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Sample records for prolonged cerebral vasoconstriction

  1. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome precipitated by airplane descent: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Aotsuka, Yuya; Koide, Kyosuke; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by segmental vasospasm. Vasoactive agents and childbirth have been reported as precipitating factors for RCVS; however, RCVS induced by altitude change or air travel has rarely been reported. Case We present a case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with thunderclap headache during airplane descent. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated segmental vasoconstriction that improved 9 days after onset. Conclusion These findings indicate that airplane descent may be a trigger of RCVS. The time course of headache in the present case was similar to that of prolonged headache attributed to airplane travel, indicating that RCVS during air travel may have previously been overlooked and that some headache attributed to airplane travel cases may represent a milder form of RCVS.

  2. An often unrecognized cause of thunderclap headache : reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, K; Teune, L K; ter Laan, M; Uyttenboogaart, M; Vroomen, P C; De Keyser, J; Luijckx, G J

    2008-01-01

    Thunderclap headache (TCH) can have several causes of which subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most common and well known. A rare cause of TCH is the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) which is characterized by a reversible segmental vasoconstriction of the intracranial vessels. We

  3. Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome in Pediatrics: A Case Series and Review.

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    Coffino, Samantha W; Fryer, Robert H

    2017-06-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a transient vasculopathy associated with severe headaches and stroke. In most cases of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, there is a precipitating event or trigger, such as pregnancy, serotonin agonist treatment or illicit drug use. The authors present 2 pediatric cases of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and review the previous 11 pediatric cases in the literature. In many instances, the clinical and radiographic features are similar in both pediatric and adult cases. In the pediatric group, reported potential triggers include trauma (1/13), exercise (2/13), water to the face (3/13), hypertension (3/13), and medication or substance use (4/13). One surprising difference is that 11 out of 13 pediatric patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome are male while most cases in adults are female. Many of the pediatric patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome were treated with a calcium channel blocker and the overall outcome of pediatric reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome was good, with most patients experiencing a full recovery.

  4. Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Without Typical Thunderclap Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Valérie; Ducros, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by severe headache and diffuse segmental intracranial arterial constriction that resolve within three months. Stroke, which is the major complication of RCVS, can result in persistent neurological disability, and rarely causes death. Diagnosis of RCVS early in the clinical course might improve outcomes. Although recurrent thunderclap headache is the clinical hallmark of RCVS, the absence of such a pattern should not lead to discard the diagnosis. Our literature review shows that RCVS can also manifest as an unspecific headache, such as a single severe headache episode, a mild or a progressive headache. Moreover, a subset of patients with severe RCVS presents without any headache, but frequently with seizures, focal neurological deficits, confusion or coma, in the setting of stroke or posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. These patients may be aphasic or in comatose state, explaining their inability to give their own medical history. They may have forgotten the headache they had a few days before more dramatic symptoms, or may have a variant of the classical RCVS. By consequence, an RCVS should be suspected in patients with any unusual headache, whether thunderclap or not, and in patients with cryptogenic stroke or convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage, whether the patient also has headache or not. Diagnosis in such cases relies on the demonstration of reversible multifocal intracranial arterial stenosis and the exclusion of other causes. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  5. Right hemispheric reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in a patient with left hemispheric partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Gina S; McCaslin, Justin; Shamim, Sadat

    2017-04-01

    We report a right-handed 19-year-old girl who developed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) lateralized to the right hemisphere with simultaneous new-onset left hemispheric seizures. RCVS, typically more diffuse, was lateralized to one of the cerebral hemispheres.

  6. Call-Fleming Syndrome (Reversible Cerebral Artery Vasoconstriction and Aneurysm Associated with Multiple Recreational Drug Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doniel Drazin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse represents a significant health issue. Evidence suggests that recreational drug use has a direct effect on the cerebral vasculature and is of greater concern in those with undiagnosed aneurysms or vascular malformations. The authors report a case of thunderclap headache with a negative head CT and equivocal lumbar puncture after a drug-fueled weekend. The patient underwent diagnostic cerebral angiogram which demonstrated multisegmental, distal areas of focal narrowing of the middle, anterior, posterior, and posterior inferior cerebral artery and an incidental aneurysm. It is often difficult to determine the exact origin of symptoms; thus we were left with a bit of a chicken or the egg debate, trying to decipher which part came first. Either the aneurysm ruptured with associated concomitant vasospasm or it is a case of Call-Fleming syndrome (reversible cerebral artery vasoconstriction with an incidental aneurysm. The authors proposed their management and rationale of this complex case.

  7. A case of cerebral reversible vasoconstriction syndrome triggered by repetition transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mamiko; Yamate, Koji; Hayashi, Hiromi; Miura, Toyoaki; Kobayashi, Yasutaka

    2017-08-31

    A 75-year-old man was admitted for combined low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy. Five days after the initiation of rTMS, he developed hypotension and temporary exacerbation of the right hemiplegia with thunderclap headache. MRA showed segmental stenosis of the left middle cerebral artery, which findings were improved at 9 days after the onset of the headache. He was diagnosed as having the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). The rTMS was recognized as safe rehabilitation treatment. However, it is necessary to recognize that RCVS can become one of the precipitants. This is the first report of RCVS triggered by rTMS.

  8. The Typical Thunderclap Headache of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome and its Various Triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducros, Anne; Wolff, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    During the last 10 years, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has emerged as the most frequent cause of thunderclap headache (TCH) in patients without aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and as the most frequent cause of recurrent TCHs. The typical TCHs of RCVS are multiple, recurring over a few days to weeks, excruciating, short-lived, and brought up by exertion, sexual activities, emotion, Valsalva maneuvers, or bathing, among other triggers. All these triggers induce sympathetic activation. In a minority of cases with RCVS, TCH heralds stroke and rarely death. Early diagnosis of RCVS in patients who present with isolated headache enables proper management and might reduce the risk of eventual stroke. This review describes the characteristics, triggers, diagnosis, and management of TCH in RCVS. One aim is to underline that the TCH pattern of RCVS is so typical that it enables, according to the 2013 revision of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, the diagnosis of "probable RCVS" in patients with such a headache pattern, normal cerebral angiography, and no other cause. Another objective is to discuss the role of physical and emotional stress in RCVS and in other related conditions involving similar triggers. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  9. U0126 attenuates cerebral vasoconstriction and improves long-term neurologic outcome after stroke in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnstedt, Hilda; Mostajeran, Maryam; Blixt, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    , responses to this treatment in females and long-term effects on outcome are not known. Initial experiments used in vitro organ culture of cerebral arteries, confirming ERK1/2 activation and increased ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in female cerebral arteries. Transient middle cerebral artery......-mediated contraction was studied with myograph and protein expression with immunohistochemistry. In vitro organ culture and tMCAO resulted in vascular ETB receptor upregulation and activation of ERK1/2 that was prevented by U0126. Although no effect on infarct size, U0126 improved the long-term neurologic function...

  10. Characteristics and demographics of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: A large prospective series of Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Mi Ji; Choi, Hanna; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To report demographics and characteristics of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) in the Korean cohort. Methods We prospectively recruited patients with definite (imaging-proven) RCVS and probable (imaging-negative) RCVS who visited Samsung Medical Center between June 2012 and September 2016. Clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, treatment, and clinical outcomes were evaluated in all patients. Characteristics of RCVS without typical causes ("idiopathic RCVS") were compared with those of RCVS with identifiable causes ("secondary RCVS"). International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-3 beta criteria for 6.7.3 RCVS and 6.7.3.1 probable RCVS were tested. Results A total of 138 patients (104 definite and 34 probable RCVS) were included in this study. Patients with definite RCVS were predominantly female (85.6%) and middle-aged (mean, 50.7 [range, 23-82] years). Probable RCVS was associated with less female predominance (70.6%, p = 0.049), more typical manifestations ( p < 0.001), and none of neurological complications. One-hundred and one (97.1%) patients with definite RCVS had headache, but the typical "recurrent and/or triggered" thunderclap headache was reported in only 83 (82.2%). In most patients with definite RCVS (84.6%), RCVS was idiopathic, while only 16 (15.4%) had secondary causes. Compared to those with secondary RCVS, patients with idiopathic RCVS were older (52.8 ± 11.42 vs. 39.1 ± 9.55 years, p < 0.001). Patients with secondary RCVS had more complications than those with idiopathic RCVS (40.5% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.018). Among idiopathic RCVS patients, 33 (37.5%) reported a preceding event or a change in lifestyle, environment, health, or medication within one month before onset. Conclusion In our cohort, RCVS was benign and idiopathic in most patients, and occurred frequently in middle-aged women. Manifestations of RCVS were more diverse than previously recognized, and forms without any

  11. Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Dalsgaard, Mads K.; Steensberg, Adam

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether peripheral ammonia production during prolonged exercise enhances the uptake and subsequent accumulation of ammonia within the brain. Two studies determined the cerebral uptake of ammonia (arterial and jugular venous blood sampling combined with Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral...... blood flow; n = 5) and the ammonia concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 8) at rest and immediately following prolonged exercise either with or without glucose supplementation. There was a net balance of ammonia across the brain at rest and at 30 min of exercise, whereas 3 h of exercise...... exercise with glucose, and further to 16.1 ± 3.3 µM after the placebo trial (P

  12. High-resolution MRI vessel wall imaging: spatial and temporal patterns of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and central nervous system vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obusez, E C; Hui, F; Hajj-Ali, R A; Cerejo, R; Calabrese, L H; Hammad, T; Jones, S E

    2014-08-01

    High-resolution MR imaging is an emerging tool for evaluating intracranial artery disease. It has an advantage of defining vessel wall characteristics of intracranial vascular diseases. We investigated high-resolution MR imaging arterial wall characteristics of CNS vasculitis and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome to determine wall pattern changes during a follow-up period. We retrospectively reviewed 3T-high-resolution MR imaging vessel wall studies performed on 26 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CNS vasculitis and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome during a follow-up period. Vessel wall imaging protocol included black-blood contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences with fat suppression and a saturation band, and time-of-flight MRA of the circle of Willis. Vessel wall characteristics including enhancement, wall thickening, and lumen narrowing were collected. Thirteen patients with CNS vasculitis and 13 patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome were included. In the CNS vasculitis group, 9 patients showed smooth, concentric wall enhancement and thickening; 3 patients had smooth, eccentric wall enhancement and thickening; and 1 patient was without wall enhancement and thickening. Six of 13 patients had follow-up imaging; 4 patients showed stable smooth, concentric enhancement and thickening; and 2 patients had resoluton of initial imaging findings. In the reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome group, 10 patients showed diffuse, uniform wall thickening with negligible-to-mild enhancement. Nine patients had follow-up imaging, with 8 patients showing complete resolution of the initial findings. Postgadolinium 3T-high-resolution MR imaging appears to be a feasible tool in differentiating vessel wall patterns of CNS vasculitis and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome changes during a follow-up period. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  13. Acute presentation of gestational diabetes insipidus with pre-eclampsia complicated by cerebral vasoconstriction: a case report and review of the published work.

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    Mor, Amir; Fuchs, Yael; Zafra, Kathleen; Haberman, Shoshana; Tal, Reshef

    2015-08-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) is a rare, self-limited complication of pregnancy. As it is related to excess placental vasopressinase enzyme activity, which is metabolized in the liver, GDI is more common in pregnancies complicated by conditions associated with liver dysfunction. We present a case of a 41-year-old woman at 38 weeks' gestation who presented with pre-eclampsia with severe features, including impaired liver function and renal insufficiency. Following cesarean section she was diagnosed with GDI, which was further complicated by cerebral vasoconstriction as demonstrated by magnetic resonance angiography. This case raises the possibility that cerebral vasoconstriction may be related to the cause of GDI. A high index of suspicion of GDI should be maintained in patients who present with typical signs and symptoms, especially in the setting of pregnancy complications associated with liver dysfunction. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Effects of Prolonged Standing on Gait in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

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    Salem, Yasser; Lovelace-Chandler, Venita; Zabel, Reta J.; McMillan, Amy Gross

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged standing on gait characteristics in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Six children with spastic cerebral palsy participated in this study with an average age of 6.5 years (SD = 2.5, range = 4.0-9.8 years). A reverse baseline design (A-B-A) was used over a 9-week period. During…

  15. Effects of hyperthermia on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Møller, Kirsten; Volianitis, Stefanos

    2002-01-01

    The development of hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in humans is associated with various changes in the brain, but it is not known whether the cerebral metabolism or the global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) is affected. Eight endurance-trained subjects completed two exercise bouts on a cycle...... ergometer. The gCBF and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were determined with the Kety-Schmidt technique after 15 min of exercise when core temperature was similar across trials, and at the end of exercise, either when subjects remained normothermic (core temperature = 37.9 degrees C...... with control at the end of exercise (43 +/- 4 vs. 51 +/- 4 ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1); P glucose, and the cerebral metabolic rate was therefore higher at the end...

  16. Neuroenergetic Response to Prolonged Cerebral Glucose Depletion after Severe Brain Injury and the Role of Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patet, Camille; Quintard, Hervé; Suys, Tamarah; Bloch, Jocelyne; Daniel, Roy T; Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre J; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-10-15

    Lactate may represent a supplemental fuel for the brain. We examined cerebral lactate metabolism during prolonged brain glucose depletion (GD) in acute brain injury (ABI) patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Sixty episodes of GD (defined as spontaneous decreases of CMD glucose from normal to low [brain oxygen and blood lactate remained normal. Dynamics of lactate and glucose supply during GD were further studied by analyzing the relationships between blood and CMD samples. There was a strong correlation between blood and brain lactate when LPR was normal (r = 0.56; p 25. The correlation between blood and brain glucose also decreased from r = 0.62 to r = 0.45. These findings in ABI patients suggest increased cerebral lactate delivery in the absence of brain hypoxia when glucose availability is limited and support the concept that lactate acts as alternative fuel.

  17. Local cerebral blood flow and local oxygen consumption in prolonged hemiplegic migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.; Lebrun-Grandie, P.; Serdaru, M.; Bousser, M.G.; Lhermitte, F.; Cabanis, E.

    1982-09-01

    This work gives the results of a study by positron emission tomography of the cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen-extraction rate (O 2 E) and oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) during severe and prolonged attack of hemiplegic migraine. The salient facts observed are a high (CBF) in the brain hemisphere affected (ruling out the hypothesis of a persistent cerebral ischemia), together with a collapsed O 2 E (''luxury perfusion'') and especially preservation of the CMRO 2 suggesting a decoupling not only between CBF and CMRO 2 but also between CMRO 2 and functional state of the tissue. Some time after the attack a new study showed the recoupling between CBF and CMRO 2 , but with the latter reduced in the affected hemisphere although the clinical and tomodensitometric state had returned to normal. These new observations should not however be improperly generalised to all migraines, given the unusual characteristics of the disorder in our patient [fr

  18. Serial CT scans of cerebral hypoxia due to prolonged status epilepticus

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    Saiwai, Shigeo; Matsumura, Yasumasa; Tamaoka, Koichi; Fukuda, Teruo; Miyamoto, Takeshi (Kobe Central Municipal Hospital, Kobe (Japan))

    1983-04-01

    Serial computed tomography (CT) scans of 5 infants with status epilepticus were reviewed. Four out of the 5 infants fortunately had CT scans before status epilepticus because of a convulsion. There was a diffuse and mild low density in the hemisphere, with small ventricles and tight sulci (brain swelling) at 1 to 2 days after ictus. Thereafter, a diffuse low density became apparent except for the cerebellum, the brain stem, the thalamus, and the basal ganglia. Two to 4 weeks after ictus, a localized, mottled low density was demonstrated on the cerebral mantle and atrophic changes became progressively clear. In 3 cases, no abnormal enhancement was elicited on contrast CT scans performed between 5 to 16 days after status epilepticus. We discussed the possible pathophysiological aspects of the brain damage due to ''prolonged status epilepticus.''

  19. Serial CT scans of cerebral hypoxia due to prolonged status epilepticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiwai, Shigeo; Matsumura, Yasumasa; Tamaoka, Koichi; Fukuda, Teruo; Miyamoto, Takeshi [Kobe Central Municipal Hospital, Kobe (Japan)

    1983-04-01

    Serial computed tomography (CT) scans of 5 infants with status epilepticus were reviewed. Four out of the 5 infants fortunately had CT scans before status epilepticus because of a convulsion. There was a diffuse and mild low density in the hemisphere, with small ventricles and tight sulci (brain swelling) at 1 to 2 days after ictus. Thereafter, a diffuse low density became apparent except for the cerebellum, the brain stem, the thalamus, and the basal ganglia. Two to 4 weeks after ictus, a localized, mottled low density was demonstrated on the cerebral mantle and atrophic changes became progressively clear. In 3 cases, no abnormal enhancement was elicited on contrast CT scans performed between 5 to 16 days after status epilepticus. We discussed the possible pathophysiological aspects of the brain damage due to ''prolonged status epilepticus.''

  20. Serial CT scans of cerebral hypoxia due to prolonged status epilepticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiwai, Shigeo; Matsumura, Yasumasa; Tamaoka, Koichi; Fukuda, Teruo; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    1983-01-01

    Serial computed tomography (CT) scans of 5 infants with status epilepticus were reviewed. Four out of the 5 infants fortunately had CT scans before status epilepticus because of a convulsion. There was a diffuse and mild low density in the hemisphere, with small ventricles and tight sulci (brain swelling) at 1 to 2 days after ictus. Thereafter, a diffuse low density became apparent except for the cerebellum, the brain stem, the thalamus, and the basal ganglia. Two to 4 weeks after ictus, a localized, mottled low density was demonstrated on the cerebral mantle and atrophic changes became progressively clear. In 3 cases, no abnormal enhancement was elicited on contrast CT scans performed between 5 to 16 days after status epilepticus. We discussed the possible pathophysiological aspects of the brain damage due to ''prolonged status epilepticus.'' (author)

  1. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled...... to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples...... were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined...

  2. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki; Garcia, Benjamin; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2015-11-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined to baseline with progressive dehydration (P dehydration accelerates the decline in CBF without affecting CMRO2 and also restricts extracranial perfusion. Thus, fatigue is related to a reduction in CBF and extracranial perfusion rather than CMRO2 . Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Association between fatigue and failure to preserve cerebral energy turnover during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Møller, Kirsten; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2003-01-01

    increase in perceived exertion (P reduced from 0.34 +/- 0.05 to 0.28 +/- 0.04 micromol g(-1) min(-1), while the cerebral uptake of beta-hydroxybutyrate increased to 5 +/- 1 pmol g(-1) min(-1) (P reduced glucose uptake...... was accompanied by a lowering of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen from 1.84 +/- 0.19 mmol g(-1) min(-)1 during exercise with glucose supplementation to 1.60 +/- 0.16 mmol g(-1) min(-1) during hypoglycaemia (P reduced from 0.4 +/- 0.1 to 0.0 +/- 0.1 pg g(-1......) min(-1) (P reduces the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen and attenuates the release of IL-6 from the brain....

  4. Prolonged Cerebral Circulation Time Is the Best Parameter for Predicting Vasospasm during Initial CT Perfusion in Subarachnoid Hemorrhagic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Fu Lin

    Full Text Available We sought to imitate angiographic cerebral circulation time (CCT and create a similar index from baseline CT perfusion (CTP to better predict vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH.Forty-one SAH patients with available DSA and CTP were retrospectively included. The vasospasm group was comprised of patients with deterioration in conscious functioning and newly developed luminal narrowing; remaining cases were classified as the control group. The angiography CCT (XA-CCT was defined as the difference in TTP (time to peak between the selected arterial ROIs and the superior sagittal sinus (SSS. Four arterial ROIs were selected to generate four corresponding XA-CCTs: the right and left anterior cerebral arteries (XA-CCTRA2 and XA-CCTLA2 and right- and left-middle cerebral arteries (XA-CCTRM2 and XA-CCTLM2. The CCTs from CTP (CT-CCT were defined as the differences in TTP from the corresponding arterial ROIs and the SSS. Correlations of the different CCTs were calculated and diagnostic accuracy in predicting vasospasm was evaluated.Intra-class correlations ranged from 0.96 to 0.98. The correlations of XA-CCTRA2, XA-CCTRM2, XA-CCTLA2, and XA-CCTLM2 with the corresponding CT-CCTs were 0.64, 0.65, 0.53, and 0.68, respectively. All CCTs were significantly prolonged in the vasospasm group (5.8-6.4 s except for XA-CCTLA2. CT-CCTA2 of 5.62 was the optimal cut-off value for detecting vasospasm with a sensitivity of 84.2% and specificity 82.4.CT-CCTs can be used to interpret cerebral flow without deconvolution algorithms, and outperform both MTT and TTP in predicting vasospasm risk. This finding may help facilitate management of patients with SAH.

  5. Cerebral blood flow and end-tidal PCO2 during prolonged acetazolamide treatment in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Kastrup, J; Rizzi, Dominick Albert

    1990-01-01

    One oral dose of 1,000 mg of acetazolamide caused an acute 38% increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in eight healthy volunteers. During the following 10 days the subjects took 1,000 mg acetazolamide daily. CBF normalized within the first 2 days. The drug induced mild hyperventilation, gradually ...... of a transient extracellular acidosis dilating brain arterioles, whereas increased ventilatory drive results from a gradually increasing mild intracellular acidosis in the brain....

  6. Both acute and prolonged administration of EPO reduce cerebral and systemic vascular conductance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Kim, Yu-Sok; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) has been linked to cerebrovascular events. EPO reduces vascular conductance, possibly because of the increase in hematocrit. Whether EPO in itself affects the vasculature remains unknown; here it was evaluated in healthy males by determining systemic...... and cerebrovascular variables following acute (30,000 IU/d for 3 d; n=8) and chronic (5000 IU/week for 13 wk; n=8) administration of EPO, while the responsiveness of the vasculature was challenged during cycling exercise, with and without hypoxia. Prolonged administration of EPO increased hematocrit from 42.5 ± 3...

  7. Prolonged disturbances of regional cerebral blood flow in transient ischemic attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, A.

    1985-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured over both hemispheres in 20 patients with unilateral transient ischemic attacks (TIA) of the territory of the internal carotid artery on the day of the TIA. rCBF was estimated with the nontraumatic Xenon 133-inhalation technique using the initial slope index. 13 patients experienced their first TIA, 7 had several attacks. In 14 patients the first rCBF-measurement was performed during the presentation of clinical symptoms. The 2nd rCBF-measurement was done on day 2, the last one on day 7. Scans of the 15 patients studied with CT were normal. On day 1 mean rCBF of the TIA-side was significantly lower than that of the contralateral hemispheres. 22% of all areas showed a significant reduction of flow compared to mean rCBF. Mean rCBF of both the TIA- and the contralateral side was significantly reduced compared to the bi-hemispheric mean rCBF of a control group with no history of TIA or completed strokes but at least 2 risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. Whereas mean rCBF did not change in the contralateral side it increased significantly (+6.9%) in the TIA-side from day 1 to day 2 but not from there to day 7. This is reflected by the increase of the total number of ROI with normal flow from day 1 to day 2. Considering the actual flow and the flow course of that tissue which was believed to be responsible for the clinical symptoms the following regional patterns were observed: normal rCBF in 6 patients; early return to normal concomitant to the clinical course (n = 4)

  8. A radical scavenger edaravone inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 upregulation and blood-brain barrier breakdown in a mouse model of prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Pham, Loc-Duyen D; Maki, Takakuni; Liang, Anna C; Arai, Ken

    2014-06-24

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays key roles in the brain pathophysiology, especially in blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Therefore, inhibiting MMP-9 activity may be a promising therapy for protecting brains in cerebrovascular diseases. Here we show that in a mouse prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion model, a clinically proven radical scavenger edaravone suppressed MMP-9 and reduced BBB damage in cerebral white matter. Prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis in male adult C57BL/6J mice (10 weeks old). After 7 days of cerebral hypoperfusion, white matter region (e.g. corpus callosum) exhibited significant BBB leakage, assessed by IgG staining. Correspondingly, immunostaining and western blotting showed that MMP-9 was upregulated in the white matter. Edaravone treatment (3mg/kg, i.p. at days 0 and 3) inhibited both BBB leakage and MMP-9 increase. Under the early phase of cerebral hypoperfusion conditions, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) mainly contribute to the MMP-9 increase, but our immunostaining data showed that very little OPCs expressed MMP-9 in the edaravone-treated animals at day 7. Therefore, in vitro studies with primary rat OPCs were conducted to examine whether edaravone would directly suppressed MMP-9 expressions in OPCs. OPC cultures were exposed to sub-lethal CoCl2 for 7 days to induce prolonged chemical hypoxic stress. Prolonged chemical hypoxic stress increased MMP-9 expression in OPCs, and radical scavenging with edaravone (10μM for 7 days) ameliorated the increase. Taken together, our proof-of-concept study demonstrates that radical scavengers may provide a potential therapeutic approach for white matter injury by suppressing BBB damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment of divided visual attention task-invoked cerebral hemodynamics during prolonged true driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Yunlong; Gao, Yuan; Su, Yu; Hetian, Yiyi; Chen, Min

    2015-03-01

    Driver fatigue is one of the leading causes of traffic accidents. It is imperative to develop a technique to monitor fatigue of drivers in real situation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is now capable of measuring brain functional activity noninvasively in terms of hemodynamic responses sensitively, which shed a light to us that it may be possible to detect fatigue-specified brain functional activity signal. We developed a sensitive, portable and absolute-measure fNIRS, and utilized it to monitor cerebral hemodynamics on car drivers during prolonged true driving. An odd-ball protocol was employed to trigger the drivers' visual divided attention, which is a critical function in safe driving. We found that oxyhemoglobin concentration and blood volume in prefrontal lobe dramatically increased with driving duration (stand for fatigue degree; 2-10 hours), while deoxyhemoglobin concentration increased to the top at 4 hours then decreased slowly. The behavior performance showed clear decrement only after 6 hours. Our study showed the strong potential of fNIRS combined with divided visual attention protocol in driving fatigue degree monitoring. Our findings indicated the fNIRS-measured hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive than behavior performance evaluation.

  10. Sympathetic vasoconstriction takes an unexpected pannexin detour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schak Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and the distribution of blood flow. In this issue of Science Signaling, Billaud et al. show that sympathetic vasoconstriction occurs through a complex scheme involving the activation of large-pore pannexin 1...... channels and the subsequent release of adenosine triphosphate that promotes contraction in an autocrine and paracrine manner. This elaborate mechanism may function as a point of intercept for other signaling pathways-for example, in relation to the phenomenon "functional sympatholysis," in which exercise...... abrogates sympathetic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle. Because pannexin 1 channels are inhibited by nitric oxide, they may function as a switch to turn off adrenergic signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise....

  11. Heat stress exacerbates the reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity during prolonged self-paced exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, J D; Racinais, S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the influence of hyperthermia on middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean). Eleven cyclists undertook a 750 kJ self-paced time trial in HOT (35 °C) and COOL (20 °C) conditions. Exercise time was longer in HOT (56 min) compared with COOL (49 min; P blood flow, and heart rate were higher throughout HOT compared with COOL (P blood pressure and oxygen uptake were lower from 50% of work completed onward in HOT compared with COOL (P heat appears to have exacerbated the reduction in MCA Vmean, in part via increases in peripheral blood flow and a decrease in arterial blood pressure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Two-photon imaging during prolonged middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice reveals recovery of dendritic structure after reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Murphy, Timothy H

    2008-11-12

    Filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a well accepted animal model of focal ischemia. Advantages of the model are relatively long occlusion times and a large penumbra region that simulates aspects of human stroke. Here, we use two-photon and confocal microscopy in combination with regional measurement of blood flow using laser speckle to assess the spatial relationship between the borders of the MCA ischemic territory and loss of dendrite structure, as well as the effect of reperfusion on dendritic damage in adult YFP (yellow fluorescent protein) and GFP (green fluorescent protein) C57BL/6 transgenic mice with fluorescent (predominantly layer 5) neurons. By examining the spatial extent of dendritic damage, we determined that 60 min of MCA occlusion produced a core with severe structural damage that did not recover after reperfusion (begins approximately 3.8 mm lateral to midline), a reversibly damaged area up to 0.6 mm medial to the core that recovered after reperfusion (penumbra), and a relatively structurally intact area ( approximately 1 mm wide; medial penumbra) with hypoperfusion. Loss of structure was preceded by a single ischemic depolarization 122.1 +/- 10.2 s after occlusion onset. Reperfusion of animals after 60 min of ischemia was not associated with exacerbation of damage (reperfusion injury) and resulted in a significant restoration of blebbed dendritic structure, but only within approximately 0.6 mm lateral of the dendritic damage structural border. In summary, we find that recovery of dendritic structure can occur after reperfusion after even 60 min of ischemia, but is likely restricted to a relatively small penumbra region with partial blood flow or oxygenation.

  13. Post-Traumatic Hypoxia Is Associated with Prolonged Cerebral Cytokine Production, Higher Serum Biomarker Levels, and Poor Outcome in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Edwin B.; Satgunaseelan, Laveniya; Paul, Eldho; Bye, Nicole; Nguyen, Phuong; Agyapomaa, Doreen; Kossmann, Thomas; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Secondary hypoxia is a known contributor to adverse outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Based on the evidence that hypoxia and TBI in isolation induce neuroinflammation, we investigated whether TBI combined with hypoxia enhances cerebral cytokine production. We also explored whether increased concentrations of injury biomarkers discriminate between hypoxic (Hx) and normoxic (Nx) patients, correlate to worse outcome, and depend on blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Forty-two TBI patients with Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8 were recruited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were collected over 6 days. Patients were divided into Hx (n=22) and Nx (n=20) groups. Eight cytokines were measured in the CSF; albumin, S100, myelin basic protein (MBP) and neuronal specific enolase (NSE) were quantified in serum. CSF/serum albumin quotient was calculated for BBB function. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) was assessed at 6 months post-TBI. Production of granulocye macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was higher, and profiles of GM-CSF, interferon (IFN)-γ and, to a lesser extent, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), were prolonged in the CSF of Hx but not Nx patients at 4–5 days post-TBI. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 increased similarly in both Hx and Nx groups. S100, MBP, and NSE were significantly higher in Hx patients with unfavorable outcome. Among these three biomarkers, S100 showed the strongest correlations to GOSE after TBI-Hx. Elevated CSF/serum albumin quotients lasted for 5 days post-TBI and displayed similar profiles in Hx and Nx patients. We demonstrate for the first time that post-TBI hypoxia is associated with prolonged neuroinflammation, amplified extravasation of biomarkers, and poor outcome. S100 and MBP could be implemented to track the occurrence of post-TBI hypoxia, and prompt adequate treatment. PMID:24279428

  14. Sphingosine-1-phosphate and renal vasoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boye L

    2018-01-01

    ) and in conjunction with increased S1P release in pathophysiological situations like sepsis and ischemia-reperfusion incidents, this effect could be relevant in acute kidney injury with parallel decreases in renal blood flow and GFR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......In the present issue of Acta Physiologica, Guan et al. in their article "Mechanisms of sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated vasoconstriction of rat afferent arterioles" (1) address the signaling events associated with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated renal afferent vasoconstriction and show in......, technically demanding, blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation that S1P signaling relies predominantly on transmembrane calcium influx from the extracellular fluid through L-type calcium channels with contribution from oxidative stress metabolites(1) . So not only is new information on S1P signaling...

  15. Endosomolytic Nano-Polyplex Platform Technology for Cytosolic Peptide Delivery To Inhibit Pathological Vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian C; Hocking, Kyle M; Kilchrist, Kameron V; Wise, Eric S; Brophy, Colleen M; Duvall, Craig L

    2015-06-23

    A platform technology has been developed and tested for delivery of intracellular-acting peptides through electrostatically complexed nanoparticles, or nano-polyplexes, formulated from an anionic endosomolytic polymer and cationic therapeutic peptides. This delivery platform has been initially tested and optimized for delivery of two unique vasoactive peptides, a phosphomimetic of heat shock protein 20 and an inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase II, to prevent pathological vasoconstriction (i.e., vasospasm) in human vascular tissue. These peptides inhibit vasoconstriction and promote vasorelaxation by modulating actin dynamics in vascular smooth muscle cells. Formulating these peptides into nano-polyplexes significantly enhances peptide uptake and retention, facilitates cytosolic delivery through a pH-dependent endosomal escape mechanism, and enhances peptide bioactivity in vitro as measured by inhibition of F-actin stress fiber formation. In comparison to treatment with the free peptides, which were endowed with cell-penetrating sequences, the nano-polyplexes significantly increased vasorelaxation, inhibited vasoconstriction, and decreased F-actin formation in the human saphenous vein ex vivo. These results suggest that these formulations have significant potential for treatment of conditions such as cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Furthermore, because many therapeutic peptides include cationic cell-penetrating segments, this simple and modular platform technology may have broad applicability as a cost-effective approach for enhancing the efficacy of cytosolically active peptides.

  16. CaMKII inhibition with KN93 attenuates endothelin and serotonin receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced deficits in sensorimotor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Ahnstedt, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    tested the hypothesis that inhibition of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) may reduce cerebral vasoconstriction mediated by endothelin and serotonin receptors and improve neurological outcome after experimental SAH. METHODS: SAH was induced in adult rats by injection of 250 μ...

  17. Mechanism of postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction in the anesthetized dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katholi, R E; Oparil, S; Urthaler, F; James, T N

    1979-07-01

    The mechanism of postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction was studied in 28 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (30 mg/kg i.v.). Rapid atrial or ventricular pacing or induction of atrial fibrilation were used to produce at least 20% prompt decrease in cardiac output and mean arterial blood pressure. Return to control cardiac output and blood pressure occurred within 3 minutes after cessation of the arrhythmia, but renal blood flow remained significantly decreased (26%) with gradual recovery by 17.7 +/- 6.6 min. Infusion of phentolamine (0.25 mg/min) into the renal artery, intravenous hexamethonium (l mg/kg), adrenal demedullation, or cooling the cervical vagi prevented postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction. In contrast, renal denervation, intravenous bretylium (10 mg/kg), intravenous atropine (0.5 mg/kg) or intrarenal SQ 20881 (0.20 mg/min) has no effect on postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction. Intravenous propranolol (0.5 mg/kg) intensified postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction. These data suggested that the postarrhythmic renal vasoconstrictive response required intact vagi and was due to alpha adrenergic stimulation by adrenal catecholamines. However, femoral arterial catecholamine levels were not elevated above control during postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction. We therefore sought local vascular pathways by which catecholamines might reach the kidneys. An adrenorenal vascular network was found in each dog. Collection of catecholamines from these vessels during postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction in six dogs revealed catecholamine concentrations threefold higher than simultaneously collected femoral arterial catecholamines levels. Because ligation of these vessels abolished postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction in each dog, we conclude that postarrhythmic renal vasconstriction is due to adrenal catecholamines reaching the kidneys through an adreno-renal vascular network and that the response requires intact vagi.

  18. Cardiovascular and Postural Control Interactions during Hypergravity: Effects on Cerebral Autoregulation in Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Blaber, Andrew; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Avan, Paul; Bruner, Michelle; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2012-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance remains a problem upon return to Earth from the microgravity environment of spaceflight. A variety of conditions including hypovolemia, cerebral vasoconstriction, cerebral or peripheral vascular disease, or cardiac arrhythmias may result in syncope if the person remains upright. Current research indicates that there is a greater dependence on visual and somatosensory information at the beginning of space flight with a decreased otolith gain during prolonged space flight (Herault et al., 2002). The goal of the research is to further our understanding of the fundamental adaptive homeostatic mechanisms involved in gravity related changes in cardiovascular and postural function. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and postural sensory motor control systems in male and female participants before, during, and after exposure to graded levels of hyper-G were investigated. Hypotheses: 1) Activation of skeletal muscle pump will be directly related to the degree of orthostatic stress. 2) Simultaneous measurement of heart rate, blood pressure and postural sway will predict cardio-postural stability. Blood pressure and heart rate (means and variability), postural sway, center of pressure (COP), baroreflex function, calf blood flow, middle cerebral artery blood flow, non-invasive intracranial pressure measurements, and two-breath CO2 were measured. Results from the study will be used to provide an integrated insight into mechanisms of cardio-postural control and cerebral autoregulation, which are important aspects of human health in flights to Moon, Mars and distant planets.

  19. Vasoconstrictive effect of Xinmailong injection in rat aorta | Yang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cockroach has been traditionally utilized in China for the therapy of cardiovascular disorders, such as heart failure. The present study was aimed to assess the vasoconstrictive effect of Xinmailong Injection (XML), a bioactive composite from American cockroach. Methodology: The isometric tensions of rat aortic ...

  20. Measurement of model coefficients of skin sympathetic vasoconstriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severens, Natascha M W; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Frijns, Arjan J H; Kingma, Boris R M; De Mol, Bas A J M; Van Steenhoven, Anton A

    2010-01-01

    Many researchers have already attempted to model vasoconstriction responses, commonly using the mathematical representation proposed by Stolwijk (1971 NASA Contractor Report CR-1855 (Washington, DC: NASA)). Model makers based the parameter values in this formulation either on estimations or by attributing the difference between their passive models and measurement data fully to thermoregulation. These methods are very sensitive to errors. This study aims to present a reliable method for determining physiological values in the vasoconstriction formulation. An experimental protocol was developed that enabled us to derive the local proportional amplification coefficients of the toe, leg and arm and the transient vasoconstrictor tone. Ten subjects participated in a cooling experiment. During the experiment, core temperature, skin temperature, skin perfusion, forearm blood flow and heart rate variability were measured. The contributions to the normalized amplification coefficient for vasoconstriction of the toe, leg and arm were 84%, 11% and 5%, respectively. Comparison with relative values in the literature showed that the estimated values of Stolwijk and the values mentioned by Tanabe et al (2002 Energy Build. 34 637–46) were comparable with our measured values, but the values of Gordon (1974 The response of a human temperature regulatory system model in the cold PhD Thesis University of California, Santa Barbara) and Fiala et al (2001 Int. J. Biometeorol. 45 143159) differed significantly. With the help of regression analysis a relation was formulated between the error signal of the standardized core temperature and the vasoconstrictor tone. This relation was formulated in a general applicable way, which means that it can be used for situations where vasoconstriction thresholds are shifted, like under anesthesia or during motion sickness

  1. Pacinian channel mediated vasoconstriction in the fingers during vibration exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Ying

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature showed that acute vascular responses to hand-transmitted vibration depend on the magnitude, the frequency, and the duration of the vibration but the mechanisms involved in the immediate vasoconstriction on exposure to vibration are not clear. This research was designed to advance understanding of the relation between the characteristics of vibration and changes in vascular circulation on exposed hands, and to develop a model of the mechanoreceptor channel involved i...

  2. Effect of hypoxia on cerebral blood flow regulation during rest and exercise : role of cerebral oxygen delivery on performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, J.-L.

    2014-01-01

    Adequate supply of oxygen to the brain is critical for maintaining normal brain function. Severe hypoxia, such as that experienced during high altitude ascent, presents a unique challenge to brain oxygen (O2) supply. During high-intensity exercise, hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia leads to cerebral vasoconstriction, followed by reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen delivery (DO2), and tissue oxygenation. This reduced O2 supply to the brain could potentially account for the reduce...

  3. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age

    OpenAIRE

    Kingma, B.R.M.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Steenhoven, van, A.A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have been studied. Here, we tested the hypotheses that at hand sites (a) elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling and (b) elderly show reduced response to noradrenergic stimuli. Skin perfus...

  4. Understanding Hypoxic Drive and the Release of Hypoxic Vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkrott, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the hypoxic drive and release of hypoxic vasoconstriction in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease population can be somewhat confusing and misunderstood. Furthermore, the hypoxic drive theory is one in which there really is no scientific evidence to support and yet continues to prosper in every aspect of care in regard to the chronic lung patient, from prehospital all the way to intensive care unit and home care therapy. This subject review will hopefully enhance some understanding of what exactly goes on with these patients and the importance of providing oxygen when it is desperately needed. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reversible cerebral vasconstriction syndrome: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ji Kang; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Jeong, Sun Young

    2013-01-01

    We report a 46-year-old woman patient with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). She presented with severe headache, multiple cerebral infarction, and multifocal severe stenosis in the intracranial arteries on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). One month after the episode, a small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was incidentally detected during the evaluation of severe anemia and GIST was removed. Follow-up MRA was performed 3 months and 1 year after an initial attack of headache, and multifocal severe intracranial arterial stenotic lesions were completely resolved, she did not experience any episode of RCVS during the 2 years.

  6. Reversible cerebral vasconstriction syndrome: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ji Kang; Kim, Seung Hyoung; Jeong, Sun Young [Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We report a 46-year-old woman patient with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS). She presented with severe headache, multiple cerebral infarction, and multifocal severe stenosis in the intracranial arteries on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). One month after the episode, a small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was incidentally detected during the evaluation of severe anemia and GIST was removed. Follow-up MRA was performed 3 months and 1 year after an initial attack of headache, and multifocal severe intracranial arterial stenotic lesions were completely resolved, she did not experience any episode of RCVS during the 2 years.

  7. Low density lipoprotein induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive endothelin type B receptor expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Vasoconstrictive endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors promote vasospasm and ischemic cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression and if extracellular signal...

  8. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, B R M; Frijns, A J H; Saris, W H M; van Steenhoven, A A; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2010-07-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have been studied. Here, we tested the hypotheses that at hand sites (a) elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling and (b) elderly show reduced response to noradrenergic stimuli. Skin perfusion and mean arterial pressure were measured in 16 young adults (Y: 18-28 years) and 16 elderly (E: 68-78 years). To study the effect of local vasoconstriction mechanisms local sympathetic nerve terminals were blocked by bretylium (BR). Baseline local skin temperature was clamped at 33 degrees C. Next, local temperature was reduced to 24 degrees C. After 15 min of local cooling, noradrenaline (NA) was administered to study the effect of neural vasoconstriction mechanisms. No significant age effect was observed in vasoconstriction due to local cooling at BR sites. After NA, vasoconstriction at the forearm showed a significant age effect; however, no significant age effect was found at the hand sites. [Change in CVC (% from baseline): Forearm Y: -76 +/- 3 vs. E: -60 +/- 5 (P forearm, elderly did not show a blunted response to local cooling and noradrenaline at hand skin sites. This indicates that at hand skin the noradrenergic mechanism of vasoconstriction is maintained with age.

  9. Cold-induced vasoconstriction at forearm and hand skin sites: the effect of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, B.R.M.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.D.

    2010-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, elderly are at risk of hypothermia. In humans, glabrous skin at the hands is well adapted as a heat exchanger. Evidence exists that elderly show equal vasoconstriction due to local cooling at the ventral forearm, yet no age effects on vasoconstriction at hand skin have

  10. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  11. Adenosine induces vasoconstriction through Gi-dependent activation of phospholipase C in isolated perfused afferent arterioles of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B; Castrop, Hayo; Briggs, Josie

    2003-01-01

    -induced vasoconstriction was stable for up to 30 min and was most pronounced in the most distal part of the afferent arterioles. Adenosine did not cause vasoconstriction in arterioles from A1AR-/- mice. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) (400 ng/ml) for 2 h blocked the vasoconstricting action of adenosine or N(6...

  12. Copper Induces Vasorelaxation and Antagonizes Noradrenaline -Induced Vasoconstriction in Rat Mesenteric Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Copper is an essential trace element for normal cellular function and contributes to critical physiological or pathological processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of copper on vascular tone of rat mesenteric artery and compare the effects of copper on noradrenaline (NA and high K+ induced vasoconstriction. Methods: The rat mesenteric arteries were isolated and the vessel tone was measured by using multi wire myograph system in vitro. Blood pressure of carotid artery in rabbits was measured by using physiological data acquisition and analysis system in vivo. Results: Copper dose-dependently blunted NA-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. Copper-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited when the vessels were pretreated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. Copper did not blunt high K+-induced vasoconstriction. Copper preincubation inhibited NA-evoked vasoconstriction and the inhibition was not affected by the presence of L-NAME. Copper preincubation showed no effect on high K+-evoked vasoconstriction. Copper chelator diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (DTC antagonized the vasoactivity induced by copper in rat mesenteric artery. In vivo experiments showed that copper injection (iv significantly decreased blood pressure of rabbits and NA or DTC injection (iv did not rescue the copper-induced hypotension and animal death. Conclusion: Copper blunted NA but not high K+-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. The acute effect of copper on NA-induced vasoconstriction was depended on nitric oxide (NO, but the effect of copper pretreatment on NA-induced vasoconstriction was independed on NO, suggesting that copper affected NA-induced vasoconstriction by two distinct mechanisms.

  13. Hypocapnia and cerebral hypoperfusion in orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, V; Spies, J M; Novak, P; McPhee, B R; Rummans, T A; Low, P A

    1998-09-01

    Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. The OI group had higher supine heart rates (Presponse to HUT, OI patients underwent a greater heart rate increment (Ppressure (Pdifferent between control subjects and patients with OI. Cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in OI during orthostasis, which is primarily due to hyperventilation, causing significant hypocapnia. Hypocapnia and symptoms of orthostatic hypertension are reversible by CO2 rebreathing.

  14. Melatonin attenuates thiocyanate-induced vasoconstriction in aortic rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Prusa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking not only has a carcinogenic effect but also leads to an increase in arterial blood pressure. Besides its main components, i.e. nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke also contains thiocyanate. Thiocyanate anions (SCN− arise from the detoxification of hydrogen cyanide and its plasma concentrations were found to correlate significantly with cigarette consumption. There is also evidence that atherosclerotic disease progression is much more rapid when serum SCN− levels are increased. Melatonin, a non-toxic indolamine with various physiologic functions, is believed to protect against inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated that melatonin serves as free radical scavenger and represents a potent antioxidant. Therefore, it is believed that melatonin with its atheroprotective effects may be useful either as a sole therapy or in conjunction with others. The aim of this study was to quantify the thiocyanate-induced vasomotor response in aortic tissue and further to examine the potential of melatonin in affecting the generated vasoreactivity. Aortic rings of adult male normotensive Wistar rats were cut into 4-mm rings. Following the administration of thiocyanate in various concentrations, vasomotor response of aortic vessel segments was measured. To assess the effect of melatonin on vasomotor activity, organ bath concentrations were modulated from 60 to 360 pM, which corresponds to physiologic plasma up to the levels of patients with regular oral intake of 3 mg of melatonin as a supplement. Thirty-six rat aortic rings were studied. When exposed to thiocyanate, vessel segments revealed vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent manner. In rings which were preincubated with melatonin at a concentration of 360 pM, a 56.5% reduction of effect size could be achieved (4.09 ± 1.22 mN versus 9.41 ± 1.74 mN, P < 0.0001. Additionally, administration of 360 pM melatonin at a

  15. ACE INHIBITION ATTENUATES SYMPATHETIC CORONARY VASOCONSTRICTION IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERONDI, R; SAINO, A; TIO, RA; POMIDOSSI, G; GREGORINI, L; ALESSIO, P; MORGANTI, A; ZANCHETTI, A; MANCIA, G

    Background. In humans, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition attenuates the vasoconstriction induced by sympathetic stimulation in a number of peripheral districts. Whether this is also the case in the coronary circulation is unknown, however. Methods and Results. In nine normotensive

  16. Oral sapropterin augments reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2013-10-01

    Reflex vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged skin due to a functional loss of adrenergic vasoconstriction. Bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for catecholamine synthesis, is reduced with aging. Locally administered BH4 increases vasoconstriction through adrenergic mechanisms in aged human skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, a pharmaceutical BH4) would augment vasoconstriction elicited by whole-body cooling and tyramine perfusion in aged skin. Ten healthy subjects (age 75 ± 2 yr) ingested sapropterin (10 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Venous blood samples were collected prior to, and 3 h following ingestion. Three intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for local delivery of 1) lactated Ringer, 2) 5 mM BH4, and 3) 5 mM yohimbine + 1 mM propranolol (Y+P; to inhibit adrenergic vasoconstriction). Red cell flux was measured at each site by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) as reflex vasoconstriction was induced by lowering and then clamping whole-body skin temperature (Tsk) using a water-perfused suit. Following whole-body cooling, subjects were rewarmed and 1 mM tyramine was perfused at each site to elicit endogenous norepinephrine release from the perivascular nerve terminal. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated as CVC = LDF/mean arterial pressure and expressed as change from baseline (ΔCVC). Plasma BH4 was elevated 3 h after ingestion of sapropterin (43.8 ± 3 vs. 19.1 ± 2 pmol/ml; P effect on reflex vasoconstriction at the BH4-perfused or Y+P-perfused sites. Sapropterin increased pharmacologically induced vasoconstriction at the Ringer site (-0.19 ± 0.03 vs. -0.08 ± 0.02 ΔCVC; P = 0.01). There was no difference in pharmacologically induced vasoconstriction between treatments at the BH4-perfused site (-0.16 ± 0.04 vs. -0.14 ± 0.03 ΔCVC; P = 0.60) or the Y+P-perfused site (-0.05 ± 0.02 vs.-0.06 ± 0.02 ΔCVC; P = 0.79). Sapropterin increases

  17. Vasoconstriction Potency Induced by Aminoamide Local Anesthetics Correlates with Lipid Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro. The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to identify the physicochemical property (octanol/buffer partition coefficient, pKa, molecular weight, or potency of local anesthetics that determines their potency in inducing isolated rat aortic ring contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves to local anesthetics (levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine were obtained from isolated rat aorta. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the reported physicochemical properties of local anesthetics and the local anesthetic concentration that produced 50% (ED50 of the local anesthetic-induced maximum vasoconstriction. We determined the order of potency (ED50 of vasoconstriction among local anesthetics to be levobupivacaine > ropivacaine > lidocaine > mepivacaine. The relative importance of the independent variables that affect the vasoconstriction potency is octanol/buffer partition coefficient > potency > pKa > molecular weight. The ED50 in endothelium-denuded aorta negatively correlated with the octanol/buffer partition coefficient of local anesthetics (r2=0.9563; P<0.001. The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by lipid solubility and, in part, by other physicochemical properties including potency and pKa.

