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Sample records for prolific shoot regeneration

  1. Prolific plant regeneration through organogenesis from scalps of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four types of potting media comprising of sand, peat, sand + top soil + goat dung (3:2:1 v/v) and top soil + sand (1:1 v/v) were evaluated during acclimatization of the plantlets. Prolific shoot regeneration from scalps was obtained on MS medium containing 2.5 mM BAP, at 9.61 and 40.6 shoots per explant after 4 and 8 weeks ...

  2. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious shoot induction, the ...

  3. Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis in lily shoot tips cryopreserved by droplet vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...

  4. Highly efficient in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration of Adenosma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosma glutinosum (Linn.) Druce is an important aromatic plant, but no information is available regarding its regeneration, callus induction and proliferation from leaf explants. In this study, an in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native A. glutinosum using leaf explants. Callus induction and shoots ...

  5. Light Requirement for Shoot Regeneration in Horseradish Hairy Roots 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Tsutomu; Kamada, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions. PMID:16669041

  6. Light requirement for shoot regeneration in horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, T; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1992-08-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions.

  7. Regeneration of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) N-550 line evolved at R&D, Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., ...

  8. Efficient regeneration of plants from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. is one of the horticulturally important orchids of Nepal due to its beautiful yellowish flower and medicinal properties. The present study was carried out for plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of D. densiflorum by tissue culture technique. The shoot tip explants of this species, obtained ...

  9. High efficiency indirect shoot regeneration and hypericin content in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... opium poppy. Support of hormone-free medium on shoot regeneration from callus has also been underlined for sugarbeet (Doley and Saunders, 1989). In our study, obtained regenerants acclimatized readily, alived (94%) and are still continuing to grow in the greenhouse of our department. Cell or callus ...

  10. thidiazuron improves adventitious bud and shoot regeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.

  11. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  12. Improving adventitious shoot regeneration from cultured leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) with or without 2.7 μM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation of two Petunia hybrida cultivars was studied. Seeds from 'Daddy Blue' and 'Dreams White' cultivars were germinated in vitro. Expanded leaves from both seedlings and ...

  13. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... 2Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli – 620 002, South India. Accepted 28 March, 2011 .... Effect of cytokinins (KN and BAP) alone or in combination with NAA on direct shoot bud regeneration from leaf explants of P. barbatus. Plant growth regulator ...

  14. Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... tems have been used for improvement of sunflower, but these techniques are mainly limited by the tissue culture response of commercial varieties (Nestares et al., 2002). In sunflower, reports on shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves and meristematic tissues of young plantlets are available ...

  15. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration for Plectranthus barbatus Andrews using leaf explants. The explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing various concentration of kinetin (KN), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron ...

  16. Developmental anatomy of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Aurora’) shoot regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culture of Vaccinium corymbosum L. ’Aurora’ leaves on regeneration medium results in the regeneration of adventitious shoots. We present anatomical evidence that these new shoot apices are directly regenerated from the cultured blades. Mounds of densely staining cells, which formed from epidermi...

  17. An Integrated Strategy to Identify Key Genes in Almond Adventitious Shoot Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic transformation usually depends on efficient adventitious regeneration systems. In almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), regeneration of transgenic adventitious shoots was achieved but with low efficiency. Histological studies identified two main stages of organogenesis in almond explants that ...

  18. Morphological Evaluation of Shoots Regenerated from Hygromycin-Resistant Rice Callus (cv IACuba-28

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    Maylin Pérez Bernal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation system based on the morphological characteristics of regenerated hygromycin-resistant rice callus shoots was established for correlating such characteristics with shoot viability on hygromycin. Embryogenic rice calli were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA105/ pCAMBIA1300, containing the hygromycin-phosphotransferase gene as selection marker. After two weeks on selection medium, hygromycin-resistant calli were transferred to regeneration medium. Regenerated shoots were extracted every 5 days (over a 30-day period and classified into three classes according to their morphological structure: class I: vigorous shoot having typical bipolar structure; class II: shoot having small root compared to apical length, or shoot without roots; class III: shoots having an abnormal appearance, such as malformed leaves or albinism. Individualised shoots were transferred to MS medium containing hygromycin for evaluating their resistance to antibiotics. A relationship was observed between regenerated shoots’ morphological characteristics and the percentage of shoots’ viability on hygromycin. Class I prevailed at early shoot extraction and was the most resistant to hygromycin. Drastic class I reduction was found with later shoot extraction, whilst classes II and III became increased. Likewise, shoot viability became radically reduced on MS medium containing hygromycin. This result might be applied for improving efficiency regarding obtaining transgenic rice plants, taking into account the best time for obtaining high percentages of hygromycin-resistant shoots having the best morphological characteristics.

  19. Induction of shoot regeneration in cotyledon explants of the oilseed crop Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masochon Zimik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesamum indicum is an ancient oilseed crop known for its high quality edible oil and its medicinally important lignans. The crop is said to be recalcitrant to plant tissue culture thus limiting the use of modern biotechnology for its genetic improvement. We present here a protocol describing plant regeneration through adventitious shoot formation from cotyledons dissected from sesame seeds soaked for four hours in water. Subculturing of the cotyledons after two weeks of culture on to a fresh Murashige and Skoog medium leads to differentiation of adventitious shoots from the proximal cut end of the explant. Culture of cotyledons on a medium containing 9% sucrose for a couple of weeks prior to transfer to MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose induced a higher frequency of shoot regeneration. The highest frequency of 25% adventitious shoot regeneration was observed for S. indicum variety UMA. This variety also turned out to be the best among the ten genotypes tested for shoot regeneration through tissue culture. While addition of IAA marginally improved regeneration, silver nitrate was found essential for enhancing the frequency of shoot regeneration. The regenerated shoots formed roots on full strength MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l IBA and the rooted plants were established in soil.

  20. Metabolomic homeostasis shifts after callus formation and shoot regeneration in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Alka; Ray, Kamalika; Sadhna, Sadhna; Pandey, Arun Kumar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2017-01-01

    Plants can regenerate from a variety of tissues on culturing in appropriate media. However, the metabolic shifts involved in callus formation and shoot regeneration are largely unknown. The metabolic profiles of callus generated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cotyledons and that of shoot regenerated from callus were compared with the pct1-2 mutant that exhibits enhanced polar auxin transport and the shr mutant that exhibits elevated nitric oxide levels. The transformation from cotyledon to callus involved a major shift in metabolite profiles with denser metabolic networks in the callus. In contrast, the transformation from callus to shoot involved minor changes in the networks. The metabolic networks in pct1-2 and shr mutants were distinct from wild type and were rewired with shifts in endogenous hormones and metabolite interactions. The callus formation was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of metabolites involved in cell wall lignification and cellular immunity. On the contrary, the levels of monoamines were upregulated in the callus and regenerated shoot. The callus formation and shoot regeneration were accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid in wild type and mutants. The transformation to the callus and also to the shoot downregulated LST8 and upregulated TOR transcript levels indicating a putative linkage between metabolic shift and TOR signalling pathway. The network analysis indicates that shift in metabolite profiles during callus formation and shoot regeneration is governed by a complex interaction between metabolites and endogenous hormones. PMID:28481937

  1. Multiple shoot regeneration of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Induction of multiple shoots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant in two commercial varieties (Sahel and Varamin) using shoot apex was done. Explants were isolated from 3 - 4 days old seedlings, then they were cultured on a shoot induction media, modified MS nutrient agar with combinations: 1- ...

  2. Effect of Hormones on Direct Shoot Regeneration in Hypocotyl Explants of Tomato

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    Rizwan RASHID

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for developing a high frequency regeneration system in two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., �Punjab Upma� and �IPA-3� for direct shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants. The explants were excised from in vitro tomato seedlings and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones. Direct regeneration was significantly influenced by the genotype hormones combination and concentrations. The MS medium supplemented with (Kinetin 0.5 mg/l and (BAP 0.5 mg/l was found optimum for inducing direct shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants on this medium. Shoot regeneration per cent in �Punjab Upma� and �IPA-3� per cent was recorded to be highest i.e (86.02 and (82.57 respectively. Besides this, average number shoots per explant was also highest i.e (3.16 in case of �Punjab Upma� and (2.93 in case of �IPA-3�. A significant decline was observed in percent shoot regeneration and average number of shoots per explant with increase in the hormonal concentration. Shoots were obtained and transferred to the elongation medium (MS + BAP 0.3 mg/l. Hundred per cent rooting was induced in separated shoots upon culturing on MS and � MS basal media. Hardening on moist cotton showed maximum plantlet survival rate in case of both genotypes. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established in tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl as explants.

  3. Effect of Hormones on Direct Shoot Regeneration in Hypocotyl Explants of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan RASHID

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for developing a high frequency regeneration system in two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Punjab Upma and IPA-3 for direct shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants. The explants were excised from in vitro tomato seedlings and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones. Direct regeneration was significantly influenced by the genotype hormones combination and concentrations. The MS medium supplemented with (Kinetin 0.5 mg/l and (BAP 0.5 mg/l was found optimum for inducing direct shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants on this medium. Shoot regeneration per cent in Punjab Upma and IPA-3 per cent was recorded to be highest i.e (86.02 and (82.57 respectively. Besides this, average number shoots per explant was also highest i.e (3.16 in case of Punjab Upma and (2.93 in case of IPA-3. A significant decline was observed in percent shoot regeneration and average number of shoots per explant with increase in the hormonal concentration. Shoots were obtained and transferred to the elongation medium (MS + BAP 0.3 mg/l. Hundred per cent rooting was induced in separated shoots upon culturing on MS and MS basal media. Hardening on moist cotton showed maximum plantlet survival rate in case of both genotypes. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established in tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl as explants.

  4. Assessment of carbon sources on in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.; Jan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative approach for in vitro shoot regeneration by both direct and indirect means was developed in three tomato genotypes culturing hypocotyls and leaf discs explants on MS and N6 basal media fortified with various concentrations of carbon sources (sucrose and sorbitol) individually, accumulatively and also in amalgamation with various plant growth regulators. No response of in vitro shoot regeneration was recorded in all the genotypes by the individual application of carbon sources in both MS and N6 basal media. On the other hand, their accumulative effect rapidly enhanced the in vitro shoot regeneration frequency in all the genotypes. The highest shoot organogenesis frequency (100, 99.00 and 97.69%) was recorded in Rio Grande, Roma and Moneymaker, respectively on MS medium fortified with carbon sources (30: 30 g/l) culturing hypocotyls. Supplementation of sucrose: sorbitol (30: 30 g/l) in N6 medium along with different PGRs (0.1 mg/l IAA, 1.0 mg/l ZEA and 2.0 mg/l BAP) produced the highest shoot regeneration frequency (96.33, 92.69 and 88.74%) in Roma, Rio Grande and Moneymaker culturing leaf discs. Our findings suggest an alternative approach as hormone-free protocol for in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato that would save the resources with regard to hormonal costs and time. (author)

  5. [Identifying transcription factors involved in Arabidopsis adventious shoot regeneration by RNA-Seq technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchun; Chen, Zhao; Fan, Juan; He, Miaomiao; Han, Yuanhuai; Yang, Zhirong

    2015-04-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the major regulations in plant adventious shoot regeneration, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. In our study, the RNA-seq technology based on the IlluminaHiSeq 2000 sequencing platform was used to identify differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) encoding genes during callus formation stage and adventious shoot regeneration stage between wild type and adventious shoot formation defective mutant be1-3 and during the transition from dedifferentiation to redifferentiation stage in wildtype WS. Results show that 155 TFs were differentially expressed between be1-3 mutant and wild type during callus formation, of which 97 genes were up-regulated, and 58 genes were down-regulated; and that 68 genes were differentially expressed during redifferentiation stage, with 40 genes up-regulated and 28 genes down-regulated; whereas at the transition stage from dedifferentiation to redifferention in WS wild type explants, a total of 231 differentially expressed TF genes were identified, including 160 up-regualted genes and 71 down-regulated genes. Among these TF genes, the adventious shoot related transcription factor 1 (ART1) gene encoding a MYB-related (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) TF, was up-regulated 3 217 folds, and was the highest up-regulated gene during be1-3 callus formation. Over expression of the ART1 gene caused defects in callus formation and shoot regeneration and inhibited seedling growth, indicating that the ART1 gene is a negative regulator of callus formation and shoot regeneration. This work not only enriches our knowledge about the transcriptional regulation mechanism of adventious shoot regeneration, but also provides valuable information on candidate TF genes associated with adventious shoot regeneration for future research.

  6. Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured leaves of guava (Psidium guava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Concepción Laffitte

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious regeneration is a key step in the application of genetic engineering to the breeding programs of plants. In this work a method for adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves of micropropagated guava shoots has been developed and some of main factors to affect the shoot regeneration like, concentration of plant growth regulators (citoquinine, physiological state of explants and the wound are studied. Leaves from guava in vitro cultured of variety Cuban Red Dwarf 18-40 was used like explant in all experiments. The best re-sult was reached with MS basal medium supplemented with 0.75 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine. Was de-monstrated that for the leaves with more multiplication subculture number and taken from lower part of shoot (older; the morfogenetic potential falls significantly (p60% and the largest number of shoot per regenerating leaf (>3 were obtained with several wounds carried out in f orm of jabs to the central nerve of leaves. This regeneration protocol constitutes an important tool that can be applied for future studies of genetic transformation in this species. Key words: Tissue culture, leaf explants, growth regulators, organogenesis, guava

  7. Efficient regeneration of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, from shoot-tip explant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamala, D; Devi, Prathibha

    2003-12-01

    Novel protocols for production of multiple shoot-tip clumps and somatic embryos of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were developed with long-term goal of crop improvement through genetic transformation. Multiple shoot-tip clumps were developed in vitro from shoot-tip explant of one-week old seedling, cultured on MS medium containing only BA (0.5, 1 or 2 mg/l) or both BA (1 or 2 mg/l) and 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) with bi-weekly subculture. Somatic embryos were directly produced on the enlarged dome shaped growing structures that developed from the shoot-tips of one-week old seedling explants (without any callus formation) when cultured on MS medium supplemented with both 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l). However, the supplementation of MS medium with only 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) induced compact callus without any plantlet regeneration. Each multiple shoot-clump was capable of regenerating more than 80 shoots via an intensive differentiation of both axillary and adventitious shoot buds, the somatic embryos were capable of 90% germination, plant conversion and regeneration. The regenerated shoots could be efficiently rooted on MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 1 mg/l). The plants were successfully transplanted to glasshouse and grown to maturity with a survival rate of 98%. Morphogenetic response of the explants was found to be genotypically independent.

  8. Shoot Organogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Leaf Explants of Lysionotus serratus D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiansheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gesneriaceous perennial plant, Lysionotus serratus, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. It also has a great development potential as an ornamental plant with its attractive foliage and beautiful flowers. An efficient propagation and regeneration system via direct shoot organogenesis from leaf explant was established in this study. High active cytokinin (6-benzyladenine (BA or thidiazuron (TDZ was effective for direct organogenesis of initial induction. Murashige and Skoog (MS growth media containing 0.5 mg L−1 BA alone or with combination of 0.1 mg L−1  α-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA were the most effective for shoot proliferation. High BA concentration (1.0 mg L−1 in the media caused high percentage of vitrified shoots though they introduced high shoot proliferation rate. Histological observation indicated that adventitious shoot regeneration on the medium containing 0.5 mg L−1 BA alone occurred directly from leaf epidermal cells without callus formation. Regenerated shoots rooted well on medium containing half-strength MS medium with 0.5 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and the plantlets successfully acclimatized and grew vigorously in the greenhouse with a 94.2% and 92.1% survival rate.

  9. In vitro shoot regeneration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... sprouts are good source of protein, mineral and vitamin C. (Khan et al. ... hypocotyl explants were isolated from 8 - 10 days old germinated seedlings and ..... TJV (1993). Transformation and regeneration of two cultivars of pea.

  10. Shoot regeneration of callus culture from irradiated sheed of piper nigrum L by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak; Hutabarat, D.

    1988-01-01

    Shoot regeneration was obtained from callus that induced by irradiated seed with 25 and 50 Gy of gamma-rays and then on M.S. medium containing NAA 1 ppm and 2-ip 0.5 ppm. Irradiated seed with a dose of 25 Gy produced normal root and failed to produce shoot, but rice callus. Irradiated seed with a dose of 50 Gy pruduce callus only. Shoot differentiation occured after the callus were cultured on M.S., medium containing 2-ip 1 ppm and Kinetin 2.5 ppm. (authors). 9 refs, 3 figs

  11. High frequency plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 16/8-h (light/dark) photoperiod provided by cool white fluorescent light. Multiple .... formation from shoot tip explant of C. colocynthis on MS-medium. S. No. .... micropropagation of Musa sapientum L. (Cavendish Dwarf). Afr. J.

  12. Plant regeneration through organogenesis and shoot proliferation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Effect of 2,4-D, NAA and BA (in MS medium) on Trichodesma indicum callus induction and shoot .... Structure/activity relationships of the fenotoxic potentcies of sixteen pyrrolizidine ... In vitro propagation of Cordia verbe- ...

  13. Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to observe the effect of genotype, hormone and culture conditions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) callus induction and indirect plant regeneration. Calli were obtained from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of five different sunflower genotypes; Trakya 80, Trakya 129, Trakya 259, Trakya 2098 and ...

  14. Cytokinin induced shoot regeneration and flowering of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae)-an ethnomedicinal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, G; Sankaranarayanan, R; Jeeva, S; Rajarathinam, K

    2011-06-01

    To develop an improved protocol for micropropagation of ethnomedicinally important Scoparia dulcis (S. dulcis) L. Explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot bud induction. To enhance the shoot induction, various auxins like 3-indoleacetic acid or 3-indolebutyric acid or α-naphthylacetic acid were tested along with 2.32 M KI and 4.44 µM BAP. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IAA, IBA or NAA. After roots were developed, the plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with vermiculate and sand and kept in growth chamber with 70%-80% humidity under 16 h photoperiod. After acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to the garden and survival percentage was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test (Pdulcis. Shoot induction on young leaf explants was most successful in MS medium supplemented with combination of two cytokinins (2.32 µM KI and 4.44 µM BAP) 2.85 µM IAA, 10% CM and 1 483.79 µM adenine sulfate. A single young leaf explant was capable of producing 59 shoots after 13 days of culture. Flower was induced in medium supplemented with combination of KI and BAP. Cytokinins are the key factor to induce the direct shoot regeneration and flowering of S. dulcis.

  15. Shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaf explants of jatropha curcas: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana

    2010-03-07

    A simple, high frequency, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from cotyledonary leaf explants of Jatropha curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Medium containing TDZ has greater influence on regeneration as compared to BAP. The induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 lM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 lM BAP, and 5.5 lM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), NAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). MS medium with 2.25 lM BAP and 8.5 lM IAA was found to be the best combination for shoot elongation. However, significant differences in plant regeneration and shoot elongation were observed among the genotypes studied. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing dif- ferent concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA, and NAA for 4 days, followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg l-1 activated charcoal. Elongated shoot treated with 15 lM IBA, 5.7 lM IAA, and 11 lM NAA resulted in highest percent rooting. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate. The method developed may be useful in improvement of J. curcas through genetic modification. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2010.

  16. Shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaf explants of jatropha curcas: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana; Vijay Anand, K. G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, high frequency, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from cotyledonary leaf explants of Jatropha curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Medium containing TDZ has greater influence on regeneration as compared to BAP. The induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 lM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 lM BAP, and 5.5 lM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), NAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). MS medium with 2.25 lM BAP and 8.5 lM IAA was found to be the best combination for shoot elongation. However, significant differences in plant regeneration and shoot elongation were observed among the genotypes studied. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing dif- ferent concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA, and NAA for 4 days, followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg l-1 activated charcoal. Elongated shoot treated with 15 lM IBA, 5.7 lM IAA, and 11 lM NAA resulted in highest percent rooting. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate. The method developed may be useful in improvement of J. curcas through genetic modification. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2010.

  17. In vitro shoot regeneration and microcorm development in crocus vernus (l.) hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivanesan, I.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method has been developed for In vitro regeneration of shoot and microcorm from corm explants of Crocus vernus. Corms were cut into 0.5-1.0 cm long segments and cultured on the SH medium supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg L-1 2-isopentyl adenine (2-iP), N6-benzyladenine (BA), and N6-furfuryladenine (kinetin, Kin) alone or combination with 0.5 or 1.0 mg L-1 alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for shoot regeneration. Of the three cytokinins tested, BA was found to be the most effective cytokinin for shoot formation. The number of shoots induced per explant was more when BA was combined with 0.5 mg L-1 NAA than with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA. The greatest percentage of shoot induction (97.2) with the mean number of 11.8 shoots per explant was obtained when the SH medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA and 0.5 mg L-1 NAA. The frequency of microcorm induction was significantly affected by the concentrations of sucrose.The greatest number of 6.1 microcorms per explant was obtained when the SH medium was supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 BA, 0.5 mg L-1 NAA and 6.0% sucrose. The microcorms formed In vitro developed daughter corms when they were cultured on this medium. Microcorms were separated from the culture and planted out in acclimatization boxes containing a commercial medium. About 85% of corms developed shoot and root after 30 days. This protocol could be utilized for genetic transformation and mass clonal propagation of C. (author)

  18. Plant regeneration from protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Kohn, H; Nibbe, M; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1996-11-01

    Protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis isolated from epicotyls and shoot tips of etiolated seedlings were embedded in 1.4% sodium-alginate at a final density of 2.5×10(5) protoplasts/ml and cultivated in Kao and Michayluk-medium containing 0.5 mg/I of each of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6 -benzylaminopurine. A division frequency of 36% and a plating efficiency of 0.40-0.5% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred onto gelrite-solidified Murashige and Skoog-media containing various growth regulators. Regeneration of plants was achieved via two morphologically distinguishable pathways. A two step protocol (initially on medium with a high auxin concentration followed by a culture phase with lowered auxin amount) was used to regenerate somatic embryos, whereas cultivation on medium containing thidiazuron and naphthylacetic acid resulted in shoot morphogenesis. Mature plants were recovered from both somatic embryos as well as from thidiazuron-induced shoots.

  19. The effect of sodium hypochlorite solutions on in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration of flax (Linum usitatissimum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Er, Celâl

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentration (40, 60, and 80%) and temperature (0, 10, 20, and 30°C) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions on seed germination, in vitro viability and growth of flax seedlings and regeneration capacity of hypocotyl explants. Results showed that seed germination, seedling growth and shoot regeneration were negatively affected by increasing concentration and temperature of disinfectant. The best results in seedling growth and shoot regeneration were obtained when 40% disinfectant concentration at 10°C was used.

  20. Effect of lanthanum on rooting of in vitro regenerated shoots of Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Xu, Ling-Ling; Guan, Zhen-Jun; Wei, Ya-Hui

    2012-06-01

    In present study, the effect of lanthanum (La) on the rooting of regenerated shoots of Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir was analyzed. Rooting occurred from regenerated shoots inoculated on a medium supplemented with La, the plant rooting hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), or both La and IAA together. The highest rooting efficiency (96%), root number/shoot (8.5), and root length (63 mm) were recorded in shoots cultured on medium containing 2.5 μM IAA combined with 100 μM La(3+). In order to elucidate the mechanism of rooting enhancement by La, we examined dynamic changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in plant tissue over time in culture. We found that the activities of peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly higher in plant tissue cultured in IAA plus La than in La or IAA alone. At the same time, the highest H(2)O(2) content was detected in plant tissue in the presence of 2.5 μM IAA plus 100 μM La(3+). In light of these data and previous results, we speculate that La enhanced IAA-induced rooting by acting as a mild abiotic stress to stimulate POX and SOD activities in plant cells. Then, IAA reacted with oxygen and POX to form the ternary complex enzyme-IAA-O(2) that dissociated into IAA radicals and O(2)(-). Subsequently, IAA-induced O(2)(-) readily converted to hydroxyl radical (HO·) via SOD-catalyzed dismutation. Finally, cell wall loosening and cell elongation occurred as a consequence of HO-dependent scission of wall components, leading to root growth. The treatment of IAA combined with La resulted in the highest plantlet survival (80%) compared to single treatments with IAA or La alone. These data suggest that rare earth elements enhance root morphogenesis and the growth of S. involucrata.

  1. Transcriptomic and Hormonal Analyses Reveal that YUC-Mediated Auxin Biogenesis Is Involved in Shoot Regeneration from Rhizome in Cymbidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Guo, He-Rong; Xie, Li; Zeng, Rui-Zhen; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Zhang, Zhi-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Cymbidium , one of the most important orchid genera in horticulture, can be classified into epiphytic and terrestrial species. Generally, epiphytic Cymbidium seedlings can be easily propagated by tissue culture, but terrestrial seedlings are difficult to propagate. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in the ease with which terrestrial and epiphytic cymbidiums can be propagated are largely unknown. Using RNA-sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Cymbidium 'Xiaofeng' (CXF), which can be efficiently micropropagated, and terrestrial Cymbidium sinense 'Qijianbaimo' (CSQ), which has a low regeneration ability, were used to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the micropropagation ability of Cymbidium species. To this end, 447 million clean short reads were generated, and 31,264 annotated unigenes were obtained from 10 cDNA libraries. A total of 1,290 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between CXF and CSQ during shoot induction. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in auxin pathway-related GO terms. Further analysis demonstrated that YUC and GH3 family genes, which play crucial roles in the regulation of auxin/IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) metabolism, acted quickly in response to shoot induction culture in vitro and were closely correlated with variation in shoot regeneration between CXF and CSQ. In addition, the study showed that IAA accumulated rapidly and significantly during shoot induction in CXF compared to that in CSQ; in contrast, no significant changes in other hormones were observed between CXF and CSQ. Furthermore, shoot regeneration in CXF was inhibited by a yucasin-auxin biosynthesis inhibitor, indicating that increased IAA level is required for high-frequency shoot regeneration in CXF. In conclusion, our study revealed that YUC-mediated auxin biogenesis is involved in shoot regeneration from rhizome in

  2. Transcriptomic and Hormonal Analyses Reveal that YUC-Mediated Auxin Biogenesis Is Involved in Shoot Regeneration from Rhizome in Cymbidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cymbidium, one of the most important orchid genera in horticulture, can be classified into epiphytic and terrestrial species. Generally, epiphytic Cymbidium seedlings can be easily propagated by tissue culture, but terrestrial seedlings are difficult to propagate. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in the ease with which terrestrial and epiphytic cymbidiums can be propagated are largely unknown. Using RNA-sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Cymbidium ‘Xiaofeng’ (CXF, which can be efficiently micropropagated, and terrestrial Cymbidium sinense ‘Qijianbaimo’ (CSQ, which has a low regeneration ability, were used to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the micropropagation ability of Cymbidium species. To this end, 447 million clean short reads were generated, and 31,264 annotated unigenes were obtained from 10 cDNA libraries. A total of 1,290 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between CXF and CSQ during shoot induction. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in auxin pathway-related GO terms. Further analysis demonstrated that YUC and GH3 family genes, which play crucial roles in the regulation of auxin/IAA (indole-3-acetic acid metabolism, acted quickly in response to shoot induction culture in vitro and were closely correlated with variation in shoot regeneration between CXF and CSQ. In addition, the study showed that IAA accumulated rapidly and significantly during shoot induction in CXF compared to that in CSQ; in contrast, no significant changes in other hormones were observed between CXF and CSQ. Furthermore, shoot regeneration in CXF was inhibited by a yucasin-auxin biosynthesis inhibitor, indicating that increased IAA level is required for high-frequency shoot regeneration in CXF. In conclusion, our study revealed that YUC-mediated auxin biogenesis is involved in shoot

  3. Effects of gamma-rays irradiation in seed of mungbean (vigna radiata (L.) wilczek) composition of media on shoot regeneration of explants from node of cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, Dameria; H, Soeranto

    1998-01-01

    Study the effects of gamma-rays irradiation and composition and media on shoot regeneration of explants from node of cotyledon of mungbean. Wallet variety have been conducted. The explants derived of irradiated seeds of 10-20 Gy of gamma rays were planted in the 0.7% agar solution. One day after planting in the agar media the embryo axis of germinate seed were removed and the node of cotyledon were cultured in the regeneration media as examples. The results shown that shoot regeneration was influenced by media composition and the doses of gamma rays irradiation in seed. In the MURASHIGE and SKOOG medium which contain of BAP or 2-iP or Kinetin with 3 ppm concentrate respectively the explants could produced 100% of shoots. However, the highest. number of produced shoot (3 shoots) was showed in the medium which contained of BAP. The medium with I ppm concentrate od BAP could produced 100% shoot regeneration and the maximum number of shoots (4 shoots) per explant was showed in with 5 ppm. concentrate of BAP. The effectivity off BAP for shoot regeneration by enrichment of 12 ppm Ag 2 SO 4 in the media. Irradiation of 10-20 Gy gamma rays on seeds of mungbean walet variety could improved shoot regeneration of explants from node cotyledon. (author)

  4. Assessment of silver nitrate on callus induction and in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato (solanum lycopersicum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.; Ali, S.; Jan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro morphogenesis is greatly influenced by a gaseous plant growth regulator (ethylene). The effect of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) and different plant growth regulators were assessed on callus induction, In vitro shoot regeneration and multiple primordial shoots per explant in tomato. The maximum callus induction frequency was recorded culturing hypocotyls, while In vitro shoot regeneration frequency and the number of primordial shoots per explant were significantly higher when leaf discs were used as explants. The callus induction frequency was improved by the supplementation of 10-15 mg/l AgNO/sub 3/ in MS basal media along with 2.0 mg/l IAA, 2.5 mg/l BAP and yielded the highest callus induction frequency (91.33%) in cv. Rio Grande, followed by Roma (88.33%) and Moneymaker (82.66%). Similarly, the highest In vitro shoot regeneration frequency (96.66, 92.66 and 90%) was recorded in Rio Grande, Roma and Moneymaker on MS media fortified with 0.1 mg/l IAA, 1.0 mg/l ZEA and 2.0 mg/l BAP along with 8-10 mg/l AgNO/sub 3/. AgNO/sub 3/ also had promotive effect on induction of multiple shoots per explant. These findings indicate that ethylene is linked with the suppression of In vitro morphogenesis in tomato and AgNO3 interacts with ethylene and enhances callus induction and In vitro shoot regeneration in tomato. (author)

  5. In Vitro Regeneration of Shoots From Nodal Explants of Dendrobium Chrysotoxum Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Saranjeet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transverse sections (2 mm thickness of stem-nodes from in vitro raised seedlings had morphogenic potential on semisolid and liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with cytokinins N6-benzyladenine (BA 4.44 μM, furfurylaminopurine (KIN 4.65 μM and auxin α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA 5.37 μM individually and in combinations. The regeneration response was influenced by both the type of growth regulator and physical state of the medium. The explants produced either shoot buds on cytokinincontaining media or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs on NAA containing media both solid and liquid. More neo-formations were produced on liquid media, especially those containing only NAA. They were formed at nodal and inter-nodal regions. The secondary buds were produced on the surface of primary PLBs. The plantlets were developed on MS medium containing banana homogenate 50 g·dm-3. The current study is the first ever report on successful regeneration of Dendrobium chrysotoxum from stem-node segments.

  6. Effects of thidiazuron and paclobutrazol on regeneration potential of tulip flower stalk explants in vitro and subsequent shoot multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Podwyszyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of TDZ and paclobutrazol on the primary regeneration on tulip flower stalk explants of six cultivars and subsequent shoot multiplication were examined. Explants, flower stalk slices, were excised from cooled and subsequently forced bulbs. The explants were incubated for two months in darkness on medium containing NAA and cytokinins, 2iP and BAP, as control, or TDZ (0.5-4 mg l-1 and paclobutrazol (0.05-0.4 mg l-1. Then, the regenerating explants were subcultured on medium with TDZ and NAA applied at low concentrations. Different regeneration capabilities were found depending on cultivar and growth regulators. The percentage of explants forming leaf-like structures ranged, on the control medium, from 80% in 'Blue Parrot' and 'Prominence' to below 30% in 'Apeldoorn' and 'Mirjoran'. TDZ, applied at optimum for each cultivar concentration, greatly increased the regeneration potential up to 70-100%. Paclobutrazol, added to the TDZ-containing medium, significantly enhanced the response of explants, resulting in high numbers of leaf-like structures formed per explant (13.7-22.8. The structures developed gradually into characteristic forms: the growing up cotyledonary leaf, the probable root primordium formed at its base, the growing downwards stolon and the shoot meristem developed finely on its tip. It is suggested that such primary regeneration may have a nature of somatic embryogenesis. Then, the adventitious shoots developed and formed clusters, which were divided into 2-3 smaller ones every two months. The growth regulators, used at initial stage, markedly influenced subsequent shoot multiplication. Thus, the most intensive shoot formation was noted with TDZ at concentrations of 0.5-2 mg l-1 and paclobutrazol of 0.05-0.1 mg l-1.

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and direct shoot regeneration in Iranian tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivar Falat- CH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauser, N.; Khan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Falat CH is an important commercial tomato cultivar being used in Iran. In this article an optimized protocol with increased transformation and regeneration rate for this tomato variety is reported. Several explants including cotyledon, leaf and hypocotyl were evaluated for direct shoot formation and the effect of various combinations of BAP, Zeatin, IAA and IBA were studied. It is the first report on two cytokinins BAP and Zeatin in various combinations to evaluate the synergetic effect of cytokinins on direct shoot regeneration. The synergetic combination of 1.5mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l Zeatin and 0.2 mg/l IAA was considered as the best treatment which resulted in higher plant regeneration rates from all of the explants over previous reported methods. Using the best regeneration treatment obtained, the HBsAg gene was transferred into the tomato explants using Agrobacterium mediated transformation technique Percent of the putative transgenic plants regenerated was 68%. PCR of putative transformed plants showed that 87.1% of regenerated plants amplified nptII and HBsAg gene when specifically designed primers were used giving a final transformation rate of 34.85%. (author)

  8. The effect of tomato juices and bean sprout extracts on vitro shoot regeneration of Physalis angulata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastuti, Retno; Munawarti, Aminatun; Rosyidah, Mufidatur

    2017-11-01

    Physalis angulata L. (Ciplukan) which belongs to Solanaceae is an important medicinal plant. In vitro culture medium contains carbon source, inorganic substance, vitamins, and plant growth regulators. However, organic growth supplements have frequently been added to improve regeneration capability of explants. This study was conducted to observe the effect of tomato juices and extract bean sprout on shoot regeneration and multiplication of in vitro nodal explants. The explants were cultured on MS basal medium + 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) 2 mg/L + indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) 0.05 mg/L with and without organic supplements. Tomato juices (T) 5, 7.5 and 10% or bean sprout extract (B) 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75% were added as natural organic supplements. Almost all explants have produced shoots one week after culture. After six weeks of culture maximum shoot number (12.5±3.9) was produced in medium MS + T5 while maximum shoot length (10.7 ± 0.7 cm) was obtained in medium MS + T 7.5. Medium T tends to produce more shoots than the medium B and medium control. This result indicates the potential of natural organic supplements for supporting Ciplukan propagation through in vitro culture.

  9. Detection of sodium azide-induced mutagenicity in the regenerated shoots of artemisia annual L., using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nrDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qurainy, F.; Al-Hemaidi, F.M.; Khan, S.; Ali, M.A.; Tarroum, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium azide (NaN/sub 3/) is a well known chemical mutagen which can effectively cause point mutation in plant genome. The mutagenicity by this potential mutagen was assessed in the regenerated mutant shoots of Artemisia annua using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of n rDNA. Insertions and/or deletions were detected in n rDNA-ITS sequences of all mutant shoots and compared with control ones using the ClustalX program. The regenerated shoots TS1 and TS2 had deleted bases, whereas TS3, TS4 and TS5 had insertions, because NaN/sub 3/ replaced the cytosine (C) by thymine (T) (C - T) (shoots; TS1 and TS4) and thymine (T) replaced by guanine (G) (T - G) (shoot; TS5), respectively. Artemisinin content was also measured in the regenerated six-week-old shoots of A. annua. All regenerated shoots had enhanced level of this compound as compared to that in the controls, being highest in the regenerated shoot TS3. (author)

  10. Effects of GhWUS from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) on somatic embryogenesis and shoot regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanqing; Chen, Yanli; Ding, Yanpeng; Wu, Jie; Wang, Peng; Yu, Ya; Wei, Xi; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Chaojun; Li, Fuguang; Ge, Xiaoyang

    2018-05-01

    The WUSCHEL (WUS) gene encodes a plant-specific homeodomain-containing transcriptional regulator, which plays important roles during embryogenesis, as well as in the formation of shoot and flower meristems. Here, we isolated two homologues of Arabidopsis thaliana WUS (AtWUS), GhWUS1a_At and GhWUS1b_At, from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Domain analysis suggested that the two putative GhWUS proteins contained a highly conserved DNA-binding HOX domain and a WUS-box. Expression profile analysis showed that GhWUSs were predominantly expressed during the embryoid stage. Ectopic expression of GhWUSs in Arabidopsis could induce somatic embryo and shoot formation from seedling root tips. Furthermore, in the absence of exogenous hormone, overexpression of GhWUSs in Arabidopsis could promote shoot regeneration from excised roots, and in the presence of exogenous auxin, excised roots expressing GhWUS could be induced to produce somatic embryo. In addition, expression of the chimeric GhWUS repressor in cotton callus inhibited embryogenic callus formation. Our results show that GhWUS is an important regulator of somatic embryogenesis and shoot regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Septennial ionahta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, L.B.; Li, W.J.; Ma, S.; Dong, X.C.; Yu, L.X.; Li, Q.; Zhou, G.M.; Gao, Q.X.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation

  12. Characterization of the early proliferative response of the rodent bladder to subtotal cystectomy: a unique model of mammalian organ regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Peyton

    Full Text Available Subtotal cystectomy (STC; surgical removal of ∼75% of the rat urinary bladder elicits a robust proliferative response resulting in complete structural and functional bladder regeneration within 8-weeks. The goal of these studies was to characterize the early cellular response that mediates this regenerative phenomenon, which is unique among mammalian organ systems. STC was performed on eighteen 12-week-old female Fischer F344 rats. At 1, 3, 5 and 7-days post-STC, the bladder was harvested 2-hours after intraperitoneal injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Fluorescent BrdU labeling was quantified in cells within the urothelium, lamina propria (LP, muscularis propria (MP and serosa. Cell location was confirmed with fluorescently co-labeled cytokeratin, vimentin or smooth muscle actin (SMA, to identify urothelial, interstitial and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh, Gli-1 and bone morphogenic factor-4 (BMP-4 were evaluated with immunochemistry. Three non-operated rats injected with BrdU served as controls. Less than 1% of cells in the bladder wall were labeled with BrdU in control bladders, but this percentage significantly increased by 5-8-fold at all time points post-STC. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the proliferative response were defined by a significantly higher percentage of BrdU-labeled cells within the urothelium at 1-day than in the MP and LP. A time-dependent shift at 3 and 5-days post-STC revealed significantly fewer BrdU-labeled cells in the MP than LP or urothelium. By 7-days the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells was similar among urothelium, LP and MP. STC also caused an increase in immunostaining for Shh, Gli-1 and BMP-4. In summary, the early stages of functional bladder regeneration are characterized by time-dependent changes in the location of the proliferating cell population, and expression of several evolutionarily conserved developmental signaling proteins. This report extends

  13. Development of Sirococcus shoot blight following thinning in western hemlock regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Shaw; Thomas H. Laurent; Spencer. Israelson

    1981-01-01

    Shoot mortality from Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss. and other causes was recorded by crown position from April 1978 through October 1979 in younggrowth western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) crop trees released in a 1977 thinning at Thomas Bay, Alaska. All study trees contained some infected shoots, but no terminal...

  14. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, S.; Rashid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  15. In vitro propagation of Cymbidium goeringii Reichenbach fil. through direct adventitious shoot regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Yong; Kang, Kyung Won; Kim, Doo Hwan; Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu

    2018-03-01

    The influence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), benzyladenine (BA), and thidiazuron (TDZ) on direct rhizome induction and shoot formation from rhizome explants of Cymbidium goeringii was explored. Rhizome segments obtained from in vitro seed cultures of C. goeringii were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium incorporated with 5, 10, 20, or 40 µM 2,4-D and 1, 2, 4, or 8 µM BA or TDZ alone or in combination with 20 µM 2,4-D. The explants developed only rhizomes on MS medium with or without 2,4-D. The highest percent of rhizome formation (100%) was obtained on MS medium incorporated with 20 μM of 2,4-D. The morphology and number of rhizomes varied with the level of 2,4-D in the medium. Direct adventitious shoot formation was achieved on medium incorporated with BA or TDZ. The adventitious shoots produced per explant significantly increased with the supplementation of 2,4-D to cytokinin-containing medium. The highest mean of 21.8 ± 1.8 shoot buds per rhizome segment was obtained in medium fortified with 20 μM 2,4-D and 2 μM TDZ. The greatest percent of root induction (100%) and the mean of 5.3 ± 1.1 roots per shoot were achieved on ½ MS medium incorporated with 2 μM of α-naphthaleneacetic acid. About 97% of the in vitro-produced plantlets acclimatized in the greenhouse. An efficient in vitro propagation protocol was thus developed for C. goeringii using rhizome explants.

  16. Regeneration of multiple shoots from transgenic potato events facilitates the recovery of phenotypically normal lines: assessing a cry9Aa2 gene conferring insect resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Jeanne ME

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recovery of high performing transgenic lines in clonal crops is limited by the occurrence of somaclonal variation during the tissue culture phase of transformation. This is usually circumvented by developing large populations of transgenic lines, each derived from the first shoot to regenerate from each transformation event. This study investigates a new strategy of assessing multiple shoots independently regenerated from different transformed cell colonies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. Results A modified cry9Aa2 gene, under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter, was transformed into four potato cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer using a nptII gene conferring kanamycin resistance as a selectable marker gene. Following gene transfer, 291 transgenic lines were grown in greenhouse experiments to assess somaclonal variation and resistance to potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller. Independently regenerated lines were recovered from many transformed cell colonies and Southern analysis confirmed whether they were derived from the same transformed cell. Multiple lines regenerated from the same transformed cell exhibited a similar response to PTM, but frequently exhibited a markedly different spectrum of somaclonal variation. Conclusions A new strategy for the genetic improvement of clonal crops involves the regeneration and evaluation of multiple shoots from each transformation event to facilitate the recovery of phenotypically normal transgenic lines. Most importantly, regenerated lines exhibiting the phenotypic appearance most similar to the parental cultivar are not necessarily derived from the first shoot regenerated from a transformed cell colony, but can frequently be a later regeneration event.

