsequent reporting in the public press has sparked debate on the respective roles of clinicians, the Court of Protection and the Mental Capacity Act 2005 in decisions to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatments from patients with disorders of consciousness. The debate became polarised and confused by misquotation and inaccurate terminology, and highlighted a lack of knowledge about how patients in VS/MCS die in the absence of court approval. This article sets out the background and discussion and attempts to give a more accurate representation of the facts. In the spirit of transparency, I present a mortality review of all the patients in VS/MCS who have died under the care of my own unit in the last decade-with or without referral to the court, but always in accordance with the law. These data demonstrate that clinicians regularly undertake best interests decision-making in conjunction with families that may include life and death decisions (sometimes even the withdrawal or withholding of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration); and that these can be made within the current legal framework without necessarily involving the court in all cases. This is the first published case series of its kind. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J J; Appa Rao, V; Babu, R Narendra

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  11. Half-Life of Sulfonylureas in HNF1A and HNF4A Human MODY Patients is not Prolonged as Suggested by the Mouse Hnf1a(-/-) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Jana; Andel, Michal; Potockova, Jana; Klima, Josef; Macek, Jan; Ptacek, Pavel; Mat'oska, Vaclav; Kumstyrova, Tereza; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonylurea derivatives are widely used for clinical treatment of human subjects with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) caused by mutations in HNF-1α or HNF-4α despite the mechanism leading to their hypersensitivity is incompletely understood. In Hnf1a(-/-) mice, serum concentrations and half-life of sulfonylurea derivatives are strongly increased. We thus hypothesized that reduced sulfonylurea derivatives clearance stands behind their therapeutic potential in human HNF1A/HNF4A MODY subjects. Single doses of 3 mg glipizide and 5 mg glibenclamide/glyburide were administered sequentially to seven HNF1A/HNF4A MODY subjects and six control individuals matched for their age, BMI and CYP2C9 genotype. Pharmacokinetic (plasma concentration levels, Cmax, tmax, t1/2, AUC) and pharmacodynamic parameters (glycemia, C-peptide and insulin plasma levels) were followed for 24 hours after drug administration. We provide the first evidence on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sulfonylurea derivatives in human MODY subjects. The half-life of glipizide did not change, and reached 3.8±0.7 and 3.7±1.8 h in the MODY and control subjects, respectively. The half-life of glibenclamide was increased only in some MODY subjects (t1/2 9.5±6.7 and 5.0±1.4 h, respectively). Importantly, the intra- individual responses of MODY (but control) subjects to glipizide and glibenclamide treatment were highly correlated. With regards to pharmacodynamics, we observed a differential response of control but not MODY subjects to the doses of glipizide and glibenclamide applied. We rejected the hypothesis that all human MODY-associated mutations in HNF1A / HNF4A induce changes in the pharmacokinetics of sulfonylureas in humans analogically to the Hnf1a(-/-) mouse model.

  12. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Kulairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  13. Life prolongation of hot metal ladle by improved shape and material of the bricks; Renga keijo to zaishitsu kaizen ni yoru yosenka jumyo no encho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Toru.; Mori, Hajime.; Fukushima, Hironori.; Iiyama, Makoto. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Keihin Works, NKK, intended to extend life of a hot metal ladle and reduction of refractory cost by improving shapes and materials of bricks. The refractory composition of the ladle is a 4-layer structure constituted of a permanent lining comprising 3 layers of agalmatolite bricks and a 180 mm thick work lining. High alumina bricks are used for a free board part and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-C bricks for the slag line part to the ground part. Elevation of the pore rate was observed from the working face to the back face in a brick after use. The former is considered caused by densification of structure and the latter by embrittlement by oxidation. Cracks parallel to the working face are considered caused by structural spalling by the difference of the physical properties. Since cracks vertical to the working face are observed, the finite element method (FEM) thermal stress analysis is applied to inspect the possibility of cracks by thermal stress. A brick whose degree of sintering was suppressed was tri allyl manufactured. It brought wide extension of life and reduction of refractory cost. (NEDO)

  14. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  15. The long-term effects of a life-prolonging heat treatment on the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome suggest that heat shock proteins extend lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter; Loeschcke, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Heat-induced hormesis, i.e. the beneficial effect of mild heat-induced stress, increases the average lifespan of many organisms. This effect, which depends on the heat shock factor, decreases the log mortality rate weeks after the stress has ceased. To identify candidate genes that mediate......-treated flies. Several hsp70 probe sets were up-regulated 1.7–2-fold in the mildly stressed flies weeks after the last heat treatment (P shock protein, Hsp70, is reported to return to normal levels of expression shortly after heat stress. We...... conclude that the heat shock response, and Hsp70 in particular, may be central to the heat-induced increase in the average lifespan in flies that are exposed to mild heat stress early in life....