  18. Gluconeogenesis and fasting in cerebral malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thien, H.; Ackermans, M. T.; Weverling, G. J.; Dang Vinh, T.; Endert, E.; Kager, P. A.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects after an overnight fast, glucose production is for approximately 50% derived from glycogenolysis. If the fast is prolonged, glucose production decreases due to a decline in glycogenolysis, while gluconeogenesis remains stable. In cerebral malaria, glucose production

  19. [Cerebral aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, P; Jauréguiberry, S; Gangneux, J-P

    2004-05-01

    The brain is almost always a localization of invasive aspergillosis, after hematogenous spread from pulmonary aspergillosis. Brain aspergilosis is not rare and is one of the worst prognosis factors of invasive aspergillosis. The incidence of this severe mycosis is currently on the rise due to the development of major immunosuppressive treatments. Brain aspergillosis is noteworthy for its vascular tropism, leading to infectious cerebral vasculitis, mainly involving thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries, with a high frequency of thalamic or basal nuclei lesions. Extra-neurologic features that suggest this diagnosis are: i) risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (major or prolonged neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, bone marrow or solid organ transplant, AIDS); ii) persistent fever not responding to presumptive antibacterial treatment; iii) respiratory signs (brain aspergillosis is associated with pulmonary aspergillosis in 80 to 95 p. 100 of cases). Perspectives. Two recent major improvements in brain aspergillosis management must be outlined: i) for diagnostic purposes, the development of testing for Aspergillus antigenemia (a non-invasive procedure with good diagnostic value for invasive aspergillosis); ii) for therapeutic purposes, the demonstration that voriconazole is better than amphotericin B in terms of clinical response, tolerance and survival, for all types of invasive aspergillosis, the benefit being probably even greater in case of brain aspergillosis because of the good diffusion of voriconazole into the central nervous system. Brain aspergillosis is a severe emerging opportunistic infection for which diagnostic and therapeutic tools have recently improved. Thus, this diagnostic must be suspected early, especially in the immunocompromised patient, in the event of respiratory symptoms and when the brain lesions are localized in the central nuclei and the thalamus.

  20. Reflex peripheral vasoconstriction is diminished in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W L; Armstrong, C G

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare reflex control of limb blood flow in healthy young (Y; 26 +/- 2 yr) and older (O;61 +/- 2 yr) men during whole body cooling under resting conditions. To better isolate the effect of chronological age, the two age groups (n = 6 per group) were closely matched for maximal oxygen uptake, body surface area, skinfold thickness, and fat-free weight. Subjects sat in an environmentally controlled chamber clad in standardized (0.6-clo) light cotton clothing at a dry-bulb temperature (Tdb) of 28 degrees C. After 30 min, Tdb was decreased by 2 degrees C every 5 min until Tdb = 10 degrees C, where it was held constant for the remainder of the 120-min session. Esophageal and mean skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured every 5 min by venous occlusion plethysmography by using a mercury-in-Silastic strain gauge while arm temperature between the wrist and elbow was clamped at 37.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C by localized warm air heating. In this way, limb vasoconstriction was driven solely by thermoregulatory reflexes and not by direct effects of localized cooling. Mean skin temperature decreased at a similar rate and to a similar extent (by approximately 6 degrees C over a 2-h period) in both age groups, whereas esophageal temperature was relatively unaffected. In response to the local heating, the Y group maintained a significantly higher FBF than did the O group during the initial 30 min but decreased FBF during the cooling phase at a greater rate and to a greater extent than did the O group, leading to a significantly lower FBF during the final 30 min (at Tdb = 10 degrees C). Because there was no age difference in the mean arterial pressure response, similar effects of age were seen on forearm vascular conductance (FBF/mean arterial pressure). It was concluded that older men have a diminished reflex limb vasoconstrictor response to skin cooling. Furthermore, this difference in control of peripheral

  1. Conducted vasoconstriction in rat mesenteric arterioles: role for dihydropyridine-insensitive Ca(2+) channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, F; Andreasen, D; Salomonsson, Max

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels in the initiation and conduction of vasoconstrictor responses to local micropipette electrical stimulation of rat mesenteric arterioles (28 +/- 1 microm, n = 79) in vivo. Local and conducted (600 microm upstream from...... the pipette) vasoconstriction was not blocked by TTX (1 micromol/l, n = 5), nifedipine, or nimodipine (10 micromol/l, n = 9). Increasing the K(+) concentration of the superfusate to 75 mmol/l did not evoke vasoconstriction, but this depolarizing stimulus reversibly abolished vasoconstrictor responses...

  2. The hemodynamic effects of prolonged respiratory alkalosis in anesthetized newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jundi, K; Barrington, K J; Henderson, C; Allen, R G; Finer, N N

    2000-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that prolonged alkalosis decreases cardiac output and, furthermore, exacerbates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, as respiratory alkalosis is frequently induced as a therapy for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn despite a lack of controlled evidence of improved outcomes. Potential adverse effects of prolonged alkalosis have been demonstrated. Two groups (control, n = 6, and hypocapnic alkalosis, n = 6) of 1-3 day old fentanyl-anesthetized, vecuronium-paralyzed piglets were instrumented to measure cardiac index (CI) and mean systemic (MAP) and pulmonary (PAP) arterial pressures. Baseline values were recorded. Alveolar hypoxia was then induced to achieve an arterial oxygen saturation of between 50 and 60% for 15 min. Respiratory alkalosis was then induced, by increasing ventilation to achieve a pH between 7.55-7.60, and was continued for 240 min. Inspired carbon dioxide was used with hyperventilation in the control group to maintain pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) at 35-45 mmHg and pH of 7.35-7.45. Hypoxia was induced again at 15 and 240 min. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances (PVR and SVR) were calculated. Prolonged alkalosis led to a significant and progressive fall in mean MAP from 61 (SD 7) mmHg at the start of the study falling to 50 (SD 6.9, p = 0.043), with no effect on CI. Calculated SVR decreased (0.45 SD 0.03 vs 0.36 SD 0.05). There were no statistically significant changes in any of the variables in the control group. Neither acute nor prolonged respiratory alkalosis had a significant effect on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Prolonged hyperventilation leads to systemic hypotension, however it does not exacerbate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

  3. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  4. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  5. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijen, P.C. van.

    1991-01-01

    In-vivo proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect changes in cerebral metabolism during ischemia and other types of metabolic stress. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in an animal model to observe morphological alterations during focal cerebral ischemia. Spectroscopy was performed in animal models with global ischemia, in volunteers during hyperventilation and pharmaco-logically altered cerebral perfusion, and in patients with acute and prolonged focal cerebral ischemia. (author). 396 refs.; 44 figs.; 14 tabs

  6. Cerebral Microvascular and Systemic Effects Following Intravenous Administration of the Perfluorocarbon Emulsion Perftoran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutarboush, Rania; Saha, Biswajit K; Mullah, Saad H; Arnaud, Francoise G; Haque, Ashraful; Aligbe, Chioma; Pappas, Georgina; Auker, Charles R; McCarron, Richard M; Moon-Massat, Paula F; Scultetus, Anke H

    2016-11-18

    Oxygen-carrying perfluorocarbon (PFC) fluids have the potential to increase tissue oxygenation during hypoxic states and to reduce ischemic cell death. Regulatory approval of oxygen therapeutics was halted due to concerns over vasoconstrictive side effects. The goal of this study was to assess the potential vasoactive properties of Perftoran by measuring brain pial arteriolar diameters in a healthy rat model. Perftoran, crystalloid (saline) or colloid (Hextend) solutions were administered as four sequential 30 min intravenous (IV) infusions, thus allowing an evaluation of cumulative dose-dependent effects. There were no overall changes in diameters of small-sized (<50 μm) pial arterioles within the Perftoran group, while both saline and Hextend groups exhibited vasoconstriction. Medium-sized arterioles (50-100 μm) showed minor (~8-9%) vasoconstriction within saline and Hextend groups and only ~5% vasoconstriction within the Perftoran group. For small- and medium-sized pial arterioles, the mean percent change in vessel diameters was not different among the groups. Although there was a tendency for arterial blood pressures to increase with Perftoran, pressures were not different from the other two groups. These data show that Perftoran, when administered to healthy anesthetized rats, does not cause additional vasoconstriction in cerebral pial arterioles or increase systemic blood pressure compared with saline or Hextend.

  7. Cerebral microangiopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  8. Hypocapnia and cerebral hypoperfusion in orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; McPhee, B. R.; Rummans, T. A.; Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). METHODS: Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. RESULTS: The OI group had higher supine heart rates (Pfailed to show an increment. Among the cerebrovascular indices, all BFVs (systolic, diastolic, and mean) decreased significantly more, and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was increased in OI patients (Pindices were improved within 2 minutes of CO2 rebreathing. The relationships between CO2 and BFV and heart rate were well described by linear regressions, and the slope was not different between control subjects and patients with OI. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in OI during orthostasis, which is primarily due to hyperventilation, causing significant hypocapnia. Hypocapnia and symptoms of orthostatic hypertension are reversible by CO2 rebreathing.

  9. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors attenuate bradykinin-induced vasoconstriction in septic isolated rat lungs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, L. G.; Hollmann, M. W.; Horstman, D. J.; Rich, G. F.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) products play an important role in modulating sepsis and subsequent endothelial injury. We hypothesized that COX inhibitors may attenuate endothelial dysfunction during sepsis, as measured by receptor-mediated bradykinin (BK)-induced vasoconstriction and/or receptor-independent

  10. Neuropeptide Y restores non-receptor-mediated vasoconstrictive action in superior mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Johannes; Dietrich, Peter; Moleda, Lukas; Müller-Schilling, Martina; Wiest, Reiner

    2015-12-01

    Vascular hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors contributes to splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and hemodynamic dysregulation in portal hypertension. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic cotransmitter, has been shown to improve adrenergic vascular contractility in portal hypertensive rats and markedly attenuate hyperdynamic circulation. To further characterize the NPY-effects in portal hypertension, we investigated its role for non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) of portal vein ligated (PVL) and sham-operated rats. Ex vivo SMA perfusion of PVL and sham rats was used to analyse the effects of NPY on pressure response to non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction. Dose-response curves to KCl (30-300 mM) were used to bypass G protein-coupled receptor mechanisms. Potential involvement of the cyclooxygenase-pathway was tested by non-selective cyclooxygenase-inhibition using indomethacin. KCl-induced vascular contractility but not vascular sensitivity was significantly attenuated in PVL rats as compared with sham rats. Administration of NPY resulted in an augmentation of KCl-evoked vascular sensitivity being not different between study groups. However, KCl-induced vascular contractility was markedly more enhanced in PVL rats, thus, vascular response was no more significantly different between PVL and sham rats after addition of NPY. Administration of indomethacin abolished the NPY-induced enhancement of vasoconstriction. Receptor-independent vascular contractility is impaired in mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension. NPY improves non-receptor mediated mesenteric vasoconstriction more effective in portal hypertension than in healthy conditions correcting splanchnic vascular hyporesponsiveness. This beneficial vasoactive action of NPY adds to its well known more pronounced effects on adrenergic vasoconstriction in portal hypertension making it a promising therapeutic agent in portal hypertension. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A

  11. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Evokes Unique Segment-Specific Vasoconstriction of the Renal Microvasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Sean T.; Cook, Anthony K.; Hobbs, Janet L.; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Inscho, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, has been implicated in regulating vascular tone and participating in chronic and acute kidney injury. However, little is known about the role of S1P in the renal microcirculation. Here, we directly assessed the vasoresponsiveness of preglomerular and postglomerular microvascular segments to exogenous S1P using the in vitro blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Superfusion of S1P (0.001–10 μM) evoked concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in preglomerular microvessels, predominantly afferent arterioles. After administration of 10 μM S1P, the diameter of afferent arterioles decreased to 35%±5% of the control diameter, whereas the diameters of interlobular and arcuate arteries declined to 50%±12% and 68%±6% of the control diameter, respectively. Notably, efferent arterioles did not respond to S1P. The S1P receptor agonists FTY720 and FTY720-phosphate and the specific S1P1 receptor agonist SEW2871 each evoked modest afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction. Conversely, S1P2 receptor inhibition with JTE-013 significantly attenuated S1P-mediated afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction. Moreover, blockade of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels with diltiazem or nifedipine attenuated S1P-mediated vasoconstriction. Intravenous injection of S1P in anesthetized rats reduced renal blood flow dose dependently. Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed S1P1 and S1P2 receptor expression in isolated preglomerular microvessels and microvascular smooth muscle cells. These data demonstrate that S1P evokes segmentally distinct preglomerular vasoconstriction via activation of S1P1 and/or S1P2 receptors, partially via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. Accordingly, S1P may have a novel function in regulating afferent arteriolar resistance under physiologic conditions. PMID:24578134

  12. Quantitative histological studies on aging changes in cerebral cortex of rhesus monkey and albino rat with notes on effects of prolonged low-dose ionizing irradiation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Brains of a series of eight young adult control (150 days) and eight middle-aged control (550 days) rats were fixed by a two-stage perfusion procedure employing Heidenhain's 'susa' solution. An equal number of rats were exposed to γ-irradiation at 6.5 R/day beginning on the 50th postnatal day and were sacrificed in the same manner and at the same age levels as the previous group. Paraffin sections were cut at 20 and 6 μ from cerebral cortical area 3 in the rat brains. Sections used for cell counts were stained with Harris' hematoxylin and eosin or iron hematoxylin, gallocyanin, acid fuchsin and ponceau de xylidene. Counts of neurons and glia were carried out at 20 equally spaced submolecular depth levels, and cell frequency profiles were plotted for each of the two cell types. The mean neuron and glial packing density for the total depth of the submolecular cortex of area 3 was not significantly different in young adult and middle-aged controls or in young adult irradiated (total dose 650 R) and control animals. However, statistical evaluation of data for relative depth levels 7 through 20 indicated that the packing density in this zone was significantly less (P<0.02) in middle-aged controls than in young adult animals. In middle-aged irradiated rats (total dose about 3250 R) neuron and glial packing densities for total depth of submolecular cortex were not significantly different than in control animals at the same age level. However, the values obtained for neuron packing density at relative depth levels 1 through 8 were significantly lower in middle-aged irradiated than in middle-aged control rats. The neuron packing density in middle-aged irradiated rats was significantly lower than in the young adult irradiated males. In electron micrographs, an increase in the amount of glycogen granules in astrocyte cell processes in cerebral cortex of irradiated middle-aged rats was noted, but there was no evidence of any other ultrastructural alterations

  13. Role of shear stress in nitric oxide-dependent modulation of renal angiotensin II vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlich, K; Muller, C; Barthelmebs, M; Helwig, J J

    1999-08-01

    1. Renal vasoconstriction in response to angiotensin II (ANGII) is known to be modulated by nitric oxide (NO). Since shear stress stimulates the release of a variety of vasoactive compounds from endothelial cells, we studied the impact of shear stress on the haemodynamic effect of ANGII in isolated perfused kidneys of rats under control conditions and during NO synthase inhibition with L-NAME (100 microM). 2. Kidneys were perfused in the presence of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (10 microM indomethacin) with Tyrode's solution of relative viscosity zeta=1 (low viscosity perfusate, LVP) or, in order to augment shear stress, with Tyrode's solution containing 7% Ficoll 70 of relative viscosity zeta=2 (high viscosity perfusate, HVP). 3. Vascular conductance was 3.5+/-0.4 fold larger in HVP as compared with LVP kidneys, associated with an augmentation of overall wall shear stress by 37+/-5%. During NO inhibition, vascular conductance was only 2.5+/-0.2 fold elevated in HVP vs LVP kidneys, demonstrating shear stress-induced vasodilatation by NO and non-NO/non-prostanoid compound(s). 4. ANGII (10 - 100 pM) constricted the vasculature in LVP kidneys, but was without effect in HVP kidneys. During NO inhibition, in contrast, ANGII vasoconstriction was potentiated in HVP as compared with LVP kidneys. 5. The potentiation of ANGII vasoconstriction during NO inhibition has been shown to be mediated by endothelium-derived P450 metabolites and to be sensitive to AT2 receptor blockade in our earlier studies. Accordingly, in HVP kidneys, increasing concentrations of the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 (5 and 500 nM) gradually abolished the potentiation of ANGII vasoconstriction during NO inhibition, but did not affect vasoconstriction in response to ANGII in LVP kidneys. 6. Our results demonstrate, that augmentation of shear stress by increasing perfusate viscosity induces vasodilatation in the rat kidney, which is partially mediated by NO. Elevated levels of shear stress attenuate

  14. Neurohumoral responses during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Blomstrand, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This study examined neurohumoral alterations during prolonged exercise with and without hyperthermia. The cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate uptake ratio (O2/CHO = arteriovenous oxygen difference divided by arteriovenous glucose difference plus one-half lactate), the cerebral balances of dopamine......, and the metabolic precursor of serotonin, tryptophan, were evaluated in eight endurance-trained subjects during exercise randomized to be with or without hyperthermia. The core temperature stabilized at 37.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) in the control trial, whereas it increased to 39.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C...... in the hyperthermic trial, with a concomitant increase in perceived exertion (P exercise trials. Both the arterial and jugular venous dopamine levels...

  15. Effects of the Oxygen-Carrying Solution OxyVita C on the Cerebral Microcirculation and Systemic Blood Pressures in Healthy Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Abutarboush

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC as oxygen delivering therapies during hypoxic states has been hindered by vasoconstrictive side effects caused by depletion of nitric oxide (NO. OxyVita C is a promising oxygen-carrying solution that consists of a zero-linked hemoglobin polymer with a high molecular weight (~17 MDa. The large molecular weight is believed to prevent extravasation and limit NO scavenging and vasoconstriction. The aim of this study was to assess vasoactive effects of OxyVita C on systemic blood pressures and cerebral pial arteriole diameters. Anesthetized healthy rats received four intravenous (IV infusions of an increasing dose of OxyVita C (2, 25, 50, 100 mg/kg and hemodynamic parameters and pial arteriolar diameters were measured pre- and post-infusion. Normal saline was used as a volume-matched control. Systemic blood pressures increased (P ≤ 0.05 with increasing doses of OxyVita C, but not with saline. There was no vasoconstriction in small (<50 µm and medium-sized (50–100 µm pial arterioles in the OxyVita C group. In contrast, small and medium-sized pial arterioles vasoconstricted in the control group. Compared to saline, OxyVita C showed no cerebral vasoconstriction after any of the four doses evaluated in this rat model despite increases in blood pressure.

  16. Cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenan, T.J.; Grossman, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews retrospectively MR, CT, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral vasculitis in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the various imaging modalities, as well as the spectrum of imaging abnormalities in this disease entity. Studies were retrospectively reviewed in 12 patients with cerebral vasculitis proved by means of angiography and/or brain biopsy

  17. Lactoferricin B-derived peptides with inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Musoles, Ricardo; López-Díez, José Javier; Torregrosa, Germán; Vallés, Salvador; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma; Salom, Juan B

    2010-10-01

    Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), a key peptidase in the endothelin (ET) system, cleaves inactive big ET-1 to produce active ET-1, which binds to ET(A) receptors to exert its vasoconstrictor and pressor effects. ECE inhibition could be beneficial in the treatment of hypertension. In this study, a set of eight lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-derived peptides, previously characterized in our laboratory as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, was examined for their inhibitory effects on ECE. In vitro inhibitory effects on ECE activity were assessed using both the synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrate V (FPS V) and the natural substrate big ET-1. To study vasoactive effects, an ex vivo functional assay was developed using isolated rabbit carotid artery segments. With FPS V, only four LfcinB-derived peptides induced inhibition of ECE activity, whereas the eight peptides showed ECE inhibitory effects with big ET-1 as substrate. Regarding the ex vivo assays, six LfcinB-derived peptides showed inhibition of big ET-1-induced, ECE-dependent vasoconstriction. A positive correlation between the inhibitory effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ECE activity when using big ET-1 and the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction was shown. ECE-independent vasoconstriction induced by ET-1 was not affected, thus discarding effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ET(A) receptors or intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. In conclusion, a combined in vitro and ex vivo method to assess the effects of potentially antihypertensive peptides on the ET system has been developed and applied to show the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction of six LfcinB-derived peptides, five of which were dual vasopeptidase (ACE/ECE) inhibitors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cold-induced vasoconstriction may persist long after cooling ends: an evaluation of multiple cryotherapy units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-09-01

    Localized cooling is widely used in treating soft tissue injuries by modulating swelling, pain, and inflammation. One of the primary outcomes of localized cooling is vasoconstriction within the underlying skin. It is thought that in some instances, cryotherapy may be causative of tissue necrosis and neuropathy via cold-induced ischaemia leading to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI). The purpose of this study is to quantify the magnitude and persistence of vasoconstriction associated with cryotherapy. Data are presented from testing with four different FDA approved cryotherapy devices. Blood perfusion and skin temperature were measured at multiple anatomical sites during baseline, active cooling, and passive rewarming periods. Local cutaneous blood perfusion was depressed in response to cooling the skin surface with all devices, including the DonJoy (DJO, p = 2.6 × 10(-8)), Polar Care 300 (PC300, p = 1.1 × 10(-3)), Polar Care 500 Lite (PC500L, p = 0.010), and DeRoyal T505 (DR505, p = 0.016). During the rewarming period, parasitic heat gain from the underlying tissues and the environment resulted in increased temperatures of the skin and pad for all devices, but blood perfusion did not change significantly, DJO (n.s.), PC300 (n.s.), PC500L (n.s.), and DR505 (n.s.). The results demonstrate that cryotherapy can create a deep state of vasoconstriction in the local area of treatment. In the absence of independent stimulation, the condition of reduced blood flow persists long after cooling is stopped and local temperatures have rewarmed towards the normal range, indicating that the maintenance of vasoconstriction is not directly dependent on the continuing existence of a cold state. The depressed blood flow may dispose tissue to NFCI.

  19. Vasoconstrictive Responses by the Carotid and Auricular Arteries in goats to Ergot Alkaloid Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Glen; Flythe, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of ‘Kentucky 31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E-) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E- and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E- seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 µg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E- treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their thermoregulation.

  20. Interactive effect of aging and local muscle heating on renal vasoconstriction during isometric handgrip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Nathan T; Sauder, Charity L; Kearney, Matthew L; Ray, Chester A

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the interactive effect of aging and forearm muscle heating on renal vascular conductance and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during ischemic isometric handgrip. A tube-lined, water-perfused sleeve was used to heat the forearm in 12 young (27 +/- 1 yr) and 9 older (63 +/- 1 yr) subjects. Ischemic isometric handgrip was performed before and after heating. Muscle temperature (intramuscular thermistor) was 34.3 +/- 0.2 and 38.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C during normothermia and heating, respectively. At rest, heating had no effect on renal blood velocity (Doppler ultrasound) or renal vascular conductance in either group (young, n = 12; older, n = 8). Heating compared with normothermia caused a significantly greater increase in renal vasoconstriction during exercise and postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) in both groups. However, the increase in renal vasoconstriction during heating was greater in the older compared with the young subjects (18 +/- 3 vs. 8 +/- 3%). During handgrip, heating elicited greater increases in MSNA responses in the older group (young, n = 12; older, n = 6), whereas no statistical difference was observed between groups during PEMI. In summary, aging augments renal vascular responses to ischemic isometric handgrip during heating of the exercising muscle. The greater renal vasoconstriction was associated with augmented MSNA in the older subjects.

  1. Stereoselective inhibition of thromboxane-induced coronary vasoconstriction by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltze, M.; Boer, R.; Sanders, K.H.; Boss, H.; Ulrich, W.R.; Flockerzi, D.

    1990-01-01

    The biological activity of the (+)-S- and (-)-R-enantiomers of niguldipine, of the (-)-S- and (+)-R-enantiomers of felodipine and nitrendipine, and of rac-nisoldipine and rac-nimodipine was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction due to the thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mimetic U-46619 in guinea pig Langendorff hearts, displacement of (+)-[ 3 H]isradipine from calcium channel binding sites of guinea pig skeletal muscle T-tubule membranes, and blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats were determined. The enantiomers were obtained by stereoselective synthesis. Cross-contamination was less than 0.5% for both S- and R-enantiomers of niguldipine and nitrendipine and less than 1% for those of felodipine. From the doses necessary for a 50% inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction, stereoselectivity ratios for (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine, and (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine of 28, 13, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The potency ratio rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine was 3.5. Ratios obtained from binding experiments and antihypertensive activity were (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine = 45 and 35, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine = 12 and 13, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine = 8 and 8, and rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine = 8 and 7, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between the in vitro potency of the substances to prevent U-46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction and their affinity for calcium channel binding sites as well as their antihypertensive activity

  2. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities. Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion. Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency Medicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities. The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  3. [Pathophysiology of prolonged hypokinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E A

    1976-01-01

    Hypokinesia is an important problem in modern medicine. In the pathogenetic effect of prolonged hypokinesia the main etiological factor is diminished motor activity; of major importance are disorders in the energy and plastic metabolism which affect the muscle system; the contributing factors are cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance. This is attributed to a decreased oxygen supply and eliminated hydrostatic influences during a prolonged recumbency. Blood redistribution in the vascular bed is related to the Gauer-Henry reflex and subsequent changes in the fluid-electrolyte balance. Decreased load on the bone system induces changes in the protein-phosphate-calcium metabolism, diminished bone density and increased calcium content in the blood and urine. Changes in the calcium metabolism are systemic. The activity of the higher nervous system and reflex functions is lowered. Changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system which include a noticeable decline of its adaptive-trophic role as a result of the decrease of afferent and efferent impulsation are of great importance. Changes in the hormonal function involve a peculiar stress-reaction which develops at an early stage of hypokinesia as a response to an unusual situation. Prolonged hypokinesia may result in a disturbed function of the pituitary-adrenal system. It is assumed that prolonged hypokinesia may induce a specific disease of hypokinesia during which man cannot lead a normal mode of life and work.

  4. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    The diving response is initiated by apnea and facial immersion in cold water and includes, besides bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, while cerebral perfusion may be enhanced. This study evaluated whether facial immersion in 10 degrees C water has an independent influence on cerebral...... immersion further increased MCA V(mean) to 122 cm/s ( approximately 88%; both P ... 180-W exercise (from 47 to 53 cm/s), and this increment became larger with facial immersion (76 cm/s, approximately 62%; P 100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely...

  5. Cerebral ketone body metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A A M

    2005-01-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are an important source of energy for the brain. During the neonatal period, they are also precursors for the synthesis of lipids (especially cholesterol) and amino acids. The rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends primarily on the concentration in blood; high concentrations occur during fasting and on a high-fat diet. Cerebral KB metabolism is also regulated by the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which depends on the abundance of monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT1). The BBB's permeability to KBs increases with fasting in humans. In rats, permeability increases during the suckling period, but human neonates have not been studied. Monocarboxylic acid transporters are also present in the plasma membranes of neurons and glia but their role in regulating KB metabolism is uncertain. Finally, the rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends on the activities of the relevant enzymes in brain. The activities vary with age in rats, but reliable results are not available for humans. Cerebral KB metabolism in humans differs from that in the rat in several respects. During fasting, for example, KBs supply more of the brain's energy in humans than in the rat. Conversely, KBs are probably used more extensively in the brain of suckling rats than in human neonates. These differences complicate the interpretation of rodent studies. Most patients with inborn errors of ketogenesis develop normally, suggesting that the only essential role for KBs is as an alternative fuel during illness or prolonged fasting. On the other hand, in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, imaging generally shows asymptomatic white-matter abnormalities. The ability of KBs to act as an alternative fuel explains the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency, but its effectiveness in epilepsy remains unexplained.

  6. Cardiovascular and vasoconstrictive actions of skate bradykinin in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea (Elasmobranchii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasiewicz, Patricia J; Conlon, J Michael; Anderson, W Gary

    2011-11-01

    The vasoconstrictive and cardiovascular actions of a recently identified bradykinin (BK)-related peptide (Gly-Ile-Thr-Ser-Trp-Leu-Pro-Phe) from the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea were examined in the unanesthetised little skate. Intra-arterial administration of a skate BK (0.1-1 nmolkg(-1)) produced a hypertensive response with a rise in blood pressure reaching a maximum elevation of 28.7±4.8% over baseline (Pskate BK. Further, in vivo administration of 1 nmolkg(-1) skate BK induced a significant delayed increase in stroke volume (reaching a maximum of 54.4±14.7% above baseline) without significant effect on either cardiac output or heart rate. In vitro, skate BK constricted the 1st branchial, mesenteric (EC(50) 2.7×10(-9)M) and coeliac (EC(50) 3.1×10(-9)M) arterial preparations of the skate. In contrast, skate [Arg(9)]BK, the mammalian B(1) receptor agonist des-[Arg(9)]BK, and the mammalian B(2) receptor antagonist HOE-140 failed to induce vasoconstriction in these isolated arterial preparations. The vasoconstrictor actions of skate BK in the isolated mesenteric, coeliac and branchial arterial preparations were significantly inhibited when co-administrated with esculetin and phentolamine. Indomethacin also inhibited the vasoconstrictor actions of skate BK in the isolated branchial artery. We conclude that, as in mammals and teleost fish, multiple pathways involving at least the alpha adrenergic and leukotriene synthesis pathway are involved in mediating the vasoconstrictive actions of BK in vascular smooth muscle of the little skate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K.; Matthew Brothers, R.; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P cryotherapy. PMID:26632263

  8. Normalization of hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier-201 induced vasoconstriction: targeting nitric oxide and endothelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverne, Yannick J; de Wijs-Meijler, Daphne; Te Lintel Hekkert, Maaike; Moon-Massat, Paula F; Dubé, Gregory P; Duncker, Dirk J; Merkus, Daphne

    2017-05-01

    Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 is a cell-free modified hemoglobin solution potentially facilitating oxygen uptake and delivery in cardiovascular disorders and hemorrhagic shock. Clinical use has been hampered by vasoconstriction in the systemic and pulmonary beds. Therefore, we aimed to 1 ) determine the possibility of counteracting HBOC-201-induced pressor effects with either adenosine (ADO) or nitroglycerin (NTG); 2 ) assess the potential roles of nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and endothelin (ET) in mediating the observed vasoconstriction; and 3 ) compare these effects in resting and exercising swine. Chronically instrumented swine were studied at rest and during exercise after administration of HBOC-201 alone or in combination with ADO. The role of NO was assessed by supplementation with NTG or administration of the eNOS inhibitor N ω -nitro-l-arginine. Alternative vasoactive pathways were investigated via intravenous administration of the ET A /ET B receptor blocker tezosentan or a mixture of ROS scavengers. The systemic and to a lesser extent the pulmonary pressor effects of HBOC-201 could be counteracted by ADO; however, dosage titration was very important to avoid systemic hypotension. Similarly, supplementation of NO with NTG negated the pressor effects but also required titration of the dose. The pressor response to HBOC-201 was reduced after eNOS inhibition and abolished by simultaneous ET A /ET B receptor blockade, while ROS scavenging had no effect. In conclusion, the pressor response to HBOC-201 is mediated by vasoconstriction due to NO scavenging and production of ET. Further research should explore the effect of longer-acting ET receptor blockers to counteract the side effect of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC)-201 can disrupt hemodynamic homeostasis, mimicking some aspects of endothelial dysfunction, resulting in elevated systemic and pulmonary blood

  9. [Cerebral protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A D

    1993-09-01

    Cerebral protection means prevention of cerebral neuronal damage. Severe brain damage extinguishes the very "human" functions such as speech, consciousness, intellectual capacity, and emotional integrity. Many pathologic conditions may inflict injuries to the brain, therefore the protection and salvage of cerebral neuronal function must be the top priorities in the care of critically ill patients. Brain tissue has unusually high energy requirements, its stores of energy metabolites are small and, as a result, the brain is totally dependent on a continuous supply of substrates and oxygen, via the circulation. In complete global ischemia (cardiac arrest) reperfusion is characterized by an immediate reactive hyperemia followed within 20-30 min by a delayed hypoperfusion state. It has been postulated that the latter contributes to the ultimate neurologic outcome. In focal ischemia (stroke) the primary focus of necrosis is encircled by an area (ischemic penumbra) that is underperfused and contains neurotoxic substances such as free radicals, prostaglandins, calcium, and excitatory neurotransmitters. The variety of therapeutic effort that have addressed the question of protecting the brain reflects their limited success. 1) Barbiturates. After an initial enthusiastic endorsement by many clinicians and years of vigorous controversy, it can now be unequivocally stated that there is no place for barbiturate therapy following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. One presumed explanation for this negative statement is that cerebral metabolic suppression by barbiturates (and other anesthetics) is impossible in the absence of an active EEG. Conversely, in the event of incomplete ischemia EEG activity in usually present (albeit altered) and metabolic suppression and hence possibly protection can be induced with barbiturates. Indeed, most of the animal studies led to a number of recommendations for barbiturate therapy in man for incomplete ischemia. 2) Isoflurane. From a cerebral

  10. Endothelin-1 Mediates Brain Microvascular Dysfunction Leading to Long-Term Cognitive Impairment in a Model of Experimental Cerebral Malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi D Freeman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum infection causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including cerebral malaria, a potentially life-threatening encephalopathy. Vasculopathy is thought to contribute to cerebral malaria pathogenesis. The vasoactive compound endothelin-1, a key participant in many inflammatory processes, likely mediates vascular and cognitive dysfunctions in cerebral malaria. We previously demonstrated that C57BL6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA, our fatal experimental cerebral malaria model, sustained memory loss. Herein, we demonstrate that an endothelin type A receptor (ETA antagonist prevented experimental cerebral malaria-induced neurocognitive impairments and improved survival. ETA antagonism prevented blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral vasoconstriction during experimental cerebral malaria, and reduced brain endothelial activation, diminishing brain microvascular congestion. Furthermore, exogenous endothelin-1 administration to P. berghei NK65-infected mice, a model generally regarded as a non-cerebral malaria negative control for P. berghei ANKA infection, led to experimental cerebral malaria-like memory deficits. Our data indicate that endothelin-1 is critical in the development of cerebrovascular and cognitive impairments with experimental cerebral malaria. This vasoactive peptide may thus serve as a potential target for adjunctive therapy in the management of cerebral malaria.

  11. Reversal of reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by main pulmonary arterial distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juratsch, C E; Grover, R F; Rose, C E; Reeves, J T; Walby, W F; Laks, M M

    1985-04-01

    Distension of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) induces pulmonary hypertension, most probably by neurogenic reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction, although constriction of the pulmonary vessels has not actually been demonstrated. In previous studies in dogs with increased pulmonary vascular resistance produced by airway hypoxia, exogenous arachidonic acid has led to the production of pulmonary vasodilator prostaglandins. Hence, in the present study, we investigated the effect of arachidonic acid in seven intact anesthetized dogs after pulmonary vascular resistance was increased by MPA distention. After steady-state pulmonary hypertension was established, arachidonic acid (1.0 mg/min) was infused into the right ventricle for 16 min; 15-20 min later a 16-mg bolus of arachidonic acid was injected. MPA distension was maintained throughout the study. Although the infusion of arachidonic acid significantly lowered the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance induced by MPA distension, the pulmonary vascular resistance returned to control levels only after the bolus injection of arachidonic acid. Notably, the bolus injection caused a biphasic response which first increased the pulmonary vascular resistance transiently before lowering it to control levels. In dogs with resting levels of pulmonary vascular resistance, administration of arachidonic acid in the same manner did not alter the pulmonary vascular resistance. It is concluded that MPA distension does indeed cause reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be reversed by vasodilator metabolites of arachidonic acid. Even though this reflex may help maintain high pulmonary vascular resistance in the fetus, its function in the adult is obscure.

  12. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: a thermographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannetti, Federica; Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Lacarbonara, Francesco; Sodi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo; Corvi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral vasoconstriction might be detected by measuring the ocular surface temperature. The ocular surface temperature was evaluated in a group of 38 healthy young subjects (28 males and 10 females; mean age: 25.4 ± 4.1 years) by infrared thermography. For each subject, the experimental procedure consisted of two thermographic acquisitions both lasting 10 s, recorded before and during the immersion of both hands in a mixture of ice and water (1.6 °C ± 0.4 °C). Specifically, the second acquisition began 20 s after the hand immersion. Analysis of variance was used to compare the ocular surface temperature of the two profiles. The analysis of infrared images was carried out every 2 s: at the eye opening (t(0)) until 10 s (t(5)), for both profiles. Data showed that ocular surface temperature increased significantly (p-value temperature at t(0) for P(1) = 0.12 °C ± 0.13 °C). Therefore, these results suggest a response of the ocular hemodynamic to the peripheral vasoconstriction. The ocular surface temperature may represent a cheap, non-invasive and non-time-consuming test to evaluate ocular vaso-regulation.

  13. KIR channels tune electrical communication in cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, Maria; Samson, Nina C; Hald, Bjorn O

    2017-01-01

    The conducted vasomotor response reflects electrical communication in the arterial wall and the distance signals spread is regulated by three factors including resident ion channels. This study defined the role of inward-rectifying K(+) channels (KIR) in governing electrical communication along...... hamster cerebral arteries. Focal KCl application induced a vasoconstriction that conducted robustly, indicative of electrical communication among cells. Inhibiting dominant K(+) conductances had no attenuating effect, the exception being Ba(2+) blockade of KIR Electrophysiology and Q-PCR analysis...... and the increased feedback arising from voltage-dependent-K(+) channels. In summary, this study shows that two KIR populations work collaboratively to govern electrical communication and the spread of vasomotor responses along cerebral arteries....

  14. Severe cerebral desaturation during shoulder arthroscopy in the beach-chair position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dippmann, Christian; Winge, Søren; Nielsen, Henning Bay

    2010-01-01

    During shoulder arthroscopy in the beach-chair position, cerebral ischemia may be a serious complication because prolonged hypotension may affect regional cerebral oxygen supply. We present the cases of 2 patients in whom a reduction in mean arterial pressure after anesthesia provoked a decrease...... cerebral oxygenation. During surgery in the beach-chair position, hypotension must be avoided, and in all patients regional, cerebral oxygenation should be monitored and optimized....

  15. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  16. Early MEK1/2 Inhibition after Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats Reduces Brain Damage and Improves Outcome by Preventing Delayed Vasoconstrictor Receptor Upregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sara Ellinor; Larsen, Stine Schmidt; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global cerebral ischemia following cardiac arrest is associated with increased cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased cerebral blood flow, contributing to delayed neuronal cell death and neurological detriments in affected patients. We hypothesize that upregulation of contractile ETB...... and 5-HT1B receptors, previously demonstrated in cerebral arteries after experimental global ischemia, are a key mechanism behind insufficient perfusion of the post-ischemic brain, proposing blockade of this receptor upregulation as a novel target for prevention of cerebral hypoperfusion and delayed...... neuronal cell death after global cerebral ischemia. The aim was to characterize the time-course of receptor upregulation and associated neuronal damage after global ischemia and investigate whether treatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 can prevent cerebrovascular receptor upregulation and thereby...

  17. Hypoxic vasoconstriction of partial muscular intra-acinar pulmonary arteries in murine precision cut lung slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Anna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alveolar hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV which serves to match lung perfusion to ventilation. The underlying mechanisms are not fully resolved yet. The major vascular segment contributing to HPV, the intra-acinar artery, is mostly located in that part of the lung that cannot be selectively reached by the presently available techniques, e.g. hemodynamic studies of isolated perfused lungs, recordings from dissected proximal arterial segments or analysis of subpleural vessels. The aim of the present study was to establish a model which allows the investigation of HPV and its underlying mechanisms in small intra-acinar arteries. Methods Intra-acinar arteries of the mouse lung were studied in 200 μm thick precision-cut lung slices (PCLS. The organisation of the muscle coat of these vessels was characterized by α-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry. Basic features of intra-acinar HPV were characterized, and then the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers, inhibitors of the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle metabolites was analysed. Results Intra-acinar arteries are equipped with a discontinuous spiral of α-smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive cells. They exhibit a monophasic HPV (medium gassed with 1% O2 that started to fade after 40 min and was lost after 80 min. This HPV, but not vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane analogue U46619, was effectively blocked by nitro blue tetrazolium and diphenyleniodonium, indicating the involvement of ROS and flavoproteins. Inhibition of mitochondrial complexes II (3-nitropropionic acid, thenoyltrifluoroacetone and III (antimycin A specifically interfered with HPV, whereas blockade of complex IV (sodium azide unspecifically inhibited both HPV and U46619-induced constriction. Succinate blocked HPV whereas fumarate had minor effects on vasoconstriction. Conclusion This study establishes the first model for investigation of basic characteristics of HPV

  18. Obesity and risk of vascular disease: importance of endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Baretella, Oliver; Meyer, Matthias R

    2012-02-01

    Obesity has become a serious global health issue affecting both adults and children. Recent devolopments in world demographics and declining health status of the world's population indicate that the prevalence of obesity will continue to increase in the next decades. As a disease, obesity has deleterious effects on metabolic homeostasis, and affects numerous organ systems including heart, kidney and the vascular system. Thus, obesity is now regarded as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and stroke. In the arterial system, endothelial cells are both the source and target of factors contributing to atherosclerosis. Endothelial vasoactive factors regulate vascular homeostasis under physiological conditions and maintain basal vascular tone. Obesity results in an imbalance between endothelium-derived vasoactive factors favouring vasoconstriction, cell growth and inflammatory activation. Abnormal regulation of these factors due to endothelial cell dysfunction is both a consequence and a cause of vascular disease processes. Finally, because of the similarities of the vascular pathomechanisms activated, obesity can be considered to cause accelerated, 'premature' vascular aging. Here, we will review some of the pathomechanisms involved in obesity-related activation of endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction, the clinical relevance of obesity-associated vascular risk, and therapeutic interventions using 'endothelial therapy' aiming at maintaining or restoring vascular endothelial health. This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Correlation Between Resting Testosterone/Cortisol Ratio and Sound-Induced Vasoconstriction at Fingertip in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooishi, Yuuki

    2018-01-01

    A sound-induced sympathetic tone has been used as an index for orienting responses to auditory stimuli. The resting testosterone/cortisol ratio is a biomarker of social aggression that drives an approaching behavior in response to environmental stimuli, and a higher testosterone level and a lower cortisol level can facilitate the sympathetic response to environmental stimuli. Therefore, it is possible that the testosterone/cortisol ratio is correlated with the sound-induced sympathetic tone. The current study investigated the relationship between the resting testosterone/cortisol ratio and vasoconstriction induced by listening to sound stimuli. Twenty healthy males aged 29.0 ± 0.53 years (mean ± S.E.M) participated in the study. They came to the laboratory for 3 days and listened to one of three types of sound stimuli for 1 min on each day. Saliva samples were collected for an analysis of salivary testosterone and cortisol levels on the day of each experiment. After the collecting the saliva sample, we measured the blood volume pulse (BVP) amplitude at a fingertip. Since vasoconstriction is mediated by the activation of the sympathetic nerves, the strength of the reduction in BVP amplitude at a fingertip was called the BVP response (finger BVPR). No difference was observed between the sound-induced finger BVPR for the three types of sound stimuli ( p = 0.779). The correlation coefficient between the sound-induced finger BVPR and the salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio within participants was significantly different from no correlation ( p = 0.011) and there was a trend toward a significance in the correlation between the sound-induced finger BVPR and the salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio between participants ( r = 0.39, p = 0.088). These results suggest that the testosterone/cortisol ratio affects the difference in the sound-evoked sympathetic response.

  20. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  1. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  2. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cerebral palsy (also called CP) is a group of conditions ...

  3. Increased 20-HETE synthesis explains reduced cerebral blood flow but not impaired neurovascular coupling after cortical spreading depression in rat cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordsmann, Jonas Christoffer; ko, Rebecca; Choi, Hyun B

    2013-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with release of arachidonic acid (AA), impaired neurovascular coupling, and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), caused by cortical vasoconstriction. We tested the hypothesis that the released AA is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme to produce...... neurovascular coupling after CSD. These findings suggest that CSD-induced increments in 20-HETE cause the reduction in CBF after CSD, and that the attenuation of stimulation-induced CBF responses after CSD has a different mechanism. We suggest that blockade of 20-HETE synthesis may be clinically relevant...

  4. The CGRP-antagonist, BIBN4096BS does not affect cerebral or systemic haemodynamics in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K A; Birk, S; Lassen, L H

    2005-01-01

    CBF(MCA)) was measured by 133-Xenon inhalation SPECT. The diameter of the temporal and radial artery was measured by high-resolution ultrasound. Systemic haemodynamics and partial pressure of CO(2) (P(et)CO(2)), and adverse events were monitored regularly. BIBN4096BS had no influence on global or regional cerebral blood......BIBN4096BS is a CGRP-antagonist effective in the treatment of migraine. Blocking the receptor of a strong vasodilator involves a theoretical risk of causing cerebral vasoconstriction, a probability not previously investigated with BIBN4096BS. Seven healthy volunteers completed this double...... flow, or on the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery. There was no effect on systemic haemodynamics and adverse events were minor. We conclude that there is no effect of CGRP-receptor blockade on the cerebral or systemic circulation in humans. Circulating CGRP is therefore not likely...