  17. Effects of N6-benzylaminopurine and Indole Acetic Acid on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication, Nodule-like Meristem Proliferation and Plant Regeneration of Malaysian Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipen, Philip; Davey, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Different concentrations of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole acetic acid (IAA) in Murashige and Skoog based medium were assessed for their effects on shoot multiplication, nodule-like meristem proliferation and plant regeneration of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. BAP at 1–14 mg L−1 with or without 0.2 mg L−1 IAA, or BAP at 7–14 mg L−1 with the same concentration of IAA, was evaluated for shoot multiplication from shoot tips and the proliferation of nodule-like meristems from scalps, respectively. Plant regeneration from scalps was assessed using 1 mg L−1 BAP and 0.2 mg L−1 IAA separately, or a combination of these two growth regulators. Data on shoot multiplication, the proliferation of nodule-like meristems with associated plant regeneration were recorded after 30 days of culture. A maximum of 5 shoots per original shoot tip was achieved on medium supplemented with BAP at 5 mg L−1 (Pisang Nangka), 6 mg L−1 (Pisang Mas and Pisang Berangan), or 7 mg L−1 (Pisang Awak), with 0.2 mg L−1 IAA. BAP at 11 mg L−1 with 0.2 mg L−1 IAA induced the most highly proliferating nodule-like meristems in the four banana cultivars. Plant regeneration from scalps was optimum in all cases on medium containing 1 mg L−1 BAP and 0.2 mg L−1 IAA. This is the first report on the successful induction of highly proliferating nodule-like meristems and plant regeneration from scalps of the Malaysian banana cultivars Pisang Mas, Pisang Nangka, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Awak. PMID:24575235

  18. A fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein (FLA mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, fla1, shows defects in shoot regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins (FLAs are an enigmatic class of 21 members within the larger family of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Located at the cell surface, in the cell wall/plasma membrane, they are implicated in many developmental roles yet their function remains largely undefined. Fasciclin (FAS domains are putative cell-adhesion domains found in extracellular matrix proteins of organisms from all kingdoms, but the juxtaposition of FAS domains with highly glycosylated AGP domains is unique to plants. Recent studies have started to elucidate the role of FLAs in Arabidopsis development. FLAs containing a single FAS domain are important for the integrity and elasticity of the plant cell wall matrix (FLA11 and FLA12 and FLA3 is involved in microspore development. FLA4/SOS5 with two FAS domains and two AGP domains has a role in maintaining proper cell expansion under salt stressed conditions. The role of other FLAs remains to be uncovered. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the characterisation of a T-DNA insertion mutant in the FLA1 gene (At5g55730. Under standard growth conditions fla1-1 mutants have no obvious phenotype. Based on gene expression studies, a putative role for FLA1 in callus induction was investigated and revealed that fla1-1 has a reduced ability to regenerate shoots in an in vitro shoot-induction assay. Analysis of FLA1p:GUS reporter lines show that FLA1 is expressed in several tissues including stomata, trichomes, the vasculature of leaves, the primary root tip and in lateral roots near the junction of the primary root. CONCLUSION: The results of the developmental expression of FLA1 and characterisation of the fla1 mutant support a role for FLA1 in the early events of lateral root development and shoot development in tissue culture, prior to cell-type specification.

  19. Effects of gibberellin mutations on in vitro shoot bud regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hormone in regulating plant growth and development. It is interesting to know the effects of gibberellin and its signalling pathway on plant regeneration. In this report Arabidopsis thaliana landsberg (wild type), ga1-3 (gibberellin biosynthesis deficiency mutant), gai (gibberellin insensitive mutant), penta mutant (lacking GA1, ...

  20. Field evaluation of regenerated plants by somatic embryogenesis from shoots apexes of axillary buds in ´Navolean’ (Musa spp., AAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of shoots apexes from axilary buds for callus induction with embryogenic structures in plantain ‘Navolean’ (Group AAB permitted to develop a plant regeneration method through out somatic embryogenesis. In order to know the phenotypic variants that may be produced with the previously mentioned method , 1000 plants were planted in field conditions in comparison to those coming from somatic embryos obtained from multibuds as initial explants and organogenesis-derived plants (shoot tipsand conventionally derived plants (corms, during two growing cycles. The main morphological characters and yield components were evaluated. The total frequency of somaclonal variation during the first growing cycle in plants coming from somatic embryos obtained from shoots apexes from axilary buds as initial explants were 1.1%, and 8,6% in regenerated plants from somatic embryos obtained from multi-buds as initial explants. Later, in this same growing cycle, plants regenerated from somatic embryos (both sources showed a similar performance between them and they were significantly superior in all evaluated variants in comparison to corm-derived plants. In the second growing cycle, significant differences were not observed in yield components of suckers from evaluated plants, in spite of the propagation method used. With regard to somaclonal variation, the best performance was obtained with shoots apexes from axilary buds as explants. Finally, the feasibility of using the new method was shown. Key words: embryogenic cell suspensions, somaclonal variation

  1. An efficient in vitro shoot regeneration from leaf petiolar explants and ex vitro rooting of Bixa orellana L.- A dye yielding plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Arifullah; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Namsa, Nima D; Ghanta, Rama Gopal

    2015-07-01

    Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) is a multipurpose tree grown for the production of commercially important dyes. In the present study, an efficient, reproducible protocol was developed for direct plant regeneration from in vitro derived petiole explants of Bixa orellana L. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 2-isopentenyl adenine (9.8 μM) and naphthalene acetic acid (10.7 μM) was found to be optimum for production of high frequency of shoot organogenesis. Subculturing of the shoots onto the fresh MS medium containing similar concentrations of 2-iP (9.8 μM) and NAA (10.7 μM) produced elongated shoots. Elongated shoots when placed onto MS medium supplemented with 1.7 μM indole-3-acetic acid and 14.7 μM 2-iP produced optimal rooting. Rooted plantlets were acclimatized and transplanted to the field successfully. Histological investigation revealed the origin of shoot primordia, from sub-epidermal cells of petiole explants. The regeneration protocol developed in this study can be useful for mass in vitro propagation and effective genetic transformation of commercially important edible dye yielding tree species.

  2. Shoot regeneration of limau purut (citrus hystrix) using shoot tip: assessment of calcium gluconate and silver nitrate in overcoming premature leaf senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, W.H.; Aziz, M.A.; Sinniah, U.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish an optimum In vitro shoot multiplication system using shoot tip explants derived from 7 week-old seedlings of Citrus hystrix. In the first experiment, shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0-13.33 mu M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 8 weeks. Shoot tips cultured on 2.22 mu M BAP produced the highest mean number of shoots (3.42 shoots) but the shoots had low number of leaves (1.14 leaves) due to the occurrence of premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Meanwhile, the medium devoid of BAP produced the lowest mean number of shoots (1.50 shoots) but highest mean number of leaves (5.41 leaves) indicating that BAP was likely responsible for the premature leaf senescence. In order to overcome the occurrence of premature leaf senescence on medium with BAP, a second experiment was carried out whereby shoot tips were cultured on medium containing 2.22 micro M BAP fortified with 2.00, 4.00 and 6.00 mM calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) and a control treatment with 2.22 mu M BAP. The shoot and leaf numbers were increased with the addition of 4.00 and 6.00 mM Ca-glu. The presence of Ca-glu reduced premature leaf senescence and callus formation to some extent. In the third experiment, the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) at 10-80 micro M in media with 2.22 micro M BAP and 2.22 micro M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu could totally overcome premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Media supplemented with 2.22 mirco M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu + 20 micro M AgNOsub 3/ significantly induced among the highest mean number of shoots and highest mean number of leaves per shoot. (author)

  3. Plant regeneration of bananas Ambon kuning and Barangan mutant lines were carried out by using female organ and shoot-tip as explants source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi, Azri K; Ishak

    1998-01-01

    Plant regeneration of bananas Ambon Kuning and Barangan mutant lines were carried out by using female organ and shoot-tip as explants source. Female organ was taken from heart of banana stem, while shoot-tip taken from sucker in banana plantation at Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. Those explants were cultured on MS medium containing 3 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l IAA and supplemented by 100 tyrosin and 80 mg/l adenin hemisulphate. Observation showed that 180 and 42 buds were obtained from JBR 02 mutant lines respectively, while 84 and 79 buds for JAK 01 and JAK 02 respectively. The highest shoot formation was 1.013 shoots were obtained from BRC variety and lowest one was JBR 01 mutant line. statistical data analysis indicated that shoot formation between BRC variety and another mutant lines were significant difference using LSD test at level 0.05. Plantlet formation derived from female organ as well as shoot-tip showed that BRC variety produced number of plantlets per bottle was higher that another one. (author)

  4. Influence of calcium content of tissue on hyperhydricity and shoot-tip necrosis of in vitro regenerated shoots of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of two CaCl2.2H2O levels (440 and 1320 mg L-1 and two subcultures were evaluated on in vitro shoots of Lavandula angustifolia cv. Provence Blue. Ca2+ content of the apical, middle and basal portion of shoots was determined. Increasing CaCl2.2H2O level in the culture medium increased tissue Ca2+ content and decreased hyperhydricity. Shoot-tip necrosis also decreased with 1320 mg L-1 CaCl2.2H2O, but it did not occur in the second subculture. The middle and basal portion had higher Ca2+ content than apical portion. In non-hyperhydric tissues, there were smaller and more juxtaposed cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the leaves demonstrated that trichomes from in vitro leaf surface occurred in smaller quantities.

  5. Inhibition of H3K27me3 Histone Demethylase Activity Prevents the Proliferative Regeneration of Zebrafish Lateral Line Neuromasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Beier; He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Li, Huawei

    2017-01-01

    The H3K27 demethylases are involved in a variety of biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell death by regulating transcriptional activity. However, the function of H3K27 demethylation in the field of hearing research is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity in hair cell regeneration using an in vivo animal model. Our data showed that pharmacologic inhibition of H3K27 demethylase activity with the specific small-molecule inhibitor GSK-J4 decreased the number of regenerated hair cells in response to neomycin damage. Furthermore, inhibition of H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity dramatically suppressed cell proliferation and activated caspase-3 levels in the regenerating neuromasts of the zebrafish lateral line. GSK-J4 administration also increased the expression of p21 and p27 in neuromast cells and inhibited the ERK signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings indicate that H3K27me3 demethylation is a key epigenetic regulator in the process of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish and suggest that H3K27me3 histone demethylase activity might be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hearing loss. PMID:28348517

  6. Isatin as an auxin source favoring floral and vegetative shoot regeneration from calli produced by thin layer explants of tomato pedicel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, P. B.; K-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    Thin layer explants taken from the pedicels and peduncles of flowering tomato plants yielded calli with great organogenetic potential. Of the 15 cultivars tested, 7 regenerated roots, shoots and eventually entire fruit-bearing plants. Calli grown on modified Murashige-Skoog medium responded to varied auxins and cytokinins with different morphogenetic patterns. Thus, naphthaleneacetic acid yielded root-producing calli, while the auxin precursor isatin (indole 2,3-dione) caused the production of calli with vegetative and floral shoots, rarely yielding roots. This may be related to isatin's slow, steady conversion to an active auxin (Plant Physiol 41:1485-1488, 1966) in contrast with naphthaleneacetic acid's immediate presentation of a high level of active auxin. The highest incidence of vegetative shoot (100%) and flower (50%) formation was obtained with 10 micromoles isatin and 3 micromoles zeatin. A few of the flowers developed into ripe fruits. The high frequency of induction of vegetative shoots and flowers before roots with isatin suggests its utility in micropropagation from plant tissue cultures.

  7. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  8. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Teixeira da Silva JA. 2015. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 26-32. Syngonium podophyllum L. (arrowhead vine is a popular leafy indoor pot plant whose tissue culture has been established, primarily through in vitro shoot culture, but several interesting aspects have not yet been explored. In this study, cv. ‘White Butterfly’ was used to investigate the response of shoot formation to alternative gelling agents and media additives. Gellan gum (Gelrite® at 2 g/L resulted in greater leaf production, plantlet fresh weight and higher chlorophyll content (SPAD value than all other gelling agents tested, including agar, Bacto agar, phytagel, oatmeal agar, potato dextrose agar, barley starch and corn starch, when on a basal Hyponex® (NPK = 6.5: 6: 19; 3 g/L medium. Several alternative liquid medium additives tested (low and full fat milk, Coca-Cola®, coffee, Japanese green, Oolong and Darjeeling teas negatively impacted plant growth, stunted roots and decreased chlorophyll content (SPAD value of leaves. Plant growth on medium with refined sucrose or table sugar responded similarly. Poor growth was observed when crude extract from a high rebaudioside-containing stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni line - an artificial sweetener - was used. Leaf tissue from the control did not show any endopolyploidy but low levels of endopolyploidy (8C were detected in some treatments.

  9. Monochromic radiation through light-emitting diode (LED positively augments in vitro shoot regeneration in Orchid (Dendrobium sonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandita Billore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monochromatic lights emitted by light-emitting diodes (LEDs have generated great interest for efficient and controlled growth in vitro, especially of plants which are endangered or require specific intensity and wavelength of light. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of monochromatic LEDs on in vitro morphogenesis: growth, proliferation of shoot cultures, and rooting of Dendrobium sonia. Different light sources viz. white LEDs (W, blue LEDs (B, yellow LEDs (Y and red LEDs (R were tested under photoperiod of 16 h of exposure and 8 h of dark. The frequency of morphogenesis depended on the wavelength of the applied monochromatic light. Higher wavelength monochromatic light (yellow light was observed to induce higher shoot proliferation (98%, early PLB (protocorm-like bodies formation, differentiation into green buds and shoot initiation as compared to red, blue and white light treatments. Yellow light also yielded higher number of shoots per explants (29 shoots/explant than red, blue and white light treatments. The results suggest that the monochromatic light sources stimulate morphogenic effects on in vitro culture of Dendrobium sonia, and that yellow light treatment can be used to enhance the efficiency of micropropagation.

  10. Efficient genetic transformation of Lotus corniculatus L. using a direct shoot regeneration protocol, stepwise hygromycin B selection, and a super-binary Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotyledons from 6-day-old Lotus corniculatus cv. Bokor seedlings, transversally cut into two halves, were capa­ble of regenerating buds without intervening callus formation. The explants were co-cultivated with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404/pTOK233 superbinary vector carrying the uidA-intron gene and the genes hpt and nptII. They were cultured for 14 days on a regeneration medium, then subjected to a stepwise hygromycin B selection procedure consisting of gradually increasing antibiotic concentrations (5-15 mg L-1 over 21 weeks. Transformed shoots were obtained within 5 months after co-cultivation. Out of 124 initially co-cultivated explants, 52 (42% plants survived hygromycin B selection. The presence of transgenes in regenerated plants was verified by β-glucuronidase histochemical assays and PCR analysis for the presence of uidA gene sequences. Hygromycin B-resistant and PCR-positive T0 plants were cultured in the greenhouse to produce flowers and seeds. The obtained data demonstrate that the reported transformation protocol could be useful for introducing agriculturally important genes into the new L. corniculatus cultivar Bokor.

  11. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasumi, Masakazu

    2002-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy · hr - 1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  12. Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; Wayne D. Shepperd; John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    There are basically two approaches to regenerating aspen stands-sexual reproduction using seed, or vegetative regeneration by root suckering. In the West, root suckering is the most practical method. The advantage of having an existing, well established root system capable of producing numerous root suckers easily outweighs natural or artificial reforestation in the...

  13. Stable transformation via particle bombardment in two different soybean regeneration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Newell, C; Kolacz, K; Tredo, L; Finer, J; Hinchee, M

    1993-05-01

    The Biolistics(®) particle delivery system for the transformation of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) was evaluated in two different regeneration systems. The first system was multiple shoot proliferation from shoot tips obtained from immature zygotic embryos of the cultivar Williams 82, and the second was somatic embryogenesis from a long term proliferative suspension culture of the cultivar Fayette. Bombardment of shoot tips with tungsten particles, coated with precipitated DNA containing the gene for β-glucuronidase (GUS), produced GUS-positive sectors in 30% of the regenerated shoots. However, none of the regenerants which developed into plants continued to produce GUS positive tissue. Bombardment of embryogenic suspension cultures produced GUS positive globular somatic embryos which proliferated into GUS positive somatic embryos and plants. An average of 4 independent transgenic lines were generated per bombarded flask of an embryogenic suspension. Particle bombardment delivered particles into the first two cell layers of either shoot tips or somatic embryos. Histological analysis indicated that shoot organogenesis appeared to involve more than the first two superficial cell layers of a shoot tip, while somatic embryo proliferation occurred from the first cell layer of existing somatic embryos. The different transformation results obtained with these two systems appeared to be directly related to differences in the cell types which were responsible for regeneration and their accessibility to particle penetration.

  14. Regeneración de brotes adventicios en hojas de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivadas in vitro Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured leaves of guava (Psidium guava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trujillo Sánchez Reinaldo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La regeneración de brotes adventicios es una etapa clave para la aplicación de las técnicas de ingeniería gené­tica. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo el desarrollo de un procedimiento para la regeneración de brotes por organogénesis a partir de hojas de microesquejes o brotes de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. cultivados in vi­tro. Para ello se estudiaron algunos de los principales factores que afectan la regeneración de brotes, tales como la concentración de reguladores del crecimiento (citoquinina, el estado fisiológico del explante y la he­rida. En todos los experimentos se utilizaron como explantes hojas de vitroplantas de guayaba de la variedad Enana Roja Cubana EEA18-40 de diferentes subcultivos. El mejor resultado se alcanzó con una concentración de 0,75 mg/L de 6-bencilaminopurina como suplemento hormonal del medio MS. Se comprobó que para las hojas provenientes de microesquejes con mayor número de subcultivo y tomadas de la parte inferior de los brotes, el potencial morfogenético disminuye significativamente (p60% y el mayor número de brotes por explante promedio (>3 se alcanzó al realizar varias heridas en forma de punteaduras en el nervio central de las hojas. Este protocolo de regeneración constituye una importante herramienta que puede ser empleada para futuros estudios de transformación genética en esta especie. Palabras clave: cultivo de tejidos, explantes de hoja, reguladores de crecimiento, organogénesis, guayaba.Adventitious regeneration is a key step in the application of genetic engineering to the breeding programs of plants. In this work a method for adventitious shoot regeneration from leaves of micropropagated guava shoots has been developed and some of main factors to affect the shoot regeneration like, concentration of plant growth regulators (citoquinine, physiological state of explants and the wound are studied. Leaves from guava in vitro cultured of variety Cuban Red Dwarf 18-40 was used

  15. Shoot organogenesis in oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil. Key words: shoot organogenesis, callus, ... saline and alkaline soils (Economou and Maloupa, 1995). Its fruits have been used as a .... cally inert compounds as reported by Kaminek (1992). Direct shoot organogenesis without ...

  16. Shoot regeneration and plantlet formation by cascade huckleberry, mountain huckleberry, and in oval-leaf bilberry on a zeatin-containing nutrient medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A plant regeneration protocol was developed for Cascade huckleberry (Vaccinium deliciosum Piper), mountain huckleberry (V. membranaceum Douglas ex Hooker) and for oval-leaf bilberry (V. ovalifolium Smith) clones. The effects of zeatin concentrations (0, 4.6, 9.1 and 13.7 µM) and explant type (leaf a...

  17. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  18. Shoot and root morphogenesis from Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...

  19. Cell fate regulation in the shoot meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, T; Mayer, K F

    1998-04-01

    The shoot meristem is a proliferative centre containing pluripotent stem cells that are the ultimate source of all cells and organs continuously added to the growing shoot. The progeny of the stem cells have two developmental options, either to renew the stem cell population or to leave the meristem and to differentiate, possibly according to signals from more mature tissue. The destiny of each cell depends on its position within the dynamic shoot meristem. Genetic data suggest a simple model in which graded positional information is provided by antagonistic gene functions and is interpreted by genes which regulate cell fate.

  20. Shooting stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    1985-01-01

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr

  1. Indução de superbrotamento e regeneração de plantas in vitro, nas cultivares de algodão colorido Induction of multiple shoots and regeneration of plants in vitro, in coloured cotton cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do S. Rocha

    2008-10-01

    for 20 min. The shoot had been induced, in the explant of cotiledonary nodes in MS medium basic, supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, Cinetina (KIN and Tiadiazuron (TDZ, isolated or associated in different concentrations. The material was kept for 40 days in growth chamber, under controlled ambient conditions. 10 mL of medium was used for treatment with a explant for culture tube, in an entirely randomized design, with factorial arrangement of 4 x 17 (four genotypes x seventeen medium. It was observed that the MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg L-1 isolated or associated with KIN (1.0 mg L-1, promoted greater capacity of regeneration and height of sprouts; MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.5 mg L-1 stimulated greater height of sprouts and the MS medium supplemented with TDZ (1.0, 0.50 and 0.25 mg L-1 affected the capacity of regeneration of sprouts, a larger formation of calluses was observed.

  2. In vitro shoot multiplication and conservation of Caralluma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-30

    Burm. f.) Merrill. In Vitro Cell Deve. Biol. Plant. 41: 124-128. Thomas TD, Shankar S (2009). Multiple shoot induction and callus regeneration in Sarcostemma brevistigma Wight & Arnott, a rare medicinal plant. Plant Biotechnol.

  3. Proliferative retinopathy predicts nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Charlotte; Falk, Christine; Green, Anders

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to examine proliferative retinopathy as a marker of incident nephropathy in a 25-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Danish type 1 diabetic patients and to examine cross-sectional associations between nephropathy and retinopathy in long-term surviving patients of the same...... cohort. All type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark, were identified as of 1 July 1973. One hundred and eighty four patients were examined in 1981-1982 (baseline) and in 2007-2008 (follow-up). The level of retinopathy was graded by ophthalmoscopy at baseline and nine-field digital colour fundus...... and proliferative retinopathy, respectively. In conclusion, proliferative retinopathy is an independent marker of long-term nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. Upcoming studies should examine whether these microvascular complications are also causally linked in type 1 diabetes....

  4. IN VITRO SHOOT REGENERATION OF MOMORDICA BALSAMINA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... good opportunity to use tissue culture as a complementary tool for breeding and genetics for other applications. ... contributes towards combating the problem of ... was maintained by covering with white plastic bags. After 15 ...

  5. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... the explants from seedling of different development stages (0 to 10 d) were ... Key words: Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), cotyledon, growth regulator, ... After the mature seeds coats were removed by a forceps, the seeds.

  6. Morphological abnormality among regenerated shoots of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 7 September ... are the most important fruit as a staple food source for about 400 million people ... best choice because of rapid multiplication, uniformity and disease ...

  7. IN VITRO SHOOT REGENERATION OF MOMORDICA BALSAMINA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... nutritional plant. Gulab Singh Thakur1,4*, Rohit Sharma1, Bhagwan S. Sanodiya1,4, Mukeshwar Pandey3,. Rakesh Baghel2, Astha Gupta1, GBKS Prasad4 and P. S. Bisen1,2,4. 1Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, R&D Division, Tropilite Foods Pvt. Ltd., Davar Campus, Tansen Road, Gwalior-474002. (M.P.) ...

  8. Resposta à regeneração e crescimento de brotos in vitro de Kielmeyera coriacea quando influenciado por diferentes concentrações dos sais e de sacarose In vitro regeneration and growth response of Kielmeyera coriacea shoots when affected by salts and sucrose concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Brasil Pereira Pinto

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se diferentes concentrações de sacarose e sais do MS (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, J 962 na regeneração e crescimento de brotos de Kielmeyera coriacea in vitro. A redução e o aumento da quantidade de sacarose partindo de 30 e 45g/L, respectivamente, causou um decréscimo no número total de brotos. O uso integral ou da metade das concentrações dos sais do MS proporcionou maiores taxas de multiplicação. A maior porcentagem de brotos com mais de 1,0cm de comprimento pôde ser obtida empregando-se 30 g/l de sacarose associado a concentração 1/1 do MS. A porcentagem média de brotos decresceu linearmente com a diluição salina.Trials were carried out to test sucrose and salt concentrations added to growth medium on regeneration and growth response of Kielmeyera coriacea shoots. The reduction and increase of sucrose of 30 and 45g/l, rerspectively, caused a decrease in total number of shoots. A higher shoots percentage of with more than 1.0cm, occurred on media with 30g/L of sucrose. The use of total force (1/1 and half strength (1/2 of MS salt proportioned a higher shoot ratio and growth.

  9. Sirococcus Shoot Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls; Kathryn Robbins

    1984-01-01

    Sirococcus shoot blight, caused by the fungus Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss, affects conifers in the Northern United States and southern Canada. The fungus infects the new shoots; diseased seedlings and saplings are especially affected. In the United States, sirococcus shoot blight has become increasingly widespread since the early 1970's. When favorable...

  10. In-vitro morphogenesis of corn (Zea mays L.) : I. Differentiation of multiple shoot clumps and somatic embryos from shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H; Srinivasan, C; Sticklen, M B

    1992-07-01

    In-vitro methods have been developed to regenerate clumps of multiple shoots and somatic embryos at high frequency from shoot tips of aseptically-grown seedlings as well as from shoot apices of precociously-germinated immature zygotic embryos of corn (Zea mays L.). About 500 shoots were produced from a shoot tip after eight weeks of culture (primary culture and one subculture of four weeks) in darkness on Murashige and Skoog basal medium (MS) supplemented with 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate (CH) and 9 μM N(6)-benzyladenine (BA). In this medium, shoots formed in shoot tips as tightly packed "multiple shoot clumps" (MSC), which were composed of some axillary shoots and many adventitious shoots. When the shoot tips were cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 9 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), most of the shoots in the clumps were adventitious in origin. Similar shoot tips cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 4.5 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-D regenerated many somatic embryos within eight weeks of culture. Somatic embryos were produced either directly from the shoot apical meristems or from calli derived from the shoots apices. Both the MSC and the embryos produced normal shoots on MS medium containing 2.25 μM BA and 1.8 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). These shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 3.6 μM IBA, and fertile corn plants were grown in the greenhouse. The sweet-corn genotype, Honey N Pearl, was used for the experiments described above, but shoot-tip cultures from all of 19 other corn genotypes tested also formed MSC on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH and 9 μM BA.

  11. Plant regeneration protocol of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant regeneration protocol of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) - an important medicinal plant. ... Inclusion of 1.0 mg/l 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in the culture medium along with BA + Ads promoted a higher rate of shoot bud regeneration. Maximum mean number of shoot bud per explant (28.6) was achieved on the ...

  12. Rapid plant regeneration of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... demand for chrysanthemum, it has become one of the first commercial targets for ... frequency of multiple shoot regeneration response was. 95 and 91%, for nodal ..... Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 91-101. Prasad RN ...

  13. Direct shoot organogenesis of Digitalis trojana Ivan., an endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Digitalis trojana Ivan. was developed via adventitious shoot regeneration. Leaf explants were cultured on MS which were supplemented with different concentrations of NAA (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/ml) and BAP (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/ml) for shoot formation.

  14. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-01-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sul...

  15. Shooting mechanisms in nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, Aimée; Wiel, van der Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W.J.; Leeuwen, van Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  16. High Frequency Multiple Shoot Induction of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.: Shoot Tip V/S Rhizome Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Nagesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. is an endangered medicinal plant with anticancer properties. The rhizome and tuberous roots of the plant have been used extensively in India in indigenous medicine. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Curculigo orchioides is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered ‘endangered’ in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. Here, we describe a successful protocol for multiple shoot induction of C. orchioides using shoot tip and rhizome disc. We find that proximal rhizome discs are optimal for high frequency shoot bud formation than shoot tip and distal rhizome disc. We observed a synergistic effect between 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin (KN (each at 1 mg/L on the regeneration of shoot buds from proximal rhizome disc than shoot tip explant. Optimum root induction was achieved on half-strength MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to natural condition with 90% survival.

  17. Violence and school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.

  18. Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.

  19. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-04-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sulphate and 11.84 μM silver nitrate. Elongated shoots were harvested and successful rooting of microshoots achieved on MS media supplemented with 9.84 μM IBA, with 81.1 % rooting. Remaining shoot buds sub-cultured for further multiplication and elongation. Each subculture produced eight to nine elongated microshoots up to four subcultures. The rooted microshoots were successfully hardened and transferred to field.

  20. Spine micromorphology of normal and hyperhydric Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharec, P; Posilović, H; Balen, B; Krsnik-Rasol, M

    2010-07-01

    Artificial conditions of tissue culture affect growth and physiology of crassulacean acid metabolism plants which often results in formation of hyperhydric shoots. In in vitro conditions Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) growth switches from organized to unorganized way, producing a habituated organogenic callus which simultaneously regenerates morphologically normal as well as altered hyperhydric shoots. In this study, influence of tissue culture conditions on morphology of cactus spines of normal and hyperhydric shoots was investigated. Spines of pot-grown Mammillaria plants and of in vitro regenerated shoots were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. The pot-grown plants had 16-17 spines per areole. In vitro grown normal shoots, even though they kept typical shoot morphology, had lower number of spines (11-12) and altered spine morphology. This difference was even more pronounced in spine number (six to seven) and morphology of the hyperhydric shoots. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable differences in micromorphology of spine surface between pot-grown and in vitro grown shoots. Spines of in vitro grown normal shoots showed numerous long trichomes, which were more elongated on spines of the hyperhydric shoots; the corresponding structures on spine surface of pot-grown plants were noticed only as small protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy morphometric studies showed that the spines of pot-grown plants were significantly longer compared to the spines of shoots grown in tissue culture. Moreover, transverse section shape varies from elliptical in pot-grown plants to circular in normal and hyperhydric shoots grown in vitro. Cluster and correspondence analyses performed on the scanning electron microscope obtained results suggest great variability among spines of pot-grown plants. Spines of in vitro grown normal and hyperhydric shoots showed low level of morphological variation among themselves despite the

  1. In vitro regeneration of Turkish dwarf chickling (Lathyrus cicera L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Key words: Immature zygotic embryos, dwarf chickling, Lathyrus cicera L., axillary shoot regeneration, ... are widely used as animal feed in green and dry form or ..... Hanbury CD, White CL, Mullan BP, Siddique KHM (2000).

  2. Millet's Shooting Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, M.

    1988-12-01

    In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

  3. Distributed trouble-shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Bogaard, S.A.A. van den; Rasker, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    When knowledge, required for trouble-shooting at sea, can be supplied real-time but from a distance, problems, such as with the limited availability of specialists, and the high costs of maintenance, may be tackled. Unclear is, however, how this redistribution of knowledge will work in practice. We

  4. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  5. The Binomial Distribution in Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

    2009-01-01

    The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

  6. Genetic stability among date palm plantlets regenerated from petiole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The regeneration capacity between the shoot tip and petiole explants that excised from two date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cutivar namely Unknown and Ferhi was compared. It was noted that the shoot tip explants started to swill after several subculture when placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented ...

  7. Plants Regeneration Derived From Various on Peanut on Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi, Kumala; Masrizal; Mugiono

    1998-01-01

    The study of calli, greenspot formation and shoot regeneration on peanut mutant lines has ben conducted by MS media. Three explants derived from shoot tips, embryo and seeding root of two mutant lines a/20/3 and D/25/3/2 were used in this experiment. the explants were cultured on modified MS media enriched by vitamins, growth regulation, amino acids for fourth teen calli were transferred on regeneration media. The ability of calli formation and plant regeneration of each explant and genotypes of plants was varied. Greenspot and shoot formation were observed seventh days after the calli transferred on regeneration media. It is shown that the ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation of each explants and genotypes was varied. the high ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation were found in explant derived from shoot tip and embryo. Seedling root explant has lower ability in calli formation, while greenspot and shoot was formatted. The ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation on A/20/3 mutant line was better than D/25/3/2 mutant line. (author)

  8. Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology ... Retinopathy Diagnosis Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Non-Proliferative Diabetic ...

  9. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid

    1985-01-01

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  10. Cryogenic regenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kush, P.; Joshi, S.C.; Thirumaleshwar, M.

    1986-01-01

    Importance of regenerators in cryogenic refrigerators is highlighted. Design aspects of regenerator are reviewed and the factors involved in the selection of regenerator material are enumerated. Various methods used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and regenerator effectiveness are mentioned. Variation of effectiveness with various parameters is calculated by a computer programme using the ideal, Ackermann and Tipler formulae. Results are presented in graphical form. Listing of the computer programme is given in the Appendix. (author)

  11. Ship and Shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  12. Proliferative myositis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sook; Jeon, Ho Jong [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-01

    We report a case of proliferative myositis arising in the pectoralis major muscle of a 59-year-old man who presented with palpable mass. The initial clinical impression was a malignant tumor. Ultrasonography revealed the lesion as a spindle-shaped hypoechoic mass, and MR imaging of the left pectoralis major muscle showed hypointensity at T1-weighted imaging, hyperintensity at T2-weighted imaging, and strong enhancement at contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging.

  13. Proliferative myositis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sook; Jeon, Ho Jong

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of proliferative myositis arising in the pectoralis major muscle of a 59-year-old man who presented with palpable mass. The initial clinical impression was a malignant tumor. Ultrasonography revealed the lesion as a spindle-shaped hypoechoic mass, and MR imaging of the left pectoralis major muscle showed hypointensity at T1-weighted imaging, hyperintensity at T2-weighted imaging, and strong enhancement at contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging

  14. School Shootings and Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for ...

  15. Plant Regeneration Through Tissue Culture Of Pear Millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. 1. 2,5), MS(5) and N6(1.100.25) culture media, calli embryogenic potential and fertile plants regeneration were conserved for more than 12 months. Characteristics of regenerated plants were similar to control. It appears that dissected shoot ...

  16. PLETHORA genes control regeneration by a two-step mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kareem, Abdul; Durgaprasad, Kavya; Sugimoto, Kaoru; Du, Yujuan; Pulianmackal, Ajai J.; Trivedi, Zankhana B.; Abhayadev, Pazhoor V.; Pinon, Violaine; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.; Scheres, Ben; Prasad, Kalika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regeneration, a remarkable example of developmental plasticity displayed by both plants and animals, involves successive developmental events driven in response to environmental cues. Despite decades of study on the ability of the plant tissues to regenerate a complete fertile shoot

  17. An evaluation of a new approach to the regeneration of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, and the molecular characterization of the variation among sets of differently derived regenerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrini, Rosaria; Alba, Vittorio; Ruta, Claudia; Morone-Fortunato, Irene; Blanco, Antonio; Montemurro, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    A protocol for the induction of regeneration from leaves of Helichrysum italicum was established. Calli were found to form on the basal medium only when it was supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ) alone or in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), with a percentage ranking of at least 80%. The hormone-free medium showed the highest percentage of shoot regeneration (62%) even though no callus formed. AFLP markers were employed to verify tissue culture-induced variation in the regenerated plantlets obtained by direct shoot regeneration or the indirect shoot regeneration process (callus formation). Seven out of the eleven AFLP primer pairs yielded polymorphic patterns. The average number of fragments per primer pair was 64.1. Singletons were represented by 12 (2.7%) fragments. Student's T-test was performed both on the average number of shared fragments and on the nucleotide diversity, and no significant statistical difference was observed between the two regeneration treatments.

  18. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) shoot apex with a fungal phytase gene improves phosphorus acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiying; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xingfen

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is an important world economic crop plant. It is considered that cotton is recalcitrant to in vitro proliferation. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration has been successful by using hypocotyl, whereas it is highly genotype dependent. Here, a genotype-independent cotton regeneration protocol from shoot apices is presented. Shoot apices from 3- to 5-day-old seedlings of cotton are infected with an Agrobacterium strain, EHA105, carrying the binary vector pC-KSA contained phytase gene (phyA) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), and directly regenerated as shoots in vitro. Rooted shoots can be obtained within 6-8 weeks. Plants that survived by leaf painting kanamycin (kan) were -further analyzed by DNA and RNA blottings. The transgenic plants with increased the phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency were obtained following the transformation method.

  20. Liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Bosman, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite great advances in analysing hemodynamic, morphological and biochemical changes during the process of liver regeneration, the exact (patho)physiological mechanism is still unknown. A short survey of literature is given of the kinetics of liver regeneration and the significance of different

  1. A School Shooting Plot Foiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

  2. In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeq, Manal Ahmed; Pathak, Malabika Roy; Salih, Ahmed Ali; Abido, Mohammed; Abahussain, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting. After 4 weeks of culture, 100 % explants respond to shoot initiation on the medium containing 8.88 μM BAP and 5.71 μM IAA. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration is observed in the same media after second subculture of shoots. The highest rooting frequency is observed in the presence of 2.85 μM IAA. After root development, the plantlets are transferred to pots filled with soil and 60 % of plants survived after 45 days. This plant regeneration protocol is of great value for rapid desert plant propagation program.

  3. In vitro regeneration and induction of multiple shooting in Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Desi of cultivar. K850) were collected from National Germ Plasm Centre, Indian ... were then trimmed at both ends prior to inoculation on culture media. Culture .... 1.76 ± 0.67l. Means and standard errors (±SE) are presented for each column. .... Improvement in Asia, edited by J.P Moss. ICRISAT, Hyderabad,. India. 115-148.

  4. Factors influencing in vitro shoot regeneration of Macadamia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... industry that targets niche markets in Europe and the. *Corresponding author ... Guatemala, Brazil, Costa Rica and Fiji (Kiuru et al.,. 2004). Macadamia is ... months, skilled manpower, material inputs and space. (Nyakundi and ...

  5. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of miniature paprika

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... products, Capsicum spp. shows high levels of cross pollination ... Composition of a nutrient solution used for the culture of miniature paprika in the greenhouse. ... Yellow' were obtained from Seminis Korea Inc. Seeds were.

  6. Regeneration of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-10-25

    Oct 25, 2012 ... esculentus L. Monech) N-550 line evolved at R&D, Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., was used as basic material ... Therefore, development of tissue culture protocols to induce .... Department of Botany, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.

  7. An effective disinfection protocol for plant regeneration from shoot tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... 2National Agriculture and Animal Resources Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Kingdom of Saudi ... If we can obtain explant materials from offshoot, ... 2 – 3 mm were again surface sterilized in sodium hypochlorite.

  8. Direct shoot regeneration via organogenesis in chieh- qua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl6

    2013-11-27

    qua is an Asiatic crop widely farmed throughout southern China and Southeast Asia with a cultivation history of more than 300 years. ... genotype, explant type, seedling age, culture medium, concentration and a combination of ...

  9. Effect of various amino acids on shoot regeneration of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of various amino acids .... maize, sorghum, pineapple, rice and other monocots to enhance somatic ... without additional amino acids, making a total of 26 treatments. All culture media were ...

  10. In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration and acclimatisation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different potting media were assessed during plantlet acclimatization. The highest percentage of plant survival (83.33%) was on the medium that contained sand and soil (1:1), while maximum root length (4.37 cm) and plant height (7.87 cm) were attained in potting medium that consisted peat moss, perlite and vermiculite ...

  11. Efficient regeneration of plants from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samrat1765

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... dish containing sterile filter paper and cut longitudinally with the help of sterile surgical blade to expose the tiny seeds. Seeds were scooped out by sterile spatula and spread over the surface of MS medium alone and supplemented with different combination and concentration of BAP and NAA.

  12. Vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the clinical effect of vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR.METHODS: The clinical data of 55 cases(65 eyes, underwent vitrectomy, membrane peeling, endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil or C3F8 injection, were retrospectively studied. During 6 months to 1 year follow-up period, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, retinal conditions and complications were observed.RESULTS: All 65 eyes received vitrectomy, of which silicone oil was tamponaded in 32 eyes, C3F8 was injected in 8 eyes, BBS was filled in 25 eyes. Visual improvement achieved in 42 eyes. Two eyes were manually vision, form count fingers to 0.05 in 18 eyes, >0.05-0.1 in 28 eyes, >0.1-0.3 in 12 eyes and >0.3 in 5 eyes. Retinal hole was occurred in 7 eyes, limitations fibrosis membrane remained in 8 eyes, retinal detachment appeared in 5 eyes, IOP increased in 18 eyes, vitreous hemorrhage relapsed in 12 eyes, 36 eyes received supplemental photocoagulation treatment 1-3 times after operation.CONCLUSION:Vitrectomy combined endophotocoagulation is an effective treatment for PDR. Silicone oil tamponade can limit the hemorrhage.

  13. Proliferative lifespan is conserved after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A John; Ferrier, Patricia; Aslam, Samena; Burl, Sarah; Denning, Chris; Wylie, Diana; Ross, Arlene; de Sousa, Paul; Wilmut, Ian; Cui, Wei

    2003-06-01

    Cultured primary cells exhibit a finite proliferative lifespan, termed the Hayflick limit. Cloning by nuclear transfer can reverse this cellular ageing process and can be accomplished with cultured cells nearing senescence. Here we describe nuclear transfer experiments in which donor cell lines at different ages and with different proliferative capacities were used to clone foetuses and animals from which new primary cell lines were generated. The rederived lines had the same proliferative capacity and rate of telomere shortening as the donor cell lines, suggesting that these are innate, genetically determined, properties that are conserved by nuclear transfer.

  14. Matriptase zymogen supports epithelial development, homeostasis and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Stine; Tadeo, Daniel; Le-Gall, Sylvain M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Matriptase is a membrane serine protease essential for epithelial development, homeostasis, and regeneration, as well as a central orchestrator of pathogenic pericellular signaling in the context of inflammatory and proliferative diseases. Matriptase is an unusual protease in that its...... previously reported for transgenic mice mis-expressing wildtype epidermal matriptase. Equally surprising, mice engineered to express only zymogen-locked endogenous matriptase, unlike matriptase null mice, were viable, developed epithelial barrier function, and regenerated the injured epithelium. Compatible...

  15. The muscle stem cell niche : regulation of satellite cells during regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, K.J.M.; Post, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite cells are considered to be adult skeletal muscle stem cells. Their ability to regenerate large muscle defects is highly dependent on their specific niche. When these cells are cultured in vitro, the loss of this niche leads to a loss of proliferative capacity and defective regeneration

  16. Regeneration and growth rates of allofragments in four common stream plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Tenna; Madsen, Tom Vindbæk; Sennels, R. S. H.