  16. Hydrolysate from a mixture of legume flours with antifungal activity as an ingredient for prolonging the shelf-life of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Verni, Michela; Bordignon, Stefano; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (WSE) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. Agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, including Aspergillus parasiticus CBS971.97, Penicillium carneum CBS 112297, Penicillium paneum CBS 101032, Penicillium polonicum 112490. A multi-step purification was carried out to identify the active compounds. The antifungal activity was attributed to native proteins (nsLTP, ubiquitin, lectin alpha-1 chain, wound-induced basic protein, defensin-1, defensin-2) and a mixture of peptides, which were released during hydrolysis. Nine peptides were purified and identified as sequences encrypted in legume vicilins, lectins and chitinases. WSE was used as ingredient for making bread under pilot plant conditions. Chemical, structural and sensory characterization of bread showed the lack of significant changes compared to control. The bread made with the legume hydrolysate had a longer shelf-life than that of the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RNA Interference of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2 Genes Expression Prolongs the Shelf Life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L. Papaya Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayah Sekeli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6. Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  18. Visual working memory span in adults with cochlear implants: Some preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Moberly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neurocognitive functions, specifically verbal working memory (WM, contribute to speech recognition in postlingual adults with cochlear implants (CIs and normal-hearing (NH listener shearing degraded speech. Three hypotheses were tested: (1 WM accuracy as assessed using three visual span measures — digits, objects, and symbols — would correlate with recognition scores for spectrally degraded speech (through a CI or when noise-vocoded; (2 WM accuracy would be best for digit span, intermediate for object span, and lowest for symbol span, due to the increasing cognitive demands across these tasks. Likewise, response times, relating to processing demands, would be shortest for digit span, intermediate for object span, and longest for symbol span; (3 CI users would demonstrate poorer and slower performance than NH peers on WM tasks, as a result of less efficient verbally mediated encoding strategies associated with a period of prolonged auditory deprivation. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 30 postlingually deaf adults with CIs and 34 NH controls. Participants were tested for sentence recognition in quiet (CI users or after noise-vocoding (NH peers, along with WM using visual measures of digit span, object span, and symbol span. Results: Of the three measures of WM, digit span scores alone correlated with sentence recognition for CI users; no correlations were found using these three measures for NH peers. As predicted, WM accuracy (and response times were best (and fastest for digit span, intermediate for object span, and worst (and slowest for symbol span. CI users and NH peers demonstrated equivalent WM accuracy and response time for digit span and object span, and similar response times for symbol span, but contrary to our original predictions, CI users demonstrated better accuracy on symbol span than NH peers. Conclusions: Verbal WM assessed using visual tasks relates weakly to sentence recognition for degraded speech. CI users

  19. A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...

  20. A distributed spanning tree algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Svend Hauge

    1988-01-01

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well as comm...

  1. The optimum spanning catenary cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A heavy cable spans two points in space. There exists an optimum cable length such that the maximum tension is minimized. If the two end points are at the same level, the optimum length is 1.258 times the distance between the ends. The optimum lengths for end points of different heights are also found.

  2. The SPAN cookbook: A practical guide to accessing SPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Stephanie; Tencati, Ronald D.; Stern, David M.; Capps, Kimberly D.; Dorman, Gary; Peters, David J.

    1990-01-01

    This is a manual for remote users who wish to send electronic mail messages from the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) to scientific colleagues on other computer networks and vice versa. In several instances more than one gateway has been included for the same network. Users are provided with an introduction to each network listed with helpful details about accessing the system and mail syntax examples. Also included is information on file transfers, remote logins, and help telephone numbers.

  3. Detailed free span assessment for Mexilhao flow lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Antonio; Franco, Luciano; Eigbe, Uwa; BomfimSilva, Carlos [INTECSEA, Houston, TX (United States); Escudero, Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The subsea gas production system of Mexilhao Field SPS-35, Santos Basin, offshore Brazil, is composed basically of two rigid 12.75 inches production flow lines approximately 21 km long installed in a fairly rough seabed. During the basic design, the free span assessment was performed considering the maximum allowable free span length determined by the response model proposed by DNV-RP-F105. This approach resulted in a large number of predicted free span requiring corrections, leading to a higher capital cost for the project. In this sense, a detailed free span VIV fatigue assessment was proposed, considering multi-spans and multi-mode effects and also the post lay survey data. The assessment followed the DNV-RP-F105 recommendations for multi-spans and multi-mode effects, using Finite Element Analysis to determine the natural frequencies, mode shapes and corresponding stresses associated with the mode shapes. The assessment was performed in three stages, the first during the detailed design as part of the bottom roughness analysis using the expected residual pipelay tension. The second stage was performed after pipelay, considering the post-lay survey data, where the actual requirements for span correction were determined. Actual pipelay tension was used and seabed soil stiffness adjusted in the model to match the as-laid pipeline profile obtained from the survey data. The first and second stage assessments are seamlessly automated to speed up the evaluation process and allow for quick response in the field, which was important to keep the construction vessel time minimized. The third stage was performed once the corrections of the spans were made and the purpose was to confirm that the new pipeline configuration along the supported spans had sufficient fatigue life for the temporary and operational phases. For the assessment of all three stages, the probability of occurrence and directionality of the near bottom current was considered to improve prediction of the

  4. Deciding about treatments that prolong life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are receiving or may need in the future. Learn about the treatments and how they would ... patients and their families. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  5. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Attribute clustering has been previously employed to detect statistical dependence between subsets of variables. We propose a novel attribute clustering algorithm motivated by research of complex networks, called the Star Discovery algorithm. The algorithm partitions and indirectly discards...... inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  6. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  7. Response of Escherichia coli to Prolonged Berberine Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budeyri Gokgoz, Nilay; Avci, Fatma Gizem; Yoneten, Kubra Karaosmanoglu; Alaybeyoglu, Begum; Ozkirimli, Elif; Sayar, Nihat Alpagu; Kazan, Dilek; Sariyar Akbulut, Berna