  5. Cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truwit, C.L.; Barkovich, A.J.; Koch, T.; Ferreiro, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  6. NMR imaging of cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takusagawa, Yoshihiko; Yamaoka, Naoki; Doi, Kazuaki; Okada, Keisei

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and five patients with cerebral infarction were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) CT (resistive type of magnet with strength of 0.1 tesla) and X-ray CT. Pulse sequences used saturation recovery (Tr = 600 mSec), Inversion recovery (Tr = 500 mSec, Td = 300 mSec) and spin echo (Tr = 1500 mSec, Te = 40, 80, 120, 160 mSec). Fifteen cases were examined by NMR-CT within 24 hours from onset. Proton NMR imaging could not detect cerebral ischemia as early as 2 hours after onset, but except could detect the lesions in Se image the area of cerebral infarct 3 hours after onset. After 5 hours from onset image changes in SE were evident and corresponded to the area of cerebral infarct, but image changes in IR could not fully delineate the infarcted area. NMR images of 41 year-old woman with cerebral embolism by MCA trunck occlusion associated with mitral stenosis were presented, and NMR-CT was examined 10 hours, 9th and 43th days after episode of MCA occlusion. Sixty patents (64 times) with lacunar infarction were studied by NMR-CT and X-ray CT. The inversion recovery images were used mainly for detection of lesions and comparison with X-ray CT. In 160 lesions which were detected by NMR-CT or X-ray CT, could 156 lesions be detected by NMR-CT and 78 lesions by X-ray CT. Inversion recovery images were more useful for detection of lacunes than X-ray CT. Calculated T1 and T2 values prolonged with time course from onset. (author)

  7. Thermoregulatory responses to skin wetting during prolonged treadmill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, D R; Nagle, F J; Mookerjee, S; Darr, K C; Ng, A V; Voss, S G; Napp, J P

    1987-02-01

    We examined the physiological responses to skin wetting during a 120-min level treadmill run to assess whether skin wetting would reduce the dehydration and the increase in core temperature associated with prolonged exercise. Testing was conducted in an environmental chamber (T = 29.5 degrees C, wind velocity = 3 m X sec-1) under two different humidity conditions (33 or 66% relative humidity). Ten male subjects performed two runs in each humidity condition; one served as a control run. The other included spraying the body with 50 ml of water (T = 29.5 degrees C) every 10 min. Spraying had no effect on rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate, oxygen consumption, perceived exertion, sweat loss, or percent change in plasma volume in both the humid and the dry conditions. Spraying produced a significant reduction in mean skin temperature (Tsk), which increased the (Tre - Tsk) gradient. At the same time, overall skin conductance (K) was decreased, presumably as a result of cutaneous vasoconstriction due to the low Tsk. Since heat transfer from the body's core to the skin is expressed by the equation: heat transfer = K X (Tre - Tsk) the spraying had no effect on heat transfer away from the core, and Tre remained unchanged.

  8. Proposal for a universal definition of cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Jeffrey L

    2008-11-01

    Cerebral infarction is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide but has no uniform international definition. Recent diagnostic advances have revised fundamental concepts in cerebral and cardiac ischemia. Cardiologists, already possessed of a nosologic framework distinguishing myocardial infarction from unstable angina on the basis of tissue state, promulgated a new "universal" tissue definition of myocardial infarction incorporating insights afforded by assays of cardiac troponin, a serum biomarker exquisitely sensitive to myocardial injury. Concurrently, vascular neurologists proposed a new tissue, rather than time, criterion to distinguish transient ischemia attack from cerebral infarction, responding to perspectives provided by diffusion MRI and cerebral blood volume CT, imaging biomarkers highly sensitive to neuronal injury. To complete this conceptual realignment, vascular neurology must now advance a clear, uniform, and operationalizable tissue definition of cerebral infarction. This review proposes cerebral infarction be defined as brain or retinal cell death due to prolonged ischemia. This definition categorizes both pannecrosis and neuronal dropout ("complete" and "incomplete" infarcts in classic neuropathologic terminology) as cerebral infarcts. Making the presence of any neuronal or glial cell death essential yields a definition of cerebral infarction that has high relevance to patients, physicians, and policymakers; is more easily applied in clinical practice; fosters action in acute care; harmonizes with myocardial ischemia classification; and focuses diagnostic evaluation on the cause of brain ischemia and the occurrence of end organ injury. The term cerebral infarction should be used when there is evidence of brain or retinal cell death due to cerebral ischemia.

  9. Effect of Body Temperature on the Radionuclide Evaluation of Cerebral Blood Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, S. . E- mail: seham@hsc.edu.kw; Elgazzar, A.H.; Gopinath, S.; Mathew, M.; Khalil, M.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may reflect physiological correlates of the disease state. In neuro-imaging studies, some diseases have frequently been reported to be associated with reduced or increased rCBF. In a previous study we had shown evidence of heat induced vasoconstriction of the carotid artery, which is the main vessel supplying blood to the brain. This vasoconstriction may lead to a decrease in cerebral blood flow in hyperthermic patients. Most radionuclide studies used to assess cerebral blood flow are routinely performed without taking into consideration patients' body temperature. In this regard it may be noted that results of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies may be affected by hyperthermia, which could lead to false positive studies or misinterpretation of results when they are performed on patients suffering from various cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the importance of body temperature and its effect on the results of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies. Cerebral blood flow was assessed using Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) imaging. Baseline scintigraphic images of the brain were obtained in 10 rabbits using a gamma camera equipped with a low energy parallel hole and high resolution collimator interfaced with a computer. Repeat brain studies were performed on the same rabbits at 3 and 6 days after raising the body temperature by 2 deg. C and 4 deg. C respectively using the same imaging protocol. The counts per pixel were determined on control and hyperthermia images. The uptake of Tc-99m HMPAO in the brain was found to be significantly reduced following hyperthermia implying reduction in blood flow. This decrease in cerebral perfusion appears to be variable from region to region, being more in the cerebral hemispheres, frontal areas (olfactory lobes) than in the cerebellum. Based on the results, the authors conclude that a rise in body temperature might

  10. Oscillatory dynamics of vasoconstriction and vasodilation identified by time-localized phase coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, L W; McClintock, P V E; Stefanovska, A; Vuksanovic, V

    2011-01-01

    We apply wavelet-based time-localized phase coherence to investigate the relationship between blood flow and skin temperature, and between blood flow and instantaneous heart rate (IHR), during vasoconstriction and vasodilation provoked by local cooling or heating of the skin. A temperature-controlled metal plate (∼10 cm 2 ) placed on the volar side of the left arm was used to provide the heating and cooling. Beneath the plate, the blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the adjacent skin temperature by a thermistor. Two 1 h datasets were collected from each of the ten subjects. In each case a 30 min basal recording was followed by a step change in plate temperature, to either 24 deg. C or 42 deg. C. The IHR was derived from simultaneously recorded ECG. We confirm the changes in the energy and frequency of blood flow oscillations during cooling and heating reported earlier. That is, during cooling, there was a significant decrease in the average frequency of myogenic blood flow oscillations (p < 0.05) and the myogenic spectral peak became more prominent. During heating, there was a significant (p < 0.05) general increase in spectral energy, associated with vasodilation, except in the myogenic interval. Weak phase coherence between temperature and blood flow was observed for unperturbed skin, but it increased in all frequency intervals as a result of heating. It was not significantly affected by cooling. We also show that significant (p < 0.05) phase coherence exists between blood flow and IHR in the respiratory and myogenic frequency intervals. Cooling did not affect this phase coherence in any of the frequency intervals, whereas heating enhanced the phase coherence in the respiratory and myogenic intervals. This can be explained by the reduction in vascular resistance produced by heating, a process where myogenic mechanisms play a key role. We conclude that the mechanisms of vasodilation and vasoconstriction, in response to temperature change, are

  11. Increased arterial smooth muscle Ca2+ signaling, vasoconstriction, and myogenic reactivity in Milan hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Cristina I.; Karashima, Eiji; Raina, Hema; Zulian, Alessandra; Wier, Withrow G.; Hamlyn, John M.; Ferrari, Patrizia; Blaustein, Mordecai P.

    2012-01-01

    The Milan hypertensive strain (MHS) rats are a genetic model of hypertension with adducin gene polymorphisms linked to enhanced renal tubular Na+ reabsorption. Recently we demonstrated that Ca2+ signaling is augmented in freshly isolated mesenteric artery myocytes from MHS rats. This is associated with greatly enhanced expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger-1 (NCX1), C-type transient receptor potential (TRPC6) protein, and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) compared with arteries from Milan normotensive strain (MNS) rats. Here, we test the hypothesis that the enhanced Ca2+ signaling in MHS arterial smooth muscle is directly reflected in augmented vasoconstriction [myogenic and phenylephrine (PE)-evoked responses] in isolated mesenteric small arteries. Systolic blood pressure was higher in MHS (145 ± 1 mmHg) than in MNS (112 ± 1 mmHg; P arteries from MHS rats had significantly augmented myogenic tone and reactivity and enhanced constriction to low-dose (1–100 nM) PE. Isolated MHS arterial myocytes exhibited approximately twofold increased peak Ca2+ signals in response to 5 μM PE or ATP in the absence and presence of extracellular Ca2+. These augmented responses are consistent with increased vasoconstrictor-evoked sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release and increased Ca2+ entry, respectively. The increased SR Ca2+ release correlates with a doubling of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 and tripling of SERCA2 expression. Pressurized MHS arteries also exhibited a ∼70% increase in 100 nM ouabain-induced vasoconstriction compared with MNS arteries. These functional alterations reveal that, in a genetic model of hypertension linked to renal dysfunction, multiple mechanisms within the arterial myocytes contribute to enhanced Ca2+ signaling and myogenic and vasoconstrictor-induced arterial constriction. MHS rats have elevated plasma levels of endogenous ouabain, which may initiate the protein upregulation and enhanced Ca2+ signaling. These

  12. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  13. Rhino Cerebral Mucormycosis - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eswar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhino cerebral Mucormycosis is an opportunistic infection caused by a saprophytic fungus which is found in soil, decaying fruits and vegetables. Usually predisposing factors for this infection are poorly controlled diabetes, ketoacidosis, leukemia, immunodeficiency states, prolonged steroid therapy etc. The fungus once entering the susceptible host do cause highly invasive and fulminant infection usually with fatal outcome. Early recognition of this condition is highly essential to initiate immediate life saving measures.

  14. Impaired modulation of postjunctional α1 - but not α2 -adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting forearm muscle of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Nicholas T; Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Hanada, Satoshi; Feider, Andrew J; Iwamoto, Erika; Bock, Joshua M; Casey, Darren P

    2018-04-30

    Contraction-mediated blunting of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (functional sympatholysis) is attenuated in skeletal muscle of ageing males, brought on by altered postjunctional α 1 - and α 2 -adrenergic receptor sensitivity. The extent to which postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction occurs in the forearms at rest and during exercise in postmenopausal women remains unknown. The novel findings indicate that contraction-mediated blunting of α 1 - (via intra-arterial infusion of phenylephrine) but not α 2 -adrenergic (via intra-arterial infusion of dexmedetomidine) vasoconstriction was attenuated in postmenopausal women compared to young women. Additional important findings revealed that postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness at rest does not appear to be affected by age in women. Collectively, these results contribute to our understanding of local neurovascular control at rest and during exercise with age in women. Contraction-mediated blunting of postjunctional α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (functional sympatholysis) is attenuated in older males; however, direct confirmation of this effect remains unknown in postmenopausal women (PMW). The present study examined whether PMW exhibit augmented postjunctional α-adrenergic receptor vasoconstriction at rest and during forearm exercise compared to young women (YW). Eight YW (24 ± 1 years) and eight PMW (65 ± 1 years) completed a series of randomized experimental trials: (1) at rest, (2) under high flow (adenosine infusion) conditions and (3) during 6 min of forearm exercise at relative (20% of maximum) and absolute (7 kg) intensities. Phenylephrine (α 1 -agonist) or dexmedetomidine (α 2 -agonist) was administered during the last 3 min of each trial to elicit α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated from blood flow and blood pressure. Vasoconstrictor responsiveness was identified as the change in FVC (%) during

  15. Calcitonin-gene related peptide and cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesch, Karl-Michael; Herbst, Andreas; Bele, Sylvia; Schödel, Petra; Brawanski, Alexander; Stoerr, Eva-Maria; Lohmeier, Annette; Kagerbauer, Simone Maria; Martin, Jan; Proescholdt, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The pathophysiology of arterial vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is poorly understood and the contribution of endogenous neuropeptides has not been sufficiently elucidated. Recently, we detected an excessive release of vasoconstrictive neuropeptide Y (NPY) in SAH patients and identified a significant correlation of NPY cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels with vasospasm-related ischemia. Here, we present the results of an experimental study on the possible role of the potent endogenous vasodilator calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) in the acute stage of SAH. Twelve consecutive patients with SAH were included. Seven patients had severe arterial vasospasm, confirmed by transcranial doppler-sonography (TCD). Prospectively, CSF was collected from day 1 to day 10 after onset of the SAH. The levels of CGRP were determined in a competitive enzyme immunoassay and were correlated with the clinical course and hemodynamic changes. A cohort of 29 patients without CNS disease served as a control. CGRP was significantly higher in SAH patients compared with the control group (p<0.05). From day 1 to day 4, the CGRP levels in patients without vasospasm were significantly higher than the levels of CGRP in patients with vasospasm (p<0.05). These patients did not develop cerebral ischemia. The significantly increased levels of the CGRP during the first days after onset of the SAH in the non-vasospasm group indicate a potential protective role of CGRP. CGRP may alleviate arterial vasoconstriction and thus protect the brain from vasospasm and subsequent ischemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Real-time optical diagnosis of the rat brain exposed to a laser-induced shock wave: observation of spreading depolarization, vasoconstriction and hypoxemia-oligemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Sato

    Full Text Available Despite many efforts, the pathophysiology and mechanism of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI have not yet been elucidated, partially due to the difficulty of real-time diagnosis and extremely complex factors determining the outcome. In this study, we topically applied a laser-induced shock wave (LISW to the rat brain through the skull, for which real-time measurements of optical diffuse reflectance and electroencephalogram (EEG were performed. Even under conditions showing no clear changes in systemic physiological parameters, the brain showed a drastic light scattering change accompanied by EEG suppression, which indicated the occurrence of spreading depression, long-lasting hypoxemia and signal change indicating mitochondrial energy impairment. Under the standard LISW conditions examined, hemorrhage and contusion were not apparent in the cortex. To investigate events associated with spreading depression, measurement of direct current (DC potential, light scattering imaging and stereomicroscopic observation of blood vessels were also conducted for the brain. After LISW application, we observed a distinct negative shift in the DC potential, which temporally coincided with the transit of a light scattering wave, showing the occurrence of spreading depolarization and concomitant change in light scattering. Blood vessels in the brain surface initially showed vasodilatation for 3-4 min, which was followed by long-lasting vasoconstriction, corresponding to hypoxemia. Computer simulation based on the inverse Monte Carlo method showed that hemoglobin oxygen saturation declined to as low as ∼35% in the long-term hypoxemic phase. Overall, we found that topical application of a shock wave to the brain caused spreading depolarization/depression and prolonged severe hypoxemia-oligemia, which might lead to pathological conditions in the brain. Although further study is needed, our findings suggest that spreading depolarization/depression is one of

  17. Influence of chronic captopril treatment on norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in SHR and WKY : In vivo study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pintérová, Mária; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Zicha, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, Suppl.1 (2008), S174-S174 ISSN 0263-6352. [Scientific Meeting International Society of Hypertension /22./ , Scientific Meeting European Society of Hypertension /18./. 14.06.2008-19.06.2008, Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * captopril teratment * norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction * SHR and WKY Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  18. Lactoferricin-related peptides with inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José M; Burguete, María C; Castelló-Ruiz, María; Enrique, María; Vallés, Salvador; Salom, Juan B; Torregrosa, Germán; Marcos, José F; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma

    2006-07-26

    A selection of lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-related peptides with an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect have been examined using in vitro and ex vivo functional assays. Peptides that were analyzed included a set of sequence-related antimicrobial hexapeptides previously reported and two representative LfcinB-derived peptides. In vitro assays using hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) and angiotensin I as substrates allowed us to select two hexapeptides, PACEI32 (Ac-RKWHFW-NH2) and PACEI34 (Ac-RKWLFW-NH2), and also a LfcinB-derived peptide, LfcinB17-31 (Ac-FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA-NH2). Ex vivo functional assays using rabbit carotid arterial segments showed PACEI32 (both D- and L-enantiomers) and LfcinB17-31 have inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent angiotensin I-induced contraction. None of the peptides exhibited in vitro ACE inhibitory activity using bradykinin as the substrate. In conclusion, three bioactive lactoferricin-related peptides exhibit inhibitory effects on both ACE activity and ACE-dependent vasoconstriction with potential to modulate hypertension that deserves further investigation.

  19. Milrinone attenuates arteriolar vasoconstriction and capillary perfusion deficits on endotoxemic hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lopes de Miranda

    Full Text Available Apart from its inotropic property, milrinone has vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects that could assist in the reversal of septic microcirculatory changes. This paper investigates the effects of milrinone on endotoxemia-related microcirculatory changes and compares them to those observed with the use of norepinephrine.After skinfold chamber implantation procedures and endotoxemia induction by intravenous Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administration (2 mg.kg-1, male golden Syrian hamsters were treated with two regimens of intravenous milrinone (0.25 or 0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1. Intravital microscopy of skinfold chamber preparations allowed quantitative analysis of microvascular variables. Macro-hemodynamic, biochemical, and hematological parameters and survival rate were also analyzed. Endotoxemic non-treated animals, endotoxemic animals treated with norepinephrine (0.2 μg.kg-1.min-1, and non-endotoxemic hamsters served as controls.Milrinone (0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1 was effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced arteriolar vasoconstriction, capillary perfusion deficits, and inflammatory response, and in increasing survival. Norepinephrine treated animals showed the best mean arterial pressure levels but the worst functional capillary density values among all endotoxemic groups.Our data suggests that milrinone yielded protective effects on endotoxemic animals' microcirculation, showed anti-inflammatory properties, and improved survival. Norepinephrine did not recruit the microcirculation nor demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects.

  20. Milrinone attenuates arteriolar vasoconstriction and capillary perfusion deficits on endotoxemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Marcos Lopes; Pereira, Sandra J; Santos, Ana O M T; Villela, Nivaldo R; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

    2015-01-01

    Apart from its inotropic property, milrinone has vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects that could assist in the reversal of septic microcirculatory changes. This paper investigates the effects of milrinone on endotoxemia-related microcirculatory changes and compares them to those observed with the use of norepinephrine. After skinfold chamber implantation procedures and endotoxemia induction by intravenous Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administration (2 mg.kg-1), male golden Syrian hamsters were treated with two regimens of intravenous milrinone (0.25 or 0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1). Intravital microscopy of skinfold chamber preparations allowed quantitative analysis of microvascular variables. Macro-hemodynamic, biochemical, and hematological parameters and survival rate were also analyzed. Endotoxemic non-treated animals, endotoxemic animals treated with norepinephrine (0.2 μg.kg-1.min-1), and non-endotoxemic hamsters served as controls. Milrinone (0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1) was effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced arteriolar vasoconstriction, capillary perfusion deficits, and inflammatory response, and in increasing survival. Norepinephrine treated animals showed the best mean arterial pressure levels but the worst functional capillary density values among all endotoxemic groups. Our data suggests that milrinone yielded protective effects on endotoxemic animals' microcirculation, showed anti-inflammatory properties, and improved survival. Norepinephrine did not recruit the microcirculation nor demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects.

  1. Catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction is sensitive to carbonic anhydrase I activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puscas I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the relationship between alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists and the activity of carbonic anhydrase I and II in erythrocyte, clinical and vessel studies. Kinetic studies were performed. Adrenergic agonists increased erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase as follows: adrenaline by 75%, noradrenaline by 68%, isoprenaline by 55%, and orciprenaline by 62%. The kinetic data indicated a non-competitive mechanism of action. In clinical studies carbonic anhydrase I from erythrocytes increased by 87% after noradrenaline administration, by 71% after orciprenaline and by 82% after isoprenaline. The increase in carbonic anhydrase I paralleled the increase in blood pressure. Similar results were obtained in vessel studies on piglet vascular smooth muscle. We believe that adrenergic agonists may have a dual mechanism of action: the first one consists of a catecholamine action on its receptor with the formation of a stimulus-receptor complex. The second mechanism proposed completes the first one. By this second component of the mechanism, the same stimulus directly acts on the carbonic anhydrase I isozyme (that might be functionally coupled with adrenergic receptors, so that its activation ensures an adequate pH for stimulus-receptor coupling for signal transduction into the cell, resulting in vasoconstriction.

  2. Potentiation of phorbol ester-induced coronary vasoconstriction in dogs following endothelium disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.B.; Ku, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), activation of protein kinase C on coronary vascular reactivity was studied in isolated dog coronary arteries. Addition of TPA (10-100 nM) produced a slow, time- and dose-dependent contraction reaching a maximum at approx 2-3 hrs and was essentially irreversible upon washing. Disruption of the endothelium(EC) greatly accelerated the development as well as increase the magnitude of TPA contraction (50-100%). Prior treatment of vessels with phentolamine (1μM), cyproheptadine (1μH) and ibuprofen (1μg/ml) did not alter the TPA contraction. Furthermore, in contrast to previously reported calcium-dependence of TPA contraction in other vessels, complete removal of extracellular calcium (Ca 0 ) or addition of 1μM nimodipine after TPA(30nM) resulted in only 32 +/- 4% and 25 +/- 3% reversal of TPA contraction, respectively. Addition of amiloride (10μM to 1mM), however, resulted in a dose-dependent reversal of TPA contraction. The results of the present study indicate that a similar activation of protein kinase C by TPA leads to potent coronary vasoconstriction, which is not completely dependent on Ca 0 . More importantly, these results further support their hypothesis that EC also functions as an inhibitory barrier to prevent circulating vasoconstrictors from exerting their deleterious constrictory effects

  3. Experimental Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Induces Blunted Vasoconstriction and Functional Changes in the Rat Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tufiño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic conditions increase vascular reactivity to angiotensin II in several studies but there are scarce reports on cardiovascular effects of hypercaloric diet (HD induced gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, so the objective of this work was to determine the effects of HD induced GDM on vascular responses. Angiotensin II as well as phenylephrine induced vascular contraction was tested in isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from rats fed for 7 weeks (4 before and 3 weeks during pregnancy with standard (SD or hypercaloric (HD diet. Also, protein expression of AT1R, AT2R, COX-1, COX-2, NOS-1, and NOS-3 and plasma glucose, insulin, and angiotensin II levels were measured. GDM impaired vasoconstrictor response (P<0.05 versus SD in intact (e+ but not in endothelium-free (e− vessels. Losartan reduced GDM but not SD e− vasoconstriction (P<0.01 versus SD. AT1R, AT2R, and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression were significantly increased in GDM vessels (P<0.05 versus SD. Results suggest an increased participation of endothelium vasodilator mediators, probably prostaglandins, as well as of AT2 vasodilator receptors as a compensatory mechanism for vasoconstrictor changes generated by experimental GDM. Considering the short term of rat pregnancy findings can reflect early stage GDM adaptations.

  4. Variations in alveolar partial pressure for carbon dioxide and oxygen have additive not synergistic acute effects on human pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Quentin P P; Formenti, Federico; Talbot, Nick P; Lunn, Daniel; Robbins, Peter A; Dorrington, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the pulmonary blood vessels independently of each other or whether they act synergistically, such that the combination of hypercapnia and hypoxia is more effective than the sum of the responses to each stimulus on its own. We independently controlled the alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide (Paco 2) and oxygen (Pao 2) to examine their possible interaction on human pulmonary vasoconstriction. Nine volunteers each experienced sixteen possible combinations of four levels of Paco 2 (+6, +1, -4 and -9 mmHg, relative to baseline) with four levels of Pao 2 (175, 100, 75 and 50 mmHg). During each of these sixteen protocols Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac output and systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, an index of pulmonary vasoconstriction. The degree of constriction varied linearly with both Paco 2 and the calculated haemoglobin oxygen desaturation (1-So2). Mixed effects modelling delivered coefficients defining the interdependence of cardiac output, systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, ventilation, Paco 2 and So2. No interaction was observed in the effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction of carbon dioxide and oxygen (p>0.64). Direct effects of the alveolar gases on systolic tricuspid pressure gradient greatly exceeded indirect effects arising from concurrent changes in cardiac output.

  5. Enhanced Y1-receptor-mediated vasoconstrictive action of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in superior mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Reiner; Jurzik, Lars; Moleda, Lukas; Froh, Matthias; Schnabl, Bernd; von Hörsten, Stephan; Schölmerich, Juergen; Straub, Rainer H

    2006-03-01

    Vascular hyporeactivity to catecholamines contributes to arterial vasodilation and hemodynamic dysregulation in portal hypertension. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter facilitating adrenergic vasoconstriction via Y1-receptors on the vascular smooth muscle. Therefore, we investigated its role for vascular reactivity in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) of portal vein ligated (PVL) and sham operated rats. In vitro perfused SMA vascular beds of rats were tested for the cumulative dose-response to NPY dependent on the presence and level of alpha1-adrenergic vascular tone (methoxamine MT: 0.3-10 microM). Moreover, the effect of NPY (50 nM) on vascular responsiveness to alpha1-adrenergic stimulation (MT: 0.3-300 microM) was evaluated. Y1-receptor function was tested by Y1-selective inhibition using BIBP-3226 (1 microM). NPY dose-dependently and endothelium-independently enhanced MT-pre-constriction in SMA. This potentiation was increasingly effective with increasing adrenergic pre-stimulation and being more pronounced in PVL rats as compared to sham rats at high MT concentrations. NPY enhanced vascular contractility only in PVL rats correcting the adrenergic vascular hyporeactivity. Y1-receptor inhibition completely abolished NPY-evoked vasoconstrictive effects. NPY endothelium-independently potentiates adrenergic vasoconstriction via Y1-receptors being more pronounced in portal hypertension improving mesenteric vascular contractility and thereby correcting the splanchnic vascular hyporeactivity. This makes NPY a superior vasoconstrictor counterbalancing arterial vasodilation in portal hypertension.

  6. Severe cerebral desaturation during shoulder arthroscopy in the beach-chair position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dippmann, Christian; Winge, Søren; Nielsen, Henning Bay

    2010-01-01

    During shoulder arthroscopy in the beach-chair position, cerebral ischemia may be a serious complication because prolonged hypotension may affect regional cerebral oxygen supply. We present the cases of 2 patients in whom a reduction in mean arterial pressure after anesthesia provoked a decrease...

  7. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  8. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test a possible genetic component to prolonged gestation. STUDY DESIGN: The gestational duration of single, first pregnancies by both female and male twins was obtained by linking the Danish Twin Registry, The Danish Civil Registration System, and the D...... factors. CONCLUSION: Maternal genes influence prolonged gestation. However, a substantial paternal genetic influence through the fetus was not found....

  9. Dopamine therapy does not affect cerebral autoregulation during hypotension in newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Ramsgaard Eriksen

    Full Text Available Hypotensive neonates who have been treated with dopamine have poorer neurodevelopmental outcome than those who have not been treated with dopamine. We speculate that dopamine stimulates adrenoceptors on cerebral arteries causing cerebral vasoconstriction. This vasoconstriction might lead to a rightward shift of the cerebral autoregulatory curve; consequently, infants treated with dopamine would have a higher risk of low cerebral blood flow at a blood pressure that is otherwise considered "safe".In anaesthetized piglets, perfusion of the brain, monitored with laser-doppler flowmetry, and cerebral venous saturation was measured at different levels of hypotension. Each piglet was studied in two phases: a phase with stepwise decreases in MAP and a phase with stepwise increases in MAP. We randomized the order of the two phases, whether dopamine was given in the first or second phase, and the infusion rate of dopamine (10, 25, or 40 μg/kg/min. In/deflation of a balloon catheter, placed in vena cava, induced different levels of hypotension. At each level of hypotension, fluctuations in MAP were induced by in/deflations of a balloon catheter in descending aorta.During measurements, PaCO2 and arterial saturation were stable. MAP levels ranged between 14 and 82 mmHg. Cerebral autoregulation (CA capacity was calculated as the ratio between %-change in cerebrovascular resistance and %-change in MAP induced by the in/deflation of the arterial balloon. A breakpoint in CA capacity was identified at a MAP of 38±18 mmHg without dopamine and at 44±18, 31±14, and 24±14 mmHg with dopamine infusion rates of 10, 25, and 40 μg/kg/min (p = 0.057. Neither the index of steady-state cerebral perfusion nor cerebral venous saturation were affected by dopamine infusion.Dopamine infusion tended to improve CA capacity at low blood pressures while an index of steady-state cerebral blood flow and cerebral venous saturation were unaffected by dopamine infusion. Thus

  10. Cerebral Vasculitis

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    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vasculitis is an inflammation systems may be involved of blood vessels due to various origins. Vessels of the peripheral and/or central nervous. Vasculitis of the CNS is rare and occurs in the context of systemic diseases or as primary angiitis of the CNS. Epidemiology: The overall incidence of primary vasculitis is about 40/1,000,000 persons [excluding giant cell (temporal arteritis, GCA]. Its incidence increases with age. The incidence of GCA is much higher (around 200/1,000,000 persons in the age group[50 years. Clinical Presentation: Clinical and pathological presentation in CNS vasculitis represents a wide spectrum. Among others, headache, cranial nerve affections, encephalopathy, seizures, psychosis, myelitis, stroke, intracranial haemorrhage and aseptic meningoencephalitis are described. Primary and secondary vasculitides leading more frequently to CNS manifestations are discussed. Primary and secondary Vasculitides: Including Giant Cell (Temporal Arteritis , Takayasu arteritis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Primary angiitis of the CNS, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and Connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective disease and Sjögren syndrome, are systemic immune-mediated diseases that lead to multiple organ affections. Cerebral Vasculitis: Imaging and Differential Diagnosis: Vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases that affect blood vessel walls of varying calibers (inflammatory vasculopathy. Since the devastating symptoms of CNS vasculitis are at least partially reversible, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In order to establish a differential diagnosis clinical features, disease progression, age of onset, blood results, as well as CSF examinations have to be taken into consideration. Neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI and DSA, play a central role in the diagnosis and disease monitoring .The diagnostic

  11. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation changes during sub-maximal handgrip maneuver.

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    Ricardo C Nogueira

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of handgrip (HG maneuver on time-varying estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA using the autoregressive moving average technique. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were recruited to perform HG maneuver during 3 minutes with 30% of maximum contraction force. Cerebral blood flow velocity, end-tidal CO₂ pressure (PETCO₂, and noninvasive arterial blood pressure (ABP were continuously recorded during baseline, HG and recovery. Critical closing pressure (CrCP, resistance area-product (RAP, and time-varying autoregulation index (ARI were obtained. RESULTS: PETCO₂ did not show significant changes during HG maneuver. Whilst ABP increased continuously during the maneuver, to 27% above its baseline value, CBFV raised to a plateau approximately 15% above baseline. This was sustained by a parallel increase in RAP, suggestive of myogenic vasoconstriction, and a reduction in CrCP that could be associated with metabolic vasodilation. The time-varying ARI index dropped at the beginning and end of the maneuver (p<0.005, which could be related to corresponding alert reactions or to different time constants of the myogenic, metabolic and/or neurogenic mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Changes in dynamic CA during HG suggest a complex interplay of regulatory mechanisms during static exercise that should be considered when assessing the determinants of cerebral blood flow and metabolism.

  12. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation Changes during Sub-Maximal Handgrip Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Ricardo C.; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Santos, Marcelo R.; Negrão, Carlos E.; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Panerai, Ronney B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the effect of handgrip (HG) maneuver on time-varying estimates of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) using the autoregressive moving average technique. Methods Twelve healthy subjects were recruited to perform HG maneuver during 3 minutes with 30% of maximum contraction force. Cerebral blood flow velocity, end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2), and noninvasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) were continuously recorded during baseline, HG and recovery. Critical closing pressure (CrCP), resistance area-product (RAP), and time-varying autoregulation index (ARI) were obtained. Results PETCO2 did not show significant changes during HG maneuver. Whilst ABP increased continuously during the maneuver, to 27% above its baseline value, CBFV raised to a plateau approximately 15% above baseline. This was sustained by a parallel increase in RAP, suggestive of myogenic vasoconstriction, and a reduction in CrCP that could be associated with metabolic vasodilation. The time-varying ARI index dropped at the beginning and end of the maneuver (p<0.005), which could be related to corresponding alert reactions or to different time constants of the myogenic, metabolic and/or neurogenic mechanisms. Conclusion Changes in dynamic CA during HG suggest a complex interplay of regulatory mechanisms during static exercise that should be considered when assessing the determinants of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. PMID:23967113

  13. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min), as well as sustained (> 30 min) hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate), and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min) and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA), a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis increased HPV during

  14. Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surber Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.

  15. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketabchi Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min, as well as sustained (> 30 min hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. Method We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate, and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min and endothelial permeability. Results In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA, a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc. This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Conclusion Hypercapnia with and without acidosis

  16. Effects of hypercapnia and NO synthase inhibition in sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabchi, Farzaneh; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Egemnazarov, Bakytbek; Shid-Moosavi, S Mostafa; Dehghani, Gholam A; Weissmann, Norbert; Sommer, Natascha

    2012-01-31

    Acute respiratory disorders may lead to sustained alveolar hypoxia with hypercapnia resulting in impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes gas exchange during local acute (0-30 min), as well as sustained (> 30 min) hypoxia by matching blood perfusion to alveolar ventilation. Hypercapnia with acidosis improves pulmonary gas exchange in repetitive conditions of acute hypoxia by potentiating HPV and preventing pulmonary endothelial dysfunction. This study investigated, if the beneficial effects of hypercapnia with acidosis are preserved during sustained hypoxia as it occurs, e.g in permissive hypercapnic ventilation in intensive care units. Furthermore, the effects of NO synthase inhibitors under such conditions were examined. We employed isolated perfused and ventilated rabbit lungs to determine the influence of hypercapnia with or without acidosis (pH corrected with sodium bicarbonate), and inhibitors of endothelial as well as inducible NO synthase on acute or sustained HPV (180 min) and endothelial permeability. In hypercapnic acidosis, HPV was intensified in sustained hypoxia, in contrast to hypercapnia without acidosis when HPV was amplified during both phases. L-NG-Nitroarginine (L-NNA), a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor, enhanced acute as well as sustained HPV under all conditions, however, the amplification of sustained HPV induced by hypercapnia with or without acidosis compared to normocapnia disappeared. In contrast 1400 W, a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), decreased HPV in normocapnia and hypercapnia without acidosis at late time points of sustained HPV and selectively reversed the amplification of sustained HPV during hypercapnia without acidosis. Hypoxic hypercapnia without acidosis increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). This increase disappeared after administration of 1400 W. Hypercapnia with and without acidosis increased HPV during conditions of sustained hypoxia. The

  17. Vitamin C Deficiency Reduces Muscarinic Receptor Coronary Artery Vasoconstriction and Plasma Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Freja Skovsted

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (vitC deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32 were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet vitC for 10–12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium, carbachol, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, U46619, sarafotoxin 6c (S6c and endothelin-1 (ET-1 were recorded. Plasma vitC and tetrahydrobiopterin were measured by HPLC. Plasma vitC status reflected the diets with deficient animals displaying reduced tetrahydrobiopterin. Vasoconstrictor responses to carbachol were significantly decreased in vitC deficient coronary arteries independent of their general vasoconstrictor/vasodilator capacity (p < 0.001. Moreover, in vitC deficient animals, carbachol-induced vasodilator responses correlated with coronary artery diameter (p < 0.001. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases with indomethacin increased carbachol-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting an augmented carbachol-induced release of vasodilator prostanoids. Atropine abolished carbachol-induced vasomotion, supporting a specific muscarinic receptor effect. Arterial responses to SNP, potassium, S6c, U46619 and ET-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid metabolites and reduced muscarinic receptor expression/signaling.

  18. Dynamic digitized cerebral parenchymography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, J.; Alachkar, F.; Nelson, M.; Mazia, D.

    1992-01-01

    Aortic arch injections centred on the head have been performed routinely in patients with cerebral ischaemia. Digital angiograms with modified windowing (low and narrow) have been used. This 'cerebral' arch injection allows much improved analysis of the cerebral parenchymal vascularization, giving better understanding of hemispheric ischaemia and making the decision about revascularization more rational. (orig.)

  19. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  20. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  1. Effects of Milrinone continuous intravenous infusion on global cerebral oxygenation and cerebral vasospasm after cerebral aneurysm surgical clipping

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    Mohamed A. Ghanem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Milrinone improved significantly the global cerebral oxygenation and reduced the incidence of cerebral vasospasm during the dangerous period of cerebral spasm after cerebral aneurysm clipping.

  2. Microembolism after cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hideki; Nagata, Izumi

    2000-01-01

    Acute microemboli are detected more precisely with the recently developed diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). We happened to obtain 24 DWIs after 350 diagnostic cerebral angiographies in 1999. DWIs after cerebral angiographies showed bright lesions in 7 patients (28%), of whom 6 had no neurological symptoms after cerebral angiography. Seven of the 24 patients had risk factors for arteriosclerosis. Only one patient had embolic events due to angiography. Microemboli related to cerebral angiographies are inevitable in some patients. Most are silent, however, we should investigate the cause of microemboli and should make cerebral angiography safer. (author)

  3. Perivascular expression and potent vasoconstrictor effect of dynorphin A in cerebral arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Ruisanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous literary data indicate that dynorphin A (DYN-A has a significant impact on cerebral circulation, especially under pathophysiological conditions, but its potential direct influence on the tone of cerebral vessels is obscure. The aim of the present study was threefold: 1 to clarify if DYN-A is present in cerebral vessels, 2 to determine if it exerts any direct effect on cerebrovascular tone, and if so, 3 to analyze the role of κ-opiate receptors in mediating the effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of DYN-A in perivascular nerves of rat pial arteries as well as in both rat and human intraparenchymal vessels of the cerebral cortex. In isolated rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries (BAs and MCAs DYN-A (1-13 and DYN-A (1-17 but not DYN-A (1-8 or dynorphin B (DYN-B induced strong vasoconstriction in micromolar concentrations. The maximal effects, compared to a reference contraction induced by 124 mM K(+, were 115±6% and 104±10% in BAs and 113±3% and 125±9% in MCAs for 10 µM of DYN-A (1-13 and DYN-A (1-17, respectively. The vasoconstrictor effects of DYN-A (1-13 could be inhibited but not abolished by both the κ-opiate receptor antagonist nor-Binaltorphimine dihydrochloride (NORBI and blockade of G(i/o-protein mediated signaling by pertussis toxin. Finally, des-Tyr(1 DYN-A (2-13, which reportedly fails to activate κ-opiate receptors, induced vasoconstriction of 45±11% in BAs and 50±5% in MCAs at 10 µM, which effects were resistant to NORBI. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: DYN-A is present in rat and human cerebral perivascular nerves and induces sustained contraction of rat cerebral arteries. This vasoconstrictor effect is only partly mediated by κ-opiate receptors and heterotrimeric G(i/o-proteins. To our knowledge our present findings are the first to indicate that DYN-A has a direct cerebral vasoconstrictor effect and that a dynorphin-induced vascular action may be

  4. Role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in cerebral vasospasm, and as a therapeutic approach to subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios eKokkoris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP is one of the most potent microvascular vasodilators identified to date. Vascular relaxation and vasodilation is mediated via activation of the CGRP receptor. This atypical receptor is made up of a G-protein-coupled receptor called calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a single transmembrane protein called receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP, and an additional protein that is required for Gas coupling, known as receptor component protein (RCP. Several mechanisms involved in CGRP mediated relaxation have been identified. These include nitric oxide (NO-dependent endothelium-dependent mechanisms or cAMP-mediated endothelium-independent pathways; the latter being more common. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH is associated with cerebral vasoconstriction that occurs several days after the haemorrhage and is often fatal. The vasospasm occurs in 30–40% of patients and is the major cause of death from this condition. The vasoconstriction is associated with a decrease in CGRP levels in nerves and an increase in CGRP levels in draining blood, suggesting that CGRP is released from nerves to oppose the vasoconstriction. This evidence has led to the concept that exogenous CGRP may be beneficial in a condition that has proven hard to treat. The present article reviews: a the pathophysiology of delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit after SAH b the basics of the CGRP receptor structure, signal transduction and vasodilatation mechanisms and c the studies that have been conducted so far using CGRP in both animals and humans with SAH.

  5. RD50 Prolongation Request 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Casse, Gianluigi

    2018-01-01

    With this document, we request the prolongation of the CERN RD50 research program for 5 years. A very brief historical review of the RD50 research program since the RD50 project approval by the Research Board in the year 2002 is presented and the biggest RD50 achievements are highlighted. The present composition of the collaboration, its organizational structure, and the research methodology are described. The role of RD50 in the present various upgrade and research programs of the LHC Experiments community is given and the overall work plan explained. Finally, a detailed 5-years work program with precise milestones and deliverables for the various research activities is presented. We conclude with our prolongation request towards the LHCC.

  6. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghareib SA

    2015-11-01

    -gingerol. Moreover, in vitro effects of 6-gingerol on NO release and the effect of 6-gingerol on AGE production were examined. Results showed that incubation of aortae with 6-gingerol (0.3–10 µM alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner with no significant effect on the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine. Similar results were seen in the aortae exposed to methylglyoxal. In addition, 6-gingerol induced a direct vasodilation effect that was significantly inhibited by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and methylene blue. Furthermore, 6-gingerol stimulated aortic NO generation but had no effect on AGE formation. In conclusion, 6-gingerol ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae, which may be partially attributed to its ability to increase the production of NO and stimulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Keywords: diabetes, 6-gingerol, vasorelaxant, nitric oxide, advanced glycation end products, vascular complications

  7. [Assessment of maternal cerebral blood flow in patients with preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandić, Vesna; Miković, Zeljko; Dukić, Milan; Vasiljević, Mladenko; Filimonović, Dejan; Bogavac, Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Systemic vasoconstriction in preeclamptic patients increases vascular resistance, and is manifested by increased arterial blood flow velocity. The aim of the study is to evaluate if there is a change of Doppler indices in maternal medial cerbral artery (MCA) in severe preeclampsia due to: 1) severity of clinical symptoms, 2) the begining of eclamptic attack and 3) the application of anticonvulsive therapy. A prospective clinical study included 92 pregnant women, gestational age 28-36 weeks. They were divided into three groups: normotensive (n=30), mild preeclampsia (n=33), and severe preeclampsia (n=29). We investigated maternal cerebral circulation by assessing the MCA. We registrated: pulsatility index (Pi), resistance index (Ri), systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), and the maximum systolic, end diastolic and medium velocity. Patients with severe preeclampsia were divided into two subgroups. subgroup 1 included patients without symptoms of threatening eclampsia (n=18; 62.06%); while subgroup 2 included those with symptoms of preeclampsia (n=11; 37.94%). All patients with severe preeclampsia were treated with magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), and cerebral blood flow was measured before and after the treatment. Statistical analysis was done by oneway ANOVA, Student t-test and t-paired sample test. The difference was considered to be significant if ppreclampsia we found increased velocity values, Pi and Ri, especially in patients with signs of threatened eclampsia, suggesting that blood vessels changes are most prominent in severe preeclampsia. Cerebral blood flow meassurements can be used as a clinical test for the prediction of eclampsia. Magnesium-sulfate (MgSO4) has a signifficant role in prophylaxis and treatment of eclampsia, and, therefore, positive influence on reduction of cerebral ishemic lesions can be expected. We can conclude that changes of the cerebral blood flow can be evaluated by evaluating blood flow velocities in the medial cerebral artery. Velocities tend

  8. Interleukin-6 release from the human brain during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Nielsen, Bodil; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which has a variety of physiological roles including functions within the central nervous system. Circulating IL-6 increases markedly during exercise, partly due to the release of IL-6 from the contracting skeletal muscles, and exercise-induced IL-6 m...... influence of hyperthermia. In conclusion, IL-6 is released from the brain during prolonged exercise in humans and it appears that the duration of the exercise rather than the increase in body temperature dictates the cerebral IL-6 response....... in the brain at rest or after 15 min of exercise, but a small release of IL-6 was observed after 60 min of exercise in the first bout (0.06 +/- 0.03 ng min(-1)). This release of IL-6 from the brain was five-fold greater at the end of the second bout (0.30 +/- 0.08 ng min(-1); P

  9. CNS fatigue provoked by prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    to the brain. However, exercise with superimposed hyperthermia is not only a challenge to the brain it also provides an excellent model for studying factors of importance for central fatigue. Excessive heat storage within the brain appears to be the primary cause for the central fatigue during exercise......Exercise-induced hyperthermia is associated with central fatigue as indicated by an impaired ability to sustain maximal motor activation during prolonged voluntary efforts. Therefore, exercise in hot environments challenges not only to the cardiorespiratory and locomotive systems but also...... to aggravate central fatigue and degrade exercise performance. Hyperthermia mediated central fatigue may include other cerebral perturbations such as reduced perfusion of the brain, accumulation of ammonia or depletion of neuronal energy stores, but further research is needed to elucidate their possible...

  10. Ischemic Cardiomyopathy and Cerebral Infarction in a Young Patient Associated with Khat Chewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Meulman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Khat is a stimulating agent used by many people in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula. Khat chewing is a known cardiovascular risk factor and is thought to cause vasoconstriction, systemic hypertension, and thrombogenicity. A 33-year-old Somalian man initially presented with loss of neurological function of the left arm, hazy vision, and headache. He smokes tobacco and chews two bundles of khat a week for more than 10 years. His ECG on admission showed a Q wave in V1 and V2 and 2 mm ST-elevations in V1, V2, and V3 and a terminal negative T wave in I, aVL, V2, V3, and V4, consistent with a recent, evolving anterior infarction. A noncontrast enhanced CT of the brain showed ischemia in the right middle cerebral artery vascular territory. An MRI showed recent ischemia in the vascular territory of the posterior division of the right middle cerebral artery. Coronary angiography showed a 70% stenosis with haziness of the proximal left anterior descending artery. Diagnostic tests and imaging are consistent with recent myocardial infarction in the LAD vascular territory because of coronary spasm and cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery vascular territory probably related to khat chewing.

  11. Cerebral venous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagawa, Tetsuji; Taguchi, Haruyoshi; Kamiya, Kazuko; Yano, Takashi; Nakajima, Reiko

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a 27-year-old male patient who was diagnosed as having cerebral venous angioma in the postero-temporal area by CT scan and cerebral angiography. The patient improved by removing angioma with electrocoagulation of medullary veins. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Sequential assessment of regional cerebral blood flow, regional cerebral blood volume, and blood-brain barrier in focal cerebral ischemia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Piero, V.; Perani, D.; Savi, A.; Gerundini, P.; Lenzi, G.L.; Fazio, F.