    2009-01-01

    perfoliatus L. and Ranunculus baudotii x pseudofluitans. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) if shoots with an apical tip have higher regeneration (growth of new shoots and rhizomes from allofragments) and colonisation (root attachment in sediment) abilities and higher relative growth rates...

  17. Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: Factors affecting the efficiency of in vitro regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.; Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2011-01-01

    Factors influencing in vitro regeneration through direct shoot bud induction from hypocotyl explants of Jatropha curcas were studied in the present investigation. Regeneration in J. curcas was found to be genotype dependent and out of four toxic and one non-toxic genotype studied, non-toxic was least responsive. The best results irrespective of genotype were obtained on the medium containing 0.5mgL-1 TDZ (Thidiazuron) and in vitro hypocotyl explants were observed to have higher regeneration efficiency as compared to ex vitro explant in both toxic and non-toxic genotypes. Adventitious shoot buds could be induced from the distal end of explants in all the genotypes. The number of shoot buds formed and not the number of explants responding to TDZ treatment were significantly affected by the position of the explant on the seedling axis. Explants from younger seedlings (≤15 days) were still juvenile and formed callus easily, whereas the regeneration response declined with increase in age of seedlings after 30 days. Transient reduction of Ca2+ concentrations to 0.22gL-1 in the germination medium increased the number of responding explants.Induced shoot buds, upon transfer to MS medium containing 2mgL-1 Kn (Kinetin) and 1mgL-1 BAP (6-benzylamino purine) elongated. These elongated shoots were further proliferated on MS medium supplemented with 1.5mgL-1 IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and 0.5mgL-1 BAP and 3.01-3.91cm elongation was achieved after 6 weeks. No genotype specific variance in shoot elongation was observed among the toxic genotypes except the CSMCRI-JC2, which showed reduced response. And for proliferation among the toxic genotypes, CSMCRI-JC4 showed highest number of shoots formed. Among the rest, no significant differences were observed. The elongated shoot could be rooted by pulse treatment on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 3mgL-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), 1mgL-1 IAA, 1mgL-1 NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and subsequent transfer on 0

  18. Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: Factors affecting the efficiency of in vitro regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sweta K.

    2011-07-01

    Factors influencing in vitro regeneration through direct shoot bud induction from hypocotyl explants of Jatropha curcas were studied in the present investigation. Regeneration in J. curcas was found to be genotype dependent and out of four toxic and one non-toxic genotype studied, non-toxic was least responsive. The best results irrespective of genotype were obtained on the medium containing 0.5mgL-1 TDZ (Thidiazuron) and in vitro hypocotyl explants were observed to have higher regeneration efficiency as compared to ex vitro explant in both toxic and non-toxic genotypes. Adventitious shoot buds could be induced from the distal end of explants in all the genotypes. The number of shoot buds formed and not the number of explants responding to TDZ treatment were significantly affected by the position of the explant on the seedling axis. Explants from younger seedlings (≤15 days) were still juvenile and formed callus easily, whereas the regeneration response declined with increase in age of seedlings after 30 days. Transient reduction of Ca2+ concentrations to 0.22gL-1 in the germination medium increased the number of responding explants.Induced shoot buds, upon transfer to MS medium containing 2mgL-1 Kn (Kinetin) and 1mgL-1 BAP (6-benzylamino purine) elongated. These elongated shoots were further proliferated on MS medium supplemented with 1.5mgL-1 IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and 0.5mgL-1 BAP and 3.01-3.91cm elongation was achieved after 6 weeks. No genotype specific variance in shoot elongation was observed among the toxic genotypes except the CSMCRI-JC2, which showed reduced response. And for proliferation among the toxic genotypes, CSMCRI-JC4 showed highest number of shoots formed. Among the rest, no significant differences were observed. The elongated shoot could be rooted by pulse treatment on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 3mgL-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), 1mgL-1 IAA, 1mgL-1 NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid) and subsequent transfer on 0

  19. Plant regeneration from cotyledons of mature soybean (Glycine max L.) Wilis cultivar using gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, D.; Ratna, R.

    1999-01-01

    Soybean Wilis cultivar was efficiently regenerated in vitro via somatic embryogenesis. Cotyledonary explants were excised from mature germinating seeds. Seeds were germinated on agar solution and on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate. Cotyledonary nodes from both germinating seeds were excised and cultured on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate. Age of seedlings had a remarkable influence on shoot regeneration. Cotyledon from seeds germinated on agar solution with light gave better result in shoot regeneration compare with those germinated in darkness. The highest number of regenerants per explants (5 shoots) was produced by cotyledon from seeds germinated on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate in darkness. The seeds of soybean were exposed to gamma-rays doses 10 Gy then germinated on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate did not improve the number of plant regeneration. Only 5-day-old seedlings from seeds were exposed to gamma-rays dose 30 Gy could improve the number of shoot regeneration, one of the cotyledonary node treated produced 21 regeneration shoots

  20. A rapid and efficient in vitro regeneration system for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Isabel; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Raskin, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Successful biotechnological improvement of crop plants requires a reliable and efficient in vitro regeneration system. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.), one the most important vegetable crops worldwide, is strongly genotype-dependent in terms of regeneration capacity, limiting the potential for biotechnological improvement of cultivars which show recalcitrance under currently available protocols. The effect of different nutrient sources, plant hormone combinations and activated charcoal supplementation on shoot induction efficiency was evaluated on the cultivar 'RSL NFR', which had previously shown poor regeneration efficiency. Multiple shoot organogenesis from cotyledon explants was recorded at the highest frequency and speed on Murashige and Skoog regeneration medium supplemented with 200 mg/l of activated charcoal, 3% sucrose, 10 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0.5 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid, which induced shoots through direct regeneration in 90.8 ± 7.9% of explants. High shoot induction efficiency was also observed, albeit not quantified, when using this medium on some other cultivars. This activated charcoal-containing regeneration medium might offer a rapid and efficient option for direct shoot induction in some lettuce genotypes that do not respond well to common lettuce regeneration protocols. This is also the first report of the effect of activated charcoal in lettuce tissue culture.

  1. My Regeneration:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    and cultural referents shows that it offers an index to the album. Using its frontier setting and a variety of sacred and secular myths, symbols and icons, ‘Heroes and Villains,’ like Smile as a whole, offers historically-informed visions of national decline, crisis and regeneration that are at once critical...

  2. Expression and localization of regenerating gene I in a rat liver regeneration model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingshu; Koyota, Souichi; Zhou, Xiaoping; Ueno, Yasuharu; Ma Li; Kawagoe, Masami; Koizumi, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Regenerating gene (Reg) I has been identified as a regenerative/proliferative factor for pancreatic islet cells. We examined Reg I expression in the regenerating liver of a rat model that had been administered 2-acetylaminofluorene and treated with 70% partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH model), where hepatocyte and cholangiocyte proliferation was suppressed and the hepatic stem cells and/or hepatic progenitor cells were activated. In a detailed time course study of activation of hepatic stem cells in the 2-AAF/PH model, utilizing immunofluorescence staining with antibodies of Reg I and other cell-type-specific markers, we found that Reg I-expressing cells are present in the bile ductules and increased during regeneration. Reg I-expressing cells were colocalized with CK19, OV6, and AFP. These results demonstrate that Reg I is significantly upregulated in the liver of the 2-AAF/PH rat model, accompanied by the formation of bile ductules during liver regeneration.

  3. Epithelial regeneration of transposed intestine after high doses of X irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, N.J. de; Vermey, M [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1976-01-01

    The regeneration capacities of normal and transposed small bowel epithelium were compared in rats after applying high doses of x irradiation. It has been shown that the potency of the mucosa to regenerate was much higher than assumed and that the mucosa could regenerate after single doses varying from 2000 to 5000 R. Even in the villus epithelium and in flat epithelium covering infiltrates of the lamina propria cells survived, which were still able to resume proliferative activity several days after irradiation.

  4. Characterization of somatic embryogenesis initiated from the Arabidopsis shoot apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokura, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kaoru; Tarr, Paul; Suzuki, Takamasa; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2018-04-28

    Somatic embryogenesis is one of the best examples of the remarkable developmental plasticity of plants, in which committed somatic cells can dedifferentiate and acquire the ability to form an embryo and regenerate an entire plant. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the shoot apices of young seedlings have been reported as an alternative tissue source for somatic embryos (SEs) besides the widely studied zygotic embryos taken from siliques. Although SE induction from shoots demonstrates the plasticity of plants more clearly than the embryo-to-embryo induction system, the underlying developmental and molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we characterized SE formation from shoot apex explants by establishing a system for time-lapse observation of explants during SE induction. We also established a method to distinguish SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants prior to anatomical SE formation, enabling us to identify distinct transcriptome profiles of these two explants at SE initiation. We show that embryonic fate commitment takes place at day 3 of SE induction and the SE arises directly, not through callus formation, from the base of leaf primordia just beside the shoot apical meristem (SAM), where auxin accumulates and shoot-root polarity is formed. The expression domain of a couple of key developmental genes for the SAM transiently expands at this stage. Our data demonstrate that SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants share mostly the same transcripts except for a limited number of embryonic genes and root genes that might trigger the SE-initiation program. Thus, SE-forming explants possess a mixed identity (SAM, root and embryo) at the time of SE specification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Regeneration of Pelargonium in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wojtania

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pelargonium sp. has been a subject of numerous studies to deterimine the effec tiveness of in vitro techniques to produce a large number of pathogen-free plants. Regeneration of pelargonium plants from the different initial explants as well via organogenesis as via somatic embryogenesis has been obtained. The most effective adventitious shoot formation has been achieved from shoot tips and axillary buds using cytokinin or cytokinin/auxin combinations. Leaf explants, whose general have lower organogenic potency, regenerate better in the presence of thidiazuron. This growth regulator stimulate the somatic embryos production from hypocotyl and cotyledone explants too. The main problem in tissue culture propagation of Pelargonium has been the high tendency to formation of vigorously growing callus with low organogenic potency and rapid senescence of cultures. Moreover, the significant differen ces in requirements to the medium composition (minerals, organic compounds and growth regulators between Pelargonium cultivars has been observed. This makes difficult to develop an universaI method of Pelargonium micropropagation.

  6. PERBANDINGAN JUMP SHOOT DENGAN AWALAN DAN TANPA AWALAN TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KETEPATAN SHOOTING DALAM PERMAINAN BOLABASKET

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta; N. Adiputra; I P G Adiatmika

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of  jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable,  because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on...

  7. An efficient protocol for regeneration and transformation of Symphyotrichum novi-belgii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Eline Kirk; Henriksen, Karin; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    ) fusion gene, and an enhanced green fluorescent protein gene. Pre-cultured hypocotyl explants were transformed in the presence of 100 μM acetosyringone using 90 s sonication plus 10 min vacuum-infiltration. Kanamycin at 20 mg l−1 was used for selecting transformed cells. Adventitious shoots regenerated......II genes in GUS-positive shoots were confirmed by PCR and copy number of the nptII gene in PCR-positive shoots was determined by Southern blotting. Three transgenic plantlets were acclimatized to the greenhouse. This transformation and regeneration system using hypocotyls provides a foundation...

  8. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  9. School Shootings as Organizational Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…

  10. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  11. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  12. Optimization of soybean (glycine max L.) regeneration for korean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phat, P.; Rehman, S. U.; Ju, H. J.; Jung, H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue culture could provide key insights into the development of transgenic plants, production of good cultivars and secondary metabolites, conservation of endangered plants, and safeguarding of germplasms. In this study, the effects of shoot induction media, explants, cultivars, and phytohormone concentrations on the regeneration efficiency of Korean soybean cultivars were evaluated. Restricted dormancy and poor germination may affect regeneration, depending on the type of germination medium or initiation of phytohormone treatment. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of different germination media containing plant growth regulators, i.e. 6-benzyladenine (BAP), gibberellic acid 3 (GA /sub 3/), and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), prior to investigating the influences of explant types, media with or without vitamins, cultivars, and different phytohormones (BAP and GA3). A high frequency of germination was observed in Murashige and Skooge (MS) medium with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.25 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/. Cotyledonary node explants and Gamborg B5 with vitamins supplemented with 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP and 0.17 mg L /sup -1/ GA /sub 3/ in callus induction medium (CIM) and 1 mg L /sup -1/ BAP in shoot induction medium (SIM) were found to be the most efficient conditions for induction of soybean regeneration, both in callus development and shoot regeneration. Two Korean soybean cultivars, cv. Daepung and Nampung, showed similar development of shoot regeneration efficiency, but significantly different shoot induction times. Therefore, the protocol reported here may be used for further development of regeneration efficiency and can be employed for efficient transformation in soybeans. (author)

  13. Proliferative capacity of murine hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, S.; Botnick, L.E.; Hannon, E.C.; Vigneulle, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a decrease in self-renewal capacity with serial transfer of murine hematopoietic stem cells. Production of differentiated cell progeny is maintained longer than stem cell self-renewal. In normal animals the capacity for self-renewal is not decreased with increasing donor age. The stem cell compartment in normal animals, both young and old, appears to be proliferatively quiescent. After apparent recovery from the alkylating agent busulfan, the probability of stem cell self-renewal is decreased, there is a permanent defect in the capacity of the bone marrow for serial transplantation, and the stem cells are proliferatively active. These findings support a model of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment as a continuum of cells with decreasing capacities for self-renewal, increasing likelihood for differentiation, and increasing proliferative activity. Cells progress in the continuum in one direction and such progression is not reversible

  14. Cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot tips and apical meristems of the forage legume Arachis pintoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Hebe Y; Faloci, Mirta; Medina, Ricardo; Dolce, Natalia; Mroginski, Luis; Engelmann, Florent

    2009-01-01

    A cryopreservation protocol using the encapsulation-dehydration procedure was established for shoot tips (2-3 mm in length) and meristems (0.3-0.5 mm) sampled from in vitro plantlets of diploid and triploid cytotypes of Arachis pintoi. The optimal protocol was the following: after dissection, explants were precultured for 24 h on establishment medium (EM), encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and pretreated in liquid EM medium with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 M) and desiccated to 22-23 percent moisture content (fresh weight basis). Explants were frozen using slow cooling (1 C per min from 25C to -30C followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen), thawed rapidly and post-cultured in liquid EM medium enriched with daily decreasing sucrose concentrations (0.75, 0.50, 0.1 M). Explants were then transferred to solid EM medium in order to achieve shoot regeneration, then on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.05 microM naphthalene acetic acid to induce rooting of shoots. With this procedure, 53 percent and 56 percent of cryopreserved shoot tips of the diploid and triploid cytotypes, respectively, survived and formed plants. However, only 16 percent of cryopreserved meristems of both cytotypes regenerated plants. Using ten isozyme systems and seven RAPD profiles, no modification induced by cryopreservation could be detected in plantlets regenerated from cryopreserved material.

  15. Periodontal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, S

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the tissues destroyed as a result of periodontal disease. Currently, two clinical techniques, based on the principles of "guided tissue regeneration" (GTR) or utilization of the biologically active agent "enamel matrix derivative" (EMD), can be used for the regeneration of intrabony and Class II mandibular furcation periodontal defects. In cases where additional support and space-making requirements are necessary, both of these procedures can be combined with a bone replacement graft. There is no evidence that the combined use of GTR and EMD results in superior clinical results compared to the use of each material in isolation. Great variability in clinical outcomes has been reported in relation to the use of both EMD and GTR, and these procedures can be generally considered to be unpredictable. Careful case selection and treatment planning, including consideration of patient, tooth, site and surgical factors, is required in order to optimize the outcomes of treatment. There are limited data available for the clinical effectiveness of other biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and platelet concentrates, and although promising results have been reported, further clinical trials are required in order to confirm their effectiveness. Current active areas of research are centred on tissue engineering and gene therapy strategies which may result in more predictable regenerative outcomes in the future.

  16. Antioxidant potential in regenerated tissues of medicinally important atropa accuminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, F. A.; Abbasi, B. H.; Shinwari, Z. K.; Shah, S. H.

    2017-01-01

    Due to random exploitation from natural resources, an efficient regeneration system of medicinally important but rare plant species, Atropa acuminata for conservation was inevitable. Leaf explants were incubated on MS medium with different level of various plant growth regulators (PGRs) alone and in combination for callus induction and induced organogenesis. After 4 weeks of culture, callus induction was recorded with the highest frequency with 1.0 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) supplement. After 5 weeks of subsequent sub-culturing, optimum shoot induction frequency of 89% was achieved with 1.0 mg/l TDZ and 1.0 mg/l a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) supplement. Highest number of shoots/explant (8.2) were recorded on MS medium with 2.0 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA)+1.0 mg/l NAA supplement. Shoots in elongation medium was recorded 5.8 cm long in two medium i.e., 1.0 mg/l TDZ supplement and 1.0 mg/l TDZ+1.0 mg/l NAA supplement. Successful In vitro rooting was induced on MS medium with all applied level of indole butyric acid (IBA). The regenerated shoots with well developed roots were successfully acclimatized in sterilized soil and transferred to greenhouse conditions. Furthermore higher activity for detoxifying DPPH free radical was shown by regenerated shoots in this medicinally important plant species. (author)

  17. A new approach for in vitro regeneration of tomato plants devoid of exogenous plant growth hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Dagmara; Fuentes, Alejandro; Alvarez, Marta; Lara, Regla M; Alvarez, Félix; Pujol, Merardo

    2006-10-01

    Many available methodologies for in vitro regeneration of commercial tomato varieties promote not only the production of normal shoots but also individual leaves, shoots without apical meristems and vitrified structures. All these abnormal formations influence and diminish the regeneration efficiency. At the basis of this phenomenon lies callus development. We optimized an alternative procedure by which the regeneration occurs without abnormal shoot formation. The portion including the proximal part of hypocotyls and the radicle was cultured on medium consisting of Murashige and Skoog salts, 4 mg/L thiamine, 100 mg/L mio-inositol and 3% sucrose. After two-three weeks, 60% explants showed adventitious shoot formation. No changes in the morphological characteristics of regenerated plants and fruits were observed as compared with parents. Karyotypic analysis of regenerated plants showed no variations in chromosome number. The optimized procedure offers the advantage of tomato plant regeneration avoiding callus formation, which enables normal plant recovery with an efficiency ranging from 1.45 +/- 0.05 to 2.57 +/- 0.06 shoots per explant in Campbell-28, Amalia, Lignon, and Floradel cultivars.

  18. Micropropagation of chokeberry by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwińczuk, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The black chokeberry-aronia (Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) is a shrub native to North America although nowadays well known in Eastern Europe. The fruits are regarded as the richest source of antioxidant phytonutrients among fruit crops and vegetables. Chokeberries can be easily propagated by seeds but this method is not recommended. Micropropagation is far more efficient than other conventional cloning methods like layering or softwood cuttings. Aronia clones are propagated in vitro through four- or three-stage method based on subculturing of shoot explants. The double diluted MS or full strength MS medium with elevated 50% Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) content are used in the initiation and proliferation chokeberry in vitro cultures, respectively. They are supplemented with 0.5-1.0 mg LBA, and 0.05 mg LIBA. The double-phase medium is recommended in the last passage before shoot rooting. The regenerated shoots could be rooted both in vitro on double diluted MS with 0.05 mg L(-1) IBA or in vivo in peat and perlite substrate and subsequently grown in the greenhouse.

  19. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Heubers, S.; Ruitenbeek, J-R.J.A.C.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use

  20. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  1. Plant regeneration of Brassica oleracea subsp. italica (Broccoli) CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul. Ehsan, Malaysia. Accepted 20 March, 2009. Hypocotyls and shoot tips were used as explants in in vitro plant regeneration of broccoli (Brassica oleracea subsp.italica) cv. Green Marvel.

  2. Regeneration and molecular analysis of date palm ( Phoenix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clonal plants of date palm (Poenix dactylifera L.) were regenerated from juvenile leaves on regimes consisting of the use of 2,4-D. Success depended on the concentrations of 2,4-D tested. The cultures produced adventitious shoot buds directly at the basal part of leaves as well as excessive calli. Somaclonal variation in ...

  3. Plants regeneration from African cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. plant was efficiently regenerated from cotyledonary node explants. The shoots multiplication rate was ... Africa, insect pests are often responsible for 100% losses of cowpea yields (Singh and .... 26 days after acclimatization first flower buds were observed; thus plants were ...

  4. In vitro plant regeneration from Narbon Vetch (Vicia narbonensis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... regeneration from cotyledonary node explants obtained from, in vitro raised seeds of 4 - 5 and 14 - 15 days old .... shoots in Vicia faba using different concentrations of. BAP-TDZ. ... feed legume crop for dry areas in west Asia.

  5. In vitro regeneration of a common medicinal plant, Ocimum sanctum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embracing micro-propagation method for large scale production of plantlets and also for protection of appropriate germplasm is a prerequisite that needs to be undertaken in order to develop a rapid in vitro regeneration protocol for Ocimum sanctum L. Shoot tips as well as nodal segments were subjected to numerous ...

  6. Establishment of plant regeneration system from anther culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Plant regeneration of Tagetes patula was achieved from anther explants via adventitious shoot differentiation from callus. The effects of genotype, temperature pretreatment, plant growth regulators, light regimes and sucrose concentration were studied. Eight of ten genotypes tested were successfully.

  7. Proliferative Activity and Neuroprotective Effect of Ligustrazene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proliferative Activity and Neuroprotective Effect of. Ligustrazene Derivative by Irritation of Vascular. Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Middle Cerebral. Artery Occlusion Rats. Zhang Huazheng1, Wang Penglong2, Ren Liwei1, Wang Xiaobo2, Li Guoliang2,. Wang Mina1, Chu Fuhao2, Gong Yan2, Xu Bing2, Bi Siling1, ...

  8. Auxin-cytokinin synergism in vitro for producing genetically stable plants of Ruta graveolens using shoot tip meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faisal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for Ruta graveolens Linn. using shoot tip meristems derived from a 4-month-old field grown plant. In vitro shoot regeneration and proliferation was accomplished on Murashige and Skoogs (MS semi-solid medium in addition to different doses of cytokinins viz.6- benzyl adenine (BA, Kinetin (Kn or 2-isopetynyl adenine (2iP, singly or in combination with auxins viz. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA or α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. Highest regeneration frequency (27.6% was obtained on (MS medium composed of BA (10 µM with maximum number (9.4 of shoots and 4.3 cm shoot length after 4 weeks of incubation. Among various combinations tried best regeneration frequency (71% of multiple shoot formation with highest number (12.6 of shoots per shoot tip explants were achieved in MS medium augmented with a combination BA (10.0 µM and NAA (2.5 µM after 4 weeks of incubation. The optimum frequency (97% of rhizogenesis was achieved on half-strength MS medium having 0.5 µM IBA after 4 weeks of incubation. Tissue culture raised plantlets with 5–7 fully opened leaves with healthy root system were successfully acclimatized off in Soilrite™ with 80% survival rate followed by transportation to normal soil under natural light. Genetic stability among in vitro raised progeny was evaluated by ISSR and RAPD markers. The entire banding pattern revealed from in vitro regenerated plants was monomorphic to the donor. The present protocol provides an alternative option for commercial propagation and fruitful setting up of genetically uniform progeny for sustainable utilization and germplasm preservation.

  9. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  10. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  11. A filter paper-based liquid culture system for citrus shoot organogenesis - a mixture-amount experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a static liquid culture system on shoot regeneration from citrus epicotyl explants. Two citrus types were used, Carrizo citrange and Ridge Pineapple sweet orange. A liquid culture system comprised of a Petri dish, cellulose filter paper dis...

  12. Cardiomyocyte Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Nakanishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The heart was initially believed to be a terminally differentiated organ; once the cardiomyocytes died, no recovery could be made to replace the dead cells. However, around a decade ago, the concept of cardiac stem cells (CSCs in adult hearts was proposed. CSCs differentiate into cardiomyocytes, keeping the heart functioning. Studies have proved the existence of stem cells in the heart. These somatic stem cells have been studied for use in cardiac regeneration. Moreover, recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were invented, and methodologies have now been developed to induce stable cardiomyocyte differentiation and purification of mature cardiomyocytes. A reprogramming method has also been applied to direct reprogramming using cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. Here, we address cardiomyocyte differentiation of CSCs and iPSCs. Furthermore, we describe the potential of CSCs in regenerative biology and regenerative medicine.

  13. Heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Proliferative myositis in a patient with AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovska, B.; Deux, J.F.; Marsault, C.; Le Breton, C. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Tenon, 4 rue de la Chine, 75020, Paris (France); Abraham, B. [Department of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France); Sibony, M. [Department of Anatomy, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France)

    2004-04-01

    We report a case of proliferative myositis in the right biceps of a 56-year-old man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Imaging methods included sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis was made by a core-cut biopsy and fine needle aspiration biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis. The lesion disappeared after 2 months without treatment. It is particularly important to determine whether intramuscular masses arising in patients with AIDS are due to an infectious or malignant process. (orig.)

  15. Proliferative myositis in a patient with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlachovska, B.; Deux, J.F.; Marsault, C.; Le Breton, C.; Abraham, B.; Sibony, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of proliferative myositis in the right biceps of a 56-year-old man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Imaging methods included sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis was made by a core-cut biopsy and fine needle aspiration biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis. The lesion disappeared after 2 months without treatment. It is particularly important to determine whether intramuscular masses arising in patients with AIDS are due to an infectious or malignant process. (orig.)

  16. Standard effective doses for proliferative tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.C.; Hoban, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the treatment schedules used clinically for highly proliferative tumours, particularly with reference to the effects of fraction size, fraction number and treatment duration. The linear quadratic model (with time component) is used here to compare non-standard treatment regimens (e.g. accelerated and hyperfractionated schedules), currently the focus of randomized trials, with each other and some common 'standard regimens'. To ensure easy interpretation of results, two parameters known as proliferative standard effective dose one (PSED 1 ) and proliferative standard effective dose two (PSED 2 ) have been calculated for each regimen. Graphs of PSED 1 and PSED 2 versus potential doubling time (T p ) have been generated for a range of fractionation regimens which are currently under trial in various randomized studies. From these graphs it can be seen that the highly accelerated schedules (such as CHART) only show advantages for tumours with very short potential doubling times. Calculations for most of the schedules considered showed at least equivalent tumour control expected for the trial schedule compared with the control arm used and these values agree quite well with clinical results. These calculations are in good agreement with clinical results available at present. The greater the PSED 1 or PSED 2 for the schedule considered the greater the tumour control, which can be expected. However, as has been seen with clinical trials, this higher cell kill also results in higher acute effects which have proved too great for some accelerated schedules to continue. (author)

  17. [School shooting in statu nascendi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, amok-like killings and especially so-called "school shootings" have received a great deal of public attention both in the Old and the New world. Meanwhile, criminal psychological research has gained a thorough insight into this dangerous development in young people. Thus, the possibility to assess the concrete threat of such a multiple killing before it is carried out has been considerably improved, as many prognostic criteria have been worked out in the meantime. The case report presented shows that it is possible to exercise a favourable influence on this critical negative trend.

  18. Regeneration efficiency based on genotype, culture condition and growth regulators of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdul Muktadir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were carried out to establish an efficient regenerating protocol for cultivated eggplant varieties. Among the five varieties cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium with free plant growth regulator (PGR, Nayantara performed better considering the number of shoots/explant (2.48. Considering explant types and culture conditions, better performance was observed (3.68 shoots/explant when seed germination in the dark was proceeded by bottom hypocotyl segments cultured under dark conditions. A higher rate of shoot regeneration was observed in Nayantara when cultured in Zeatin Riboside (ZR and Thidizuron (TDZ supplemented MS medium. The highest number of shoots per explant was produced on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L ZR and 0.1 mg/L indole acetic acid (6.65 shoots/explant. Proliferation and elongation of the regenerated shoots were obtained in the MS medium with free PGR. The best rooting performance was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L indole butyric acid. Plantlets with well developed roots and shoots were successfully transferred to soil.

  19. The influence of different hormone concentration and combination on callus induction and regeneration of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, U; Rahman, M S M; Islam, S; Haque, N; Jubair, T A; Haque, A K M F; Mukti, I J

    2008-06-15

    The influence of media composition on callus induction and subsequent regeneration of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth has been studied. High frequency (96.43%) callus induction was obtained when nodal segments from in vitro raised shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L(-1) BA and 2.0 mg L(-1) NAA. The callus differentiated into adventitious shoots when it was subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA with 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on half-strength MS medium with 1.0 mg L(-1) each of IBA and IAA.

  20. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-02

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants.

  1. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10−4 M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10−5 M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  2. Thidiazuron enhanced regeneration and silymarin content in silybum marianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Abbasi, B.H.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    Silybum marianum, of family Asteraceae is renowned for production of biologically important silymarin, which has shown multi-dimensional medicinal properties. It has a high protective role against jaundice and hepatitis C worldwide. We hereby established a feasible and efficient method for indirect regeneration of S. marianum for production of consistent plantlets. Calli were induced from leaf explants of seed-derived plantlets on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with several concentrations of different plant growth regulators (PGRs). Highest callogenic response (89%) was recorded for 4.4 meu M Thidiazuron (TDZ) in combination with 6.6 meu M Kinetin (Kn). Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture, on medium with similar compositions of PGRs induced shoot organogenesis. Highest shoot induction frequency (86%) with maximum mean multiple shoots (26 shoots per explant) were recorded for 11meu M TDZ after 4 weeks of transfer. Longest shoots (4.1 cm) were recorded for MS medium augmented with 6.6 meu M TDZ and 4.4 meu M naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Furthermore, rooted plantlets were developed on MS medium containing different concentrations of indole acetic acid (IAA). Silymarin was determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 8.47 mg/g DW silymarin was detected in the regenerated plantlets. This study contributes to a better understanding of the different mechanisms involved in morphogenesis and production of biologically active principle in Silybum marianum. (author)

  3. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, E.; Colucci, G.; Ciardi, F.; Monti, L.

    1997-01-01

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 μM) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 μM appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T 1 transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Regeneration and genetic transformation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippone, E; Colucci, G; Ciardi, F; Monti, L [Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Univ. of Naples Federico 11, Portici (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Regeneration of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) was achieved through massive bud formation induced in apical and lateral meristems by the herbicide Thidiazuron (TDZ). The effect of TDZ (5, 10, or 20 {mu}M) was tested in vitro on four different cowpea genotypes. Thidiazuron, even at the highest concentration, had no effect on seed germination. After one month of culture, multiple bud cluster formation was observed in all genotypes tested; about 80% of shoot apices regenerated multiple buds, whilst only 34% of cotyledonary nodes behaved in the same way. Histology of regenerating multiple bud clusters revealed that regeneration initiated from pre-existing meristems in the apex and cotyledonary node. Thidiazuron at 10 {mu}M appeared to be the best concentration to produce clusters with high number of buds, ranging from 5 to 10. Shoot elongation occurred only on MS medium without TDZ. On the same medium, 75% of elongated shoots rooted. For genetic transformation of cowpea, a direct DNA transfer methods in plants under in vivo conditions was tested by electroporation of plasmid DNA into the nodal meristematic cells. Some transformed plants were obtained, and produced T{sub 1} transformed progenies; their transgenic nature was confirmed by Southern analysis. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  5. Proliferative glomerulonephritis and primary antiphospholipid syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, H. Abdalla; Kfoury, Hala K.; Al-Khader, Abdulla A.; Al-Suleiman, M.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known regarding the association of primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) and proliferative glomerulonephiritis (GN). We describe a biopsy-documented case with primary APLS and proliferative (GN) with no evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and in the absence of other manifestations of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). She presented initially with left popliteal deep venous thrombosis and nephrotic syndrome. Her first pregnancy at the age of 26 years resulted in the intra-uterine fetal death at term. Two subsequent pregnancies ended up with miscarriages at 3 and 4 months of gestation. Urinalysis revealed glomerular red blood cells of 1.0000.000/ml and granular cast; proteinuria of 13.4grams/24 hours, which was non-selective; hemoglobin 12 gm/dl, normal white blood cell and platelets; serum albumin 2.6gm/dl; anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti DNA were negative and complement levels normal. Lupus anticoagulant was positive leading to a diagnosis of primary APLS. The biopsy findings were consistent with membranoproliferative GN. She continued to have steroid-resistant proteinuria, but stable renal function after a 12-year follow up period. She had 2 pregnancies during this period and was delivered at term using caesarian section. She received heparin during the pregnancies. Later she developed hypertension easily controlled by atenolol. This case provides evidence that primary APLS can be associated with proliferative GN due to immune deposits and not only TMA as previously reported, and in the complete absence of SLE. Performing more renal biopsies in this group of patients may disclose a greater prevalence of proleferative GN and may help in devising a rationale for treatment. (author)

  6. Callus induction and plant regeneration of Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez,Ingrid; Dorta,Fernando; Cuadros-Inostroza,Álvaro; Peña-Cortés,Hugo

    2012-01-01

    A callus induction and plant regeneration protocol was developed from leaf and thorn explants for the plant Ulex europaeus. Explants were incubated on 2% sucrose half-strength Murashige and Skoog Medium (MS) with various combinations of plant growth regulators and antioxidants. The best frequency of callus and shoot formation was obtained with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 1 mg/l x kinetin (Kin) 0.2 mg/l (DK Medium; callus induction) and zeatin (Z) 1 mg/l (DK medium; shoot induction)...

  7. [Effect of dibunol liniment on posttraumatic skin regeneration in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, T V; Efimov, E A; Korman, D B

    1984-10-01

    The effect of dibunol liniment (5-50 mg/kg) on excised mouse skin was studied. The liniment caused complete skin regeneration with hair and gland formation in the majority of treated mice. Application of the liniment led to a considerable increase in proliferative activity of skin epithelial cells and inhibition of wound area reduction within the first day of healing as compared with controls.

  8. Shooting mechanisms in Nature : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, A.; van der Wiel, M.; Henselmans, P.W.J.; van Leeuwen, J.L.; Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  9. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  10. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  11. Mass Shootings, Mental Illness, and Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott-Jones, Sean

    2018-03-01

    In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem. Both sides are wrong. Mass shootings are indeed partially a mental health problem, albeit one poorly addressed by our current laws and policies. But the solution to mass shootings also needs to consider strategies that may reduce gun violence in general. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  12. Cetuximab-Associated Crescentic Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukesh Manthri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cetuximab-induced nephrotoxicity is very rare, occurring in less than 1% of colorectal cancer patients and not defined in other populations. We report a rare case of crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN that developed in close temporal association with cetuximab treatment. A 65-year-old female recently completed chemotherapy with cetuximab treatment for moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. She was admitted with acute renal failure and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Laboratory data showed serum creatinine of 6.6 mg/dl and urinalysis showed proteinuria, moderate hemoglobinuria, hyaline casts (41/LPF, WBC (28/HPF, and RBC (81/HPF. Serologic studies were negative for ANA, anti-GBM, ANCA, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Serum C3 and C4 level were normal. Renal biopsy showed crescentic diffuse proliferative GN with focal features of thrombotic microangiopathy. Patient was started on cyclophosphamide and steroids. Her renal function did not improve on day 8 and she was started on hemodialysis. Previous reports suggest that EGFR-targeting medications can possibly trigger or exacerbate an IgA-mediated glomerular process leading to renal failure. This case suggests that cetuximab therapy may have triggered or exacerbated a severe glomerular injury with an unfavorable outcome. Treating physicians should maintain a high degree of caution and monitor renal function in patients on EGFR inhibitors.

  13. In vitro regeneration of Basella alba L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edney, Norris Allen; Rizvi, Muhammad A.; Rizvi, Narjis F.

    1989-01-01

    Basella alba L. is a tropical vine used as a vegetable in some Asian and African countries. It has potential as a nontraditional crop for small family farms. A short day plant, it blooms during the fall, provided the temperatures are mild. In the southeastern U.S., the short days of fall are associated with subfreezing temperatures, and plants are killed before blooming. Attempts were made to regenerate the plant using tissue culture techniques. Several trials were conducted with different media, hormones, and explants. It was found that nodal segments on Gamborg medium regenerated shoots. Interaction studies of auxins and cytokinins indicated that its endogeneous auxin content might be high because callus proliferated in almost all treatments and roots initiated even when the medium was not supplemented with an auxin.

  14. Assessment of the potentiality of TDZ on multiple shoot induction in Bauhinia tomentosa L., a woody legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Ruphi; Anis, M; Aref, I M

    2012-12-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol for in vitro multiplication of Bauhinia tomentosa L. was developed. Multiple shoots were regenerated from cotyledonary node and stem nodal segments excised from in vitro raised seedlings on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 μM) of thidiazuron (TDZ). The maximum response (62.6%) was recorded on MS medium amended with 0.8 μM TDZ. A long exposure to TDZ for 8 weeks showed abnormalities such as fasciation and compact shoots formation. To avoid adverse effects of prolonged exposure to TDZ in long-term establishment, the culture were transferred to TDZ free MS medium for further multiplication and elongation. The highest number of shoots and shoot length were recorded at the end of fourth subculture passage. Ex vitro rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of regenerated shoots were dipped in 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for half an hour followed by their transplantation in plastic pots filled with sterile Soilrite™ where 60% plantlets grew well and all expressed normal development.

  15. TDZ-Induced Plant Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: A Promising Biofuel Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2018-03-23

    In recent years, Jatropha curcas has pronounced attention due to its capacity of production of biodiesel. Uniform large-scale propagation of J. curcas is one of the significant keys that will eventually decide victory. Direct regeneration is one of the methods which help in the production of uniform and homogenous plant, and TDZ plays an important role in the production of plantlets by direct organogenesis in several number of plant species including J. curcas. Measuring the economical importance of J. curcas and the role of TDZ in shoot regeneration, the present book chapter briefly reviews the impact of TDZ on shoot bud induction from various explants of J. curcas.

  16. TDZ-Induced Plant Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: A Promising Biofuel Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Bhatt, Vacha D.; Mastan, Shaik G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, Jatropha curcas has pronounced attention due to its capacity of production of biodiesel. Uniform large-scale propagation of J. curcas is one of the significant keys that will eventually decide victory. Direct regeneration is one of the methods which help in the production of uniform and homogenous plant, and TDZ plays an important role in the production of plantlets by direct organogenesis in several number of plant species including J. curcas. Measuring the economical importance of J. curcas and the role of TDZ in shoot regeneration, the present book chapter briefly reviews the impact of TDZ on shoot bud induction from various explants of J. curcas.

  17. A Predictive Model for Estimation Risk of Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ni Chen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: This study developed and validated a model including demographic and clinical indices to evaluate the probability of presenting proliferative LN to guide therapeutic decisions and outcomes.

  18. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  19. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, L; Hoyos, R; Roca, W

    1987-06-01

    An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration system, initiated in somatic tissues, has been devised for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Somatic embryogenesis has been induced from shoot tips and immature leaves of in vitro shoot cultures of 15 cassava genotypes. Somatic embryos developed directly on the explants when cultured on a medium containing 4-16 mg/l 2,4-D. Differences were observed with respect to the embryogenic capacity of the explants of different varieties. Secondary embryogenesis has been induced by subculture on solid or liquid induction medium. Long term cultures were established and maintained for up to 18 months by repeated subculture of the proliferating somatic embryos. Plantlets developed from primary and secondary embryos in the presence of 0.1 mg/l BAP, 1mg/l GA3, and 0.01 mg/l 2,4-D. Regenerated plants were transferred to the field, and were grown to maturity.

  20. Hair cell regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jennifer S; Cotanche, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of sensory hair cells in the mature avian inner ear was first described just over 20 years ago. Since then, it has been shown that many other non-mammalian species either continually produce new hair cells or regenerate them in response to trauma. However, mammals exhibit limited hair cell regeneration, particularly in the auditory epithelium. In birds and other non-mammals, regenerated hair cells arise from adjacent non-sensory (supporting) cells. Hair cell regeneration was initially described as a proliferative response whereby supporting cells re-enter the mitotic cycle, forming daughter cells that differentiate into either hair cells or supporting cells and thereby restore cytoarchitecture and function in the sensory epithelium. However, further analyses of the avian auditory epithelium (and amphibian vestibular epithelium) revealed a second regenerative mechanism, direct transdifferentiation, during which supporting cells change their gene expression and convert into hair cells without dividing. In the chicken auditory epithelium, these two distinct mechanisms show unique spatial and temporal patterns, suggesting they are differentially regulated. Current efforts are aimed at identifying signals that maintain supporting cells in a quiescent state or direct them to undergo direct transdifferentiation or cell division. Here, we review current knowledge about supporting cell properties and discuss candidate signaling molecules for regulating supporting cell behavior, in quiescence and after damage. While significant advances have been made in understanding regeneration in non-mammals over the last 20 years, we have yet to determine why the mammalian auditory epithelium lacks the ability to regenerate hair cells spontaneously and whether it is even capable of significant regeneration under additional circumstances. The continued study of mechanisms controlling regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium may lead to strategies for inducing

  1. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Moya, Carlos; Gisbert, Carmina; Vilanova, Santiago; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-10-20

    Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1) derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27) with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47). The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8) in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1) and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related to regeneration. In this study we have

  2. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. Results We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1 derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27 with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47. The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1 and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related

  3. Heritability of regeneration in tissue cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton-Somers, K M; Collins, W W

    1986-03-01

    A population of open-pollinated progeny from 12 parents, and the 12 parents, was surveyed for in vitro growth and regeneration characteristics. Four different tissue culture procedures involving different media and the use of different explants to initiate the cultures were used. Petiole explants from young leaves were used as explants for initiation of callus cultures. These were evaluated for callus growth rate, friability, and callus color and texture, before transferring to each of three different regeneration media for evaluation of morphogenetic potential. Small shoot tips also were used to initiate callus cultures, which were evaluated for the same growth characteristics and transferred to growth-regulator free regeneration media. Regeneration occurred through root or shoot regeneration or through embryogenesis. Tissue culture treatment effects, as well as genotypic effects, were highly significant in determining: the types of callus produced, callus growth rates, color and texture on the two types of media used for the second and third subcultures. The family x treatment interaction was generally not statistically significant, affecting only callus color. Estimates of narrow sense heritability for callus growth rate in both the second and third subcultures were high enough (0.35 and 0.63, respectively) for the evaluation of parental lines for selection procedures. These characteristics were also the only early culture callus traits that were consistently correlated with later morphogenesis of the cultures. They were negatively correlated with root or shoot regeneration. The occurence of somatic embryogenesis was not correlated with early callus growth characteristics. Genetic and treatment effects were highly significant in the evaluation of morphogenetic potential, through root or shoot regeneration, or through embryogenesis. Regeneration of all types was of low frequency for all procedures, expressed in ≦ 11% of the cultures of the total population.