    2017-07-01

    Berberine is a plant-derived alkaloid possessing antimicrobial activity; unfortunately, its efflux through multidrug resistance pumps reduces its efficacy. Cellular life span of Escherichia coli is generally shorter with prolonged berberine exposure; nevertheless, about 30% of the cells still remain robust following this treatment. To elucidate its mechanism of action and to identify proteins that could be involved in development of antimicrobial resistance, protein profiles of E. coli cells treated with berberine for 4.5 and 8 hours were compared with control cells. A total of 42 proteins were differentially expressed in cells treated with berberine for 8 hours when compared to control cells. In both 4.5 and 8 hours of berberine-treated cells, carbohydrate and peptide uptake regimens remained unchanged, although amino acid maintenance regimen switched from transport to synthesis. Defect in cell division persisted and this condition was confirmed by images obtained from scanning electron microscopy. Universal stress proteins were not involved in stress response. The significant increase in the abundance of elongation factors could suggest the involvement of these proteins in protection by exhibiting chaperone activities. Furthermore, the involvement of the outer membrane protein OmpW could receive special attention as a protein involved in response to antimicrobial agents, since the expression of only this porin protein was upregulated after 8 hours of exposure.

  8. Mechanical property tests in hot gas environment for evaluation of life expectancy of aero-engine turbine blades and for assessment of procedures for prolonging service life. Mechanische Pruefung unter Heissgasatmosphaere zur Ermittlung der Lebenserwartung von Fluggasturbinenschaufeln und zur Bewertung von Verfahren zur Lebensdauerverlaengerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peichl, L

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this programme was the determination and optimization of mechanical testing procedures in order to enable a service life prediction for turbine blades as well as to measure the life consumption of blades which have already been in service. Under these testing conditions procedures were to be investigated which lead to a prolongation of the service life of the blades. The results have shown that the rig test at constant values of load and temperature, which are typical for service conditions, is sufficient for the laboratory simulation. The life consumption of blades run in the engine can be determined by measuring the residual creep life in the rig test. Using the resulting data the life consumption of a particular blade run in the engine can be estimated by the non-destructive measurement of its elongation. The precision of residual life prediction is raised by respecting the master heat and porosity of the blades. From the investigation of high-temperature corrosion resistant coatings it follows that IN 100 can be protected against the attack of sea salt over its whole creep life by coating with a precious metal modified aluminide or by LPPS- or EB-PVD-MCrAlY-coatings. By aluminising, the cooling channels of turbine blades can be protected against oxidation over more than 700 h in the temperature/load cycling test. However, the coating technique used is only applicable under laboratory conditions. In contrary, internal coating by pulse aluminising, which is compatible to production conditions, showed less oxidation resistance.

  9. Linking and Cutting Spanning Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís M. S. Russo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of uniformly generating a spanning tree for an undirected connected graph. This process is useful for computing statistics, namely for phylogenetic trees. We describe a Markov chain for producing these trees. For cycle graphs, we prove that this approach significantly outperforms existing algorithms. For general graphs, experimental results show that the chain converges quickly. This yields an efficient algorithm due to the use of proper fast data structures. To obtain the mixing time of the chain we describe a coupling, which we analyze for cycle graphs and simulate for other graphs.

  10. Determinantal spanning forests on planar graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We generalize the uniform spanning tree to construct a family of determinantal measures on essential spanning forests on periodic planar graphs in which every component tree is bi-infinite. Like the uniform spanning tree, these measures arise naturally from the laplacian on the graph. More generally these results hold for the "massive" laplacian determinant which counts rooted spanning forests with weight $M$ per finite component. These measures typically have a form of conformal invariance, ...

  11. On the size of monotone span programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikov, V.S.; Nikova, S.I.; Preneel, B.; Blundo, C.; Cimato, S.

    2005-01-01

    Span programs provide a linear algebraic model of computation. Monotone span programs (MSP) correspond to linear secret sharing schemes. This paper studies the properties of monotone span programs related to their size. Using the results of van Dijk (connecting codes and MSPs) and a construction for

  12. Prolonged QRS Widening After Aripiprazole Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Porter, Robert; Dewey, Kayla

    2018-05-05

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with a long half-life. Overdose can result in protracted somnolence and cardiac disturbances, particularly QT interval prolongation. This is a single case report of a 14-year-old boy who took an overdose of aripiprazole and developed QRS widening. A 14-year-old boy intentionally ingested 20 tablets of aripiprazole (5 mg). He was brought to the emergency department when his ingestion was discovered. The patient's vital signs were as follows: temperature, 37.7°C; heart rate, 108 beats/min; blood pressure, 138/98 mm Hg; and respirations, 16 breaths/min. Activated charcoal was administered within 90 minutes of ingestion. Initial electrocardiogram (EKG) showed sinus tachycardia, with a QRS of 138 ms and QT interval of 444 ms. QRS duration was 90 ms on an EKG performed 3 months earlier. A bolus of sodium bicarbonate was administered, and the patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. Repeat EKG demonstrated a QRS of 156 ms, and a sodium bicarbonate infusion was initiated. The patient continued to have QRS prolongation for the next 8 days, reaching a peak of 172 ms 3 days postingestion. Despite aggressive treatment with sodium bicarbonate, there was persistent QRS prolongation; however, the patient did not have any dysrhythmias and remained hemodynamically stable. The patient was discharged 9 days postingestion when the QRS duration normalized to 82 ms. Genetic testing revealed that the patient was a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. This case suggests that aripiprazole toxicity may possibly be associated with QRS prolongation without associated dysrhythmias or cardiovascular compromise. In addition, toxicity may be prolonged in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

  13. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  14. Spanning forests and the vector bundle Laplacian

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The classical matrix-tree theorem relates the determinant of the combinatorial Laplacian on a graph to the number of spanning trees. We generalize this result to Laplacians on one- and two-dimensional vector bundles, giving a combinatorial interpretation of their determinants in terms of so-called cycle rooted spanning forests (CRSFs). We construct natural measures on CRSFs for which the edges form a determinantal process. ¶ This theory gives a natural generalization of the spanning tre...