    1986-01-01

    Regional CBF (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were evaluated by N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2)-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-[123I]iodobenzyl-1, 3-propanediamine-2 HCl- and /sup 99m/TC-labeled red blood cells, respectively, and single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) in a patient with focal cerebral ischemia. Sequential transmission computerized tomography (TCT) and SPECT functional data were compared with clinical findings to monitor the pathophysiological events occurring in stroke. A lack of correlation between rCBF-rCBV distributions and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown was found in the acute phase. In the face of more prolonged alteration of BBB, as seen by TCT enhancement, a rapid evolution of transient phenomena such as luxury perfusion was shown by SPECT studies. Follow-up of the patient demonstrated a correlation between the neurological recovery and a parallel relative improvement of the cerebral perfusion

  13. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of menthol application on the skin during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonis, P G; Kounalakis, S N; Cherouveim, E D; Koskolou, M D; Geladas, N D

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of skin surface menthol application on rectal temperature (Tre) during prolonged immersion in cool and cold water. We hypothesized that menthol application would lead to a slower Tre decline due to the reduced heat loss as a consequence of the menthol-induced vasoconstriction and that this effect would be attenuated during cold-water immersion. Six male subjects were immersed for 55 minutes in stirred cool (24°C) or cold (14°C) water immediately after attaining a Tre of 38°C by cycling at 60% of maximum heart rate on two occasions: without (ΝM) and with (M) whole-body skin application of menthol cream. Tre, the proximal-distal skin temperature gradient, and oxygen uptake were continuously measured. ANOVA with repeated measures was employed to detect differences among variables. Significance level was set at 0.05. The area under the curve for Tre was calculated and was greater in 24°C M (-1.81 ± 8.22 a.u) compared to 24°C NM (-27.09 ± 19.09 a.u., P = .03, r = .90), 14°C NM (-18.08 ± 10.85 a.u., P = .03, r = .90), and 14°C M (-11.71 ± 12.58 a.u, P = .05, r = .81). In cool water, oxygen uptake and local vasoconstriction were increased (P ≤ .05) by 39 ± 25% and 56 ± 37%, respectively, with menthol compared to ΝM, while no differences were observed in cold water. Menthol application on the skin before prolonged immersion reduces heat loss resulting in a blunted Tre decline. However, such a response is less obvious at 14°C water immersion, possibly because high-threshold cold-sensitive fibers are already maximally recruited and the majority of cold receptors saturated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  16. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi; Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  17. Prolonged pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    Summary Prolonged pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy with a gestational length of 294 days or more, is a frequent condition. It is associated with an increased risk of fetal and maternal complications. Little is known about the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. The aims of the thesis were 1......) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner and social conditions (IV). The National Birth Cohort provided data for the study on prenatal risk indicators of prolonged pregnancy in a follow-up design (V). The self-reported gestational ages from this database...

  18. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Going to an Occupational Therapist Scoliosis In the Band: Jens' Story Cerebral ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  19. Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion Cerebral contusions are ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion NOTE: This is ...

  20. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, Neils H; Seifert, Thomas; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work capacity without effects on muscle oxygenation. Also, the work of breathing and the increasing temperature of the brain during exercise are of importance for the development of so-called central fatigue. During prolonged exercise, the perceived exertion is related to accumulation of ammonia in the brain, and data support the theory that glycogen depletion in astrocytes limits the ability of the brain to accelerate its metabolism during activation. The release of interleukin-6 from the brain when exercise is prolonged may represent a signaling pathway in matching the metabolic response of the brain. Preliminary data suggest a coupling between the circulatory and metabolic perturbations in the brain during strenuous exercise and the ability of the brain to access slow-twitch muscle fiber populations.

  1. Cerebral venous angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnoli, A.L.; Hildebrandt, G.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical symptoms and radiological signs in 15 patients with cerebral venous malformations are presented and the diagnostic problems discussed. The circulation time in combination with cerebral malformations and angiomas of the scalp are described. CT findings in cases of venous malformations of the brain stem are evaluated. Spot-like enhancement, as well as sharply demarcated round shaped enhancement are characteristic for venous angiomas. Cavernous angiomas usually present as homogenous or inhomogenous round shaped enhanced areas. (Author)

  2. Cerebral cartography and connectomics

    OpenAIRE

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamic...

  3. Effects of selected combinations of tall fescue alkaloids on the vasoconstrictive capacity of fescue-naive bovine lateral saphenous veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J L; Kirch, B H; Aiken, G E; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2008-04-01

    Vasoconstriction is a response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively in mediating the response. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of selected ergot alkaloids, individually or in paired combinations, using bovine lateral saphenous veins biopsied from fescue-naïve cattle. Segments (2 to 3 cm) of vein were surgically biopsied from healthy crossbred yearling heifers (n = 22; 330 +/- 8 kg of BW). Veins were trimmed of excess fat and connective tissue, sliced into 2- to 3-mm sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O(2)/5% CO(2); pH = 7.4; 37 degrees C). Increasing doses of ergovaline, lysergic acid, and N-acetylloline individually or in combination were evaluated. Contractile data were normalized as a percentage of the contractile response induced by a reference dose of norepinephrine (1 x 10(- 4) M). Increasing concentrations of lysergic acid did not result in an appreciable contractile response until the addition of 1 x 10(- 4) M lysergic acid. In contrast, the vascular response to increasing concentrations of ergovaline was apparent at 1 x 10(- 8) M and increased to a maximum of 104.2 +/- 6.0% with the addition of 1 x 10(- 4) M ergovaline. The presence of N-acetylloline did not alter the onset or magnitude of vascular response to either lysergic acid or ergovaline. The presence of 1 x 10(- 5) M lysergic acid with increasing concentrations of N-acetylloline and ergovaline generated an increased contractile response during the initial additions compared with the responses of N-acetylloline and ergovaline alone. In the presence of 1 x 10(- 7) M ergovaline, the contractile response increased with increasing concentrations of N-acetylloline and lysergic acid. Neither N-acetylloline nor lysergic acid elicited an intense contractile response individually

  4. Oral l-tyrosine supplementation augments the vasoconstriction response to whole-body cooling in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, James A; Smaller, Kevin A

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Ageing is associated with altered sympathetic responses to stress, which are explained in part by reduced noradrenergic function. The impact of supplementation with oral l-tyrosine, the amino acid precursor for catecholamine synthesis, on the effector responses to cold and exercise stress has yet to be examined. What is the main finding and its importance? Oral l-tyrosine ingestion augmented the sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction response to cold exposure in aged skin. This suggests that l-tyrosine supplementation might improve thermoregulatory function in older adults. l-Tyrosine is the primary substrate for noradrenaline biosynthesis within sympathetic axon terminals. In stressful conditions requiring increased catecholamine production, the axonal l-tyrosine concentration may limit the full expression of the sympathetic effector response and this may be particularly evident in older adults. We hypothesize that oral l-tyrosine supplementation will increase the sympathetic response to whole-body cooling and muscle metaboreflex activation. In a randomized, double-blind design, 11 young (Y = 24 ± 1 years) and 11 older participants (O = 68 ± 4 years) ingested either 150 mg kg -1 of l-tyrosine or placebo before commencing 30 min of whole-body cooling to induce a gradual decline in skin temperature from 34 to 30.5°C. Laser Doppler flux (LDF) was measured at the ventral forearm, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as CVC = LDF/mean arterial pressure and expressed as a percentage change from baseline (%ΔCVC). Two minutes of static hand-grip exercise (35% maximal voluntary contraction) followed by 3 min of postexercise ischaemia were implemented before and toward the end of the cooling bout. l-Tyrosine supplementation did not affect blood pressure or heart rate responses to exercise or postexercise ischaemia. However, the blunted vasoconstriction response to whole-body cooling in

  5. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146

  6. Safety information on QT-interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approve...

  7. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  8. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  9. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  10. [Brain function recovery after prolonged posttraumatic coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimash, A V; Zhanaidarov, Z S

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of brain function recovery in patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma and with long-unconscious states. Eighty-seven patients after prolonged posttraumatic coma were followed-up for two years. An analysis of a clinical/neurological picture after a prolonged episode of coma was based on the dynamics of vital functions, neurological status and patient's reactions to external stimuli. Based on the dynamics of the clinical/neurological picture that shows the recovery of functions of the certain brain areas, three stages of brain function recovery after a prolonged episode of coma were singled out: brain stem areas, diencephalic areas and telencephalic areas. These functional/anatomic areas of brain function recovery after prolonged coma were compared to the present classifications.

  11. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  12. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  13. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral haemod...

  14. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-04-01

    The diving response is initiated by apnea and facial immersion in cold water and includes, besides bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, while cerebral perfusion may be enhanced. This study evaluated whether facial immersion in 10 degrees C water has an independent influence on cerebral perfusion evaluated as the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) during exercise in nine male subjects. At rest, a breath hold of maximum duration increased the arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa(CO(2))) from 4.2 to 6.7 kPa and MCA V(mean) from 37 to 103 cm/s (mean; approximately 178%; P breath hold increased Pa(CO(2)) from 5.9 to 8.2 kPa (P breath hold diverts blood toward the brain with a >100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely because Pa(CO(2)) increases, but the increase in MCA V(mean) becomes larger when combined with facial immersion in cold water independent of Pa(CO(2)).

  15. Prolonged CT urography in duplex kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Honghan; Gao, Lei; Dai, Xi-Jian; Zhou, Fuqing; Zhang, Ning; Zeng, Xianjun; Jiang, Jian; He, Laichang

    2016-05-13

    Duplex kidney is a common anomaly that is frequently associated with multiple complications. Typical computed tomography urography (CTU) includes four phases (unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal and excretory) and has been suggested to considerably aid in the duplex kidney diagnosi. Unfortunately, regarding duplex kidney with prolonged dilatation, the affected parenchyma and tortuous ureters demonstrate a lack of or delayed excretory opacification. We used prolonged-delay CTU, which consists of another prolonged-delay phase (1- to 72-h delay; mean delay: 24 h) to opacify the duplicated ureters and affected parenchyma. Seventeen patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5-56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with duplex kidney were included in this study. Unenhanced scans did not find typical characteristics of duplex kidney, except for irregular perirenal morphology. Duplex kidney could not be confirmed on typical four-phase CTU, whereas it could be easily diagnosed in axial and CT-3D reconstruction using prolonged CTU (prolonged-delay phase). Between January 2005 and October 2010, in this review board-approved study (with waived informed consent), 17 patients (9 males and 8 females; age range: 2.5 ~ 56 y; mean age: 40.4 y) with suspicious duplex kidney underwent prolonged CTU to opacify the duplicated ureters and confirm the diagnosis. Our results suggest the validity of prolonged CTU to aid in the evaluation of the function of the affected parenchyma and in the demonstration of urinary tract malformations.

  16. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  17. Dynamic interactions between musical, cardiovascular, and cerebral rhythms in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Luciano; Porta, Cesare; Casucci, Gaia; Balsamo, Rossella; Bernardi, Nicolò F; Fogari, Roberto; Sleight, Peter

    2009-06-30

    Reactions to music are considered subjective, but previous studies suggested that cardiorespiratory variables increase with faster tempo independent of individual preference. We tested whether compositions characterized by variable emphasis could produce parallel instantaneous cardiovascular/respiratory responses and whether these changes mirrored music profiles. Twenty-four young healthy subjects, 12 musicians (choristers) and 12 nonmusician control subjects, listened (in random order) to music with vocal (Puccini's "Turandot") or orchestral (Beethoven's 9th Symphony adagio) progressive crescendos, more uniform emphasis (Bach cantata), 10-second period (ie, similar to Mayer waves) rhythmic phrases (Giuseppe Verdi's arias "Va pensiero" and "Libiam nei lieti calici"), or silence while heart rate, respiration, blood pressures, middle cerebral artery flow velocity, and skin vasomotion were recorded.Common responses were recognized by averaging instantaneous cardiorespiratory responses regressed against changes in music profiles and by coherence analysis during rhythmic phrases. Vocal and orchestral crescendos produced significant (P=0.05 or better) correlations between cardiovascular or respiratory signals and music profile, particularly skin vasoconstriction and blood pressures, proportional to crescendo, in contrast to uniform emphasis, which induced skin vasodilation and reduction in blood pressures. Correlations were significant both in individual and group-averaged signals. Phrases at 10-second periods by Verdi entrained the cardiovascular autonomic variables. No qualitative differences in recorded measurements were seen between musicians and nonmusicians. Music emphasis and rhythmic phrases are tracked consistently by physiological variables. Autonomic responses are synchronized with music, which might therefore convey emotions through autonomic arousal during crescendos or rhythmic phrases.

  18. Neuroimaging of cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengenroth, M.; Saam, T.; Haehnel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis can have a variety of origins. Furthermore, there are no vasculitis-specific symptoms or imaging signs and vasculitis of the CNS can mimic many other neurological diseases, which require different treatment approaches. Thus, the clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral vasculitis is challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) should be the radiological imaging methods of choice to assess the degree of parenchymal damage and to detect vessel wall changes. If the results are unclear digital subtraction angiography (DSA) should be pursued in order to also detect changes in medium sized vessels. Vasculitis of small vessels cannot be detected by vascular imaging and requires brain or leptomeningeal biopsy. In this review we present the current diagnostic approach and a variety of imaging findings in cerebral vasculitis and discuss the main radiological differential diagnoses. (orig.) [de

  19. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  20. Diaschisis with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, R.; Reivich, M.; Goldberg, H.; Banka, R.; Greenberg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen patients admitted to Philadelphia General Hospital with acute strokes had repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow measured by the /sup 133/X inhalation method. A progressive decline in cerebral blood flow in both hemispheres was observed during the first week after infarction in twelve of these patients. This decline could be partially explained by loss of autoregulation, but could not be correlated with level of consciousness, clinical status of PCO2. This progressive decline in flow in the non-ischemic hemisphere indicates a process more complex than a simple destruction of axonal afferants to neurons as implied by the term diaschisis. The flow changes in the non-ischemic hemisphere are likely caused by a combination of the immediate effects of decreased neuronal stimulation modified by loss of autoregulation, release of vasoactive substances, cerebral edema, and other factors.

  1. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  2. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  3. Comparison of phototoxic effects of pregnant rats exposure in Chernobyl NPP site and external prolonged exposure in the dose of 0.5 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, E.E.; Rogov, Yu.I.

    2007-01-01

    The morphometric study showed that within the 10-kilometre zone of the Chernobyl NPP delay of the rat fetus cerebral cortex maturation occurred, whereas used in the experiment prolonged low-dose irradiation did not cause essential disorders of cortical ontogenesis.(authors)

  4. Trigeminal cardiac reflex and cerebral blood flow regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominga Lapi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The stimulation of some facial regions is known to trigger the trigemino-cardiac reflex: the main stimulus is represented by the contact of the face with water. This phenomenon called diving reflex induces a set of reactions in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems occurring in all mammals, especially marine (whales, seals. During the immersion of the face in the water, the main responses are aimed at reducing the oxygen consumption of the organism. Accordingly reduction in heart rate, peripheral vasoconstriction, blood pooling in certain organs, especially the heart and brain, and an increase in blood pressure have been reported. Moreover, the speed and intensity of the reflex is inversely proportional to the temperature of the water: more cold the water, more reactions as described are strong. In the case of deep diving an additional effect, such as blood deviation, has been reported: the blood is requested within the lungs, to compensate for the increase in the external pressure, preventing them from collapsing.The trigeminal-cardiac reflex is not just confined to the diving reflex; recently it has been shown that a brief proprioceptive stimulation (10 min by jaw extension in rats produces interesting effects both at systemic and cerebral level, reducing the arterial blood pressure and vasodilating the pial arterioles. The arteriolar dilation is associated with rhythmic diameter changes characterized by an increase in the endothelial activity. Fascinating the stimulation of trigeminal nerve is able to activated the nitric oxide release by vascular endothelial. Therefore the aim of this review was to highlight the effects due to trigeminal cardiac reflex induced by a simple mandibular extension, because produced opposite effects compared to those elicited by the diving reflex as it induces hypotension and modulation of cerebral arteriolar tone.

  5. Aβ degradation or cerebral perfusion? Divergent effects of multifunctional enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, J Scott; Palmer, Jennifer C; Tayler, Hannah; Palmer, Laura E; Ashby, Emma; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that deficient clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) contributes to its accumulation in late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Several Aβ-degrading enzymes, including neprilysin (NEP), endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) reduce Aβ levels and protect against cognitive impairment in mouse models of AD. In post-mortem human brain tissue we have found that the activity of these Aβ-degrading enzymes rise with age and increases still further in AD, perhaps as a physiological response that helps to minimize the build-up of Aβ. ECE-1/-2 and ACE are also rate-limiting enzymes in the production of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II), two potent vasoconstrictors, increases in the levels of which are likely to contribute to reduced blood flow in AD. This review considers the possible interdependence between Aβ-degrading enzymes, ischemia and Aβ in AD: ischemia has been shown to increase Aβ production both in vitro and in vivo, whereas increased Aβ probably enhances ischemia by vasoconstriction, mediated at least in part by increased ECE and ACE activity. In contrast, NEP activity may help to maintain cerebral perfusion, by reducing the accumulation of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels and lessening its toxicity to vascular smooth muscle cells. In assessing the role of Aβ-degrading proteases in the pathogenesis of AD and, particularly, their potential as therapeutic agents, it is important to bear in mind the multifunctional nature of these enzymes and to consider their effects on other substrates and pathways.

  6. Gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Important aspects of the gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion and the diverse clinical applications in the neurological diseases are comment in this article. We focus in the usefulness of the photon emission cerebral tomography (SPECT) and its capacity to cross the hemato encephalic barrier through the use of radiopharmacons like 99 mTc-H M-PAO and 99mTc-EDC, thus managing to offer functional data on the captantes neurons of the radiopharmacon. The clinical applications of SPECT are studied; cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attacks, dementias, Alzheimer disease, as well as other neurological diseases are referred. (The author)

  7. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... in the penumbra is recruited in the infarction process leading to a progressive growth of the infarct. The penumbra hence constitutes an important target for pharmacological treatment because of the existence of a therapeutic time window during which treatment with neuroprotective compounds may prevent...

  8. Prolonged delirium misdiagnosed as a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium can be conceptualized as an acute decline in cognitive function that typically lasts from hours to a few days. Prolonged delirium can also affect patients with multiple predisposing and/or precipitating factors. In clinical practice, prolonged delirium is often unrecognized, and can be misdiagnosed as other psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that was first misdiagnosed as a mood disorder in a general hospital setting. After prolonged delirium due to multiple factors was confirmed, the patient was treated accordingly with symptomatic management. He evolved with progressive improvement of his clinical status. Early diagnosis and management of prolonged delirium are important to improve patient prognosis and avoid iatrogenic measures.

  9. QT Prolongation due to Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain Kulairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthyroidism is a highly prevalent disease affecting over 4 million people in the US. The disease is associated with many cardiac complications including atrial fibrillation and also less commonly with ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Many cardiac pathologies have been extensively studied; however, the relationship between hyperthyroidism and rate of ventricular repolarization manifesting as a prolonged QTc interval is not well known. Prolonged QTc interval regardless of thyroid status is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia. The mechanism regarding the prolongation of the QT interval in a hyperthyroid patient has not been extensively investigated although its clinical implications are relevant. Herein, we describe a case of prolonged QTc in a patient who presented with signs of hyperthyroidism that was corrected with return to euthyroid status.

  10. Prolonged parenteral nutrition after neonatal gastrointestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estmann, Anne; Qvist, Niels; Husby, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    to diagnosis and clinical course. METHODOLOGY: This study reviews the clinical course of infants with gastrointestinal disease (gastroschisis, intestinal atresia, omphalocele, volvulus, Hirschsprung's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis) with a prolonged need for parenteral nutrition in the Western part...

  11. Prolonged Pregnancy: Methods, Causal Determinants and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind

    ) to study the incidence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of methods for determining gestational age; 2) to determine the risk of obstetrical and fetal complications in prolonged pregnancy; 3) to validate the self-reported gestational age in the National Birth Cohort; 4) to determine whether...... an ultrasound scan in the first or second trimester, or menstrual history was best at predicting the day of delivery; 5) to study the risk of recurrence of prolonged pregnancy as a function of change in male partner, social status and municipality; and 6) to detect prenatal risk indicators of prolonged...... of perinatal and obstetrical complications was high in post-term delivery compared to term delivery (OR between 1.2 and 3.1). The risk of perinatal death (OR=1.36 (1.08-1.72)) was also higher in the post-term group (I). The self-reported gestational ages in the National Birth Cohort correlated well with data...

  12. The effects of benzofury (5-APB) on the dopamine transporter and 5-HT2-dependent vasoconstriction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Patrick; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta; Moffatt, James D; Daniju, Yusuf; Dutta, Neelakshi; Ramsey, John; Davidson, Colin

    2014-01-03

    5-APB, commonly marketed as 'benzofury' is a new psychoactive substance and erstwhile 'legal high' which has been implicated in 10 recent drug-related deaths in the UK. This drug was available on the internet and in 'head shops' and was one of the most commonly sold legal highs up until its recent UK temporary ban (UK Home Office). Despite its prominence, very little is known about its pharmacology. This study was undertaken to examine the pharmacology of 5-APB in vitro. We hypothesised that 5-APB would activate the dopamine and 5-HT systems which may underlie its putative stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Autoradiographic studies showed that 5-APB displaced both [(125)I] RTI-121 and [(3)H] ketanserin from rat brain tissue suggesting affinity at the dopamine transporter and 5-HT2 receptor sites respectively. Voltammetric studies in rat accumbens brain slices revealed that 5-APB slowed dopamine reuptake, and at high concentrations caused reverse transport of dopamine. 5-APB also caused vasoconstriction of rat aorta, an effect antagonised by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin, and caused contraction of rat stomach fundus, which was reversed by the 5-HT2B receptor antagonist RS-127445. These data show that 5-APB interacts with the dopamine transporter and is an agonist at the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors in the rat. Thus 5-APB's pharmacology is consistent with it having both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. In addition, 5-APB's activity at the 5-HT2B receptor may cause cardiotoxicity. © 2013.

  13. Critical Role of Peripheral Vasoconstriction in Fatal Brain Hyperthermia Induced by MDMA (Ecstasy) under Conditions That Mimic Human Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert H.; Wakabayashi, Ken T.; Baumann, Michael H.; Shaham, Yavin

    2014-01-01

    MDMA (Ecstasy) is an illicit drug used by young adults at hot, crowed “rave” parties, yet the data on potential health hazards of its abuse remain controversial. Here, we examined the effect of MDMA on temperature homeostasis in male rats under standard laboratory conditions and under conditions that simulate drug use in humans. We chronically implanted thermocouple microsensors in the nucleus accumbens (a brain reward area), temporal muscle, and facial skin to measure temperature continuously from freely moving rats. While focusing on brain hyperthermia, temperature monitoring from the two peripheral locations allowed us to evaluate the physiological mechanisms (i.e., intracerebral heat production and heat loss via skin surfaces) that underlie MDMA-induced brain temperature responses. Our data confirm previous reports on high individual variability and relatively weak brain hyperthermic effects of MDMA under standard control conditions (quiet rest, 22−23°C), but demonstrate dramatic enhancements of drug-induced brain hyperthermia during social interaction (exposure to male conspecific) and in warm environments (29°C). Importantly, we identified peripheral vasoconstriction as a critical mechanism underlying the activity- and state-dependent potentiation of MDMA-induced brain hyperthermia. Through this mechanism, which prevents proper heat dissipation to the external environment, MDMA at a moderate nontoxic dose (9 mg/kg or ∼1/5 of LD50 in rats) can cause fatal hyperthermia under environmental conditions commonly encountered by humans. Our results demonstrate that doses of MDMA that are nontoxic under cool, quiet conditions can become highly dangerous under conditions that mimic recreational use of MDMA at rave parties or other hot, crowded venues. PMID:24899699

  14. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in reptiles: a comparative study of four species with different lung structures and pulmonary blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Abe, Augusto S; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias

    2005-11-01

    Low O2 levels in the lungs of birds and mammals cause constriction of the pulmonary vasculature that elevates resistance to pulmonary blood flow and increases pulmonary blood pressure. This hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) diverts pulmonary blood flow from poorly ventilated and hypoxic areas of the lung to more well-ventilated parts and is considered important for the local matching of ventilation to blood perfusion. In the present study, the effects of acute hypoxia on pulmonary and systemic blood flows and pressures were measured in four species of anesthetized reptiles with diverse lung structures and heart morphologies: varanid lizards (Varanus exanthematicus), caimans (Caiman latirostris), rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus), and tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae). As previously shown in turtles, hypoxia causes a reversible constriction of the pulmonary vasculature in varanids and caimans, decreasing pulmonary vascular conductance by 37 and 31%, respectively. These three species possess complex multicameral lungs, and it is likely that HPV would aid to secure ventilation-perfusion homogeneity. There was no HPV in rattlesnakes, which have structurally simple lungs where local ventilation-perfusion inhomogeneities are less likely to occur. However, tegu lizards, which also have simple unicameral lungs, did exhibit HPV, decreasing pulmonary vascular conductance by 32%, albeit at a lower threshold than varanids and caimans (6.2 kPa oxygen in inspired air vs. 8.2 and 13.9 kPa, respectively). Although these observations suggest that HPV is more pronounced in species with complex lungs and functionally divided hearts, it is also clear that other components are involved.

  15. QT interval prolongation associated with sibutramine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Woolrych, Mira; Clark, David W J; Hill, Geraldine R; Rees, Mark I; Skinner, Jonathan R

    2006-01-01

    Aims To investigate a possible association of sibutramine with QT interval prolongation. Methods Post-marketing surveillance using prescription event monitoring in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) identified a case of QT prolongation and associated cardiac arrest in a patient taking sibutramine for 25 days. This patient was further investigated, including genotyping for long QT syndrome. Other IMMP case reports suggesting arrhythmias associated with sibutramine were assessed and further reports were obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database. Results The index case displayed a novel mutation in a cardiac potassium channel subunit gene, KCNQ1, which is likely to prolong cardiac membrane depolarization and increase susceptibility to long QT intervals. Assessment of further IMMP reports identified five additional patients who experienced palpitations associated with syncope or presyncopal symptoms, one of whom had a QTc at the upper limit of normal. Assessment of reports from the WHO database identified three reports of QT prolongation and one fatal case of torsade de pointes in a patient also taking cisapride. Conclusions This case series suggests that sibutramine may be associated with QT prolongation and related dysrhythmias. Further studies are required, but in the meantime we would recommend that sibutramine should be avoided in patients with long QT syndrome and in patients taking other medicines that may prolong the QT interval. PMID:16542208

  16. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Masao; Anno, Izumi; Yano, Yuhiko; Anno, Yasuro.

    1980-01-01

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  17. Cerebral uptake and retention of 99Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99Tcsup(m)-HM-PAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.; Chaplin, S.B.; Royston, K.G.; Missouri Univ., Columbia

    1985-01-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, 99 Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99 Tcsup(m)-HM-PAO) is described. This agent displays considerable promise for imaging cerebral blood flow. In studies in rats and one human volunteer, 99 Tcsup(m)-HM-PAO demonstrates good brain uptake, prolonged retention of activity in the brain, and slow regional redistribution. These properties suggest that this new radiopharmaceutical is ideal for single photon emission tomographic (SPECT) imaging of cerebral blood flow. (author)

  18. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  19. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    described neuropathological findings of cerebral edema and wi4espread petechial hemorrhages in two HAPE fatalities and later reported (52...lethargy, thirst, indigestion, hysterical outburst o: other behavior disturbances, decreased concentration, fever , couhh and peripheral edema (52...autopsy results from the two fatalities in their series. In both cases multiple, widespread petechial hemorrhages were noted throughout the brain. One

  20. Quality of drug label information on QT interval prolongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Rutten, Frans H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information regarding QT-prolongation in the drug label may vary between products. This could lead to suboptimal risk minimization strategies. OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the variation in the extent and content of information on QT prolongation in the summary of product......-prolongation'/'QT-prolongation') and the advice on cautionary measures pertaining to QT-prolongation in the label were examined, as well as their association. RESULTS: Of the 175 screened products, 44 contained information on QT in the SPC ('no QT-prolongation': 23%, 'unclear drug-QT association': 43%, 'possibly QT-prolongation': 16%, 'QT......-prolongation': 18%). 62% contained advices to act with caution in patients with additional risk factors for QT-prolongation. Products that more likely to have QT-prolonging properties according to the SPC provided more information on QT-prolongation in the SPC ('no prolongation': 10% and for the category 'QT...

  1. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...... the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...... cardiac output brain perfusion becomes jeopardized. Whether, in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or defect, cerebral blood flow cerebral control HV-induced hypocapnia elicits cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to TLOC, remains to be established....

  2. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kubo, Hideki; Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru

    1992-01-01

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  3. Ca2+ sensitization and Ca2+ entry in the control of blood pressure and adrenergic vasoconstriction in conscious Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Behuliak, Michal; Pintérová, Mária; Bencze, Michal; Petrová, M.; Líšková, Silvia; Karen, Petr; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vaněčková, Ivana; Zicha, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 10 (2013), s. 2025-2035 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Ca2+ influx * nifedipine * RhoA/Rho kinase * fasudil * sympathetic vasoconstriction Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.222, year: 2013

  4. Cerebral localization in antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford

    2009-07-01

    Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus describes hemiplegia after a head injury. Similar echoes can be seen in Homer, the Bible, and the pre-Hippocratic writer Alcmaeon of Croton. While Biblical writers thought that the heart was the seat of the soul, Hippocratic writers located it in the head. Alexandrian anatomists described the nerves, and Galen developed the ventricular theory of cognition whereby mental functions are classified and localized in one of the cerebral ventricles. Medieval scholars, including the early Church Fathers, modified Galenic ventricular theory so as to make it a dynamic model of cognition. Physicians in antiquity subdivided the brain into separate areas and attributed to them different functions, a phenomenon that connects them with modern neurologists.

  5. Cerebral venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soralova, T.; Sevcikova, H.; Petersky, D.

    2014-01-01

    We decided to process this theme due to its nonspecific clinical features as they often cause diagnostic problems not only to clinicians but also to diagnostic. It is important to think of this disease mainly in young women who administer hormonal contraception. Imaging methods play the crucial role in diagnostic of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The gold standard is a native CT of brain which shows the venous sinus thrombosis as a hyperdense lesion in the locus of the sinus (dense triangle sign), CT venography shows the sinus thrombosis as a defect in a contrast filling of the venous sinus (empty delta sign). Other investigative methods are magnetic resonance imaging or MRA. In short we also mention quite a rare but more serious thrombosis of profound cerebral veins v. cerebri magna-Galeni, vv. cerebri internae). The importance of early diagnostic and non specificity of symptoms is presented in 3 clinical cases that are the part of this work. (author)

  6. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  7. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Cabana, Alba

    1994-01-01

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  8. Neonatal cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Shinji; Togari, Hajime; Sobajima, Hisanori; Suzuki, Shigesumi; Wada, Yoshiro; Yokochi, Kenji; Nishimura, Yutaka; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Futamura, Masahide.

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective multi-center study, we investigated eighteen infants with unilateral cerebral infarctions confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scans. The initial symptoms were observed in all the patients between 0 and 3 days of age. Convulsions or apneic attacks were the initial symptoms in all but one. Only 4 patients had complicated obstetric histories and none showed polycythemia or electrolyte abnormalities. All of the initial CT scans revealed unilaterally localized hypodense areas. In 10, the initial CT scans were performed within 24 hours after the clinical onset. In 16, the lesions were within the territory of the middle cerebral artery, 9 of which also involved the cortico-spinal tract (CST). In the remaining 2 patients, the lesions were located whithin the territory of the posterior cerebral artery. None of the 9 patients without CST involvement developed hemiplegia, whereas 5 (56%) of the 9 with CST involvement had hemiplegia, which is a fairly low incidence compared with that in adult cases. This difference was thought to be related to neonatal brain plasticity. (author)

  9. Cerebral Oximetry in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Shepelyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of numerous current references, the review describes different neuromonitoring methods during cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation. It shows that it is important and necessary to make neuromonitoring for the early diagnosis and prevention of neurological complications after cardiac surgery. Particular attention is given to cerebral oximetry; the possibilities and advantages of this technique are described. Correction of cerebral oximetric values is shown to improve survival rates and to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. Lack of cerebral oximetry monitoring denudes a clinician of important information and possibilities to optimize patient status and to prevent potentially menacing complications, which allows one to conclude that it is necessary to use cerebral oximetry procedures within neu-romonitoring in cardiac surgery. Key words: extracorporeal circulation, cerebral oximetry, neurological dysfunction, cerebral oxygenation.

  10. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  11. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  12. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  13. Prolonged Cholestatic Jaundice Associated With Flurbiprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Serkan; Celikbilek, Mehmet; Demirkan, Kutay; Yilmaz, Semih; Deniz, Kemal; Gursoy, Sebnem; Yucesoy, Mehmet

    2014-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed drugs throughout the world for pain relief. Although the adverse effects of NSAIDs to the liver are well known, flurbiprofen-induced liver cholestasis is extremely rare. Herein, we present a patient with prolonged icterus that is associated with the use of flurbiprofen without causing ductopenia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  15. Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Complicating Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of transient right ventricular dysfunction associated with prolonged cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of uncertain etiology. We believe that in this case dynamic coronary flow restriction resulted in ischemic injury and stunning of the right ventricle. Other possible causes are briefly reviewed. Right ...

  16. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  17. Prolonged QRS Widening After Aripiprazole Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Porter, Robert; Dewey, Kayla

    2018-05-05

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with a long half-life. Overdose can result in protracted somnolence and cardiac disturbances, particularly QT interval prolongation. This is a single case report of a 14-year-old boy who took an overdose of aripiprazole and developed QRS widening. A 14-year-old boy intentionally ingested 20 tablets of aripiprazole (5 mg). He was brought to the emergency department when his ingestion was discovered. The patient's vital signs were as follows: temperature, 37.7°C; heart rate, 108 beats/min; blood pressure, 138/98 mm Hg; and respirations, 16 breaths/min. Activated charcoal was administered within 90 minutes of ingestion. Initial electrocardiogram (EKG) showed sinus tachycardia, with a QRS of 138 ms and QT interval of 444 ms. QRS duration was 90 ms on an EKG performed 3 months earlier. A bolus of sodium bicarbonate was administered, and the patient was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit. Repeat EKG demonstrated a QRS of 156 ms, and a sodium bicarbonate infusion was initiated. The patient continued to have QRS prolongation for the next 8 days, reaching a peak of 172 ms 3 days postingestion. Despite aggressive treatment with sodium bicarbonate, there was persistent QRS prolongation; however, the patient did not have any dysrhythmias and remained hemodynamically stable. The patient was discharged 9 days postingestion when the QRS duration normalized to 82 ms. Genetic testing revealed that the patient was a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. This case suggests that aripiprazole toxicity may possibly be associated with QRS prolongation without associated dysrhythmias or cardiovascular compromise. In addition, toxicity may be prolonged in patients who are CYP2D6 poor metabolizers.

  18. Licence prolongations of US nuclear power plants; Les prolongations de licence des centrales nucleaires americaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    Licences of US nuclear reactors were initially attributed for a 40 years duration. However, the vast majority of the reactors can benefit of a licence prolongation for a period of 20 years maximum. This article recalls first the procedure to follow for the licence prolongation demands (safety analysis, components aging, environmental impact statement), and then it makes a status of the accepted prolongations, of the demands under examination, and of the demands that should be presented in the next 5 years. (J.S.)

  19. Individualized, home-based interactive training of cerebral palsy children delivered through the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Peder E; Kliim-Due, Mette; Rasmussen, Betina

    2011-01-01

    The available health resources limit the amount of therapy that may be offered to children with cerebral palsy and the amount of training in each session may be insufficient to drive the neuroplastic changes, which are necessary for functional improvements to take place. The aim of this pilot study...... was to provide proof of concept that individualized and supervised interactive home-based training delivered through the internet may provide an efficient way of maintaining intensive training of children with cerebral palsy over prolonged periods....

  20. Spaceflight on the Bion-M1 biosatellite alters cerebral artery vasomotor and mechanical properties in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronova, Svetlana I.; Tarasova, Olga S.; Gaynullina, Dina; Borzykh, Anna A.; Behnke, Bradley J.; Stabley, John N.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Maraj, Joshua J.; Hanna, Mina; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Vinogradova, Olga L.

    2015-01-01

    Conditions during spaceflight, such as the loss of the head-to-foot gravity vector, are thought to potentially alter cerebral blood flow and vascular resistance. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the functional, mechanical, and structural properties of cerebral arteries. Male C57BL/6N mice were flown 30 days in a Bion-M1 biosatellite. Basilar arteries isolated from spaceflight (SF) (n = 6), habitat control (HC) (n = 6), and vivarium control (VC) (n = 16) mice were used for in vitro functional and mechanical testing and histological structural analysis. The results demonstrate that vasoconstriction elicited through a voltage-gated Ca2+ mechanism (30–80 mM KCl) and thromboxane A2 receptors (10−8 − 3 × 10−5 M U46619) are lower in cerebral arteries from SF mice. Inhibition of Rho-kinase activity (1 μM Y27632) abolished group differences in U46619-evoked contractions. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation elicited by acetylcholine (10 μM, 2 μM U46619 preconstriction) was virtually absent in cerebral arteries from SF mice. The pressure-diameter relation was lower in arteries from SF mice relative to that in HC mice, which was not related to differences in the extracellular matrix protein elastin or collagen content or the elastin/collagen ratio in the basilar arteries. Diameter, medial wall thickness, and medial cross-sectional area of unpressurized basilar arteries were not different among groups. These results suggest that the microgravity-induced attenuation of both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator properties may limit the range of vascular control of cerebral perfusion or impair the distribution of brain blood flow during periods of stress. PMID:25593287

  1. Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Edip Gürol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptides (Ab in the walls of leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, and veins. Despite the fact that these pathological changes were first described in 1909, major advancement in our understanding of the clinicoradiological manifestations, neurobiology, and course of CAA has occurred only during the last 30 years. No significant associations have been shown between CAA and other systemic/visceral amyloidoses or vascular risk factors, including hypertension. CAA is well known as the most common cause of spontaneous and anticoagulant-related lobar parenchymal ICH in the elderly. It also causes lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMBs, small dot-like dark susceptibility artifacts visible with gradient recalled echo (GRE-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. CMBs are important markers of disease severity and predictors of CAA progression. Amyloid angiopathy is also a common cause of ischemic microvascular white matter disease (WMD and deep cerebral infarctions. Such WMD is defined as subcortical and periventricular white matter changes without obvious infarction, as well as a dark appearance on computerized tomography (CT and a bright appearance on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR-MRI. CAA-related vascular dysfunction, with its hemorrhagic and ischemic complications, is a recognized contributor to vascular cognitive impairment in the elderly, an independent effect that is synergistically increased by Alzheimer pathologies, such as plaques and tangles. A set of clinicoradiological criteria was established for the accurate diagnosis of CAA. According to the Boston Criteria, patients aged 55 years and older with multiple hemorrhages (on CT or GRE-MRI restricted to the lobar, cortical, or corticosubcortical regions (cerebellar hemorrhage allowed are diagnosed as probable CAA when no other etiology is found; a single hemorrhage in the same region is classified as possible

  2. Interfaces para control cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Enrique Mario

    2000-01-01

    La función de una interfaz para control cerebral basada en señales de electroencefalograma (EEG), en forma general denominada BCI (Brain control Interface), es establecer un enlace directo entre el cerebro y una máquina, sin utilizar acciones motoras directas. Una BCI permite realizar operaciones simples a partir de la interpretación de las señales de EEG. Su desarrollo está principalmente orientado hacia la ayuda a personas con discapacidades motoras severas, que poseen deterioros en el sist...

  3. Techniques in cerebral protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Fabrizio; Bezzi, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Passariello, Roberto

    2006-10-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a valid alternative option to conventional carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. During the stenting process, however, distal embolization can occur with neurological consequences. To avoid this, cerebral protection devices have been introduced. Three principal types of protection system have been developed: distal balloon occlusion, distal filters and proximal protection with or without reversal of flow. As protection devices became the focus of interest by manufactures and physicians, several trials are going on worldwide to analyze the characteristics of each of them and to evaluate their efficacy to reduce the rate of distal embolization.

  4. Effects of calcium antagonists on isolated bovine cerebral arteries: inhibition of constriction and calcium-45 uptake induced by potassium or serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, W.W.; Harakal, C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which organic calcium channel blockers inhibit cerebral vasoconstriction. Isolated bovine middle cerebral arteries were cut into rings to measure contractility or into strips to measure radioactive calcium ( 45 Ca) influx and efflux. Calcium channel blockers (10(-5) M verapamil or 3.3 X 10(-7) M nifedipine) and calcium-deficient solutions all produced near-maximal inhibition of both potassium- and serotonin-induced constriction. In calcium-deficient solutions containing potassium or serotonin, verapamil and nifedipine each blocked subsequent calcium-induced constriction in a competitive manner. Potassium and serotonin significantly increased 45 Ca uptake into cerebral artery strips during 5 minutes of 45 Ca loading; for potassium 45 Ca uptake increased from 62 to 188 nmol/g, and for serotonin from 65 to 102 nmol/g. Verapamil or nifedipine had no effect on basal 45 Ca uptake but significantly blocked the increase in 45 Ca uptake induced by potassium or serotonin. Potassium, and to a lesser extent serotonin, each induced a brief increase in the rate of 45 Ca efflux into calcium-deficient solutions. Verapamil or nifedipine had no effect on basal or potassium-stimulated 45 Ca efflux. The results demonstrate that verapamil and nifedipine block 45 Ca uptake through both potential-operated (potassium) and receptor-operated (serotonin) channels in bovine middle cerebral arteries

  5. Cerebral aneurysms – an audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Abstract. We performed an audit to determine the profile of cerebral aneurysms at the Universitas Hospital Bloem- fontein, the only government hospital with a vascular suite in the Free State and Northern Cape area. Two hun- dred and twenty-three government patients, diagnosed with cerebral aneurysms during the period.

  6. MRI of cerebral ischaemia in rats with occlusion of the middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuomas, K.AA.; Kotwica, Z.; Bergstroem, K.; Bolander, H.; Hillered, L.; Olsson, Y.; Ponten, U.; Persson, L.

    1991-01-01

    The development of ischaemic brain oedema caused by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion was studied by serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in rats. Multiple spin echo sequences were used with TR = 1500 ms and TE = 30-240 ms (8 echos). Substraction images were obtained by subtracting the last three echos from the first echo. Fourteen rats were studied 3, 6, and 12 h and 1, 1.5, 3, 4, 6, and 8 days after MCA occlusion, and 2 of them also 3 and 6 weeks later. Two T2 components could be separated, a fast one representing bound water and a slow one representing free bulk water. MR showed T2 prolongation even on the first examination, and the highest values were observed 24 h after occlusion. The subsequent examinations showed a slow reduction in oedema. MR studies 3 and 6 weeks after occlusion revealed an area of very long T2, which correlated well with infarction shown by histology. The substraction images demonstrated both the infarct location and the oedematous changes in the surrounding uninfarcted tissue. MRI imaging employing T2 components and subtraction images appears to be a valuable method for observing the time course of the development and resolution of oedema in cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  7. Severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension in ciguatera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Yan Keung

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatera results when ciguatoxin-contaminated coral reef fish from tropical or subtropical waters are consumed. The clinical features that present in affected persons are mainly gastrointestinal, neurological, general, and much less commonly, cardiovascular. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed the characteristic combination of acute gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms after the consumption of an unidentified coral reef fish head. In addition to those symptoms, he developed dizziness, severe bradycardia (46 bpm) and prolonged hypotension, which required the administration of intravenous atropine and over three days of intravenous fluid replacement with dopamine infusion. Patients with ciguatera can develop severe bradycardia and prolonged hypotension. Physicians should recognise the possible cardiovascular complications of ciguatera and promptly initiate treatment with intravenous atropine, intravenous fluid replacement and inotropic therapy if such complications are observed.

  8. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy.

  9. Variation in Definition of Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; McGinlay, Michael; Amin, Reshma; Burns, Karen Ea; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Jouvet, Philippe; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Mawdsley, Cathy; McAuley, Danny F; Schultz, Marcus J; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-10-01

    Consistency of definitional criteria for terminology applied to describe subject cohorts receiving mechanical ventilation within ICU and post-acute care settings is important for understanding prevalence, risk stratification, effectiveness of interventions, and projections for resource allocation. Our objective was to quantify the application and definition of terms for prolonged mechanical ventilation. We conducted a scoping review of studies (all designs except single-case study) reporting a study population (adult and pediatric) using the term prolonged mechanical ventilation or a synonym. We screened 5,331 references, reviewed 539 full-text references, and excluded 120. Of the 419 studies (representing 38 countries) meeting inclusion criteria, 297 (71%) reported data on a heterogeneous subject cohort, and 66 (16%) included surgical subjects only (46 of those 66, 70% cardiac surgery). Other studies described COPD (16, 4%), trauma (22, 5%), neuromuscular (17, 4%), and sepsis (1, 0.2%) cohorts. A total of 741 terms were used to refer to the 419 study cohorts. The most common terms were: prolonged mechanical ventilation (253, 60%), admission to specialized unit (107, 26%), and long-term mechanical ventilation (79, 19%). Some authors (282, 67%) defined their cohorts based on duration of mechanical ventilation, with 154 studies (55%) using this as the sole criterion. We identified 37 different durations of ventilation ranging from 5 h to 1 y, with > 21 d being the most common (28 of 282, 7%). For studies describing a surgical cohort, minimum ventilation duration required for inclusion was ≥ 24 h for 20 of 66 studies (30%). More than half of all studies (237, 57%) did not provide a reason/rationale for definitional criteria used, with only 28 studies (7%) referring to a consensus definition. We conclude that substantial variation exists in the terminology and definitional criteria for cohorts of subjects receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Standardization of

  10. Prolonged Exposure: a Rapid Treatment for Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. P.; Gaind, R.; Marks, I. M.

    1971-01-01

    Ten adult patients with long-standing specific phobias were treated by prolonged continuous exposure to their phobic objects in fantasy and reality without avoidance. All patients were greatly helped by four to five hours' treatment in two or three sessions, and all improved more after practice than after imaginal sessions. The treatment method is more economical and efficient than other methods described so far. PMID:5539135

  11. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics

  12. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I [London, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics.

  13. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions. PMID:28101056

  15. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions.

  16. Bundle of measures for external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzi, Maria; Karvouniaris, Marios; Makris, Demosthenes; Tsimitrea, Eleni; Gatos, Charalampos; Tasiou, Anastasia; Mantzarlis, Kostas; Fountas, Kostas N; Zakynthinos, Epaminondas

    2014-01-01

    (95% CI) length of ICU stay in patients who did not was 20 days (16.9-23.2 d) (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the length of ICU stay was associated with length of drainage (p = 0.0001). Therefore, the presence of external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis and the length of drainage were the only variables associated with a prolonged ICU stay. Unfavorable outcome in Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 months was not associated with the presence of external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis (p = 0.5). No significant differences were found when Glasgow Outcome Scale was analyzed according to the two study periods. The implementation of a bundle of measures for external cerebral ventricular drainage-associated ventriculitis control was associated with significantly decreased postintervention prevalence of the infection.

  17. Fluorescence lifetime microscopy of NADH distinguishes alterations in cerebral metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Sutin, Jason; Wu, Weicheng; Fu, Buyin; Uhlirova, Hana; Devor, Anna; Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava

    2017-05-01

    Evaluating cerebral energy metabolism at microscopic resolution is important for comprehensively understanding healthy brain function and its pathological alterations. Here, we resolve specific alterations in cerebral metabolism in vivo in Sprague Dawley rats utilizing minimally-invasive 2-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2P-FLIM) measurements of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence. Time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements enable distinction of different components contributing to NADH autofluorescence. Ostensibly, these components indicate different enzyme-bound formulations of NADH. We observed distinct variations in the relative proportions of these components before and after pharmacological-induced impairments to several reactions involved in glycolytic and oxidative metabolism. Classification models were developed with the experimental data and used to predict the metabolic impairments induced during separate experiments involving bicuculline-induced seizures. The models consistently predicted that prolonged focal seizure activity results in impaired activity in the electron transport chain, likely the consequence of inadequate oxygen supply. 2P-FLIM observations of cerebral NADH will help advance our understanding of cerebral energetics at a microscopic scale. Such knowledge will aid in our evaluation of healthy and diseased cerebral physiology and guide diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that target cerebral energetics.

  18. Prolonged labour as indication for emergency caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Sorensen, B L; Onesmo, R

    2012-01-01

    To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour.......To audit the quality of obstetric management preceding emergency caesarean sections for prolonged labour....

  19. Metabolic response of the cerebral cortex following gentle sleep deprivation and modafinil administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Petit Jean-Marie; Tobler Irene; Kopp Caroline; Morgenthaler Florence; Borbély Alexander A; Magistretti Pierre J

    2010-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES The main energy reserve of the brain is glycogen which is almost exclusively localized in astrocytes. We previously reported that cerebral expression of certain genes related to glycogen metabolism changed following instrumental sleep deprivation in mice. Here we extended our investigations to another set of genes related to glycogen and glucose metabolism. We also compared the effect of instrumentally and pharmacologically induced prolonged wakefulness followed (or not) by 3...

  20. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.) [de

  1. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  2. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

    1984-12-01

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

  3. Laryngotracheal Injury following Prolonged Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mehdizadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is a growing method for supporting ventilation in patients who require intensive care. Despite considerable advancement in endotracheal intubation, this method still has some complications; the most important is laryngo-tracheal injuries. Methods: Over a 2-year period, this retrospective study was conducted on 57 patients with history of prolonged intubation who were referred to the ENT Department of Amir Alam Hospital. For each patient, a complete evaluation including history, physical examination, and direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy was done under general anesthesia. Results: Fifty-seven patients (44 male; mean age, 23.014.7 years were studied. Mean intubation period was 15.88 days. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (62%. Head trauma was responsible for most cases of intubation (72.4%. The most common types of tracheal and laryngeal lesions were tracheal (56.9% and subglottic (55.2% stenosis, respectively. Mean length of tracheal stenosis was 0.810.83 cm. There was a statistically significant relationship between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period (P=0.0001 but no relation was observed between tracheal stenosis and age, sex, and etiology of intubation (All P=NS. Among the glottic lesions, inter- arytenoids adhesion was the most common lesion (25.9%. No statistically significant relation was found between glottic and subglottic lesions and age, sex and intubation period (all P=NS. Length of stenosis and intubation period was significantly greater in tracheal/ subglottic lesions than those in glottic/ supraglottic lesions (all P=NS. Conclusion: After prolonged endotracheal intubation, laryngo-tracheal lesions had no relation with patient’s age, sex, and cause of intubation.There was direct relation between length of tracheal stenosis and intubation period. Glottic lesions were more commonly observed in head trauma patients. Lesion length and intubation

  4. Effect of Cistanche Desertica Polysaccharides on Learning and Memory Functions and Ultrastructure of Cerebral Neurons in Experimental Aging Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙云; 邓杨梅; 王德俊; 沈春锋; 刘晓梅; 张洪泉

    2001-01-01

    To observe the effects of Cistanche desertica polysaccharides (CDP) on the learning and memory functions and cerebral ultrastructure in experimental aging mice. Methods: CDP was administrated intragastrically 50 or 100 mg/kg per day for 64 successive days to experimental aging model mice induced by D-galactose, then the learning and memory functions of mice were estimated by step-down test and Y-maze test; organelles of brain tissue and cerebral ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscope and physical strength was determined by swimming test. Results: CDP could obviously enhance the learning and memory functions (P<0.01) and prolong the swimming time (P<0.05), decrease the number of lipofuscin and slow down the degeneration of mitochondria in neurons(P<0.05), and improve the degeneration of cerebral ultra-structure in aging mice. Conclusion: CDP could improve the impaired physiological function and alleviate cerebral morphological change in experimental aging mice.

  5. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  6. Hydrocephalus in cerebral venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M.; van den Berg, René; Troost, Dirk; Majoie, Charles B.; Stam, Jan; Coutinho, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure is common in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but hydrocephalus is rarely reported in these patients. We examined the frequency, pathophysiology and associated clinical manifestations of hydrocephalus in patients with CVT admitted to our hospital between 2000 and

  7. Cerebral infarcts resulting from trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.

    1985-01-01

    Vascular occlusions due to cerebral trauma have always been regarded as great rarities. However, we have found hypo-dense foci of vascular distribution in 3.5% of 3500 CT examinations for trauma during the late phase. Lesions in the vascular territory of the posterior cerebral artery are usually the result of supratentorial pressure rise from epidural and subdural haematomas, leading to compression of the vessels against the edge of the tentorium. Typical infacts in the territory of the medial and anterior cerebral arteries were found only rarely by CT after cerebral trauma. Infarcts at the watersheds between the three vascular territories were found with surprising frequency and small infarcts were found in the basal ganglia. It is assumed that these were due to ischaemic or hypoxic events due to cardiac or pulmonary complications during the initial phase. (orig.) [de

  8. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: SMALL • LARGE Cerebral Cavernous Angioma and Hemorrhage By Jack Hoch; Reviewed by Dr. Issam Awad ... for years, the mechanism by which these lesions hemorrhage remains poorly understood. Hemorrhage Types Since cavernous angiomas ...

  9. MRI of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Ahishali, B.; Rozanes, I.

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral alveolar echinococcosis is rare. We report a case with multiple intracranial masses which show cauliflower-like contrast enhancement pattern on MRI. The lesions originated from hepatic involvement with invasion of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  10. Learn More About Cerebral Palsy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-30

    This podcast describes the causes, preventions, types, and signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy.  Created: 3/30/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 3/21/2008.

  11. Electroacupuncture improves cerebral blood flow and attenuates moderate ischemic injury via Angiotensin II its receptors-mediated mechanism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; He, Jiaojun; Du, Yuanhao; Cui, Jingjun; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Xuezhu

    2014-11-11

    To investigate the effects and potential mechanism of electroacupuncture intervention on expressions of Angiotensin II and its receptors-mediated signaling pathway in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia. Totally 126 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and EA group. The latter two were further divided into ten subgroups (n = 6) following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and expressions of Angiotensin II and its receptors (AT1R, AT2R), as well as effector proteins in phosphatidyl inositol signal pathway were monitored before and at different times after MCAO. MCAO-induced decline of ipsilateral rCBF was partially suppressed by electroacupuncture, and contralateral blood flow was also superior to that of model group. Angiotensin II level was remarkably elevated immediately after MCAO, while electroacupuncture group exhibited significantly lower levels at 1 to 3 h and the value was significantly increased thereafter. The enhanced expression of AT1R was partially inhibited by electroacupuncture, while increased AT2R level was further induced. Electroacupuncture stimulation attenuated and postponed the upregulated-expressions of Gq and CaM these upregulations. ELISA results showed sharply increased expressions of DAG and IP3, which were remarkably neutralized by electroacupuncture. MCAO induced significant increases in expression of Angiotensin II and its receptor-mediated signal pathway. These enhanced expressions were significantly attenuated by electroacupuncture intervention, followed by reduced vasoconstriction and improved blood supply in ischemic region, and ultimately conferred beneficial effects on cerebral ischemia.

  12. Topical Drug Formulations for Prolonged Corneal Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Tong, Rong; Ciolino, Joseph B.; Tsui, Jonathan H.; Chiang, Homer H.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular local anesthetics (OLA’s) currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect on the duration of corneal anesthesia of the site-1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), applied with either proparacaine or the chemical permeation enhancer OTAB. The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. Methods Solutions of TTX, proparacaine, and OTAB, singly or in combination were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo following corneal debridement. Results Combination of TTX and proparacaine resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8–10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, while OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed following co-administration of TTX and proparacaine. Conclusion Co-administration of TTX and proparacaine significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia but in view of delayed corneal re-epithelialization, caution is suggested in use of the combination. PMID:23615270

  13. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  14. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-01-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  15. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  16. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  17. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr

  18. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  19. Selective up-regulation of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors during organ culture of cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoel, N L; Hansen-Schwartz, J; Edvinsson, L

    2001-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is thought to be involved in migraine headache and the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. Previous data show that organ culture induces a phenotypic change in cerebral vessels. Therefore we investigated if these changes also applied for the vasoconstrictive 5-HT......(cultured) 6.8+/-0.4). The response was inhibited by the 5-HT(1B/1D) selective antagonist GR55562 (pEC50(fresh) 5.1+/-0.2 and pEC50(cultured) 6.0+/-0.3). The organ model might mimic the phenotypic changes during cerebrovascular diseases....... receptors. Rat cerebral arteries express 5-HT2 receptors. Using organ culture we observed a phenotypic change with a selective up-regulation of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors. This was revealed by an increased sensitivity to the selective 5-HT(1B/1D) agonist 5-CT after organ culture (pEC50(fresh) 5.6+/-0.2 and pEC50...

  20. Multifactorial QT Interval Prolongation and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gysel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman collapsed while working as a grocery store cashier. CPR was performed and an AED revealed torsades de pointes (TdP. She was subsequently defibrillated resulting in restoration of sinus rhythm with a QTc interval of 544 msec. Further evaluation revealed a diagnosis of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (TCM contributing to the development of a multifactorial acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS. The case highlights the role of TCM as a cause of LQTS in the setting of multiple risk factors including old age, female gender, hypokalemia, and treatment with QT prolonging medications. It also highlights the multifactorial nature of acquired LQTS and lends support to growing evidence of an association with TCM.

  1. Prolonged toxicity from Kambo cleansing ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Horng, Howard; Lynch, Kara; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-04-02

    Kambo cleanse is a purification, cleansing ritual traditionally performed by South American shaman to confer luck and health to hunters. We report a patient who presented to the emergency department with prolonged symptoms of vomiting, flushing, facial swelling, altered mental status, and agitation requiring chemical restraints, 22 h after a Kambo cleanse. The patient was found with four small, circular, superficial burns to the ankle at the site where the resin was introduced. The cleanse consists of rubbing resin obtained from the secretions of the giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) into superficial wounds to produce intense gastrointestinal symptoms followed by a sensation of increased stamina and strength. The cleanse is now being increasingly performed in Europe and USA.

  2. Bywalled plasma formation in vacuum prolonged channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    To produce homogeneous along the channel length plasma the application of incomplete rate-in surface dielectric discharge for generating the bywalled plasma in prolonged cylindrical channels at a pressure of the residual gas of P approximately 10 -5 Torr is proposed. Experimental set-up consisted of a pulse voltage generator and a plasma channel. The plasma channel was a coaxial system of three tubes inserted into each other. The first outer tube is made of a stainless steel, the second - of a dielectric material, the third - of smallsized stainless steel greed. It is demonstrated that the plasma being formed in the process is sufficiently homogeneous by concentration of the components, by the channel length and azimuth. The length of the experimental channel under investigation was 1.6 m, its diameter amounted 0.05 m. The maximum concentration of electron component was 10 17 m -3

  3. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  4. Prolonged pain and disability are common after rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of rib fractures to prolonged pain and disability may be underappreciated and undertreated. Clinicians are traditionally taught that the pain and disability of rib fractures resolves in 6 to 8 weeks. This study was a prospective observation of 203 patients with rib fractures at a level 1 trauma center. Chest wall pain was evaluated by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Prolonged pain was defined as a PRI of 8 or more at 2 months after injury. Prolonged disability was defined as a decrease in 1 or more levels of work or functional status at 2 months after injury. Predictors of prolonged pain and disability were determined by multivariate analysis. One hundred forty-five male patients and 58 female patients with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 20 (range, 1 to 59) had a mean of 5.4 rib fractures (range, 1 to 29). Forty-four (22%) patients had bilateral fractures, 15 (7%) had flail chest, and 92 (45%) had associated injury. One hundred eighty-seven patients were followed 2 months or more. One hundred ten (59%) patients had prolonged chest wall pain and 142 (76%) had prolonged disability. Among 111 patients with isolated rib fractures, 67 (64%) had prolonged chest wall pain and 69 (66%) had prolonged disability. MPQ PPI was predictive of prolonged pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.5), and prolonged disability (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4). The presence of significant associated injuries was predictive of prolonged disability (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29). Prolonged chest wall pain is common, and the contribution of rib fractures to disability is greater than traditionally expected. Further investigation into more effective therapies that prevent prolonged pain and disability after rib fractures is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow and P300 in neurosurgical disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Kazuyoshi; Hyoutani, Genhachi; Maeshima, Shinichirou; Miyamoto, Kazuki; Kuwata, Toshikazu; Terada, Tomoaki; Komai, Norihiko

    1990-01-01

    Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), P300 and higher brain function were studied in neurosurgical patients with localized lesions on computed tomography (CT). Twenty-five patients ranging in age from 30 to 81 were studied. Nineteen of these suffered from cerebrovascular disease and six had tumors. Using the oddball paradigm, P300 components were elicited by rate tones (2 KHz) and recorded at Cz and Pz referred to linked ear-lobe electorodes. The P300 latencies of the patients were statistically compared with those of 27 normal subjects. Higher brain function was evaluated with the following psychological tests: a rating scale for psychological function (Sano and Tanemura), Mini-Mental State (MMS), Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS) and the 'Kanahiroi' test. Regional CBF was measured in the bilateral cerebral cortices (the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes), thalamus and basal ganglia by means of a cold xenon CT method. The laterality indices of rCBF (Rt. rCBF/Lt. rCBF) in the bilateral symmetrical areas of the patients were compared to those of 8 normal subjects. Of the 25 patients, 12 revealed prolongation of P300 latency. Ten (86%) of the 12 with prolonged P300 latency showed reduction of rCBF in the right cerebral hemisphere (rt. frontal lobe, rt. thalamus and rt. basal ganglia). Significant correlations (P<0.025) were recognized between the P300 latencies and the laterality indices of rCBF in the frontal lobe and thalamus. There was a significant correlation (P<0.05) between the scores of MMS and HDS and the laterality indicies of rCBF in the frontal lobe only. In the 13 patients with normal P300 latency, 6 (46%) displayed no reduction in rCBF. The remaining 7 patients with normal P300 showed reduction of rCBF in the left hemisphere. Both right frontal lobe and right thalamus have an important role affecting the prolongation of P300 latency and disturbance of cognitive functions. (author)

  6. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure

  7. Evolution of Cerebral Atrophy in a Patient with Super Refractory Status Epilepticus Treated with Barbiturate Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Newey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Status epilepticus is associated with neuronal breakdown. Radiological sequelae of status epilepticus include diffusion weighted abnormalities and T2/FLAIR cortical hyperintensities corresponding to the epileptogenic cortex. However, progressive generalized cerebral atrophy from status epilepticus is underrecognized and may be related to neuronal death. We present here a case of diffuse cerebral atrophy that developed during the course of super refractory status epilepticus management despite prolonged barbiturate coma. Methods. Case report and review of the literature. Case. A 19-year-old male with a prior history of epilepsy presented with focal clonic seizures. His seizures were refractory to multiple anticonvulsants and eventually required pentobarbital coma for 62 days and midazolam coma for 33 days. Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed development of cerebral atrophy at 31 days after admission to our facility and progression of the atrophy at 136 days after admission. Conclusion. This case highlights the development and progression of generalized cerebral atrophy in super refractory status epilepticus. The cerebral atrophy was noticeable at 31 days after admission at our facility which emphasizes the urgency of definitive treatment in patients who present with super refractory status epilepticus. Further research into direct effects of therapeutic coma is warranted.

  8. Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ichord

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare but serious cerebrovascular disorder affecting children from the newborn period through childhood and adolescence. The incidence is estimated at 0.6/100,000/year, with 30–50% occurring in newborns. Causes are diverse and are highly age dependent. Acute systemic illness is the dominant risk factor among newborns. In childhood CSVT, acute infections of the head and neck such as mastoiditis are most common, followed by chronic underlying diseases such as nephrotic syndrome, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Signs and symptoms are also age related. Seizures and altered mental status are the commonest manifestations in newborns. Headache, vomiting, and lethargy, sometimes with 6th nerve palsy, are the most common symptoms in children and adolescents. Recent multicenter cohort studies from North America and Europe have provided updated information on risk factors, clinical presentations, treatment practices, and outcomes. While systemic anticoagulation is the most common specific treatment used, there are wide variations and many uncertainties even among experts concerning best practice. The treatment dilemma is especially pronounced for neonatal CSVT. This is due in part to the higher prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage among newborns on the one hand, and the clear evidence that newborns suffer greater long-term neurologic morbidity on the other hand. With the advent of widespread availability and acceptance of acute endovascular therapy for arterial ischemic stroke, there is renewed interest in this therapy for children with CSVT. Limited published evidence exists regarding the benefits and risks of these invasive therapies. Therefore, the authors of current guidelines advise reserving this therapy for children with progressive and severe disease who have failed optimal medical management. As research focused on childhood cerebrovascular disease continues to grow rapidly, the future prospects

  9. Effects of angiotensin II receptor blockade on cerebral, cardiovascular, counter-regulatory, and symptomatic responses during hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Louise H; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Tarnow, Lise

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: High spontaneous activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) results in more pronounced cognitive impairment and more prolonged QTc interval during hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes. We tested whether angiotensin II receptor blockade improves cerebral and cardiovascular function d...

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow in status epileptics measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiseki, Hajime; Terashi, Akiro; Hamamoto, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tokuzo.

    1995-01-01

    We have performed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amineoxime (HM-PAO) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in status epileptics (SE) caused by a cerebral vascular accident. In addition, we have discussed the neurophysiology of SE based on the SPECT findings. A total of sixteen patients (5 males and 11 females, average age; 78.2 years old) with SE who were suffering from prolonged consciousness disturbance were investigated. When SPECT was performed in the ictal state, there was a remarkable increase in radio isotope (RI) uptake at the focus which correlated well with EEG findings. However, in other cortical regions, basal ganglia and thalamus, there was a relatively demonstrated decrease in RI uptake compared with that of the focus. Additionally in the interictal state, we found a decrease in RI uptake in the epileptic foci and normal recovery of the RI uptake level in other cerebral regions. We speculate that these characteristic patterns of cerebral blood flow distribution shown by SPECT scans in the ictal state reflect the state of consciousness disturbance due to SE. In general, in the elderly, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis between prolonged consciousness disturbance due to nonconvulsive SE and other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, dehydration, metabolic disorder, etc. Nevertheless, nonconvulsive SE causes diffuse cell loss and irreversible brain damage. Therefore the elderly who have suffered from prolonged consciousness disturbance due to SE need an exact diagnosis and immediate medical treatment. When we diagnose a nonconvulsive SE, the characteristic findings of SPECT scans in the ictal state are very clear and useful. In conclusion, SPECT is a very simple and non-invasive method that demonstrates abnormalities of brain function exactly. Therefore, we should perform not only EEC but also SPECT scans when making a diagnosis of SE. (author)

  11. Regional cerebral blood flow in status epileptics measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiseki, Hajime; Terashi, Akiro [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Hamamoto, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tokuzo

    1995-12-01

    We have performed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amineoxime (HM-PAO) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in status epileptics (SE) caused by a cerebral vascular accident. In addition, we have discussed the neurophysiology of SE based on the SPECT findings. A total of sixteen patients (5 males and 11 females, average age; 78.2 years old) with SE who were suffering from prolonged consciousness disturbance were investigated. When SPECT was performed in the ictal state, there was a remarkable increase in radio isotope (RI) uptake at the focus which correlated well with EEG findings. However, in other cortical regions, basal ganglia and thalamus, there was a relatively demonstrated decrease in RI uptake compared with that of the focus. Additionally in the interictal state, we found a decrease in RI uptake in the epileptic foci and normal recovery of the RI uptake level in other cerebral regions. We speculate that these characteristic patterns of cerebral blood flow distribution shown by SPECT scans in the ictal state reflect the state of consciousness disturbance due to SE. In general, in the elderly, it is difficult to make a differential diagnosis between prolonged consciousness disturbance due to nonconvulsive SE and other diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, dehydration, metabolic disorder, etc. Nevertheless, nonconvulsive SE causes diffuse cell loss and irreversible brain damage. Therefore the elderly who have suffered from prolonged consciousness disturbance due to SE need an exact diagnosis and immediate medical treatment. When we diagnose a nonconvulsive SE, the characteristic findings of SPECT scans in the ictal state are very clear and useful. In conclusion, SPECT is a very simple and non-invasive method that demonstrates abnormalities of brain function exactly. Therefore, we should perform not only EEC but also SPECT scans when making a diagnosis of SE. (author).

  12. Does UTI cause prolonged jaundice in otherwise well infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tanzila; Kisat, Hamudi; Tullus, Kjell

    2015-07-01

    The symptoms of urinary tract infections in infants are very non-specific and have historically included prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia. We studied the results of routine urine samples in 319 infants with prolonged jaundice. Convincing findings of UTI was not found in any of these children even if one of them was treated with antibiotics after four consecutive urine cultures with different bacteria. A urine culture might thus not be an appropriate investigation in a child with prolonged jaundice without any other symptoms of UTI. • The symptoms of UTI in infancy are very non-specific. • Old studies suggest that prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia is one such symptom; more modern studies give more conflicting results. What is New: • Our study could not confirm that children with prolonged jaundice have an increased risk of UTI. • Routine urine testing is thus not needed in otherwise healthy infants with prolonged jaundice.

  13. 11 Things to Know about Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails 11 Things to Know about Cerebral Palsy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in ...

  14. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Behrend; Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral hemodynamic disturbances in the peri- or postoperative period may contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We therefore examined dynamic cerebral autoregulation (d...

  15. Prolonged response without prolonged chemotherapy: a lesson from PCV chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Cartalat-Carel, Stéphanie; Meyronet, David; Ricard, Damien; Jouvet, Anne; Pallud, Johan; Mokhtari, Karima; Guyotat, Jacques; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Sunyach, Marie-Pierre; Frappaz, Didier; Honnorat, Jérôme; Ducray, François

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies with temozolomide suggest that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is important for treating low-grade gliomas (LGGs). PCV (procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine) chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in treating LGGs, but this therapy cannot be used for a prolonged period because of the cumulative toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of first-line PCV chemotherapy on LGGs growth kinetics. The mean tumor diameter (MTD) of 21 LGGs was measured on serial magnetic resonance images before (n=13), during, and after PCV onset (n=21). During PCV treatment, a decrease in the MTD was observed in all patients. After PCV discontinuation, an ongoing decrease in MTD was observed in 20 of the 21 patients. Median duration of the MTD decrease was 3.4 years (range, 0.8–7.7) after PCV onset and 2.7 years (range, 0–7) after the end of PCV treatment with 60% of LGGs, demonstrating an ongoing and prolonged (>2 years) response despite chemotherapy no longer being administered. According to McDonald's criteria, the rates of partial and minor responses were 5% and 38% at the end of PCV but 38% and 42% at the time of maximal MTD decrease, which occurred after a median period of 3.4 years after PCV onset. These results challenge the idea that a prolonged duration of chemotherapy is necessary for treating LGGs and raise the issue of understanding the mechanisms involved in the persistent tumor volume decrease once chemotherapy is terminated. PMID:20488959

  16. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking....... The goals for research include testing the benefit and harms of cerebral oximetry in large-scale randomized trials, improved definition of the hypoxic threshold, better understanding the effects of intensive care on cerebral oxygenation, as well as improved precision of oximeters and calibration among...

  17. NEYROPSYCHOLOGICAL CONSECUENCES OF CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA NAVARRO MELENDRO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral Palsy is defined as a movement alteration result of a non progressive damage witch is permanent in anencephalon that has not acquired its final maturation. Patients that suffer cerebral palsy present learning disabilities,that varies between being completely normal to severe as a consequence of memory, gnosis, praxis, perceptive andlanguage impairments. Nevertheless the consequences of this disease are not always predictable. This paper pretendsto make a description of the cognitive and behavioral deficits that overcomes along with the manifestation of thecerebral palsy and its possible treatment. We used a complete neuropsychological battery to evaluate a 7 years oldpatient who was diagnosed of cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia finding some cognitive impairment in fields such asmnesic, gnosic and attention processes.

  18. Natriuretic peptides and cerebral hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Barringer, Filippa; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have emerged as important diagnostic and prognostic tools for cardiovascular disease. Plasma measurement of the bioactive peptides as well as precursor-derived fragments is a sensitive tool in assessing heart failure. In heart failure, the peptides are used as treatment...... in decompensated disease. In contrast, their biological effects on the cerebral hemodynamics are poorly understood. In this mini-review, we summarize the hemodynamic effects of the natriuretic peptides with a focus on the cerebral hemodynamics. In addition, we will discuss its potential implications in diseases...... where alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics plays a role such as migraine and acute brain injury including stroke. We conclude that a possible role of the peptides is feasible as evaluated from animal and in vitro studies, but more research is needed in humans to determine the precise response...

  19. Fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory for supernonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jipeng; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superprincipal bundle and its associated superbundle. The super(nonlinear)connection on the superfiber bundle is constructed. Then by means of the connection theory, we establish the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory of the supernonlinear evolution equation. In this geometry theory, the fermionic covariant fundamental equations determining the prolongation structure are presented. As an example, the supernonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed in the framework of this fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We obtain its Lax pairs and Baecklund transformation.

  20. Pattern and predictors of neurological morbidities among childhood cerebral malaria survivors in central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergani, Adil; Khamis, Ammar H; Fatih Hashim, E L; Gumma, Mohamed; Awadelseed, Bella; Elwali, Nasr Eldin M A; Haboor, Ali Babikir

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral malaria is considered a leading cause of neuro-disability in sub-Saharan Africa among children and about 25% of survivors have long-term neurological and cognitive deficits or epilepsy. Their development was reported to be associated with protracted seizures, deep and prolonged coma. The study was aimed to determine the discharge pattern and to identify potential and informative predictors of neurological sequelae at discharge, complicating childhood cerebral malaria in central Sudan. A cross-sectional prospective study was carried out during malaria transmission seasons from 2000 to 2004 in Wad Medani, Sinnar and Singa hospitals, central Sudan. Children suspected of having cerebral malaria were examined and diagnosed by a Pediatrician for clinical, laboratory findings and any neurological complications. Univariate and multiple regression model analysis were performed to evaluate the association of clinical and laboratory findings with occurrence of neurological complications using the SPSS. Out of 940 examined children, only 409 were diagnosed with cerebral malaria with a mean age of 6.1 ± 3.3 yr. The mortality rate associated with the study was 14.2% (58) and 18.2% (64) of survivors (351) had neurological sequelae. Abnormal posture, either decerebration or decortication, focal convulsion and coma duration of >48 h were significant predictors for surviving from cerebral malaria with a neurological sequelae in children from central Sudan by Univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression model fitting these variables, revealed 39.6% sensitivity for prediction of childhood cerebral malaria survivors with neurological sequelae (R² = 0.396; p=0.001). Neurological sequelae are common due to childhood cerebral malaria in central Sudan. Their prediction at admission, clinical presentation and laboratory findings may guide clinical intervention and proper management that may decrease morbidity and improve CM consequences.

  1. Neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy in very preterm babies: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D. J.; Hope, P. L.; Johnson, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy among very preterm babies and in particular the associations independent of the coexistence of antenatal and intrapartum factors. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Oxford health region. SUBJECTS: Singleton babies born between 1984 and 1990 at less than 32 weeks' gestation who survived to discharge from hospital: 59 with cerebral palsy and 234 randomly selected controls without cerebral palsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse neonatal factors expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Factors associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy after adjustment for gestational age and the presence of previously identified antenatal and intrapartum risk factors were patent ductus arteriosus (odds ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.5), hypotension (2.3; 1.3 to 4.7), blood transfusion (4.8; 2.5 to 9.3), prolonged ventilation (4.8; 2.5 to 9.0), pneumothorax (3.5; 1.6 to 7.6), sepsis (3.6; 1.8 to 7.4), hyponatraemia (7.9; 2.1 to 29.6) and total parenteral nutrition (5.5; 2.8 to 10.5). Seizures were associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy (10.0; 4.1 to 24.7), as were parenchymal damage (32; 12.4 to 84.4) and appreciable ventricular dilatation (5.4; 3.0 to 9.8) detected by cerebral ultrasound. CONCLUSION: A reduction in the rate of cerebral palsy in very preterm babies requires an integrated approach to management throughout the antenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods. PMID:9040385

  2. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe, Akiharu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Makoto; Nakatsukasa, Harushige; Kobayashi, Michio; Higashi, Toshihiro; Nagashima, Hideo

    1985-01-01

    The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64%) of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more fre...

  3. Neuropeptide Y - an early biomarker for cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesch, Karl-Michael; Brawanski, Alexander; Bele, Sylvia; Schödel, Petra; Herbst, Andreas; Bründl, Elisabeth; Kagerbauer, Simone Maria; Martin, Jan; Lohmeier, Anette; Stoerr, Eva-Maria; Proescholdt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the human brain, the potent vasoconstrictive neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundantly expressed. Neuropeptide Y, which is stored in perivascular nerve fibers of the cerebral arteries, regulates the cerebral vascular diameter as well as cerebral blood flow. However, the role of NPY in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm (CV) related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is unclear. We prospectively analyzed and compared the release of endogenous NPY in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 66 patients with SAH to NPY release in a control group. Additionally, we correlated the levels of NPY with CV and consecutive ischemic stroke. Sixty-six consecutive patients (40 women, 26 men; mean age 53·1 years) with aneurysmal SAH were included. In the SAH group, CSF was drawn daily from day 1 to day 10 after the onset of SAH. The CSF of 29 patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for orthopedic surgery served as control samples. The NPY levels were determined in duplicate CSF samples by means of a competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The levels of NPY in CSF were correlated with the development of CV over the 10-day period after the onset of SAH and to the occurrence of consecutive ischemic stroke. To evaluate CSF NPY levels as a predictive biomarker for vasospasm, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values. The NPY levels were significantly higher in the SAH group than in the control group (p 0·05). Patients with CV showed significantly higher NPY levels than patients without CV during the entire observation period. The NPY levels of the non-CV group dissipated over time, whereas the CV group showed continuously increasing values. The NPY levels from day 4 to 10 were significantly higher in patients with CV-related stroke than in non-stroke patients. Using 0·3 ng/ml as a cut-off value, NPY levels on day 3 predicted the occurrence of CV with a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 72%, respectively. High NPY levels, starting on

  4. Cerebral MR imaging in vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.; Geissler, A.; Peter, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging for the detection of cerebral involvement in vasculitis. Seventy-six patient with proved systematic vasculitis and two with isolated cerebral vasculitis were examined. Half of them had central nervous system symptoms. T2-weighted sequences were performed at 2 T in most cases. All but two symptomatic and one-third of the asymptomatic patients showed pathologic changes in the white matter. The distribution and shape of lesions depend on the caliber of the involved vessel. In small-vessel vasculitis, the distribution was mostly subcortical, the average size was 0.5--10 mm, and lesions were predominantly round

  5. Features to validate cerebral toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Cunha Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurotoxoplasmosis (NT sometimes manifests unusual characteristics. Methods We analyzed 85 patients with NT and AIDS according to clinical, cerebrospinal fluid, cranial magnetic resonance, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR characteristics. Results In 8.5%, focal neurological deficits were absent and 16.4% had single cerebral lesions. Increased sensitivity of PCR for Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the central nervous system was associated with pleocytosis and presence of >4 encephalic lesions. Conclusions Patients with NT may present without focal neurological deficit and NT may occur with presence of a single cerebral lesion. Greater numbers of lesions and greater cellularity in cerebrospinal fluid improve the sensitivity of PCR to T gondii.

  6. Recent Experiences with Severe and Cerebral Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... Malaria admissions. Cerebral malaria ... Cerebral signs. Haemoglobin below 10 g/100 ml (not all tested). Enlarged tender liver or jaundice, or both ... articl~ by H. Smitskamp and F. H. Wolthuis entitled 'New concepts in treatment of malaria with malignant tertian cerebral involvement' which appeared in the ...

  7. Cerebral vasculitis associated with cocaine abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, B.R.; Fainstat, M.

    1987-01-01

    A case of cerebral vasculitis in a previously healthy 22-year-old man with a history of cocaine abuse is described. Cerebral angiograms showed evidence of vasculitis. A search for possible causes other than cocaine produced no results. The authors include cocaine with methamphetamines, heroin, and ephedrine as illicit drugs that can cause cerebral vasculitis

  8. Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysak, Edward D.

    Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

  9. Cerebral toksoplasmose primaert diagnosticeret som tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, M E; Skøt, J; Skriver, E B

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis as the presenting manifestation of AIDS are reported. The initial diagnoses were brain tumors because of the cerebral mass lesions which resembled glioblastoma. In the light of the increasing occurrence of AIDS, attention is drawn to cerebral toxoplasmosis...

  10. Fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, J.; Washiyama, K.; Hong Kim, C.; Ibuchi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of angiographically demonstrated fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery are reported. Fenestration occurred at the medial half of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery in all cases. Its embryology and clinical significance are briefly discussed, and the anatomical and radiological literature on fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery is reviewed. (orig.)

  11. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  12. Prolonged disengagement from distractors near the hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Vatterott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Because items near our hands are often more important than items far from our hands, the brain processes visual items near our hands differently than items far from our hands. Multiple experiments have attributed this processing difference to spatial attention, but the exact mechanism behind how spatial attention near our hands changes is still under investigation. The current experiments sought to differentiate between two of the proposed mechanisms: a prioritization of the space near the hands and a prolonged disengagement of spatial attention near the hands. To differentiate between these two accounts, we used the additional singleton paradigm in which observers searched for a shape singleton among homogenously shaped distractors. On half the trials, one of the distractors was a different color. Both the prioritization and disengagement accounts predict differently colored distractors near the hands will slow target responses more than differently colored distractors far from the hands, but the prioritization account also predicts faster responses to targets near the hands than far from the hands. The disengagement account does not make this prediction, because attention does not need to be disengaged when the target appears near the hand. We found support for the disengagement account: Salient distractors near the hands slowed responses more than those far from the hands, yet observers did not respond faster to targets near the hands.

  13. Influence exerted by new pyrimidine derivatives on cerebral circulation auto-regulation and vasodilatating function of vessels endothelium in rats' brains under chronic hemic hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Voronkov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our research goal was to examine influences exerted by new pyrimidine derivatives coded as BL0 and BL2 on cerebral hemodynamics auto-regulation parameters and vasodilatating function of vessels endothelium as risk factors causing ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes under chronic hemic hypoxia. We performed an experiment on white Wistar rats to prove that endothelial dysfunction which evolves under chronic hemic hypoxia leads to disorders in endothelium-mediated mechanisms for cerebral circulation auto-regulation in rats. We modeled hypoxia in animals via granting them free access to 0.2 % sodium nitrite solution instead of ordinary drinking water. Endothelial dysfunction was confirmed as per disorders in vasodilatation and vasoconstriction reactions at intravenous introduction of acetyl choline (0.1 mg/kg and methyl ether hydrochloride nitro-L-arginine (10 mg/kg. Cerebral blood flow speed was measured with MM-D-K-Minimax v.2.1. ultrasound Doppler. We assessed cerebral circulation auto-regulation as per compression test results which allowed us to calculate overshoot coefficient and auto-regulation power. Examined pyrimidine derivatives and comparison preparations were introduced orally 60 minutes prior to taking readings. Mexidol doses were calculated on the basis of interspecific recalculation of a maximum daily dose for a man. Nicergoline dose was taken as a most effective one as per literature data. When new pyrimidine derivatives BL0 and BL2 are applied under chronic hemic hypoxia, it causes overshoot coefficient to grow authentically higher than in a negative control group but it doesn't exert any positive influence on collateral reserve parameter, namely auto-regulation power. BL0 and BL2 improve endothelium vasodilatating function at intravenous acetylcholine introduction (0.1 mg/kg and don't exert any influence on vasoconstricting function at L-NAME intravenous introduction (10 mg/kg. The examined substance BL0 has more apparent

  14. What is cerebral small vessel disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    An accumulating amount of evidence suggests that the white matter hyperintensities on T 2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging predict an increased risk of dementia and gait disturbance. This state has been proposed as cerebral small vessel disease, including leukoaraiosis, Binswanger's disease, lacunar stroke and cerebral microbleeds. However, the concept of cerebral small vessel disease is still obscure. To understand the cerebral small vessel disease, the precise structure and function of cerebral small vessels must be clarified. Cerebral small vessels include several different arteries which have different anatomical structures and functions. Important functions of the cerebral small vessels are blood-brain barrier and perivasucular drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma. Cerebral capillaries and glial endfeet, take an important role for these functions. However, the previous pathological investigations on cerebral small vessels have focused on larger arteries than capillaries. Therefore little is known about the pathology of capillaries in small vessel disease. The recent discoveries of genes which cause the cerebral small vessel disease indicate that the cerebral small vessel diseases are caused by a distinct molecular mechanism. One of the pathological findings in hereditary cerebral small vessel disease is the loss of smooth muscle cells, which is an also well-recognized finding in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. Since pericytes have similar character with the smooth muscle cells, the pericytes should be investigated in these disorders. In addition, the loss of smooth muscle cells may result in dysfunction of drainage of interstitial fluid from capillaries. The precise correlation between the loss of smooth muscle cells and white matter disease is still unknown. However, the function that is specific to cerebral small vessel may be associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. (author)

  15. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum and cerebral anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrander-Stumpel, C. T.; de Die-Smulders, C. E.; Hennekam, R. C.; Fryns, J. P.; Bouckaert, P. X.; Brouwer, O. F.; da Costa, J. J.; Lommen, E. J.; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    We report on three Dutch children with a clinical diagnosis of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) and hydrocephalus. The clinical features are compared to 15 published cases of OAVS and hydrocephalus. Several other cerebral abnormalities were present in the whole group. About half of the cases

  16. CT of cerebral hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudwan, M.A.; Khaffaji, S.

    1988-12-01

    Six cases of cerebral hydatid disease (CHD) were seen in Kuwait over a period of 8 years. The typical CT appearance of a large well-defined spherical nonenhanced unilocular cyst was seen in four cases. Two unusual but characteristic types of calcification were seen, one in each of the remaining two cases.

  17. CT of cerebral hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudwan, M.A.; Khaffaji, S.

    1988-01-01

    Six cases of cerebral hydatid disease (CHD) were seen in Kuwait over a period of 8 years. The typical CT appearance of a large well-defined spherical nonenhanced unilocular cyst was seen in four cases. Two unusual but characteristic types of calcification were seen, one in each of the remaining two cases. (orig.)

  18. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saginoya, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  19. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saginoya, Toshiyuki [Urasoe General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide [and others

    1996-06-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  20. Cerebral gigantism with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, P; Bhalla, A K; Singhi, P D

    2003-07-01

    A case of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) with West syndrome in a one-year-old male child is reported. The case had a large stature, typical facies and neurodevelopmental delay along with infantile spasms, which were refractory to treatment with valproate and clonazepam.

  1. Cerebral imaging revealing Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral imaging is the only non-invasive means of examining the brain and is essential in studying Alzheimer's disease. As a tool for early diagnosis, evaluation and treatment monitoring, this technology is at the heart of the research being done to further improve its reliability and sensitivity. (authors)

  2. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  3. Computerized tomography of cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, K; Mihara, T; Kobayashi, E; Yamamoto, K; Kusumoto, K [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1978-12-01

    In 120 cases of patients with cerebral infarction, the affected areas in the CT images were analyzed with special reference to the site, the size, and the extension. Moreover, on 39 scans of 34 cases examined with 8 weeks after the onset of strokes, the CT images were analyzed from the viewpoint of the presence of a mass effect, edema, contrast enhancement, and the accompanying hemorrhage. From these investigations, the authors have obtained the following results; 1) The greatest incidence of infarcts was in the area supplied by the middle cerebral artery (57% of the cases), and, among those, the area of the lenticulostriate arteries showed the highest incidence (53%). Even in the posterior fossa, infarcts were found in 6% of the cases. These findings are coincident with those in autopsied cases. 2) Putaminal infarcts and infarctions occurring in the area supplied by the calcarine artery seemed to be uniformity of the arcuate pattern. 3) Most of the infarcts in the perfusion area of the anterior cerebral artery and the basal ganglia were found to be small and multifocal; they were thought to correspond with water-shed and/or lacunar infarcts. 4) In approximately 25% of the cases examined within 8 weeks after the onset of strokes, the CT images revealed mass effects which had never been observed after more than 3 weeks. In conclusion, the presence of a mass effect, accompanying hemorrhage, and contrast enhancement detected by CT should lead us to reconsider the conventional management of cerebral infarction.

  4. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  5. MR angiography of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Hitoshi; Tanada, Shuji; Sakaki, Saburo; Hamamoto, Ken; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) and phase-contrast (PC) MRA are examined clinically for evaluating cerebral aneurysms. In the morphological diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms, three-dimensional (3D) MRA is superior to two-dimensional (2D) MRA because 3D MRA has a higher S/N ratio and a higher spatial resolution. However, it is difficult to decide which, 3D TOF MRA or 3D PC MRA, is superior, for both methods have many scan parameters. In our study, 3D PC MRA was performed using two methods; one had the same acquisition time as 3D TOF MRA, while the other had the same spatial resolution as 3D TOF MRA. The detectability of aneurysms by each MRA method was evaluated in comparison with 3D TOF MRA. In fifteen patients (6 males and 9 females), a total of 16 cerebral aneurysms (3 ruptured and 13 unruptured) were studied. The lesion sizes ranged from 2.5 to 18 mm. All the 16 lesions were examined by means of 3D TOF MRA, 3D PC MRA, and conventional angiography. MR imaging was performed with a 1.5 tesla MRI system (Signa). All of the 16 cerebral aneurysms were detected by 3D TOF MRA, while only 11 of them were detected by 3D PC MRA. When 3D PC MRA was performed with the same acquisition time as 3D TOF MRA, 3D PC MRA was superior in showing one of the 7 aneurysms. When 3D PC MRA was performed with same spatial resolution as 3D TOF MRA, 3D PC MRA was superior in showing two of the 10 aneurysms. 3D TOF MRA was superior to 3D PC MRA in the detection of cerebral aneurysms because of the long acquisition times and the different flow velocity, which induced different signal intensities between the aneurysms and parent arteries in 3D PC MRA. 3D PC MRA was superior to 3D TOF MRA in patients with large thrombotic aneurysms of the internal carotid artery. We consider that 3D TOF MRA should be the first choice for screening and following-up cerebral aneurysms. 3D PC MRA should then be performed for large cerebral aneurysms in addition to 3D TOF MRA. (author)

  6. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral Anestesia y parálisis cerebral Anesthesia and cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório neste tipo de paciente. CONTEÚDO: O artigo aborda aspectos da paralisia cerebral como etiologia, classificação, fatores de risco, fisiopatologia, quadro clínico, diagnóstico, terapêuticas utilizadas bem como avaliação pré-operatória, medicação pré-anestésica, manuseio intra e pós-operatório, analgesia pós-operatória e dor crônica. CONCLUSÕES: O anestesiologista desempenha um papel importante na diminuição da morbidade e mortalidade anestésico-cirúrgica em pacientes portadores de paralisia cerebral. O conhecimento da fisiopatologia dos diferentes tipos de paralisia cerebral bem como das doenças associadas e suas terapêuticas é imprescindível, pois permite ao anestesiologista antecipar e prevenir complicações intra e pós-operatórias neste tipo de paciente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La parálisis cerebral (PC es una enfermedad no progresiva consecuente de una lesión en el sistema nervioso central, llevando a un comprometimiento motor del paciente. El portador de PC, frecuentemente es sometido a procedimientos quirúrgicos debido a enfermedades usuales y situaciones particulares consecuentes de la parálisis cerebral. El objetivo de este artículo, fue revisar aspectos de la parálisis cerebral de interés para el anestesista, permitiendo un adecuado manoseo pre, intra y posoperatorio en este tipo de paciente. CONTENIDO: El artículo aborda aspectos de la parálisis cerebral como etiología, clasificación, factores de

  7. [Advances in genetic research of cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Fang; Luo, Rong; Qu, Yi; Mu, De-Zhi

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of syndromes caused by non-progressive brain injury in the fetus or infant and can cause disabilities in childhood. Etiology of cerebral palsy has always been a hot topic for clinical scientists. More and more studies have shown that genetic factors are closely associated with the development of cerebral palsy. With the development and application of various molecular and biological techniques such as chromosome microarray analysis, genome-wide association study, and whole exome sequencing, new achievements have been made in the genetic research of cerebral palsy. Chromosome abnormalities, copy number variations, susceptibility genes, and single gene mutation associated with the development of cerebral palsy have been identified, which provides new opportunities for the research on the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy. This article reviews the advances in the genetic research on cerebral palsy in recent years.

  8. Genetic modification of cerebral arterial wall: implications for prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Anantha; Santhanam, R; Katusic, Zvonimir S

    2006-10-01

    Genetic modification of cerebral vessels represents a promising and novel approach for prevention and/or treatment of various cerebral vascular disorders, including cerebral vasospasm. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the use of gene transfer to the cerebral arteries for prevention and/or treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We also discuss the recent developments in vascular therapeutics, involving the autologous use of progenitor cells for repair of damaged vessels, as well as a cell-based gene delivery approach for the prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

  9. Endothelium depen dent factors of vasoconstriction (thromboxane B2 and vasodilation (6-prostaglandin F1α in children with primary arterial hype rten sion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu riy V. Marushko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vasoconstrictor and vasodilator substances imbalance play a major role in the formation of arterial hypertension. But the ratio between thromboxane B2 and 6-prostaglandin F1α in children with various forms of primary arterial hypertension (PAH are insufficiently studied. Aim of the study: to explore the features of the content of thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF-1alfa and their correlation in children with different clinical and pathogenetic forms of PAH. Material and methods: The study involved 83 children aged 9 to 17 years. The first group included 32 children with stable PAH, the second – 32 children with labile PAH, the third (control group – 21 children with normal blood pressure. TXB2 and 6-PGF1α serum levels were investigated by ELISA. All children were held ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. Results: Average TXB2 levels in boys were 25,05 ±6,43 ng/ml at stable PAH and 27,26 ±11,26 ng/ml at labile PAH, which exceeded their levels in the control group (p < 0,05. Girls’ TXB2 level was elevated at labile PAH (to 11,06 ±1,79 ng/ml, p < 0,05 and did not differ from the control group at stable PAH. Girls’ 6-PGF1α level was up to 3,41 ±0,52 ng/ml at stable PAH and up to 2,63 ±0,25 ng/ml at labile PAH. Conclusions: Violation of the ratio between endothelial vasoconstriction (thromboxane and vasodilatation (prostacyclin factors in boys with PAH is due to increased TXB2 levels compared with children with normal blood pressure (p < 0,05. Girls with PAH have better compensatory vasodilation opportunities compared with boys according to increased prostacyclin production. That prevents the progression of endothelial dysfunction and PAH stabilization in girls.

  10. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism in thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Ken

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were studied in 20 cases of thalamic hemorrhage using positron CT and 15 O labeled gas steady-state inhalation method. CBF reduction was limited around the thalamus in the small sized hematoma. CBF were significantly diminished in the mean cortical, parietal, temporal, basal ganglia and thalamic area ipsilateral and cerebellar cortex contralateral to the medium sized hematoma. There was bilateral and diffuse CBF reduction in the large sized hematoma which was caused by increased intracranial pressure. CMRO 2 value were similary changed as CBF. OEF change showed within normal limit. Diffuse CBV reduction was observed in the large sized hematoma. This reduction was the result of decreased vascular bed caused by mass effect of the hematoma and hydrocephalus. Effect of surgical treatment such as ventricular drainage and hematoma evacuation were also discussed in correlation to CBF in some case using positron and single photon ECT. (author)

  11. Estimation of blood volume difference between bilateral cerebral hemispheres by means of subtraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Ichiro

    1983-01-01

    It would be admitted that by measuring radioactivity of the head after intravenous injection of RI some information could be afforded concerning the cerebral vascular bed. After intravenous injection of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate (15mCi), an anterior view scintiscanning was made using a gamma camera combined with a computer system. Two ROIs of about 30 cm 2 were set bilateral symmetrically and a count rate curve of each ROI was obtained. The brain transit time (BTT) was calculated from first derivative of the initial count rate courve. As an index devoting difference between vascular bed of each hemisphere, the vascular bed difference index (VBDI) was introduced BTT and VBDI were calculated in 104 subjects including 11 normal controls. In most of brain tumor, cerebral hemorrhage, severe head injury and cerebral aneurysm BTTs were prolonged in affected hemispheres. However, in a half of cerebral infarction cases BTTs were rather shortened on the affected side. In normal controls, the absolute value of VBDI was [0.16 +- 0.06(S.D.)]. In cases of brain tumor, cerebral hemorrhage and severe head injury, VBDI showed a significant deviation from the normal range, taking plus value. This results suggest, according to the definition of VBDI, vascular beds of the affected hemisphere are abnormally decreased compared with those of non-affected side. In cases of arteriovenous malformation VBDIs were increased on the affected side, reflecting enlarged tangle of arteriols and venous vessels. On the other hand, in cases of cerebral infarction, VBDI varied from case to case, making it difficult to get some conclusion from the present data. VBDI, however, invariably decreased in cases in which the occlusion of arteries were definitely confirmed by angiography

  12. Clinical application of cerebral dynamic perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLand, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies are assuming a far greater importance in the detection and differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions. Perfusion studies not only contribute to the differential diagnosis of lesions but in certain cases are the preferred methods by which more accurate clinical interpretations can be made. The characteristic blood flow of arterio-venous malformations readily differentiates this lesion from neoplasms. The decreased perfusion or absent perfusion observed in cerebral infarctions is diagnostic without concurrent evidence from static images. Changes in rates and direction of blood flow contribute fundamental information to the status of stenosis and vascular occlusion and, in addition, offer valuable information on the competency and routes of collateral circulation. The degree of cerebral perfusion after cerebral vascular accidents appears to be directly related to patient recovery, particularly muscular function. Cerebral perfusion adds a new parameter in the diagnosis of subdural haematomas and concussion and in the differentiation of obscuring radioactivity from superficial trauma. Although pictorial displays of perfusion blood flow will offer information in most cerebral vascular problems, the addition of computer analysis better defines temporal relationships of regional blood flow, quantitative changes in flow and the detection of the more subtle increases or decreases in cerebral blood flow. The status of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies has taken on an importance making it the primary modality for the diagnosis of cerebral lesions. (author)

  13. Mechanics and composition of middle cerebral arteries from simulated microgravity rats with and without 1-h/d -Gx gravitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Hua Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To elucidate further from the biomechanical aspect whether microgravity-induced cerebral vascular mal-adaptation might be a contributing factor to postflight orthostatic intolerance and the underlying mechanism accounting for the potential effectiveness of intermittent artificial gravity (IAG in preventing this adverse effect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs were isolated from 28-day SUS (tail-suspended, head-down tilt rats to simulate microgravity effect, S+D (SUS plus 1-h/d -Gx gravitation by normal standing to simulate IAG, and CON (control rats. Vascular myogenic reactivity and circumferential stress-strain and axial force-pressure relationships and overall stiffness were examined using pressure arteriography and calculated. Acellular matrix components were quantified by electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that myogenic reactivity is susceptible to previous pressure-induced, serial constrictions. During the first-run of pressure increments, active MCAs from SUS rats can strongly stiffen their wall and maintain the vessels at very low strains, which can be prevented by the simulated IAG countermeasure. The strains are 0.03 and 0.14 respectively for SUS and S+D, while circumferential stress being kept at 0.5 (106 dyn/cm2. During the second-run pressure steps, both the myogenic reactivity and active stiffness of the three groups declined. The distensibility of passive MCAs from S+D is significantly higher than CON and SUS, which may help to attenuate the vasodilatation impairment at low levels of pressure. Collagen and elastin percentages were increased and decreased, respectively, in MCAs from SUS and S+D as compared with CON; however, elastin was higher in S+D than SUS rats. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to previous myogenic constrictions seems to be a self-limiting protective mechanism in cerebral small resistance arteries to prevent undue cerebral vasoconstriction during orthostasis at 1-G

  14. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  15. MR of experimental cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaPaz, R.; Steinberg, G.; Rocklage, S.; Glover, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on MR imaging of cerebral ischemia and treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists in an animal model. Forty-four New Zealand white rabbits underwent 1-hour transorbital ICA-MCA-ACA occlusion and pretreatment or immediate posttreatment with systemic dextromethorphan (DM, n = 14), dextrorphan (DX, n = 14), or normal saline (NS, n = 16). Serial MR studies (1.5 T) were performed 1--6 hours after occlusion with T1- and T2-weighted spinecho, IVIM (b = 1,352), gradient recalled acquisition in a steady-state, and chemical shift sequences (for magnetic susceptibility, T2* and T2') and DyDTPA-BMA intravenous contrast material (Salutar). Spatial correlation between MR findings, histologic findings (ischemic neuronal damage), and regional cerebral blood flow (microspheres) was done

  16. Primary cerebral lymphoma: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J.C.; Grandse, D.; Equidazu, J.; Elizagaray, E.; Grande, J.; Carrandi, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present four cases of primary cerebral lymphoma in non-immunodepressed adult patients. All cases were dsemonstrated with pathological study. CAT study showed solitary or multiple isodense lesions, which incorporated avidly and homoneneously the contrast. Arteriography performed in three patients and magnetic resonance, performed in one did not help for diagnosis. We also review the radiological findings obtained with different imaging methods, and suggest the criteria which could be useful for early diagnosis (Author)

  17. Cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Sørensen, O

    1987-01-01

    , occurred in the low pressure ratio group, while the hemispheric asymmetry on average was unchanged in the high pressure ratio group. This relative hyperemia was most pronounced 2 to 4 days following reconstruction. The marked hyperemia, absolute as well as relative, in patients with a low ICA/CCA pressure...... ratio suggests a temporary impairment of autoregulation. Special care should be taken to avoid postoperative hypertension in such patients, who typically have preoperative hypoperfusion, to avoid the occurrence of cerebral edema or hemorrhage....

  18. Cerebral abnormalities: use of calculated T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, C.M.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential clinical importance of T1 and T2 relaxation times in distinguishing normal and pathologic tissue with magnetic resonance (MR) is discussed and clinical examples of cerebral abnormalities are given. Five patients with cerebral infarction, 15 with multiple sclerosis, two with Wilson disease, and four with tumors were imaged. Hemorrhagic and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents were distinguished using the spin echo technique. In the patients with multiple sclerosis, lesions had prolonged T1 and T2 times, but the definition of plaque was limited by spatial resolution. No abnormalities in signal intensity were seen in the patient with Wilson disease who was no longer severly disabled; abnormal increased signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found in the second patient with Wilson disease. Four tumors produced abnormal T1 and T2 relaxation times but these values alone were not sufficient for tumor characterization

  19. A study for the correlation of hemorrhagic cerebral infarction with the hemodynamics measured by dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibagaki, Yasuro

    1989-01-01

    In 15 cases of cerebral infarction (9 embolisms, 6 thromboses), dynamic CT scans were repeatedly undertaken during 4 week period of stroke. The ratio of peak height to mean transit time (PH/MTT), which was calculated from density time curve, was used as an index of cerebral blood flow. Hemorrhagic infarction was defined as a high density area with CT value over 50 within low density area. The PH/MTT was significantly increased after the appearance of hemorrhagic infarction. Nine of 10 areas, in which hemorrhagic infarctions were not recognized after recoverry of PH/MTT to over 0.5, did not show hemorrhagic infarctions during 4 week period of stroke. The areas in which hemorrhagic infarctions appeared during 4 week period of stroke had mdore prolonged period of low PH/MTT values than the areas in which hemorrhagic infarctions were not recognized. In conclusion dynamic CT is useful for predicting hemorrhagic infarction. (author)

  20. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Hum; Chang, Seung Kuk; Cho, Mee Young; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Choong Ki

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage

  1. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Hum; Chang, Seung Kuk; Cho, Mee Young; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage.

  2. Behcet's disease with cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardamaglia, L.; Desmond, P.M.; Gonzales, M.F.; Bendrups, A.; Brodtmann, A.

    2001-01-01

    The case presented illustrates the diagnostic dilemma off neurological involvement in Behcet's disease and other inflammatory diseases. 'Psychiatric' symptoms were present for 2 years without abnormalities on SPECT or MRI and without CSF pleocytosis. Even at the time of fitting, no CSF abnormalities were observed. The preceding psychiatric presentations may have been due to cerebral vasculitis that was exacerbated by withdrawal of steroids. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most sensitive imaging modality. Lesions are usually in the brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia region or periventricular white matter, and the pons and the mesencephalon are commonly affected. In our patient there was no diencephalic or brainstem involvement. The inflammatory process can appear as a very large lesion, with gadolinium enhancement and significant mass effect, as in our patient. Brain magnetic resonance imaging. Postgadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, axial image shows two large lesions in the right frontal lobe, with the larger, posterior lesion demonstrating vivid ring enhancement. A central nodule is isodense, with the cerebral white matter within the larger lesion. Surrounding low T 1 signal involves the hemispheric white matter without cortical extension and is consistent with vasogenic oedema. Minor mass effect is demonstrated with bowing of the anterior falx cerebri to the left. Biopsy shows prominent fibrinoid necrosis in small calibre postcapillary venules and cerebral white matter. There are surrounding acute and chronic inflammatory cells and nuclear debris, consistent with vasculitis

  3. Cerebral lesions and event-related potential P300 using positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yasujiro; Okamoto, Kazuma; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondoh, Susumu; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1993-01-01

    To determine what lesions are involved in prolonging event-related potential P300 latency, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and metabolism were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) in a total of 40 patients with neurologic diseases (12 with chronic cerebrovascular disorder, 9 with spino-cerebellar degeneration, 4 with Alzheimer's type dementia, 4 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 11 with miscellaneous diseases). There was inverse correlation between rCBF and P300 latency in terms of any of the whole, left, and right hemispheres: P300 latency was associated with decreased rCBF. This was more noticeable in the cerebral cortex than white matter and in the right than left hemisphere, although there was no significant difference between them. In none of the regions, however, was there significant correlation between cerebral oxygen consumption and P300 latency. When the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortexes, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum were examined as regions of interest, there was significantly inverse correlation between rCBF and P300 latency in all regions except for the occipital cortex. This was more noticeable on the right than the left side, although no significant difference was observed. Cerebral oxygen consumption in these lesions did not correlate with P300 latency. In the study on bilateral rCBF difference, decreased rCBF confined to the right parietal lobe, bilateral thalamus and bilateral temporal lobes was found to be associated with a significantly prolonged P300 latency. Thus, rCBF in these regions seemed to be particularly responsible for P300 latency. (N.K.)

  4. Cerebral lesions and event-related potential P300 using positron emission tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yasujiro; Okamoto, Kazuma; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondoh, Susumu; Hirai, Shunsaku (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    To determine what lesions are involved in prolonging event-related potential P300 latency, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and metabolism were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) in a total of 40 patients with neurologic diseases (12 with chronic cerebrovascular disorder, 9 with spino-cerebellar degeneration, 4 with Alzheimer's type dementia, 4 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 11 with miscellaneous diseases). There was inverse correlation between rCBF and P300 latency in terms of any of the whole, left, and right hemispheres: P300 latency was associated with decreased rCBF. This was more noticeable in the cerebral cortex than white matter and in the right than left hemisphere, although there was no significant difference between them. In none of the regions, however, was there significant correlation between cerebral oxygen consumption and P300 latency. When the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortexes, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum were examined as regions of interest, there was significantly inverse correlation between rCBF and P300 latency in all regions except for the occipital cortex. This was more noticeable on the right than the left side, although no significant difference was observed. Cerebral oxygen consumption in these lesions did not correlate with P300 latency. In the study on bilateral rCBF difference, decreased rCBF confined to the right parietal lobe, bilateral thalamus and bilateral temporal lobes was found to be associated with a significantly prolonged P300 latency. Thus, rCBF in these regions seemed to be particularly responsible for P300 latency. (N.K.).

  5. Prolonged hypothyroidism severely reduces ovarian follicular reserve in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans J.M.; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is substantial evidence both in humans and in animals that a prolonged reduction in plasma thyroid hormone concentration leads to reproductive problems, including disturbed folliculogenesis, impaired ovulation and fertilization rates, miscarriage and pregnancy complications. The

  6. Predictive factors associated with prolonged chest drain production after esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, S. M.; Omloo, J. M. T.; Ubbink, D. T.; Busch, O. R. C.; Obertop, H.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2007-01-01

    After esophagectomy, pleural drainage is performed to ensure complete drainage of the pleural cavities. The aim of this study was to detect predisposing factors for prolonged drainage. Patients who underwent transhiatal or extended transthoracic esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of the distal

  7. Prolongation of rapacuronium neuromuscular blockade by clindamycin and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Paul A; Rasul, Mazhar

    2002-01-01

    We report a prolonged neuromuscular block with the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rapacuronium in the presence of clindamycin. Even when using "short-acting" muscle relaxants, the anesthesiologist must routinely monitor the neuromuscular function.

  8. Cerebral energy metabolism during induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Bindslev, TT; Pedersen, S M

    2013-01-01

    In patients with traumatic brain injury as well as stroke, impaired cerebral oxidative energy metabolism may be an important factor contributing to the ultimate degree of tissue damage. We hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction can be diagnosed bedside by comparing the simultaneous changes...... in brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) and cerebral cytoplasmatic redox state. The study describes cerebral energy metabolism during mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sevoflurane in piglets....

  9. Cerebral blood flow response to functional activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, Olaf B; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rostrup, Egill

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate are normally coupled, that is an increase in metabolic demand will lead to an increase in flow. However, during functional activation, CBF and glucose metabolism remain coupled as they increase in proportion, whereas oxygen metabolism only inc...... the cerebral tissue's increased demand for glucose supply during neural activation with recent evidence supporting a key function for astrocytes in rCBF regulation....

  10. Ways to Optimize Therapy of Prolonged Conjugation Jaundice in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Shadrin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the optimization of the treatment of prolonged conjugation jaundice. Inclusion of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of neonatal prolonged conjugation jaundice in a dose of 15–20 mg/kg of body mass per day increases the terms of regression of clinical and paraclinical signs of jaundice as much as 2 times and leads to cytolysis normalization. The preparation has a sufficient level of safety, there were not revealed side effects whilst its application.

  11. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  12. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in man during light sleep (stage 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Holm, S

    1991-01-01

    . They differ in respect of arousal threshold as a stronger stimulus is required to awaken a subject from deep sleep as compared to light sleep. Our results suggest that during non-rapid eye movement sleep cerebral metabolism and thereby cerebral synaptic activity is correlated to cerebral readiness rather than...

  13. CT findings of cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Taisuke; Ishibashi, Takao.

    1986-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism following multiple bone fractures is presented. A 27-year-old patient was admitted to our clinic 50 minutes after a traffic accident. He was somnolent on admission, but his consciousness level was gradually raised and respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, bloody sputum) appeared with petechiae of his conjunctiva and chest. We diagnosed cerebral fat embolism. On CT scan we found multiple high-density areas, which gradually turned into multiple low-density areas. Subsequent cerebral atrophy and subdural effusion developed one month after the injury. This patient showed a typical clinical course and CT findings of cerebral fat embolism. (author)

  14. Genetics Home Reference: cerebral cavernous malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Cavernous Malformations Disease InfoSearch: Cerebral Cavernous Malformation ...

  15. Acute cerebral vascular accident associated with hyperperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soin, J.S.; Burdine, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Cerebral radionuclide angiography can demonstrate decreased or normal radioactivity in the affected region during the arterial phase in patients who have sustained a cerebral vascular accident and thus enhances the diagnostic specificity of the static brain image. In an occasional patient, however, a seemingly paradoxical pattern of regional hyperperfusion with a return to normal or subnormal perfusion following the acute phase has been observed. This phenomenon, called luxury perfusion, has been defined using intra-arterial 133 Xe for semiquantitative cerebral blood flow measurements and should be kept in mind as a potentially misleading cerebral imaging pattern

  16. Pankiller effect of prolonged exposure to menadione on glioma cells: potentiation by vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Marina F; Nagachar, Nivedita; Avramidis, Dimitrios; Delwar, Zahid M; Cruz, Mabel H; Siden, Åke; Paulsson, Kajsa M; Yakisich, Juan Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Menadione (Vitamin K3) has anti-tumoral effects against a wide range of cancer cells. Its potential toxicity to normal cells and narrow therapeutic range limit its use as single agent but in combination with radiation or other anti-neoplastic agents can be of therapeutic use. In this paper, we first evaluated the early (within 3 h) effect of menadione on ongoing DNA replication. In normal rat cerebral cortex mini-units menadione showed an age dependent anti-proliferative effect. In tissue mini-units prepared from newborn rats, menadione inhibited ongoing DNA replication with an IC (50) of approximately 10 μM but 50 μM had no effect on mini-units from prepared adult rat tissue. The effect of short (72 h) and prolonged exposure (1-2 weeks) to menadione alone in the DBTRG.05MG human glioma cells line and in combination with vitamin C was studied. After short period of exposure data show that menadione alone or in combination with vitamin C provided similar concentration-response curves (and IC(50) values). Prolonged exposure to these drugs was evaluated by their ability to kill 100% of glioma cells and prevent regrowth when cells are re-incubated in drug-free media. In this long-term assay, menadione:vitamin C at a ratio 1:100 showed higher anti-proliferative activity when compared to each drug alone and allowed to reduce each drug concentration between 2.5 to 5-fold. Similar anti-proliferative effect was demonstrated in 8 patient derived glioblastoma cell cultures. Our data should be able to encourage further advanced studies on animal models to evaluate the potential use of this combination therapy for glioma treatment.

  17. β2-Adrenergic receptor-dependent attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction prevents progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension in intermittent hypoxic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Nagai

    Full Text Available In sleep apnea syndrome (SAS, intermittent hypoxia (IH induces repeated episodes of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV during sleep, which presumably contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. However, the prevalence of PAH was low and severity is mostly mild in SAS patients, and mild or no right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH was reported in IH-exposed animals. The question then arises as to why PAH is not a universal finding in SAS if repeated hypoxia of sufficient duration causes cycling HPV. In the present study, rats underwent IH at a rate of 3 min cycles of 4-21% O2 for 8 h/d for 6 w. Assessment of diameter changes in small pulmonary arteries in response to acute hypoxia and drugs were performed using synchrotron radiation microangiography on anesthetized rats. In IH-rats, neither PAH nor RVH was observed and HPV was strongly reversed. Nadolol (a hydrophilic β(1, 2-blocker augmented the attenuated HPV to almost the same level as that in N-rats, but atenolol (a hydrophilic β1-blocker had no effect on the HPV in IH. These β-blockers had almost no effect on the HPV in N-rats. Chronic administration of nadolol during 6 weeks of IH exposure induced PAH and RVH in IH-rats, but did not in N-rats. Meanwhile, atenolol had no effect on morphometric and hemodynamic changes in N and IH-rats. Protein expression of the β1-adrenergic receptor (AR was down-regulated while that of β2AR was preserved in pulmonary arteries of IH-rats. Phosphorylation of p85 (chief component of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, protein kinase B (Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS were abrogated by chronic administration of nadolol in the lung tissue of IH-rats. We conclude that IH-derived activation of β2AR in the pulmonary arteries attenuates the HPV, thereby preventing progression of IH-induced PAH. This protective effect may depend on the β2AR-Gi mediated PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

  18. The circadian oscillator of the cerebral cortex: molecular, biochemical and behavioral effects of deleting the Arntl clock gene in cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering, Tenna; Carstensen, Mikkel Bloss; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2018-01-01

    for normal function of the cortical circadian oscillator. Daily rhythms in running activity and temperature were not influenced, whereas the resynchronization response to experimental jet-lag exhibited minor though significant differences between genotypes. The tail-suspension test revealed significantly...... prolonged immobility periods in the knockout mouse indicative of a depressive-like behavioral state. This phenotype was accompanied by reduced norepinephrine levels in the cerebral cortex. Our data show that Arntl is required for normal cortical clock function and further give reason to suspect...... that the circadian oscillator of the cerebral cortex is involved in regulating both circadian biology and mood-related behavior and biochemistry....

  19. Pharmacometabolomic approach to predict QT prolongation in guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyeon Park

    Full Text Available Drug-induced torsades de pointes (TdP, a life-threatening arrhythmia associated with prolongation of the QT interval, has been a significant reason for withdrawal of several medicines from the market. Prolongation of the QT interval is considered as the best biomarker for predicting the torsadogenic risk of a new chemical entity. Because of the difficulty assessing the risk for TdP during drug development, we evaluated the metabolic phenotype for predicting QT prolongation induced by sparfloxacin, and elucidated the metabolic pathway related to the QT prolongation. We performed electrocardiography analysis and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-based metabolic profiling of plasma samples obtained from 15 guinea pigs after administration of sparfloxacin at doses of 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg. Principal component analysis and partial least squares modelling were conducted to select the metabolites that substantially contributed to the prediction of QT prolongation. QTc increased significantly with increasing dose (r = 0.93. From the PLS analysis, the key metabolites that showed the highest variable importance in the projection values (>1.5 were selected, identified, and used to determine the metabolic network. In particular, cytidine-5'-diphosphate (CDP, deoxycorticosterone, L-aspartic acid and stearic acid were found to be final metabolomic phenotypes for the prediction of QT prolongation. Metabolomic phenotypes for predicting drug-induced QT prolongation of sparfloxacin were developed and can be applied to cardiac toxicity screening of other drugs. In addition, this integrative pharmacometabolomic approach would serve as a good tool for predicting pharmacodynamic or toxicological effects caused by changes in dose.

  20. Multiple cerebral aneurysms of middle cerebral artery. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Nica1, Tatiana Rosca1, A. Dinca2, M. Stroi3, Mirela Renta4, A.V. Ciurea5

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cerebral aneurysms present awide variation in incidence with averages of13% at angiographic studies and 22.7% atautopsy.High blood pressue, cigarette smoking,stress and possible also age and female sexseem to be risk factors for multipleintracranial aneurysms (MIAn in patientsof working age who have suffered asubarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH.Aneurysms were situated on the same sidein one-third of the patients with twoaneurysms and the most common site wasthe middle cerebral artery (MCA. Tomanage these challenging lesionsneurosurgeons must use all availableinnovations and advances, includingdiagnostic, technical and perioperativeadjuncts. The author presents a case ofmiddle age female, with two saccularaneurysms situated on the same side (rightMCA, who was operated in our clinic, 20days after first SAH episode, I grade onHunt/Hess scale. The angio MRI wasperformed before, and control DSangiography after operation. After pterionalapproach, the author used themagnification, microsurgical technics,temporal clip, and two permanent Yasargilcurved clips. A postoperative good recoveryenable the patient go to work and drive onemonth later.

  1. Dominant inheritance of cerebral gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonana, J; Sotos, J F; Romshe, C A; Fisher, D A; Elders, M J; Rimoin, D L

    1977-08-01

    Cerebral gigantism is a syndrome consisting of characteristic dysmorphic features, accelerated growth in early childhood, and variable degrees of mental retardation. Its etiology and pathogenesis have not been defined. Three families are presented with multiple affected members. The vertical transmission of the trait and equal expression in both sexes in these families indicates a genetic etiology with a dominant pattern of inheritance, probably autosomal. As in previously reported cases, extensive endocrine evaluation failed to define the pathogenesis of the accelerated growth present in this disorder.

  2. Models of Cerebral System Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-20

    elements CBV and C,, are added between the brain tissue and the venous compartments, and between the cerebro - spinal fluid and the venous sinus...impact and whiplash in primates . J. Biomech., 4, 13-21. RYDER, H. W., ESPEY, F. F., KIMBELL, F. D., PENKA, E. J., ROSENAUER, A., PODOLSKY, B. and EVANS...Hirsch, A.E. (1971) Tolerances for cerebral concussion from head impact and whiplash in primates . J. Biomech. 4:13-21. Pamidi, M.R. and Advani, S.H. (1978

  3. Hyperthyroidism and cerebral venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, S; Nighoghossian, N; Berruyer, M; Derex, L; Philippeau, F; Cakmak, S; Honnorat, J; Hermier, M; Trouillas, P

    2005-01-01

    The demonstration of an underlying prothrombotic condition in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may have important practical consequences in terms of prevention. Thyrotoxicosis through a hypercoagulable state may be a predisposing factor for CVT. The authors present the cases of 4 patients who developed CVT and hyperthyroidism. At the acute stage, hyperthyroidism was associated with an increase in factor VIII (FVIII). At follow-up, FVIII level remained increased in 2 patients. Hyperthyroidism may have an impact on FVIII level. Accordingly in patients with hyperthyroidism and neurological symptoms, the diagnosis of CVT should be considered and an exhaustive coagulation screening may be appropriate. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Schizencephaly/congenital cerebral clefts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, H.; Naidich, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Schizencephaly (from the Greek meaning ''split brain''), is a term developed in the 1940s to explain symmetric clefts in the brain seen at autopsy in children with histories of severe neurologic defects. Use of the term has been expanded to include a variety of cerebral clefts. A review of the experience at Children's Memorial Hospital as well as case materials made available to the authors are presented, including CT, MR imaging, and US findings. Theories of etiology and pathogenesis of these congenital clefts, associated anomalies, and the spectrum of appearance of these clefts are discussed

  5. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyngeraa, T. S.; Pedersen, L. M.; Mantoni, T.; Belhage, B.; Rasmussen, L. S.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Pott, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  6. Mobility Experiences of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisano, Robert J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Stewart, Debra; Lawless, John J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how youth with cerebral palsy experience mobility in their daily lives using a phenomenological approach. The participants were 10 youth with cerebral palsy, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling with maximum variation strategies. A total of 14 interviews were completed. Transcripts…

  7. OCULAR FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral palsy is commonly associated with ocular abnormalities which often impact on their development and education. There is paucity of studies on this in Nigeria. We decided to study/ determine the prevalence of ocular abnormalities among children with cerebral palsy that attended the neurology clinic of University of ...

  8. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in cerebral metabolism by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects during inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Hypoxic exposure elevates cerebral perfusion, but its effect on energy metabolism has been less investigated. Magnetic resonance im...

  9. Cerebral emboli and depressive symptoms in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Hardicre, J.; Byrne, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The vascular depression hypothesis and our recent findings of increased frequency of spontaneous cerebral emboli in dementia suggest that such emboli may be involved in the causation of depressive symptoms in dementia. AIMS: To evaluate the association between spontaneous cerebral emboli

  10. Animal models of cerebral arterial gas embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Robert P.; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Hulst, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral arterial gas embolism is a dreaded complication of diving and invasive medical procedures. Many different animal models have been used in research on cerebral arterial gas embolism. This review provides an overview of the most important characteristics of these animal models. The properties

  11. MRI of sickle cell cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Goldberg, H.I.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.; Johnson, M.; Grossman, R.I.; Hecht-Leavitt, C.; Gill, F.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    Eleven patients with sickle cell disease and neurological symptoms underwent MRI examination. Cerebral infarcts of two types were found, those in the vascular distribution of the middle cerebral artery and those in the deep white matter. In the patient whose hydration and whose oxygenation of erythrocytes has been treated, MRI offers diagnostic advantages over arteriography and CT. (orig.)

  12. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li Hu

    Full Text Available Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD, stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200 detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and homocysteine was estimated at 500 m altitude, 3650 m altitude, 3 day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m, and 1 month after coming back to the 500 m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m. P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction.

  13. Does helmet CPAP reduce cerebral blood flow and volume by comparison with Infant Flow driver CPAP in preterm neonates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaramella, Patrizia; Freato, Federica; Grazzina, Nicoletta; Saraceni, Elisabetta; Vianello, Andrea; Chiandetti, Lino

    2006-10-01

    We compared neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the conventional nasal Infant Flow driver (IFD) CPAP in the noninvasive assessment of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) and relative cerebral blood volume changes (DeltaCBV) by near-infrared spectroscopy. A randomized crossover study in a tertiary referral NICU. Assessment of CBF and DeltaCBV in 17 very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress (median age 5 days) treated with two CPAP devices at a continuous distending pressure of 4 mbar. Neonates were studied for two consecutive 60-min periods with helmet CPAP and with IFD CPAP. Basal chromophore traces enabled DeltaCBV changes to be calculated. CBF was calculated in milliliters per 100 grams per minute from the saturation rise integral and rate of rise O(2)Hb-HHb. Median (range) CBF with helmet CPAP was 27.37 (9.47-48.20) vs. IFD CBF 34.74 (13.59-60.10)(p=0.049) and DeltaCBV 0.15 (0.09-0.28) with IFD and 0.13 (0.07-0.27) with helmet CPAP (NS). Using helmet and IFD CPAP, the neonates showed no difference in mean physiological parameters (transcutaneous carbon dioxide and oxygen tension, pulse oximetry saturation, heart rate, breathing rate, mean arterial blood pressure, desaturation rate, axillary temperature). Assessing CBF and DeltaCBV measured by near-infrared spectroscopy with two CPAP devices revealed no differences in relative blood volume, but CBF was lower with helmet CPAP. Greater active vasoconstriction and/or passive capillary and/or venous vessel compression seem the most likely reason, due to a positive pressure around the head, neck, and shoulders by comparison with the airway pressure.

  14. Adrenergic-induced enhancement of brain barrier system permeability to small nonelectrolytes: choroid plexus versus cerebral capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, V.A.; Johanson, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Acute hypertension induced by adrenergic agents opens up the blood-CSF barrier (choroid plexus) to nonelectrolyte and protein tracers. Sprague-Dawley adult rats anesthetized with ketamine were given an intravenous bolus of either epinephrine (10 micrograms/kg), phenylephrine (100 micrograms/kg), isoproterenol (10 micrograms/kg), or D,L-amphetamine (2 mg/kg). Tracers were injected simultaneously with test agents, and the animals killed 10 min later. Epinephrine raised MABP by 57 mm Hg, to a peak pressure of 160 mm Hg; and it increased the volume of distribution (Vd) of urea, mannitol, and 125 I-bovine serum albumin in CSF by 1.5-, 2.7-, and 30-fold, respectively. There was enhanced uptake by lateral and fourth ventricle choroid plexuses, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, medulla, and thalamus. Phenylephrine also elevated MABP to 160 mm Hg, but it increased permeation of tracers into CSF (and several brain regions) to a lesser extent than epinephrine, attributable to protective vasoconstriction associated with alpha-agonist activity. Ratio analysis of Vd data provides evidence that augmented permeation of nonelectrolyte tracers in acute hypertension occurs predominantly by diffusion rather than vesicular transport. It is postulated that elevated MABP distends the central cores of choroid plexus villi and cerebral capillaries, with resultant stretching and opening of tight junctions in both barrier systems; with less hindrance to diffusion, urea and mannitol are cleared at rates closer to free diffusion. Neither isoproterenol (decreased MABP by 40 mm Hg) nor amphetamine (did not alter MABP) significantly opened the choroid plexus or blood-brain barrier to tracers

  15. Monitoring cerebral hemodynamics with transcranial Doppler ultrasound during cognitive and exercise testing in adults following unilateral stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Brian P; Burnfield, Judith M; Truemper, Edward J; Buster, Thad W; Bashford, Gregory R

    2012-01-01

    An observational study was performed as a preliminary investigation into the use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) for recording cerebral hemodynamic changes during multiple tasks. TCD is a method of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) using ultrasound transducers in contact with the surface of the head. Using the maximum flow envelope of the Doppler spectrum returning from the middle cerebral artery (MCA), standard clinical flow indices can be calculated and displayed in real time providing information concerning perturbations in CBF and their potential cause. These indices as well as flow velocity measurements have been recognized as useful in measuring changes in responses to various stimulus that can be used to indicate cardiovascular health. For this study, the pulsatility index (PI) and resistivity index (RI) were chosen since they indicate composite changes indicative of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation which are normal hemodynamic responses under appropriate conditions. A total of eleven participants were recruited to take part in this study. Nine of these individuals had no known disability (Controls); two had experienced unilateral cerebrovascular accidents (Strokes) in the ipsilateral MCA distribution. Maximum velocity envelopes of the spectral Doppler data were recorded using a fixation device designed to stabilize two ultrasound probes (2 MHz) to sample the bilateral MCAs CBF. These measures were performed separately while the subject performed four activities: 1) rest, 2) cognitive challenge, 3) cardiovascular exercise, and 4) simultaneous exercise and cognitive challenge. Cardiovascular parameters were calculated from the data by extracting maximum (Vs) and minimum flow velocities (Vd), PI, RI, and time signatures for each cardiac cycle. The data for all participants shows significant changes in cardiovascular parameters between states of rest and exercise, as well as slight trends across time. Although the data are preliminary, they show

  16. USE OF BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE A IN THE TREATMENT OF SPASTICITY IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Lazić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy has an incidence of about 1-2 per 1000 live births, and in spite of the progress of neonatal medicine, it seems that the incidence will not subside in the near future. The most important characteristic of cerebral palsy is movement abnormality: spasticity, chorea, athetosis, ataxia, dystonia, as well as their different combinations. About 70% of children who suffer from cerebral palsy also suffer from some form of spasticity. Spasticity is a type of muscle hypertonicity characterized by rapid increase in resistance to passive stretching of muscles. The interest for botulinum toxin application in the treatment of spasticity has dramatically increased in the last 10 years. Botulinum toxin is the most powerful neurotoxin that is found in nature. It is produced by anaerobic bacteria – clostridium botulinum. It is produced in eight serotypes of which type A is the most commonly used. Botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission and causes irreversible weakness of the treated muscle. It has been used since 1993 in the treatment of cerebral palsy in children. The toxin effect is permanent and it results in irreversible denervation. Functional recovery is possible after 2-4 months, due to sprouting of nerve endings and the formation of new synaptic contacts. Treatment with botulinum toxin is safe. Adverse effects are rare, temporary and completely reversible. Application of botulinum toxin prevents or reduces contractures and deformities, and thus delays or avoids surgical treatment. Yet, physical therapy, which prolongs and improves the effects of botulinum toxin, remains an essential and most important form of therapy in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy.

  17. Women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystedt, Astrid; Högberg, Ulf; Lundman, Berit

    2008-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour. The negativity associated with a complicated labour such as prolonged labour can lead to a struggle to become a healthy mother and could restrict the process of becoming a mother. Interviews were conducted in 2004 with 10 mothers who had been through a prolonged labour with assisted vaginal or caesarean delivery 1-3 months previously. Thematic content analysis was used. Three themes were formulated, describing women's experiences as fumbling in the dark, struggling for motherhood and achieving confidence in being a mother. The difficulties and suffering involved in becoming a mother after a prolonged labour were interpreted to be like 'fumbling in the dark'. Women experienced bodily fatigue, accompanied by feelings of illness and detachment from the child. Having the child when in this condition entailed a struggle to become a mother. In spite of these experiences and the desire to achieve confidence in being a mother, the reassurance of these women regarding their capacity for motherhood was crucial: it was central to their happiness as mothers, encouraged interaction and relationship with the child, and contributed to their adaptation to motherhood. Women experiencing prolonged labour may be comparable with the experience of and recovery from illness, which could contribute to difficulties transitioning to motherhood and limit a woman's ability to be emotionally available for the child.

  18. Non operative management of cerebral abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, C. A.

    2018-03-01

    Cerebral abscess is a focal intracerebral infection that begins as a localized area of cerebritis and develops into a collection of pus surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. Patients typically present with varying combinations of aheadache, progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, and evidence of infection. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imagingare the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosing cerebral abscess. The treatment of cerebral abscess has been a challenge. Small cerebralabscesses (managed by the use of intravenous mannitol (or hypertonic saline) and dexamethasone. Acute seizures should be terminated with the administration of intravenous benzodiazepines or by intravenous fosphenytoin. Anticonvulsants prophylaxis must be initiated immediately and continued at least one year due to high risk in the cerebral abscesses. Easier detection of underlying conditions, monitoring of the therapeutic progress, and recognition of complications have probably contributed to the improved prognosis.

  19. CT findings in patients with cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Kimiichi

    1982-01-01

    Clinical findings and CT findings in 73 cases of cerebral palsy were studied. The causes of cerebral palsy were presumed to be as follows: abnormal cerebral development (36%), asphyxial delivery (34%), and immature delivery (19%), etc. CT findings were abnormal in 58% of the 73 cases, 83% of the spastic tetraplegia patients and all of the spastic hemiplegia patients showed abnormal CT findings. All the patients with spastic monoplegia presented normal CT findings. In 75% of the spastic hemiplegia cases, the CT abnormalities were due to cerebral parenchymal abnormality such as porencephaly and regional low absorption. In cases of spastic tetraplegia, cerebral parenchymal abnormality was found only in 10%. Cortical atrophy was found only in 15 of the 73 cases, whereas central atrophy was found in 36 cases. (Ueda, J.)

  20. Evaluation of cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolism and cerebral function by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Chuzo; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Umeda, Masahiro; Naruse, Shoji; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Ueda, Satoshi; Furuya, Seiichi.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic resonance (MR) method has the unique potentiality of detecting cerebral metabolites, cerebral blood flow and brain functions in a noninvasive fashion. We have developed several MR techniques to detect these cerebral parameters with the use of clinical MRI scanners. By modifying the MR spectroscopy (MRS) technique, both 31 P- and 1 H-MRS data can be obtained from multiple, localized regions (multi-voxel method) of the brain, and the distribution of each metabolite in the brain can be readily visualized by metabolite mapping. The use of diffusion weighted images (DWI) permits visualization of the anisotropy of water diffusion in white matter, and based on the difference of diffusion coefficiency, the differential diagnosis between epidermoid tumor and arachnoid cyst can be made. By employing dynamic-MRI (Dyn-MRI) with Gd-DTPA administration, it is possible to examine the difference in blood circulation between brain tumor tissue and normal tissue, as well as among different types of brain tumors. By using magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) imaging, it has become possible to detect brain tumors, and with a small dose of Gd-DTPA, to visualize the vascular system. Functional MRI (fMRI) visualizes the activated brain by using conventional gradient echo technique on conventional MRI scanners. This method has the unique characteristic of detecting a brain function with high spatial and temporal resolution by using the intrinsic substance. Moreover, the localization of motor and sensory areas was detected by noninvasive means within few minutes. The fMRI procedure will be used in the future to analyze the higher and complex brain functions. In conclusion, multi-modality MR is a powerful technique that is useful for investigating the pathogenesis of many diseases, and provides a noninvasive analytic modality for studying brain function. (author)

  1. Lifetime costs of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs....... social care costs and productivity costs associated with CP point to a potential gain from labour market interventions that benefit individuals with CP.......This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs...... in 2000. The prevalence of CP in eastern Denmark was approximately 1.7 per 1000. Information on productivity and the use of health care was retrieved from registers. The lifetime cost of CP was about euro860 000 for men and about euro800 000 for women. The largest component was social care costs...

  2. Radiotherapy in primary cerebral lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, L.; Benezery, K.; Lagrange, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Primary cerebral lymphoma is a rare disease with an unfavorable prognosis. Whole brain radiotherapy has been the standard treatment, but neither the optimal radiation fields nor optimal dose level of the regimen are as yet firmly establisheD. From this review of the literature, it seems that the whole brain must be treated, and a boost to the area of the primary site must be discussed. With regard to dose, the radiation dose-response relationship is not clearly proven. Yet, a minimum dose of 40 Gy is necessary, and the maximum dose is set at 50 Gy because of late neurological sequelae. Because of the poor prognosis of this disease and the risk of late sequelae, other avenues have been explored. Chemotherapy has been studied, seem to have a survival advantage and combinations of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, especially with high-dose methotrexate. Because primary cerebral lymphoma is an uncommon disease, randomized clinical trials that compare radiotherapy alone to chemotherapy plus radiotherapy may not be feasible. Finally, even if chemotherapy seems to have a survival advantage, the regimen of chemotherapy is still a matter of debate. (authors)

  3. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE; Fu-quan HUO; Jing-shi TANG

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a complex experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitiv e-emotional com-ponents mediated by different mechanisms. Contrary to the traditional view that the cerebral cortex is not involved in pain perception, an extensive cortical network associated with pain processing has been revealed using multiple methods over the past decades. This network consistently includes, at least, the anterior cingulate cortex, the agranular insular cortex, the primary (SⅠ) and secondary somatosensory (SⅡ) cortices, the ventrolateral orbital cortex and the motor cortex. These corti-cal structures constitute the medial and lateral pain systems, the nucleus submedius-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaque-ductal gray system and motor cortex system, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitters, including opioid, glutamate, GABA and dopamine, are involved in the modulation of pain by these cortical structures. In addition, glial cells may also be in-volved in cortical modulation of pain and serve as one target for pain management research. This review discusses recent studies of pain modulation by these cerebral cortical structures in animals and human.

  4. Neuroimaging patterns of cerebral hyperperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, S.; Portnov, Yu; Semenov, A.; Korotkevich, A.; Kokov, A.

    2017-08-01

    Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after revascularization is a rare phenomenon associated with post-ischemic (reactive) hyperemia and acute pathological hyperperfusion. First described on perfusion CT as a very often moderate CBF increase, MTT/TTP decrease within 30% like a temporary effect, according to a short-time deterioration of neurological symptoms (vestibular ataxia - 58%, vegetative dysfunction - 100%, asthenic syndrome - 100%) in early postoperative period in patients with cardiac ischemia who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery. The acute pathological hyperperfusion carotid revascularization is a casuistic phenomenon with two- or three-fold CBV and MTT/TTP increase and high hemorrhage risk. Besides, we detected similar exchanges via perfusion CT called benign hyperemia, which marks extension of MTT/TTP and an increase of CBV from 27% to 48% (average 30%), but with normal CBF-parameters, indicating that venous stasis in acute venous ischemic stroke due cerebral venous sinus-trombosis (68%), only 6% in cardioembolic stroke and appears never in arterial stroke. Territorial coincidence registered for perifocal of necrosis zones of benign hyperemia and vasogenic edema accompanied on MRI (DWI, ADC). Secondary hemorrhagic transformation registered for primary non-hemorrhagic venous stroke in 27%, only in 9% for arterial stroke and in 60% for cardioembolic stroke. Probably, congestion is an increasingly predisposing factor secondary hemorrhaging than necrosis.

  5. Headache, cerebral aneurysms, and the use of triptans and ergot derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Eric P

    2015-05-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the correlation between unruptured cerebral aneurysms and their role in headache etiology. It is also unclear whether surgical endovascular treatment may improve or worsen the headache, and if there are predictable factors for headache outcome such as pre-existing headache features, aneurysm characteristics, or other medical history. There is debate regarding safe treatment of migraine in patients with aneurysms, both before and after endovascular treatments. Particularly, there is hesitancy to use the triptans and ergot derivatives such as dihydroergotamine because of their vasoconstrictive effects and concern for adverse events related to the aneurysm such as aneurysmal instability and rupture. To review the literature regarding the anatomy, pathophysiology, and association between headache, untreated vs surgically treated aneurysms, and the use of triptans and ergot derivatives for migraine treatment in this setting. Associations between some headaches and aneurysms may exist. Some chronic headaches may respond to surgical aneurysm repair while others may worsen. These associations are undefined by current literature because of variable results, study methods, and limited data. Prospective studies are needed which incorporate pre- and post-procedure headache character and diagnosis, aneurysm characteristics, type of aneurysm repair, associated risk factors for worsening post-procedure headache, and ultimately combining all of these data to better predict headache outcome following surgical aneurysm treatment. Lastly, the caution and avoidance of triptan and ergot derivative use for migraine in the setting of aneurysm is not supported by the current evidence, and much of this concern may be excessive and unwarranted, although more evidence confirming safety is needed. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  6. Prolonged social withdrawal disorder: a hikikomori case in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, Santiago; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; de León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    The Japanese term hikikomori means literally 'to be confined'. Social withdrawal can be present in severe psychiatric disorders; however, in Japan, hikikomori is a defined nosologic entity. There have been only a few reported cases in occidental culture. We present a case report of a Spanish man with prolonged social withdrawal lasting for 4 years. This is a case of prolonged social withdrawal not bound to culture, as well as the second case of hikikomori reported in Spain. We propose prolonged social withdrawal disorder as a disorder not linked to culture, in contrast to hikikomori. Further documentation of this disorder is still needed to encompass all cases reported in Japan and around the world. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Left Ventricular Function After Prolonged Exercise in Equine Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional speckle tracking. Correlation between echocardiographic variables and cardiac troponin I was evaluated. Results: Early diastolic myocardial velocities decreased significantly in longitudinal (baseline: −17.4 ± 2.4cm/s; end of ride: −15.8 ± 3.2cm/s (P = .013); morning......Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...... and diastolic function in horses. Animals: Twenty-six horses competing in 120–160 km endurance rides. Methods: Cross-sectional field study. Echocardiography was performed before and after rides, and the following morning, and included two-dimensional echocardiography, anatomical M-mode, pulsed-wave tissue...

  8. Incidence of epilepsy among patients with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertin Sianturi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic condition due to cerebral function disorders. Epilepsy occurs as a common complication of many neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP that can affect further brain damage especially if they are with prolonged seizure. The incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP varies between 25-35%. The high incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP suggests that this disorder has common or related origins. We carried out the retrospective study to determine incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP registered within July 1988 to June 1998 in YPAC Medan and to determine whether the incidence of epilepsy differed according to type of CP. Data were compiled from medical records, including name, sex, parity, mothers age, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history, and EEG results. Data were analyzed using statistical computer program and its significance was evaluated by chi square test at p < 0,05. There were 67 cases with CP, 53 cases spastic CP, 13 cases mixed CP and one case dyskinetic CP. Of the 67 cases CP, 47,8% male, 52,2% female and mean age 50,3 (SD 36,9 months. There were 25 (37,3% patients CP associated with epilepsy, 72% general seizures, 20% partial seizures, and 8% infantile spasms. The incidence of epilepsy was significant different among patients with CP associated with type of CP and gestasional age, p < 0,05. We concluded that incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP in YPAC Medan was 37,3% and significantly different among patients with CP according to type CP and gestasional age.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in late-life depression. Relation to refractoriness and chronification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awata, Shuichi; Konno, Michiko; Sato, Mitsumoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    We examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in 18 patients with major depressive disorder in late life using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 99m Tc-hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the parietal cortex, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. However, it was not correlated with the severity of depression or global cognitive dysfunction. In 10 patients with a prolonged depressive episode or prolonged residual symptoms (the refractory subgroup), robust and extensive decreases in rCBF were found compared with controls and the rCBF decreased significantly in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex compared with that in the non-refractory subgroup. In the non-reflactory subgroup, rCBF decreased significantly in the caudate nucleus and tended to decrease in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with controls. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the limbic system, the cerebral association cortex and the caudate nucleus may be implicated in late-life depression and that robust and extensive hypoperfusion, especially in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal regions, may relate to refractoriness or chronification of depression. (author). 60 refs

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in late-life depression. Relation to refractoriness and chronification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, Shuichi; Konno, Michiko; Sato, Mitsumoto [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine; Ito, Hiroshi; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1998-02-01

    We examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in 18 patients with major depressive disorder in late life using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). Compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the parietal cortex, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. However, it was not correlated with the severity of depression or global cognitive dysfunction. In 10 patients with a prolonged depressive episode or prolonged residual symptoms (the refractory subgroup), robust and extensive decreases in rCBF were found compared with controls and the rCBF decreased significantly in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex compared with that in the non-refractory subgroup. In the non-reflactory subgroup, rCBF decreased significantly in the caudate nucleus and tended to decrease in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with controls. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the limbic system, the cerebral association cortex and the caudate nucleus may be implicated in late-life depression and that robust and extensive hypoperfusion, especially in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal regions, may relate to refractoriness or chronification of depression. (author). 60 refs.

  11. Insulin Detemir Is Transported From Blood to Cerebrospinal Fluid and Has Prolonged Central Anorectic Action Relative to NPH Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P.; May, Aaron A.; Mul, Joram D.; Liu, Min; D’Alessio, David A.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin detemir (DET) reduces glycemia comparably to other long-acting insulin formulations but causes less weight gain. Insulin signaling in the brain is catabolic, reducing food intake. We hypothesized that DET reduces weight gain, relative to other insulins, owing to increased transport into the central nervous system and/or increased catabolic action within the brain. Transport of DET and NPH insulin into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was compared over several hours and after the administration of different doses peripherally in rats. DET and NPH had comparable saturable, receptor-mediated transport into the CSF. CSF insulin remained elevated significantly longer after intraperitoneal DET than after NPH. When administered acutely into the 3rd cerebral ventricle, both DET and NPH insulin reduced food intake and body weight at 24 h, and both food intake and body weight remained lower after DET than after NPH after 48 h. In direct comparison with another long-acting insulin, insulin glargine (GLAR), DET led to more prolonged increases in CSF insulin despite a shorter plasma half-life in both rats and mice. Additionally, peripheral DET administration reduced weight gain and increased CSF insulin compared with saline or GLAR in mice. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that DET has distinct effects on energy balance through enhanced and prolonged centrally mediated reduction of food intake. PMID:25667307

  12. Cerebral vasculitis associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camuset Guillaume

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral involvement in schistosomiasis is not rare, but it is underdiagnosed because of the lack of clinical suspicion and the frequency of asymptomatic forms. Neurologic complications are generally supported by granuloma formation around ectopic eggs which have migrated to the brain. Moreover, vascular lesions and cerebral arteritis have been well documented in histopathological studies. Nevertheless, cerebral vasculitis in later stages of the Schistosoma mansoni infection have not yet been described in living subjects. Case presentation A 28-year-old french woman had a stroke linked with cerebral vasculitis, 6 monthes after returning from Burkina-Faso. At the same time, a S. mansoni disseminated infection was diagnosed. She suffered from a new stroke after undertaking praziquantel therapy, which lead us to associate the S. mansoni infection and cerebral vasculitis. Conclusion This is the first report of such association, since cerebral vasculitis has never been described in later stages of the S. mansoni infection. Although the causal link between the two pathologies could not be proved, we suggest that S. mansoni is able to cause severe vascular damage in cerebral vessels. Schistosomiasis must be investigated in the event of a brain infarct in young people, particularly in patients originating or returning from an endemic area.

  13. Cerebral intolerance during flow arrested carotid angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Myron; Park, Brian D; Dahn, Michael; Bozeman, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The use of flow arrest as a means of providing cerebral protection during carotid angioplasty offers the advantages of improved efficiency of debris removal and the ability to provide protection under unfavorable (tortuous) anatomic circumstances. However, in contrast to the filtration methods of cerebral protection, this modality requires complete interruption of antegrade carotid artery flow during balloon angioplasty and stent deployment. We report our experience with 9 patients undergoing carotid angioplasty with the Mo.Ma device, which utilizes common and external carotid artery balloon occlusion during the angioplasty procedure. We assessed the clinical outcomes and intraprocedural hemodynamic data. The average duration of carotid occlusion was 8.3 minutes. Of the 9 patients, 2 patients (22%) experienced cerebral intolerance. No stroke occurred in this patient cohort. There appeared to be a poor relationship between procedure intolerance and the presence of significant contralateral stenosis or low carotid back pressure. Furthermore, the incidence of postangioplasty hypotension was not clearly related to cerebral intolerance. Carotid angioplasty with stenting can be safely conducted with flow arrest as an alternative to filter-type cerebral protection devices. However, because cerebral intolerance is not an infrequent occurrence with this approach, clinicians must be cognizant of management strategies for transient cerebral intolerance.

  14. Cerebellar malformations alter regional cerebral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Marie-Eve; Du Plessis, Adre J; Evans, Alan; Guizard, Nicolas; Zhang, Xun; Robertson, Richard L; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and regional cerebral volumes in children with isolated cerebellar malformations (CBMs) with those in typically developing children, and to examine the extent to which cerebellar volumetric reductions are associated with total and regional cerebral volumes. This is a case-control study of children diagnosed with isolated CBMs. Each child was matched on age and sex to two typically developing children. Using advanced three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, the cerebrum was segmented into tissue classes and partitioned into eight regions. Analysis of variance was used to compare cerebral volumes between children with CBMs and control children, and linear regressions to examine the impact of cerebellar volume reduction on cerebral volumes. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at a mean age of 27 months in 20 children (10 males, 10 females) with CBMs and 40 typically developing children. Children with CBMs showed significantly smaller deep grey matter nuclei (p developing children. Greater cerebellar volumetric reduction in children with CBMs was associated with decreased total cerebral volume and deep grey matter nuclei (p = 0.02), subgenual white/grey matter (p = 0.001), midtemporal white (p = 0.02) and grey matter (p = 0.01), and parieto-occipital grey matter (p = 0.004). CBMs are associated with impaired regional cerebral growth, suggesting deactivation of principal cerebello-cerebral pathways. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Embodying Investigations of Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke

    to understand what it means for persons to live with CP and then figure out how we should help them . Based on his method of open - minded cognitive science, Martiny presents data on neuro - physiological, psychological and social aspects of living with CP. From this theoretical work, Martiny develops......The main question of Kristian Martiny’s dissertation is: how do we help persons living with the brain damage, cerebral palsy (CP)? This question is as complex and difficult to answer as any healthcare question. Martiny argues that we need to ‘open up’ how we do ( cognitive ) science in order...... an embodied - based model of intervention for CP, focusing on the experience of self control as a way to help people with CP. In addition, a theatre performance, Humane Liquidation , and a documentary film, Natural Disorder, are developed so as to both communicate what it means to live with CP and empower...

  16. [Cerebral artery thrombosis in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charco Roca, L M; Ortiz Sanchez, V E; Hernandez Gutierrez-Manchon, O; Quesada Villar, J; Bonmatí García, L; Rubio Postigo, G

    2015-11-01

    A 28 year old woman, ASA I, who, in the final stages of her pregnancy presented with signs of neural deficit that consisted of distortion of the oral commissure, dysphagia, dysarthria, and weakness on the left side of the body. She was diagnosed with thrombosis in a segment of the right middle cerebral artery which led to an ischemic area in the right frontal lobe. Termination of pregnancy and conservative treatment was decided, with good resolution of the symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Cerebral hemisphere astrocytoma: Treatment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyages, J.; Tiver, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Eighty two adult patients with histologically proven cerebral astrocytomas of grades I to IV received post-operative radiotherapy at Westmead Hospital between January 1980 and February 1985. Seventy one patients completed a course of megavoltage irradiation, the majority having received a tumour dose of at least 60 Gy. Patients who underwent surgical resection had a greater median survival than those undergoing biopsy, but the difference was not statistically significant. By grade, the difference reached statistical significance only for grade III tumours. Patients with high grade tumours had a significantly lower survival than those patients with tumours of low grade. After adjustment for grade, various dosage levels did not significantly affect survival, although there was a trend towards improved median survival with higher doses in grade III tumours. When included in a multivariate analysis, the extent of surgery did not significantly influence survival, but increasing tumour grade and increasing age were significant adverse prognostic factors. (Auth.)

  18. The serpentine mitral valve and cerebral embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker James

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Valvular strands, well-delineated filiform masses, attached to cardiac valve edges are associated with cerebral embolism and stroke. Strokes, caused by emboli from valvular strands, tend to occur among younger persons. In this case report a valvular strand, giving a peculiar serpentine appearance to the mitral valve is described. This mitral valvular strand was the only explanation for an episode of cerebral embolism, presenting with a transient right sided hemiparesis. It is proposed that a randomized study involving combined treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel is warranted in young patients with valvular strands, presenting with a first episode of cerebral embolism.

  19. Validation of a Cerebral Palsy Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Monica; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Uldall, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse completeness and validity of data in the Cerebral Palsy Register in Denmark, 1979-1982. METHODS: Completeness has been assessed by comparing data from The Danish National Patient Register (DNPR) with the cases included in the Cerebral Palsy Register (CPR). Agreement between......, but gestational age was subject to a systematic error, and urinary infections in pregnancy (kappa = 0.43) and placental abruption (kappa = 0.52) were seriously under-reported in the CPR. CONCLUSIONS: Completeness of the Cerebral Palsy Register in Denmark, 1979-1982, has been assessed to maximal 85%, emphasizing...

  20. Cerebral palsy in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeši-Drljan Čila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cerebral palsy (CP is one of the leading causes of neurological impairment in childhood. Preterm birth is a significant risk factor in the occurrence of CP. Clinical outcomes may include impairment of gross motor function and intellectual abilities, visual impairment and epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among gestational age, type of CP, functional ability and associated conditions. Methods. The sample size was 206 children with CP. The data were obtained from medical records and included gestational age at birth, clinical characteristics of CP and associated conditions. Clinical CP type was determined according to Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE and topographically. Gross motor function abilities were evaluated according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Results. More than half of the children with CP were born prematurely (54.4%. Statistically significant difference was noted with respect to the distribution of various clinical types of CP in relation to gestational age (p < 0.001. In the group with spastic bilateral CP type, there is a greater proportion of children born preterm. Statistically significant difference was noted in the functional classification based on GMFCS in terms of gestational age (p = 0.049, children born at earlier gestational age are classified at a higher GMFCS level of functional limitation. The greatest percentage of children (70.0% affected by two or more associated conditions was found in the group that had extremely preterm birth, and that number declined with increasing maturity at birth. Epilepsy was more prevalent in children born at greater gestational age, and this difference in distribution was statistically significant (p = 0.032. Conclusion. The application of antenatal and postnatal protection of preterm children should be a significant component of the CP prevention strategy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  1. Public stigma of prolonged grief disorder : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.

    Prolonged grief disorder (PGD), characterized by severe, persistent and disabling grief, is being considered for inclusion in the International Classification of Diseases’ 11 (ICD-11) and a related disorder, Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD), is included for further investigation in the

  2. Prolonged use of indwelling urinary catheter following acute urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.O. Bello

    prolonged use of urinary catheters following acute urinary retention secondary to benign prostate enlarge- ment (BPE) and urethral ... indwelling urinary catheter for >3 months following acute urinary retention due to BPE or USD. The study .... the major health-care financing strategy in Nigeria and accounts for more than ...

  3. Assessing QT interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Graff, Claus; Kanters, Jørgen K.

    2011-01-01

    markers for TdP have been developed but none of them is clinically implemented yet and QT interval prolongation is still considered the most valid surrogate marker. Although automated QT interval determination may offer some assistance, QT interval determination is best performed by a cardiologist skilled...

  4. MRI findings of prolonged post-traumatic sternal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Anderson, Suzanne; Steinbach, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the different causes of prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma with involvement of the sternum and to define criteria for sternal nonunion diagnosis using MRI. Five patients with abnormalities of the sternum were evaluated for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma using MRI. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. The patients were selected from the radiology database, which included 8 patients with post-traumatic prolonged sternal pain. Two patients (n = 2) revealed a sternal nonunion after sternal fracture. One patient had a sternal fracture with delayed union and minor displacement of the sternal halves. Abnormal signal intensity alterations adjacent to and within the manubrio-sternal joint were evident in 2 patients and considered due to trauma-related changes in the manubrio-sternal joint. The 3 patients who were not included in the study had no abnormalities of the sternum: 1 of them proved to have a well-healed sternal fracture and nonunion of a rib fracture, 1 had subtle Tietze's syndrome, and 1 patient revealed no pathological findings on imaging. Various factors may be responsible for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma, and these can be viewed with MRI. In cases of sternal nonunion there was common fluid-like signal in the fracture interspace between the bony edges, and the bone marrow adjacent to the nonunion showed altered signal intensity. MRI identified sternal nonunion and other trauma-related abnormalities of the sternum following chest trauma. (orig.)

  5. Diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation for prolonged fasting arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Yamanaka, Toshiro

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen acquisition for cellular metabolism during diapause is a primary concern for herbivorous arthropods. Analyses of naturally occurring stable isotopes of nitrogen help elucidate the mechanism. Relevant articles have cited (58 times up to mid-June 2011) anomalously elevated δ(15)N (per mil deviation of (15)N/(14)N, relative to atmospheric nitrogen=0 ‰) values (diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation; up to 12 ‰) for a prolonged fasting raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus Degeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae)), which feeds on red raspberries (Rubus idaeus: δ(15)N= ~ +2 ‰). Biologists have hypothesised that extensive recycling of amino acid nitrogen is responsible for the prolonged fasting. Since this hypothesis was proposed in 1995, scientists have integrated biochemical and molecular knowledge to support the mechanism of prolonged diapausing of animals. To test the validity of the recycling hypothesis, we analysed tissue nitrogen isotope ratios for four Japanese arthropods: the shield bug Parastrachia japonensis Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), the burrower bug Canthophorus niveimarginatus Scott (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), leaf beetle Gastrophysa atrocyanea Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the Japanese oak silkworm Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), all of which fast for more than 6 months as part of their life-history strategy. Resulting diet-consumer nitrogen isotope discrimination during fasting ranged from 0 to 7‰, as in many commonly known terrestrial arthropods. We conclude that prolonged fasting of arthropods does not always result in anomalous diet-consumer nitrogen isotope fractionation, since the recycling process is closed or nearly closed with respect to nitrogen isotopes.

  6. Prolonged Intrauterine Retention of Foetal Bones after Midtrimester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged retention of foetal bones in the uterus is a rare complication of induced abortion. We present the case of a 37 year old nullipara with retained foetal bones following a second trimester induced abortion. Accurate diagnosis and removal of the bony fragments led to restoration of fertility and subsequent delivery of a ...

  7. QTc-prolonging drugs and hospitalizations for cardiac arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruin, ML; Hoes, AW; Leufkens, HGM

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia as an adverse effect of noncardiac drugs has been an issue of growing importance during the past few years. In this population-based study, we evaluated the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmias during the use of several noncardiac QTc-prolonging drugs in day-to-day practice, and

  8. The Prolonged Neonatal Admission: Implications for our National Children's Hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGlacken-Byrne, SM

    2016-06-01

    A significant number of neonates are admitted to tertiary paediatric units for prolonged stays annually, despite limited availability of neonatal beds. As the three Dublin paediatric hospitals merge, this pressure will be transferred to our new National Children’s Hospital.\\r\

  9. The Importance of Prolonged Provocation in Drug Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Sara; Mosbech, Holger; Kappel, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug provocation is the "Gold Standard" in drug allergy investigation. Recent studies suggest that a negative drug provocation on first dose should be followed by a prolonged provocation over several days. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate drug allergy investigations on the basis of drug...

  10. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, J.A. van der; Warle, M.C.; Cheung, C.L.; Teerenstra, S.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    van der Vliet JA, Warle MC, Cheung CLS, Teerenstra S, Hoitsma AJ. Influence of prolonged cold ischemia in renal transplantation. Clin Transplant 2011: 25: E612-E616. (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Aim: To determine to what extent current cold ischemia times (CITs) affect the results of

  11. The impact of obesity on physiological responses during prolonged exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Veltmeijer, M.T.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Poelkens, F.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Prolonged, moderate-intensity exercise training is routinely prescribed to subjects with obesity. In the general population, this type of exercise can lead to fluid and sodium imbalance. However, little is known whether obesity alters the risk of fluid and sodium imbalances.Objective:This

  12. Physiological response of rabbit bucks to prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four (64) weanling rabbit bucks, 5 to 6 weeks old, were involved in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment to evaluate the effects of prolonged feeding of cottonseed cake (CSC) – based diets with or without vitamin E supplementation on the physiological response of the bucks. There were eight treatment combinations comprising ...

  13. Single Prolonged Stress Disrupts Retention of Extinguished Fear in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; George, Sophie A.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Maren, Stephen; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with deficits in fear extinction. However, it is not clear whether these deficits result from stress-related changes in the acquisition or retention of extinction or in the regulation of extinction memories by context, for example. In this study, we used the single prolonged stress…

  14. Internalized stigma in adults with early phase versus prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; Luther, Lauren; Yanos, Philip T; Leonhardt, Bethany; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2018-03-30

    Although internalized stigma is associated with negative outcomes among those with prolonged psychosis, surprisingly little work has focused on when in the course of one's illness stigma is internalized and the impact of internalization on symptoms or social functioning over the course of the illness. Therefore, this study investigated whether (1) internalized stigma is greater among those later in the course of psychosis and (2) whether internalized stigma has a stronger negative relationship with social functioning or symptoms among those with prolonged compared to early phase psychosis. Individuals with early phase (n = 40) and prolonged psychosis (n = 71) who were receiving outpatient services at an early-intervention clinic and a VA medical center, respectively, completed self-report measures of internalized stigma and interview-rated measures of symptoms and social functioning. Controlling for education, race and sex differences, internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with prolonged psychosis compared to early phase. Internalized stigma was negatively related to social functioning and positively related to symptoms in both groups. Furthermore, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive symptoms and internalized stigma was significantly greater among those with early phase. Stereotype endorsement, discrimination experiences and social withdrawal also differentially related to symptoms and social functioning across the 2 samples. Findings suggest that internalized stigma is an important variable to incorporate into models of early psychosis. Furthermore, internalized stigma may be a possible treatment target among those with early phase psychosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Brain activity and fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil; Hyldig, Tino; Bidstrup, F.

    2001-01-01

    We hypothesized that fatigue due to hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in the heat is in part related to alterations in frontal cortical brain activity. The electroencephalographic activity (EEG) of the frontal cortex of the brain was measured in seven cyclists [maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) 4...... min of exercise; P

  16. Streptococcus suis meningitis can require a prolonged treatment course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dejace

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of recrudescent Streptococcus suis meningitis requiring a prolonged treatment course. A few similar cases can be found in the burgeoning literature on what remains a relatively uncommon disease in humans, and these patients should be monitored carefully upon completion of therapy. Keywords: Meningitis, Relapse, Duration, Streptococcus suis

  17. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  18. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic Significance Of QT Interval Prolongation In Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prognostic survival studies for heart-rate corrected QT interval in patients with chronic heart failure are few; although these patients are known to have a high risk of sudden cardiac death. This study was aimed at determining the mortality risk associated with prolonged QTc in Nigerians with heart failure. Ninety-six ...

  20. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  1. Prolonged multifocal electroretinographic implicit times in the ocular ischemic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    .4 +/- 1.7 mm Hg, respectively. Summed mfERG implicit times (N1, P1, N2) were prolonged in eyes with OIS, by 7.6%, 6.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, compared with fellow eyes (P macula, whereas the assessment of responses from...

  2. Prolongation Structure of Semi-discrete Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yongqiang; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong; Guo Hanying

    2007-01-01

    Based on noncommutative differential calculus, we present a theory of prolongation structure for semi-discrete nonlinear evolution equations. As an illustrative example, a semi-discrete model of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is discussed in terms of this theory and the corresponding Lax pairs are also given.

  3. Inclusion rate and physiological effects of prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of incluusion of cocoa bean cake (CBC) on productive performance and physiological response of Isa Brown pullets to prolonged feeding of CBC were investigated. Dietary Inclusions or CBC (0, 50, 100 and 200g/ kg-1 diet) were monitored in typical poultry diets from day old to 51 weeks of age. Sexual maturity ...

  4. Preferences for Prolonging Life: A Prospect Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Laraine; Lawton, M. Powell; Ruckdeschel, Katy

    2003-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) Prospect theory was tested as a model of preferences for prolonging life under various hypothetical health statuses. A sample of 384 elderly people living in congregate housing (263 healthy, 131 frail) indicated how long (if at all) they would want to live under each of nine hypothetical health conditions (e.g.,…

  5. Identifying Molecular Targets For PTSD Treatment Using Single Prolonged Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder that can...SPS animals. Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) is associated with neurocognitive impairments that have been attributed to functional deficits...and resilience. 2. KEYWORDS Post - traumatic stress disorder , Single Prolonged Stress , Neurobiological Mechanisms 5 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS

  6. Effect Of Prolonged Monocular Occlusion On Latent Nystagms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe authors recorded nystagmus during seeing with one eye in eight patients with latent nystagmus (LN) before and after two or three days of prolonged occlusion of the better eye (POBE). Before POBE, the slow-phase speed of the nystagmus (SPS) was usually higher when the better eye was

  7. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  8. Feasibility of arterial blood bypass using microcatheter in intraarterial thrombolysis for acute cerebral ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Li Cheng; Liu Zhensheng; Zhang Xinjiang; Zhou Longjiang; Yin Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility of arterial blood bypass using microcatheter in intraarterial thrombolysis for acute cerebral ischemic stroke. Methods: Six patients with acute cerebral infarction within 6 hours underwent intraarterial thrombolysis, in which arterial blood bypass was used. A 2.3 F microcatheter was advanced through the clot and two milliliters of contrast was injected beyond the clot that remained stagnant in the major branches. At this point, 20 ml of oxygenated blood from femoral artery was injected for 2 minutes through the microcatheter past the occluding clot. Then, conventional intraarterial thrombolysis, including fibrinolytic agents infusion and mechanical disruption, was performed. Intraarterial thrombolysis and oxygenated blood infusion alternated every 30 minutes. Results: Every patient received arterial blood bypass with average three times (from 1 to 5 times) in the process of the intraarterial thrombolysis, which cost (8.0 ± 3.2) min. Recanalization was achieved in all 6 patients, but minor subarachnoid hemorrhage developed in one patient. All the patients got favorable clinical outcome. The life conditions is excellent in 4 cases and good in 2 cases. Conclusions: Arterial blood bypass using microcatheter in intraarterial thrombolysis for acute cerebral ischemic stroke might be feasible, which did not interfere with conventional intraarterial thrombolysis and prolong the operation time significantly but could protect ischemic penumbra. (authors)

  9. STUDY OF CEREBRAL MALARIA IN PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF EASTERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Prava Das

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present work aimed at the clinical mode of presentation, degree of parasitaemia, complications and prognostic trends of pregnant women in cerebral malaria. Evaluation of mortality in different trimesters, varied complications and comparison with nonpregnant women was done. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty three pregnant women with cerebral malaria were studied. Twenty nonpregnant such cases of reproductive age group admitted to Department of Medicine, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha, were taken as control. The cases were taken in random order. RESULTS Maximum numbers of cases (45.45% were primigravidae in second trimester of pregnancy. They exhibited higher incidence of anaemia and parasitaemia (2-10%, resulting in abortion and premature labour. CONCLUSION All the cases of cerebral malaria were found to be anaemic, but the severity of anaemia was more pronounced in primi (21% as compared to multigravidae (6.4%. High parasitaemia associated with leucocytosis (27.27% resulted in poor prognosis. Hypoglycaemia (15.15%, high level of urea, creatinine and alteration in parameters of liver function test further complicated the scenario leading to multiorgan failure. Recovery in cases of primigravidae was prolonged as compared to multigravidae.

  10. The preliminary study of CT cerebral perfusion imaging in transient ischemic attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jie; Li Kuncheng; Du Xiangying

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To probe the application of CT cerebral perfusion imaging on transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Methods: Conventional CT and CT cerebral perfusion imaging were performed on 5 normal adults and 20 patients with clinically diagnosed TIA. After regular CT examination, dynamic scans of 40 seconds were performed on selected slice (usually on the basal ganglia slice), while 40 ml non-ionic contrast material were bolus injected through antecubital vein with. These dynamic images were processed with the 'Perfusion CT' software package on a PC based workstation. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and time to peak (TP) enhancement were measured within specific regions of the brain on CT perfusion images. Quantitative analysis was performed for these images. Results: A gradient of perfusion between gray matter and white matter was showed on cT perfusion images in normal adults and TIA patients. CBF and TP for normal cortical and white matter were 378.2 ml·min -1 ·L -1 , 7.8 s and 112.5 ml·min -1 ·L -1 , 9.9 s, respectively. In 20 cases with TIA, persisting abnormal perfusion changes corresponding to clinical symptoms were found in 15 cases with prolonged TP. Other 5 cases showed normal results. TP of affected side (11.8 +- 4.4) s compared with that of the contralateral side (9.1 +- 3.1) s was significantly prolonged (t = 5.277, P -1 · -1 ] and contralateral side [(229.1 +- 41.4) ml·min -1 ·L -1 ]. Conclusion: Perfusion CT provides valuable hemodynamic information and shows the extent of perfusion disturbances for patients with TIA

  11. Cerebral and non-cerebral coenurosis: on the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Taenia multiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulopoulos, Georgios; Dinkel, Anke; Romig, Thomas; Ebi, Dennis; Mackenstedt, Ute; Loos-Frank, Brigitte

    2016-12-01

    We characterised the causative agents of cerebral and non-cerebral coenurosis in livestock by determining the mitochondrial genotypes and morphological phenotypes of 52 Taenia multiceps isolates from a wide geographical range in Europe, Africa, and western Asia. Three studies were conducted: (1) a morphological comparison of the rostellar hooks of cerebral and non-cerebral cysts of sheep and goats, (2) a morphological comparison of adult worms experimentally produced in dogs, and (3) a molecular analysis of three partial mitochondrial genes (nad1, cox1, and 12S rRNA) of the same isolates. No significant morphological or genetic differences were associated with the species of the intermediate host. Adult parasites originating from cerebral and non-cerebral cysts differed morphologically, e.g. the shape of the small hooks and the distribution of the testes in the mature proglottids. The phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial haplotypes produced three distinct clusters: one cluster including both cerebral isolates from Greece and non-cerebral isolates from tropical and subtropical countries, and two clusters including cerebral isolates from Greece. The majority of the non-cerebral specimens clustered together but did not form a monophyletic group. No monophyletic groups were observed based on geography, although specimens from the same region tended to cluster. The clustering indicates high intraspecific diversity. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that all variants of T. multiceps can cause cerebral coenurosis in sheep (which may be the ancestral phenotype), and some variants, predominantly from one genetic cluster, acquired the additional capacity to produce non-cerebral forms in goats and more rarely in sheep.

  12. Clinical significance of determination of plasma NPY levels and serum lipid profile in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fujuan; Shen Airong; Yang Yongqing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma NPY levels and serum lipid profile in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. Methods: Plasma NPY levels (with RIA) and serum lipid profile (with biochemistry) were determined in (1) 48 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage (2) 46 patients with acute cerebral infarction and (3) controls.Results Plasma NPY levels in both patients with cerebral hemorrhage and patients with cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: NPY played important roles in the development and pathogenesis of cerebral vascular accidents. Lipid profile changes was the basic etiological factor. (authors)

  13. The efficacy of antipsychotics for prolonged delirium with renal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asano S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Satoko Asano, Yasuto Kunii, Hiroshi Hoshino, Yusuke Osakabe, Tetsuya Shiga, Shuntaro Itagaki, Itaru Miura, Hirooki Yabe Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan Aim: Delirium is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. To identify predictors influencing outcomes, we retrospectively examined the characteristics of inpatients with delirium who required psychiatric medication during hospitalization.Methods: We extracted all new inpatients (n=523 consulted for psychiatric symptoms at Fukushima Medical University Hospital between October 2011 and September 2013. We selected 203 inpatients with delirium diagnosed by psychiatrists. We analyzed data from 177 inpatients with delirium who received psychiatric medication. We defined an “early improvement group” in which delirium resolved in ≤3 days after starting psychiatric medication, and a “prolonged group” with delirium lasting for >3 days. Among the 83 inpatients with renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, we defined an “early improvement group with renal dysfunction” in which delirium resolved in ≤3 days after starting psychiatric medication and a “prolonged group with renal dysfunction” with delirium lasting for >3 days. We then examined differences between groups for different categorical variables.Results: Dose of antipsychotic medication at end point was significantly lower in the prolonged group with renal dysfunction than in the early improvement group with renal dysfunction.Conclusion: The results suggest that maintaining a sufficient dose of antipsychotics from an early stage may prevent prolongation of delirium even in inpatients with renal dysfunction. Keywords: antipsychotic, prolonged delirium, chronic kidney disease, pharmacokinetics 

  14. CT classification and clinical prognosis of cerebral infarction in the area of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Jyoji

    1983-01-01

    Computerized tomographies (CT) were repeatedly scanned on 70 patients with cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery. Low density area (LDA) was measured with HounFsfield's Unit (HU) and studied on the progressive changes. Classification of LDA was attempted and studied on correlation with mass effect, contrast enhancement, angiographical findings, clinical symptoms and prognosis. It was considered that important points of diagnosis of cerebral infarction were timing of examination of CT and determination of LDA with HUF. It was also thought that CT classification of LDA was usefull to estimate prognosis of the patients with cerebral infarction. (author)

  15. Quantitative MRI shows cerebral microstructural damage in hemolytic-uremic syndrome patients with severe neurological symptoms but no changes in conventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenborn, Karin; Worthmann, Hans; Heeren, Meike [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Neurology, Hannover (Germany); Bueltmann, Eva; Donnerstag, Frank; Giesemann, Anja M.; Goetz, Friedrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Kielstein, Jan; Schwarz, Anke [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Nephrology and Hypertension, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Severe neurological symptoms in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS) are often accompanied by none or only mild alterations of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aims to analyze if quantitative MRI is able to reveal cerebral pathological alterations invisible for conventional MRI. In nine patients with STEC-HUS associated severe neurological symptoms but inconspicuous cerebral MRI findings maps of the parameters T2 relaxation time, relative proton density (PD), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were generated. Quantitative values of these parameters were measured at the basal ganglia, thalamus, and white matter of the frontal and parietal lobe and compared to those of nine age- and sex-matched controls. Significant T2 prolongation (p < 0.01) was found in the basal ganglia of all patients compared to controls. PD and ADC were not significantly altered. A significant reduction of FA in patients was seen at caput nuclei caudati (p < 0.01). Prolonged T2 relaxation time indicates cerebral microstructural damages in these patients despite their inconspicuous MRI findings. T2 relaxometry could be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of metabolic-toxic brain syndromes. (orig.)

  16. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  17. CEREBRAL CORTEX DAMAGE INDUCED BY ACUTE ORAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... This study examines alcohol-induced cerebral cortex damage and the association with oxidative ... alcohol has profound effects on the function ... Chronic use of ..... Alcohol induced brain damage and liver damage in young.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: cerebral folate transport deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R. Cerebral folate deficiency syndromes in childhood: clinical, analytical, and etiologic aspects. Arch Neurol. 2011 May;68( ... 2009.08.005. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Toelle SP, Wille D, Schmitt ...

  19. [Functional electric stimulation (FES) in cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, M H; Lourenção, M I; Ribeiro Sobrinho, J B; Battistella, L R

    1992-01-01

    Our study concerns a patient with cerebral palsy, submitted to conventional occupational therapy and functional electrical stimulation. The results as to manual ability, spasticity, sensibility and synkinesis were satisfactory.

  20. Somatosensory discrimination deficits following pediatric cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, A T; Spellacy, F J; Dugbartey, M T

    1998-09-01

    Pathologic studies of central nervous system damage in human falciparum malaria indicate primary localization in the cerebral white matter. We report a sensory-perceptual investigation of 20 Ghanaian children with a recent history of cerebral malaria who were age-, gender-, and education-matched with 20 healthy control subjects. Somatosensory examinations failed to show any evidence of hemianesthesia, pseudohemianesthesia, or extinction to double simultaneous tactile stimulation. While unilateral upper limb testing revealed intact unimanual tactile roughness discrimination, bimanual tactile discrimination, however, was significantly impaired in the cerebral malaria group. A strong negative correlation (r = -0.72) between coma duration and the bimanual tactile roughness discrimination test was also found. An inefficiency in the integrity of callosal fibers appear to account for our findings, although alternative subcortical mechanisms known to be involved in information transfer across the cerebral hemispheres may be compromised as well.

  1. Cerebral blood flow: Physiologic and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 46 chapters divided among nine sections. The section titles are: Historical Perspectives; Cerebrovascular Anatomy; Cerebrovascular Physiology; Methods of Clinical Measurement; Experimental Methods; Imaging of Cerebral Circulation; Cerebrovascular Pathophysiology; Cerebrovascular Pharmacology; and Surgical and Interventional Augmentation

  2. Cerebral oxygen desaturation during beach chair position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerman, Annelies T.; de Hert, Stefan G.; Jacobs, Tom F.; de Wilde, Lieven F.; Wouters, Patrick F.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of ischaemic brain damage have been reported in relatively healthy patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. Unrecognised cerebral hypoperfusion may have contributed to these catastrophic events, indicating that routine anaesthesia monitoring may not suffice.

  3. Storytelling: Enhancing Vocabularies For Cerebral Palsy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilina, Raita Gina

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported on a study concerned with teaching vocabulary using storytelling technique in one of SLBs in Bandung. This study aimed to find out the cerebral palsy students' ability in English vocabulary before and after the treatment, and to find out whether storytelling significantly improved English vocabulary of students with cerebral palsy. This study used an experimental method with single subject research with A-B-A design which involved two participants. This study revealed that...

  4. Cerebral computerized tomography findings in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hol, P.K.; Dunlop, O.

    1997-01-01

    A cerebral CT was performed in 82 of 525 AIDS patients, with positive findings in 46 cases. These findings included cerebral atrophy in 28 cases, pathological demyelinisation in two, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in one, toxoplasmoses in 11, lymphomas in seven, infarction in one and one subdural haematoma. The radiological findings are correlated to pathology and clinical symptoms. The authors point out the importance of these findings for correct interpretation of the CT scans. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Applications of cerebral MRI in neonatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, D.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) has become the most important method in the workup of infantile cerebral complications after primary sonography. Cerebral MR examination and image interpretation during the infantile period require extensive knowledge of morphological manifestations, their pathophysiological background, and frequency. The choice of imaging parameters and image interpretation is demonstrated in infarctions and hemorrhages of the mature and immature brain. A review of the main differential diagnoses is also given. The relevance of MR spectroscopy and fetal MRI is discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. Cerebral microcirculation during experimental normovolaemic anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eBellapart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia is accepted amongst critically ill patients as an alternative to elective blood transfusion. This practice has been extrapolated to head injury patients with only one study comparing the effects of mild anaemia on neurological outcome. There are no studies quantifying microcirculation during anaemia. Experimental studies suggest that anaemia leads to cerebral hypoxia and increased rates of infarction, but the lack of clinical equipoise when testing the cerebral effects of transfusion amongst critically injured patients, supports the need of experimental studies. The aim of this study was to quantify cerebral microcirculation and the potential presence of axonal damage in an experimental model exposed to normovolaemic anaemia, with the intention of describing possible limitations within management practices in critically ill patients. Under non-recovered anaesthesia, six Merino sheep were instrumented using an intracardiac transeptal catheter to inject coded microspheres into the left atrium to ensure systemic and non-chaotic distribution. Cytometric analyses quantified cerebral microcirculation at specific regions of the brain. Amyloid precursor protein staining was used as an indicator of axonal damage. Animals were exposed to normovolaemic anaemia by blood extractions from the indwelling arterial catheter with simultaneous fluid replacement through a venous central catheter. Simultaneous data recording from cerebral tissue oxygenation, intracranial pressure and cardiac output was monitored. A regression model was used to examine the effects of anaemia on microcirculation with a mixed model to control for repeated measures. Homogeneous and normal cerebral microcirculation with no evidence of axonal damage was present in all cerebral regions, with no temporal variability, concluding that acute normovolaemic anaemia does not result in short term effects on cerebral microcirculation in the ovine brain.

  7. Hyperdense lesions in CT of cerebral toxoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones Tapia, D.; Ramos Amador, A.; Monereo Alonso, A.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with stage IV C 1 AIDS who presented hyperdense CT images 13 days after beginning antitoxoplasma treatment. These lesions could be caused by calcifications or blood. The attenuation values lead us to believe that they are calcium. Intracranial calcification in adult cerebral toxoplasmosis is an uncommon finding. Its presence in AIDS patients should not suggest any etiology other than toxoplasmosis. (Author) 16 refs

  8. Computer assisted radionuclide angiography to confirm reversible ischemic cerebral dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buell, U.; Lanksch, W.; Tosch, U.; Kleinhans, E.; Steinhoff, H.

    1982-01-01

    Computer assisted radionuclide angiography (CARNA) was employed in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or prolonged reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (PRIND) to establish the sensitivity of CARNA in detecting and quantifying changes of cerebral perfusion in such selected patients. Moreover, results of CARNA were compared with findings of cranial radiographic angiography (RGA) to obtain data on combined sensitivities of these methods. CARNA may be the preferred noninvasive procedure employed because it detects and quantifies the vascular supply disorder in patients with TIA and PRIND. If no computer assistance is used to evaluate cranial radionuclide angiography, results are considerable less accurate. Specifity of CARNA is 84.6%. If CARNA is negative (25.2% in TIA; 12.7% in PRIND), a further method must be employed to confirm the cranial vascular origin of the attack. This may be RGA in TIA and transmission computed axial tomography (T-CAT) T-CAT in PRIND. This diagnos - tic sequence lead to 92.4% true positive in TIA and to 93.2% true positives in PRIND

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in the persistent vegetative state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Masaharu; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Ioku, Masahiko [Kinki Univ., Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; and others

    1989-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in eight patients in a persistent vegetative state was measured and compared with that in five healthy volunteers. The patients were classified into three groups: Group 1 (locked-in syndrome) consisted of a single patient, Group 2 (typical vegetative state) of five patients, and Group 3 (prolonged coma) of two patients. CBF was measured early after onset by single photon emission computed tomography with {sup 123}I-N-isopropyl-p-iodo-amphetamine and/or {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. The regions of interest (ROIs) were the bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, and cerebellar areas and basal ganglia. The values obtained in these areas were averaged, and the ratio for each ROI ((the value in the ROI/the mean value) x 100) was calculated. 'Hyper-frontal distribution' of CBF was found to be rare in both the normal condition and the vegetative state. Higher CBF values were noted in the left than in the right frontal area in four of the five volunteers but in only four of the eight patients. CBF distribution in the frontal lobe was characteristic for each group: Group 1 showed high CBF bilaterally, although the elevation was statistically significant only on the right side, and Group 3 exhibited significantly low values. In Group 2, CBF was variable but, for the most part, within normal limits. Awareness was closely correlated with frontal lobe function and alteration of CBF in the frontal region. (author).

  10. Visualized Characterization for Cerebral Response of Acupuncture Deqi: Paradox Underway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture as an oriental natural healing therapy with prolonged history has been extensively utilized in the management of great numbers of disorders. Deqi, a renowned acupuncture needling sensation, is profoundly regarded as the predictor and also the prerequisite of a preferable acupuncture treatment efficacy. Till now, there is still no consistency being reached towards the mechanism of acupuncture Deqi as a result of the discrepancy for publicly acknowledged evidence. Recent visualized research on Deqi using modern technologies has demonstrated possible central mechanism towards it. However, there is a conspicuous paradox underway in the research of cerebral response to acupuncture Deqi. This paper provided a view of up-to-date studies using visualized tools to characterize the brain response to acupuncture Deqi, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT. The paradox was extruded to highlight certain reasons from a TCM view. It is hypothesized that acupoints located at different dermal sites, state of participant, and needling manipulation can all contribute to the current paradox. Hence, further studies on acupuncture Deqi should pay more attention to the strategy of experiment design with generalized measurement, valid sham control methods, and more to subjects in diseased condition.

  11. Transcranial Doppler sonography in familial hemiplegic migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierelli, F.; Pauri, F.; Cupini, L.M.; Fiermonte, G.; Rizzo, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    A patient affected by familial hemiplegic migraine underwent transcranial Doppler sonography twice: the first during a spontaneous attack with right hemiparesis and aphasia, the second during a headachefree period. During the attack the following haemodynamic changes were seen: (a) bilateral increase in the middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery blood flow velocities (this increase was more pronounced on the left side), (b) decreased systo-diastolic ratio and pulsatility index on the right side, (c) increased systo-diastolic ratio and pulsatility index on the left side. The results indicate that during the attack in this familial hemiplegic migraine patient, a diffuse vasoconstriction of the basal cerebral arteries developed. Moreover, transcranial Doppler sonography data suggest that a prolonged vasoconstriction of the peripheral arterioles could play a role in determining the neurological symptoms in this syndrome. 13 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab

  12. Transcranial Doppler sonography in familial hemiplegic migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierelli, F.; Pauri, F.; Cupini, L.M.; Fiermonte, G.; Rizzo, P.A. (Universita la Sapienza, Roma (Italy))

    1991-02-01

    A patient affected by familial hemiplegic migraine underwent transcranial Doppler sonography twice: the first during a spontaneous attack with right hemiparesis and aphasia, the second during a headachefree period. During the attack the following haemodynamic changes were seen: (a) bilateral increase in the middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery blood flow velocities (this increase was more pronounced on the left side), (b) decreased systo-diastolic ratio and pulsatility index on the right side, (c) increased systo-diastolic ratio and pulsatility index on the left side. The results indicate that during the attack in this familial hemiplegic migraine patient, a diffuse vasoconstriction of the basal cerebral arteries developed. Moreover, transcranial Doppler sonography data suggest that a prolonged vasoconstriction of the peripheral arterioles could play a role in determining the neurological symptoms in this syndrome. 13 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Purine Metabolism in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Oreshnikov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of purine metabolism in clinically significant acute cerebral ischemia. Subjects and materials. Three hundred and fifty patients with the acutest cerebral ischemic stroke were examined. The parameters of gas and electrolyte composition, acid-base balance, the levels of malonic dialdehyde, adenine, guanine, hypox-anthine, xanthine, and uric acid, and the activity of xanthine oxidase were determined in arterial and venous bloods and spinal fluid. Results. In ischemic stroke, hyperuricemia reflects the severity of cerebral metabolic disturbances, hemodynamic instability, hypercoagulation susceptiility, and the extent of neurological deficit. In ischemic stroke, hyperuri-corachia is accompanied by the higher spinal fluid levels of adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine and it is an indirect indicator of respiratory disorders of central genesis, systemic acidosis, hypercoagulation susceptibility, free radical oxidation activation, the intensity of a stressor response to cerebral ischemia, cerebral metabolic disturbances, the depth of reduced consciousness, and the severity of neurological deficit. Conclusion. The high venous blood activity of xanthine oxidase in ischemic stroke is associated with the better neurological parameters in all follow-up periods, the better early functional outcome, and lower mortality rates. Key words: hyperuricemia, stroke, xanthine oxidase, uric acid, cerebral ischemia.

  14. CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Choi, Woo Suk; Ryu, Kyung Nam

    1992-01-01

    The CT findings of the acute cerebral infarction are well known. However the CT findings of early stroke within 24 hours of the onset have not been sufficiently reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate early acute cerebral infarction on CT within 24 hours after ictus. The early and accurate CT diagnosis could lead to the appropriate therapy and improved outcome of the patients. Authors retrospectively analyzed 16 patients with early acute cerebral infarction. Acute cerebral infarction was confirmed by follow-up CT in 11 patients, SPECT in 4 patients, and MRI in 1 patient. The CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction include effacement of cortical sulci or cistern (n = 16, 100%), hyperattenuation of MCA (n = 3), obscuration of lentiform nucleus (n = 6), loss of insular ribbon (n = 6) and subtle low density in hemisphere (n = 5). The most frequent finding was effacement of cortical sulci in our study, and it was thought to be the most important sign of early acute cerebral infarction

  15. CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Choi, Woo Suk; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    The CT findings of the acute cerebral infarction are well known. However the CT findings of early stroke within 24 hours of the onset have not been sufficiently reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate early acute cerebral infarction on CT within 24 hours after ictus. The early and accurate CT diagnosis could lead to the appropriate therapy and improved outcome of the patients. Authors retrospectively analyzed 16 patients with early acute cerebral infarction. Acute cerebral infarction was confirmed by follow-up CT in 11 patients, SPECT in 4 patients, and MRI in 1 patient. The CT findings of early acute cerebral infarction include effacement of cortical sulci or cistern (n = 16, 100%), hyperattenuation of MCA (n = 3), obscuration of lentiform nucleus (n = 6), loss of insular ribbon (n = 6) and subtle low density in hemisphere (n = 5). The most frequent finding was effacement of cortical sulci in our study, and it was thought to be the most important sign of early acute cerebral infarction.

  16. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, S.; Mochizuki, H.; Kuru, Y.; Miwa, H.; Kondo, T.; Mori, H.; Mizuno, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Is fasting necessary for elective cerebral angiography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O-K; Oh, C W; Park, H; Bang, J S; Bae, H-J; Han, M K; Park, S-H; Han, M H; Kang, H-S; Park, S-K; Whang, G; Kim, B-C; Jin, S-C

    2011-05-01

    In order to prevent unexpected events such as aspiration pneumonia, cerebral angiography has been performed under fasting in most cases. We investigated prospectively the necessity of fasting before elective cerebral angiography. The study is an open-labeled clinical trial without random allocation. In total, 2554 patients who underwent elective cerebral angiography were evaluated on development of nausea, vomiting, and pulmonary aspiration during and after angiography. Potential risks and benefits associated with fasting were provided in written documents and through personal counseling to patients before the procedure. The patients chose their fasting or nonfasting option. No restriction in diet was given after angiography. The patients were observed for 24 hours. Nausea and vomiting during and within 1 hour after angiography was considered as a positive event associated with cerebral angiography. The overall incidence of nausea and vomiting during and within 1 hour after angiography was 1.05% (27/2554 patients). There was no patient with pulmonary aspiration. No statistical difference in nausea and vomiting development between the fasting and the diet groups was found. The incidence of nausea and vomiting associated with cerebral angiography is low and not affected by diet or fasting. Pulmonary aspiration had no difference between the diet and the fasting group. Our study suggests that fasting may not be necessary for patients who undergo elective cerebral angiography.

  18. Impact of Early Vasopressor Administration on Neurological Outcomes after Prolonged Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Michael W; Tyson, Clark

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Vasopressors are associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), but no long-term benefit has been demonstrated in randomized trials. However, these trials did not control for the timing of vasopressor administration which may influence outcomes. Consequently, the objective of this study was to develop a model describing the likelihood of favorable neurological outcome (cerebral performance category [CPC] 1 or 2) as a function of the public safety answering point call receipt (PSAP)-to-pressor-interval (PPI) in prolonged out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Hypothesis The likelihood of favorable neurological outcome declines with increasing PPI. This investigation was a retrospective study of cardiac arrest using linked data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) database (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Atlanta, Georgia USA]; American Heart Association [Dallas, Texas USA]; and Emory University Department of Emergency Medicine [Atlanta, Georgia USA]) and the North Carolina (USA) Prehospital Medical Information System. Adult patients suffering a bystander-witnessed, non-traumatic cardiac arrest between January 2012 and June 2014 were included. Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of neurological outcome as a function of PPI, while controlling for patient age, gender, and race; endotracheal intubation (ETI); shockable rhythm; layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); and field hypothermia. Of the 2,100 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 913 (43.5%) experienced ROSC, 618 (29.4%) survived to hospital admission, 187 (8.9%) survived to hospital discharge, and 155 (7.4%) were discharged with favorable neurological outcomes (CPC 1 or 2). Favorable neurological outcome was less likely with increasing PPI (OR=0.90; PCPR, and ETI were not independent predictors of favorable neurological outcome. In this evaluation, time to vasopressor administration was significantly associated with

  19. Cranio-cerebral gunshot wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Majer1, G. Iacob2

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranio-cerebral gunshots wounds(CCGW are the most devastating injuriesto the central nervous system, especiallymade by high velocity bullets, the mostdevastating, severe and usually fatal type ofmissile injury to the head.Objective: To investigate and compare,using a retrospective study on five cases theclinical outcomes of CCGW. Predictors ofpoor outcome were: older age, delayedmode of transportation, low admissionCGS score with haemodynamic instability,CT visualization of diffuse brain damage,bihemispheric, multilobar injuries withlateral and midline sagittal planestrajectories made by penetrating highvelocity bullets fired from a very closerange, brain stem and ventricular injurywith intraventricular and/or subarachnoidhemorrhage, mass effect and midline shift,evidence of herniation and/or hematomas,high ICP and/or hypotension, abnormalcoagulation states on admission ordisseminated intravascular coagulation. Lessharmful effects were generated by retainedmissiles, bone fragments with CNSinfection, DAI lesions and neuronaldamages associated to cavitation, seizures.Material and methods: 5 patients (4 maleand 1 female, age ranged 22-65 years, withCCGW, during the period 2004-2009,caused by military conflict and accidentalfiring. After initial resuscitation all patientswere assessed on admission by the GlasgowComa Scale (GCS. After investigations: Xrayskull, brain CT, Angio-CT, cerebralMRI, SPECT; baseline investigations,neurological, haemodynamic andcoagulability status all patients underwentsurgical treatment following emergencyintervention. The survival, mortality andfunctional outcome were evaluated byGlasgow Outcome Scale (GOS score.Results: Referring on five cases weevaluate on a retrospective study the clinicaloutcome, imagistics, microscopic studies onneuronal and axonal damage generated bytemporary cavitation along the cerebralbullet’s track, therapeutics, as the review ofthe literature. Two patients with anadmission CGS 9 and 10

  20. Glucose administration after traumatic brain injury improves cerebral metabolism and reduces secondary neuronal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Nobuhiro; Ghavim, Sima; Harris, Neil G; Hovda, David A; Sutton, Richard L

    2013-10-16

    Clinical studies have indicated an association between acute hyperglycemia and poor outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), although optimal blood glucose levels needed to maximize outcomes for these patients' remain under investigation. Previous results from experimental animal models suggest that post-TBI hyperglycemia may be harmful, neutral, or beneficial. The current studies determined the effects of single or multiple episodes of acute hyperglycemia on cerebral glucose metabolism and neuronal injury in a rodent model of unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. In Experiment 1, a single episode of hyperglycemia (50% glucose at 2 g/kg, i.p.) initiated immediately after CCI was found to significantly attenuate a TBI-induced depression of glucose metabolism in cerebral cortex (4 of 6 regions) and subcortical regions (2 of 7) as well as to significantly reduce the number of dead/dying neurons in cortex and hippocampus at 24 h post-CCI. Experiment 2 examined effects of more prolonged and intermittent hyperglycemia induced by glucose administrations (2 g/kg, i.p.) at 0, 1, 3 and 6h post-CCI. The latter study also found significantly improved cerebral metabolism (in 3 of 6 cortical and 3 of 7 subcortical regions) and significant neuroprotection in cortex and hippocampus 1 day after CCI and glucose administration. These results indicate that acute episodes of post-TBI hyperglycemia can be beneficial and are consistent with other recent studies showing benefits of providing exogenous energy substrates during periods of increased cerebral metabolic demand. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of epinephrine on cerebral and myocardial perfusion in an infant animal preparation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, C L; Dean, J M; Koehler, R C; Michael, J R; Chantarojanasiri, T; Traystman, R; Rogers, M C

    1986-04-01

    We assessed the efficacy of conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in 2-week-old piglets. We determined intrathoracic vascular pressures, cerebral (CBF) and myocardial blood flows (MBF), and cerebral oxygen uptake during conventional CPR in this infant animal preparation and contrasted these results with those of previous work on adult animals. We further examined the effects of the infusion of epinephrine on these pressures and flows and on cerebral oxygen uptake, which has not been previously evaluated in adult preparations. Conventional CPR was performed on pentobarbital-anesthetized piglets with a 20% sternal displacement with the use of a pneumatic piston compressor. Chest recoil was incomplete, leading to an 18% to 27% reduction in anteroposterior diameter during the relaxation phase. Aortic and right atrial pressures in excess of 80 mm Hg were generated. These pressures are greater than those generally obtained in adult animals with similar percent pulsatile displacements. CBF and MBF were also initially greater than those reported in adult animals undergoing conventional CPR. However, when CPR was prolonged beyond 20 min, aortic pressure fell and CBF and MBF declined to the near-zero levels seen in adult preparations. At 5 min of CPR, CBF and MBF were 24 +/- 7 and 27 +/- 7 ml . min-1 x 100 g-1 (50% and 17% of the values during cardiac arrest), respectively. With the continuous infusion of epinephrine (4 micrograms/kg/min) in another group of animals, MBF was significantly greater at 20 min of CPR and CBF and cerebral O2 uptake were greater at 35 min of CPR as a result of higher perfusion pressures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. QTc-prolonging drugs and hospitalizations for cardiac arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Hoes, Arno W; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmia as an adverse effect of noncardiac drugs has been an issue of growing importance during the past few years. In this population-based study, we evaluated the risk for serious cardiac arrhythmias during the use of several noncardiac QTc-prolonging drugs in day-to-day practice......, and subsequently focused on several specific groups of patients who could be extremely vulnerable for drug-induced arrhythmias. We performed a case-control study in which patients (cases), hospitalized for nonatrial cardiac arrhythmias from 1987 to 1998, were compared with their matched controls regarding current...... use of QTc-prolonging drugs. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Data were obtained from the PHARMO record linkage system. We identified 501 cases, 39 of whom used QTc...

  3. Prolonged Remission in Neuromyelitis Optica Following Cessation of Rituximab Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinfurtner, Kelley; Graves, Jennifer; Ness, Jayne; Krupp, Lauren; Milazzo, Maria; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is an autoimmune disease characterized by acute episodes of transverse myelitis and optic neuritis. Several small, open-label studies suggest rituximab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, prevents relapses in neuromyelitis optica; however, there is little consensus on timing or duration of treatment. Here we report four patients with severe relapsing neuromyelitis optica who were stabilized on rituximab and, after discontinuing treatment, continued to experience prolonged remission of their disease. Remission ranged from 4.5 to 10.5 years total, including 3 to 9 years off all therapies. The patients had sustained clinical responses despite normal B-lymphocyte levels and, in at least 2 patients, continued seropositivity for aquaporin-4 antibodies. These cases suggest that rituximab may induce prolonged remission in certain neuromyelitis optica patients, and they highlight the need for further elucidation of rituximab's mechanism in neuromyelitis optica. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Prolonged radioprotective activity of WR-2721 linked to dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenig, H.; Konermann, G.; Oehlert, W.

    1990-01-01

    The radioprotective agent WR-2721 was linked to dextran and poly(glutamic acid) respectively, to obtain a prolonged radioprotective ability. Male mice were administered these water soluble polymer conjugates one to 72 hours prior to a whole body irradiation with X-rays. A prolongation of radioprotective efficiency was achieved with two dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugates. For a period of 24 hours between administration, and irradiation dose reduction factors of 1.14±0.04 and 1.10±0.03 respectively were found. After 72 hours, no protective effect was observed. Histopathological investigations of the liver for formation of tumors 200 to 600 days after irradiation seems to indicate that a protective effect is not produced by the dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugats. (orig.) [de

  5. Smoking prolongs the infectivity of patients with tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siddiqui, U A

    2010-10-01

    We sought to establish if smokers on anti-tuberculosis treatment are more likely to have a prolonged period of infectivity, compared to non-smoking tuberculosis patients, in a low tuberculosis prevalence country. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study in Ireland that recruited 53 microbiologically confirmed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The age-sex adjusted odds ratios (AOR) suggest that the infectivity status of PTB on treatment was four times more likely to be prolonged beyond 6-8 weeks, if the cases had a smoking history (AOR: 4.42; 95% CI: 1.23; 15.9). Smoking was associated with delayed sputum smear conversion in PTB patients on treatment.

  6. Atraumatic femoral neck fracture secondary to prolonged lactation induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammapal Sahebrao Bhamare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a case of atraumatic fracture neck femur secondary to 2 years of prolonged lactation. A 26-year-old lactating mother presented with pain in left hip from last 12 months. She was apparently alright before and during pregnancy. Plain radiograph showed a complete undisplaced fracture of femoral neck. Osteomalacia was diagnosed by radiological and serological investigations. The fracture was fixed using AO type cannulated cancellous screws. The fracture showed good clinical and radiological union at 3 months. Literature review shows that this is a first case of atraumatic fracture of neck femur due to prolonged lactational osteomalacia. It showed that even apparently healthy Indians are susceptible to osteomalacia, more so during pregnancy and lactation and can be presented as atraumatic fracture. Although considered relatively stable, a compression type incomplete fracture neck femur may progress to a complete fracture if not treated in time.

  7. Cerebral blood measurements in cerebral vascular disease: methodological and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieschi, C.; Lenzi, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is devoted mainly to studies performed on acute cerebral vascular disease with the invasive techniques for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The principles of the rCBF method are outlined and the following techniques are described in detail: xenon-133 inhalation method, xenon-133 intravenous method and emission tomography methods. (C.F.)

  8. The early markers for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy are different from those for spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einspieler, C; Cioni, G; Paolicelli, PB; Bos, AF; Dressler, A; Ferrari, F; Roversi, MF; Prechtl, HFR

    Qualitative abnormalities of spontaneous motor activity in new-borns and young infants are early predictive markers for later spastic cerebral palsy. Aim of this research was to identify which motor patterns may be specific for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy. In a large, prospectively performed

  9. Development and face validity of a cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, Masoud; Waninge, Aly; Rameckers, E.A.A.; van der Steen, J; Krijnen, W.P.; van der Schans, C.P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V;

  10. Low cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest is not associated with anaerobic cerebral metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Ainslie, Philip N.; Hinssen, S.; Aries, M.J.; Bisschops, Laurens L.; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van der Hoeven, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study Estimation of cerebral anaerobic metabolism in survivors and non-survivors after cardiac arrest. Methods We performed an observational study in twenty comatose patients after cardiac arrest and 19 healthy control subjects. We measured mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery

  11. A clinical study of cerebral vaso paralysis during a period of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Toshiichi; Sasaki, Takehiko; Nakagawara, Jyoji

    2011-01-01

    We employ the 123 I-infinitum (Imp) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) dual table autoradiography (Arg) method and stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) analysis 7 or 8 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) onset to predict cerebral vasospasm. We report new findings of cerebral vasoparalysis during a period of cerebral vasospasm after SAH. From January 1, 2005 to April 30, 2008, we encountered 330 cases of aneurysmal SAH, and treated 285 cases. Of these, 65 were excluded as unsuitable for this study, for reasons such as lack of SPECT data, external decompression, admission over 7 days from SAH onset. We studied 220 cases treated by microsurgical clipping (n=178) or endovascular coil embolization (n=42). Vasoparalysis was defined as a rise in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and a loss of vascular reserve on SEE analysis of CBF-SPECT. Vasoparalysis occurred in 15 cases (6.8%). Of these, 9 cases (60.0%) had cerebral hematoma, temporary clips had been used in the operation for 8 cases (53.3%), 9 cases (60.0%) experienced postoperative cerebral infarction, and 3 cases (20.0%) had postoperative convulsions. Vasoparalysis occurs in relation to perioperative cerebral damage. In terms of the loss of vascular reserve following SAH, vasoparalysis resembles hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, although the conditions are quite different. Differentiating between these 2 conditions is important, as different forms of management are required. Dual table ARG and SEE analysis are very useful for the evaluating these 2 conditions. (author)

  12. Development and face validity of a cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Waninge, A.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; van der Steen, J.; Krijnen, W. P.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.

    Aim The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V;

  13. Tetrodotoxin-Bupivacaine-Epinephrine Combinations for Prolonged Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bognet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently available local anesthetics have analgesic durations in humans generally less than 12 hours. Prolonged-duration local anesthetics will be useful for postoperative analgesia. Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. In those studies, epinephrine combined with TTX prolonged blocks more than 10-fold, while reducing systemic toxicity. TTX, formulated as Tectin, is in phase III clinical trials as an injectable systemic analgesic for chronic cancer pain. Here, we examine dose-duration relationships and sciatic nerve histology following local nerve blocks with combinations of Tectin with bupivacaine 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL solutions, with or without epinephrine 5 µg/mL (1:200,000 in rats. Percutaneous sciatic blockade was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats, and intensity and duration of sensory blockade was tested blindly with different Tectin-bupivacaine-epinephrine combinations. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using ANOVA and post-hoc Sidak tests. Nerves were examined blindly for signs of injury. Blocks containing bupivacaine 0.25% with Tectin 10 µM and epinephrine 5 µg/mL were prolonged by roughly 3-fold compared to blocks with bupivacaine 0.25% plain (P < 0.001 or bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL (P < 0.001. Nerve histology was benign for all groups. Combinations of Tectin in bupivacaine 0.25% with epinephrine 5 µg/mL appear promising for prolonged duration of local anesthesia.

  14. A Case of QT Prolongation Associated with Panhypopituitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Arpaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 37-year-old patient with panhypopituitarism who experienced symptoms and signs of hormonal insufficiency and QT prolongation on electrocardiogram without electrolyte disturbances. After hormonal (steroidal and thyroid replacement therapy electrocardiographic findings were normalized. Hormonal disorders should be considered as a cause of long QT intervals which may lead to torsade de pointes, even if plasma electrolyte levels are normal, because life-threatening arrhythmia is treatable by supplementation of the hormone that is lacking.

  15. MRI findings of prolonged post-traumatic sternal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Alexandra; Grosse, Claudia; Anderson, Suzanne [University Hospital of Berne, Department of Diagnostic, Pediatric and Interventional Radiology, Berne (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The objective of this study was to characterize the different causes of prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma with involvement of the sternum and to define criteria for sternal nonunion diagnosis using MRI. Five patients with abnormalities of the sternum were evaluated for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma using MRI. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. The patients were selected from the radiology database, which included 8 patients with post-traumatic prolonged sternal pain. Two patients (n = 2) revealed a sternal nonunion after sternal fracture. One patient had a sternal fracture with delayed union and minor displacement of the sternal halves. Abnormal signal intensity alterations adjacent to and within the manubrio-sternal joint were evident in 2 patients and considered due to trauma-related changes in the manubrio-sternal joint. The 3 patients who were not included in the study had no abnormalities of the sternum: 1 of them proved to have a well-healed sternal fracture and nonunion of a rib fracture, 1 had subtle Tietze's syndrome, and 1 patient revealed no pathological findings on imaging. Various factors may be responsible for prolonged sternal pain following thoracic trauma, and these can be viewed with MRI. In cases of sternal nonunion there was common fluid-like signal in the fracture interspace between the bony edges, and the bone marrow adjacent to the nonunion showed altered signal intensity. MRI identified sternal nonunion and other trauma-related abnormalities of the sternum following chest trauma. (orig.)

  16. Hormone supply of the organism in prolonged emotional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M. G.; Stulnikov, B. V.; Svirskaya, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prolonged emotional stress of varying genesis on the hormonal function of the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal cortex was studied. The amount of the hormonal secretion was found to depend on the type of adaptation activity and its duration. High secretion of the hormones observed outside the adaptation activity was examined as an index of the phase transition of defense reactions to the phase of overstress.

  17. The effects of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Wu, Shih-Hao; Li, Wen-Cheng; Kuo, Chan-Wei; Chen, Shou-Yen; Chen, Jih-Chang

    2013-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (for >15 minutes). The retrospective cohort study consisted of adult patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with the diagnosis of cardiac arrest in 2009. Data were retrieved from the institutional database. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were treated (group1, n = 30) or not treated (group 2, n = 62) with sodium bicarbonate. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between groups. The median time interval between the administration of CPR and sodium bicarbonate injection was 36.0 minutes (IQR: 30.5-41.8 minutes). The median amount of bicarbonate injection was 100.2 mEq (IQR: 66.8-104.4). Patients who received a sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR had a higher percentage of return of spontaneous circulation, but not statistical significant (ROSC, 40.0% vs. 32.3%; P = .465). Sustained ROSC was achieved by 2 (6.7%) patients in the sodium bicarbonate treatment group, with no survival to discharge. No significant differences in vital signs after ROSC were detected between the 2 groups (heart rate, P = .124; systolic blood pressure, P = .094). Sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR was not associated with ROSC after adjust for variables by regression analysis (Table 3; P = .615; odds ratio, 1.270; 95% confidence interval: 0.501-3.219) The administration of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged CPR did not significantly improve the rate of ROSC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diclofenac prolongs repolarization in ventricular muscle with impaired repolarization reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kristóf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. METHODS: Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. RESULTS: Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM. The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl(2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg significantly lengthened the QT(c interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QT(c. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%. In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM decreased the amplitude of rapid (I(Kr and slow (I(Ks delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (I(Ca was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (I(to and inward rectifier (I(K1 potassium currents were not influenced. CONCLUSIONS: Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve.

  19. Diclofenac Prolongs Repolarization in Ventricular Muscle with Impaired Repolarization Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, Attila; Husti, Zoltán; Koncz, István; Kohajda, Zsófia; Szél, Tamás; Juhász, Viktor; Biliczki, Péter; Jost, Norbert; Baczkó, István; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Virág, László

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. Methods Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. Results Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM). The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg) did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg) significantly lengthened the QTc interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QTc. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP) while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%). In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM) decreased the amplitude of rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (ICa) was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (Ito) and inward rectifier (IK1) potassium currents were not influenced. Conclusions Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve. PMID:23300901

  20. Prolonged fever in peritoneal tuberculosis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, U.; Irwandi, S.; Habib, H.; Lim, H.; Pasha, M.; Janis, I.; Saragih, R. H.; Ginting, Y.; Effendy-Y S, R.

    2018-03-01

    Peritoneal tuberculosis may lead to delayed diagnosis because of the nonspecific features such as fever, abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, ascites, and weight loss. Here, wereported a case of prolonged fever and abdominal pain which was due to peritoneal tuberculosis. Initial examinations including acomplete blood test and serologic tests did not lead to the diagnosis. A final diagnosis was made by abdominal CT-scan and laparoscopy combined with histopathological studies. Antituberculous medications provided a good clinical response in this patient.

  1. The incidence of hyponatremia during prolonged ultraendurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, T D; Norman, R J; Buck, R H; Godlonton, J; Stevenson, K; Pittaway, D

    1990-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that potentially fatal hyponatremia can develop during prolonged exercise. To determine the incidence of hyponatremia in athletes competing in ultradistance events, we measured serum sodium levels in 315 of 626 (50%) runners who were treated for collapse after two 90 km ultramarathon footraces (total starters 20,335; total finishers 18,031) and in 101 of 147 (69%) finishers in a 186 km ultratriathlon. In both races the athletes drank fluids with low sodium chloride content (less than 6.8 mmol.l-1). Hyponatremia (serum sodium level less than 130 mmol.l-1) was identified in 27 of 315 (9%) collapsed runners in the 90 km races and in none of the triathletes. In response to diuretic therapy, the runner with the most severe hyponatremia (serum sodium level = 112 mmol.l-1) excreted in excess of 7.5 l dilute urine during the first 17 h of hospitalization. These data suggest that, although symptomatic hyponatremia occurs in less than 0.3% of competitors during prolonged exercise even when they ingest little sodium chloride, it is found in a significant proportion (9%) of collapsed runners. A regulated contraction of the extracellular fluid volume would explain why the majority of athletes maintain normal serum sodium levels even though they develop a significant sodium chloride deficit during prolonged exercise. Alternatively, sodium chloride losses during prolonged exercise may be substantially less than are currently believed. Physicians treating collapsed ultradistance athletes need to be aware that as many as 10% or more of such patients may be hyponatremic.

  2. Risk Factors of Prolonged Hospitalization in Patients with Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Onur Topcu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Number of vomiting per day and maternal serum TSH levels could help physicians to estimate the risk of prolonged hospitalization; however further investigations are needed in large population studies. Identifying the high risk patients is important both for prevention of HEG and beginning appropriate antiemetic treatment to avoid complications to reduce the economic costs. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 113-118

  3. Translating QT interval prolongation from conscious dogs to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vincent F S; Smania, Giovanni; Yu, Huixin; Graf, Ramona; Chain, Anne S Y; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    In spite of screening procedures in early drug development, uncertainty remains about the propensity of new chemical entities (NCEs) to prolong the QT/QTc interval. The evaluation of proarrhythmic activity using a comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay does not fully account for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) differences in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between drug-specific parameters describing QT interval prolongation in dogs and in humans. Using estimates of the drug-specific parameter, data on the slopes of the PKPD relationships of nine compounds with varying QT-prolonging effects (cisapride, sotalol, moxifloxacin, carabersat, GSK945237, SB237376 and GSK618334, and two anonymized NCEs) were analysed. Mean slope estimates varied between -0.98 ms μM -1 and 6.1 ms μM -1 in dogs and -10 ms μM -1 and 90 ms μM -1 in humans, indicating a wide range of effects on the QT interval. Linear regression techniques were then applied to characterize the correlation between the parameter estimates across species. For compounds without a mixed ion channel block, a correlation was observed between the drug-specific parameter in dogs and humans (y = -1.709 + 11.6x; R 2  = 0.989). These results show that per unit concentration, the drug effect on the QT interval in humans is 11.6-fold larger than in dogs. Together with information about the expected therapeutic exposure, the evidence of a correlation between the compound-specific parameter in dogs and in humans represents an opportunity for translating preclinical safety data before progression into the clinic. Whereas further investigation is required to establish the generalizability of our findings, this approach can be used with clinical trial simulations to predict the probability of QT prolongation in humans. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  5. Cerebral sino-venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayama, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Tsunesaburo; Nakajima, Kenji

    1982-01-01

    Three cases of cerebral sino-venous thrombosis were reported. Repeated CT findings were studied and discussed on account of the treatments for those pathologic conditions. Those of studied cases are; a 22-year-old postpartum woman, a 42-year-old woman with irregular vaginal bleeding, and a 26-year-old man with severe reactive emesis after drinking alcohol. They were treated conservatively. Case 1 died in its acute stage. In the remaining ones, each had an uneventful recovery. CT scan findings of them manifested their exact clinical conditions. These findings were devided into two categories, one was direct signs expressed sino-venous occlusion, the other was indirect signs which appeared as a result of these occlusion. Direct signs cannot always get in every cases with sino-venous occlusion, but as for indirect signs, we can get various changes corresponding to the time taken CT photoes, and they are useful to decide appropriate treatments at that time. Considering suitable treatments for this disease, it is necessary to select most suitable ones according to their pathologic conditions, which may be precisely drawn with CT scans. (J.P.N.)

  6. Secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratna, R; Dissanayake, D; Silva, F H D S; Dassanayake, M; de Silva, H J

    2015-03-01

    Although dengue management guidelines do not advice on use of antibiotics in dengue shock syndrome, unrecognised bactraemia is likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality. To assess the occurance of secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever. A prospective study was conducted recruiting patients with confirmed acute dengue infection who had prolonged fever (>5 days). Two sets of blood cultures were taken in such patients prior to institution of antibiotic therapy. Demographic, clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Development of ascites and pleural effusions were detected using ultrasonography. Fourty patients (52.5% males) with a mean age of 29.8 years (SD 13.6) were studied. The average duration of fever was 7.9 days (SD 1.8). Ten patients (25%) had bacterial isolates in their blood cultures; Staphylococcus aureus (n=2), coliforms (n=3), pseudomonas (n=1) and 4 had mixed growths. The culture positive group had severe body aches at admission and higher fever, third space fluid accumulation, a significant drop in platelets and a higher CRP. A quarter of dengue patients with prolonged fever had a bacterial isolate. Culture positive patients appeared more ill with body aches and had higher degrees of fever during the latter part of the illness. Increased vascular permeability may predispose to bacterial seepage into blood. Although white cell count is not helpful in detecting bacteraemia, low platelet count and elevation of CRP seem to be helpful.

  7. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇÝGÝL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 98-104

  8. Prolonged Exposure Therapy For Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent SÜTÇİGİL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a psychiatric illness that usually develops after an event that threatens one’s life and body integrity and it affects quality of life and impairs social functioning significantly. Many studies have shown therapeutic effect of cognitive behavioral therapies on posttraumatic stress disorder, so that these therapies take part in the first step of treatment guides. Exposure is a practice that is generally used to reduce pathological fear and related emotions common in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other anxiety disorders. During exposure, patients intentionally confront with feared objects, situations, thoughts and similar stimuli in order to reduce anxiety level. Exposure can be divided into two main techniques as in vivo exposure and imaginal exposure. Prolonged exposure therapy is a specialized treatment program configured for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and it is based on emotional processing theory. Program is comprised of four main components: (a Psycho-education about trauma and posttraumatic disorders, (b Training for breathing exercises, (c repeated facing with objects, persons, situations and thoughts which causes re-experience about trauma, (d Patient are instructed for telling repeatedly and loudly about traumatic experiences . Prolonged exposure usually involves 9 to 12 sessions, each lasting about 60-90 minutes, administered once or twice a week. Prolonged exposure therapy was started to be implemented since the 1980s, during this period the effectiveness of the therapy has been shown in various empirical studies.

  9. Dynamics of heterogeneous liners with prolonged plasma creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Branitskii, A.V.; Volkov, G.S.; Grabovskii, E.V.; Zurin, M.V.; Nedoseev, S.L.; Oleinik, G.M.; Samokhin, A.A.; Smirnov, V.P.; Fedulov, M.V.; Frolov, I.N.; Sasorov, P.V.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged plasma creation in heterogeneous liners, in which the liner substance is separated into two phase states (a hot plasma and a cold skeleton), is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. This situation is typical of multiwire, foam, and even gas liners in high-current high-voltage facilities. The main mechanisms governing the rate at which the plasma is created are investigated, and the simplest estimates of the creation rate are presented. It is found that, during prolonged plasma creation, the electric current flows through the entire cross section of the produced plasma shell, whose thickness is comparable with the liner radius; in other words, a current skin layer does not form. During compression, such a shell is fairly stable because of its relatively high resilience. It is shown that, under certain conditions, even a thick plasma shell can be highly compressed toward the discharge axis. A simplified numerical simulation of the compression of a plasma shell in a liner with prolonged plasma creation is employed in order to determine the conditions for achieving regimes of fairly compact and relatively stable radial compression of the shell

  10. Cardiovascular drugs inducing QT prolongation: facts and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Carlos A; Opezzo, Javier A W; Mayer, Marcos A; Höcht, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Acquired QT syndrome is mainly caused by the administration of drugs that prolong ventricular repolarization. On the other hand, the risk of drug-induced torsades de pointes is increased by numerous predisposing factors, such as genetic predisposition, female sex, hypokalemia and cardiac dysfunction. This adverse reaction is induced by different chemical compounds used for the treatment of a variety of pathologies, including arrhythmias. As it is known, antiarrhythmic agents and other cardiovascular drugs can prolong the QT interval, causing this adverse reaction. Of the 20 most commonly reported drugs, 10 were cardiovascular agents and these appeared in 348 of the reports (46%). Class Ia antiarrhythmic agents have frequently been linked to inducing arrhythmia, including torsades de pointes. Sotalol and amiodarone, class III antiarrhythmics, are known to prolong the QT interval by blocking I(Kr). Due to the severity of events caused by the therapeutic use of these drugs, in this work of revision the cardiovascular drugs that present this property and the factors and evidence will be mentioned.

  11. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in man during light sleep (stage 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Holm, S

    1991-01-01

    We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during light sleep (stage 2) in 8 young healthy volunteers using the Kety-Schmidt technique with 133Xe as the inert gas. Measurements were performed during wakefulness and light sleep as verified by standard...... polysomnography. Unlike our previous study in man showing a highly significant 25% decrease in CMRO2 during deep sleep (stage 3-4) we found a modest but statistically significant decrease of 5% in CMRO2 during stage 2 sleep. Deep and light sleep are both characterized by an almost complete lack of mental activity....... They differ in respect of arousal threshold as a stronger stimulus is required to awaken a subject from deep sleep as compared to light sleep. Our results suggest that during non-rapid eye movement sleep cerebral metabolism and thereby cerebral synaptic activity is correlated to cerebral readiness rather than...

  12. Prevalence of systemic air-embolism after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation in newborns: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbertsma, Feico J J; Mohns, Thilo; Bok, Levinus A; Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Kramer, Boris W

    2015-08-01

    Chest compressions (CC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are the cornerstone of adult CPR protocols and are meant to restore circulation and improve outcome. Although adverse effects such as air-embolisms have been reported, these are rare and considered to be outweighed by beneficial effect. In newborns, however, the lung tissue is more fragile. Thus, the high intra-thoracic pressures resulting from CC may make the newborns more vulnerable for air-embolisms. We studied the postmortem prevalence of air-embolism in neonates that have received CPR. Prospective cohort analysis of newborns receiving CC during CPR. CPR was performed by trained staff according to ILCOR guidelines, in a tertiary hospital. Air-embolisms were sought after using CT/MRI and autopsy. During a 61/2 year period (2007-2014), n = 56 newborns received CC. Newborns were resuscitated following severe perinatal hypoxia, or due to complications during NICU treatment. In n = 14 (25.0%) circulation could not be restored (mean CPR duration: 32.7 ± 15.2 min). Post-mortem CT/MRI was performed in n = 9, of whom n = 8 (88.9%) had air-embolisms. Autopsy was performed in n = 9. The air-embolisms could not be retraced on autopsy except for n = 1 patient. In patients with CPR resulting in restored circulation (n = 42), no CT or MRI was performed for comparison due to radiation and/or hemodynamic instability. Cerebral ultrasound could not identify or exclude air-embolisms in this subgroup. Post-mortem CT after prolonged resuscitation showed a high prevalence of intravascular air-embolism. Autopsy was not suited to detect air-embolism. The clinical importance of air-embolisms on the lethal outcome needs further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cerebral asymmetry in a selected Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.X.; He, G.X.; Tong, G.H.; Wang, D.B.; Xu, K.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated anatomical differences between the two cerebral hemispheres and ethnic differences in cerebral asymmetry. This study examined asymmetry of Chinese living in Shanghai. Measurements were taken across the frontal, mid-cerebral and occipital regions from normal head computed tomography (CT) scans of 200 Chinese Shanghai residents (100 male and 100 female, aged 6-73 years, average 48.7 years). The results were compared with reported data in the literature. The following results were found: (i) In the frontal region the right side was larger than the left in 57.5% of cases, equal in 10.5% and smaller in 32% of cases; in the mid-cerebral region the right side was larger than the left in 65.5% of cases, equal in 12.5% and smaller in 22% of cases; in the occipital regions the right side was larger than the left in 34.5% of cases, equal in 8.5% and smaller in 57% of cases. The average right-left differences between the frontal, mid-cerebral and occipital regions were 0.43 mm, 0.9 mm and 0.4 mm respectively. No difference in cerebral asymmetry existed between males and females. The occipital lobes showed the greatest individual asymmetry. The distribution of cerebral asymmetry of Chinese in Shanghai showed similarity to North American Whites rather than North American Blacks, but the average right-left differences were smaller than those of Whites. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Association of Lead Levels and Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Bansal MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is a common motor disability in childhood. Raised lead levels affect cognition. Children with cerebral palsy may have raised lead levels, further impairing their residual cognitive motor and behavioral abilities. Environmental exposure and abnormal eating habits may lead to increased lead levels. Aims and Objectives: To measure blood lead levels in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with healthy neurologically normal children. To correlate blood lead levels with environmental factors. Material and Methods: Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Cases comprised 34 children with cerebral palsy, and controls comprised 34 neurologically normal, age- and sex-matched children. Methods: Clinical and demographic details were recorded as per proforma. Detailed environmental history was recorded to know the source of exposure to lead. These children were investigated and treated as per protocol. Venous blood was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid vials for analysis of blood lead levels. Lead levels were estimated by Schimadzu Flame AA-6800 (atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. P < .05 was taken as significant. Results: Mean blood lead levels were 9.20 ± 8.31 µg/dL in cerebral palsy cases and 2.89 ± 3.04 µg/dL in their controls (P < .001. Among children with cerebral palsy, 19 (55.88% children had blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL. Lead levels in children with pica were 12.33 ± 10.02 µg/dL in comparison to children with no history of pica, 6.70 ± 4.60 µg/dL (P = .029. No correlation was found between hemoglobin and blood lead levels in cases and controls. Conclusion: In our study, blood lead levels are raised in children with cerebral palsy. However, further studies are required to show effects of raised levels in these children.

  15. Endotoxemia reduces cerebral perfusion but enhances dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation at reduced arterial carbon dioxide tension*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Kim, Yu-Sok; van Lieshout, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The administration of endotoxin to healthy humans reduces cerebral blood flow but its influence on dynamic cerebral autoregulation remains unknown. We considered that a reduction in arterial carbon dioxide tension would attenuate cerebral perfusion and improve dynamic cerebral autoreg...

  16. Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S

    2015-07-14

    A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage

  17. Short communication: Cerebral Malaria Complicated by Blindness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grade intermittent fever associated with multiple convulsions and prolonged coma. He regained consciousness after 12 days of treatment with intravenous quinine but was found to have blindness, sensory‑neural deafness and extrapyramidal ...

  18. MRI diagnosis of the cerebral schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanqiu; Chen Yuanjun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss MRI appearance of the cerebral schistosomiasis and its clinical value through analyzing the MRI features and post-surgery pathological findings. Methods: MRI features of the cerebral schistosomiasis in 16, pathologically (n = 6) or clinically (n = 10) proved cases were analyzed retrospectively, and compared with the post-surgery pathological findings in 6 cases. Results: Single masses were found in 11 cases (11/16), and multiple masses in 5 eases (5/16), amounting to 23 masses . fifteen masses (15/23) were located in right cerebral hemisphere, including frontal lobe (n = 2), frontoparietal lobe (n = 5) , and occipitoparietal lobe (n 8), while 8 masses (8/23) in left cerebral hemisphere, including frontal lobe (n = 1), frontoparietal lobe (n = 3), and occipitoparietal lobe (n = 4). The nodular masses were isointense with the gray mass like 'island', and 12 cases (12/16) show the 'gigantic hand' form of edema around them. After IV administration of Gd-DTPA, 15 cases (15/16) revealed multiple closely spaced, intensely enhancing modules, 1-3 mm in diameter, distributed throughout the mass. Seven cases misdiagnosed by CT were revised by MRl. Conclusion: The MRI appearance of the cerebral schistosomiasis is characteristic, and MRI is the most valuable tool to diagnose it without injury

  19. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the severity of the motor abnormality and any of the regional cerebral perfusion indices (p>0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  20. Cerebral Vascular Injury in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Kimbra; Amyot, Franck; Haber, Margalit; Pronger, Angela; Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Moore, Carol; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic cerebral vascular injury (TCVI) is a very frequent, if not universal, feature after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is likely responsible, at least in part, for functional deficits and TBI-related chronic disability. Because there are multiple pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies that promote vascular health, TCVI is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention after TBI. The cerebral microvasculature is a component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) coupling neuronal metabolism with local cerebral blood flow. The NVU participates in the pathogenesis of TBI, either directly from physical trauma or as part of the cascade of secondary injury that occurs after TBI. Pathologically, there is extensive cerebral microvascular injury in humans and experimental animal, identified with either conventional light microscopy or ultrastructural examination. It is seen in acute and chronic TBI, and even described in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Non-invasive, physiologic measures of cerebral microvascular function show dysfunction after TBI in humans and experimental animal models of TBI. These include imaging sequences (MRI-ASL), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), and Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS). Understanding the pathophysiology of TCVI, a relatively under-studied component of TBI, has promise for the development of novel therapies for TBI. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Association of Lead Levels and Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Neha; Aggarwal, Anju; Faridi, M. M. A.; Sharma, Tusha; Baneerjee, B. D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cerebral palsy is a common motor disability in childhood. Raised lead levels affect cognition. Children with cerebral palsy may have raised lead levels, further impairing their residual cognitive motor and behavioral abilities. Environmental exposure and abnormal eating habits may lead to increased lead levels. Aims and Objectives: To measure blood lead levels in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with healthy neurologically normal children. To correlate blood lead levels with environmental factors. Material and Methods: Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Cases comprised 34 children with cerebral palsy, and controls comprised 34 neurologically normal, age- and sex-matched children. Methods: Clinical and demographic details were recorded as per proforma. Detailed environmental history was recorded to know the source of exposure to lead. These children were investigated and treated as per protocol. Venous blood was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid vials for analysis of blood lead levels. Lead levels were estimated by Schimadzu Flame AA-6800 (atomic absorption spectrophotometer). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. P pica were 12.33 ± 10.02 µg/dL in comparison to children with no history of pica, 6.70 ± 4.60 µg/dL (P = .029). No correlation was found between hemoglobin and blood lead levels in cases and controls. Conclusion: In our study, blood lead levels are raised in children with cerebral palsy. However, further studies are required to show effects of raised levels in these children. PMID:28491920

  2. Pathological review of late cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Late cerebral radionecrosis may be considered to be a specific chronic inflammatory response, although it is unknown whether the initial damage by brain irradiation is to an endothelial cell or a glial cell. I discuss the pathological specificity of late cerebral radionecrosis by studying the published literature and a case that I experienced. In late cerebral radionecrosis, there are typical coagulation necrosis areas containing fibrinoid necrosis with occlusion of the lumina and poorly active inflammatory areas with many inflammatory ghost cells, focal perivascular lymphocytes, hyalinized vessels, and telangiectatic vascularization near and in the necrotic tissue, and more active inflammatory areas formed as a partial rim of the reactive zone by perivascular lymphocytes, much vascularization, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes at the corticomedullary border adjacent to necrotic tissue in the white matter. It is difficult to believe that coagulation necrosis occurs without first disordering the vascular endothelial cells because fibrinoid necrosis is a main feature and a diffusely multiple lesion in late cerebral radionecrosis. Because various histological findings do develop, progress, and extend sporadically at different areas and times in the irradiated field of the brain for a long time after radiation, uncontrolled chronic inflammation containing various cytokine secretions may also play a key role in progression of this radionecrosis. Evaluation of the mechanism of the development/aggravation of late cerebral radionecrosis requires a further study for abnormal cytokine secretions and aberrant inflammatory reactions. (author)

  3. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation in Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Nur, Erfan; van Beers, Eduard J.; Truijen, Jasper; Davis, Shyrin C. A. T.; Biemond, Bart J.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with cerebral hyperperfusion and an increased risk of stroke. Also, both recurrent microvascular obstruction and chronic hemolysis affect endothelial function, potentially interfering with systemic and cerebral blood flow control. We

  4. Gastrostomy tube feeding of children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlseng, Magnus O; Andersen, Guro L; DA Graca Andrada, Maria

    2012-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of gastrostomy tube feeding (GTF) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in six European countries.......To compare the prevalence of gastrostomy tube feeding (GTF) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in six European countries....

  5. Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers (Birth to age 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers What's in this article? Step ...

  6. Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adult (13 to 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults What's in this article? ...

  7. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care unit...

  8. Cerebral vascular control and metabolism in heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bain, Anthony R; Nybo, Lars; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-01-01

    implications and pathologies known to confound cerebral functioning during hyperthermia. A reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), derived primarily from a respiratory-induced alkalosis, underscores the cerebrovascular changes to hyperthermia. Arterial pressures may also become compromised because of reduced...

  9. Association between type of cerebral palsy and the cognitive levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningrum

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion Our data showed that most patients with cerebral palsy had mental retardation of several cognitive level but there was no significant association between each type of cerebral palsy with cognitive levels.

  10. Admission Hyperglycemia and Clinical Outcome in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M.; Hiltunen, Sini; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Peters, Guusje M.; Silvis, Suzanne M.; Haapaniemi, Elena; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Putaala, Jukka; Coutinho, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Admission hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcome in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Admission hyperglycemia has not been investigated in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. Methods-Consecutive adult patients with cerebral venous thrombosis were included

  11. Hypothermia reduces cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in newborn pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busija, D.W.; Leffler, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examined effects of hypothermia on cerebral metabolic rate and cerebral blood flow in anesthetized, newborn pigs (1-4 days old). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined with 15-μm radioactive microspheres. Regional CBF ranged from 44 to 66 ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , and cerebral metabolic rate was 1.94 ± 0.23 ml O 2 ·100 g -1 ·min -1 during normothermia (39 degree C). Reduction of rectal temperature to 34-35 degree C decreased CBF and cerebral metabolic rate 40-50%. In another group of piglets, they examined responsiveness of the cerebral circulation to arterial hypercapnia during hypothermia. Although absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic CBF were reduced by hypothermia and absolute values for normocapnic and hypercapnic cerebrovascular resistance were increased, the percentage changes from control in these variables during hypercapnia were similar during normothermia and hypothermia. In another group of animals that were maintained normothermic and exposed to two episodes of hypercapnia, there was no attenuation of cerebrovascular dilation during the second episode. They conclude that hypothermia reduces CBF secondarily to a decrease in cerebral metabolic rate and that percent dilator responsiveness to arterial hypercapnia is unaltered when body temperature is reduced

  12. Sodium transport through the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter exacerbates neuron damage during cerebral ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yui; Harada, Shinichi; Wada, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-07-01

    We recently demonstrated that the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) is involved in postischaemic hyperglycaemia-induced exacerbation of cerebral ischaemia. However, the associated SGLT-mediated mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we examined the involvement of cerebral SGLT-induced excessive sodium ion influx in the development of cerebral ischaemic neuronal damage. [Na+]i was estimated according to sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate fluorescence. In the in vitro study, primary cortical neurons were prepared from fetuses of ddY mice. Primary cortical neurons were cultured for 5 days before each treatment with reagents, and these survival rates were assessed using biochemical assays. In in vivo study, a mouse model of focal ischaemia was generated using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In these experiments, treatment with high concentrations of glucose induced increment in [Na+]i, and this phenomenon was suppressed by the SGLT-specific inhibitor phlorizin. SGLT-specific sodium ion influx was induced using a-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (a-MG) treatments, which led to significant concentration-dependent declines in neuronal survival rates and exacerbated hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal cell death. Moreover, phlorizin ameliorated these effects. Finally, intracerebroventricular administration of a-MG exacerbated the development of neuronal damage induced by MCAO, and these effects were ameliorated by the administration of phlorizin. Hence, excessive influx of sodium ions into neuronal cells through cerebral SGLT may exacerbate the development of cerebral ischaemic neuronal damage. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Tomonaga, Masanori; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Hiroyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy was studied clinicopathologically, with special attention given to the CT images. Cerebral hemorrhage caused by amyloid angiopathy is characterized, by a lobar-type hemorrhage involving the cortex, with direct extension into the subarachnoid space. Multiple hemorrhages are frequent, and cortical infarctions are present as complications in elderly patients without risk factors. CT scans taken in 5 cases demonstrated lobar hemorrhages in superficial locations, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently, with surrounding edema and mass effect. A subarachnoid extension of the hemorrhage through the superficial cortex, proven pathologically in all cases, was noted by CT in 4 of the 5 cases. However, cortical infarction was not detected by CT in any case. Therefore, CT is of value in the diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage due to amyloid angiopathy based on distinctive findings such as a lobar hemorrhage in superficial regions, with extension into the subarachnoid space, frequently in multiple sites or recurrently. (author)

  14. Computerized tomographic evaluation of cerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Mi Sook; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song [Precbyterian Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-08-15

    Cerebral cysticercosis, unfortunately frequent in Korea, is a parastic disease in which man serve as the intermediate host of taenia solium. The larvae have a predilection for the central nervous system and can cause a variety of neurologic symptoms. The authors reviewed 19 cases of surgically proven cerebral cysticercosis and following results were obtained. 1. The most frequent age distribution was 5th and 6th decade and male to female ratio was 14:5. 2. The most frevalent involving site was cerebral parenchyme and following by ventricles. 3. Clinical manifestations were symtom and sign of increased ICP, seizure and focal neurological dificit. 4. It was assumed that computerized tomography was the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of these parasitic brain disease.

  15. Diagnosis of cerebral disorders using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, K [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), which makes differential diagnosis of cerebral disorders possible, was applied in the diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease. CT findings of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage showed the localization, volume, and direction of hematoma, and the classification of hematoma according to CT findings was highly correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patients. CT findings of cerebral thrombosis showed the extension of the lesion to be a low density area, but there were many cases in which they did not show a low density area immediately after an attack. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage were very useful in the diagnosis of intracerebral hematoma, ventricular hematoma, and intracranial hematoma secondary to this disease. However, it was very difficult to diagnose cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease by means of CT.

  16. Diagnosis of cerebral disorders using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Koichi

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), which makes differential diagnosis of cerebral disorders possible, was applied in the diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease. CT findings of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage showed the localization, volume, and direction of hematoma, and the classification of hematoma according to CT findings was highly correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patients. CT findings of cerebral thrombosis showed the extension of the lesion to be a low density area, but there were many cases in which they did not show a low density area immediately after an attack. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage were very useful in the diagnosis of intracerebral hematoma, ventricular hematoma, and intracranial hematoma secondary to this disease. However, it was very difficult to diagnose cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease by means of CT. (Nishio, M.)

  17. Neurociências, neurocultura e autoajuda cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ortega

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende analisar o fenômeno denominado de neuroascese, ou autoajuda cerebral no contexto do crescente impacto das neurociências e do surgimento da neurocultura e do sujeito cerebral. Para tanto, é importante compreender o âmbito sóciocultural mais amplo no qual a neuroascese se insere e que corresponde ao que vem se chamando de 'cultura somática' ou, mais especificamente, de biossociabilidade. O objetivo do artigo é explorar como uma forma de subjetividade reducionista, o sujeito cerebral, dá lugar à aparição de práticas de si cerebrais, isto é, práticas de como agir sobre o cérebro para maximizar a sua performance, que levam a formação de novas formas de sociabilidade.

  18. Contrast MR imaging of acute cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogame, Saeko; Syakudo, Miyuki; Inoue, Yuichi (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-04-01

    Thirty patients with acute and subacute cerebral infarction (13 and 17 deep cerebral infarction) were studied with 0.5 T MR unit before and after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA. Thirteen patients were studied within 7 days after neurological ictus, 17 patients were studied between 7 and 14 days. Two types of abnormal enhancement, cortical arterial and parenchymal enhancement, were noted. The former was seen in 3 of 4 cases of very acute cortical infarction within 4 days after clinical ictus. The latter was detected in all 7 cases of cortical infarction after the 6th day of the ictus, and one patient with deep cerebral infarction at the 12th day of the ictus. Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging seems to detect gyral enhancement earlier compared with contrast CT, and depict intra-arterial sluggish flow which was not expected to see on contrast CT scans. (author).

  19. Cerebral venography and flow quantification with MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattle, H.; Elelman, R.R.; Reis, H.H.; O'Reilly, G.V.; Wentz, K.V.; O'Leary, D.H.; Finn, J.P.; Longmaid, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe an approach for creating projection venograms of the head and quantifying flow in the cerebral veins and sinuses. A series of two- dimensional flow-compensated gradient-echo images were acquired. Signal from arteries was eliminated by application of a 5-cm-thick presaturation slab to the neck. The images were postprocessed with use of a maximum intensity projection algorithm to produce projection venograms. In addition, flow directionally, flow velocity, and, in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), flow volume was assessed by means of a dynamic bolus tracking technique. Flow velocities in the SSS ranged from 20.1 to 45.5 cm/sec, and flow volumes from 269 to 612 mL/min. This technique was able to identify cerebral venous thrombosis and partial SSS obstruction, cerebral venous angiomas, and venous drainage of arteriovenous malformations and to demonstrate patency of the SSS with falx meningiomas

  20. Cerebral blood flow variations in CNS lupus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.J.; Tobin, M.; Fazekas, F.; Chawluk, J.; Jamieson, D.; Freundlich, B.; Grenell, S.; Freemen, L.; Reivich, M.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF), over time, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and varying neurologic manifestations including headache, stroke, psychosis, and encephalopathy. For 20 paired xenon-133 CBF measurements, CBF was normal during CNS remissions, regardless of the symptoms. CBF was significantly depressed during CNS exacerbations. The magnitude of change in CBF varied with the neurologic syndrome. CBF was least affected in patients with nonspecific symptoms such as headache or malaise, whereas patients with encephalopathy or psychosis exhibited the greatest reductions in CBF. In 1 patient with affective psychosis, without clinical or CT evidence of cerebral ischemia, serial SPECT studies showed resolution of multifocal cerebral perfusion defects which paralleled clinical recovery