  4. PERBANDINGAN JUMP SHOOT DENGAN AWALAN DAN TANPA AWALAN TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KETEPATAN SHOOTING DALAM PERMAINAN BOLABASKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of  jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable,  because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on 20samples of people whowere selected randomly from the men's basketball club of the Faculty of Physical Educationand Health of Teacher Training Institute PGRI Bali. Samples were divided into two groups each  consisting of 10 people. Group I was given training step  jump shoot four sets of 10 reps  and Group II training still jump shoot four sets of 10 reps. The data before and after treatment were tested by SPSS computer program. The data were normally distributed and homogeneous so further tested using pairedt-test to compare the average values?? before and after training between each group, while the independent t-test was used to determine differences in mean values?? between the two groups. Paired t-test resulted the obtained data were significantly increased in both treatment groups p=0,001 in Group I and p=0,000 in Group II (p <0.05. Results of independent t-test found that both groups before training did not differ significantly p=0,926 (p>0.05 and after training both groups equally improve the accuracy of shooting because p=0,133 (p>0.05. It was concluded that botht raining improved the shooting accuracy and there was no difference between the effect of step jumps hoot and still jump shoot toward the shooting accuracy. It was suggested to improve the shooting accuracy in basketball used step jump shoot training and still jump shoot training four sets of 10 reps with a training frequency of 4 times a week for 6 weeks

  5. Organ and plantlet regeneration of Menyanthes trifoliata through tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Adamczyk-Rogozińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the regeneration of plants through organogenesis from callus tissues of Menyanthes trifoliata are described. The shoot multiplication rate was affected by basal culture media, the type and concentration of cytokinin and subculture number. The best response was obtained when caulogenic calli were cultured on the modified Schenk and Hildebrandt medium (SH-M containing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA 0,5 mg/l and 6-benzyladenine (BA 1 mg/l or zeatin (2 mg/l. Under these conditions ca 7 shoots (mostly 1 cm or more in length per culture in the 5th and 6th passages could be developed. In older cultures (after 11-12 passages there was a trend for more numerous but shorter shoot formation. All regenerated shoots could be rooted on the SH-M medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IAA within 6 weeks; 80% of in vitro rooted plantlets survived their transfer to soil.

  6. Epithelial regeneration of transposed intestine after high doses of X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, N.J. de; Vermey, M.

    1976-01-01

    The regeneration capacities of normal and transposed small bowel epithelium were compared in rats after applying high doses of X-irradiation. It has been shown that the potency of the mucosa to regenerate was much higher than assumed and that the mucosa could regenerate after single doses varying from 2000 to 5000 R. Even in the villus epithelium and in flat epithelium covering infiltrates of the lamina propria cells survived, which were still able to resume proliferative activity several days after irradiation. (author)

  7. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  8. Mass shooting and mass media : does media coverage of mass shootings inspire copycat crimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In December 2012, twenty elementary school children and six adult staff members were shot and killed by a single individual at a school in Connecticut. Although this horrific event was met with widespread shock, Americans are sadly all too familiar with such mass shootings. From Columbine in 1999, to Virginia Tech in 2007, to the Colorado cinema shootings earlier in 2012, mass shootings seem to occur with alarming regularity. And although they appear to afflict the United States more than mos...

  9. Branch architecture in Ginkgo biloba: wood anatomy and long shoot-short shoot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Stefan A; Jacobs, Brooke; McKechnie, Steven J; Cooper, Ranessa L; Christianson, Michael L; Jernstedt, Judith A

    2013-10-01

    Ginkgo, centrally placed in seed plant phylogeny, is considered important in many phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Shoot dimorphism of Ginkgo has been long noted, but no work has yet been done to evaluate the relationships between overall branch architecture and wood ring characters, shoot growth, and environmental conditions. • Branches, sampled from similar canopy heights, were mapped with the age of each long shoot segment determined by counting annual leaf-scar series on its short shoots. Transverse sections were made for each long shoot segment and an adjacent short shoot; wood ring thickness, number of rings, and number of tracheids/ring were determined. Using branch maps, we identified wood rings for each long shoot segment to year and developmental context of each year (distal short shoot growth only vs. at least one distal long shoot). Climate data were also analyzed in conjunction with developmental context. • Significantly thicker wood rings occur in years with distal long shoot development. The likelihood that a branch produced long shoots in a given year was lower with higher maximum annual temperature. Annual maximum temperature was negatively correlated with ring thickness in microsporangiate trees only. Annual minimum temperatures were correlated differently with ring thickness of megasporangiate and microsporangiate trees, depending on the developmental context. There were no significant effects associated with precipitation. • Overall, developmental context alone predicts wood ring thickness about as well as models that include temperature. This suggests that although climatic factors may be strongly correlated with wood ring data among many gymnosperm taxa, at least for Ginkgo, correlations with climate data are primarily due to changes in proportions of shoot developmental types (LS vs. SS) across branches.

  10. Optimization of Protocols for In Vitro Regeneration of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakra Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane contributes 60–70% of annual sugar production in the world. Somaclonal variation has potential to enhance genetic variation present within a species. Present study was done to optimize an in vitro propagation protocol for sugarcane. The experiments included four varieties, 9 callus induction media, 27 regeneration media, and 9 root induction media under two-factor factorial CRD. Data were recorded on callus induction, embryogenic callus formation, shoot elongation (cm, root induction, and plant regeneration. Statistically significant differences existed between genotypes and treatments for callus induction (%, embryogenic callus formation (%, shoot elongation (cm, root induction, and plant regeneration (%. All parameters showed dependency on genotypes, culture media, and their interaction. Highest callus induction (95% embryogenic callus formation (95% was observed in callus induction media 5. Highest plantlet regeneration (98.9% capacity was observed in regeneration media 11 whereas maximum shoot elongation (12.13 cm and root induction (8.32 were observed in rooting media 4. G1 showed best response for all traits and vice versa for G4. Hence it was concluded that G1, callus induction media 5, regeneration media 11, and rooting media 4 are the best conditions for in vitro propagation of sugarcane.

  11. Cell proliferation is necessary for the regeneration of oral structures in the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamaneck Yale J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The contribution of cell proliferation to regeneration varies greatly between different metazoan models. Planarians rely on pluripotent neoblasts and amphibian limb regeneration depends upon formation of a proliferative blastema, while regeneration in Hydra can occur in the absence of cell proliferation. Recently, the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis has shown potential as a model for studies of regeneration because of the ability to conduct comparative studies of patterning during embryonic development, asexual reproduction, and regeneration. The present study investigates the pattern of cell proliferation during the regeneration of oral structures and the role of cell proliferation in this process. Results In intact polyps, cell proliferation is observed in both ectodermal and endodermal tissues throughout the entire oral-aboral axis, including in the tentacles and physa. Following bisection, there is initially little change in proliferation at the wound site of the aboral fragment, however, beginning 18 to 24 hours after amputation there is a dramatic increase in cell proliferation at the wound site in the aboral fragment. This elevated level of proliferation is maintained throughout the course or regeneration of oral structures, including the tentacles, the mouth, and the pharynx. Treatments with the cell proliferation inhibitors hydroxyurea and nocodazole demonstrate that cell proliferation is indispensable for the regeneration of oral structures. Although inhibition of regeneration by nocodazole was generally irreversible, secondary amputation reinitiates cell proliferation and regeneration. Conclusions The study has found that high levels of cell proliferation characterize the regeneration of oral structures in Nematostella, and that this cell proliferation is necessary for the proper progression of regeneration. Thus, while cell proliferation contributes to regeneration of oral structures in both Nematostella and

  12. Studies on Callus Induction and Regeneration of Medicinal Plant Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. from Leaf and Petiole Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hadizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. belongs to Asteraceae family is commonly known as witloof chicory. The leaves and the roots of this medicinal plant are edible and commonly used as salad. Some varieties are also cultivated as coffee substitute after roasting the roots. All parts of the plant contain these volatile oils, with the majority of the toxic components concentrated in the plant's root. In folk medicine, the plant is used for the treatment of diarrhea, spleen enlargement, fever, and vomiting. Antihepatotoxic activity on damaged rat’s liver sections and anti-bacterial activity of this crop has been recently reported. In vitro regeneration from leaf explants with various hormonal combinations has been reported previously. Moreover, in vitro regeneration of Chicory from cotyledon explants using different combinations of plant growth regulators has been studied. Also, a protocol for the regeneration of plantlets from leaf and petiole explants of witloof chicory has been developed. The aim of the present investigation was optimization of callus induction and shoot regeneration from leaf and petiole tissues of Chicory (Esfahan genotype. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, Esfahan genotype was used for callus induction and direct shoot regeneration. Seeds were first washed with running tap water for 30 min then seeds were surface sterilized by dipping in 70% ethanol for 90 s and rinsed with sterile distilled water, followed by immersing in 5% sodium hypochlorite solution for 25 min and thereafter rinsed for 30 min with sterile distilled water. The basal medium used in this investigation was MS. For shoot regeneration, leaf and petiole explants (5 mm segments were excised from 4-week-old sterile seedlings and cultured on MS medium containing different combinations of NAA / BA and KIN / BA in two separate experiments. Experiments were performed factorial based on completely randomized design. Cultures were incubated at 25

  13. Cell walls as a stage for intercellular communication regulating shoot meristem development

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    Toshiaki eTameshige

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground organs of plants are ultimately derived/generated from the shoot apical meristem (SAM, which is the proliferative tissue located at the apex of the stem. The SAM contains a population of stem cells that provide new cells for organ/tissue formation. The SAM is composed of distinct cell layers and zones with different properties. Primordia of lateral organs develop at the periphery of the SAM. The shoot apex is a dynamic and complex tissue, and as such intercellular communications among cells, layers and zones play significant roles in the coordination of cell proliferation, growth and differentiation to achieve elaborate morphogenesis. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of a number of singling molecules acting in the cell wall space for the intercellular communication, including classic phytohormones and secretory peptides. Moreover, accumulating evidences reveal that cell wall properties and their modifying enzymes modulate hormone actions. In this review, we overview how behaviors of singling molecules and changes of cell wall properties are integrated for the shoot meristem regulation.

  14. Enhanced in vitro multiple shoot induction in elite Pakistani guava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elite guava (Psidium guajava L.) strains of cv. Safeda were explored in vitro for multiple shoot induction. Shoot induction was enhanced up to 83% with 3.5 to 4.25 shoots per single node cutting and shoot tip explants, respectively, using higher levels of benzyl amino purine (BAP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.

  15. Myocardial Polyploidization Creates a Barrier to Heart Regeneration in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rosa, Juan Manuel; Sharpe, Michka; Field, Dorothy; Soonpaa, Mark H; Field, Loren J; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey

    2018-02-26

    Correlative evidence suggests that polyploidization of heart muscle, which occurs naturally in post-natal mammals, creates a barrier to heart regeneration. Here, we move beyond a correlation by demonstrating that experimental polyploidization of zebrafish cardiomyocytes is sufficient to suppress their proliferative potential during regeneration. Initially, we determined that zebrafish myocardium becomes susceptible to polyploidization upon transient cytokinesis inhibition mediated by dominant-negative Ect2. Using a transgenic strategy, we generated adult animals containing mosaic hearts composed of differentially labeled diploid and polyploid-enriched cardiomyocyte populations. Diploid cardiomyocytes outcompeted their polyploid neighbors in producing regenerated heart muscle. Moreover, hearts composed of equivalent proportions of diploid and polyploid cardiomyocytes failed to regenerate altogether, demonstrating that a critical percentage of diploid cardiomyocytes is required to achieve heart regeneration. Our data identify cardiomyocyte polyploidization as a barrier to heart regeneration and suggest that mobilizing rare diploid cardiomyocytes in the human heart will improve its regenerative capacity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid in vitro propagation system through shoot tip cultures of Vitex trifolia L.-an important multipurpose plant of the Pacific traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rafique; Anis, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    A rapid and efficient plant propagation system through shoot tip explants was established in Vitex trifolia L., a medicinally important plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. Multiple shoots were induced directly on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium consisting of different cytokinins, 6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (Kin) and 2-isopentenyl adenine (2-iP), BA at an optimal concentration of 5.0 μM was most effective in inducing multiple shoots where 90 % explants responded with an average shoot number (4.4±0.1) and shoot length (2.0±0.1 cm) after 6 weeks of culture. Inclusion of NAA in the culture medium along with the optimum concentration of BA promoted a higher rate of shoot multiplication and length of the shoot, where 19.2±0.3 well-grown healthy shoots with an average shoot length of 4.4±0.1 cm were obtained on completion of 12 weeks culture period. Ex vitro rooting was achieved best directly in soilrite when basal portion of the shoots were treated with 500 μM indole-3-butyric acid for 15 min which was the most effective in inducing roots, as 95 % of the microshoots produced roots. Plantlets went through a hardening phase in a controlled plant growth chamber, prior to ex-vitro transfer. Micropropagated plants grew well, attained maturity and flowered with 92 % survival rate. The results of this study provide the first report on in vitro plant regeneration of Vitex trifolia L. using shoot tip explants.

  17. Autologous proliferative therapies in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetschke, Elisa; Rudolf, Margit; Lohmann, Christoph H; Stärke, Christian

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the clinical effects of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) injections and low-level laser application as therapy options for chronic lateral epicondylitis. A total of 52 patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were evaluated in this study; 26 of these patients received three ACP injections and the control group, with 26 patients, received 12 laser applications, with standardized physical therapy for all patients afterward. Control examinations took place before treatment, after 2 and 6 mos, and in the 1 yr final follow-up. The control examination included the visual analog scale for pain and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand outcome measure scores. The analysis at final follow-up after 1 yr showed that both treatment options resulted in successful therapy outcome for the patients. In total, 63.5 % were successfully treated. Successful treatment was defined as more than 30% improvement in the visual analog score and more than 10.2 points in the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score. Both groups showed a significant improvement in time response. This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of autologous proliferative therapies in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. The data show that laser application and ACP therapy lead to a clinical improvement in epicondylopathia. Especially the new treatment with ACP can be highlighted as an alternative and as an easy-to-apply therapy option for clinical practice.

  18. Leptin: A proliferative factor for breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldefie-Chezet, F.; Damez, M.; Latour, M. de; Konska, G.; Mishellani, F.; Fusillier, C.; Guerry, M.; Penault-Llorca, F.; Guillot, J.; Vasson, M.-P.

    2005-01-01

    Mammary adipose tissue is an important source of paracrine mitogens and anti-mitogens, including insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factors, and cytokines (especially, TNFα and IL-1β). Nevertheless, it is also an important source of the adipocytokine, leptin. Recently, leptin was reported to stimulate the proliferation of various cell types (pancreatic β cells, prostate, colorectal, lung, etc.) as a new growth factor. It was also shown to stimulate the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of leptin expression in normal tissue and benign and malignant ductal breast cell, representing the different states of the invasion process. We determined for the first time that leptin is expressed both by ductal breast tumors and by benign lesions as atypical hyperplasia. This suggests that leptin may be taken up or synthesized by all modified ductal breast cells, and may prove a proliferative factor. Moreover, leptin is unexpressed by normal tissue in the healthy breast but is exhibited by the normal tissue in near vicinity of the malignant ductal breast lesions. We also postulated that leptin may be a prognostic or diagnostic factor for ductal breast cancer. These putative hypotheses require further study

  19. Lack of a differential radiation response for proliferative and non-proliferative rat thyroid cells (FRTL-5) in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosing, J.W.; Giese, W.L.; Mulcahy, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    FRTL-5 rat thyroid epithelial cells maintain normal thyroid function and morphology in vitro, exhibit an absolute requirement for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) for proliferation and display radiation dose response characteristics indistinguishable from those of rat thyroid epithelial cells in vivo. In TSH-free medium cells remain in a non-proliferative, yet viable, state for prolonged periods of time and respond to TSH re-stimulation by a return to exponential growth. Flow cytometric analysis using two-step acridine orange (AO) staining revealed an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle accompanied by a pronounced reduction in red fluorescence (indicative of RNA content) in FRTL-5 cells cultured in the absence of TSH. The response of proliferative and non-proliferative FRTL-5 cells to single dose, split dose and fractionated radiation was compared to determine whether proliferative status was an important response determinant. The response of FRTL-5 cells was not influenced by proliferative status at the time of irradiation. Additionally, dose response was not altered by variable (12 hr-8 days) non-proliferative intervals before or after irradiation. As revealed by split dose experiments, the rate and extent of sublethal damage repair was likewise similar for proliferative and non-proliferative cells. Multifraction experiments employing three fractions separated by 6 hr intervals indicate that non-proliferative FRTL-5 cells completely repair sublethal damage between fractions. These results indicate that the radiation response of FRTL-5 cells is not influenced by the proliferative status of the cells prior to or post-irradiation

  20. RAPD analysis of mutants obtained by ion beam irradiation to hinoki cypress shoot primordia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Yamada, Y.; Hase, Y.; Shikazono, N.; Tanaka, A.

    2003-01-01

    Mutants were induced by irradiation of the shoot primordia of Hinoki cypress with 50 MeV 4 He 2+ heavy ion beam. Fresh shoot primordia on the CD medium in the plastic Petri dish (35 x 10 mm) were irradiated. Xanta mutants were induced from 38 to 266 Gy irradiation. Waxy mutants were induced from 76 to 266 Gy irradiation. Xanta, waxy and control type of regenerated Hinoki cypress in vitro were checked for their DNA level difference using RAPD analysis. Among 81 primers used, 23 primers produced the 68 bands. Among them stable 44 bands produced by 15 primers were compared between mutants and control plant. So far, there is no variation among the RAPD analysis band patterns of those mutants. Bigger test size may detect the gene variation specific for mutants

  1. Proliferative and inflammatory factors in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Chernykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to measure the concentrations of various cytokines and growth factors (including vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and pigment epithelium-derived factor [PEDF] in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and to investigate interaction between inflammatory and proliferative factors in the genesis of PDR. Materials and Methods : Vitreous samples from 32 eyes with PDR and 25 eyes without diabetes mellitus and signs of DR (control were collected. Vitreous concentrations of VEGF, PEDF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA were simultaneously measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results : Vitreous levels of VEGF, PEDF, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, and sIgA were significantly (Π < 0.05 higher in eyes with PDR compared to control. The concentration of VEGF was more than 17-times higher than in control, and the concentration of PEDF was not changed oppositely and was also higher (1.45-times compared to control, that may indicate disturbances of compensatory mechanisms in angiogenesis regulation in PDR. Significant (Π < 0.05 positive correlations were observed between vitreous concentrations of VEGF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.45, VEGF and IL-8 (r = 0.48, VEGF and IL-4 (r = 0.51, PEDF and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.48, PEDF and IL-8 (r = 0.59, MCP-1 and PEDF (r = 0.72, MCP-1 and IL-8 (r0 = 0.45, IL-4 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.65, IL-4 and IL-8 (r = 0.71, IL-8 and IL-17ΐ (r = 0.59. Conclusions: Significantly raised levels of inflammatory and proliferative factors and numerous positive correlations between them may demonstrate a significant role of activation of vascular proliferation and local inflammation in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  2. Which stem parts of Slender speedwell (Veronica filiformis) are the most successful in plant regeneration?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2012), s. 110-115 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : clonal * invasive species * regeneration * shoot * stem * terminal * vegetative reproduciton Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  3. Improved efficiency of plant regeneration from protoplasts of eggplant Solanum melongena L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Izhar, S

    1984-12-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) mesophyll protoplasts were obtained from in vitro growing plants of line 410 and cv. 'Classic'. Relatively high (15%) plating efficiency was achieved using petri dishes with alternate quadrants containing reservoir medium (R medium + 1% activated charcoal) and culture medium. Shoot regeneration occurred within 6 weeks following initiation of protoplast culture.

  4. An Efficient In Vitro Regeneration System for Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved and efficient regeneration protocol was established for Hedychium via somatic embryogenesis. The plant material used consisted of 11 species and 9 cultivars of Hedychium. The explants consisted of young leaves taken from lateral or terminal shoots of mature greenhouse grown plants. These...

  5. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  6. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Sakes

    Full Text Available In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill.We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting.Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10-9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi, or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals, or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to -197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi. The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1 in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum by compression of the spore and droplets and (2 in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5,413,000g in

  7. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Intravitreal methotrexate infusion for proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaka A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ama Sadaka,1 Robert A Sisk,1–3 James M Osher,1,3 Okan Toygar,4 Melinda K Duncan,5 Christopher D Riemann1,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 2Department of Opthalmology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Bahcesehir University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal methotrexate infusion (IMI during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV for retinal detachment in patients with high risk for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR.Methods: Patients presenting with severe recurrent PVR with tractional retinal detachment and/or a history of severe ocular inflammation were treated with IMI. Clinical outcomes were determined from a retrospective medical chart review.Results: Twenty-nine eyes presenting with either tractional retinal detachment and recurrent PVR (n=22 or a history of severe inflammation associated with high PVR risk (n=7 received IMI during PPV. Best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months was ≥20/200 in 19 of 29 eyes (66% and remained stable or improved compared with initial presentation in 24 of 29 eyes (83%. At the last follow-up examination, the retinas of 26 of 29 eyes (90% remained attached after IMI while three eyes required another reattachment procedure. Three additional eyes (10% developed recurrent limited PVR without recurrent RD and were observed. No complications attributable to IMI occurred during a mean follow-up of 27 months.Conclusion: Eyes at high risk for PVR development due to a history of prior PVR or intraocular inflammation had a low incidence of PVR following IMI at the time of PPV for RD repair. No significant safety issues from IMI were observed in this series. Keywords: tractional retinal detachment, recurrent retinal detachment, pars

  9. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker-Blom, P.; Kellomaki, S.; Smolander, H.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  10. Proliferative and non-proliferative lesions of the rat and mouse integument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenburg, Lars; Kusewitt, Donna; Kolly, Carine; Treumann, Silke; Adams, E Terence; Diegel, Kelly; Yamate, Jyoji; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Müller, Susanne; Danilenko, Dimitry; Bradley, Alys

    2013-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the societies of toxicological pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP). Its aim is to develop an internationally-accepted nomenclature for proliferative and non-proliferative lesions in laboratory rodents. A widely accepted international harmonization of nomenclature in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and will provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopical lesions observed in the integument of laboratory rats and mice. Example colour images are provided for most lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document and additional colour images are also available electronically at http://www.goreni.org. The nomenclature presented herein is based on histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world, and covers lesions that develop spontaneously as well as those induced by exposure to various test materials. (DOI: 10.1293/tox.26.27S; J Toxicol Pathol 2013; 26: 27S-57S).

  11. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Towers

    Full Text Available Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts.Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed. We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event.We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015. We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001. All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  12. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  13. Optimization of in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with heat-resistant cDNA in Brassica oleracea subsp. italica cv. Green Marvel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanfar, Seyed Ali; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Abdullah, Janna Ong

    2015-11-01

    An efficient system for shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Brassica oleracea cv. Green Marvel cultivar is described. This study focuses on developing shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of broccoli cv. Green Marvel using thidiazuron (TDZ), zeatin, and kinetin, the optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the hypocotyl explants with heat-resistant cDNA, followed by the confirmation of transgenicity of the regenerants. High shoot regeneration was observed in 0.05-0.1 mg dm(-3) TDZ. TDZ at 0.1 mg dm(-3) produced among the highest percentage of shoot regeneration (96.67 %) and mean number of shoot formation (6.17). The highest percentage (13.33 %) and mean number (0.17) of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants subjected to preculture on shoot regeneration medium (SRM) with 200 µM acetosyringone. On optimization of bacterial density and inoculation time, the highest percentage and mean number of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants inoculated with a bacterial dilution of 1:5 for 30 min. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated a transformation efficiency of 8.33 %. The luciferase assay showed stable integration of the Arabidopsis thaliana HSP101 (AtHSP101) cDNA in the transgenic broccoli regenerants. Three out of five transgenic lines confirmed through PCR showed positive hybridization bands of the AtHSP101 cDNA through Southern blot analysis. The presence of AtHSP101 transcripts in the three transgenic broccoli lines indicated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the expression of the gene. In conclusion, an improved regeneration system has been established from hypocotyl explants of broccoli followed by successful transformation with AtHSP101 for resistance to high temperature.

  14. Youth Responses to School Shootings: A Reviw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Áine

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories...... of recovery? RECENT FINDINGS:Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced...

  15. Bilateral proliferative retinopathy in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Kumawat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old child with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with vitreous hemorrhage due to proliferative retinopathy in both eyes. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed in both eyes to clear nonresolving vitreous hemorrhage after systemic stabilization. Visual recovery was limited by the disc drag in the right eye and subfoveal exudation in the left eye. Etiopathogenesis and management of proliferative retinopathy in acute leukemias are discussed.

  16. In vitro plant regeneration of Albizia lebbeck (L. from seed explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perveen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: An efficient and reproducible regeneration protocol for rapid multiplication of Albizia lebbeck (L. was developed by using intact seed explants.Methods: Murashige and Skoog's (MS medium supplemented with different hormones (BA, Kn, GA3 and TDZ was used for the induction of multiple shoots from the seed explants. Ex-vitro rooting was performed by using pulse treatment method in auxins (IBA and NAA and the complete plantlets were transferred to the field.Results: High frequency direct shoot induction was found in aseptic seed cultures of A. lebbeck on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 5.0 µM TDZ (Thiadiazuron. Seeds were germinated after 7 days of culture and induced maximum 8 shoots from the region adjacent to the apex of the primary shoot of the seedling upto 25 days of incubation. Proliferating shoot cultures with increased shoot length was established by sub-culture of excised sprouting epicotyls on MS medium supplied with reduced concentrations of TDZ. Maximum shoot regeneration frequency (76 % with  highest number of shoots (21 and shoot length (5.1 cm per sprouting epicotyl was observed in the MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM TDZ after 8 weeks of culture. Different concentrations of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were tested to determine the optimal conditions for ex-vitro rooting of the microshoots. The best treatment for maximum ex-vitro root induction frequency (81 % was accomplished with IBA (250 µM pulse treatment given to the basal end of the microshoots for 30 min followed by their transfer in plastic cups containing soilrite and eventually established in normal garden soil + soilrite (1:1 with 78 % survival rate. In addition, histological study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the regenerated shoots from the epicotyl region.Conclusion: The findings will be fruitful in getting a time saving and cost effective protocol for the in vitro propagation of Albizia

  17. Visual selection and maintenance of the cell lines with high plant regeneration ability and low ploidy level in Dianthus acicularis by monitoring with flow cytometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Tomonori; Mii, Masahiro

    2005-12-01

    Efficient plant regeneration system from cell suspension cultures was established in D. acicularis (2n=90) by monitoring ploidy level and visual selection of the cultures. The ploidy level of the cell cultures closely related to the shoot regeneration ability. The cell lines comprising original ploidy levels (2C+4C cells corresponding to DNA contents of G1 and G2 cells of diploid plant, respectively) showed high regeneration ability, whereas those containing the cells with 8C or higher DNA C-values showed low or no regeneration ability. The highly regenerable cell lines thus selected consisted of compact cell clumps with yellowish color and relatively moderate growth, suggesting that it is possible to select visually the highly regenerable cell lines with the original ploidy level. All the regenerated plantlets from the highly regenerable cell cultures exhibited normal phenotypes and no variations in ploidy level were observed by flow cytometry (FCM) analysis.

  18. On marginal regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    On applying the marginal regeneration concept to the drainage of free liquid films, problems are encountered: the films do not show a "neck" of minimum thickness at the film/border transition; and the causes of the direction dependence of the marginal regeneration are unclear. Both problems can be

  19. Benign Proliferative Breast Lesions and Risk of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Benign breast lesions (BBL includes a wide variety of histologic entities, which have been broadly classified into non-proliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia, and hyperplasia with atypia. With the increased use of mammography, more benign lesions are being detected, and in order to estimate the risk of breast cancer for specific histologic categories is of great importance to guide clinical management. Women with proliferative lesions without atypia are at slightly increased risk of subsequent breast cancer, whereas women with proliferative lesions with atypia have a higher risk. The risk is 1.5- 2-fold in women with proliferative lesions without atypia, 4-5-fold in women with proliferative lesions with atypia, and 8-10 fold in women with ductal carcinoma in situ. Age at diagnosis of BBL, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative, and time since BBL diagnosis on risk of breast cancer are important for risk evaluation. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(3.000: 155-167

  20. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF LOURO-PARDO (Cordia trichotoma (Vellozo Arrabida ex Steudel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Mantovani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out aiming at evaluating the in vitro regeneration of louro-pardo (Cordia trichotoma (Vellozo Arrabida ex Steudel. Nodal segments were desinfested and innoculated in two basal media: WPM (Wood Plant Médium, 1981 and MS (Murashige & Skoog, 1962 supplemented with BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine, TDZ (Thidiazuron, NAA (Naphthaleneacetic Acid, GA3 (Gibberellic Acid, IBA (Indole-3-Butyric Acid and  A.C. (Activated Charcoal in different combinations and concentrations for each developmental step. The regeneration rate and the shoot elongation were higher in the WPM medium containing 0,1 mg.l-1 of BAP and GA3. The rooting of regenerated shoots was observed in IBA (0,5 mg.l-1 and Ativated Charcoal (1,5 g.l-1.

  1. 1. modification of the proliferative capacity of transplanted bone marrow colony forming units by changes in the host environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beran, M.; Tribukait, B.

    1974-01-01

    Regulation of the proliferation of transplanted colony forming units (CFUs) was investigated in lethally irradiated mice, pretreated by methods known to accelerate hemopoietic recovery after sublethal irradiation. Prospective recipients were exposed to either hypoxia, vinblastine or priming irradiation and at different intervals thereafter lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow. Repopulation of CFUs was determined by counting the number of splenic colonies in primary recipients or by retransplantation. Regeneration of grafted CFUs was greatly accelerated and their self-renewal capacity increased in mice grafted within 2 days after hypoxia. Also the number of splenic colonies formed by grafted syngeneic CFUs as well as by C57B1 parent CFUs growing in BC3F1 hosts was significantly increased. The effect was not dependent on the seeding efficiency of CFUs and apparently resulted from hypoxia induced changes in the hosts' physiological environment. Proliferative capacity of grafted CFUs increased remarkably in hosts receiving vinblastine 2 or 4 days prior to irradiation. Priming irradiation given 6 days before main irradiation accelerated, given 2 days before impaired regeneration of CFUs. The increased rate of regeneration was not related to the cellularity of hemopoietic organs at the time of transplantation. The growth of CFUs in diffusion chambers implanted into posthypoxic mice was only slightly improved which does indicate that the accelerated regeneration of CFUs in posthypoxic mice is mainly due to the changes in the hemopoietic microenvironment. A short conditioning of transplanted CFUs by host factor(s) was sufficient to improve regeneration. The results might suggest that the speed of hemopoietic regeneration depends on the number of CFUs being induced to proliferate shortly after irradiation, rather than on the absolute numbers of CFUs available to the organism. (author)

  2. Proliferative activity of elastin-like-peptides depends on charge and phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Koria, Piyush

    2016-03-01

    Elastin-like-peptides (ELPs) are stimulus-responsive protein-based polymers and are attractive biomaterials due to their biocompatibility and unique properties. This study shows that in addition to their physical properties, ELPs have biological activities that are conducive to tissue regeneration. Specifically, we found that ELPs induce fibroblast proliferation via cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Furthermore, our data suggests that ELP based materials with differential proliferative potential can be designed by controlling the interaction of ELPs with HSPGs by incorporating either hydrophobic or positively charged residues within the ELP sequence. Fibroblast proliferation is important for granulation tissue formation which is important in chronic wounds as well as in healing of other tissues. The customizable biological activity of ELPs coupled with their unique physical properties will enable us to design novel, sustainable and cost effective therapies for different tissue regeneration applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 697-706, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Understanding Liver Regeneration: From Mechanisms to Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Collin de l'Hortet, Alexandra

    2018-04-16

    Liver regeneration is a complex and unique process. When two-thirds of a mouse liver is removed, the remaining liver recovers its initial weight in approximately 10 days. The understanding of the mechanisms responsible for liver regeneration may help patients needing large liver resections or transplantation and may be applied to the field of regenerative medicine. All differentiated hepatocytes are capable of self-renewal, but different subpopulations of hepatocytes seem to have distinct proliferative abilities. In the setting of chronic liver diseases, a ductular reaction ensues in which liver progenitor cells (LPCs) proliferate in the periportal region. Although these LPCs have the capacity to differentiate into hepatocytes and biliary cells in vitro, their ability to participate in liver regeneration is far from clear. Their expansion has even been associated with increased fibrosis and poorer prognosis in chronic liver diseases. Controversies also remain on their origin: lineage studies in experimental mouse models of chronic injury have recently suggested that these LPCs originate from hepatocyte dedifferentiation, whereas in other situations, they seem to come from cholangiocytes. This review summarizes data published in the past 5 years in the liver regeneration field, discusses the mechanisms leading to regeneration disruption in chronic liver disorders, and addresses the potential use of novel approaches for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum Proteases Potentiate BMP-Induced Cell Cycle Re-entry of Dedifferentiating Muscle Cells during Newt Limb Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ines; Wang, Heng; Weissert, Philipp M.; Straube, Werner L.; Shevchenko, Anna; Gentzel, Marc; Brito, Goncalo; Tazaki, Akira; Oliveira, Catarina; Sugiura, Takuji; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simon, Andras; Drechsel, David N.; Tanaka, Elly M.

    2017-01-01

    Limb amputation in the newt induces myofibers to dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle to generate proliferative myogenic precursors in the regeneration blastema. Here we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and mature BMPs that have been further cleaved by serum proteases induce cell

  5. Lead Pollution of Shooting Range Soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    range. Most of the shooting range soils contained high levels of Pb in the range above 2000 mg kg–1 far exceeding the United States ... N. Sehube, R. Kelebemang, O. Totolo, M. Laetsang, O. Kamwi and P. Dinake,. 21 ..... Eng. Sci., 1999, 16,.

  6. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  7. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  8. Vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy versus proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Kabatas, Emrah Utku; Batman, Cosar; Akin, Kadir Okhan; Kabatas, Naciye

    2012-01-01

    To assess vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in comparison to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Vitreous samples were collected from 69 eyes of 69 patients with traumatic lens dislocation (n = 10), grade B PVR with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 13), grade C PVR with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 14), PDR with vitreous hemorrhage (n = 18), and PDR with vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment (n = 14). Vitreous fluid samples were obtained at vitrectomy, and the levels of VEGF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean vitreous level of VEGF was 15.14 ± 5.22 pg/ml in eyes with grade B PVR, 99.15 ± 38.58 pg/ml in eyes with grade C PVR, 4,534.01 ± 1,193.28 pg/ml in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage secondary to PDR, 5,157.29 ± 969.44 pg/ml in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment secondary to PDR, and 16.19 ± 5.76 pg/ml in eyes of the control group with traumatic lens dislocation. Vitreous VEGF concentrations were significantly higher in the patients with grade C PVR, PDR with vitreous hemorrhage and PDR with vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment in comparison to the control patients (p < 0.05). A significant alteration was not observed in patients with grade B PVR (p = 0.55). Vitreous VEGF concentrations are increased in PDR and grade C PVR. The high VEGF concentrations could suggest a possible effect of VEGF on advanced PVR. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.

  10. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  11. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.

  12. Establishment of the regeneration system for Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahgat, Shimaa; Shabban, Omer A; El-Shihy, Osama; Lightfoot, David A; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2009-01-01

    A reliable regeneration system for faba bean has been difficult to establish and therefore, the genetic improvement of Vicia faba L. was delayed. The paper describes a method of somatic embryo induction in callus of V. faba. Two Egyptian faba bean cultivars 'Giza 2' and '24 Hyto' were used. Callus was induced from epicotyls and shoot tips cultured on MS or Gamborg medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.025% (w/v) for each of ascorbic and citric acid, 0.8% agar and different concentrations of 10 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l of each NAA and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (M1) and 1 mg/l BAP and 0.5 mg/l NAA (M2) . The media with BAP, NAA and 2,4-D were optimal for embryogenic callus induction. Somatic embryos developed after transfer of the callus to 1/2 B5 medium with no plant growth regulators. There were various stages of somatic embryo development present including globular, heart-shaped, torpedo, and cotyledonary stages. Embryos developed into plantlets and plants were regenerated. RAPD analyses were performed to investigate the genetic stability of the regenerated plants obtained from different treatments and different explants. The cultivar Giza 2 exhibited more genetic stability than cultivar 24 Hyto. In conclusion, a regeneration system was established suitable for both gene transformation and the isolation of somaclonal mutants. The regeneration system will be used in order to improve the nutritional value of faba bean.

  13. Proliferative changes in nonpalpable breast lesions detected by mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, A.; Delgado, A.; Ortega, E.; Garijo, F.; Mosquera, J.; Sogo, C.; Alvarez, A.

    2000-01-01

    To analyze retrospectively the radiological findings in nonpalpable breast lesions detected by mammography that lead to the performance of surgical biopsy, resulting in a histological diagnosis of proliferative breast disease with and without atypia. From two Spanish hospitals, 421 women with 429 biopsies indicative of the presence of proliferative breast disease with and without atypia were selected out of a total of 1252 surgical biopsies in nonpalpable lesions that proved to be benign. Age, personal and familial history of breast cancer, reason for requesting the mammography and radiological findings that had indicated the need for surgical biopsy were recorded for each patient. The diagnosis was proliferative breast disease (epithelial hyperplasia) in 347 women with 354 biopsies and atypical hyperplasia in the remaining 74 women with 75 biopsies, representing 28% and 6%, respectively, of the 1252 biopsies of lesions found to be benign. In 221 of the 354 cases of epithelial hyperplasia (62%) and 45 of the 75 cases of atypical hyperplasia (60%), the presence of calcifications was the most common radiological findings leading to biopsy (p<0.05). Parenchymal distortion, with or without calcifications, was the second most common radiological sign. The histological study revealed a close relationship between these proliferative events and radial scars. Calcifications are the radiological finding that most frequently indicate the need for surgical biopsy in nonpalpable lesions that results in a diagnosis of proliferative breast disease with and without atypia. (Author) 12 refs

  14. Lifespan extension by preserving proliferative homeostasis in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Biteau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative processes are critical to maintain tissue homeostasis in high-turnover tissues. At the same time, proliferation of stem and progenitor cells has to be carefully controlled to prevent hyper-proliferative diseases. Mechanisms that ensure this balance, thus promoting proliferative homeostasis, are expected to be critical for longevity in metazoans. The intestinal epithelium of Drosophila provides an accessible model in which to test this prediction. In aging flies, the intestinal epithelium degenerates due to over-proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs and mis-differentiation of ISC daughter cells, resulting in intestinal dysplasia. Here we show that conditions that impair tissue renewal lead to lifespan shortening, whereas genetic manipulations that improve proliferative homeostasis extend lifespan. These include reduced Insulin/IGF or Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK signaling activities, as well as over-expression of stress-protective genes in somatic stem cell lineages. Interestingly, proliferative activity in aging intestinal epithelia correlates with longevity over a range of genotypes, with maximal lifespan when intestinal proliferation is reduced but not completely inhibited. Our results highlight the importance of the balance between regenerative processes and strategies to prevent hyperproliferative disorders and demonstrate that promoting proliferative homeostasis in aging metazoans is a viable strategy to extend lifespan.

  15. Root~Shoot Growth Interactions of Sorghmn (Sorghwn Bicolor L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth. Studies on root-shoot intera'ctions in relation to mechanical impedance have only investigated the effect on shoots of ... growth regulators that may be responsible. Studies of root-shoot ... of germinating seeds to MI leaving roots in rela-.

  16. Sound propagation from a semi-open shooting range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den

    2011-01-01

    Semi-open shooting ranges, in contrast to a fully open shooting range, are often used in the densely populated area of the Netherlands. The Ministry of Defense operates a number of these ranges. In these shooting ranges above the line of fire a number of screens are situated for safety precautions

  17. Lead pollution of shooting range soils | Sehube | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atotal of eight military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the eight shooting ranges at the berm, target line, 50 and 100 m from berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest total lead (Pb) concentrations were found in the bermsoils. Elevated Pb concentrations of 38 ...

  18. Effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on controlling shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars 'Allgold', ...

  19. Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...

  20. Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of Jackfruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jemal

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of ... shoot length and leaf number, whereby 2 mg/L BAP alone was found to be the best with a mean shoot .... Analysis of variance showed that the interaction between.

  1. In vitro plant regeneration from leaf explants of Solanum pimpinellifolium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Valderrama-Alfaro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a species of agricultural importance. Besides, it is a source of vitamins, minerals and antioxidant compounds. Therefore it is essential to obtain varieties resistant to diseases. Solanum pimpinellifolium L. ‘Tomatillo wild’, one of the wild relatives of tomato, is considered multipurpose reservoir of genes. This characteristic must be exploited. In vitro plantlets from leaves of ‘wild tomatillo’ were regenerated with this objective. A system for in vitro germination of seeds obtained from ex vitro sources was created. The use of seed allowed obtaining adequate seedlings in a short time to start regeneration. Thein vitro response of explants was evaluated in four treatments. The Murashige and Skoog (MS basal culture medium supplemented with a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP was used in different combinations. The higher percentage (30% of shoot induction was achieved with 0.1 mg l1 NAA / 1 mg l1 BAP. The presence of callus and roots was observed after seven days of culture in the combination treatment with 1 mg l1 NAA / 0.1 mg l1 BAP. Callus showed 1 or 2 adventitious shoots per explant after 30 days of culture and 3 to 6 shoots after seventy days. Furthermore, the presence of fully formed adventitious plantlets (shoot and root was observed after the fifth week of culture. Therefore, the best combination for in vitro regeneration is NAA 0.1 mg l1 / 1 mg l1 BAP. Keywords: auxin, cytokinins, indirect organogenesis

  2. Interactions of phytochromes A, B1 and B2 in light-induced competence for adventitious shoot formation in hypocotyl of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercari, B; Bertram, L

    2004-02-01

    The interactions of phytochrome A (phyA), phytochrome B1 (phyB1) and phytochrome B2 (phyB2) in light-dependent shoot regeneration from the hypocotyl of tomato was analysed using all eight possible homozygous allelic combinations of the null mutants. The donor plants were pre-grown either in the dark or under red or far-red light for 8 days after sowing; thereafter hypocotyl segments (apical, middle and basal portions) were transferred onto hormone-free medium for culture under different light qualities. Etiolated apical segments cultured in vitro under white light showed a very high frequency of regeneration for all of the genotypes tested besides phyB1phyB2, phyAphyB1 and phyAphyB1phyB2 mutants. Evidence is provided of a specific interference of phyB2 with phyA-mediated HIR to far-red and blue light in etiolated explants. Pre-treatment of donor plants by growth under red light enhanced the competence of phyB1phyB2, phyAphyB1 and phyAphyB1phyB2 mutants for shoot regeneration, whereas pre-irradiation with far-red light enhanced the frequency of regeneration only in the phyAphyB1 mutant. Multiple phytochromes are involved in red light- and far-red light-dependent acquisition of competence for shoot regeneration. The position of the segments along the hypocotyl influenced the role of the various phytochromes and the interactions between them. The culture of competent hypocotyl segments under red, far-red or blue light reduced the frequency of explants forming shoots compared to those cultured under white light, with different genotypes having different response patterns.