  15. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  16. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  17. Changes in Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) throughout the Life Span: A Population-Based Study of 1027 Healthy Males from Birth (Cord Blood) to the Age of 69 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglæde, Lise; Sørensen, K; Boas, Malene

    2010-01-01

    Context: Anti-Mu¨ llerian hormone (AMH), which is secreted by immature Sertoli cells, triggers the involution of the fetalMu¨ llerian ducts.AMHis a testis-specific marker used for diagnosis in infants with ambiguous genitalia or bilateral cryptorchidism. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe...... the ontogeny of AMH secretion through life in healthy males. Setting:This was a population-based study of healthy volunteers. Participants: Participants included 1027 healthy males from birth (cord blood) to 69 yr. A subgroup was followed up longitudinally through the infantile minipuberty [(in cord blood......AMHwas above the detection limit in all samples with a marked variation according to age and pubertal status. The median AMH level in cord blood was 148 pmol/liter and increased significantly to the highest observed levels at 3 months (P 0.0001). AMH declined at 12 months (P 0.0001) and remained...

  18. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  19. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  20. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed....... Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal......-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both...

  1. Signal enhancement with variable span linear filters

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper R

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed. Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of ...

  2. Linking crowding, visual span, and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingchen; Legge, Gordon E

    2017-09-01

    The visual span is hypothesized to be a sensory bottleneck on reading speed with crowding thought to be the major sensory factor limiting the size of the visual span. This proposed linkage between crowding, visual span, and reading speed is challenged by the finding that training to read crowded letters reduced crowding but did not improve reading speed (Chung, 2007). Here, we examined two properties of letter-recognition training that may influence the transfer to improved reading: the spatial arrangement of training stimuli and the presence of flankers. Three groups of nine young adults were trained with different configurations of letter stimuli at 10° in the lower visual field: a flanked-local group (flanked letters localized at one position), a flanked-distributed group (flanked letters distributed across different horizontal locations), and an isolated-distributed group (isolated and distributed letters). We found that distributed training, but not the presence of flankers, appears to be necessary for the training benefit to transfer to increased reading speed. Localized training may have biased attention to one specific, small area in the visual field, thereby failing to improve reading. We conclude that the visual span represents a sensory bottleneck on reading, but there may also be an attentional bottleneck. Reducing the impact of crowding can enlarge the visual span and can potentially facilitate reading, but not when adverse attentional bias is present. Our results clarify the association between crowding, visual span, and reading.

  3. London SPAN version 4 parameter file format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility in charge of managing the French power exchange through an optional and anonymous organised trading system. Powernext SA collaborates with the clearing organization LCH.Clearnet SA to secure and facilitate the transactions. The French Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk (SPAN) is a system used by LCH.Clearnet to calculate the initial margins from and for its clearing members. SPAN is a computerized system which calculates the impact of several possible variations of rates and volatility on by-product portfolios. The initial margin call is equal to the maximum probable loss calculated by the system. This document contains details of the format of the London SPAN version 4 parameter file. This file contains all the parameters and risk arrays required to calculate SPAN margins. London SPAN Version 4 is an upgrade from Version 3, which is also known as LME SPAN. This document contains the full revised file specification, highlighting the changes from Version 3 to Version 4

  4. Changing the narrative – Life span perspectives on multiple adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Bunting, Lisa; Lazenbatt, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Although the impact of multiple adverse events in childhood is well known, it is equally accepted that the variation in individual trajectories and outcomes is significant. Resilience focuses on positive adaption in the face of adversity, offering a counterbalance to deficit-based research and risk averse, procedurally driven practice. Positive relationships and secure attachments are widely considered to be the cornerstone of resilience, yet, within social work practice, there is a tendency ...

  5. A cultural perspective on emotional experiences across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kan, Chiemi; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2014-08-01

    Past research suggests that older adults place a greater priority on goals of maintaining positive experiences and distancing from negative experiences. We hypothesized that these aging-related differences in emotional experiences are more pronounced in Western cultures that encourage linear approaches to well-being compared with Eastern cultures that encourage more dialectic approaches to well-being. We compared reports of positive and negative emotional experiences from random samples of Americans (a culture characterized by focus on positive and distancing from negative experiences) and Japanese (a culture characterized by its endorsement of dialectical experiences). In support of our hypothesis, older Americans reported significantly less negative emotions in unpleasant situations, relative to their younger counterparts. Furthermore, both trait-level negativity (i.e., rumination) and interpersonal negativity (i.e., recall of unpleasant relationships and intensity of an unpleasant interpersonal experience) were lower among older compared with younger Americans. In contrast, such aging-related effects were absent in the Japanese respondents. Even though older and younger Japanese reported the same amount of negative emotions in unpleasant situations, older Japanese also reported more positive emotions in the same unpleasant situations. Together, these findings highlight the role of culture for understanding how emotional experiences unfold across adulthood.

  6. Inconsistency in reaction time across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin R; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther H; Hunter, Michael A; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Inconsistency in latency across trials of 2-choice reaction time data was analyzed in 273 participants ranging in age from 6 to 81 years. A U-shaped curve defined the relationship between age and inconsistency, with increases in age associated with lower inconsistency throughout childhood and higher inconsistency throughout adulthood. Differences in inconsistency were independent of practice, fatigue, and age-related differences in mean level of performance. Evidence for general and specific variability-producing processes was found in those aged less than 21 years, whereas only a specific process, such as attentional blocks, was evident for those 21 years and older. The findings highlight the importance of considering moment-to-moment changes in performance in psychological research. 2005 APA

  7. Online dating across the life span: Users' relationship goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkin, Josephine A; Robles, Theodore F; Wiley, Joshua F; Gonzaga, Gian C

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing data from an eHarmony.com relationship questionnaire completed by new users (N = 5,434), this study identifies prioritized goals in new romantic relationships and whether importance of these goals differs by participants' age and gender. Overall, users valued interpersonal communication more than sex appeal. Older users rated sexual attraction as slightly less important than younger users did, but they still highly valued the goal. Women placed even greater emphasis on communication over sexual attraction compared to men. However, although men valued sexual attraction more than women at all ages, only the youngest women valued interpersonal communication more than young men. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Predicting nature-based tourist roles: a life span perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Murdy; Heather J. Gibson; Andrew Yiannakis

    2003-01-01

    The concept of stable, clearly identifiable patterns of tourist behavior, or roles, is a relatively recent development. Yiannakis and Gibson (1988, 1992) identified fifteen tourist roles based on leisure travelers' vacation behaviors. Building on this work, Gibson (1994) used discriminant analysis to determine the combination of needs and demographics are...

  9. A Hierarchical Causal Taxonomy of Psychopathology across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Zald, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the three levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. PMID:28004947

  10. Human Needs: A Literature Review and Cognitive Life Span Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    stages where crises are met, and, if favorably resolved, result in personality growth. Erikson’s psychosocial theory covers development from birth to...death. He describes eight major tasks or challenges people face as they undergo psychosocial development . Three of the eight stages of development ...the order that Erikson suggested. Several researchers (e.g., Rosenthal, Gurney, & Moore, 1981) have developed inventories that measure Erikson’s stages

  11. Nitrogen availability, leaf life span and nitrogen conservation mechanisms in leaves of tropical trees Disponibilidade de nitrogênio, longevidade foliar e mecanismos de conservação de nitrogênio em folhas de espécies arbóreas tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Nascimento Corte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen species of temperate regions are dominant in low-nutrient soils. This feature is attributed to more efficient mechanisms of nutrient economy. Nevertheless, the cashew (Anacardium occidentale- Anacardiaceae, a deciduous species, is native to regions in Brazil with sandy soil, whilst the annatto (Bixa orellana- Bixaceae, classified as an evergreen species native to tropical America, grows spontaneously in regions with more humid soils. Evergreens contain robust leaves that can resist adverse conditions for longer. The physical aspects of the leaves and mechanisms of nutrient economy between the two species were compared, in order to verify whether the deciduous species had more efficient mechanisms that might explain its occurrence in regions of low soil fertility. The mechanisms of nitrogen economy were also compared for the two species at available concentrations of this nutrient. The following were analysed: (i leaf life span, (ii physical leaf characteristics (leaf mass per area, and rupture strain, (iii nitrogenous compounds (nitrogen, chlorophyll, and protein, (iv nitrogen conservation mechanisms (nitrogen resorption efficiency, resorption proficiency, and use efficiency, and (v nitrogen conservation mechanisms under different availability of this mineral. The higher values of leaf mass per area and leaf rupture strain found in A. occidentale were related to its longer leaf life span. A. occidentale showed lower concentrations of nitrogen and protein in the leaves than B. orellana. Under lower nitrogen availability, A. occidentale had higher nitrogen resorption proficiency, nitrogen use efficiency and leaf life span than B. orellana. These characteristics may contribute to the adaptation of this species to sandy soils with low nitrogen content.Perenifólias de clima temperado são dominantes em solos pouco férteis. Essa característica é atribuída a mecanismos mais eficientes de economia de nutrientes. O cajueiro (Anacardium

  12. NPP service life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    2001-01-01

    Problems of NPP service life management and service life prolongation are reviewed. Methods for the prolongation of the French NPP service life are discussed, priority directions of nuclear block service life management in regard to aging in the context of the European program of investigation into the materials aging are identified. Questions of the provision of the 60 years service life of the Mihama 1 block (Japan) and decision of the problem of the control equipment aging in Great Britain are discussed. Situation with the prolongation of licenses on the NPP operation in the USA and Spain is considered [ru

  13. RD50 Prolongation Request 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    With this document, we request the prolongation of the CERN RD50 research program for 5 years. A very brief historical review of the RD50 research program since the RD50 project approval by the Research Board in the year 2002 is presented and the biggest RD50 achievements are highlighted. The present composition of the collaboration, its organizational structure, and the research methodology are described. The role of RD50 in the present various upgrade and research programs of the LHC Experiments community is given and the overall work plan explained. Finally, a detailed 5-years work program with precise milestones and deliverables for the various research activities is presented. We conclude with our prolongation request towards the LHCC.