  3. Rosette growth of shoots in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) as a result of in vitro propagation of plants and gamma irradiation used for mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerzy, M.; Zalewska, M.; Lema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Rosette growth of chrysanthemum shoots in 'Mrs. R.C. Puling' was observed after in vitro propagation with explants obtained from vernalised and non-vernalised stock plants. The phenomenon was also observed as a result of the exposure of leaf explants to gamma radiation used for in vitro regeneration of plants in mutation induction. The higher the irradiation dose, the more considerable the rosette growth. Following the 4th pinching of shoot tips, only elongating growth of plants was observed

  4. Helping the Retina Regenerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the retina News Brief 03/30/17 A new report gives recommendations for regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), crucial neurons in the back of the eye that carry visual information to the brain. Authored ...

  5. Neuregulin-1 signaling is essential for nerve-dependent axolotl limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Johanna E; Freitas, Polina D; Bryant, Donald M; Whited, Jessica L; Monaghan, James R

    2016-08-01

    The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is capable of fully regenerating amputated limbs, but denervation of the limb inhibits the formation of the post-injury proliferative mass called the blastema. The molecular basis behind this phenomenon remains poorly understood, but previous studies have suggested that nerves support regeneration via the secretion of essential growth-promoting factors. An essential nerve-derived factor must be found in the blastema, capable of rescuing regeneration in denervated limbs, and its inhibition must prevent regeneration. Here, we show that the neuronally secreted protein Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) fulfills all these criteria in the axolotl. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization of NRG1 and its active receptor ErbB2 revealed that they are expressed in regenerating blastemas but lost upon denervation. NRG1 was localized to the wound epithelium prior to blastema formation and was later strongly expressed in proliferating blastemal cells. Supplementation by implantation of NRG1-soaked beads rescued regeneration to digits in denervated limbs, and pharmacological inhibition of NRG1 signaling reduced cell proliferation, blocked blastema formation and induced aberrant collagen deposition in fully innervated limbs. Taken together, our results show that nerve-dependent NRG1/ErbB2 signaling promotes blastemal proliferation in the regenerating limb and may play an essential role in blastema formation, thus providing insight into the longstanding question of why nerves are required for axolotl limb regeneration. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. In Vitro Regeneration of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L. Beauv. cv. Buru Hotong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In vitro regeneration of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L. Beauv. was done using basal shoot explants of 10-day old seedlings. Explants were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 1.5 ppm NiSO4. Shoot multiplication and root induction were done in Murashige and Skoog (MS basal media. Plantlets were then acclimatized in rice husk charcoal, cocopeat, or mixed media. Results showed that MS basal medium containing 0.5 ppm kinetin, 2 ppm BAP, and 0.1 ppm 2,4-D was the optimal medium for shoot induction, in which 60% of explants developed direct shoot organogenesis. In addition, callus was optimally formed in MS medium supplemented by 1 ppm kinetin, 1 ppm BAP, and 0.5 ppm 2,4-D. Regenerated shoots spontaneously developed roots after being transferred into MS basal media without growth regulator. During acclimatization, the highest survival rate of plantlets (47% was obtained in rice husk charcoal. The developed method could be useful towards improvement of this species using in vitro tissue culture techniques.

  7. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  8. Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms.  The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics.  This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...

  9. Propagation of pineapple by shoot tip culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almobasher, H. A. A.; Osman, M. G.; Said, A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of modifying the composition of MS medium for the clonal propagation of pineapple using shoot tips of Smooth Cayenne cultivar. Modification were made on various medium components. Results showed that both MS salts at the full or half strength were optimal, and there was on significant difference between them. Sucrose concentrations of 3% and 6% were better than other concentrations tested for growth and development of plant lets. The cultures responded positively to the increase of adenine sulfate and 80 mg/1 was the optimal. As for the additions of NAA and BA , alone or in combinations, the best results were recorded with the combination of NAA at 0.01 mg/1, and BA at 3.0 mg/1 where the largest number of shoots was obtained. Better explants performance was achieved on liquid medium with cotton support compared to solid medium. (Author)

  10. Direct regeneration and efficient in vitro root development studies in lentil (lens culinaris medik)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, T.; Majeed, N.; Naqvi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Lentil is a self-pollinating annual crop with increasing demand all over the world due to its high protein content and easy digestibility. However, like many other crops lentil too needs improvement for which conventional as well as biotechnological tools are to be employed. This study was aimed at development of tissue culture protocol especially targeting improved root development to ensure their establishment in soil in order to use their potential towards genetic manipulation. Two Pakistani lentil cultivars, Masoor-2002 and Manshera-89 were used to obtain cotyledonary nodes, epicotyl and hypocotyl explants. The explants were cultured on shoot regeneration medium containing different concentration of kinetin, BAP and tyrosine with the addition of GA3, with or without charcoal for shoot development. Masoor-2002, showed the highest frequency of shoot development on MS medium containing 5.5 mg/L tyrosine, 0.25 mg/L kinetin, 1.0 mg/L BAP, 0.1 mg/L GA3, using cotyledonary node as explant. The addition of 2 g/L of charcoal in shoot medium resulted in healthier plants, but the number of shoots were reduced. Regarding the effect of age of explants on regeneration frequency, cotyledonary nodes of age 4-6 days had higher regeneration potential. Well-developed shoots were shifted to rooting medium containing different concentration of auxin with or without charcoal. Healthier and more roots were observed on medium containing 4 mg/L IAA with addition of 2 g/L charcoal. Plants were better established (70% survival) in a soil mix containing perlite, vermiculite and peat moss in 1:1:1 ratio. (author)

  11. Date of shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position affect early rooting of dormant hardwood cuttings of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese

    2006-01-01

    Identifying superior combinations among date of dormant- season shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position can increase the rooting potential of Populus cuttings. Thus, the objectives of our study were to: 1) evaluate variation among clones in early rooting from hardwood cuttings processed every three weeks from shoots collected...

  12. Dilong: Role in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ming Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilong, also known as earthworm, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for thousands of years. Schwann cell migration and proliferation are critical for the regeneration of injured nerves and Schwann cells provide an essentially supportive role for neuron regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms of migration and proliferation induced by dilongs in Schwann cells remain unclear. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that includes (i migration signaling, MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases, mediated PAs and MMP2/9 pathway; (ii survival and proliferative signaling, IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I-mediated PI3K/Akt pathways and (iii cell cycle regulation. Dilong stimulate RSC96 cell proliferation and migration. It can induce phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, but not JNK, and activate the downstream signaling expression of PAs (plasminogen activators and MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases in a time-dependent manner. In addition, Dilong stimulated ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by pretreatment with chemical inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580, and small interfering ERK1/2 and p38 RNA, resulting in migration and uPA-related signal pathway inhibition. Dilong also induces the phosphorylation of IGF-I-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway, activates protein expression of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A in a time-dependent manner. In addition, it accelerates G1-phase progression with earlier S-phase entry and significant numbers of cells entered the S-phase. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of PI3K that significantly reduces PI3K protein expression levels, resulting in Bcl2 survival factor reduction, revealing a marked blockage of G1 to S transition in proliferating cells. These results reveal the unknown RSC96 cell migration and proliferation mechanism induced by dilong, which find use as a new medicine for nerve regeneration.

  13. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent dat...

  14. Chlordecone Transfer and Distribution in Maize Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François

    2016-01-20

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock.

  15. Structuring agreements for seismic group shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Sigma Explorations Inc. sells licenses to use Sigma owned seismic data. The company participates with exploration and production companies in the joint acquisition of semi-private participation surveys. This paper discusses three major types of seismic group shoots and the essential elements of the agreements that govern or should govern them. They are: (1) exploration and production company joint ventures, (2) publicly offered spec shoots, and (3) semi-private participation surveys. The key issue with the exploration and production company joint ventures is that the companies are owners of the seismic data in proportion to their contribution towards the cost of the program. Their use of the data should be restricted to those situations permitted by the other owners. These are not often well documented, and there is much concern in the industry as a result. The key issue with publicly offered spec shoots is that the seismic company ultimately owns the data and the client exploration and production company is a licensee and must behave as such. In most such cases the rights and responsibilities are well documented in formal agreements that are signed in advance of the program's beginning date

  16. Plant regeneration of Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz. and its chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Zhao; Gao, Min; Guo, Bin

    2008-01-01

    An efficient micropropagation system for Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz., an important medicinal plant for heart disease, has been developed. Shoot organogenesis occurred from E. breviscapus leaf explants inoculated on a medium supplemented with a combination of plant growth regulators. On average, 17 shoots per leaf explant were produced after 30 days when they were cultured on MS basal salts and vitamin medium containing 5 microM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 5 microM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). All the regenerated shoots formed complete plantlets on a medium containing 2.5-10 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) within 30 days, and 80.2% of the regenerated plantlets survived and grew vigorously in field conditions. Based on the variation in common peaks and the produced amount of the most important bioactive component, scutellarin, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting system was developed for quality control of these micropropagated plants. Chemical constituents in E. breviscapus micropropagated plants varied during plant development from regeneration to maturation, the latter of which showed the most similar phytochemical profile in comparison with mother plants. The regeneration protocol and HPLC fingerprint analysis developed here provided a new approach to quality control of micropropagated plants producing secondary metabolites with significant implications for germplasm conservation.

  17. Regeneration and acclimatization of salt-tolerant arachis hypogaea plants through tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    Excised embryos of Arachis hypogaea were cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS medium) supplemented with different combinations of growth hormones. The highest frequency of callus proliferation (80%) was recorded on MS medium mixed with 1.0 mg/1 of 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/1 of BAP. These cultures were treated with 0.65 mg/l of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (HyP) a:1d various concentrations (0.1-0.5%) of NaCl. In all cases the presence of salt reduced the fresh mass of callus. Shoot regeneration in the cultures took place when transferred to MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/1 of kinetin (Kin) and 0.5 mg/1 of 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Percentage of shoot regeneration decreased with the increase of NaCl (0.1- 0.5%) in the shoot regeneration medium. Root formation in these cultures took place when the cultures were nurtured on MS medium free of growth hormones. Regeneration, hardening and acclimatization of the salt tolerant plants was conducted. (author)

  18. Estrogen signaling in the proliferative endometrium: implications in endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Pereira da Costa e Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Even though the physiological role of estrogen in the female reproductive cycle and endometrial proliferative phase is well established, the signaling pathways by which estrogen exerts its action in the endometrial tissue are still little known. In this regard, advancements in cell culture techniques and maintenance of endometrial cells in cultures enabled the discovery of new signaling mechanisms activated by estrogen in the normal endometrium and in endometriosis. This review aims to present the recent findings in the genomic and non-genomic estrogen signaling pathways in the proliferative human endometrium specifically associated with the pathogenesis and development of endometriosis.

  19. Transplantation of Expanded Fetal Intestinal Progenitors Contributes to Colon Regeneration after Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordham, Robert P; Yui, Shiro; Hannan, Nicholas R F

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration and homeostasis in the adult intestinal epithelium is driven by proliferative resident stem cells, whose functional properties during organismal development are largely unknown. Here, we show that human and mouse fetal intestine contains proliferative, immature progenitors, which can...... be expanded in vitro as Fetal Enterospheres (FEnS). A highly similar progenitor population can be established during intestinal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Established cultures of mouse fetal intestinal progenitors express lower levels of Lgr5 than mature progenitors and propagate...... in the presence of the Wnt antagonist Dkk1, and new cultures can be induced to form mature intestinal organoids by exposure to Wnt3a. Following transplantation in a colonic injury model, FEnS contribute to regeneration of colonic epithelium by forming epithelial crypt-like structures expressing region...

  20. COMPARISONS BETWEEN THE NON-PROLIFERATIVE AND PROLIFERATIVE THERAPY IN FIBROCYSTIC MASTOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carauleanu, A; Socolov, R; Rugina, V; Gabia, O; Carauleanu, Daniela Mihaela; Lupascu, Ivona Anghlcelache; Socolov, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    Fibrocystic mastosis (FCM) is the most frequent benign breast lesion. Most treatments for fibrocystic mastosis are: hormonl, with beneficial results and non-hormonal, with fluctuating results. A number of 210 cases were studied, which were divided into 7 groups. The study lasted for 9 months and it was carried out on the basis of a personal examination sheet. The following were monitored: age groups, mastodynia, reducing breast nodules, a significant reduction in the volume of the mastosic cysts, reducion of the fibrous tissue, medication tolerance. Mastodynia has declined by 90% in the cases treated with Tamoxifen and Danazol, by 70% in the case of Lynestrenol and Bromocriptine, by 50% in the 15 patients who were given Utrogestan. Knowing the advantages and disadvantages of drugs (contraindications, side effects), age category, breast pain reduction, antiproliferative activity, tolerability, relapse allow us to assess the benefit-risk. Even in those circumstances that remained incompletely clarified for objective reasons, related to the inaccurate/incorrect reporting by the patients, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the frequency of relapses following the treatment with Tamoxifen and the other categories of drugs who were administered. Our study shows that in the groups that were administered Logest, Utrogestan and Bromocriptine, only antalgic effects were achieved (disappearance or only decrease of mastodynia) and no anti-proliferative effects were obtained. Basically, hormone treatment should be made based on a histopathological examination.

  1. Rampage shootings: an historical, empirical, and theoretical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Michael; Duwe, Grant

    2018-02-01

    Rampage shootings is a relatively new term to describe a phenomenon that has a long history. Rampage shootings are mass shootings (generally defined as involving four or more victims), taking place in a public location, with victims chosen randomly or for symbolic purposes. These shootings are isolated events, meaning they are not connected to another criminal act (such as robbery or terrorism). Research suggests that rampage shootings are not a new phenomenon, but have occurred throughout the US since the early 1900s. There is some evidence of an increase in recent years, but definitional differences across studies and data sources make interpreting trends somewhat tenuous. Theories regarding the perpetration of rampage shootings center on masculinity, mental illness, and contagion effects. Policies aimed at preventing rampage shootings remain somewhat controversial and not well-tested in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro regeneration of solanum aethiopicum L. (scarlet eggplant), an african vegetable crop with potential ornamental value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful in vitro regeneration of plantlets was obtained from shoot tips of five Solanum aethiopicum (African eggplants) accessions evaluated in two media, M1 and M2. The M1 medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salt mixture supplemented with 20 g/L sucrose, 0.75 g/L MgCl2, and 2 g/L ...

  3. Preculturing effect of thidiazuron on in vitro shoot multiplication and micropropagation round in Capparis decidua (Forsk.) an important multipurpose plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, Kahkashan

    2016-09-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for clonal multiplication of an important shrub: Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew, through in vitro shoot induction and multiplication from nodal explants. Pretreatment of nodal explants in a liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with various thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations at relatively high levels (5-100 μM) for different time duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d), proved a significant approach for in vitro shoot production. After an initial exposure time to TDZ, nodal explants were inoculated onto a MS basal medium devoid of TDZ for further induction and proliferation. The highest regeneration rate (85%), average number of shoots/explant (8.7 ± 0.22) and maximum shoot length (3.9 ± 0.33 cm) were obtained from the nodal explants exposed to 50 μM TDZ for 8 d. The nodal explants excised from the proliferated cultures of TDZ (50 μM) for 8 d were used as explants and showed an enhancement rate after next three round of in vitro propagation. Best results for rooting was obtained by ex vitro treatment of shoots with 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 20 min. as it produced an average of 5.7 ± 0.41 roots per microshoot with 4.4 ± 0.39 cm root length in 84% shoots. Different planting substrates was tested for maximum survival of hardening off micropropagated plantlets and soilrite proved most effective than others as 97.1 ± 7.21 plantlets survived. All micropropagated plants grew well in natural conditions and showed similar morphology to the mother plant.

  4. Tissue culture regeneration and radiation induced mutagenesis in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.M.; Ganapathi, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation induced mutagenesis is an important tool for banana genetic improvement. At BARC, protocols for shoo-tip multiplication of commercial banana varieties have been developed and transferred to user agencies for commercial production. Excellent embryogenic cell suspensions were established in banana cvs. Rasthali and Rajeli, and were maintained at low temperatures for long-term storage. Normal plantlets were successfully regenerated from these cell suspensions. The cell suspensions and shoot-tip cultures were gamma-irradiated for mutagenesis. The mutagenized populations were field screened and a few interesting mutants have been isolated. The existence of genetic variation was confirmed using DNA markers. Further evaluation of these mutants is in progress. (author)

  5. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  6. Anti-proliferative effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro anti-proliferative effect and mechanism of action of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on human colon carcinoma HCT116 cell line. Methods: M. oleifera leaves were extracted with methanol. It was fractionated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Several fractions were identified ...

  7. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytotoxic potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partitioned aqueous and chloroform fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaf of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius were examined for anti-proliferative (1-30 mg/mL) and cytotoxic activities (20-400 μg/mL) using the seed radicle inhibition and tadpole mortality assays over a period of 24 and 96 h respectively.

  8. Treatment and prevention of porcine proliferative enteropathy with oral tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOrist, S; Smith, S H; Shearn, M F; Carr, M M; Miller, D J

    The effect of an oral treatment or prevention programme, incorporating the antibiotic tiamulin, on the development of proliferative enteropathy in experimentally challenged pigs was studied. Twenty weaner pigs were challenged orally with a virulent inoculum of Lawsonia intracellularis strain LR189/5/83, a British isolate of the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy, and seven control pigs were dosed with a buffer solution. Seven of the 20 challenged pigs were left untreated; they gained less weight than the controls and three of them developed mild to moderate diarrhoea two weeks after the challenge. All seven developed lesions, six visible grossly, of proliferative enteropathy, and numerous intracellular L intracellularis were detected in sections of the intestines examined three weeks after the challenge. To test a 'prevention' dosing strategy for tiamulin, six of the challenged pigs were dosed orally with 50 ppm tiamulin, incorporated in a 2 per cent stabilised premix, given from two days before the challenge until they were euthanased. To test a 'treatment' strategy, the remaining group of seven challenged pigs were dosed orally with 150 ppm tiamulin given in the premix from seven days after challenge until they were euthanased. All the control pigs and the 13 pigs treated with tiamulin, either before or after challenge, remained clinically normal and had no specific lesions of proliferative enteropathy in sections of the intestines examined post mortem.

  9. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia; a critical appraisal of the diagnostic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrard, V.C.; Brouns, E.R.E.A.; van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Since its introduction in the literature in 1985, the term proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) has been the subject of an ongoing discussion with regard to its definition. Widespread or multifocal occurrence of oral leukoplakia is not just synonymous to PVL. In the present treatise the

  10. Anti-proliferative activity of recombinant melittin expressed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant melittin was then successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The activity of affinity-purified recombinant melittin was determined in human leukemic U937 cells. Results show that the recombinant melittin had the same anti-proliferative activity in human leukemic U937 cells in vitro as natural one. This shows the ...

  11. Dutch guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of proliferative lupus nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tellingen, A.; Voskuyl, A. E.; Vervloet, M. G.; Bijl, M.; de Sevaux, R. G. L.; Berger, S. P.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.; Berden, J. H. M.

    Proliferative lupus nephritis is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Despite improvements in the management of lupus nephritis, a significant number of the patients do not respond to immunosuppressive therapy and progress to end-stage renal

  12. Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Activities of Flavonoids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata. Sch Bip. (BP), as well as its antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. Methods: The whole herb of BP was extracted with 95 % ethanol, which was then partitioned sequentially with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butyl alcohol to obtain ...

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on Callus formation and regeneration of wheat immature embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Four Egyptian bread wheat cultivars; G164, G168, SK61 and Sids1, were tested for their response to six gamma irradiation treatments; 1, 2, 3 Gy (as low doses) and 10, 20, 30 Gy (as high doses) in addition to 0 Gy (as a control) in terms of callus formation and regeneration of immature embryos. Low doses of gamma irradiations ( 1, 2 and 3 Gy) showed favourable effects on both traits; number of regenerated calli and number of shoots per callus comparing with the control (0 Gy), while high doses; 10, 20 and 30 Gy, had the worst effect comparing with the control (0 Gy). G164 cultivar was shown to get the best response in terms of callus formation and regeneration when exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. In conclusion, gamma irradiation can serve in increasing regeneration efficiency of Egyptian bread wheat cells when used in low doses

  14. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  15. Evaluation of the tolerance to Finale® in the germination and regeneration of Cuban rice varieties (IACuba-17 and IACuba-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daymí Abreu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection agent used during the shoot selection has an important role on the transgenic plant generation efficiency. In this work, the tolerance to the herbicide Finale® in two Cuban rice cultivars, IACuba17 and IACuba-19 was evaluated, and determined that 10 days exposure to 5 and 10 mg.l-1 of Finale® were enough to avoid seedlings of IAC-17 and IAC-19, respectively. Cultivated calluses (0, 2, 4 and 6 days in the absence of Finale®in the regeneration medium were used to evaluate the minimal concentration of Finale®that totally inhibits shoot regeneration. Pre-induced calluses cultured during two days and 3 mg.l-1 of Finale® in the regeneration medium was the most efficient combination to select shoots during the generation of transgenic plants resistant to the herbicide. Our shoot selection procedure reduces to 3 weeks the time to obtain shoots during the generation of transgenic rice plants. Key words: germination, mature seeds, Oryza, phosphinothricin, regeneration, selection markers

  16. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on plant regeneration from callus of sea dallisgrass (paspalum vaginatum Sw.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiaoqing; She Jianming; Wang Songfeng; Zhang Xu; Liang Liufang; Dong Mingqiang; Wu Yingying

    2010-01-01

    The pellet embryonic calli of Paspalum vagiantum Sw. cv. Adalay were used for 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. In the callus subculture medium with 2, 4-D 2.0 mg /L and BAP 0.05 mg /L, calli were irradiated at the dose rate 1 Gy /min of 60 Co γ-rays. Results showed that the rate of shoot regeneration was from 94% to 85% when calli irradiated with 20 ∼ 50 Gy; the rate of shoot regeneration was from 76% to 30%, and the rate of plant regeneration was from 44.5% to 8.7% between 60 ∼ 80 Gy. By 60 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation, the rate of shoot regeneration was about 76% in the differentiation medium with BAP 2.0 mg /L, and the relative rate of plant regeneration was 44.5% in the rooting medium with NAA 0.5 mg /L. The result of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers analysis showed that the specific SRAP markers were associated with the somatic mutants. The mutation technique of 60 Co γ-rays has been established in the somatic cell of Paspalum vaginatum Sw. (authors)

  17. Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for efficient plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall. using leaf explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. The present investigation was undertaken with an objective of enhancing the frequency of plant regeneration in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall.. The effect of Thiadizuron (TDZ alone and in combination with adenine and α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA were studied on the regeneration potential of leaf explants. A high efficiency of shoot regeneration was observed in leaf (80.00% explants on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.024 mg/l TDZ and 79.7 mg/l adenine. Elongation and multiplication of shoots were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium, containing 0.5 mg/l 6. Benzyl aminopurine (BAP + 0.2mg/l Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA + 0.3 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. High frequency root regeneration from in vitro developed shoots was observed on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l Indole 3-butyric acid(IBA. Maximum of the in vitro rooted plantlets were well accomplished to the mixture of sand: soil (1:1 and exhibited similar morphology with the field plants. A high efficiency plant regeneration protocol has been developedfrom leaf explants in Himalayan poplar (Populus ciliata Wall..

  18. Effects of gibberellin mutations on in vitro shoot bud regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Beijing Agro-Biotechnology Research Centre Beijing 100097, China. Accepted 16 May, 2008. Tissue culture provides a useful system to investigate how plant hormones are involved in this process. Auxin and cytokinin are .... point out that the behaviour of penta and tetra mutant responding to varying auxin ...

  19. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  20. EFFECT OF BAP AND IAA ON SHOOT REGENERATION IN COTYLEDONARY EXPLANTS OF COSTA RICAN MELON GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Valdez Melara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para establecer una metodología para la regeneración del melón criollo (Cucumis melo L, se investigó la influencia del genotipo (OSO-1, OSO-2, OSO- 3, PQRG-1, PQRG-2, PQRG-3, y EM-1 y la interacción de N6-bencilaminopurina (BAP (0,1, 0,5 y 1,0 mg.l-1 con ácido indolacético (AIA (0, 0,05 y 0,5 mg.l-1 en la inducción de brotes y regeneración de plantas. Independientemente de la concentración de BAP y AIA, el mayor porcentaje de formación de brotes se obtuvo en EM-1>OSO-1>PQRG-3>OSO-2>PQRG-2>PQRG-1>OSO-3. Por otra parte, independientemente del genotipo, el mayor porcentaje de formación de brotes se obtuvo con 0,5 mg.l-1 BAP y 0,05 mg.l-1 AIA o 1 mg.l-1 BAP y 0 mg.l-1 AIA. El protocolo de cultivo in vitro establecido puede ser utilizado para la micropropagación de genotipos "criollos" de melón.

  1. In vitro shoot proliferation and plant regeneration in sweet carambola (Averrhoa carambola)

    OpenAIRE

    21. Prashantha, K. G., Sathyanarayana, B. N. and Deepu Mathew

    2004-01-01

    Sweet carambola can be propagated by nodal explants from seedlings cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium containing growth-promoting agents. The best combination was 2.0 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0.2 mg/l naphthylacetic acid.

  2. Robust regeneration protocol for the Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Solanum tuberosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bilal, M.; Hussain, J.; Shah, M. M.; Hassan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant genetic transformation requires robust regeneration system. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as cytokinins (CKs) play a pivotal role in organogenesis; however, CKs are the most expensive PGRs. In the current study, an efficient yet economical protocol for regeneration of potato plant was developed. Stem inter-nodal and leaf explants were cultured on different regeneration media supplemented with varying concentration of different CKs such as kinetin and zeatin. Murashige- Skoog media added with zeatin (1, 1.5 mg/L) was designated as RZ1, RZ1.5, respectively or kinetin (1.5, 2 mg/L) was designated as RK1.5 and RK2, respectively, however, concentrations of other hormones such as NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) and GA3 (Gibberellic acid A3) were kept same. RZ1 and RZ1.5 gave significantly better Results as compared to RK-type media in all aspects studied such as callus initiation, days to first shoot emergence, number of shoots per explants. RZ1 medium was then selected as regeneration media for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato plants with cyanobacterial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene, which provided multiple putative transformants on selection media. The transformants were further confirmed through PCR. The current protocol is found to be cost effective and efficient for the regeneration of Solanum tuberosum and can be successfully implied for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (author)

  3. Regeneration of three sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.)) accessions via meristem, Nodal and callus induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae-Frimpomaah, F.

    2012-11-01

    In vitro regeneration of three sweet potato accessions UE007, UK-BNARI and SA-BNARI using meristem, nodal cuttings or callus induction was studied. Meristematic explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with low concentration of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin resulted in callus with or without shoot development which delayed shoot emergence. The degree of callus development increased as the concentration of the cytokinin in the culture medium increased. Although, callus development was comparatively lower on kinetin amended medium than BAP amended medium, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1BAP had the highest shoot induction (80%). For further differentiation of callus or shoots into distinct stem and leaves, the culture were transferred into fresh MS medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1 mg/1 NAA and 0.1 mg/1 Gibberellic acid (GA 3 . To overcome the delay in shoot initiation using meristem culture, nodal cuttings of sweet potato were used as explants and cultured on MS medium amended with 0.3 - 0.9mg/1 BAP. All explants cultured on 0.3 or 0.6mg/1 BAP developed shoots. Furthermore, liquid MS medium amended with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1mg/I NAA, and 0.1mg/1 GA 3 also enhanced early shoot development from nodal cutting explants compared to solid culture. Post flask acclimatisation of meristem or nodal cutting-derived plantlets showed that meristem derived plantlets were better acclimatised than nodal cutting plants due to vigorous root development leading to higher percentage survival in pots and subsequent tuber production. Callusogenesis was achieved when leaf lobe explants were cultured on CLC/ Ipomoea medium supplemented with 1.0 - 4.0mg/1 2,4-D with 4.0mg/1 2,4-D being the optimal concentration. However, the calli were non-embryogenic and therefore could not produce embryos when transferred to 0.1mg/1 BAP amended medium but rather produced either single or multiple shoots. The highest percentage shoot (83

  4. Transformation and regeneration of the holoparasitic plant Phelipanche aegyptiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Aparicio Mónica

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation and subsequent regeneration of holoparasitic plants has never been reported, in part due to challenges in developing transformation protocols, but also because regeneration of obligate parasites is difficult since their survival depends completely on successful haustorium penetration of a host and the formation of vascular connections. The recent completion of a massive transcriptome sequencing project (the Parasitic Plant Genome Project will fuel the use of genomic tools for studies on parasitic plants. A reliable system for holoparasite transformation is needed to realize the full value of this resource for reverse genetics and functional genomics studies. Results Here we demonstrate that transformation of Phelipanche aegyptiaca is achieved by infection of 3 month-old in vitro grown P. aegyptiaca calli with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP. Four months later, YFP-positive regenerated calli were inoculated onto tomato plants growing in a minirhizotron system. Eight days after inoculation, transgenic parasite tissue formed lateral haustoria that penetrated the host and could be visualized under UV illumination through intact host root tissue. YFP-positive shoot buds were observed one month after inoculation. Conclusions This work constitutes a breakthrough in holoparasitic plant research methods. The method described here is a robust system for transformation and regeneration of a holoparasitic plant and will facilitate research on unique parasitic plant capabilities such as host plant recognition, haustorial formation, penetration and vascular connection.

  5. Arabidopsis brassinosteroid biosynthetic mutant dwarf7-1 exhibits slower rates of cell division and shoot induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Burkhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on both cell division and cell expansion. Plant hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs, are central to the control of these two cellular processes. Despite clear evidence that BRs regulate cell elongation, their roles in cell division have remained elusive. Results Here, we report results emphasizing the importance of BRs in cell division. An Arabidopsis BR biosynthetic mutant, dwarf7-1, displayed various characteristics attributable to slower cell division rates. We found that the DWARF4 gene which encodes for an enzyme catalyzing a rate-determining step in the BR biosynthetic pathways, is highly expressed in the actively dividing callus, suggesting that BR biosynthesis is necessary for dividing cells. Furthermore, dwf7-1 showed noticeably slower rates of callus growth and shoot induction relative to wild-type control. Flow cytometric analyses of the nuclei derived from either calli or intact roots revealed that the cell division index, which was represented as the ratio of cells at the G2/M vs. G1 phases, was smaller in dwf7-1 plants. Finally, we found that the expression levels of the genes involved in cell division and shoot induction, such as PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN2 (PCNA2 and ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION2 (ESR2, were also lower in dwf7-1 as compared with wild type. Conclusions Taken together, results of callus induction, shoot regeneration, flow cytometry, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis suggest that BRs play important roles in both cell division and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis.

  6. In vitro shoot multiplication of Ziziphus spina-christi by shoot tip culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... Key words: Clonal propagation, cidir, shoot tip culture, Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. INTRODUCTION. Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., locally known as cidir, is a multipurpose tree species belonging to the botanical family Rhamnaceae. It is an important cultivated tree and one of the few truly native tree ...

  7. Supercritical fluid regeneration of adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilippi, R. P.; Robey, R. J.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a program to perform studies supercritical (fluid) carbon dioxide (SCF CO2) regeneration of adsorbents, using samples of industrial wastewaters from manufacturing pesticides and synthetic solution, and to estimate the economics of the specific wastewater treatment regenerations, based on test data are given. Processing costs for regenerating granular activated carbon GAC) for treating industrial wastewaters depend on stream properties and regeneration throughput.

  8. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  9. Plant regeneration of natural tetraploid Trifolium  Hum pratense L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HATICE ÇÖLGEÇEN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of natural tetraploid T. pratense, originated from Erzurum-Turkey, is reported in this study. This plant has low seed setting and hard seed problems due to polyploidy. Hypocotyl, cotyledon, apical meristems, epicotyl and young primary leaves were inoculated on MS and PC-L2 media containing different concentrations of BAP and NAA as growth regulators. The best shoot formation has been observed on explants initiated from apical meristem placed on PC-L2 medium that includes 2 mg dm-3 BAP and 1 mg dm-3 NAA. 94.4% of the shoots originated from calli were rooted on PC-L2 medium with 1 mg dm-3 NAA. In vitro organogénesis has been accomplished in the natural tetraploid T. pratense regenerated plants successively transferred to the field

  10. Youth Responses to School Shootings: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Áine; McDonagh, Tracey; Elklit, Ask

    2018-05-19

    This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories of recovery? Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced by pre-trauma functioning as well as peri-traumatic and post-traumatic factors. These include proximity to the trauma, peri-traumatic dissociation, post-traumatic emotional regulation difficulties, social support, and flexibility of coping styles. Research that separates the distinguishing features of young people with differing recovery styles is vital to tailor intervention. But methodological and design issues associated with such research necessitates caution in drawing conclusions. Variation in definitions and measures and the self-report nature of many of the studies are potential sources of bias. Greater uniformity across designs would enhance confidence and allow for improved evidence-based intervention.

  11. In-vitro regeneration of castor bean (ricinus communis, L) and physic nut (jatropha curcas, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afful, N. T.

    2008-06-01

    Investigations were conducted on in vitro regeneration of physic nut (Jatropha curcas, 1.) and castor bean (Ricinus communis, 1.) using zygotic embryo culture, shoot tip and meristem culture as well as somatic embryogenesis. Zygotic embryos from different stages of fruit maturity cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin and 2-isopentyl (2iP) produced vigorous seedlings with roots. However the optimal concentration of cytokinin for seedling development depended on the type cytokinin as well as the maturity stage of the fruit. Embryos from yellow fruits of Jatropha had the highest germination (100%) on an MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin or 1 mg/L BAP while in Ricinus embryos from black fruits had the highest percentage germination (97%) on an MS medium modified with I mg/L 2iP or 0.5 or I mg/L BAP. Decrease in embryo viability especially in Jatropha as the seed matured may be due to high oil content in matured (black) fruit. Oil content in both Jatropha and Ricinus increased as the fruit matured from green to black and this may have effect on germination of zygotic embryos. In vitro culture response of shoot tip or meristem was significantly influenced by the concentration of growth regulators in the culture medium as well as the plant species. In both plant species, 2iP resulted in highest percentage shoot regeneration. The optimal concentration of 2iP was 0.5 mg/L for Ricinus shoot tip and 1.5 or 2.0 mg/L for Jatropha, indicating genotypic difference between the species. However excessive callus formation and browning in Ricinus led to the loss of all the regenerants. Shoot regeneration from meristem explants was also influenced by growth regulators with 2iP again being the best. Cultures of cotyledon and leaf lobe explants on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D and picloram resulted in callus induction with the exception of cotyledons obtained from black fruits. However transfer of calli onto fresh

  12. Different proliferative capacity of lung fibroblasts obtained from control subjects and patients with emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhoek, JA; Postma, DS; Chong, LL; Vos, JTWM; Kauffman, HF; Timens, W; van Straaten, JFM

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the possible role of a dysregulated proliferative capacity of pulmonary fibroblasts in insufficient tissue repair in lungs from patients with pulmonary emphysema, the authors undertook in vitro proliferative studies with pulmonary fibroblasts obtained from lung tissue of patients

  13. An active magnetic regenerator device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) device comprising two or more regenerator beds, a magnet arrangement and a valve arrangement. The valve arrangement comprises a plurality of valve elements arranged substantially immovably with respect to the regenerator beds along a rotational direction...

  14. Journalism and School Shootings in Finland 2007 -2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...

  15. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  16. Mass propagation of shoots of Stevia rebaudiana using a large scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, M; Shigeoka, T; Koizumi, Y; Kawamura, M

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for the mass propagation of multiple shoots of Stevia rebaudiana is described. Isolated shoot primordia were used as the inoculum to obtain clusters of shoot primordia. Such clusters were grown in a 500 liter bioreactor to obtain shoots. A total of 64.6 Kg of shoots were propagated from 460 g of the inoculated shoot primordia. These shoots were easily acclimatized in soil.

  17. Radiosensitivity of in vitro Cultured Banana Shoot-Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagamawy, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinally dissected shoot apices of Grand Nain, Williams and Maghrabi banana cultivars were exposed to gamma irradiation with Cobalt 60 source at the doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60 Gy and immediately placed into proliferation medium. A number of micropropagation cycles after irradiation were necessary up to M1 V2 to M1 V4 stage to let mutated sectors developing into non-chimeric shoots. Radiosensitivity was evaluated by the rate of shoot proliferation and by the shoot fresh weight increase. Increasing gamma doses caused reduction in survival rates and average number of shoots. Grand Nain exhibited the highest multiplication- rate (3.1). The lower dose (20 Gy) enhanced shoot multiplication ratio specially in Williams and Maghrabi, which however decreased with increased doses. The doses of 20-40 Gy yielded Ld50, with sensible degree of shoot multiplication, which occurred hardly ever beyond 40 Gy. The dose of 60 Gy resulted 80% lethal shoot growth. Linear decrease in fresh weight was observed in post-irradiation recovery, notably in the Maghrabi. In contradictory vulnerable damage was observed in Williams which showed the highest fresh weight value. Shoot proliferation appeared generally on the surface of the corm. Root formation was observed without additional hormone. The roots were dark colored and was decreased with the increased of dosage

  18. Australian Mass Shootings: An Analysis of Incidents and Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara

    2017-06-01

    Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.

  19. School shootings: law enforcement and school district networking

    OpenAIRE

    Topadzhikyan, Tigran

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local School shootings have happened in the past and will happen again. The history of school shootings prompts all stakeholders to look at ways to prevent them from happening, and if they do happen, to be resilient. Change is needed in the prevention of school shootings. The case studies of Virginia Tech, Sandy Hook, E. O. Green Junior High, and Beslan school shootings reveal that the lack of information sharing and lack of communication were flaws; and the incidents might have...

  20. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  1. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  2. The use of analogy in pro-life argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mazilu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with how analogy is strategically used in pro-life argumentation on abortion. Pragma-dialectics (van Eemeren and Grootendorst 1992 offers a set of critical questions by means of which I will evaluate the use of the argumentation based on a relation of analogy in terms of dialectical soundness. Examining various pro-life texts, I have noticed that the analogies employed remain unexplained. Therefore, despite the apparent similarities between abortion and the German holocaust or slavery, for instance, there are essential differences which are not mentioned. I claim that these analogies mainly have a rhetorical function, to operate what has been called by Micheli (2007: 960 “a transfer of emotional consensus”.

  3. Scoring radiologic characteristics to predict proliferative potential in meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiba, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Naoya; Maruno, Motohiko; Izumoto, Shuichi; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Naoki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using radiologic characteristics to predict the proliferative potential in meningiomas. Our statistical analysis revealed that the presence of peritumoral edema, an ambiguous brain-tumor border, and irregular tumor shape were significantly correlated with a higher MIB-1 staining index (SI) value. We developed the following scoring system for specific features in each tumor: peritumoral edema (tumor with edema=1, tumor without edema=0); brain-tumor border (tumor with any ambiguous border=1, tumor circumscribed by a distinct rim=0); and tumor shape (tumor with irregular shape=1, tumor with smooth shape=0). Using Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis, we found a significant correlation (P<0.005) between total score calculated for each patient and SI value. Our findings suggest that the proliferative potential of meningiomas can be predicted using a less invasive preoperative examination focusing on the presence of peritumoral edema, ambiguous brain-tumor border, and irregular tumor shape. (author)

  4. SHOOT2.0: An indirect grid shooting package for optimal control problems, with switching handling and embedded continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Martinon , Pierre; Gergaud , Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The SHOOT2.0 package implements an indirect shooting method for optimal control problems. It is specifically designed to handle control discontinuities, with an automatic switching detection that requires no assumptions concerning the number of switchings. Special care is also devoted to the computation of the Jacobian matrix of the shooting function, using the variational system instead of classical finite differences. The package also features an embedded continuation method and an automati...

  5. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: an aggressive form of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopper, Thomas P; Brannon, Robert B; Stalker, William H

    2004-01-01

    Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is an aggressive form of oral leukoplakia that is persistent, often multifocal, and refractory to treatment with a high risk of recurrence and malignant transformation. This article describes the clinical aspects and histologic features of a case that demonstrated the typical behavior pattern in a long-standing, persistent lesion of PVL of the mandibular gingiva and that ultimately developed into squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis is poor for this seemingly harmless-appearing white lesion of the oral mucosa.