  14. Performance, Career Dynamics, and Span of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande; Waldman, Michael; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    that higher ability managers should supervise more subordinates, or equivalently, have a larger span of control. And although some of this theory’s predictions have been empirically investigated, there has been little systematic investigation of the theory’s predictions concerning span of control....... In this paper we first extend the theoretical literature on the scale-of-operations effect to allow firms’ beliefs concerning a manager’s ability to evolve over the manager’s career, where much of our focus is the determinants of span of control. We then empirically investigate testable predictions from......There is an extensive theoretical literature based on what is called the scale-of-operations effect, i.e., the idea that the return to managerial ability is higher the more resources the manager influences with his or her decisions. This idea leads to various testable predictions including...

  15. Evaluating the efficiency of shortcut span protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of various recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency with the underlying aim of reducing control plane load. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated can compared against tra...... traditional recovery methods. The optimization model is presented and our simulation results show that Shortcut Span Protection uses more capacity than the unbundled related methods, but this is compensated by easier control and management of the recovery actions.......This paper presents a comparison of various recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency with the underlying aim of reducing control plane load. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated can compared against...

  16. Van Kampen Colimits as Bicolimits in Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Tobias; Sobociński, Paweł

    The exactness properties of coproducts in extensive categories and pushouts along monos in adhesive categories have found various applications in theoretical computer science, e.g. in program semantics, data type theory and rewriting. We show that these properties can be understood as a single universal property in the associated bicategory of spans. To this end, we first provide a general notion of Van Kampen cocone that specialises to the above colimits. The main result states that Van Kampen cocones can be characterised as exactly those diagrams in ℂ that induce bicolimit diagrams in the bicategory of spans mathcal{S}pan_{mathbb{C}}, provided that ℂ has pullbacks and enough colimits.

  17. Spanning organizational boundaries to manage creative processes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne; Lettl, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In order to continue to be innovative in the current fast-paced and competitive environment, organizations are increasingly dependent on creative inputs developed outside their boundaries. The paper addresses the boundary spanning activities that managers undertake to a) select and mobilize...... creative talent, b) create shared identity, and c) combine and integrate knowledge in innovation projects involving external actors. We study boundary spanning activities in two creative projects in the LEGO group. One involves identifying and integrating deep, specialized knowledge, the other focuses...... actors, and how knowledge is integrated across organizational boundaries. We discuss implications of our findings for managers and researchers in a business-to-business context...

  18. Pharmacometabolomic approach to predict QT prolongation in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyeon Park

    Full Text Available Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP, a life-threatening arrhythmia associated with prolongation of the QT interval, has been a significant reason for withdrawal of several medicines from the market. Prolongation of the QT interval is considered as the best biomarker for predicting the torsadogenic risk of a new chemical entity. Because of the difficulty assessing the risk for TdP during drug development, we evaluated the metabolic phenotype for predicting QT prolongation induced by sparfloxacin, and elucidated the metabolic pathway related to the QT prolongation. We performed electrocardiography analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of plasma samples obtained from 15 guinea pigs after administration of sparfloxacin at doses of 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg. Principal component analysis and partial least squares modelling were conducted to select the metabolites that substantially contributed to the prediction of QT prolongation. QTc increased significantly with increasing dose (r = 0.93. From the PLS analysis, the key metabolites that showed the highest variable importance in the projection values (>1.5 were selected, identified, and used to determine the metabolic network. In particular, cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP, deoxycorticosterone, L-aspartic acid and stearic acid were found to be final metabolomic phenotypes for the prediction of QT prolongation. Metabolomic phenotypes for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation of sparfloxacin were developed and can be applied to cardiac toxicity screening of other drugs. In addition, this integrative pharmacometabolomic approach would serve as a good tool for predicting pharmacodynamic or toxicological effects caused by changes in dose.

  19. Spanning the Home/Work Creative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Lee N.; Davis, Jerome; Hoisl, Karin

    the employee brings to work. Based on Woodman et al.’s (1993) “interactionist perspective” on organizational creativity, supplemented by literature on search and knowledge re/combination, we explore whether and how leisure time activities can span the creative space between the employee’s home and workplace...

  20. Faster Fully-Dynamic minimum spanning forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We give a new data structure for the fully-dynamic minimum spanning forest problem in simple graphs. Edge updates are supported in O(log4 n/log logn) expected amortized time per operation, improving the O(log4 n) amortized bound of Holm et al. (STOC’98, JACM’01).We also provide a deterministic data...