  6. Establishment of an Efficient and Reproducible Regeneration System for Potato Cultivars Grown in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Rizwan, A.; Mukhtar, Z.; Mansoor, S.; Asad, S.; Khalid, Z. M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the effect of growth regulators in three different combinations on mass propagation of currently grown three potato cultivars cv. Desiree, Kuroda and Cardinal. Varietal response on In vitro regeneration under different hormonal combinations. For callus induction, internodes of potato cultivars were cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, added with different growth hormonal combinations. Callusing frequency for all these treatments and cultivars were recorded and in callus induction medium (CIM1) explants showed significantly higher callus formation as compared to two other combinations. For shoot induction, calli were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) modified medium, supplemented with different hormonal combinations. Shoot induction medium (SIM3) gave best shoot induction frequency as compared to other media combinations. On the same media, an average number of shoots per explant were obtained for cultivar Desiree which is significantly different from the other two media combinations. Overall, the In vitro regeneration and multiplication potential was highest in the variety Cardinal followed by Kuroda and Desiree. The interaction between different hormonal combinations and varietal response for all the parameters showed significant differences. (author)

  7. Efficient plant regeneration of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L., a medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Ucar Turker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum dulcamara L. (bittersweet is a medicinal plant that has been used to treat skin diseases, warts, tumors, felons, arthritis, rheumatism, bronchial congestion, heart ailments, ulcerative colitis, eye inflammations, jaundice and pneumonia. A reliable in vitro culture protocol for bittersweet was established. Explants (leaf and petiole segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog minimal organics (MSMO medium with various plant growth regulator combinations. Leaf explants formed more shoots than petiole explants. Plant regeneration was observed through indirect organogenesis with both explants. Best shoot proliferation was obtained from leaf explants with 3 mg/l BA (benzyladenine and 0.5 mg/l IAA (indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were transferred to rooting media containing different levels of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, NAA (naphthalene acetic acid or 2,4-D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Most shoots developed roots on medium with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted explants were transferred to vermiculate in Magenta containers for acclimatization and after 2 weeks, they were planted in plastic pots containing potting soil and maintained in the plant growth room.

  8. Atypical hyperplasia, proliferative fibrocystic change, and exogenous hormone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, R T; Danielson, D; Van Camp, J M; Schmidt-Steinbrunn, B; Hong, J; McCoy, M; Anderson, W R; Linzie, B M; Rodriguez, J L

    2001-10-01

    The association between breast cancer development and exogenous hormone use (EHU) is suggested by indirect clinical evidence. We undertook this study to better define the relationship that EHU has with proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) and atypical hyperplasia (AH). Women diagnosed with AH without associated carcinoma from January 1990 to December 1999 were compared with control subjects who underwent breast biopsy procedures during the same interval and who were diagnosed with either a proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) or a nonproliferative fibrocystic change (NPFC). EHU was defined as the use of estrogen or progesterone taken together or separately within 3 months of biopsy. EHU was significantly higher in patients with AH compared with women with NPFC (P =.01). This observation was also significant if all proliferative change (both AH and PFC) was compared with NPFC (P =.03); it was not significant when PFC alone was compared with NPFC. No significant difference in EHU was demonstrated between women with AH and those with PFC. There is strong association between AH and EHU. These results support the theory that a continuum exists between hyperplasia and carcinoma and that EHU may influence the transition from one to the other in an undefined subset of women. We encourage our patients with AH to discontinue EHU.

  9. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P J

    1985-06-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence.

  10. Proliferation Index and Karyometric Features of Pancreatic Intraductal Proliferative Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Tomaszewska

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer prompt us to search for morphological lesions being a substrate for its development. Studies of autopsy and surgically resected material as well as recent molecular studies have proved that one of the possible pathways of pancreatic neoplasia is the intraepithelial proliferation – dysplasia – cancer sequence. In the present paper we studied the proliferative activity (Ki‐67 index in pancreatic intraepithelial proliferative lesions and its correlation with geometric features of cell nuclei as signs of increasing dysplasia. The studies were carried out in a group of 35 patients operated on for pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and other conditions not associated with the pancreas. We used immunohistochemical methods and basic morphometric parameters. The results of our studies indicate that the cell proliferative activity depends both on the type of epithelial proliferation and underlying pancreatic disease. The values of Ki‐67 index are significantly different in low‐grade proliferation (flat and papillary hyperplasia and high‐grade proliferation (atypical papillary hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ. A set of karyometric features correlates with Ki‐67 index but there is no single feature which would have a diagnostic value.

  11. In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars Barbados 46 (B46), Natal Coimbatore 339 (NC0339), Ragna, local sugarcane cultivar (LSC) and Kenana (Kn) series sourced from Kyebi, Akorley, Subriso, Jejeti and the University of Ghana Agriculture Research Station, Kpong, were evaluated for sterilisation, multiplication and rooting. An efficient double sterilisation protocol was achieved by immersing axillary buds pre-treated with Goldazim (active ingredient carbendazim) in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 7 minutes followed by 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 3 minutes. At this optimal sterilisation regime, 70% of the cultured buds were decontaminated. However, post sterilisation survival required the incorporation of 0.002g/L and 0.001g/L of amphotericin Band cefotaxime respectively in the culture medium indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. Evaluation for multiple shoot induction was conducted using Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts (MS) medium supplemented with 25g/L sucrose, 2mg/L IAA, 2mg/L GA 3 , 3g/L activated charcoal and varying concentrations (mg/L) of BAP or kinetin. The response of the cultivars to shoot induction varied with Ragna producing the highest number of shoots (2.17) on 5mg/L BAP indicating genotypic differences. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 5mg/L induced the highest frequency (65%) of roots in all the cultivars tested. Post-flask acclimatization and survival of plantlets was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

  12. Analysis of sports injuries related with shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.

  13. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  14. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  15. In vitro propagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) by nodal segmentation of elongated shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambardi, Maurizio; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Roncasaglia, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.), long-living, ever-green fruit tree of the Old World, has been part of a traditional landscape in the Mediterranean area for centuries. Both the fruits consumed after processing and the oil extracted from the fruits are among the main components of the Mediterranean diet, widely used for salads and cooking, as well as for preserving other food. Documentations show that the ancient use of this beautiful tree also includes lamp fuel production, wool treatment, soap production, medicine, and cosmetics. However, unlike the majority of the fruit species, olive propagation is still a laborious practice. As regards traditional propagation, rooting of cuttings and grafting stem segments onto rootstocks are possible, former being achieved only when the cuttings are collected in specific periods (spring or beginning of autumn), and latter only when skilled grafters are available. In both the cases, performance of the cultivars varies considerably. The regeneration of whole plants from ovules, on the other hand, is used only occasionally. Micropropagation of olive is not easy mainly due to explant oxidation, difficulties in explant disinfection, and labor-oriented establishment of in vitro shoot cultures. However today, the progress in micropropagation technology has made available the complete protocols for several Mediterranean cultivars. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol based on the segmentation of nodal segments obtained from elongated shoots.

  16. Hydrolyzable tannins of tamaricaceous plants. IV: Micropropagation and ellagitannin production in shoot cultures of Tamarix tetrandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, Mohamed A A; Taniguchi, Shoko; Terabayashi, Susumu; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2011-11-01

    Shoot cultures of Tamarix tetrandra on Linsmaier-Skoog (LS) agar medium with 30 g l(-1) sucrose, 2.13 mg l(-1) indoleacetic acid and 2.25 mg l(-1) benzyl adenine produced ellagitannins found in intact plants of the Tamaricaceae. This was demonstrated by the isolation of 14 monomeric-tetrameric ellagitannins from the aq. Me2CO extract of the cultured tissues. This is the first report on the production of ellagitannin tetramers by plant tissue culture. The effects of light and certain medium constituents on tissue growth and ellagitannin production were examined. The contents of representative tannins of different types [i.e., tellimagrandin II (monomer), hirtellin A (linear GOG-type dimer), hirtellin B (hellinoyl-type dimer), hirtellin C (macrocyclic-type dimer), and hirtellin T1 (linear GOG-type trimer)] in the resultant tissues in response to these factors were estimated by HPLC, and the optimal condition for production of these tannins were established. Shoots cultured on LS hormone-free medium promoted root development, and regenerated plants could adapt to ordinary soil and climate. Acclimatized and intact T. tetrandra plants that were collected in November and May, respectively, demonstrated seasonal differences in individual ellagitannin contents. HPLC comparison of individual ellagitannin contents in different plant materials (i.e., leaves, stems, and roots) of intact T. tetrandra plants is also reported. The results are discussed with respect to cellular deposition and biosynthetic relationship of tannins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Defense.gov Special Report: Fort Hood Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    identify possible insider threats, Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story Obama: Soldiers ," Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story President Praises Swift Response to Fort Hood Remarks on Fort Hood Shooting at White House McHugh, Odierno Address Fort Hood Shooting Before Congress

  18. Gene expression in arabidopsis shoot tips after liquid nitrogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips can be successfully cryopreserved using either Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3) as the cryoprotectant. We used this model system to identify suites of genes that were either upregulated or downregulated as shoot tips recov...

  19. An Analysis of US School Shooting Data (1840-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradice, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and descriptive analysis of a data set of United States school shooting events. Three hundred forty-three shooting events are included, spanning 175 years of United States educational history. All levels of US educational institution are included. Events are included when a firearm is discharged, regardless of…

  20. How to talk (and not to talk) about school shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper-Hughes, N

    2018-01-01

    © RAI 2018 In this guest editorial, the author addresses the latest school shootings at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. This event is weighed up against reports written by prominent academics, including anthropologists, during previous school shootings.

  1. Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain

    2010-01-01

    School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

  2. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2013-01-01

    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. PMID:28228989

  3. Shoot Differentiation in Callus Cultures of Datura Innoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1973-01-01

    promoted shoot differentiation. Gibberellic acid inhibited shoot formation weakly, but inhibited proper leaf blade formation. Root differentiation was rare. The callus cultures of Datura innoxia grew rapidly (100-fold in 4 weeks) on a slightly modified Murashige and Skoog medium (0.5 mg/l thiamin · HCl, p...

  4. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  5. Initiation and growth of shoots of Gongronema latifolia Benth stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant reduction in number of days to shoot initiation and growth in sawdust medium in the wet season. Sawdust and soil gave a better performance of the cuttings in opening of apical buds, initiation of shoots, percentage of rooted cuttings, number of vines, vine length and number of opposite leaves on vines ...

  6. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells in cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savkovic, Vuk; Li, Hanluo; Seon, Jong-Keun; Hacker, Michael; Franz, Sandra; Simon, Jan-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage provides life-long weight-bearing and mechanical lubrication with extraordinary biomechanical performance and simple structure. However, articular cartilage is apparently vulnerable to multifactorial damage and insufficient to self-repair, isolated in articular capsule without nerves or blood vessels. Osteoarthritis (OA) is known as a degenerative articular cartilage deficiency progressively affecting large proportion of the world population, and restoration of hyaline cartilage is clinical challenge to repair articular cartilage lesion and recreate normal functionality over long period. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are highly proliferative and multipotent somatic cells that are able to differentiate mesoderm-derived cells including chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Continuous endeavors in basic research and preclinical trial have achieved promising outcomes in cartilage regeneration using MSCs. This review focuses on rationale and technologies of MSC-based hyaline cartilage repair involving tissue engineering, 3D biomaterials and growth factors. By comparing conventional treatment and current research progress, we describe insights of advantage and challenge in translation and application of MSC-based chondrogenesis for OA treatment.

  8. Effect of antioxidants and associate changes in antioxidant enzymes in controlling browning and necrosis of proliferating shoots of elite Jatropha curcas L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Pratibha; Toppo, Dibya D.; Gupta, Neha; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    A high yielding elite plant of Jatropha curcas was established under aseptic condition from field-grown nodal explants. Shoots were proliferated in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg dm -3 benzyladenine and 0.1 mg dm -3 indolebutyric acid along with 10 mg dm -3 adenine sulphate and a combination of 15 mg dm -3 each of L-glutamine and L-arginine. However, within 15-20 d of culture incubation, tissue browning/necrosis leading to poor plant regeneration in vitro was observed. A set of different antioxidants, namely, reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, tocopherol and cysteine were used in the medium individually and in combination to solve the problem of tissue browning and necrosis. The addition of antioxidants proved beneficial for the growth of the shoots. The optimum medium comprised of 25 mg dm -3 reduced glutathione and 10 mg dm -3 ascorbic acid, where proliferating shoots having highest leaf canopy area, remained fresh, green and regenerative up to 40 d of culture incubation without any subculture. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase was higher in control shoots, indicating that tissue browning/necrosis was associated with oxidative stress which was further supported by higher contents of H 2 O 2 and phenolics in control shoots compared to the other treatments. Similarly glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and guiacol peroxidase was higher in treated shoots than control indicating that these shoots have developed antioxidant enzymatic protective system which determine the ability to survive in oxidative stress and up regulation of these enzymes would help to reduce the built up of reactive oxygen species.

  9. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  10. Modeling shoot-tip temperature in the greenhouse environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, J.E.; Heins, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m -2 . Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)

  11. Establishment of an efficient plant regeneration culture protocol and achievement of successful genetic transformation in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Guoxuan; Yang, Yali; Niu, Sufang; Yang, Fuguang; Yang, Shaoxia; Tang, Jianian; Chen, Jianping

    2017-12-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol is described for shoot-bud regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of J. curcas. Treating the explants with high concentrations (5-120 mg/L) of TDZ for short durations (5-80 min) before inoculation culture increased significantly the regeneration frequency and improved the quality of the regenerated buds. The highest shoot-buds induction rate (87.35%) was achieved when petiole explants were treated with 20 mg/L TDZ solution for 20 min and inoculated on hormone-free MS medium for 30 days. Regenerated shoots of 0.5 cm or a little longer were isolated and grafted to seedling stocks of the same species, and then the grafted plantlets were planted on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L IBA and 2 mg/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP). This grafting strategy was found to be very effective, to obtain that healthy grafted plantlets ready for acclimatization within 20 days. By the above mentioned protocol and with general Agrobacterium - mediated genetic transformation methods only 65 days were needed to obtain intact transgenic plants.

  12. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.M.; Latham, K.; Mann, D.L.; Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Myint, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle,

  13. In vitro regeneration of Drosera burmannii Vahl.: a carnivorous plant of north-east India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanthan, J Sureni; Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2017-06-01

    An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol has been developed from shoot tips of Drosera burmannii Vahl., a carnivorous plant of north-east India. Various plant growth regulators were used to study their efficacy in the induction of multiple shoots and roots. Of the various treatments, the maximum number of shoots (28.8 ± 1.5) and roots (9.7 ± 0.6) was observed in one-fourth strength standard medium (MS with 50 mg/l citric acid and 10 mg/l ascorbic acid) supplemented with 4 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 4 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) followed by 26.8 ± 1.4 shoots in one-fourth strength SM fortified with 4 mg/l kinetin (KN) and 4 mg/l NAA. The well-developed plantlets with shoots and roots were potted in small plastic glasses filled with a mixture of sand and farmyard manure (3:1); these plantlets when transferred to a glasshouse for hardening and acclimatization showed 90% survival.

  14. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein composition. A simple, efficient, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from petiole explants of non-toxic J. curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ). The best induction of shoot buds (57.61%), and number of shoot buds (4.98) per explant were obtained when in vitro petiole explants were placed horizontally on MS medium supplemented with 2.27 mu M TDZ. The Induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 mu M kinetin (Kn), 4.5 mu M 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA), and 5.5 mu M alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation and subsequent elongation was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 mu M BA and 8.5 mu M IAA. The elongated shoots could be rooted on half-strength MS medium with 15 mu M IBA, 11.4 mu M IAA and 5.5 mu M NAA with more than 90% survival rate. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Mediates Proliferative GN via CD74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djudjaj, Sonja; Lue, Hongqi; Rong, Song; Papasotiriou, Marios; Klinkhammer, Barbara M.; Zok, Stephanie; Klaener, Ole; Braun, Gerald S.; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Cohen, Clemens D.; Bucala, Richard; Tittel, Andre P.; Kurts, Christian; Moeller, Marcus J.; Floege, Juergen; Ostendorf, Tammo

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic proliferation of mesangial and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) is a hallmark of various glomerulonephritides. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that mediates inflammation by engagement of a receptor complex involving the components CD74, CD44, CXCR2, and CXCR4. The proliferative effects of MIF may involve CD74 together with the coreceptor and PEC activation marker CD44. Herein, we analyzed the effects of local glomerular MIF/CD74/CD44 signaling in proliferative glomerulonephritides. MIF, CD74, and CD44 were upregulated in the glomeruli of patients and mice with proliferative glomerulonephritides. During disease, CD74 and CD44 were expressed de novo in PECs and colocalized in both PECs and mesangial cells. Stress stimuli induced MIF secretion from glomerular cells in vitro and in vivo, in particular from podocytes, and MIF stimulation induced proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells via CD74. In murine crescentic GN, Mif-deficient mice were almost completely protected from glomerular injury, the development of cellular crescents, and the activation and proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells, whereas wild-type mice were not. Bone marrow reconstitution studies showed that deficiency of both nonmyeloid and bone marrow–derived Mif reduced glomerular cell proliferation and injury. In contrast to wild-type mice, Cd74-deficient mice also were protected from glomerular injury and ensuing activation and proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells. Our data suggest a novel molecular mechanism and glomerular cell crosstalk by which local upregulation of MIF and its receptor complex CD74/CD44 mediate glomerular injury and pathologic proliferation in GN. PMID:26453615

  16. VISUAL OUTCOME FOLLOWING PANRETINAL PHOTOCOAGULATION IN PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellaye Mani Sindhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus can be called as a noninfectious pandemic and the incidence of diabetic retinopathy is also uncontrollable. This vision-threatening complication can be treated by early diagnosis and effective treatment like panretinal photocoagulation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of panretinal photocoagulation on visual acuity, colour vision, contrast sensitivity and severity of visual field changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective study of visual outcome following panretinal photocoagulation in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy conducted in Retina Clinic, RIO, Trivandrum, during the time period one year from April 2008. Inclusion Criteria- Eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, visual acuity better than or equal to 6/60, a follow up of at least 6 months after panretinal photocoagulation. Exclusion Criteria- Eyes with cataractous changes in the lens, eyes, which would be undergoing or have undergone focal photocoagulation eyes, which undergone barrage or sectoral retinal photocoagulation, patients with colour blindness, eyes with vitreous haemorrhage and macular preretinal haemorrhage, glaucomatous patients with peripheral field loss. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 52 years. Male patients (30 outnumbered the female patients (23. Mean duration of diabetes was 14.42 years. Though, there is a statistically significant reduction in visual acuity in the first followup, which was improved and stabilised by 6 months. There is a statistically significant reduction in the contrast sensitivity, which was stabilised after 3 months. Only, 9.5% patients had peripheral constrictions of visual field and no significant change in the colour vision. CONCLUSION We recommend panretinal photocoagulation for all patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  17. Antibacterial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties of Coccinia grandis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sakharkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Little knowledge is available on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Coccina grandis fruits and no study has reported on its cell proliferative property. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell proliferative property of fruits of C. grandis. Material and Methods: Fruits of C. grandis were extracted using water; ethanol and acetone by cold and hot Soxhlet extraction. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the modified Kirby-Bauer diffusion method and compared against erythromycin. The antioxidant property was determined using Cayman's antioxidant assay; whereas cell proliferation/cytotoxic properties were evaluated using the Cell Titer 96 Aqueous One Solution Cell MTS assay with MDA-MB 321 breast cancer cells. Data were analyzed for correlation and differences using unpaired student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. A p value of Results: Both cold and hot ethanol and acetone extracts of C. grandis fruits showed some degree of bacterial growth inhibition. Acetone extracts exhibited higher antibacterial activity. Both ethanol extracts showed antioxidant property when compared with standard Trolox. In contrary to cytotoxicity, all four extracts showed cell proliferation compared to controls at different concentrations. However, acetone extracts exhibited greater cell proliferation compared to ethanol extracts and cold extracts performed better than the hot extracts. Conclusion: C. grandis fruits exhibited some degree of antimicrobial, antioxidant and cell proliferative properties. Further investigation is warranted to isolate, confirm and characterize phytochemicals that are responsible for the medicinal properties observed.

  18. A valued Indian medicinal plant – Begonia malabarica Lam. : Successful plant regeneration through various explants and field performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevanan Rajeshkumar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective and efficient protocol has been described in the present work for large-scale and rapid in vitro propagation of a valuable medicinal herb Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae by shoot auxillary-bud proliferation and organogenesis on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 0.0-8.8 mg/l and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.0-2.88 mg/l at different concentrations, either alone or in combinations. Initiation of callus formation from the base of the leaf lamina was observed on MS supplemented with BA, IAA and adenine sulphate. Root induction on shoots was achieved on full strength MS with IAA/ indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at different concentrations. MS medium with 4.4 mg/l BA and 1.4 mg/l IAA elicited the maximum number of shoots (10 multiple shoots from nodal explants. Leaf-based callus differentiated into more than 28 shoots on MS with 150 mg/l adenine sulphate. The regenerated shoots were rooted on MS with 1.2 mg/l IBA within ten days. Almost 95% of the rooted shoots survived hardening when transferred to the field. The regenerated plants did not show any morphological change and variation in levels of secondary metabolites when compared with the mother stock. Thus, a reproduction of B. malabarica was established through nodal and leaf explants. This protocol can be exploited for conservation and commercial propagation of this medical plant in the Indian subcontinent and might be useful for genetic improvement programs.

  19. Chronic proliferative synovitis of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannegieter, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    Chronic proliferative synovitis of 27 metacarpophalangeal joints in 16 horses is described. The diagnosis was based on a history of lameness and, or, poor performance, pain on flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint, the response to intra-articular anaesthesia, and plain and contrast radiography. Radiographic findings included concavity of the distal dorsal metacarpus proximal to the sagittal ridge, and an increase in size of the synovial tissue adjacent to the proximal, dorsal attachment of the joint capsule. Mineralisation of the synovial tissue was present in some joints, and chip fractures from the dorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx were also occasionally seen. Treatment by arthroscopic resection of the tissue gave excellent results

  20. Comments on 'Standard effective doses for proliferative tumours'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasu, Iuliana Livia; Dasu, Alexandru; Denekamp, Juliana; Fowler, Jack F.

    2000-01-01

    We should like to make some comments on the paper published by Jones et al (1999). The paper presents some interesting and useful contributions on the theoretical evaluation of different fractionated schedules used now. The use of the linear quadratic equation has been very useful in focusing attention on the differences in fractionation responses of fast and slow proliferating normal tissues and tumours. Unfortunately the BED 10 or BED 3 units for (α/β ratios of 10 Gy and 3 Gy respectively) do not directly relate to anything used in routine clinical practice. The purpose of the paper by Jones et al (1999) is to covert any new schedule into the equivalent total dose as if it was given in the same size fractions as are in common use in that department. They illustrate that, if proliferation is taken into account for the altered schedule, it can be compared in two ways with the standard conventional schedule: (a) the proliferative standard effective dose one (PSED 1 ) in which the proliferation correction is applied in the altered schedule, but not in the standard schedule; (b) the proliferative standard effective dose two (PSED 2 ) in which the proliferation correction is applied to both schedules using the same proliferation parameters. This is expected to provide a better evaluation of the response of a 'real' tumour (i.e. a tumour that also proliferates during the standard treatment). However, there seem to be two errors in the paper. First, the authors quoted a wrong equation for calculating the proliferative standard effective dose two (PSED 2 ) (equations (2) and (A6) in their paper). There are also some special cases with respect to the time available for proliferation and the duration of the treatment that have been neglected in their paper and which require further specification. Therefore, we should like to give the full mathematical derivation of the correct equations for calculating the proliferative standard effective doses. We would also like to make

  1. Callus induction and plant regeneration from different explant types of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    1996-01-01

    . The explants were cultured on urashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 4.5, 13.6, 22.6 or 31.7 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Three types of callus were formed but only one was embryogenic and regenerated plants. Callus induction and formation of embryogenic callus depended on the type and developmental......-propagated shoots and older leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Immature inflorescences smaller than 2.5 cm produced a higher percentage of embryogenic callus than larger more mature inflorescences. Embryogenic callus derived from immature inflorescences had the highest regeneration capacity. Differences in 2......,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations had no significant effect on callus induction, embryogenic callus formation and plant regeneration....

  2. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  3. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  4. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  5. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  6. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  7. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathee, Angela; Jager, Pieter de; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  8. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in [U- 14 C]sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with [U- 14 C]sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references

  9. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathee, Angela [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg (Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences), PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Jager, Pieter de [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); National Health Laboratory Service (Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, National Institute for Occupational Health), PO Box 4788, Johannesburg 2000 (South Africa); Naidoo, Shan [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Naicker, Nisha [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg, Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  10. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  11. Structure-function relationships in highly modified shoots of cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauseth, James D

    2006-11-01

    Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.

  12. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  13. Effect of nickel on regeneration in Jatropha curcas L. and assessment of genotoxicity using RAPD markers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarkar, Tanmoy

    2010-07-08

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nickel on shoot regeneration in tissue culture as well as to identify polymorphisms induced in leaf explants exposed to nickel through random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). In vitro leaf explants of Jatropha curcas were grown in nickel amended Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at four different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1 mM) for 3 weeks. Percent regeneration, number of shoots produced and genotoxic effects were evaluated by RAPD using leaf explants obtained from the first three treatments following 5 weeks of their subsequent subculture in metal free MS medium. Percent regeneration decreased with increase in addition of nickel to the medium up to 14 days from 42.31% in control to zero in 1.0 mM. The number of shoot buds scored after 5 weeks was higher in control as compared to all other treatments except in one of the metal free subculture medium wherein the shoot number was higher in 0.01 mM treatment (mean = 7.80) than control (mean = 7.60). RAPD analysis produced only 5 polymorphic bands (3.225%) out of a total of 155 bands from 18 selected primers. Only three primers OPK-19, OPP-2, OPN-08 produced polymorphic bands. The dendrogram showed three groups A, B, and C. Group A samples showed 100% genetic similarity within them. Samples between groups B and C were more genetically distant from each other as compared to samples between groups A and B as well as groups A and C. Cluster analysis based on RAPD data correlated with treatments. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  15. Methodology of shooting training using modern IT techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzbeler, Grzegorz; Struniawski, Jarosław

    2017-08-01

    Mastering, improvement, shaping and preservation of skills of safe, efficient and effective use of the firearm requires the use of relevant methodology of conducting the shooting training. However reality of police trainings does not usually allow for intensive training shooting with the use of ammunition. An alternative solution is the use of modern training technologies. Example of this is the "Virtual system of improvement tactics of intervention services responsible for security and shooting training." Introduction of stimulator to police trainings will enable complete stuff preparation to achieve its tasks, creating potential of knowledge and experience in many areas, far exceeding the capabilities of conventional training.

  16. Proliferative and nonproliferative breast disease in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Land, C.E.; Aoki, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Asano, Masahide; Sato, Eiichi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sakamoto, Goi; Page, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The risk of female breast cancer in association with radiation exposure is well established, on the basis of follow-up studies of the atomic-bomb survivors and other exposed populations. This association is especially strong for women exposed before age 20 yr and appears to be much weaker among women exposed after age 40 yr. In this study, breast-tissue autopsy samples from high-dose and low-dose individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study sample were examined in detail to determine whether nonproliferative or proliferative breast lesions are associated with radiation exposure. The results suggest that proliferative disease in general and atypical hyperplasia in particular are associated with radiation exposure and that the risk is strongest for subjects who were ages 40-49 yr at the time of the bombings. It is hypothesized that this finding may be related to the age dependence of radiation-induced breast cancer, in the sense that potential cancers reflecting early-stage changes induced at these ages by radiation exposure may receive too little hormonal promotion to progress to frank cancers. (author)

  17. Neoplastic and proliferative disorders of the perinephric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.T.; Haarer, K.A.; Thomas, E.; Thaete, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    The perinephric space is a well-marginated central compartment of the retroperitoneum, located between the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces. Various neoplastic and proliferative disorders can affect the perinephric space, and there is a wide array of imaging findings. Although many perinephric lesions may extend directly from the kidney and adrenal gland, other lesions occur in the perinephric space due to haematogenous spread, as part of a systemic disease, or by extension from an adjacent retroperitoneal compartment. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of perinephric diseases, as many of the disease processes affecting this space will not result in clinical signs or symptoms until the disease is at an advanced stage. Despite the often shared non-specific clinical and imaging findings among these disease processes, application of a categorical differential diagnosis based on the imaging characteristics will serve to narrow the differential diagnosis and direct further evaluation and treatment. In this article, the lesions have been categorized as soft-tissue rind [nephroblastomatosis, fibrosis, Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD), extramedullary haematopoiesis, lymphoma, infiltrating metastases], focal solid lesions (extension of renal or adrenal malignancies, melanoma metastases, treated lymphoma), fat-containing lesions (angiomyolipoma, liposarcoma, myelolipoma), and cystic lesions (lymphangiomas, abscesses). The aim of this article is to demonstrate and describe the key imaging features of several neoplastic and proliferative disorders that affect the perinephric space.

  18. Amniocar as a proliferative medium for mesenchymal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chestkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To develop the Amniocar nutrient medium that contains fetal calf serum (FCS and growth factors cocktail for mass cultivation of human fibroblasts. To study proliferative activity of the medium on cultures of HUVEC cells of mesenchymal origin and mesenchymal stromal cells, as well as on cell culture of human amniotic fluid.Materials and methods. Determination of the rate of accumulation of the cellular mass and cell morphology in the course of cultivation of cells of various histogenesis in the Amniocar medium and nutrient medium that contains 10 % of FCS.Results. It has been demonstrated that the Amniocar medium is prevalent as compared to the standard DMEM medium with 10 % of FCS by 2 to 5 times for cultivation of skin fibroblasts, HUVEC, and mesenchymal stem cells. The Amniocar medium increased the quantity of endothelial cells that enter mitosis and maintained the culture of HUVEC cells with prolonged passaging in vitro. Clonal cultivation of human amniotic fluid cells in the Amniocar medium secured development of colonies of both fibroblast and epithelial type.Conclusions. Proliferative Amniocar medium is efficient for mass cultivation of various cells of mesenchymal origin and can be used for diagnostic purposes in medical genetics, oncology, etc.

  19. Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A case report with an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Issrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White lesions both physiologic as well as pathologic are relatively frequent in the oral cavity, the most common pathology being oral leukoplakia (OL. There are many variants of OL, one of which is oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (OPVL. OPVL is a rare clinico-pathological entity, which is slow growing, long-term progressive lesion, but remains an enigmatic and difficult to define. The etiology of OPVL remains still unclear. Tobacco use does not seem to have a significant influence on the appearance of OPVL. These lesions may occur both in smokers and non-smokers. It is observed more frequently in women and elderly patients over 60 years at the time of diagnosis. The buccal mucosa and tongue are the most frequently involved sites. It develops initially as a white plaque of hyperkeratosis that eventually becomes a multifocal disease with confluent, exophytic and proliferative features. Various published case series have presented OPVL as a disease with aggressive biological behavior due to its high probability of recurrence and a high rate of malignant transformation. Prognosis is poor for this seemingly harmless-appearing white lesion of the oral mucosa. This article describes the clinical aspects and histologic features of an OPVL case that demonstrated the typical behavior pattern in a long-standing, persistent lesion and discusses this relatively rare entity in light of current information.

  20. Connective Tissue Fibroblast Properties Are Position-Dependent during Mouse Digit Tip Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Karen; Karapetyan, Adrine; Fernando, Warnakulusuriya Akash; Simkin, Jennifer; Han, Manjong; Rugg, Elizabeth L.; Muneoka, Ken

    2013-01-01

    A key factor that contributes to the regenerative ability of regeneration-competent animals such as the salamander is their use of innate positional cues that guide the regeneration process. The limbs of mammals has severe regenerative limitations, however the distal most portion of the terminal phalange is regeneration competent. This regenerative ability of the adult mouse digit is level dependent: amputation through the distal half of the terminal phalanx (P3) leads to successful regeneration, whereas amputation through a more proximal location, e.g. the subterminal phalangeal element (P2), fails to regenerate. Do the connective tissue cells of the mammalian digit play a role similar to that of the salamander limb in controlling the regenerative response? To begin to address this question, we isolated and cultured cells of the connective tissue surrounding the phalangeal bones of regeneration competent (P3) and incompetent (P2) levels. Despite their close proximity and localization, these cells show very distinctive profiles when characterized in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies comparing their proliferation and position-specific interactions reveal that cells isolated from the P3 and P2 are both capable of organizing and differentiating epithelial progenitors, but with different outcomes. The difference in interactions are further characterized with three-dimension cultures, in which P3 regenerative cells are shown to lack a contractile response that is seen in other fibroblast cultures, including the P2 cultures. In in vivo engraftment studies, the difference between these two cell lines is made more apparent. While both P2 and P3 cells participated in the regeneration of the terminal phalanx, their survival and proliferative indices were distinct, thus suggesting a key difference in their ability to interact within a regeneration permissive environment. These studies are the first to demonstrate distinct positional characteristics of connective tissue

  1. Regeneration Responses to Management for Old-Growth Characteristics in Northern Hardwood-Conifer Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva J. Gottesman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is essential for sustainable forest management, yet it can be limited by the interaction of harvesting effects and multiple ecological drivers. In northern hardwood forests, for example, there is uncertainty whether low-intensity selection harvesting techniques will result in adequate and desirable regeneration. Our research is part of a long-term study that tests the hypothesis that a silvicultural approach called “structural complexity enhancement” (SCE can accelerate the development of late-successional forest structure and functions. Our objective is to understand the regeneration dynamics following three uneven-aged forestry treatments with high levels of retention: single-tree selection, group selection, and SCE. Regeneration density and diversity can be limited by differing treatment effects on or interactions among light availability, competitive environment, substrate, and herbivory. To explore these relationships, manipulations and controls were replicated across 2 ha treatment units at two Vermont sites. Forest inventory data were collected pre-harvest and periodically over 13 years post-harvest. We used mixed effects models with repeated measures to evaluate the effect of treatment on seedling and sapling density and diversity (Shannon–Weiner H’. The treatments were all successful in recruiting a sapling class with significantly greater sapling densities compared to the controls. However, undesirable and prolific beech (Fagus americana sprouting dominates some patches in the understory of all the treatments, creating a high degree of spatial variability in the competitive environment for regeneration. Multivariate analyses suggest that while treatment had a dominant effect, other factors were influential in driving regeneration responses. These results indicate variants of uneven-aged systems that retain or enhance elements of stand structural complexity—including old-growth characteristics

  2. Connective tissue fibroblast properties are position-dependent during mouse digit tip regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wu

    Full Text Available A key factor that contributes to the regenerative ability of regeneration-competent animals such as the salamander is their use of innate positional cues that guide the regeneration process. The limbs of mammals has severe regenerative limitations, however the distal most portion of the terminal phalange is regeneration competent. This regenerative ability of the adult mouse digit is level dependent: amputation through the distal half of the terminal phalanx (P3 leads to successful regeneration, whereas amputation through a more proximal location, e.g. the subterminal phalangeal element (P2, fails to regenerate. Do the connective tissue cells of the mammalian digit play a role similar to that of the salamander limb in controlling the regenerative response? To begin to address this question, we isolated and cultured cells of the connective tissue surrounding the phalangeal bones of regeneration competent (P3 and incompetent (P2 levels. Despite their close proximity and localization, these cells show very distinctive profiles when characterized in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies comparing their proliferation and position-specific interactions reveal that cells isolated from the P3 and P2 are both capable of organizing and differentiating epithelial progenitors, but with different outcomes. The difference in interactions are further characterized with three-dimension cultures, in which P3 regenerative cells are shown to lack a contractile response that is seen in other fibroblast cultures, including the P2 cultures. In in vivo engraftment studies, the difference between these two cell lines is made more apparent. While both P2 and P3 cells participated in the regeneration of the terminal phalanx, their survival and proliferative indices were distinct, thus suggesting a key difference in their ability to interact within a regeneration permissive environment. These studies are the first to demonstrate distinct positional characteristics of

  3. In vitro regeneration of five wheat genotypes from immature zygotic embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, M.I.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the ability to induce callus from immature zygotic embryos of five wheat genotypes (Lu 26, WH 543, Zamindar 80, BT-002 and Seher-06) in response to 2, 4 and 6 mg/L of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Callus induction was most effective (41% averaged across the 5 genotypes) in the presence of 2 mg/L 2,4-D. Callus induction was highest in Lu 26 (34%) followed by WH 543 (33%). Highest percentage shoot formation (33%) from callus was possible on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium containing 300 mg casein hydrolysate. BT-002 responded best to shoot formation (26%) followed by WH 543 (24%). Under these optimal conditions, callus could form within 7.4 days and shoots within 20.87 days (fastest growth averaged across the 5 genotypes). Zamindar-80 responded best by taking fewest days to initiate callus formation (7.88 days) while Lu 26 took the least amount of time to form shoots (23.25 days). This study provides a rapid and efficient, as well as cultivar-independent protocol for the indirect formation of shoots from callus, the first such report for WH 543, Zamindar 80, BT-002 and Seher-06. This protocol may be a useful protocol for transgenic wheat plants that are derived from the genetic transformation of callus, either by particle bombardment or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, to produce, for example, insect- or herbicide-resistant plants, since a rapid and effective regeneration protocol is an essential first step for the successful regeneration of transgenic plants. (author)

  4. Micropropagation of nucellar embryos and their histological comparative study for regeneration ability with other explants of kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, S.K.; Khan, S.; Kabir, N.

    2018-01-01

    Polyembryony is the most beneficial and distinct character in citrus seeds. This characteristic can be beneficial in citrus improvement programs. Nucellar embryos developed from nucellar wall in citrus seeds along with zygotic embryo are found to have high plants regeneration ability in comparison to zygotic embryos. Under In vitro culture conditions, nucellar embryos were detected and multiplied on MT media with 0.5ml of coconut water along with 50g/L sucrose. These nucellar embryonic tissues were also regenerated on MT media upplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L kinetin. Many shoots were regenerated from nucellar embryonic tissue; these shoots were rooted on MT media supplemented with IBA 0.5mg/L and NAA 0.1 mg/L in addition to activated charcoal 0.5gm/L. The resulting plantlets were acclimatized in the green house. After micropropagation, histological studies of nucellar embryonic tissues were carried out under fluorescence microscope to examine their high regeneration ability in comparison with usual plant parts, like seeds, shoots as well as with tissue culture stages including embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. It was found that nucellar embryos have more regeneration ability as compared to usual plant parts and other tissue culture stages. (author)

  5. Regeneration of desiccants with solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, S.R.; Butts, C.L.; Lown, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Saturated silica gel was regenerated with solar energy. This paper describes the experimental set-up for silica gel regeneration and data collection. The regenerated silica gel can be used to dry high moisture in-shell pecans.

  6. Complex interaction between proliferative kidney disease, water temperature and concurrent nematode infection in brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Steiner, Pascale; Müller, Barbara; Casanova-Nakayama, Ayako

    2013-04-29

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a temperature-dependent disease caused by the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. It is an emerging threat to wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario populations in Switzerland. Here we examined (1) how PKD prevalence and pathology in young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout relate to water temperature, (2) whether wild brown trout can completely recover from T. bryosalmonae-induced renal lesions and eliminate T. bryosalmonae over the winter months, and (3) whether this rate and/or extent of the recovery is influenced by concurrent infection. A longitudinal field study on a wild brown trout cohort was conducted over 16 mo. YOY and age 1+ fish were sampled from 7 different field sites with various temperature regimes, and monitored for infection with T. bryosalmonae and the nematode Raphidascaris acus. T. bryosamonae was detectable in brown trout YOY from all sampling sites, with similar renal pathology, independent of water temperature. During winter months, recovery was mainly influenced by the presence or absence of concurrent infection with R. acus larvae. While brown trout without R. acus regenerated completely, concurrently infected brown trout showed incomplete recovery, with chronic renal lesions and incomplete translocation of T. bryosalmonae from the renal interstitium into the tubular lumen. Water temperature seemed to influence complete excretion of T. bryosalmonae, with spores remaining in trout from summer-warm rivers, but absent in trout from summer-cool rivers. In the following summer months, we found PKD infections in 1+ brown trout from all investigated river sites. The pathological lesions indicated a re-infection rather than a proliferation of remaining T. bryosalmonae. However, disease prevalence in 1+ trout was lower than in YOY.

  7. Chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs for skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Cathy Ann; Tam, Joshua; Steiglitz, Barry M; Bauer, Rebecca L; Peters, Noel R; Wang, Ying; Anderson, R Rox; Allen-Hoffmann, B Lynn

    2014-08-01

    The ideal treatment for severe cutaneous injuries would eliminate the need for autografts and promote fully functional, aesthetically pleasing autologous skin regeneration. NIKS progenitor cell-based skin tissues have been developed to promote healing by providing barrier function and delivering wound healing factors. Independently, a device has recently been created to "copy" skin by harvesting full-thickness microscopic tissue columns (MTCs) in lieu of autografts traditionally harvested as sheets. We evaluated the feasibility of combining these two technologies by embedding MTCs in NIKS-based skin tissues to generate chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs. Chimeric constructs have the potential to provide immediate wound coverage, eliminate painful donor site wounds, and promote restoration of a pigmented skin tissue possessing hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. After MTC insertion, chimeric constructs and controls were reintroduced into air-interface culture and maintained in vitro for several weeks. Tissue viability, proliferative capacity, and morphology were evaluated after long-term culture. Our results confirmed successful MTC insertion and integration, and demonstrated the feasibility of generating chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs that preserved the viability, proliferative capacity, and structure of autologous pigmented skin. These feasibility studies established the proof-of-principle necessary to further develop chimeric autologous/allogeneic constructs for the treatment of complex skin defects. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  9. Shoot multiplication of Paphiopedilum orchid through in vitro cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waraporn

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... regulators could remain higher shoot multiplication than in other media. The micropropagation ... stalk nodes, buds, root tips and rhizome segments. For mass ... plants, the future mass-market orchids will most likely be.

  10. Preventing School Shootings: A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

  11. 76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 26, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5705... distorted growth in host trees. Large infestations of PSB typically kill most of the lateral shoots near the...

  12. Effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP) pulsing on in vitro shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Research Cluster, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Accepted 12 ... number of bud formation in shoot cultures of Musa acuminata cv. ... In tissue culture, plant growth regulators (PGR) are.

  13. Roots & Shoots: A model for active environmental protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar is facing severe environmental problems. One approach to engage possible future stakeholders and to raise awareness for environmental concerns is the Roots & Shoots program. On the following the program and its philosophy are presented.

  14. Atypical proliferative myositis: original MR description with pathologic correlation: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Boston, MA (United States); Parva, Pedram [VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA (United States); Stone, Michael [Stamford Hospital, Department of Surgery, Stamford, CT (United States); Klein, Michael J. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Proliferative myositis (PM) along with proliferative fasciitis and nodular fasciitis are a group of pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations. Although the histologic presentation of each is almost identical, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of proliferative myositis is closer to that of inflammatory myopathies. We report a case of PM in which the imaging and histologic features combine typical findings of PM with unusual imaging features, suggesting of reactive (or nodular) fasciitis. (orig.)

  15. Atypical proliferative myositis: original MR description with pathologic correlation: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Guermazi, Ali; Parva, Pedram; Stone, Michael; Klein, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Proliferative myositis (PM) along with proliferative fasciitis and nodular fasciitis are a group of pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations. Although the histologic presentation of each is almost identical, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of proliferative myositis is closer to that of inflammatory myopathies. We report a case of PM in which the imaging and histologic features combine typical findings of PM with unusual imaging features, suggesting of reactive (or nodular) fasciitis. (orig.)

  16. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  17. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  18. DETECTING LASER SPOT IN SHOOTING SIMULATOR USING AN EMBEDDED CAMERA

    OpenAIRE

    Soetedjo, Aryuanto; Mahmudi, Ali; Ibrahim Ashari, M.; Ismail Nakhoda, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an embedded camera system for detecting laser spot in the shooting simulator. The proposed shooting simulator uses a specific target box, where the circular pattern target is mounted. The embedded camera is installed inside the box to capture the circular pattern target and laser spot image. To localize the circular pattern automatically, two colored solid circles are painted on the target. This technique allows the simple and fast color tracking to trac...

  19. Coumarins and alkaloids in shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae was maintained in the stationary liquid phase. From the cultured shoots seven compounds were isolated and identified as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin (linear furanocoumarins, rutamarin (linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, kokusaginine and skimmianine (furanoquinoline alkaloids by spectral methods. The compounds are known as secondary metabolites of the intact plant, as well as its cell and tissue cultures.

  20. Genotype, explant, medium, light and radiation effects on the in vitro plant regeneration in alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fiki, A.A.; Abdel-Hameed, A.A.M.; Sayed, A.I.H.

    2005-01-01

    The relative importance of genotype, explants, radiation, medium and light and their interactions for in vitro plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been studied. Shoot and leaf explants of two commercially grown Egyptian cultivars, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid and Siwa Tarkibi, were used in the study. The effect of gamma radiation doses 40, 80, 120 and 160 Gy were negative on plant regeneration, in spite of increase with some treatments. The best results of plant regeneration were obtained with dose 40 Gy with control light regime (16 h) on MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 1.5 mg BAP in both shoot and leaf explants of cv. Al-Wadi. The shoot explant of cv. Siwa was sensitive for gamma radiation dose 40 Gy while affirmative effect was obtained in leaf explant on MS + 1.0 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with control light regime. However, dose 80 Gy showed the best results on MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP in shoot and leaf explants of both cultivars, with control light regime in shoot explant and dark/light (DL) and dark/dark (DD) in leaf explant of cv. Al-Wadi, while with light/dark (LD) in shoot explant and control light regime in leaf explant of cv. Siwa. On the other hand, the highest plant regeneration ratio observed with dose 120 Gy were on 1.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with control light regime in shoot and leaf explants of cv. Al-Wadi but on 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with control and dark/light (DL) light regime in shoot and leaf explants of cv. Siwa. Whereas, the radiation dose 160 Gy showed severe effect on plant regeneration in both cultivars but highest percentage was observed on MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP with dark/light (DL) in shoot explant, MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 1.5 mg BAP with control light regime in leaf explant of cv. Al-Wadi, MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 1.5 mg BAP in shoot explant and MS + 0.5 mg NAA + 0.5 mg BAP in leaf explant with dark/light (DL) in cv. Siwa. However, the effects of the same doses on callus growth showed that the highest callus weight was

  1. T-cell proliferative responses following sepsis in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal, Ousama; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kohn, Annamarie; Muraskas, Jonathan K; Namak, Shahla Y; Alattar, Mohammad H; Sayeed, Mohammed M

    2003-01-01

    Both experimental and clinical evidence suggest a suppression of T-cell function in burn and sepsis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate splenocyte and purified T-cell proliferative response and IL-2 production in septic neonatal rats. We also examined if alterations in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production in neonatal sepsis is due to elevation in PGE2. PGE2 is known to play a significant role in T-cell suppression during sepsis in adults. Sepsis was induced in 15-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by implanting 0.1 cm3 of fecal pellet impregnated with Escherichia coli (50 CFU) and Bacteroides fragilis (10(3) CFU). Animals receiving fecal pellets without the bacteria were designated as sterile. A group of septic and sterile rats were treated with PGE2 synthesis inhibitors, NS398 and resveratrol. These treatments of animals allowed us to evaluate the role of PGE2 in T-cell suppression during neonatal sepsis. Splenocytes as well as purified T cells were prepared and then proliferative response and IL-2 productive capacities were measured. A significant suppression of splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production was noticed in both sterile and septic animals compared to the T cells from unoperated control rats. In contrast, the proliferation and IL-2 production by nylon wool purified T cells in sterile rats was not significantly different from control rats, whereas, a significant suppression in Con A-mediated T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production noticed in septic rat T cells compared to the sterile and control rat T cells. Such decrease in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production was accompanied with 20-25% deaths in neonates implanted with septic pellets. No mortality was noted in sterile-implanted neonates. Treatment of animals with COX-1 inhibitor had no effect on T-cell proliferation response in both septic and sterile groups, whereas COX-2 inhibitor abrogated the decrease in T-cell proliferative response in the septic group. The treatment

  2. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  3. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert George Plackett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.

  4. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  5. dlx and sp6-9 Control optic cup regeneration in a prototypic eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain W Lapan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Optic cups are a structural feature of diverse eyes, from simple pit eyes to camera eyes of vertebrates and cephalopods. We used the planarian prototypic eye as a model to study the genetic control of optic cup formation and regeneration. We identified two genes encoding transcription factors, sp6-9 and dlx, that were expressed in the eye specifically in the optic cup and not the photoreceptor neurons. RNAi of these genes prevented formation of visible optic cups during regeneration. Planarian regeneration requires an adult proliferative cell population with stem cell-like properties called the neoblasts. We found that optic cup formation occurred only after migration of progressively differentiating progenitor cells from the neoblast population. The eye regeneration defect caused by dlx and sp6-9 RNAi can be explained by a failure to generate these early optic cup progenitors. Dlx and Sp6-9 genes function as a module during the development of diverse animal appendages, including vertebrate and insect limbs. Our work reveals a novel function for this gene pair in the development of a fundamental eye component, and it utilizes these genes to demonstrate a mechanism for total organ regeneration in which extensive cell movement separates new cell specification from organ morphogenesis.

  6. Plant regeneration of non-toxic Jatropha curcas—impacts of plant growth regulators, source and type of explants

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-28

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant, however, oil and deoiled cake are toxic. A non-toxic variety of J. curcas is reported from Mexico. The present investigation explores the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on regeneration from in vitro and field-grown mature leaf explants, in vitro and glasshouse-grown seedlings cotyledonary leaf explants of non-toxic J. curcas. In all the tested parameters maximum regeneration efficiency (81.07%) and the number of shoot buds per explants (20.17) was observed on 9.08 μM TDZ containing Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium from in vitro cotyledonary leaf explants. The regenerated shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 μM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 μM BAP and 5.5 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 μM BAP and 8.5 μM IAA. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing different concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA and NAA for four days followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg/l activated charcoal. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate.

  7. Plant regeneration of non-toxic Jatropha curcas—impacts of plant growth regulators, source and type of explants

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Vijay Anand, K. G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant, however, oil and deoiled cake are toxic. A non-toxic variety of J. curcas is reported from Mexico. The present investigation explores the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on regeneration from in vitro and field-grown mature leaf explants, in vitro and glasshouse-grown seedlings cotyledonary leaf explants of non-toxic J. curcas. In all the tested parameters maximum regeneration efficiency (81.07%) and the number of shoot buds per explants (20.17) was observed on 9.08 μM TDZ containing Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium from in vitro cotyledonary leaf explants. The regenerated shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 μM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 μM BAP and 5.5 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 μM BAP and 8.5 μM IAA. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing different concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA and NAA for four days followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg/l activated charcoal. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate.

  8. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP. It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots showed that the production of diterpenoids, carnosic acid/carnosol ratio, as well as, contents of rosmarinic acid were also affected by the treatment with triacontanol. The highest stimulation effect of triacontanol was observed on the production of carnosol, where the treatment with 20 µg l l-1 increased the content of this diterpenoid 4.5-fold compared to that in the control (sage shoots growing on MS basal medium, only.

  9. The proliferative human monocyte subpopulation contains osteoclast precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Roya; Kitchener, Peter D; Hamilton, John A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Immediate precursors of bone-resorbing osteoclasts are cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Particularly during clinical conditions showing bone loss, it would appear that osteoclast precursors are mobilized from bone marrow into the circulation prior to entering tissues undergoing such loss. The observed heterogeneity of peripheral blood monocytes has led to the notion that different monocyte subpopulations may have special or restricted functions, including as osteoclast precursors. Methods Human peripheral blood monocytes were sorted based upon their degree of proliferation and cultured in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Results The monocyte subpopulation that is capable of proliferation gave rise to significantly more multinucleated, bone-resorbing osteoclasts than the bulk of the monocytes. Conclusions Human peripheral blood osteoclast precursors reside in the proliferative monocyte subpopulation. PMID:19222861

  10. Analysis and Enhancements of a Prolific Macroscopic Model of Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fietkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic models of epilepsy can deliver surprisingly realistic EEG simulations. In the present study, a prolific series of models is evaluated with regard to theoretical and computational concerns, and enhancements are developed. Specifically, we analyze three aspects of the models: (1 Using dynamical systems analysis, we demonstrate and explain the presence of direct current potentials in the simulated EEG that were previously undocumented. (2 We explain how the system was not ideally formulated for numerical integration of stochastic differential equations. A reformulated system is developed to support proper methodology. (3 We explain an unreported contradiction in the published model specification regarding the use of a mathematical reduction method. We then use the method to reduce the number of equations and further improve the computational efficiency. The intent of our critique is to enhance the evolution of macroscopic modeling of epilepsy and assist others who wish to explore this exciting class of models further.

  11. Proliferative activity of stomach cancer and assessment of individual radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chissov, V.I.; Sergeeva, N.S.; Dar'yalova, S.L.; Petrov, A.N.; Repina, A.G.; Belous, T.A.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescent method with polyclonal antibodies to thymidine was used to assess the proliferative activity (PA-percent of cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle) of 79 stomach tumors from primary cancer patients. Stomach cancer PA was shown to vary from 0.1 to 69.7%. Stomach cancer PA did not depend either on a tumor size or a degree of the involvement of regional lymph nodes. The mean PA of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma was slightly lower (14.9±4.7%) than that of low differentiated ones. Of 79 patients a tumor process was interpreted as a resectable one in 62. They were given preoperative irradiation at a total focal dose of 36 Gy followed by operation. It was shown that tumor radioresistance could be predicted in unchanged PA indices of their increase at the beginning of a course of irradiation with the probability of 95%

  12. Anticardiolipin antibodies in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: An additional risk factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Maha; ElDiasty, Amany M; Mabed, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    To report the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) having high-risk criteria (HRC). Diabetic patients having PDR with HRC and diabetics free of retinopathy were compared for the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies. Among the 34 patients, 6 (17.7%) of diabetics having PDR with HRC were positive for anticardiolipin antibodies. There was no significant association of aCL antibodies with sex or type of diabetes. Using Pearson's correlation test, no significant associations of aCL antibodies with duration of diabetes or age of patients were found. All patients who were positive for anticardiolipin antibodies had PDR with HRC. The difference was statistically significant. Presence of anticardiolipin antibodies may represent an additional risk factor for PDR. (author)

  13. Accounting for treatment delays when treating highly proliferative tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.; Metcalfe, P.; Hoban, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the possibility of increasing the dose per fraction or increasing the number of fractions to account for treatment delays occurring during radiotherapy treatments for highly proliferative tumours. The linear quadratic model with time was used to determine the difference in biological effective dose (BED) for the original schedule and the schedule including a treatment delay. Tables of extra fractions and extra dose per fraction required to account for a number of possible delays have been determined. It has been shown that for tumours with very short potential doubling times it is best to deliver the extra dose as an increase in dose per fraction rather than an increase in the number of fractions, while for tumours with moderately short potential doubling times (above 7 days) the reverse is true. The equivalent uninterrupted schedules, which would have delivered the same effects to the tumour, have also been determined. (author)

  14. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  15. Planarian regeneration under micro- and hyper-gravity simulated contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auletta, Gennaro; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Adell, Teresa; Salo, Emili

    Planarians are non-parasitic flatworms of the Turbellaria class, some of which show the striking ability to regenerate any part of their body, even the head, in few days. Planarians are common to many parts of the world, living in both saltwater and freshwater, as well as in terrestrial areas. Due to their plasticity Planarians have been a classical model for the study of the mechanisms of regeneration. Currently, their cheap and easy maintenance, as well as the establishment of robust genetic tools, have converted them into an essential system in the field of stem cells and regenerative medicine. The aim of our project is to study the effect that micro- and hyper- gravity could exert during the process of planarians regeneration. The reason for planarians extreme regenerative capability is the maintenance until adulthood of a population of totipotent stem cells as well as the continuous activation of the cell-cell communication molecular pathways. Our prediction is that the alteration of the forces could affect planarians regeneration at different levels: 1) To regenerate, planarians must activate both proliferative and apoptotic responses, in order to create new tissue and to remodel the pre-existing one, respectively. Both cellular processes have been reported to be altered in several models under differential gravitational forces; 2) In planarians, the main intercellular signalling pathways (Wnt, TGFb, BMP, Hh, EGF) must control the process of differentiation and determination of each cell. For instances, it has been demonstrated that the differential activity of the wnt/beta-catenin pathway specifies the posterior (tail) versus the anterior (head) identity. Those pathways rely on the distance that secreted molecules (morphogens) are able to reach. Either this mechanism consist in a passive diffusion or an active transport through phyllopodia, it could sense the magnitude of the gravitational force; 3) The epidermis of planarians is covered by cilia, which beat

  16. Micropropagation and validation of genetic and biochemical fidelity among regenerants of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Graham) Mabb. employing ISSR markers and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Lokesh; Middha, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Sudipta Kumar; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara

    2016-12-01

    An in vitro protocol has been established for clonal propagation of Nothapodytes nimmoniana which is an important source of Camptothecin (CPT). Elite source was identified based on the chemical potency to accumulate the optimum level of CPT. Different types and concentrations of plant growth regulators were used to study their effect on inducing multiple shoots from the explants regenerated from embryos of N. nimmoniana. Of these, a combination of N6-benzyladenine (0.2 mg L -1 ) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) (0.1 mg L -1 ) proved optimum for differentiating multiple shoots in 90.6 % of the cultures with an average of 10.24 shoots per explant obtained within 8 weeks of inoculation. Nearly, 92 % of the excised in vitro shoots rooted on half strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.05 % activated charcoal, supplemented with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and IBA at 0.1 mg L -1 each. The micropropagated plants were evaluated for their genetic fidelity by employing inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Ten individuals, randomly chosen from a population of 145 regenerants, were compared with the donor plant. The regenerated plants were also evaluated for their chemical potency using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of CPT content. The true-to-type nature of the micropropagated plants was confirmed based on their monomorphic banding profiles with that of the mother plants using ISSR markers. Besides, HPLC evaluation of the CPT content confirmed the existence of chemical uniformity among the regenerated plants and the elite mother plant.

  17. Correlation of proliferative and clonogenic tumor cells in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, J.E.; Burke, P.J.; Saylor, P.L.; Humphrey, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    To expand on the findings from previous clinical trials that the growth of residual tumor is increased at a predictable time following initial drug administration, malignant plasma cells from bone marrows of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were examined for changes in proliferation and clonogenicity induced in vivo by cyclophosphamide and in vitro by drug-induced humoral stimulatory activity. Peak plasma cell [ 3 H]thymidine labeling index (LI) occurred predictably following drug and paralleled changes in agar colony formation by marrow cells obtained during therapy. Colony-forming capacity of pretreatment MM marrow populations was enhanced when those cells were cultured with humoral stimulatory activity, similar to the increased colony formation detected in Day 9 postcyclophosphamide marrows at the time of peak plasma cell LI. To further define a relationship between proliferative plasma cells and colony-forming tumor cells, MM marrows were fractionated by sedimentation on an isokinetic gradient. Enrichment of a proliferative tumor cell cohort was achieved, evidenced by [ 3 H]thymidine LI. Colony-forming cells were also enriched by isokinetic gradient sedimentation, and agar colony formation by MM marrow cell fractions correlated with the kinetic characteristics of the isolated subpopulations. These studies of whole and fractionated human MM marrow cell populations suggest that the kinetically active cells which are induced to proliferate in vivo and in vitro are closely related to the clonogenic tumor cells which produce colonies in agar and which, like those cells measured by [ 3 H]thymidine LI, respond to growth stimulation by drug-induced humoral stimulatory activity

  18. Anti-Myeloperoxidase Antibodies Associate with Future Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Olson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The subclinical pathophysiology of proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN has not been fully elucidated. Myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA is associated with PLN, but prediagnostic levels have not been reported. Methods. We performed a retrospective case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR study comparing MPO-ANCA levels in longitudinal prediagnostic serum samples for 23 biopsy confirmed proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN patients to DoDSR identified age, sex, race, and age of serum matched healthy and SLE without LN disease controls. We also compared the temporal relationship of MPO-ANCA to anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (dsDNAab. Results. A greater proportion of PLN patients had prediagnostic MPO-ANCA levels above ≥3 U/mL and ≥6 U/mL compared to SLE without LN (91% versus 43%, p<0.001; 57% versus 5%, p<0.001, resp.. In subgroup analysis, the MPO-ANCA threshold of ≥3 U/mL was significant at <1 year (88% versus 39%, p=0.007 and 1–4 years (87% versus 38%, p=0.009 prior to diagnosis. Statistically significant subclinical MPO-ANCA levels (≥3 U/mL occurred prior to statistically significant dsDNAab ≥ 3 IU/ml (89% versus 11%, p=0.003. Conclusions. Subclinical MPO-ANCA levels could distinguish future PLN from SLE without LN. MPO-ANCA manifests prior to clinical disease and subclinical dsDNAab to suggest that it may contribute directly to PLN pathogenicity.

  19. Results from neutral kaon regeneration at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental neutral kaon regeneration results at Serpukhov energies up to 50 GeV are presented, including the coherent regeneration on hydrogen, deuterium and carbon regenerators and elastic regeneration on deuterium and carbon regenerators. (author)

  20. β-catenin/Wnt signaling controls progenitor fate in the developing and regenerating zebrafish retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Jason R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebrafish retina maintains two populations of stem cells: first, the germinal zone or ciliary marginal zone (CMZ contains multipotent retinal progenitors that add cells to the retinal periphery as the fish continue to grow; second, radial glia (Müller cells occasionally divide asymmetrically to generate committed progenitors that differentiate into rod photoreceptors, which are added interstitially throughout the retina with growth. Retinal injury stimulates Müller glia to dedifferentiate, re-enter the cell cycle, and generate multipotent retinal progenitors similar to those in the CMZ to replace missing neurons. The specific signals that maintain these two distinct populations of endogenous retinal stem cells are not understood. Results We used genetic and pharmacological manipulation of the β-catenin/Wnt signaling pathway to show that it is required to maintain proliferation in the CMZ and that hyperstimulation of β-catenin/Wnt signaling inhibits normal retinal differentiation and expands the population of proliferative retinal progenitors. To test whether similar effects occur during regeneration, we developed a method for making rapid, selective photoreceptor ablations in larval zebrafish with intense light. We found that dephosphorylated β-catenin accumulates in Müller glia as they re-enter the cell cycle following injury, but not in Müller glia that remain quiescent. Activation of Wnt signaling is required for regenerative proliferation, and hyperstimulation results in loss of Müller glia from the INL as all proliferative cells move into the ONL. Conclusions β-catenin/Wnt signaling is thus required for the maintenance of retinal progenitors during both initial development and lesion-induced regeneration, and is sufficient to prevent differentiation of those progenitors and maintain them in a proliferative state. This suggests that the β-catenin/Wnt cascade is part of the shared molecular circuitry that

  1. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  2. Plant regeneration from organ culture in white Guinea Yam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.; Sonnino, A.

    1997-01-01

    Explants from leaves, leaf segments, petioles and internodal stem of in vitro grown seedlings of white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, cv. 'Obiaoturugo' were cultured on defined media. NAA at concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/1 induced shoot regeneration from petiolar and inter-nodal stem pieces, and rooting occurred with little or no callusing from whole leaves or leaf segments. With concentration of 3.0-10.0 m/1 NAA, explants from petioles, inter-nodal stem, whole leaves and leaf segments formed callus which produced roots. These explants developed plantlets when subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/1 BAP and 0.1 mg/1 NAA. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  3. Plant regeneration from organ culture in white Guinea Yam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, E C; Mbanaso, E N.A. [National Root Crops Research Inst., Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State (Nigeria); Sonnino, A [Centro Recerche Energia, ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Explants from leaves, leaf segments, petioles and internodal stem of in vitro grown seedlings of white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, cv. `Obiaoturugo` were cultured on defined media. NAA at concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/1 induced shoot regeneration from petiolar and inter-nodal stem pieces, and rooting occurred with little or no callusing from whole leaves or leaf segments. With concentration of 3.0-10.0 m/1 NAA, explants from petioles, inter-nodal stem, whole leaves and leaf segments formed callus which produced roots. These explants developed plantlets when subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/1 BAP and 0.1 mg/1 NAA. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab.

  4. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l-1 IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  5. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies cover a diverse group of disorders in which ragged red and COX-negative fibers are common findings on muscle morphology. In contrast, muscle degeneration and regeneration, typically found in muscular dystrophies, are not considered characteristic features of mitochondrial...... myopathies. We investigated regeneration in muscle biopsies from 61 genetically well-defined patients affected by mitochondrial myopathy. Our results show that the perturbed energy metabolism in mitochondrial myopathies causes ongoing muscle regeneration in a majority of patients, and some were even affected...

  6. Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, C; Terradas, J

    1995-06-01

    Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots.

  7. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae: proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payet Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. Results For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM containing TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.3 mg l-1 during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l-1. By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P Conclusion The

  8. Scar-free wound healing and regeneration following tail loss in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Stephanie Lynn; Lungu, Ilinca Mihaela; Vickaryous, Matthew Kenneth

    2012-10-01

    Many lizards are able to undergo scar-free wound healing and regeneration following loss of the tail. In most instances, lizard tail loss is facilitated by autotomy, an evolved mechanism that permits the tail to be self-detached at pre-existing fracture planes. However, it has also been reported that the tail can regenerate following surgical amputation outside the fracture plane. In this study, we used the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, to investigate and compare wound healing and regeneration following autotomy at a fracture plane and amputation outside the fracture plane. Both forms of tail loss undergo a nearly identical sequence of events leading to scar-free wound healing and regeneration. Early wound healing is characterized by transient myofibroblasts and the formation of a highly proliferative wound epithelium immunoreactive for the wound keratin marker WE6. The new tail forms from what is commonly referred to as a blastema, a mass of proliferating mesenchymal-like cells. Blastema cells express the protease matrix metalloproteinase-9. Apoptosis (demonstrated by activated caspase 3 immunostaining) is largely restricted to isolated cells of the original and regenerating tail tissues, although cell death also occurs within dermal structures at the original-regenerated tissue interface and among clusters of newly formed myocytes. Furthermore, the autotomized tail is unique in demonstrating apoptosis among cells adjacent to the fracture planes. Unlike mammals, transforming growth factor-β3 is not involved in wound healing. We demonstrate that scar-free wound healing and regeneration are intrinsic properties of the tail, unrelated to the location or mode of tail detachment. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Impact of cycling cells and cell cycle regulation on Hydra regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzgariu, Wanda; Wenger, Yvan; Tcaciuc, Nina; Catunda-Lemos, Ana-Paula; Galliot, Brigitte

    2018-01-15

    Hydra tissues are made from three distinct populations of stem cells that continuously cycle and pause in G2 instead of G1. To characterize the role of cell proliferation after mid-gastric bisection, we have (i) used flow cytometry and classical markers to monitor cell cycle modulations, (ii) quantified the transcriptomic regulations of 202 genes associated with cell proliferation during head and foot regeneration, and (iii) compared the impact of anti-proliferative treatments on regeneration efficiency. We confirm two previously reported events: an early mitotic wave in head-regenerating tips, when few cell cycle genes are up-regulated, and an early-late wave of proliferation on the second day, preceded by the up-regulation of 17 cell cycle genes. These regulations appear more intense after mid-gastric bisection than after decapitation, suggesting a position-dependent regulation of cell proliferation during head regeneration. Hydroxyurea, which blocks S-phase progression, delays head regeneration when applied before but not after bisection. This result is consistent with the fact that the Hydra central region is enriched in G2-paused adult stem cells, poised to divide upon injury, thus forming a necessary constitutive pro-blastema. However a prolonged exposure to hydroxyurea does not block regeneration as cells can differentiate apical structures without traversing S-phase, and also escape in few days the hydroxyurea-induced S-phase blockade. Thus Hydra head regeneration, which is a fast event, is highly plastic, relying on large stocks of adult stem cells paused in G2 at amputation time, which immediately divide to proliferate and/or differentiate apical structures even when S-phase is blocked. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae): proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palama, Tony L; Menard, Patrice; Fock, Isabelle; Choi, Young H; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Govinden-Soulange, Joyce; Bahut, Muriel; Payet, Bertrand; Verpoorte, Robert; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2010-05-05

    Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM) containing TDZ (0.5 mg l(-1)). Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS) arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) and TDZ (0.5 mg l(-1)). These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) and TDZ (0.3 mg l(-1)) during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l(-1)). By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS) analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P tissue culture, phenolic compounds such

  11. A novel life cycle arising from leaf segments in plants regenerated from horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Y; Matsuhashi, M

    1995-03-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy root clones were established from hairy roots which were transformed with the Ri plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834. The transformed plants, which were regenerated from hairy root clones, had thicker roots with extensive lateral branches and thicker stems, and grew faster compared with non-transformed horseradish plants. Small sections of leaves of the transformed plants generated adventitious roots in phytohormone-free G (modified Gamborg's) medium. Root proliferation was followed by adventitious shoot formation and plant regeneration. Approximately twenty plants were regenerated per square centimeter of leaf. The transformed plants were easily transferable from sterile conditions to soil. When leaf segments of the transformed plants were cultured in a liquid fertilizer under non-sterile conditions, adventitious roots were generated at the cut ends of the leaves. Adventitious shoots were generated at the boundary between the leaf and the adventitious roots and developed into complete plants. This novel life cycle arising from leaf segments is a unique property of the transformed plants derived from hairy root clones.

  12. Proliferative activity as a prognostic factor of a human tumor radiation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakulov, R.K.; Pelevina, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    The following questions are considered: 1) whether cell proliferation initial parameters can serve for predicting the tumor radial reaction; 2) whether proliferative activity change can be a criterion for estimating the treatment efficiency; 3) acquisition of data on biological peculiarities of different types of tumors. Connection between proliferative activity drop and clinical reaction under tumor radiotherapy is ascertained

  13. [Induction and in vitro culture of hairy roots of Dianthus caryophyllus and its plant regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Heping; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Wang, Bei; Sun, Jiangbing; Huang, Shengqin

    2014-11-01

    To use Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots to create new germplasm of Dianthus caryophyllus, we transformed D. caryophyllus with A. rhizogenes by leaf disc for plant regeneration from hairy roots. The white hairy roots could be induced from the basal surface of leaf explants of D. caryophyllus 12 days after inoculation with A. rhizogenes ATCC15834. The percentage of the rooting leaf explants was about 90% 21 days after inoculation. The hairy roots could grow rapidly and autonomously in liquid or solid phytohormone-free MS medium. The transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of rol gene of Ri plasmid and silica gel thin-layer chromatography of opines from D. caryophyllus hairy roots. Hairy roots could form light green callus after cultured on MS+6-BA 1.0-3.0 mg/L + NAA 0.1-0.2 mg/L for 15 days. The optimum medium for adventitious shoots formation was MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.02 mg/L, where the rate of adventitious shoot induction was 100% after cultured for 6 weeks. The mean number of adventitious shoot per callus was 30-40. The adventitious shoots can form roots when cultured on phytohormone-free 1/2 MS or 1/2 MS +0.5 mg/L NAA for 10 days. When the rooted plantlets transplanted in the substrate mixed with perlite sand and peat (volume ratio of 1:2), the survival rate was above 95%.

  14. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  15. Correlation between proliferative activity and cellular thickness of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hirose, Motohiro; Nakamura, Chikashi; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    A cell's shape is known to be related to its proliferative activity. In particular, large and flat mammalian adult stem cells seem to show slow proliferation, however using quantitative analysis to prove the phenomenon is difficult. We measured the proliferation and cellular thickness of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by atomic force microscopy and found that MSCs with high proliferative activity were thick while those with low proliferative activity were thin, even though these MSCs were early passage cells. Further, low proliferative MSCs contained many senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells together with high senescence-associated gene expression. These findings suggest that the measurement of cellular thickness is useful for estimating the proliferative activity of human MSCs and is expected to be a practical tool for MSC applications in regenerative medicine

  16. Immunohistochemical analyses of cell cycle progression and gene expression of biliary epithelial cells during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tatsuya; Fukuchi, Tomokazu; Yagi, Shinomi; Shiojiri, Nobuyoshi

    2016-05-20

    The liver has a remarkable regeneration capacity, and, after surgical removal of its mass, the remaining tissue undergoes rapid regeneration through compensatory growth of its constituent cells. Although hepatocytes synchronously proliferate under the control of various signaling molecules from neighboring cells, there have been few detailed analyses on how biliary cells regenerate for their cell population after liver resection. The present study was undertaken to clarify how biliary cells regenerate after partial hepatectomy of mice through extensive analyses of their cell cycle progression and gene expression using immunohistochemical and RT-PCR techniques. When expression of PCNA, Ki67 antigen, topoisomerase IIα and phosphorylated histone H3, which are cell cycle markers, was immunohistochemically examined during liver regeneration, hepatocytes had a peak of the S phase and M phase at 48-72 h after resection. By contrast, biliary epithelial cells had much lower proliferative activity than that of hepatocytes, and their peak of the S phase was delayed. Mitotic figures were rarely detectable in biliary cells. RT-PCR analyses of gene expression of biliary markers such as Spp1 (osteopontin), Epcam and Hnf1b demonstrated that they were upregulated during liver regeneration. Periportal hepatocytes expressed some of biliary markers, including Spp1 mRNA and protein. Some periportal hepatocytes had downregulated expression of HNF4α and HNF1α. Gene expression of Notch signaling molecules responsible for cell fate decision of hepatoblasts to biliary cells during development was upregulated during liver regeneration. Notch signaling may be involved in biliary regeneration.

  17. Expression of Msx-2 during development, regeneration, and wound healing in axolotl limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, M R; Bryant, S V; Gardiner, D M

    1998-12-15

    Msx genes are transcription factors that are expressed during embryogenesis of developing appendages in regions of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Various lines of evidence indicate that these genes function to maintain embryonic tissues in an undifferentiated, proliferative state. We have identified the axolotl homolog of Msx-2, and investigated its expression during limb development, limb regeneration, and wound healing. As in limb buds of higher vertebrates, axolotl Msx-2 is expressed in the apical epidermis and mesenchyme; however, its expression domain is more extensive, reflecting the broader region of the apical epidermal cap in amphibians. Msx-2 expression is downregulated at late stages of limb development, but is reexpressed within one hour after limb amputation. Msx-2 is also reexpressed during wound healing, and may be essential in the early stages of initiation of the limb regeneration cascade.

  18. Evaluation of the capacity for direct regeneration of maize inbreds of the Lancaster selection group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Derkach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the necessity of bringing elite maize inbreds of the Lancaster germplasm group, which have potential for cultivation in Ukraine, into the system of genetic tranformation, the aim of this investigation is to identify the ability of maize inbreds of this group to regenerate by direct organogenesis and to determine the optimal mineral basis for their nutritional environment using segments of the node area of shoots. As explantats we used sterile 4-day old seedlings of 4 maize inbreds of Lancaster germplasm and model inbred Chi31 exotic germplasm. The seedlings were obtained by germination of sterile seeds in Petri dishes between two layers of moist sterile filter paper at a temperature of 27 ºC in dark conditions. A single 1 cmlong segment was cut from each from each seedling, running from 0.5 cmbefore the node to 0.5 cmafter the node. A cut was made in each segment of the node in order to create a wounded surface. Explantats were planted in a nutrient environment with mineral bases of MS or N6, modified by the addition of 10 mg/l silver nitrate, 100 mg/l casein hydrolyzate, 690 mg/l L-proline, 30 g/l sucrose, 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dychlorphenoksiacetic acid and 0,1 mg/l abscisic acid. Cultivation was carried out at 25–27 ºC in the light. Direct hemogenesis in this environment on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro reached 100% for each line. This meant that all researched lines of Lancaster germplasm and the model line showed a high capacity for direct regeneration through direct hemogenesis, which does not depend on the composition of the mineral content of their nutritional environment. Callus formation was observed in all genotypes on the 14th day of cultivation in vitro and the extent of its formation increased during the following month of cultivation. The callus formation was observed only at the site of the wounded surface. The calluses were transparent. Although green areas appeared in these calluses, they were

  19. Plasma skin regeneration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, M A

    2006-09-01

    Plasma skin regeneration (PSR) technology uses energy delivered from plasma rather than light or radiofrequency. Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which electrons are stripped from atoms to form an ionized gas. The plasma is emitted in a millisecond pulse to deliver energy to target tissue upon contact without reliance on skin chromophores. The technology can be used at varying energies for different depths of effect, from superficial epidermal sloughing to deeper dermal heating. With the Portrait PSR device (Rhytec, Inc.) there are three treatment guidelines termed PSR1, PSR2, and PSR3. The PSR1 protocol uses a series of low-energy treatments (1.0,1.2 Joules) spaced 3 weeks apart. The PSR2 protocol uses one high-energy pass (3.0, 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment, and the PSR3 protocol uses two high-energy passes (3.0 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment. All protocols improve fine lines, textural irregularities, and dyspigmentation; however, skin tightening is probably more pronounced with the high-energy treatments.

  20. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Carica papaya L. tissue culture derived from root explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M H; Wang, P J; Maeda, E

    1987-10-01

    The regeneration potential of shoot tip, stem, leaf, cotyledon and root explants of two papaya cultivars (Carica papaya cv. 'Solo' and cv. 'Sunrise') were studed. Callus induction of these two cultivars of papaya showed that the shoot tips and stems are most suitable for forming callus, while leaves, cotyledons and roots are comparatively difficult to induce callus. Callus induction also varied with the varities. Somatic embryogenesis was obtained from 3-month-old root cultures. A medium containing half strength of MS inorganic salts, 160 mg/l adenine sulfate, 1.0 mg/1 NAA, 0.5 mg/1 kinetin and 1.0 mg/1 GA3 was optimal for embryogenesis. The callus maintained high regenerative capacity after two years of culture on this medium. Plants derived from somatic embryos were obtained under green-house conditions.

  1. Regeneration mechanisms in Syllidae (Annelida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rannyele P.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Syllidae is one of the most species‐rich groups within Annelida, with a wide variety of reproductive modes and different regenerative processes. Syllids have striking ability to regenerate their body anteriorly and posteriorly, which in many species is redeployed during sexual (schizogamy) and asexual (fission) reproduction. This review summarizes the available data on regeneration in syllids, covering descriptions of regenerative mechanisms in different species as well as regeneration in relation to reproductive modes. Our survey shows that posterior regeneration is widely distributed in syllids, whereas anterior regeneration is limited in most of the species, excepting those reproducing by fission. The latter reproductive mode is well known for a few species belonging to Autolytinae, Eusyllinae, and Syllinae. Patterns of fission areas have been studied in these animals. Deviations of the regular regeneration pattern or aberrant forms such as bifurcated animals or individuals with multiple heads have been reported for several species. Some of these aberrations show a deviation of the bilateral symmetry and antero‐posterior axis, which, interestingly, can also be observed in the regular branching body pattern of some species of syllids. PMID:29721325

  2. Chickpea regeneration and genetic transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... Chick- pea is good as a source of carbohydrate (48.2 - 67.6%), protein (12.4 - 31.5%), fat (6%) and nutritionally important minerals. Among the legumes, chickpea is the best hypo- cholesteremic agent, followed by black gram and green gram. Direct shoot organogenesis and establishment of plantlets from ...

  3. Treatment effects of captopril on non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; ZHENG Zhi; JIN Hui-yi; XU Xun

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes.Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor is thought to play an important role in preventing and treating retinal diseases in animal models of DR.The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI,captopril) in the treatment of patients with non-proliferative DR.Methods Three hundred and seventeen type 2 diabetic patients (88.05% of participants) without or with mild to moderate non-proliferative retinopathy were randomly divided into captopril group (n=202) and placebo group (n=115).All subjects received 24-month follow-up.General clinical examinations,including blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin,as well as comprehensive standardized ophthalmic examinations were performed.Color fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to grade diabetic retinopathy and detect macular edema respectively.Results The levels of blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin in the two groups of patients remained within the normal range during the entire follow-up and no significant difference was found between the initial and last visits,suggesting that ACEI drugs play a protective role on the DR patients independent of its anti-blood pressure role.DR classification showed that 169 eyes (83.66%) remained unchanged and the DR grade of 33 eyes (16.34%) increased in captopril group,while 84 eyes (73.04%) remained unchanged and the grade of 31 eyes (26.96%) increased in placebo group (P=0.024).Captopril treatment improved macular edema in 55.45% eyes,which was significantly higher than the 37.39% improvement in placebo group (P=0.002).No significant difference was found in the visual acuity between the two groups (P=0.271).Conclusion Captopril can improve or delay the development of DR and macular edema,which can be used in the early treatment of DR patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus.

  4. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukovaara, Sirpa; Piippo, Niina; Kinnunen, Kati; Hytti, Maria; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2017-12-01

    Innate immunity and dysregulation of inflammatory processes play a role in vascular diseases like atherosclerosis or diabetes. Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich repeat Receptor containing a Pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes are pro-inflammatory signalling complexes that were found in 2002. In addition to pathogens and other extracellular threats, they can be activated by various endogenous danger signals. The purpose of this study was to find out whether NLRP3 activation occurs in patients with sight-threatening forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Inflammasome components NLRP3 and caspase-1, inflammasome-related pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), acute-phase cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as adaptive immunity-related cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were measured from the vitreous samples of 15 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (non-PDR) and 23 proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) was determined using the Western blot technique. Inflammasome components were present in the vitreous of DR patients. Along with VEGF, the levels of caspase-1 and IL-18 were significantly increased, especially in PDR eyes. Interestingly, clearly higher levels of NLRP3 were found in the PDR eyes with tractional retinal detachment (TRD) than from PDR eyes with fully attached retina. There were no significant differences in the amounts of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ that were detectable in the vitreous of both non-PDR and PDR patients. Our results suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation can be associated especially with the pathogenesis of PDR. The lack of differences in TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ also alludes that acute inflammation or T-cell-mediated responses do not dominate in PDR pathogenesis. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation

  5. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy after vitrectomy early factors affect IOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bo Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To explore possible causes of early postoperative elevated intraocular pressure caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRvitrectomy. METHODS:Totally 72 cases(100 eyeswhich have performed vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy were retrospectively analyzed to observe the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension, and the relevant factors that caused postoperative high intraocular pressure were statistically analyzed. Early postoperative ocular hypertension diagnostic criteria: any time after 2 weeks of non-contact tonometer measured IOP> 25mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa. RESULTS:High intraocular pressure after vitrectomy occurred in 27 eyes(27%, the incidence of male and female were 27.27%, 26.79%, the difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05. Eyes filled with balanced liquid filling incidence rate of 30.95%, 6.25%, and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05. Incidences of intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation and additional retinal photocoagulation group were 41%, 20%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Preoperative retinopathy of four, five, six groups of incidence were 9.52%, 23.81%, 40.56%, and the groups were statistically significant(P<0.05. Unconsolidated preoperative retinal detachment and retinal detachment incidence rate of 19%, 41%, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Surgery in the united lens resection with intraoperative unfederated lens the resection group's incidence rate of 34%, 15%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that retinal detachment preoperative and intraoperative intraocular filling were independent risk factors that caused early postoperative ocular hypertension after vitrectomy. CONCLUSION:Post-operative ocular hypertension after PDR vitrectomy is related to preoperative retinal detachment, intraoperative lensectomy, intraoperative intraocular filling, and intraoperative

  6. Effect of different intervals of x-ray split doses on shoot production of in vitro derived explants of Gerbera jamesonii Bolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, F; Sauer, A [Federal Research Centre for Horticultural Plant Breeding, Ahrensburg (Germany)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Linearity between rising x-ray doses and mutation rate is limited by the simultaneously increasing radiation damage; induced chromosome aberrations eliminate valuable factor mutations. The application of fractionated doses provides the opportunity for repair of a distinct portion of damage. The dose of 30 Gy was fractionated into two identical parts. The periods for repair were 0.5 to 48 hs. The absolute and cumulative number of post-irradiation regenerated axillary shoots on 4 subsequent dates of cutoff were used as parameters to estimate radiosensitivity. From an economical point of view the interval of 4 hs between two dose fractions may be recommended for practice. (author)

  7. Understory Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Naturally Regenerated Deciduous Forests and Spruce Plantations on Similar Clear-Cuts: Implications for Forest Regeneration Strategy Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiQiang Fang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active effect of natural regeneration on understory vegetation and diversity on clear-cut forestlands, in contrast to conifer reforestation, is still controversial. Here we investigated differences in understory vegetation by comparing naturally regenerated deciduous forests (NR and reforested spruce plantations (SP aged 20–40 years on 12 similar clear-cuts of subalpine old-growth spruce-fir forests from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We found that 283 of the 334 vascular plant species recorded were present in NR plots, while only 264 species occurred in SP plots. This was consistent with richer species, higher cover, and stem (or shoot density of tree seedlings, shrubs, and ferns in the NR plots than in the SP plots. Moreover, understory plant diversity was limited under dense canopy cover, which occurred more frequently in the SP plots. Our findings implied that natural deciduous tree regeneration could better preserve understory vegetation and biodiversity than spruce reforestation after clear-cutting. This result further informed practices to reduce tree canopy cover for spruce plantations or to integrate natural regeneration and reforestation for clear-cuts in order to promote understory vegetation and species diversity conservation.

  8. C/sub 4/ photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzin, S.E.

    1984-04-01

    Based on analysis of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C/sub 4/ metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO/sub 2/ to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO/sub 2/ into RPP-cycle intermediates and sucrose, as well as malate and aspartate. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse/chase kinetics show no significant loss of label from C/sub 4/ acids throughout a one minute chase. Analysis of PEPCase revealed the presence of 2 isoenzymes in both leaf and regenerated plant tissues (K/sub m/ (PEP) = 0.080 and 0.550) but only one isoenzyme in callus (K/sub m/ = 0.100). It appears that C/sub 4/ photosynthesis does not occur in callus derived from this C/sub 4/ dicot but is regenerated concomitant with shoot regeneration, and ..beta..-carboxylation of PEP in callus, mediated by the low K/sub m/ isoenzyme of PEPCase, produces C/sub 4/ acids that are not involved in the CO/sub 2/ shuttle mechanism characteristic of C/sub 4/ photosynthesis. 161 references, 19 figures, 12 tables.

  9. C4 photosynthesis in Euphorbia degeneri and E. remyi: a comparison of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves, callus cultures and regenerated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzin, S.E.

    1984-04-01

    Based on analysis of 14 CO 2 fixation kinetics and assays of enzymes related to C 4 metabolism (NAD-ME, NADP-ME, NAD-MDH, NADP-MDH, AST, ALT), leaves and regenerated plants of Euphorbia degeneri exhibit a modified NADP-ME-type photosynthesis. Apparently, both aspartate and malate are used for transport of CO 2 to bundle sheath cells. Callus grown on either non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media fixes CO 2 into RPP-cycle intermediates and sucrose, as well as malate and aspartate. 14 CO 2 pulse/chase kinetics show no significant loss of label from C 4 acids throughout a one minute chase. Analysis of PEPCase revealed the presence of 2 isoenzymes in both leaf and regenerated plant tissues (K/sub m/ [PEP] = 0.080 and 0.550) but only one isoenzyme in callus (K/sub m/ = 0.100). It appears that C 4 photosynthesis does not occur in callus derived from this C 4 dicot but is regenerated concomitant with shoot regeneration, and β-carboxylation of PEP in callus, mediated by the low K/sub m/ isoenzyme of PEPCase, produces C 4 acids that are not involved in the CO 2 shuttle mechanism characteristic of C 4 photosynthesis. 161 references, 19 figures, 12 tables

  10. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter M; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L; Ravensbergen, Rianne H J C; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual's average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving 'expected' or 'below expected' shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport. An

  11. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting With Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not

  12. Micropropagation of Vaccinium sp. by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwińczuk, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The Vaccinium genus contains several valuable fruit and ornamental species, among others: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium × corymbosum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In some most popular and valuable cultivars, the conventional propagation methods, exploiting hard or soft wood cuttings, are inefficient. The demand for nursery plants could be fulfilled only by micropropagation. In principle cultivars are propagated in vitro through similar three-stage method, based on subculture of shoot explants on different culture media supplemented with IAA (0-4 mg/L) and 2iP (5-10 mg/L), and rooting shoots in vivo. The obtained plantlets are transferred to peat substrate and grown in the glasshouse until the end of growing period. The development of adventitious shoots should be monitored and controlled during in vitro stages. Many clones have specific requirements for growing conditions and/or are recalcitrant.

  13. An improved protocol for efficient transformation and regeneration of diverse indica rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Khirod K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice genome sequencing projects have generated remarkable amount of information about genes and genome architecture having tremendous potential to be utilized in both basic and applied research. Success in transgenics is paving the way for preparing a road map of functional genomics which is expected to correlate action of a gene to a trait in cellular and organismal context. However, the lack of a simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is a major constraint for such studies in this important cereal crop. Results In the present study, we have developed an easy, rapid and highly efficient transformation and regeneration protocol using mature seeds as explants and found its successful applicability to a choice of elite indica rice genotypes. We have optimized various steps of transformation and standardized different components of the regeneration medium including growth hormones and the gelling agent. The modified regeneration medium triggers production of large number of shoots from smaller number of calli and promotes their faster growth, hence significantly advantageous over the existing protocols where the regeneration step requires maximum time. Using this protocol, significantly higher transformation efficiency (up to 46% and regeneration frequency (up to 92% for the untransformed calli and 59% for the transformed calli were achieved for the four tested cultivars. We have used this protocol to produce hundreds of independent transgenic lines of different indica rice genotypes. Upon maturity, these transgenic lines were fertile thereby indicating that faster regeneration during tissue culture did not affect their reproductive potential. Conclusions This speedy, yet less labor-intensive, protocol overcomes major limitations associated with genetic manipulation in rice. Moreover, our protocol uses mature seeds as the explant, which can easily be obtained in quantity throughout the year and kept

  14. Linking ontogeny and tissue regeneration: a study on tissue damage and wound healing in carp in connection to the developmental stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Schmidt, Jacob; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    regeneration since its genome is well-described and it is easy visually to follow the wound healing. In this study, carps were physically damaged in the musculature using sterile needles at day 10, 16, 24, 47 and 94 post hatch. Muscle tissue samples were subsequently taken at day 1, 3 and 7 post damage...... healing and tissue regeneration, the developmental stage of the individual may influence the immune reaction initiated following damage and thus the proliferative responses, which usually cross-talk with the immune system. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an excellent fish specie to study tissue...

  15. Handgun Acquisitions in California After Two Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M; Zhang, Yifan; Rodden, Jonathan A; Hyndman, Rob J; Wintemute, Garen J

    2017-05-16

    Mass shootings are common in the United States. They are the most visible form of firearm violence. Their effect on personal decisions to purchase firearms is not well-understood. To determine changes in handgun acquisition patterns after the mass shootings in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012 and San Bernardino, California, in 2015. Time-series analysis using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models. California. Adults who acquired handguns between 2007 and 2016. Excess handgun acquisitions (defined as the difference between actual and expected acquisitions) in the 6-week and 12-week periods after each shooting, overall and within subgroups of acquirers. In the 6 weeks after the Newtown and San Bernardino shootings, there were 25 705 (95% prediction interval, 17 411 to 32 788) and 27 413 (prediction interval, 15 188 to 37 734) excess acquisitions, respectively, representing increases of 53% (95% CI, 30% to 80%) and 41% (CI, 19% to 68%) over expected volume. Large increases in acquisitions occurred among white and Hispanic persons, but not among black persons, and among persons with no record of having previously acquired a handgun. After the San Bernardino shootings, acquisition rates increased by 85% among residents of that city and adjacent neighborhoods, compared with 35% elsewhere in California. The data relate to handguns in 1 state. The statistical analysis cannot establish causality. Large increases in handgun acquisitions occurred after these 2 mass shootings. The spikes were short-lived and accounted for less than 10% of annual handgun acquisitions statewide. Further research should examine whether repeated shocks of this kind lead to substantial increases in the prevalence of firearm ownership. None.

  16. Glomerular Damage in Experimental Proliferative Glomerulonephritis Under Glomerular Capillary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Rong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Immunologically and hemodynamically mediated the destruction of glomerular architecture is thought to be the major causes of end-stage renal failure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of glomerular hypertension on glomerular injury and the progression of glomerular sclerosis after Thy-1 nephritis was induced. Method: Thy-1 nephritis was induced in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat strain (SHR-SP (group SP and in age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY (group WKY rats, following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX, and a vehicle was injected alone in UNX SHR-SP as control (group SC. Result: The degree of glomerular damage in response to a single dose of anti-thy-1 antibody, and its functional consequences (eg. proteinuria, diminished GFR are more pronounced in group SP than normotensive group WKY and hypertensive group SC without mesangial cell injury. While normotensive group WKY rats recovered completely from mesangial cell injury on day 28-42, glomeruli in group SP kept on persistent macrophage infiltration, α-SMA expression on day 42-56. In addition, glomerular capillary repair with the GECs was rarely seen in pronouncedly proliferative and sclerostic areas. The incidence of glomerular sclerosis and the level of proteinuria were markedly increased by day 56 in the group SP. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that glomerular hypertension aggravate glomerular damage and glomerulosclerosis in this model of Thy 1 nephritis.

  17. Subretinal Perfluorocarbon Liquid for Dissection of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Dalma-Weiszhausz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR is a frequent condition following complex retinal detachments or trauma, and subretinal PVR is a common cause of retinal redetachment. Subretinal PVR removal is challenging and may require creating multiple or large retinotomies, making manipulation of the retina difficult and sometimes hazardous. We propose a novel surgical technique that may facilitate subretinal removal of PVR. After peripheral retinotomy of 180 degrees or greater, perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL is carefully introduced into the subretinal space as a single bubble which provides space to perform the maneuvers. The PFCL serves as a second hand which folds the retina over, thereby allowing better visualization for safer and easier subretinal PVR removal. PFCL in then removed by direct aspiration as a single bubble while still under balanced salt solution, taking advantage of its high surface tension which prevents leaving bubbles behind. The described technique allows adequate exposure of the subretinal space for proper dissection of difficult-to-reach subretinal PVR. We applied this technique in five patients with chronic retinal detachment, extensive subretinal PVR and poor visual potential. The utilization of subretinal PFCL can assist dissection of subretinal PVR and may be useful in eyes with complicated retinal detachment and poor visual prognosis.

  18. Health assessment of environmental pollutants: proliferative and degenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.O.

    1988-01-01

    In order to achieve a balanced approach to risk assessment between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects one must examine the risk of disease or death in the general population exposed to a particular air pollutant that can be related quantitatively to intensity and duration of exposures (National Academy of Sciences, 1983). Such risk assessment should be based upon careful evaluation of scientific findings of dose-response relationships in the chronically exposed population. Quantitative assessment of environmentally produced disease in man has proven to be complex and demanding. A variety of factors play important roles in this task. As an example, there are induction-latency periods for chronic diseases, including cancer, which may range from five to twenty-five years. The diseases themselves, whether proliferative or degenerative, may follow several stages of progression. There is only sparse epidemiological data on serious health effects that may be due to environmental as compared to occupational exposures. Exposures to chemical or radiological air contaminants do not occur singly but to a multiplicity of agents, and disease processes are frequently markedly affected by the interaction of a variety of factors, particularly that of cigarette smoking. There is growing recognition of potentially sensitive subpopulations, including the elderly and the very young, but adequate techniques for assessing the magnitude of increased risks to these groups have not yet been developed

  19. Subretinal Perfluorocarbon Liquid for Dissection of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalma-Weiszhausz, Jose; Franco-Cardenas, Valentina; Dalma, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a frequent condition following complex retinal detachments or trauma, and subretinal PVR is a common cause of retinal redetachment. Subretinal PVR removal is challenging and may require creating multiple or large retinotomies, making manipulation of the retina difficult and sometimes hazardous. We propose a novel surgical technique that may facilitate subretinal removal of PVR. After peripheral retinotomy of 180 degrees or greater, perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) is carefully introduced into the subretinal space as a single bubble which provides space to perform the maneuvers. The PFCL serves as a second hand which folds the retina over, thereby allowing better visualization for safer and easier subretinal PVR removal. PFCL in then removed by direct aspiration as a single bubble while still under balanced salt solution, taking advantage of its high surface tension which prevents leaving bubbles behind. The described technique allows adequate exposure of the subretinal space for proper dissection of difficult-to-reach subretinal PVR. We applied this technique in five patients with chronic retinal detachment, extensive subretinal PVR and poor visual potential. The utilization of subretinal PFCL can assist dissection of subretinal PVR and may be useful in eyes with complicated retinal detachment and poor visual prognosis. PMID:23502847

  20. Coordination Skills during Vitrectomy in Treatment of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehong Chen; Shanshan Luo; Yanchan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To discuss effective nursing and coordination skills for vitrectomy in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Fifty patients (51 eyes) with diabetic retinopathy required vitrectomy were enrolled in this study..Individual nursing service was delivered by strengthening preoperative preparation, providing psychological nursing, and intraopera-tive observation of the severity of diseases by circulating nurses;meticulous nursing was given postoperatively. Results:All 50 patients underwent surgery successfully..Intra-operatively,.patients had stable physical signs..Five patients had postoperative visual acuity0.3..No complicated infection was seen. Conclusion: For patients diagnosed with proliferative diabetic retinopathy requiring vitrectomy,.full preparations should be made and psychological nursing should be delivered preopera-tively, the severity of diseases and clinical reactions should be closely observed intraoperatively,.and proper processing and nursing measures should be taken postoperatively,.which col-lectively enhance surgical success rate,.decrease surgical com-plications,.and attain favorable treatment efficacy.(Eye Science 2014; 29:55-58).

  1. OM-101 Decreases the Fibrotic Response Associated with Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvashi, Zeev; Ben-Yaakov, Keren; Weinberg, Tamir; Greenwald, Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the effect of OM-101 on the fibrotic response occurring in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in an animal model. Methods Antifibrotic effect of OM-101 was investigated in vivo. As control, eight weeks old c57black mice underwent intravitreal injection with Hepes (group A) or dispase (0.3 units), to induce retinal detachment (RD) and PVR. The dispase-injected mice were randomly divided into two groups B and C (N = 25 mice); in group C, the eyes were treated with intravitreal injection of OM-101 (3 μl), and group B with PBS, as a control. After additional five days, mice were injected with the same initial treatment. Three days later, mice were euthanized, and the eyes were enucleated and processed for histological analysis. Results Intravitreal injection of dispase caused RD in 64% of the mice in group B, and 93% of those mice had PVR. Only 32% of mice treated with OM-101 and dispase (group C) developed RD, and only 25% of those developed PVR. Conclusions OM-101 was found effective in reducing the incidence of RD and PVR maintaining the normal architecture of the retina. This study suggests that OM-101 is a potentially effective and safe drug for the treatment of PVR patients. PMID:29109865

  2. Automated detection of neovascularization for proliferative diabetic retinopathy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Koozekanani, Dara D; Parhi, Keshab K

    2016-08-01

    Neovascularization is the primary manifestation of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) that can lead to acquired blindness. This paper presents a novel method that classifies neovascularizations in the 1-optic disc (OD) diameter region (NVD) and elsewhere (NVE) separately to achieve low false positive rates of neovascularization classification. First, the OD region and blood vessels are extracted. Next, the major blood vessel segments in the 1-OD diameter region are classified for NVD, and minor blood vessel segments elsewhere are classified for NVE. For NVD and NVE classifications, optimal region-based feature sets of 10 and 6 features, respectively, are used. The proposed method achieves classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for NVD and NVE of 74%, 98.2%, 87.6%, and 61%, 97.5%, 92.1%, respectively. Also, the proposed method achieves 86.4% sensitivity and 76% specificity for screening images with PDR from public and local data sets. Thus, the proposed NVD and NVE detection methods can play a key role in automated screening and prioritization of patients with diabetic retinopathy.

  3. Dysregulation of T lymphocyte proliferative responses in autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney K Elizer

    Full Text Available T cells are critically dependent on cellular proliferation in order to carry out their effector functions. Autoimmune strains are commonly thought to have uncontrolled T cell proliferation; however, in the murine model of autoimmune diabetes, hypo-proliferation of T cells leading to defective AICD was previously uncovered. We now determine whether lupus prone murine strains are similarly hyporesponsive. Upon extensive characterization of T lymphocyte activation, we have observed a common feature of CD4 T cell activation shared among three autoimmune strains-NOD, MRL, and NZBxNZW F1s. When stimulated with a polyclonal mitogen, CD4 T cells demonstrate arrested cell division and diminished dose responsiveness as compared to the non-autoimmune strain C57BL/6, a phenotype we further traced to a reliance on B cell mediated costimulation, which underscores the success of B cell directed immune therapies in preventing T cell mediated tissue injury. In turn, the diminished proliferative capacity of these CD4 T cells lead to a decreased, but activation appropriate, susceptibility to activation induced cell death. A similar decrement in stimulation response was observed in the CD8 compartment of NOD mice; NOD CD8 T cells were distinguished from lupus prone strains by a diminished dose-responsiveness to anti-CD3 mediated stimulation. This distinction may explain the differential pathogenetic pathways activated in diabetes and lupus prone murine strains.

  4. Mechanisms of Inflammation in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy: From Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros N. Moysidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR is a vision-threatening disease and a common complication of surgery to correct rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Several models of the pathogenesis of this disease have been described with some of these models focusing on the role of inflammatory cells and other models focusing on the role of growth factors and cytokines in the vitreous which come into contact with intraretinal and retinal pigment epithelial cells. New experiments have shed light on the pathogenesis of PVR and offer promising avenues for clinical intervention before PVR develops. One such target is the indirect pathway of activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGRα, which plays an important role in PVR. Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH, daunorubicin, and 13-cis-retinoic acid, among other therapies, have yielded mixed results. Here we review inflammatory and other mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of PVR, we highlight important clinical trials, and we discuss how findings at the bench have the potential to be translated to the bedside.

  5. Wingless promotes proliferative growth in a gradient-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Lopez, Luis Alberto; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2009-10-06

    Morphogens form concentration gradients that organize patterns of cells and control growth. It has been suggested that, rather than the intensity of morphogen signaling, it is its gradation that is the relevant modulator of cell proliferation. According to this view, the ability of morphogens to regulate growth during development depends on their graded distributions. Here, we describe an experimental test of this model for Wingless, one of the key organizers of wing development in Drosophila. Maximal Wingless signaling suppresses cellular proliferation. In contrast, we found that moderate and uniform amounts of exogenous Wingless, even in the absence of endogenous Wingless, stimulated proliferative growth. Beyond a few cell diameters from the source, Wingless was relatively constant in abundance and thus provided a homogeneous growth-promoting signal. Although morphogen signaling may act in combination with as yet uncharacterized graded growth-promoting pathways, we suggest that the graded nature of morphogen signaling is not required for proliferation, at least in the developing Drosophila wing, during the main period of growth.

  6. High Frequency Plant Regeneration System from Transverse Thin Cell Layer Section of In vitro Derived ‘Nadia’ Ginger Microrhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikash Singh THINGBAIJAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and reproducible procedure is outlined for rapid in vitro multiplication of Zingiber officinale var. ‘Nadia’ through high frequency shoot proliferation from transverse thin cell layer (tTCL sections of in vitro derived microrhizome. In vitro derived microrhizome of size 500 μm in thickness was used as initial explants for induction of somatic embryos. Among the different phytohormones tested, tTCL explants shows maximum calli proliferation in medium containing 2 mg/L 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (88.30±0.11%. Reduced concentration of 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was supplemented with different cytokinins for regeneration of callus. Among the different medium tested, optimum redifferentiation of somatic embryos were observed in medium containing 0.2 mg/L 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6.0 mg/L BAP (141.08±0.25. Clump of regenerated plantlets were further subculture and transfer into microrhizome inducing medium containing high sucrose concentration (8%. Plantlets with well developed microrhizome were successfully acclimatized and eventually transferred to the field. The application of studying embryo section for regeneration of plants might be useful alternative to ginger improvement programme. Histological analysis showed formation of somatic embryos and regenerated adventitious shoot.

  7. In vitro binding of germanium to proteins of rice shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideaki; Takahashi, Eiichi

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of in vitro binding between proteins of rice shoots and germanium (Ge) was investigated. The proteins in mixtures of aqueous extracts of rice shoots and radioactive germanium ( 68 GeO 2 ) were fractionated. The binding of radioactivity to the proteins was observed even after 5 successive fractionation steps from the original mixtures. At the final fractionation step using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a constant proportionality between protein concentration and associated radioactivity was found in most samples although not all. These results indicate that the binding of 68 Ge to proteins is not due to the simple adsorption by proteins. (auth.)

  8. School shootings during 2013-2015 in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Lagast, Kinan; Villarreal, Marcos; Pino, Elizabeth; Fagan, Jeffrey; Galea, Sandro

    2017-10-01

    Data on the factors associated with school shootings in the USA are limited. The public conversation has often suggested several factors that may be linked to these events, however with little empirical support. Aiming to fill this gap, we describe the characteristics of school shooting incidents in the USA between 2013 and 2015 and explore whether four factors that represent domains of firearm policy, educational policy and epidemiological risk factors for intentional firearm injuries-background check (BC) policies, per capita mental health expenditures (MHE), K-12 education expenditure (KEE) and urbanicity-were associated with school shootings during this period. We searched LexisNexis, a newspaper and broadcast media databases for school shooting incidents from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Presence of BC laws was extracted from legal information in LexisNexis. State-level covariates of per capita MHE (2013), KEE (2013) and urbanicity (2010) rates were obtained from publicly available data sources. We used negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering by state to explore unadjusted associations between the BC laws, state-level covariates and school shootings to report IRR and 95% CI. We documented 154 school shootings (35, 55 and 64 each year). In unadjusted models, BC for firearm purchase (IRR=0.55, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.76), ammunition purchase (IRR=0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.27), log per capita MHE (IRR=0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.90), log per-capita KEE (IRR=0.09, 9% CI 0.02 to 0.29) and urbanicity (IRR=0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) were associated with school shooting. School shootings are less likely in states with BC laws, higher MHE and KEE, and with greater per cent urban population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Proliferative Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Cerebral Microbleeds, Which Is Part of Generalized Microangiopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdeman, J.P.; van Duinkerken, E.; Wattjes, M.P.; Barkhof, F.; Snoek, F.J.; Moll, A.C.; Klein, M.; de Boer, M.P.; IJzerman, R.G.; Serne, E.H.; Diamant, M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetic patients can be generalized to cerebral small vessel disease and whether it is associated with impaired peripheral microvascular function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with proliferative

  10. Expression of p75NGFR, a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the expression of p75 NGFR , a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO 2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75 NGFR , BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (–)/p75 NGFR (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75 NGFR (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75 NGFR (–)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75 NGFR (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75 NGFR (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium

  11. Abnormalities in the basement membrane structure promote basal keratinocytes in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars to adopt a proliferative phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaowei; Sun, Yexiao; Geng, Zhijun; Ma, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-05-01

    The majority of studies on scar formation have mainly focused on the dermis and little is known of the involvement of the epidermis. Previous research has demonstrated that the scar tissue-derived keratinocytes are different from normal cells at both the genetic and cell biological levels; however, the mechanisms responsible for the fundamental abnormalities in keratinocytes during scar development remain elusive. For this purpose, in this study, we used normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissue to examine the morphological changes which occur during epidermal regeneration as part of the wound healing process and found that the histological structure of hypertrophic scar tissues differed from that of normal skin, with a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Notably, staining of the basement membrane (BM) appeared to be absent in the scar tissues. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin (CK)10, CK14, CK5, CK19 and integrin-β1 indicated the differential expression of cell markers in the epidermal keratinocytes among the normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissues, which corresponded with the altered BM structures. By using a panel of proteins associated with BM components, we validated our hypothesis that the BM plays a significant role in regulating the cell fate decision of epidermal keratinocytes during skin wound healing. Alterations in the structure of the BM promote basal keratinocytes to adopt a proliferative phenotype both in vivo and in vitro.

  12. Optimization of Callus Induction and Regeneration in Two Fenugreek Landraces as a Medicinal Plant during in vitro Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hasani Jifroudi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum is a medicinal plant extensively distributed in most regions of the world. Fenugreek is an annual plant from the family of papilionaceae, leguminosae. Fenugreek leaves and seeds have been used extensively to prepare extracts and powders for medicinal uses. Its root, leaf and seed contain a number of important medicinal compounds such as polysaccharide, galactomannan, different saponins such as diosgenin, yamogenin, mucilage, volatile oil and alkaloids such as choline and trigonelline. Plant tissue culture is fundamental to most aspects of biotechnology of plants. Establishment of an efficient callus induction and direct regeneration protocol is an essential prerequisite in harnessing the advantage of cell and tissue culture for genetic improvement. For the successful application of the tissue culture technique in plant breeding, callus induction and plant regeneration potential of each plant must be determined. The present study was performed in order to determine the optimum concentration of plant growth regulators (IBA + TDZ for producing of in vitro plantlet using cotyledon and hypocotyl as an explant for two different Iranian genotypes (Ardestani and Neyshabouri. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, Ardestani and Neyshabouri genotypes were used for callus induction and direct shoot regeneration. The medium used in this investigation was MS (Murashige and Skoog basal medium. Then seeds were germinated on MS medium. For callus induction and direct shoot regeneration, cotyledon and hypocotyl explants were excised from 8-day-old sterile seedlings and cultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of IBA and TDZ. In this experiment, two combinations (TDZ + IBA were used. In the first composition, IBA had four levels (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ had five levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg l-1 and in the second composition, IBA had four levels (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mg l-1 and TDZ

  13. High frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants derived callus of evening primrose (oenothera biennis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, E.G.; Shafi, N.; Ghani, S.; Fatima, A.

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Evening primrose were aseptically grown and leaf explants were used for establishment of callus culture. The Excellent growth in callus biomass was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4, -D and TDZ. For optimal growth of bud and shoot regeneration, fortification of IAA along with TDZ, or BAP was found to be essential. Rooting (70%) could be inducted on hormone free MS-medium. This percentage improved to 98 when NAA was added to the medium. The plantlets thus obtained were transferred to the field successfully after passing through the process of hardening. (author)

  14. Endothelin-1 is associated with fibrosis in proliferative diabetic retinopathy membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, William; Lajko, Michelle; Fawzi, Amani A

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the relationship between endothelin-1 and fibrosis in epiretinal membranes in proliferative diabetic retinopathy and explore the role of endothelial-mesenchymal transition in these membranes. Membranes were obtained from eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for complicated proliferative diabetic retinopathy or idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Through standard immunohistochemical techniques, we labeled membranes to explore the distribution of endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor B, comparing proliferative diabetic retinopathy and idiopathic epiretinal membranes. In addition, membranes were also labeled with markers for fibroblasts, endothelial, and glial cells and studied with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The intensity of endothelin-1 labeling was quantified using standard image analysis software. Fourteen membranes were included in the analysis, nine from eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and five idiopathic membranes. Flatmount diabetic membranes showed co-localization of endothelin-1 with S100A4 and CD31. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis of cross-sectional membranes showed significantly higher endothelin-1 labeling in proliferative diabetic retinopathy membranes compared to idiopathic membranes (pmembranes showed more elements staining positive for S100A4 compared to idiopathic membranes. Epiretinal membrane formation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy involves higher tissue levels of endothelin-1 and fibroblastic activity. Furthermore, endothelin-1, endothelial and fibroblastic staining appear to be correlated, suggestive of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  15. PEMBELAJARAN LAY UP SHOOT MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA AUDIO VISUAL BASIC LAY UP SHOOT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASILBELAJAR LAY UP SHOOT PADA SISWA KELAS VIIIA SMP KANISIUS PATI TAHUN 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frendy Nurochwan Febryanto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the learning lay up shoot using basic audiovisual media shoot lay ups can improve learning outcomes shoot lay ups in class VIIIA Starch Canisius junior year 2013/2014 . This study uses Classroom Action Research ( CAR. The technique of collecting data through observation and assessment of learning outcomes shoot basketball lay up. Data analysis techniques used in this research is descriptive . At the end of the first cycle activity of teachers in teaching basic techniques lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 76.19%, whereas at the end of the first cycle of student activity during the learning process lay up shoot using audio-visualmediareaches78.57%. At the end of the second cycle of activity of teachers in teaching basic techniques lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 85.71%, whereas at the end of the second cycle of activity of students during the learning process lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 92.86%. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that learning the lay-up shoot using basic audiovisual media shoot lay ups can improve student learning outcomes at Canisius junior class VIIIA Pati year 2013/2014.

  16. Mechanism of impaired regeneration of fatty liver in mouse partial hepatectomy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hiroshi; Yagi, Takahito; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Ogino, Tetsuya; Sadamori, Hiroshi; Matsukawa, Hiroyoshi; Umeda, Yuzoh; Haga, Sanae; Takaka, Noriaki; Ozaki, Michitaka

    2007-12-01

    The mechanism of injury in steatotic liver under pathological conditions been extensively examined. However, the mechanism of an impaired regeneration is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the mechanism of impaired regeneration of steatotic liver after partial hepatectomy (PH). db/db fatty mice and lean littermates were used for the experiments. Following 70% PH, the survival rate and recovery of liver mass were examined. Liver tissue was histologically examined and analyzed by western blotting and RT-PCR. Of 35 db/db mice, 25 died within 48 h of PH, while all of the control mice survived. Liver regeneration of surviving db/db mice was largely impaired. In db/db mice, mitosis of hepatocytes after PH was disturbed, even though proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression (G1 to S phase marker) in hepatocytes was equally observed in both mice groups. Interestingly, phosphorylation of Cdc2 in db/db mice was suppressed by reduced expression of Wee1 and Myt1, which phosphorylate Cdc2 in S to G2 phase. In steatotic liver, cell-cycle-related proliferative disorders occurred at mid-S phase after PCNA expression. Reduced expression of Wee1 and Myt1 kinases may therefore maintain Cdc2 in an unphosphorylated state and block cell cycle progression in mid-S phase. These kinases may be critical factors involved in the impaired liver regeneration in fatty liver.

  17. Making sense of Wnt signaling – linking hair cell regeneration to development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eJansson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway crucial for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Secreted Wnt ligands bind Frizzled receptors to regulate diverse processes such as axis patterning, cell division, and cell fate specification. They also serve to govern self-renewal of somatic stem cells in several adult tissues. The complexity of the pathway can be attributed to the myriad of Wnt and Frizzled combinations as well as its diverse context-dependent functions. In the developing mouse inner ear, Wnt signaling plays diverse roles, including specification of the otic placode and patterning of the otic vesicle. At later stages, its activity governs sensory hair cell specification, cell cycle regulation, and hair cell orientation. In regenerating sensory organs from non-mammalian species, Wnt signaling can also regulate the extent of proliferative hair cell regeneration. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of Wnt signaling and Wnt-responsive cells in hair cell development and regeneration. We also discuss possible future directions and the potential application and limitation of Wnt signaling in augmenting hair cell regeneration.

  18. Adenosine signaling promotes regeneration of pancreatic β-cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Olov; Adams, Bruce A.; Yoo, Daniel; Ellis, Gregory C.; Gut, Philipp; Anderson, Ryan M.; German, Michael S.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes can be controlled with insulin injections, but a curative approach that restores the number of insulin-producing β-cells is still needed. Using a zebrafish model of diabetes, we screened ~7000 small molecules to identify enhancers of β-cell regeneration. The compounds we identified converge on the adenosine signaling pathway and include exogenous agonists and compounds that inhibit degradation of endogenously produced adenosine. The most potent enhancer of β-cell regeneration was the adenosine agonist 5′-N-Ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), which acting through the adenosine receptor A2aa increased β-cell proliferation and accelerated restoration of normoglycemia in zebrafish. Despite markedly stimulating β-cell proliferation during regeneration, NECA had only a modest effect during development. The proliferative and glucose-lowering effect of NECA was confirmed in diabetic mice, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved role for adenosine in β-cell regeneration. With this whole-organism screen, we identified components of the adenosine pathway that could be therapeutically targeted for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22608007

  19. Regeneration of Centella asiatica plants from non-embryogenic cell lines and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal properties of regenerated calli and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Darima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threatened plant Centella asiatica L. is traditionallyused for a number of remedies. In vitro plant propagation and enhanced metabolite production of active metabolites through biotechnological approaches has gained attention in recent years. Results Present study reveals that 6-benzyladenine (BA either alone or in combination with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA supplemented in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium at different concentrations produced good quality callus from leaf explants of C. asiatica. The calli produced on different plant growth regulators at different concentrations were mostly embryogenic and green. Highest shoot regeneration efficiency; 10 shoots per callus explant, from non-embryogenic callus was observed on 4.42 μM BA with 5.37 μM NAA. Best rooting response was observed at 5.37 and 10.74 μM NAA with 20 average number of roots per explant. Calli and regenerated plants extracts inhibited bacterial growth with mean zone of inhibition 9-13 mm diameter when tested against six bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Agar tube dilution method for antifungal assay showed 3.2-76% growth inhibition of Mucor species, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium moliniformes. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that non-embryogenic callus can be turned into embryos and plantlets if cultured on appropriate medium. Furthermore, callus from leaf explant of C. asiatica can be a good source for production of antimicrobial compounds through bioreactor.

  20. Studies on seed germination and in vitro shoot multiplication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... vitro seed germination and plantlet regeneration of this plant. ... Key words: Germination, gibberellic acid, growth regulators, node explants, Satureja ..... Abscisic Acid: A. Seed Maturation and Antistress Signal, 3rd ed. Sinauer ...

  1. [Guided bone regeneration: general survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The principle of 'guided bone regeneration' was first described in 1988 on the basis of animal-experimental data. Six weeks after transmandibular defects had been created and protected by non-resorbable teflonmembranes, complete bone regeneration was found. The technique was based on the selective repopulation of the wound: every infiltration of cells outside the neighbouring bone tissue was prevented by the application of the membrane. Additional animal experiments showed that guided bone regeneration was a viable treatment option for local bone defects surrounding dental implants. Clinical practice, however, showed that premature membrane exposure was a common complication, which was responsible for a tremendous reduction in regenerated bone volume. In addition, a second surgical intervention was always necessary to remove the membrane. As a result, resorbable alternatives were developed. Since these are less rigid, bone fillers are usually used simultaneously. These comprise autogenous bone chips and bone substitutes from allogenic or xenogenic origine. Also alloplastic materials could be used for this purpose. Based on their characteristics this article provides an overview of the biomaterials that could be considered for guided bone regeneration. Specific attention goes to their application in clinical practice.

  2. In vitro anti-proliferative effect of interferon alpha in solid tumors: A potential predicative test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchsberger, N.; Kubes, M.; Kontsek, P.; Borecky, L.; Hornak, M.; Silvanova; Godal, A.; Svec, J.

    1993-01-01

    An in vitro test for the anti-proliferative effect of human leukocyte interferon (IFN-alpha) was performed in primary cultures of tumor cells obtained from 32 patients with either malignant melanoma (13), renal carcinoma (4) or bladder carcinoma (15). Our results demonstrated activity of IFN in all three groups of solid tumors. However, appreciable differences in sensitivity to anti-proliferative effect of IFN between individual tumors of the same type were found. The potential of this anti-proliferative test for prediction of treatment response in IFN-therapy is discussed. (author)

  3. Retinal vessel caliber as a potential marker of treatment outcome in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian

    Title of abstract: Retinal vessel caliber as a potential marker of treatment outcome in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy Design of study: Three months prospective, interventional clinical study. Purpose: The retinal vascular tree can be measured non-invasively and summarized...... into the central retinal artery and vein equivalent (CRAE and CRVE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal calibers as biomarkers for disease activity 3 months after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Methods: Fifty one eyes from 40 newly...... with proliferative diabetic retinopathy....

  4. CXC chemokines function as a rheostat for hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C Wilson

    Full Text Available Our previous in vitro studies have demonstrated dose-dependent effects of CXCR2 ligands on hepatocyte cell death and proliferation. In the current study, we sought to determine if CXCR2 ligand concentration is responsible for the divergent effects of these mediators on liver regeneration after ischemia/reperfusion injury and partial hepatectomy.Murine models of partial ischemia/reperfusion injury and hepatectomy were used to study the effect of CXCR2 ligands on liver regeneration.We found that hepatic expression of the CXCR2 ligands, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC, was significantly increased after both I/R injury and partial hepatectomy. However, expression of these ligands after I/R injury was 30-100-fold greater than after hepatectomy. Interestingly, the same pattern of expression was found in ischemic versus non-ischemic liver lobes following I/R injury with expression significantly greater in the ischemic liver lobes. In both systems, lower ligand expression was associated with increased hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration in a CXCR2-dependent fashion. To confirm that these effects were related to ligand concentration, we administered exogenous MIP-2 and KC to mice undergoing partial hepatectomy. Mice received a "high" dose that replicated serum levels found after I/R injury and a "low" dose that was similar to that found after hepatectomy. Mice receiving the "high" dose had reduced levels of hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration whereas the "low" dose promoted hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration.Together, these data demonstrate that concentrations of CXC chemokines regulate the hepatic proliferative response and subsequent liver regeneration.

  5. Proliferation zones in the axolotl brain and regeneration of the telencephalon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maden Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the brains of lower vertebrates are known to exhibit somewhat limited regeneration after incisional or stab wounds, the Urodele brain exhibits extensive regeneration after massive tissue removal. Discovering whether and how neural progenitor cells that reside in the ventricular zones of Urodeles proliferate to mediate tissue repair in response to injury may produce novel leads for regenerative strategies. Here we show that endogenous neural progenitor cells resident to the ventricular zone of Urodeles spontaneously proliferate, producing progeny that migrate throughout the telencephalon before terminally differentiating into neurons. These progenitor cells appear to be responsible for telencephalon regeneration after tissue removal and their activity may be up-regulated by injury through an olfactory cue. Results There is extensive proliferation of endogenous neural progenitor cells throughout the ventricular zone of the adult axolotl brain. The highest levels are observed in the telencephalon, especially the dorsolateral aspect, and cerebellum. Lower levels are observed in the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon. New cells produced in the ventricular zone migrate laterally, dorsally and ventrally into the surrounding neuronal layer. After migrating from the ventricular zone, the new cells primarily express markers of neuronal differentiative fates. Large-scale telencephalic tissue removal stimulates progenitor cell proliferation in the ventricular zone of the damaged region, followed by proliferation in the tissue that surrounds the healing edges of the wound until the telencephalon has completed regeneration. The proliferative stimulus appears to reside in the olfactory system, because telencephalic regeneration does not occur in the brains of olfactory bulbectomized animals in which the damaged neural tissue simply heals over. Conclusion There is a continual generation of neuronal cells from neural progenitor cells

  6. Regeneration and vegetative propagation of Sphagnum palustre as factor of population stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dygna Sobotka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of the Sphagnum palustre populations on the meadows of the Kampinos National Park situated north-west of Warsaw was investigated in the period 1971-1974. Laboratory cultures were also started to establish the regenerative ability of various gametophyte parts of Sphagnum: the main stem, branches, leaves and spore germination. The green stems and apical branches of the plants showed the highest regeneration ability. Brown stems and white branches developed less intensively. Leaves showed no tendency to develop into new plants. Gametophores were found to form quicker and more effectively by way of regeneration than from spores. In natural conditions more intensive growth of branchings (new shoots from the apical and green parts of Sphagnum was also observed, whereas the brown parts did not exhibit this ability.

  7. Differentiation of shoot elements from the rachis of Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Rybczyński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of young Secale cereale spikes is described with special attention given to changes in development of the rachis. 7 mm explants were cultivated on a modified M u r a s h i g e and S k o o g (1962 medium (MS supplemented with 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, NAA (α-naph-thaleneacetic acid, IAA (β-indoleacetic acid, 2,4,5-T (trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and ZEA (zeatin, KIN (kinetin, BAP (6-benzylaminopurine, IPA (izopentenyladenine or 2 iP in numerous combinations and concentrations. Rachises differentiated branches with node construction in the presence of synthetic auxin. Rhizogenesis of explants was stimulated by 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. 2,4,5-T + IPA appeared to be the best combination for callus regeneration. Many meristematic centres were found previously and combinations of NAA + KIN stimulated direct, whereas 2,4-D + ZEA indirect, differentiation of shoot elements. Development was observed from plantlets to flowering plants.

  8. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  9. Similarities of School Shootings in Rural and Small Town Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…

  10. The Role of Leadership in Surviving a School Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carleton H.

    2018-01-01

    At a small rural middle school in the southern United States, two students murdered a teacher, four students, and injured 10 during a shooting spree. This case represents the lived experiences of a school principal, counselor, and community that survived the deadly rampage. The case highlights the challenges that school leaders may face such as…

  11. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gargallo-Garriga, A.; Sardans, J.; Pérez-Trujillo, M.; Rivas-Ubach, A.; Oravec, Michal; Večeřová, Kristýna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, A.; Kreyling, J.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Parella, T.; Penuelas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6829 (2014), s. 1-7 ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : shoot and roots * autotrophic and heterotrophic organs * environmental change * growth metabolism * water and nutirens Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  12. Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of four South African grass species on light, soil resources and cutting gradients. ... Aristida junciformis, produced nearly double the biomass of taller species such as Hyparrhenia hirta and Eragrostis curvula in the low-nutrient treatments, with the reverse being ...

  13. Thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis of Cleome viscosa (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBA

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... J. Vijayakumar1*, G. Shobana Rathi1, S. M. Bhuvaneshwari1, B. D. ... propagation through callus culture of C. viscosa (Anburaj et al., 2011a,b), micropropagation and shoot organo- genesis from different explants of Cleome spinosa .... Figure 1. Effect of MS basal medium strength (a) and and GA, (b).

  14. Immobilization of lead in shooting range soil using biochar from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pyrolyzed at 450°C for 2 hours and characterized using elemental analyzer and Boehm titration. Shooting range soil was incubated with 2.5% w/w and 5.0% w/w of SMSB for four weeks and the soil were characterized on the elemental composition, pH, electric conductivity (EC) and ...

  15. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  16. Genetic relationship between plant growth, shoot and kernel sizes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) ear vascular tissue transports nutrients that contribute to grain yield. To assess kernel heritabilities that govern ear development and plant growth, field studies were conducted to determine the combining abilities of parents that differed for kernel-size, grain-filling rates and shoot-size. Thirty two hybrids ...

  17. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (17), pp. 2054-2061, 5 September 2007. Available online at ... Plant Pathology Division, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Accepted 9 August, 2007 ... economic importance of the disease in Nigeria. Key words: Cocoa, cocoa swollen shoot ...

  18. School Violence: Reported School Shootings and Making Schools Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.

  19. Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. D. B. Apotikar, D. Venkateswarlu, R. B. Ghorade, R. M. Wadaskar, J. V. Patil and P. L. Kulwal. J. Genet. 90, 59–66. Table 1. List of SSR primers for sorghum. Primer code. Forward and reverse. Annealing temperature (°C). Product.

  20. Creating aesthetic, institutional and symbolic boundaries in fashion photo shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, E.; Kuipers, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a ‘bottom-up’, micro-sociological analysis of cultural production. Drawing on detailed observations of fashion photo shoots and interviews with fashion professionals in the Netherlands, we analyse how the division between ‘high’ (editorial) and ‘low’ (commercial) culture is