  1. MANUTENÇÃO DE FOLHAS ATIVAS EM BANANEIRA-'NANICÃO' POR MEIO DO MANEJO DAS ADUBAÇÕES NITROGENADA E POTÁSSICA E DA IRRIGAÇÃO IMPROVING LIFE SPAN OF THE BANANA LEAVES THROUGH NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION AND IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ANTONIO JUNQUEIRA TEIXEIRA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento de campo, em Jaboticabal-SP, com o objetivo de estudar a resposta da bananeira (Musa AAA subgrupo Cavendish-'Nanicão' à adubação nitrogenada e potássica, sob irrigação e sequeiro, durante duas safras. Empregou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas principais constituídas por dois regimes hídricos: irrigado (microaspersão e sequeiro, e as subparcelas, pelas combinações de quatro doses de N (0; 200; 400 e 800 kg ha-1de N e quatro de K (0; 300; 600 e 900 kg ha-1de K2O. O bananal foi cultivado de acordo com as recomendações atuais, tomando-se cuidados especiais com o controle preventivo de sigatoca-amarela e com o manejo da irrigação. Por meio da análise do número de folhas ativas (>50% da área verde nas épocas da emissão da inflorescência (NFE e da colheita (NFC, do índice de durabilidade foliar (IDF=NFC¸NFE´100 e dos teores de N e K na folha-índice, avaliaram-se os efeitos da irrigação e da aplicação de doses crescentes de N e K sobre as condições das folhas. Nos dois ciclos de cultivo, houve efeito da adubação potássica e da irrigação sobre o estado das folhas (pA field experiment was carried out in São Paulo State, Brazil, with the objective of investigating the response of 'Nanicão' banana (Musa AAA Cavendish subgroup to nitrogen and potassium fertilization, under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, during two crop seasons. A split-plot design was used with irrigation (micro-sprinkler and no irrigation applied to main plots and a combination of four rates of N (0, 200, 400 and 800 kg N ha-1 and K (0, 300, 600 and 900 kg K2O ha-1 as the sub-plots treatments. The area was managed according to regional recommendations; special attention was paid to disease control and irrigation management. The effects of treatments on life span of leaves were assessed counting leaves at flowering (NFE and at bunch

  2. Minimal spanning trees, filaments and galaxy clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.; Sonoda, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    A graph theoretical technique for assessing intrinsic patterns in point data sets is described. A unique construction, the minimal spanning tree, can be associated with any point data set given all the inter-point separations. This construction enables the skeletal pattern of galaxy clustering to be singled out in quantitative fashion and differs from other statistics applied to these data sets. This technique is described and applied to two- and three-dimensional distributions of galaxies and also to comparable random samples and numerical simulations. The observed CfA and Zwicky data exhibit characteristic distributions of edge-lengths in their minimal spanning trees which are distinct from those found in random samples. (author)

  3. Interorganizational Boundary Spanning in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    , and which skills and competencies they draw on in their efforts to deal with emerging cross-cultural issues in a way that paves ground for developing a shared understanding and common platform for the client and vendor representatives. A framework of boundary spanning leadership practices is adapted...... to virtuality and cultural diversity. This paper, which draws on a case study of collaborative work in a global software development project, focuses on key boundary spanners in an Indian vendor company, who are responsible for developing trustful and sustainable client relations and coordinating complex...... projects across multiple cultures, languages, organisational boundaries, time zones and geographical distances. It looks into how these vendor managers get prepared for their complex boundary spanning work, which cross-cultural challenges they experience in their collaboration with Western clients...

  4. Spanning trees and the Eurozone crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João

    2013-12-01

    The sovereign debt crisis in the euro area has not yet been solved and recent developments in Spain and Italy have further deteriorated the situation. In this paper we develop a new approach to analyze the ongoing Eurozone crisis. Firstly, we use Maximum Spanning Trees to analyze the topological properties of government bond rates’ dynamics. Secondly, we combine the information given by both Maximum and Minimum Spanning Trees to obtain a measure of market dissimilarity or disintegration. Thirdly, we extend this measure to include a convenient distance not limited to the interval [0, 2]. Our empirical results show that Maximum Spanning Tree gives an adequate description of the separation of the euro area into two distinct groups: those countries strongly affected by the crisis and those that have remained resilient during this period. The measures of market dissimilarity also reveal a persistent separation of these two groups and, according to our second measure, this separation strongly increased during the period July 2009-March 2012.

  5. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  6. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  7. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of high dose irradiation on the red cell span in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T.W.; Koh, J.W.; Woo, K.S.; Lee, O.H.; Youn, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    As a part of studies on acute effects of high dose irradiation in vivo, the present report was carried out to evaluate the changes of the red cell life span in the white rabbits by a single whole body exposure to gamma rays from 60 Co teletherapy unit. The exposure was done in dose levels of 100, 600 and 900 rads to each experimental group of 10 rabbits. The life span apparent half survival time of red cells, and that the red cell volume in the circulting blood were measured by ICSH Reference method using 51 Cr. (Author)

  9. A Case of QT Prolongation Associated with Panhypopituitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Arpaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 37-year-old patient with panhypopituitarism who experienced symptoms and signs of hormonal insufficiency and QT prolongation on electrocardiogram without electrolyte disturbances. After hormonal (steroidal and thyroid replacement therapy electrocardiographic findings were normalized. Hormonal disorders should be considered as a cause of long QT intervals which may lead to torsade de pointes, even if plasma electrolyte levels are normal, because life-threatening arrhythmia is treatable by supplementation of the hormone that is lacking.

  10. Prolonged pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1......) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner and social conditions (IV). The National Birth Cohort provided data for the study on prenatal risk indicators of prolonged pregnancy in a follow-up design (V). The self-reported gestational ages from this database...

  11. Free span burial inspection pig. Phase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This report deals with design and construction of a pipeline pig for on-line internal inspection of offshore trenched gas pipelines for pipeline burial, free spans, exposures and loss of concrete weight coating. The measuring principle uses detection of the natural gamma radiation emitted by sea bed formations and the concrete coating of the pipe to map pipeline condition. The gamma ray flux penetrating to the internal side of the pipeline is an effect of the outside conditions. The measuring principle was confirmed in a occasionally present in the gas, blurred seriously sensor signals of the previous instrumentation. The continued project activities have been divided in two phases. Phase A comprised design and construction of a detector system, which could identify and quantify radioactive components from decay of radon-222. During Phase A a new gamma detector was tested in full scale exposed to radon-222. New data analysis procedures for the correction for the influence of radon-222 inside the pipeline, where developed and its utility successfully demonstrated. During Phase B the new detector was mounted in a pipeline pig constructed for inspection of 30-inch gas pipelines. Working conditions were demonstrated in three runs through the southern route of the DONG owned 30-inch gas pipelines crossing the Danish strait named the Great Belt. The FSB-technology found 88% of the free spans identified with the latest acoustic survey. The FSB-technology found in addition 22 free spans that were termed ''invisible'', because they were not identified by the most recent acoustic survey. It is believed that ''invisible free spans'' are either real free spans or locations, where the pipeline has no or very little support from deposits in the pipeline trench. The FSB-survey confirmed all exposed sections longer than 20 metres found by the acoustic survey in the first 21 kilometre of the pipeline. However, the FSB-survey underestimated

  12. EL ÁCIDO a-NAFTALENACÉTICO PROLONGA LA VIDA EN LA POSCOSECHA DE ROSAS DE CORTE a-NAPHTALEN ACETIC ACID PROLONGS VASE LIFE OF CUT ROSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alberto Bolívar Chávez

    2005-12-01

    200 mgL-1 of 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC solution plus 800 mgL-1 of aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO43 plus 2% sucrose (C12H22O11 and (5 calcium hypoclorite (Ca(ClO2 2 %. The post-harvest handling consisted of hydration, pulsing, storing and transport simulation. The longest vase life was obtained with ANA treatments (ANA plus Florissima, 10,3 days; ANA plus Florissima plus calcium, 9,3 days; and ANA plus Florissima plus 1-MCP, 8.3 days; and the shortest vase life was obtained with the 8-HQC plus Al2(SO43 plus sucrose treatment. The interaction of ANA plus Florissima reduced bent-neck significantly and increased water consumption as compared to the other treatments. There was a synergestic effect between ANA and CaO, which decreased the senescent process.

  13. Boundary Spanning in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    imbalances of power, exacerbated in the case of an Indian vendor and a European client, need to be taken into account. The paper thus contributes with a more context sensitive understanding of inter-organizational boundary work. Taking the vendor perspective also leads to problematization of common...... of Indian IT vendor managers who are responsible for developing client relations and coordinating complex global development projects. The authors revise a framework of boundary spanning leadership practices to adapt it to an offshore outsourcing context. The empirical investigation highlights how...

  14. Decentralized Pricing in Minimum Cost Spanning Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    In the minimum cost spanning tree model we consider decentralized pricing rules, i.e. rules that cover at least the ecient cost while the price charged to each user only depends upon his own connection costs. We de ne a canonical pricing rule and provide two axiomatic characterizations. First......, the canonical pricing rule is the smallest among those that improve upon the Stand Alone bound, and are either superadditive or piece-wise linear in connection costs. Our second, direct characterization relies on two simple properties highlighting the special role of the source cost....

  15. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    . Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal...... the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of these filters are analyzed in terms of their noise reduction capabilities and desired signal distortion, and the analyses are validated and further explored in simulations....

  16. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. The interest has also been facilitated due to recently severe structural failures...

  17. Analysis of protection spanning-tree protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б.Я. Корнієнко

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  Extraordinary sweeping  of  IT – development  causes vulnerabilities and, thereafter, attacks that use these vulnerabilities. That is why one must post factum or even in advance speed up invention of new information  security systems as well as develop the old ones. The matter of article concerns Spanning-Tree Protocol  – the vivid example of the case, when the cure of the vulnerability creates dozen of new "weak spots".

  18. Sublingual fast dissolving niosomal films for enhanced bioavailability and prolonged effect of metoprolol tartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Ayat; Fetih, Gihan

    2016-01-01

    Ayat Allam, Gihan Fetih Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Abstract: The aim of the present work was to prepare and evaluate sublingual fast dissolving films containing metoprolol tartrate-loaded niosomes. Niosomes were utilized to allow for prolonged release of the drug, whereas the films were used to increase the drug’s bioavailability via the sublingual route. Niosomes were prepared using span 60 and cholesterol at different drug to...

  19. Individual differences in phonological learning and verbal STM span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, Elisabet; Maury, Sini; Luotoniemi, Emilia

    2007-07-01

    A relationship between phonological short-term memory tasks (e.g., nonword repetition, digit span) and vocabulary learning in both experimental and real-life conditions has been reported in numerous studies. A mechanism that would explain this correlation is, however, not known. The present study explores the possibility that it is the quality of phonological representations that affects both short-term recall and long-term learning of novel wordlike items. In Experiment 1, groups with relatively good and poor span for pseudowords were established. The good group was found to perform better at explicit memory tasks tapping the incidental learning of a limited stimulus pool used in an auditory immediate serial pseudoword recall task. In Experiment 2, the results of Experiment 1 were replicated when experience of correct recall was controlled. In Experiment 3, the immediate recall performance of the good group was found to benefit more than that of the poor group from syllable repetition within stimulus pools. It is concluded that the efficiency of a process that creates phonological representations is related both to short-term capacity for verbal items, and to long-term phonological learning of the structure of novel phonological items.

  20. Diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation for prolonged fasting arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated δ(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: δ(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes.