WorldWideScience

Sample records for projected water shortages

  1. A New Way for Incorporating GCM Information into Water Shortage Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Beom Seo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change information is essential for water resources management planning, and the majority of research available uses the global circulation model (GCM data to project future water balance. Despite the fact that the results of various GCMs are still heterogeneous, it is common to utilize GCM values directly in climate change impact assessment models. To mitigate these limitations, this study provides an alternative methodology, which uses GCM-based data to assign weights on historical scenarios rather than to directly input their values into the assessment models, thereby reducing the uncertainty involved in the direct use of GCMs. Therefore, the real innovation of this study is placed on the use of a new probability weighting scheme with multiple GCMs rather than on the direct input of GCM-driven data. Applied to make future projections of the water shortage in the Han River basin of Korea, the proposed methodology produced conservative but realistic projection results (15% increase compared to the existing methodologies, which projected a dramatic increase (144% in water shortage over 10 years. As a result, it was anticipated that the amount of water shortages in the Han River basin would gradually increase in the next 90 years, including a 57% increase in the 2080s.

  2. Intergration in community relations: water shortage and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The topography of the environment; few boreholes/wells; lack of pipe-borne water; lack of maintenance of boreholes; increase in population; and lack of projection for the future constitute reasons responsible for water shortage. On the other hand, disrupting queue; giving preference to friends to fetch water at the expense of ...

  3. Research on water shortage risks and countermeasures in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuxiang; Fang, Wenxuan; Wu, Ziqin

    2017-05-01

    in the region according to prediction results, such as construction of reservoirs, sewage treatment, water diversion project and other measures. A detailed water supply plan is formulated. Water supply weights of all measures are determined according to the AHP model. Solution is sought after original models are improved. Results show that water resources quantity per capita will be up to 2170 cubic meters or so this year, people suffer from moderate water shortage in the region, which can meet people's life needs and economic development needs basically. In addition, water resources quantity per capita is increased year by year, and it can reach mild water shortage level after 2030. In a word, local water resources dilemma can be effectively solved by the plan actually, and thoughts can be provided for decision makers.

  4. Desalination - A solution to water shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaib, M.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries are faced with critical water shortage for the last few decades. The demand for water has outstripped its supply making the availability of safe water sources an issue Also conflicts over water sharing are expected in many regions of the world. Thus, because of this looming crisis water problems are getting increasing attention all over the world. With the advancement of desalination technology many countries had resorted removal of salts from brackish and sea water as an alternative water supply and they are now viewing desalination as a future solution to problems of lack of water. Today, over 100 countries use desalting requirement. A total of 12,451 desalting units (of a unit size of 100 m/sup 3//d or more) with a total capacity of 22,735,000 m /d had been installed or contracted worldwide. Brackish water desalination plants contribute with 9,400,000 m3/d, whereas the capacity of the sea water plants had reached up to 13,300,000 m3/d. This paper will discuss the use of desalination to produce potable water from saline water for domestic or municipal purposes and also the available desalination techniques that have been developed over the years and have achieved commercial success. (author)

  5. Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with water management problems in agriculture, tourism and hydropower to such an extent that they approached scientists to create solution strategies based on adaptation and mitigation. In this context, Alp-Water-Scarce, a European project on Water Management Strategies against Water Scarcity in the Alps was funded by the Alpine Space programme as part of the "European Territorial Cooperation" scheme. It has 17 project partners from Austria Switzerland, France, Italy and Slovenia from local governments, provinces, federal institutes and offices, universities, regional agencies, alpine societies, geological surveys, and chambers of agriculture and forestry. The Lead Partner is the Mountain Institute in Savoy, Rhone-Alpes, France. The main challenges of this project are to create local Early Warning Systems against Water Scarcity in the Alps. This system is based on strengthening existing long-term monitoring and modeling and creating new measuring networks in those countries where they do not yet exist. It is anchored strongly and actively within a Stakeholder Interaction Forum linked across comparative and contrasting regions across the Alps. The Early Warning System is based on the linkage and improvement of field monitoring and assemblage of qualitative and quantitative data derived both from natural water reservoirs as well as from anthropogenic water use in 28 selected pilot regions selected in France, Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Switzerland. The objectives are to improve water management at the short term (annual scale) and long term (using future scenarios) based on modelling and application of climate change

  6. Optimal Intermittent Operation of Water Distribution Networks under Water Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Solgi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under water shortage conditions, it is necessary to exercise water consumption management practices in water distribution networks (WDN. Intermittent supply of water is one such practice that makes it possible to supply consumption nodal demands with the required pressure via water cutoff to some consumers during certain hours of the day. One of the most important issues that must be observed in this management practice is the equitable and uniform water distribution among the consumers. In the present study, uniformity in water distribution and minimum supply of water to all consumers are defined as justice and equity, respectively. Also, an optimization model has been developed to find an optimal intermittent supply schedule that ensures maximum number of demand nodes are supplied with water while the constraints on the operation of water distribution networks are also observed. To show the efficiency of the proposed model, it has been used in the Two-Loop distribution network under several different scenarios of water shortage. The optimization model has been solved using the honey bee mating optimization algorithm (HBMO linked to the hydraulic simulator EPANET. The results obtained confirm the efficiency of the proposed model in achieving an optimal intermittent supply schedule. Moreover, the model is found capable of distributing the available water in an equitable and just manner among all the consumers even under severe water shoratges.

  7. Water shortage risk assessment considering large-scale regional transfers: a copula-based uncertainty case study in Lunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Liu, Yinzhu; Sun, Bowen

    2018-06-05

    The risk of water shortage caused by uncertainties, such as frequent drought, varied precipitation, multiple water resources, and different water demands, brings new challenges to the water transfer projects. Uncertainties exist for transferring water and local surface water; therefore, the relationship between them should be thoroughly studied to prevent water shortage. For more effective water management, an uncertainty-based water shortage risk assessment model (UWSRAM) is developed to study the combined effect of multiple water resources and analyze the shortage degree under uncertainty. The UWSRAM combines copula-based Monte Carlo stochastic simulation and the chance-constrained programming-stochastic multiobjective optimization model, using the Lunan water-receiving area in China as an example. Statistical copula functions are employed to estimate the joint probability of available transferring water and local surface water and sampling from the multivariate probability distribution, which are used as inputs for the optimization model. The approach reveals the distribution of water shortage and is able to emphasize the importance of improving and updating transferring water and local surface water management, and examine their combined influence on water shortage risk assessment. The possible available water and shortages can be calculated applying the UWSRAM, also with the corresponding allocation measures under different water availability levels and violating probabilities. The UWSRAM is valuable for mastering the overall multi-water resource and water shortage degree, adapting to the uncertainty surrounding water resources, establishing effective water resource planning policies for managers and achieving sustainable development.

  8. The Impact of Water Shortages on Educational Delivery in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of the study was to investigate the impact of water shortages on educational delivery in selected schools in Harare East District. The population included school heads, teachers and pupils all drawn from selected schools of Harare East District. The sample consisted of five school heads, fifty teachers and one ...

  9. Water shortages and extreme events: a call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Catriona; Odams, Sue; Murray, Virginia; Sellick, Matthew; Colbourne, Jeni

    2013-09-01

    Water shortages as a result of extreme weather events, such as flooding and severe cold, have the potential to affect significant numbers of people. Therefore, the need to build robust, coordinated plans based on scientific evidence is crucial. The literature review outlined in this short communication was conducted as part of a joint Drinking Water Inspectorate and Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England) report which aimed to review the scientific evidence base on extreme events, water shortages and the resulting health impacts. A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify published literature from both peer-reviewed and grey literature sources. The retrieved literature was then assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network quality assessment. The authors found very few scientific studies. However, a great deal of valuable grey literature was retrieved and used by the research team. In total, six main themes of importance that were identified by the review and discussed included health impacts, water quantity and quality, alternative supplies, vulnerable groups, communication with those affected and the emergency response. The authors conclude that more research needs to be conducted on health impacts and extreme events water shortages in order to build the future knowledge base and development of resilience.

  10. China's water shortage could shake world food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R; Halweil, B

    1998-01-01

    This report indicates the global concern about China's water shortages and describes basin supplies, global availability of grain, and reasons for water losses. There is little precise data on how land productivity will be affected by declines in irrigation. Reports from the "China Daily" indicate that the 1995 grain harvest in Shandong province declined by 2.7 million tons (food for 9 million people) due to water failures of the Yellow River. A delegate at the 1998 National People's Congress pointed out that rural villages nationwide had shortages of 30 billion cu. m and losses of 20 million tons of grain production. About 70% of grain harvests rely on irrigation. Water demand for residential use and industrial use is likely to increase and compete with farm use. One unlikely option is to divert irrigation water to cities as needed and import grain. The entire agricultural, energy, and industrial economies need to be made more water efficient. Agriculture will need to produce more water efficient crops and livestock products and less water intensive energy supplies. Another alternative is to divert water from one location to another. Water pricing could reinforce efficiency of use. Use of composting toilets could reduce human residential water demand. Urban capacity building should rely on separate industrial and residential wastewater systems. Investing in technologies for industry can reduce water demand among paper and steel producers. The fastest growing grain market is in North Africa and the Middle East. Trends in principal grain exporting countries with 85% of global exports indicate no growth in grain production for export since 1980.

  11. Vulnerability of U.S. water supply to shortage: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of projected future water demand and supply across the conterminous United States indicates that, due to improving efficiency in water use, expected increases in population and economic activity do not by themselves pose a serious threat of large-scale water shortages. However, climate change can increase water demand and decrease water supply to the extent...

  12. Is The Water Shortage Crisis Really One of the Most Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years. The author has reported on this in his previous AGU presentations. In the next four decades, more than half of the world’s population will have to deal with sever water shortages. The United States has been blessed with several large fresh water lakes. In spite of having this fresh water supply, some states like Arizona could be facing sever fresh water shortages in the next couple of decades. Sid Wilson, general manager of the Central Arizona Project has indicated "It's not a question of if there is a water shortage anymore. It is in reality, when there will be a water shortage. " Several states share water from the Colorado river. The river has limited water supply to cater to the needs of Arizona, Nevada, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. World Health Organization, NASA, Department of the Interior, NOAA and several organizations have observed that there is a real water shortage crisis. This is because the world’s population has tripled in the twentieth century. This has resulted in a six-fold increase of water usage. Fresh water supply is limited. This is because water cannot be replaced with an alternative. It is important to observe that petroleum can be replaced with alternative fuel resources. It is necessary to recognize that fact that irrigation necessitates almost 65% to 70% of water withdrawal. Industry may utilize about 20% and domestic consumption is about 10% Evaporation from reservoirs is also a major factor, depending upon the climate and environment. Therefore there is an urgent need for all the countries to establish a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water

  13. Exploring Future Water Shortage for Large River Basins under Different Water Allocation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Dan; Yao, Mingtian; Ludwig, Fulco; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, He Qing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and socio-economic development increase variations in water availability and water use in the Pearl River Basin (PRB), China. This can potentially result in conflicts over water resources between water users, and cause water shortage in the dry season. To assess and manage water

  14. AACJC/Metropolitan Life Foundation Registered Nurse Shortage Project: Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, James F.

    The American Association of Community and Junior Colleges's Nurse Shortage Project was designed to alleviate the nurse shortage by helping community colleges improve recruitment, retention, and graduation in nursing programs through direct mini-grants, with a special emphasis on Tech Prep/Associate Degree initiatives between secondary schools and…

  15. Water and energy: a symbiotic marriage. [Looming water shortages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mageed, Y A

    1977-02-01

    The United Nations Water Conference held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, March 14-25, 1977 dealt with all aspects of the world's use of water: community supply, agriculture, industry, energy production, preservation of life and property through flood control, and transportation. The symbiosis between energy and water carries over into atomic power field--nuclear reactors are both users and a potential source of freshwater through desalination. The purpose of the conference was to call the attention of all concerned governments, opinion leaders, and public at large to the looming water crisis; to establish that the world's water problems cannot be solved by the lone water engineer or community water board, or even the scientist or administrator, but can be tackled with any hope of success only through a broad collaboration not only among all of these but of environmentalists, farm leaders, industrialists, and above all by governments, their planners, their budget officers, and their political leaders. The end of the explosive rise in water demand is nowhere in sight. Two-thirds of the world's people live in developing countries--most lacking in minimum public sanitation and hygiene. In summarizing all uses of water and its correlation with energy, the author expressed a desire that the conference would spark renewed initiative to accelerate capture of water from sources that are untapped or stress water conservation. Specifically, he calls on the nuclear community to improve efficiency of heat cycles so that generating units can cut down on the amount of water needed for cooling purposes; encourage utilization of take-off heat of nuclear power stations and its use in industry, agriculture, or municipal heating systems in the vicinity of the generating plant; and plan and construct nuclear plants in such a way that they form a part of comprehensive area or river valley development schemes in which the total investment is addressed to the area's total needs.

  16. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big

  17. Factors Other Than Climate Change, Main Drivers of 2014/15 Water Shortage in Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; King, Andrew; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Wada, Yoshihide; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Haarsma, Rein; Haustein, Karsten; Uhe, Peter; van Aalst, Maarten; hide

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Brazil experienced profound water shortages in 2014/15. Anthropogenic climate change is not found to be a major influence on the hazard, whereas increasing population and water consumption increased vulnerability.

  18. Land-Water-Food Nexus and Indications of Crop Adjustment for Water Shortage Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Ren, D.; Zhou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, and increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example), by (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain are produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions. (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the study reveals that 29.76 bn m3 of virtual water (10.81 bn m3 of blue virtual water) are used by wheat and maize production and nearly 2 million ha of cropland using 8.77 bn m3 of virtual water overproduced 12 million ton of maize for external food consumption. As an importing-based sub-region with high population density, Beijing and Tianjin (BT) imported mostly grain (wheat and maize) from Shandong (SD). Whereas, Hebei (HB), as an exporting-based sub-region with sever water shortage, overproduced too much grain for other regions (like Central area), which aggravated water crisis. To achieve Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei's integrated and sustainable development, HB should not undertake the breadbasket role for BT but pay more attention to groundwater depletion. The analysis of the Land-Water-Food Nexus indicates how shifts in the cultivated crops can potentially solve the overuse of water resources without adverse effect on food supply, and provides meaningful information to support policy

  19. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummu, Matti; Varis, Olli; Ward, Philip J; De Moel, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period 1961-90. Changes in historical water resources availability were simulated with the STREAM model, forced by climate output data of the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE climate model. The water crowding index, i.e. Falkenmark water stress indicator, was used to identify water shortage in 284 sub-basins. Although our results show a few areas with moderate water shortage (1000-1700 m 3 /capita/yr) around the year 1800, water shortage began in earnest at around 1900, when 2% of the world population was under chronic water shortage ( 3 /capita/yr). By 1960, this percentage had risen to 9%. From then on, the number of people under water shortage increased rapidly to the year 2005, by which time 35% of the world population lived in areas with chronic water shortage. In this study, the effects of changes in population on water shortage are roughly four times more important than changes in water availability as a result of long-term climatic change. Global trends in adaptation measures to cope with reduced water resources per capita, such as irrigated area, reservoir storage, groundwater abstraction, and global trade of agricultural products, closely follow the recent increase in global water shortage.

  20. Analysing monthly sectorial water use and its influence on salt intrusion induced water shortage in urbanized deltas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Mingtian; Yan, Dan; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, Heqing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanizing delta regions face seasonal water shortages induced by rising salt intrusion. Decreasing river discharge is readily listed as the major cause of water shortage events. Yet, observations of river discharge often fail to support this attribution. Evidence of the association between

  1. Land-Water-Food Nexus and indications of crop adjustment for water shortage solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dandan; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Richards, Keith; Zhou, Xinyao

    2018-06-01

    While agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example) by: (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain is produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions; and (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the study reveals that 29.76 bn m 3 of virtual water (10.81 bn m 3 of blue virtual water) are used by wheat and maize production and 8.77 bn m 3 of virtual water used in nearly 2 million ha of cropland to overproduce 12 million ton of maize for external food consumption. As an importing-based sub-region with high population density, Beijing & Tianjin imported mostly grain (wheat and maize) from Shandong Province. Then, Hebei Province, as an exporting-based sub-region with severe water shortage, overproduced too much grain for other regions, which aggravated the water crisis. To achieve an integrated and sustainable development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, Hebei Province should stop undertaking the breadbasket role for Beijing & Tianjin and pay more attention to groundwater depletion. The analysis of the Land-Water-Food Nexus indicates how shifts in cultivated crops can potentially solve the overuse of water resources without adverse effects on food supply

  2. Utah’s oldest show the most concern for future water shortages

    OpenAIRE

    Baji, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Utah is set to double in population by 2050. It is unclear whether current water supplies will be able to accommodate the needs of the future growth. Young people will be in their prime when water shortage predictions come to fruition, so it is important to know how concerned they are about the water issues that will affect them. An understanding of the relationship between age and water shortage concern may also contribute to the development of social science theories relating age and enviro...

  3. Water shortage and drought monitoring in Bačka region (Vojvodina, North Serbia: Setting-up measurement stations network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mlađen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and drought, as the most important hydro-climatic hazards, cause significant damages in case of most continents including SE Europe. An experimental field established in Bačka region (Vojvodina Autonomous Province, North Serbia for the purpose of droughts/water shortage monitoring and remote sensing under ongoing IPA project 'Water shortage hazard and adaptive water management strategies in the Hungarian-Serbian cross-border region' (WAHASTRAT. The main objective of this project is to determine water shortage con­flicts on a local and regional level, and to reveal the frequency, extent and severity of future hydro-cli­matic hazards. The locations of eight measurement stations selected on the principle of representativeness in term of terrain configuration and soil cover. An area in which measurement stations were placed, covers about 1000 km2 (12% of total area of Bačka and includes geomorphic units which reliable represent the relief of the whole Bačka region. Measurement stations were placed on 4 out of 5 most common soil types in the Bačka and Vojvodina: chernozem, alluvial soils, smonitza and saline and alkali soils. A measurement equipment system was constructed for the requirements of the WAHASTRAT project. The aim was to design a user-friendly and affordable IT solution, which would enable continuous re­mote monitoring of meteorological parameters and soil moisture. Independent solar-powered meas­urement stations are able to automatically measure air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, wind di­rection, precipitation and soil moisture.

  4. Civil Society and Residents’ Coping Strategies with Water Shortages and Household Food Insecurity in Gweru, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winmore Kusena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water shortages are distressing many urban areas in developing countries and require well planned and sustainable coping strategies in order to bequeath citizens decent lives. The objectives of this paper were to identify water related civil society groups present in Gweru; reveal devised coping strategies to combat water shortages and household food insecurity; and challenges faced by civil society and residents in obtaining sustainable coping strategies. A survey was conducted through interviews, questionnaires and observations as data collection instruments. The findings show that residents relied on borehole drilled in their respective areas by the municipality, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs and through individual initiatives. Although public boreholes were available, they were found at an average of only two in a given residential area, regardless of its population. Residents also collected water in containers during late hours of the night or early hours of the day. Gweru residents in addition devised strategies to cope with household food insecurity caused by water shortages and high monthly water bills. Combined with the aforementioned water shortage coping strategies, the stratagem by residents included coming up with payment plans, denying city personnel access into their premises for water disconnection; and self-reconnection in the event of disconnection. Community gardens initiated by Non-Governmental Organisations and food imports from neighbouring countries were some of the adaptive mechanisms dealing with household food insecurity. However, despite resolute efforts by civil society and residents to muddle through water supply and food security challenges, the city needs financial aid to enhance service provision that does not solely relying on residents. Financial injection and investment in sustainable alternative water sources for the city’s multiple uses will go a long way in solving the water shortages and

  5. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummu, M.S.; Ward, P.J.; de Moel, H.; Varis, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period

  6. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: quantifying the welfare effects of water shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vat, Marnix; Femke, Schasfoort; Rhee Gigi, Van; Manfred, Wienhoven; Nico, Polman; Joost, Delsman; den Hoek Paul, Van; Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens

    2016-04-01

    It is widely acknowledged that drought management should move from a crisis to a risk-based approach. A risk-based approach to managing water resources requires a sound drought risk analysis, quantifying the probability and impacts of water shortage due to droughts. Impacts of droughts are for example crop yield losses, hydropower production losses, and water shortage for municipal and industrial use. Many studies analyse the balance between supply and demand, but there is little experience in translating this into economic metrics that can be used in a decision-making process on investments to reduce drought risk. We will present a drought risk analysis method for the Netherlands, with a focus on the underlying economic method to quantify the welfare effects of water shortage for different water users. Both the risk-based approach as well as the economic valuation of water shortage for various water users was explored in a study for the Dutch Government. First, an historic analysis of the effects of droughts on revenues and prices in agriculture as well as on shipping and nature was carried out. Second, a drought risk analysis method was developed that combines drought hazard and drought impact analysis in a probabilistic way for various sectors. This consists of a stepwise approach, from water availability through water shortage to economic impact, for a range of drought events with a certain return period. Finally, a local case study was conducted to test the applicability of the drought risk analysis method. Through the study, experience was gained into integrating hydrological and economic analyses, which is a prerequisite for drought risk analysis. Results indicate that the risk analysis method is promising and applicable for various sectors. However, it was also found that quantification of economic impacts from droughts is time-consuming, because location- and sector-specific data is needed, which is not always readily available. Furthermore, for some

  7. Assessment of serious water shortage in the Icelandic water resource system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    there will be a shortage of electrical power. This is politically acceptable as long as it only touches heavy industries but not power deliveries to the common market. Empty or near empty reservoirs cause power shortage that will be felt by homeowners and businesses, until spring thaw sets in and inflow to the reservoirs...

  8. Demonstration project: Load management on the user side at power shortages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindskoug, Stefan

    2005-10-01

    The risk for power shortages during extreme cold weather has increased in Sweden. Comments are made that high electricity spot prices are important for holding down the demand. Through the consumers' higher price sensitivity, the electricity system can be operated with lower reserve capacity. The objective of the demonstration project is to show methods for reducing the electricity demand at the national level at high spot prices. An important prerequisite is that the measures must be profitable for all parties involved. Four separate studies were made, two concerning households, one industry and one for the district heating sector. The conclusion from the studies is that load management on the customer's side is an economic alternative to investment in new production capacity

  9. Selection of an evaluation index for water ecological civilizations of water-shortage cities based on the grey rough set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhu, J. W.; Xie, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    According to the characteristics and existing problems of water ecological civilization of water-shortage cities, the evaluation index system of water ecological civilization was established using a grey rough set. From six aspects of water resources, water security, water environment, water ecology, water culture and water management, this study established the prime frame of the evaluation system, including 28 items, and used rough set theory to undertake optimal selection of the index system. Grey correlation theory then was used for weightings in order that the integrated evaluation index system for water ecology civilization of water-shortage cities could be constituted. Xi’an City was taken as an example, for which the results showed that 20 evaluation indexes could be obtained after optimal selection of the preliminary framework of evaluation index. The most influential indices were the water-resource category index and water environment category index. The leakage rate of the public water supply pipe network, as well as the disposal, treatment and usage rate of polluted water, urban water surface area ratio, the water quality of the main rivers, and so on also are important. It was demonstrated that the evaluation index could provide an objectively reflection of regional features and key points for the development of water ecology civilization for cities with scarce water resources. It is considered that the application example has universal applicability.

  10. Impact of canal water shortages on groundwater in the Lower Bari Doab Canal system in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, A.S.; Rehman, H.U.; Khan, N.M.; Qazi, A.U.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents rigorous analysis of shortage of canal water supplies, crop water requirements, and groundwater use and its quality in the command of Lower Bari Doab Canal, Pakistan. The annual canal water supplies are 36% less than the crop water requirements. This shortage further increases to 56% if actual canal supplies (averaged over last ten years) are compared with the crop water requirement. The groundwater levels are depleting at the rate of 30 to 40 cm per year in most parts of the LBDC command and this tendency of lowering may increase in future due to further increase in crop water requirements. The analysis of data for the last seven years indicate that quality of groundwater in most parts of LBDC command is generally good (64% of the area) or marginally acceptable (28%) for irrigation use. However, declining trends in groundwater quality are visible and can create long term sustain ability problems if proper remedial actions are not taken well in time. (author)

  11. Motivational indicators of protective behaviour in response to urban water shortage threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Greenhill, Murni; Tucker, David; Tapsuwan, Sorada

    2013-05-01

    The present study examined the role of protection motivation variables in predicting rainwater tank adoption among urban householders. A regression analysis found that subjective knowledge, threat appraisal, response efficacy, response costs, subjective norms and social norms significantly predicted adaptive behavioural intentions (F(6, 399) = 50.769, p accounted for 43% of the variance in intentions to install a rainwater tank as a protective measure against future water shortages. Results further indicated that several variables uniquely contributed to the prediction of rainwater tank adoption (listed in order of relative contribution: response efficacy, threat appraisal, response costs, subjective knowledge and subjective norms). This suggests that people who perceive there is a real water shortage threat, and believe that rainwater tanks are effective in relieving the threat and require minimal or manageable effort to obtain, are more likely to install a tank on their property as a protective measure. Implications of these results are discussed from a research and policy perspective. Recommendations for future motivational research in the area of urban decentralised system acceptance and adoption are presented.

  12. The role of the uncertainty in assessing future scenarios of water shortage in alluvial aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Emanuele; Camici, Stefania; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Guyennon, Nicolas; Preziosi, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    There are many evidences that the combined effects of variations in precipitation and temperature due to climate change can result in a significant change of the recharge to groundwater at different time scales. A possible reduction of effective infiltration can result in a significant decrease, temporary or permanent, of the availability of the resource and, consequently, the sustainable pumping rate should be reassessed. In addition to this, one should also consider the so called indirect impacts of climate change, resulting from human intervention (e.g. augmentation of abstractions) which are feared to be even more important than the direct ones in the medium term: thus, a possible increase of episodes of shortage (i.e. the inability of the groundwater system to completely supply the water demand) can result both from change in the climate forcing and change in the demand. In order to assess future scenarios of water shortage a modelling chain is often used. It includes: 1) the use of General Circulation Models to estimate changes in temperature and precipitation; 2) downscaling procedures to match modeling scenarios to the observed meteorological time series; 3) soil-atmosphere modelling to estimate the time variation of the recharge to the aquifer; 4) groundwater flow models to simulate the water budget and piezometric head evolution; 5) future scenarios of groundwater quantitative status that include scenarios of demand variation. It is well known that each of these processing steps is affected by an intrinsic uncertainty that propagates through the whole chain leading to a final uncertainty on the piezometric head scenarios. The estimate of such an uncertainty is a key point for a correct management of groundwater resources, in case of water shortage due to prolonged droughts as well as for planning purposes. This study analyzes the uncertainty of the processing chain from GCM scenarios to its impact on an alluvial aquifer in terms of exploitation

  13. Wilted cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum do not suffer from water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuming; Wang, Min; Li, Yingrui; Gu, Zechen; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium wilt is primarily a soil-borne disease and results in yield loss and quality decline in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The main symptom of fusarium wilt is the wilting of entire plant, which could be caused by a fungal toxin(s) or blockage of water transport. To investigate whether this wilt arises from water shortage, the physiological responses of hydroponically grown cucumber plants subjected to water stress using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) were compared with those of plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Parameters reflecting plant water status were measured 8d after the start of treatment. Leaf gas exchange parameters and temperature were measured with a LI-COR portable open photosynthesis system and by thermal imaging. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast structures were assessed by imaging pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Cucumber water balance was altered after FOC infection, with decreased water absorption and hydraulic conductivity. However, the responses of cucumber leaves to FOC and PEG differed in leaf regions. Under water stress, measures of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that the leaf edge was more seriously injured, with a higher leaf temperature and disrupted leaf water status compared with the centre. Here, abscisic acid (ABA) and proline were negatively correlated with water potential. In contrast, under FOC infection, membrane damage and a higher temperature were observed in the leaf centre while ABA and proline did not vary with water potential. Cytologically, FOC-infected cucumber leaves exhibited circular chloroplasts and swelled starch grains in the leaf centre, in which they again differed from PEG-stressed cucumber leaves. This study illustrates the non-causal relationship between fusarium wilt and water transport blockage. Although leaf wilt occurred in both water stress and FOC infection, the

  14. Spatial risk modelling for water shortage and nitrate pollution in the lower Jordan valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.; Orthofer, R.

    2002-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the spatial risk modeling activities (work package WP-4.4, 'GIS Risk Modeling') of the INCO-DC project 'Developing Sustainable Water Management in the Jordan Valley'. The project was funded by European Commission's INCO-DC research program. The main objective of the project was to develop the scientific basis for an integral management plan of water resources and their use in the Lower Jordan Valley. The outputs of the project were expected to allow a better understanding of the water management situation, and to provide a sound basis for a better future water management - not only separately in the three countries, but in the overall valley region. The risk modeling was done by the ARCS Seibersdorf research (ARCS), based on information and data provided by the regional partners from Israel (Hebrew University, Jerusalem, HUJ), Palestine (Applied Research Institute, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, ARIJ) and Jordan (EnviroConsult Office, Amman, ECO). The land use classification has been established through a cooperation between ARCS and the Yale University Center for Earth Observation (YUCEO). As a result of the work, the spatial patterns of agricultural and domestic water demand in the Lower Jordan Valley were established, and the spatial dimension of driving forces for water usage and water supply was analyzed. Furthermore, a conceptual model for nitrate leakage (established by HUJ) was translated into a GIS system, and the risks for nitrate pollution of groundwater were quantified. (author)

  15. The analysis on the extreme water shortage event in Hangzhou in 1247 AD and its natural and social backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haolong

    2017-04-01

    Yangtze River Delta locating in the north subtropics of China, is famous for numerous rivers and lakes. Because of East Asian monsoon rainfall, flood is always the most primary disaster in this area during the past 2000 years. However, there were also several extreme water shortage events in the history. Example in Hangzhou in 1247 AD was such a typical year in the area. In the paper, the severity of this extreme event and the closely tied spatiotemporal variation of drought in Yangtze River Delta was quantitatively analyzed on the basis of documentary records during Southern Song Dynasty. Furtherly, its natural and social backgrounds was discussed. The result s are summarized as follows: 1) Wells, canals and West Lake of Hangzhou dried up in 1247 AD. The water level of canals was about 1.32-2.64 m lower than that in the normal year. The reduction of storage capacity in West Lake was 21 million stere or so. 2) The droughts in Yangtze River Delta was moderate on the whole, but that in the west of Zhejiang Province was severe. The drought in Hangzhou lasted from the 2nd lunar month to the end of this year. 3) The water shortage event was closely related to the quick going north and farther northern location of summer rain belt. The descending sea-level weakening the tide in Qiantang River, can also reduce the supply of water resources. 4) The quick growth of urban population, excessive aquaculture, and ineffective government supervision played an important social role in the process of this event. In the all, this extreme water shortage event was the result of both natural and social factors. This research is very helpful for the futuristic water resource forecast in Yangtze River Delta, and it also affords us lessons on the risk management and heritage conservation that merit attention. Key Words: Hangzhou, 1247 AD, water shortage, canal, West Lake, natural factors, social factors

  16. Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is advancing environmental control and life support systems water recovery technologies to support human exploration beyond low...

  17. Impact of forest maintenance on water shortages: Hydrologic modeling and effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pingping; Zhou, Meimei; Deng, Hongzhang; Lyu, Jiqiang; Cao, Wenqiang; Takara, Kaoru; Nover, Daniel; Geoffrey Schladow, S

    2018-02-15

    The importance of water quantity for domestic and industrial water supply, agriculture, and the economy more broadly has led to the development of many water quantity assessment methods. In this study, surface flow and soil water in the forested upper reaches of the Yoshino River are compared using a distributed hydrological model with Forest Maintenance Module under two scenarios; before and after forest maintenance. We also examine the impact of forest maintenance on these variables during extreme droughts. Results show that surface flow and soil water increased after forest maintenance. In addition, projections of future water resources were estimated using a hydrological model and the output from a 20km mesh Global Climate Model (GCM20). River discharge for the near-future (2015-2039) is similar to that of the present (1979-2003). Estimated river discharge for the future (2075-2099) was found to be substantially more extreme than in the current period, with 12m 3 /s higher peak discharge in August and 7m 3 /s lower in July compared to the discharges of the present period. Soil water for the future is estimated to be lower than for the present and near future in May. The methods discussed in this study can be applied in other regions and the results help elucidate the impact of forests and climate change on water resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Private Water Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Izaguirre, Ada Karina; Hunt, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in the water and sewerage sector of developing countries in 2004 and changes in private participation in the sector since 2001. Data for 2004 show that total investment in water and sewerage projects with private participation amounted to nearly US$2 billion. Recent private ...

  19. AACJC/Metropolitan Life Foundation Registered Nurse Shortage Project: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Lihue. Kauai Community Coll.

    In an effort to increase the number of graduating Kauai High School (KHS) seniors prepared to enter the Kauai Community College (KCC) Career Ladder Nursing Program, a special 2 + 2 program was initiated involving college/high school curriculum articulation, academic and career counseling, and early admission to KCC. At the outset of the project,…

  20. Risk Assessment in Relation to the Effect of Climate Change on Water Shortage in the Taichung Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, J.; Chang, L.; Ho, C.; Niu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid economic development has stimulated a worldwide greenhouse effect and induced global climate change. Global climate change has increased the range of variation in the quantity of regional river flows between wet and dry seasons, which effects the management of regional water resources. Consequently, the influence of climate change has become an important issue in the management of regional water resources. In this study, the Monte Carlo simulation method was applied to risk analysis of shortage of water supply in the Taichung area. This study proposed a simulation model that integrated three models: weather generator model, surface runoff model, and water distribution model. The proposed model was used to evaluate the efficiency of the current water supply system and the potential effectiveness of two additional plans for water supply: the “artificial lakes” plan and the “cross-basin water transport” plan. A first-order Markov Chain method and two probability distribution models, exponential distribution and normal distribution, were used in the weather generator model. In the surface runoff model, researchers selected the Generalized Watershed Loading Function model (GWLF) to simulate the relationship between quantity of rainfall and basin outflow. A system dynamics model (SD) was applied to the water distribution model. Results of the simulation indicated that climate change could increase the annual quantity of river flow in the Dachia River and Daan River basins. However, climate change could also increase the difference in the quantity of river flow between wet and dry seasons. Simulation results showed that in current system case or in the additional plan cases, shortage status of water for both public and agricultural uses with conditions of climate change will be mostly worse than that without conditions of climate change except for the shortage status for the public use in the current system case. With or without considering the effect of

  1. Relationships demand-supply of water and the rate of water shortage as tools for evaluating water resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio; Gonzalo Rivera, Hebert; Vanegas, Sarmiento Raquel; Moreno, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows updated results about Colombian water resources and their requirements by the economic sectors. Water demand water availability relationship is used as a pressure index on water resources. This relationship is expressed through the water scarcity index, which applies constraints over water availability; due to the runoff temporal variability and to the low levels of water during the dry season each year and for each geographic region to characterize average and low runoff years. Different water availability scenarios were building. One for modal runoff values and another for 95 percents for 2025 also were prepared. To the results call our attention to problems caused by the concentration of high density settlements and the presence of economics sectors in regions with low water availability. The infrastructure lag for management of a scarce high variable and over pressured resources emerges as a key factor to avoid a looming crisis in the process of water management

  2. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges. PMID:27934888

  3. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; Guillaume, J H A; de Moel, H; Eisner, S; Flörke, M; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Veldkamp, T I E; Ward, P J

    2016-12-09

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20 th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  4. The current shortage and future surplus of doctors: a projection of the future growth of the Japanese medical workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Hideaki; Nagata, Hiroshi; Nogawa, Hiroki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2011-05-27

    Starting in the late 1980s, the Japanese government decreased the number of students accepted into medical school each year in order to reduce healthcare spending. The result of this policy is a serious shortage of doctors in Japan today, which has become a social problem in recent years. In an attempt to solve this problem, the Japanese government decided in 2007 to increase the medical student quota from 7625 to 8848. Furthermore, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), Japan's ruling party after the 2009 election, promised in their manifesto to increase the medical student quota to 1.5 times what it was in 2007, in order to raise the number of medical doctors to more than 3.0 per 1000 persons. It should be noted, however, that this rapid increase in the medical student quota may bring about a serious doctor surplus in the future, especially because the population of Japan is decreasing.The purpose of this research is to project the future growth of the Japanese medical doctor workforce from 2008 to 2050 and to forecast whether the proposed additional increase in the student quota will cause a doctor surplus. Simulation modeling of the Japanese medical workforce. Even if the additional increase in the medical student quota promised by the DPJ fails, the number of practitioners is projected to increase from 286 699 (2.25 per 1000 persons) in 2008 to 365 533 (over the national numerical goal of 3.0 per 1000) in 2024. The number of practitioners per 1000 persons is projected to further increase to 3.10 in 2025, to 3.71 in 2035, and to 4.69 in 2050. If the additional increase in the medical student quota promised by the DPJ is realized, the total workforce is projected to rise to 392 331 (3.29 per 1000 persons) in 2025, 464 296 (4.20 per 1,000 persons) in 2035, and 545 230 (5.73 per 1000 persons) in 2050. The plan to increase the medical student quota will bring about a serious doctor surplus in the long run.

  5. New Development in Greenhouse Technology can Mitigate the Water Shortage Problem of the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van O.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.

    2008-01-01

    The world's fresh accessible water situation is deteriorating at a dismal pace. Though the situation is already quite dramatic in Africa, the near future will bring us great problems in Asia as well, considering the pace at which the population is growing and the rise in water use per capita as the

  6. Productivity of Bedouin goats: Coping with shortages of water and adequate food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choshniak, I.; Brosh, A.; Shkolnik, A.

    1988-01-01

    The study was carried out under outdoor summer conditions on goats that were watered only once every four days and goats that were watered once daily. Under each of the watering regimes the goats were fed on alfalfa hay (a high quality roughage), and Rhodes grass and wheat straw, medium and low quality feed respectively. In all trials except one, the goats maintained constant body weights. When goats were watered infrequently they gulped down volumes of water that often caused the osmolarity of the rumen fluid to drop from 360 mosm/kg to about 80 mosm/kg. Over this entire range of osmotic concentration the bacterial populations in the goats' rumen maintained their viability. By reducing the fluid flow through the gut, infrequent drinking helped to extend the time the digesta were retained along the digestive tract. As a result, digestibility of the roughage, particularly that of the low quality feed, was improved. Infrequent drinking was found to reduce the animals' demand for metabolizable energy and, as a result, enabled the goat to balance its energy metabolism on a low energy intake. It also improved the balance in the utilization of dietary protein while not interfering with the ability to recycle urea. It is concluded that the effects of the two deficiencies dealt with in this study are by no means additive. Frequent watering of ruminants in the desert is likely to increase their demand for food, lower their gain in digestible energy, increase their demand for metabolizable energy and make it more difficult for them to balance their energy budget. Improving feed quality for animals grazing in the desert, when water availability declines, is also not advantageous. It may only increase the animals' needs for water, render them dependent on frequent drinking and restrict their grazing area to the close vicinity of water sources. 30 refs, 10 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Can the U.S. Do More to Help Avert a World Water Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    www.house.gov/ bonilla /23rd.html>. Internet. Accessed 3 October 2004. Savedoff, William D., and Pablo T. Spiller, eds. Spilled Water: Institutional...President Approves More than $127 Million in Funding for 23 rd District,” 5 February 2004, available from <http://www.house.gov/ bonilla /23rd.html>; Internet

  8. Water shortage and quality of fleshy fruits--making the most of the unavoidable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Julie; Urban, Laurent; Staudt, Michael; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Bidel, Luc P R; Bertin, Nadia

    2014-08-01

    Extreme climatic events, including drought, are predicted to increase in intensity, frequency, and geographic extent as a consequence of global climate change. In general, to grow crops successfully in the future, growers will need to adapt to less available water and to take better advantage of the positive effects of drought. Fortunately, there are positive effects associated with drought. Drought stimulates the secondary metabolism, thereby potentially increasing plant defences and the concentrations of compounds involved in plant quality, particularly taste and health benefits. The role of drought on the production of secondary metabolites is of paramount importance for fruit crops. However, to manage crops effectively under conditions of limited water supply, for example by applying deficit irrigation, growers must consider not only the impact of drought on productivity but also on how plants manage the primary and secondary metabolisms. This question is obviously complex because during water deficit, trade-offs among productivity, defence, and quality depend upon the intensity, duration, and repetition of events of water deficit. The stage of plant development during the period of water deficit is also crucial, as are the effects of other stressors. In addition, growers must rely on relevant indicators of water status, i.e. parameters involved in the relevant metabolic processes, including those affecting quality. Although many reports on the effects of drought on plant function and crop productivity have been published, these issues have not been reviewed thus far. Here, we provide an up-to-date review of current knowledge of the effects of different forms of drought on fruit quality relative to the primary and secondary metabolisms and their interactions. We also review conventional and less conventional indicators of water status that could be used for monitoring purposes, such as volatile compounds. We focus on fruit crops owing to the importance of

  9. Specific leaf areas of the tank bromeliad Guzmania monostachia perform distinct functions in response to water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Takahashi, Cassia Ayumi; Cambui, Camila Aguetoni; Semprebom, Thais Ribeiro; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Mioto, Paulo Tamoso; de Melo Versieux, Leonardo; Calvente, Alice; Latansio-Aidar, Sabrina Ribeiro; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-05-01

    Leaves comprise most of the vegetative body of tank bromeliads and are usually subjected to strong longitudinal gradients. For instance, while the leaf base is in contact with the water accumulated in the tank, the more light-exposed middle and upper leaf sections have no direct access to this water reservoir. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate whether different leaf portions of Guzmania monostachia, a tank-forming C(3)-CAM bromeliad, play distinct physiological roles in response to water shortage, which is a major abiotic constraint in the epiphytic habitat. Internal and external morphological features, relative water content, pigment composition and the degree of CAM expression were evaluated in basal, middle and apical leaf portions in order to allow the establishment of correlations between the structure and the functional importance of each leaf region. Results indicated that besides marked structural differences, a high level of functional specialization is also present along the leaves of this bromeliad. When the tank water was depleted, the abundant hydrenchyma of basal leaf portions was the main reservoir for maintaining a stable water status in the photosynthetic tissues of the apical region. In contrast, the CAM pathway was intensified specifically in the upper leaf section, which is in agreement with the presence of features more suitable for the occurrence of photosynthesis at this portion. Gas exchange data indicated that internal recycling of respiratory CO(2) accounted for virtually all nighttime acid accumulation, characterizing a typical CAM-idling pathway in the drought-exposed plants. Altogether, these data reveal a remarkable physiological complexity along the leaves of G. monostachia, which might be a key adaptation to the intermittent water supply of the epiphytic niche. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Addressing the labour shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, J. [Alberta Economic Development, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Labour shortages are an increasing concern for companies in Alberta, where the economy is booming. This presentation provided statistics on labour shortages and Alberta's labour force. Between 1995 and 2004, employment in Alberta increased by more than 433,000 jobs, and is predicted to grow, but the natural population increase in the province is only 19,600 per year. It is expected that by 2010, immigrants will account for all growth in Canada's labour force. By 2020, an additional $100 billion of capital will be invested in Alberta, which is competing for labour with every other industrialized economy in the world. This presentation included a series of graphs and charts depicting Canada's national unemployment rate by province; Alberta's unemployment rate; oil sands capital expenditure; regional workforce requirements; and new jobs in the oil sands industry from 1998 to 2010. Employment requirements by trade were also highlighted along with projected labour shortages in 16 different trades. The author recommended that better long-term labour supply and demand models are needed along with rationalization and streamlining of credentials systems. Other solutions to labour shortages may include the removal of barriers to interprovincial and foreign workers; education and training; enhanced productivity; industry collaboration; and maximization of the labour pool to include women and Aboriginal workers. tabs., figs.

  11. Shortage and surplus of water in the socio-hydrological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, A.; Nijssen, d.

    2014-09-01

    Balancing the temporal variability of hydrological conditions in the long- and short-term is often essential for steady socio-economic conditions. However, this equilibrium is very fragile in many cases. Hydrological changes or socio-economic changes may destroy it in a short time. If we extend the bearing capacity of socio-hydrological systems we increase, in many cases, the harmful consequences of failures. Here, two case studies are discussed to illustrate these problems. The limited success at adapting water resources to increasing human requirements without consideration of the natural capacities will be discussed with the example of water use for irrigation in northeastern China. The demand for a new planning approach, which is based on a combination of monitoring, model-based impact assessments and spatial distributed planning, is demonstrated. The problems of water surplus, which becomes evident during floods, are discussed in a second case study. It is shown that flood protection depends strongly on expectations of flood characteristics. The gap between the social requirement for complete flood prevention and the remaining risk of flood damage becomes obvious. An increase of risk-awareness would be more sustainable than promises of flood protection, which are the basis for technical measures to affect floods and (or) to prevent flood damages.

  12. Shortage and surplus of water in the socio-hydrological context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schumann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Balancing the temporal variability of hydrological conditions in the long- and short-term is often essential for steady socio-economic conditions. However, this equilibrium is very fragile in many cases. Hydrological changes or socio-economic changes may destroy it in a short time. If we extend the bearing capacity of socio-hydrological systems we increase, in many cases, the harmful consequences of failures. Here, two case studies are discussed to illustrate these problems. The limited success at adapting water resources to increasing human requirements without consideration of the natural capacities will be discussed with the example of water use for irrigation in northeastern China. The demand for a new planning approach, which is based on a combination of monitoring, model-based impact assessments and spatial distributed planning, is demonstrated. The problems of water surplus, which becomes evident during floods, are discussed in a second case study. It is shown that flood protection depends strongly on expectations of flood characteristics. The gap between the social requirement for complete flood prevention and the remaining risk of flood damage becomes obvious. An increase of risk-awareness would be more sustainable than promises of flood protection, which are the basis for technical measures to affect floods and (or to prevent flood damages.

  13. Hydrological Regime and Water Shortage as Drivers of the Seasonal Incidence of Diarrheal Diseases in a Tropical Montane Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Boithias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In montane areas of South-East Asia such as northern Laos, recent changes in land use have induced increased runoff, soil erosion and in-stream suspended sediment loads, and potential pathogen dissemination. To our knowledge, few studies have related diarrhea incidences to catchment scale hydrological factors such as river discharge, and loads of suspended sediment and of Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB such as Escherichia coli, together with sociological factors such as hygiene practices. We hypothesized that climate factors combined with human behavior control diarrhea incidence, either because higher rainfall, leading to higher stream discharges, suspended sediment loads and FIB counts, are associated with higher numbers of reported diarrhea cases during the rainy season, or because water shortage leads to the use of less safe water sources during the dry season. Using E. coli as a FIB, the objectives of this study were thus (1 to characterize the epidemiological dynamics of diarrhea in Northern Laos, and (2 to identify which hydro-meteorological and sociological risk factors were associated with diarrhea epidemics.Considering two unconnected river catchments of 22 and 7,448 km2, respectively, we conducted a retrospective time series analysis of meteorological variables (rainfall, air temperature, hydrological variables (discharge, suspended sediments, FIB counts, water temperature, and the number of diarrheal disease cases reported at 6 health centers located in the 5 southern districts of the Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR. We also examined the socio-demographic factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors, such as drinking water sources, hygiene habits, and recreational water exposure.Using thus a mixed methods approach, we found E. coli to be present all year long (100-1,000 Most Probable Number or MPN 100 mL-1

  14. Joint management of water and electricity in State Water Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between California's water and electrical power is important for improving the management and planning of these two vital resources to the state's economy development and people's well-being. It is often unclear for consumers, managers and decision-makers that water and electricity in California are inextricably connected. In the past, insufficient considerations of electricity production, consumption and cost in the State Water Project (SWP) - the world's largest publicly built and operated water and power development and conveyance system-has led to significant water rate and electricity rate increase. An innovative concept of this proposed study is developing new technology capable of managing and planning water and power jointly in SWP to promote its operation efficiency, sustainability and resilience to potential water shortage caused by climate change and population increase. To achieve this goal, a nonlinear, two-fold network model describing water delivery in company with power consumption and generation will be constructed, and a multi-objective optimization scheme is to be used to resolve this complex nonlinear network problem.

  15. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  16. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  17. Water Stress Projection Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    water consumption stress in coming decades is electricity generation in two surrounding counties, El Paso and Doña Ana, which are expected to...better able to predict and prepare for a changing climate. Army installations will be affected by climate change. It behooves the Army to understand...stationing analysis, the resources ex- amined were: a. Training land b. Energy ( electricity and natural gas) c. Water and wastewater treatment and solid

  18. Labour Shortages in Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predictions in the media and from think tanks sound altogether alarming: Saskatchewan, with its booming economy, could be facing a worker shortage so severe that it could drastically hobble the province’s ultimate economic potential. While the world craves only more of Saskatchewan’s abundant natural resources, the province won’t possibly be able to keep up, due to a scarcity of workers that could be as significant as one-fifth of the labour supply by 2020. The Saskatchewan government has rushed to analyze the predicament, issuing reports that urgently seek solutions. But it hasn’t really developed any solutions. In fact, it hasn’t done much about the supposedly looming crisis at all. And that, actually, might just be all it can — and should — do. In truth, Saskatchewan can’t be sure it will be facing a serious shortage, or any shortage, at all. And any attempt by the provincial government to substantially intervene in the labour market could cause more problems for employers and the economy, than it addresses. Saskatchewan’s labour market has already shown a remarkable ability to adjust, on its own, to the commodities boom, and what employers today call a shortage, could well just be everyone getting used to a much tighter, but still very functional, labour market. The province’s lack of action did mean it missed a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to redirect a huge cohort of Gen-Y students into training for trades that are in high demand (that cohort is already in its mid-20s and finished, or finishing, its career training. That was a mistake. But one big thing the Saskatchewan government can still do to help employers — and workers — is to stop making the strains on labour worse by launching imminent public infrastructure projects that compete with the private sector for labour. Instead, the province should plan those for when the boom slows down and workers need the jobs. It should also abandon any ideas of ramping

  19. Project W.A.T.E.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EnviroTeach, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Introduces networking projects for studying rivers and water quality. Describes two projects in South Africa (Project W.A.T.E.R and SWAP) associated with the international network, Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. Discusses water test kits and educational material developed through Project W.A.T.E.R. (Water Awareness through…

  20. Direction of Heavy Water Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Summary of the activities performed by the Heavy Water Projects Direction of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission from 1950 to 1983. It covers: historical data; industrial plant (based on ammonia-hydrogen isotopic exchange); experimental plant (utilizing hydrogen sulfides-water process); Module-80 plant (2-3 tons per year experimental plant with national technology) and other related tasks on research and development (E.A.C.) [es

  1. Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

    2008-11-01

    More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management.

  2. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J.H.A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Ward, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th

  3. Ecological drought: Accounting for the non-human impacts of water shortage in the Upper Missouri Headwaters Basin, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Jamie; Bathke, Deborah J.; Burkardt, Nina; Cravens, Amanda; Haigh, Tonya; Hall, Kimberly R.; Hayes, Michael J.; Jedd, Theresa; Podebradska, Marketa; Wickham, Elliot

    2018-01-01

    Water laws and drought plans are used to prioritize and allocate scarce water resources. Both have historically been human-centric, failing to account for non-human water needs. In this paper, we examine the development of instream flow legislation and the evolution of drought planning to highlight the growing concern for the non-human impacts of water scarcity. Utilizing a new framework for ecological drought, we analyzed five watershed-scale drought plans in southwestern Montana, USA to understand if, and how, the ecological impacts of drought are currently being assessed. We found that while these plans do account for some ecological impacts, it is primarily through the narrow lens of impacts to fish as measured by water temperature and streamflow. The latter is typically based on the same ecological principles used to determine instream flow requirements. We also found that other resource plans in the same watersheds (e.g., Watershed Restoration Plans, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Watershed Assessments or United States Forest Service (USFS) Forest Plans) identify a broader range of ecological drought risks. Given limited resources and the potential for mutual benefits and synergies, we suggest greater integration between various planning processes could result in a more holistic consideration of water needs and uses across the landscape.

  4. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  5. Present status of seawater desalination and problems of nuclear utilization. Aiming at coping with global shortage of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    With recent global population increase and economic and life level improvement, water demand increases tremendously and in 2025 water scarcity will occur in almost the half of countries and regions in the world. Nuclear desalination is highly expected to cope with this issue. The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) established special committee on seawater desalination problems to discuss possibilities of nuclear desalination introduction. Present status of seawater desalination and problems of nuclear utilization were reviewed and the committee recommended the necessity of establishing medium and long-term plan on international business development of nuclear desalination and also the start of basic research on problems of nuclear utilization such as technical and institutional limits and efficient applicability of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Evidence for carbon flux shortage and strong carbon/nitrogen interactions in pea nodules at early stages of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Loli; González, Esther M; Arrese-Igor, Cesar

    2005-09-01

    Symbiotic N2 fixation in legume nodules declines under a wide range of environmental stresses. A high correlation between N2 fixation decline and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) activity down-regulation has been reported, although it has still to be elucidated whether a causal relationship between SS activity down-regulation and N2 fixation decline can be established. In order to study the likely C/N interactions within nodules and the effects on N2 fixation, pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Sugar snap) were subjected to progressive water stress by withholding irrigation. Under these conditions, nodule SS activity declined concomitantly with apparent nitrogenase activity. The levels of UDP-glucose, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate decreased in water-stressed nodules compared with unstressed nodules. Drought also had a marked effect on nodule concentrations of malate, succinate, and alpha-ketoglutarate. Moreover, a general decline in nodule adenylate content was detected. NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42) was the only enzyme whose activity increased as a result of water deficit, compensating for a possible C/N imbalance and/or supplying NADPH in circumstances that the pentose phosphate pathway was impaired, as suggested by the decline in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) activity. The overall results show the occurrence of strong C/N interactions in nodules subjected to water stress and support a likely limitation of carbon flux that might be involved in the decline of N2 fixation under drought.

  7. Aqueducts and geoglyphs : the response of Ancient Nasca to water shortages in the desert of Atacama (Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    The desert of Atacama is a plateau in South America, covering a 1,000-kilometre strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains, between Chile and Peru. Due to the confluence of a cold ocean current (the Humboldt Current) along with other climatic factors, connected to the particular topography and geomorphology of the region, Atacama desert is one of the most arid areas of the world. In particular, in Nasca region (Southern Peru) the lack of water was (and still is) due to the following causes: (i) the scarce pluvial precipitations and the (ii) high infiltration capacity, and the consequent yearly significant reduction of the surface water (Schreiber & Lancho Rojas 2009). Over the millennia long periods of drought occurred and frequently the lack of water was persistent for several decades. Despite the arid and extreme nature of the environment, this region was populated by important civilizations, such as Paracas and Nasca, which flourished in the Early Intermediate period (200 BCE-500 AD) (Silvermann & Proulx 2002). In particular the Nasca civilization is well-known for its refined and colourful pottery, characterized by a rich icononographic repertory, and, above all, by the huge and mysterious geoglyphs drawn on the arid plateaus of the Rio Grande de Nasca Basin. In order to practice agriculture, the Nasca developed adequate strategies to cope with hostile environmental factors and water scarcity, building a very efficient aqueduct system. They were aided by the fact that underground water was likely enough close to the surface and accessible by constructing wells and underground aqueducts, known with quechua name of puquios (Schreiber & Lancho Rojas 2009; Lasaponara & Masini 2012a; 2012b) The effectiveness of the techniques of hydraulic engineering depended on the climate and the weather events that sometimes underwent drastic changes, as results of the cyclical phenomenon of El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO). Hence the

  8. Schools water efficiency and awareness project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2002-04-23

    Apr 23, 2002 ... Schools Water Efficiency Project in February 2003, which supports several of the City's Water Demand ... of automatic flushing urinals (AFUs) alone in schools can save up .... to go back into the bag as the cistern is filling.

  9. Disconnecting the autopilot in urban water projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Øhlenschlæger, Ny

    2011-01-01

    How can we motivate urban planners, water utilities and house owners to collaborate about sustainable urban water projects and to aim for solutions that go beyond the narrow perspective of individual stakeholder interests? A concept for framing a multidisciplinary learning process is developed...... the early stages of an urban water project. To realise new sustainable urban water designs a project team will need to engage and get acceptance from internal and external stakeholders, and this calls for communication and social skills rather than technical skills. The paper identifies potential...

  10. Schools water efficiency and awareness project | Wilson | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The City of Cape Town's Water Demand Management (WDM) department has been involved in school projects for several years, although these have generally been restricted to educational activities during Water Week and school competitions, due mainly to limited resources. Cape Town is a water scarce area, and ...

  11. Economic Impacts of Power Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The electricity industry is a basic industry of the national economy. It has experienced several large-scale power shortages, hard power shortage and soft power shortage, which have brought a great threat to China’s sustainable economic development. To solve this problem better, it is necessary to make a quantitative assessment of the economic impacts of power shortage. The CGE model is commonly used for simulating economic shocks and policy effects. It describes supply, demand and equilibrium in different markets by simulating the economic mechanism through a set of equations. Once changed, the exogenous variables will affect a certain part of the system and then the whole system, leading to changes in quantities and prices. The equilibrium state will also change from one to another. A static CGE model is built in this paper, and the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of eight sectors of China in 2007 is compiled, in order to simulate the economic impacts of hard power shortage and soft power shortage. Simulation results show that the negative effects of power shortage on economic development are very significant, and the effects vary in different sectors. Especially, under the background of hard power shortage, the industrial sector suffers most. The economic cost of power shortage is considerable, and the main reason for it is the specific administrative pricing system in China. The low electricity price in the long term will lead to insufficient construction and hard power shortage; moreover, that in the short run would result in soft power shortage. In order to solve the problem of power shortage completely, power system reform is inevitable.

  12. BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.C. [BC Sustainable Energy Association, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Although solar hot water heating is an environmentally responsible technology that reduces fossil fuel consumption and helps mitigate global climate change, there are many barriers to its widespread use. Each year, domestic water heating contributes nearly 6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide towards Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. The installation of solar water heaters can eliminate up to 2 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per household. The BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project was launched in an effort to demonstrate that the technology has the potential to be widely used in homes and businesses across British Columbia. One of the main barriers to the widespread use of solar hot water heating is the initial cost of the system. Lack of public awareness and understanding of the technology are other barriers. However, other jurisdictions around the world have demonstrated that the use of renewables are the product of conscious policy decisions, including low-cost financing and other subsidies that have created demand for these technologies. To this end, the BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project will test the potential for the rapid acceleration of solar water heating in pilot communities where barriers are removed. The objective of the project is to install 100 solar water systems in homes and 25 in businesses and institutions in communities in British Columbia by July 2007. The project will explore the financial barriers to the installation of solar hot water systems and produce an action plan to reduce these barriers. In addition to leading by example, the project will help the solar energy marketplace, mitigate climate change and improve energy efficiency.

  13. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  14. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  15. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainability of mega water diversion projects: Experience and lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Wang, Chaoran; Liu, Yi; Olsson, Gustaf; Wang, Chunyan

    2018-04-01

    Water availability and water demand are not evenly distributed in time and space. Many mega water diversion projects have been launched to alleviate water shortages in China. This paper analyzes the temporal and spatial features of 59 mega water diversion projects in China using statistical analysis. The relationship between nine major basins is measured using a network analysis method, and the associated economic, environmental and social impacts are explored using an impact analysis method. The study finds the development of water diversion has experienced four stages in China, from a starting period through to a period of high-speed development. Both the length of water diversion channels and the amount of transferred water have increased significantly in the past 50years. As of 2015, over 100billionm 3 of water was transferred in China through 16,000km in channels. These projects reached over half of China's provinces. The Yangtze River Basin is now the largest source of transferred water. Through inter-basin water diversion, China gains the opportunity to increase Gross Domestic Product by 4%. However, the construction costs exceed 150 billion US dollars, larger than in any other country. The average cost per unit of transferred water has increased with time and scale but decreased from western to eastern China. Furthermore, annual total energy consumption for pumping exceeded 50billionkilowatt-hours and the related greenhouse gas emissions are estimated to be 48milliontons. It is worth noting that ecological problems caused by water diversion affect the Han River and Yellow River Basins. Over 500 thousand people have been relocated away from their homes due to water diversion. To improve the sustainability of water diversion, four kinds of innovative measures have been provided for decision makers: national diversion guidelines, integrated water basin management, economic incentives and ex-post evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Opportunities and constraints of deep water projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    While oil output from deep water areas still is scarce, it however has become a reality in water depths over 300 m. Specific constraints linked to these developments lead to the selection of appropriate concepts for production supports. First deep water developments occurred off Brazil (see other articles in this issue) and the Gulf of Mexico and now expand to other areas worldwide, such as the West of Shetland discoveries, the Northern part of the Norwegian waters and potentially West Africa, the Barents sea and South-East Asia. Fixed platforms and compliant towers have shown their limits (in terms of water depth capacity) and new deep water projects mainly rely on tension leg platforms (TLP) and floaters, either FPSOs or semi-sub based. Research is at work on alternative materials for lighter flexible risers and mooring systems. Operators and manufacturers are eager to develop for the 300 m range systems and equipments that could be used with little modification for oil fields located in deeper waters. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Light water reactor safety research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoczy, G.; Aksan, S.N.; Behringer, K.; Prodan, M.; Stierli, F.; Ullrich, G.

    1980-07-01

    The research and development activities for the safety of Light Water Power Reactors carried out 1979 at the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research are described. Considerations concerning the necessity, objectives and size of the Safety Research Project are presented, followed by a detailed discussion of the activities in the five tasks of the program, covering fracture mechanics and nondestructive testing, thermal-hydraulics, reactor noise analysis and pressure vessel steel surveillance. (Auth.)

  19. Drug shortages: Implications for medical toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Hawley, Kristy L; Zocchi, Mark; Fox, Erin; Pines, Jesse M; Nelson, Lewis S

    2015-07-01

    Drug shortages have significantly increased over the past decade. There are limited data describing how shortages impact medical toxicology of drugs. To characterize drug shortages affecting the management of poisoned patients. Drug shortage data from January 2001 to December 2013 were obtained from the University of Utah Drug Information Service. Shortage data for agents used to treat poisonings were analyzed. Information on drug type, formulation, reason for shortage, shortage duration, marketing, and whether the drug was available from a single source was collected. The availability of a substitute therapy and whether substitutes were in shortage during the study period were also investigated. Of 1,751 shortages, 141 (8.1%) impacted drugs used to treat poisoned patients, and as of December 2013, 21 (14.9%) remained unresolved. New toxicology shortages increased steadily from the mid-2000s, reaching a high of 26 in 2011. Median shortage duration was 164 days (interquartile range: 76-434). Generic drugs were involved in 85.1% of shortages and 41.1% were single-source products. Parenteral formulations were often involved in shortages (89.4%). The most common medications in shortage were sedative/hypnotics (15.6%). An alternative agent was available for 121 (85.8%) drugs; however, 88 (72.7%) alternatives were also affected by shortages at some point during the study period. When present, the most common reasons reported were manufacturing delays (22.0%) and supply/demand issues (17.0%). Shortage reason was not reported for 48.2% of drugs. Toxicology drug shortages are becoming increasingly prevalent, which can result in both suboptimal treatment and medication errors from using less familiar alternatives. Drug shortages affected a substantial number of critical agents used in the management of poisoned patients. Shortages were often of long duration and for drugs without alternatives. Providers caring for poisoned patients should be aware of current shortages and

  20. New project to improve water management in the Sahel | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-06-06

    Jun 6, 2018 ... A new IDRC-supported project will help improve water conservation and use ... and tested water retention tanks to supplement irrigation from water runoff to ... where capacity will be built among agricultural stakeholders and ...

  1. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  2. Water and nuclear power cogeneration with desalination: the U.S. projects and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faibish, Ron S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent dramatic increases in water shortages across the globe necessitate exploring innovative and practical methods for increasing the world's ever-depleting water and energy supplies. One proposed solution to alleviate water shortage, which is gaining popularity around the world, is to desalt seawater and produce potable water, i.e., via seawater desalination. Indeed, the basic technological know-how is readily available from extensive previous experience, especially in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf regions. However, new proposals for coupling desalination plants with power plants for the convenient cogeneration of water and power are rapidly emerging and requiring re-evaluation of process technology and economics

  3. The reliability evaluation of reclaimed water reused in power plant project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Jia, Ru-sheng; Gao, Yu-lan; Wang, Wan-fen; Cao, Peng-qiang

    2017-12-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water has become one of the important measures to solve the shortage of water resources in many cities, But there is no unified way to evaluate the engineering. Concerning this issue, it took Wanneng power plant project in Huai city as a example, analyzed the reliability of wastewater reuse from the aspects of quality in reclaimed water, water quality of sewage plant, the present sewage quantity in the city and forecast of reclaimed water yield, in particular, it was necessary to make a correction to the actual operation flow rate of the sewage plant. the results showed that on the context of the fluctuation of inlet water quality, the outlet water quality of sewage treatment plants is basically stable, and it can meet the requirement of circulating cooling water, but suspended solids(SS) and total hardness in boiler water exceed the limit, and some advanced treatment should be carried out. In addition, the total sewage discharge will reach 13.91×104m3/d and 14.21×104m3/d respectively in the two planning level years of the project. They are greater than the normal collection capacity of the sewage system which is 12.0×104 m3/d, and the reclaimed water yield can reach 10.74×104m3/d, which is greater than the actual needed quantity 8.25×104m3/d of the power plant, so the wastewater reuse of this sewage plant are feasible and reliable to the power plant in view of engineering.

  4. 76 FR 66117 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... notice lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant...

  5. 76 FR 53526 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the...

  6. 76 FR 42159 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the...

  7. 77 FR 4859 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... notice lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant...

  8. ROMANIAN TOURISM FACING LABOUR SHORTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the main trends în the Romanian tourism sector andtheir impact on the labour market. The first part of the paper presents the main trends în the travel and tourismsector. The second part of the paper focuses on the challenges of the labour market în the hotel sector,highlighting essential aspect related to the declining of population, shortage of the workforce, emigration,financial compensations. The final part exposes few ideas and possible suggestions that can be applied into thetravel and tourism sector în order to better manage the multiple dimensions of growth.

  9. Interdisciplinary Water and Sanitation Project in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    船水, 尚行

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary project on water and sanitation was performed in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2015. The title of the project was “Development of sustainable water and sanitation systems in the African Sahel region”, and the project was supported by SATREPS (JST and JICA) and collaborated with International Institute of Water and Sanitation (2iE). The main purpose of the project was to develop and demonstrate the new system of water and sanitation based on the concept of “do not mix” and “do no...

  10. 78 FR 2315 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  11. 78 FR 15402 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  12. 78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  13. 78 FR 27471 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the approved by rule projects..., being rescinded for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  14. 78 FR 17281 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  15. 77 FR 16317 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  16. 77 FR 66909 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  17. 77 FR 21143 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  18. 77 FR 25010 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule... below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  19. 77 FR 34455 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  20. 77 FR 55891 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  1. 77 FR 55893 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects rescinded by the... the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  2. 77 FR 59240 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects rescinded by the... rescinded for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth...

  3. 77 FR 55892 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  4. 77 FR 59239 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects approved by rule..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process...

  5. Studies on characteristics of water sources around Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, T.R.; Krishna Bhat, D.; Thimme Gowda, B.; Sherigara, B.S.; Abdul Khadar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic and detailed study of characteristics of ground water, Kali river water and rain water samples around Kaiga project area has been undertaken. The analysis of a large number of parameters revealed that the ground waters and Kali river water are of calcium-bicarbonate type as indicated by Romani's modified Hill Piper diagram. The ionic impurities in ground waters and Kali river water are well within the Indian Drinking Water Specifications. The results obtained would serve as base line data for future impact studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  6. The Model of Lake Operation in Water Transfer Projects Based on the Theory of Water- right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi-peng, Yan; Chao, Liu; Fang-ping, Tang

    the lake operation is a very important content in Water Transfer Projects. The previous studies have not any related to water-right and water- price previous. In this paper, water right is divided into three parts, one is initialization waterright, another is by investment, and the third is government's water- right re-distribution. The water-right distribution model is also build. After analyzing the cost in water transfer project, a model and computation method for the capacity price as well as quantity price is proposed. The model of lake operation in water transfer projects base on the theory of water- right is also build. The simulation regulation for the lake was carried out by using historical data and Genetic Algorithms. Water supply and impoundment control line of the lake was proposed. The result can be used by south to north water transfer projects.

  7. Water governance within Kenya's Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin: Assessing the performance of water projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, P. F.; Evans, T. P.; Dell'Angelo, J.; Gower, D.; McBride, L.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change processes are projected to change the availability and seasonality of streamflow with dramatic implications for irrigated agricultural systems. Within mountain environments, this alteration in water availability may be quite pronounced over a relatively short distance as upstream users with first access to river water directly impact the availability of water to downstream users. Livelihood systems that directly depend on river water for both domestic consumption and practices such as irrigated agriculture are particularly vulnerable. The Mount Kenya region is an exemplary case of a semi-arid upstream-downstream system in which water availability rapidly decreases and directly impacts the livelihoods of river water users existing across this steep environmental gradient. To effectively manage river water within these water-scarce environs, water projects have been established along the major rivers of the Mount Kenya region. These water projects are responsible for managing water within discrete sub-catchments of the region. While water projects develop rules that encourage the responsible use of water and maintenance of the project itself, the efficiency of water allocation to the projects' members remains unclear. This research analyzes water projects from five sub-catchments on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya. It utilizes data from household surveys and water project management surveys as well as stream gauge data and flow measurements within individual water projects to assess the governance structure and performance of water projects. The performance of water projects is measured through a variety of household level metrics including: farm-level water flow and volume over time, mean and variability in maize yield, per capita crop productivity, household-level satisfaction with water availability, number of days where water volume was insufficient for irrigation, and quantity harvested compared with expected quantity harvested. We present

  8. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  9. Project Politics, Priorities and Participation in Rural Water Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara van Koppen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Governments, NGOs and financers invest considerable resources in rural domestic water supplies and irrigation development. However, elite capture and underuse, if not complete abandonment, are frequent. While the blame is often put on 'corrupt, lazy and indisciplined' communities, this article explores the question of how the public water sector itself contributes to this state of affairs. Four case studies, which are part of the research project Cooperation and Conflict in Local Water Governance, are examined: two domestic water supply projects (Mali, Vietnam; one participatory multiple use project (Zambia; and one large-scale irrigation project (Bolivia. It was found that accountability of water projects was upward and tended to lie in construction targets for single uses with already allocated funding. This rendered project implementers dependent upon the village elite for timely spending. Yet, the elite appeared hardly motivated to maintain communal schemes, unless they themselves benefited. The dependency of projects on the elite can be reduced by ensuring participatory and inclusive planning that meets the project’s conditions before budget allocation. Although such approaches are common outside the water sector, a barrier in the water sector is that central public funds are negotiated by each sector by profiling unique expertise and single livelihood goals, which trickle down as single use silos. The article concludes with reflections on plausible benefits of participatory multiple use services for equity and sustainability.

  10. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1987-01-01

    This report contains information on the 34 new projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Research Grant Program in fiscal year 1987 and on 3 projects completed during the year. For the new projects, the report gives the grant number, project title, performing organization, principal investigator(s), and a project description that includes: (1) identification of water related problems and problem-solution approach (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, and (4) approach. The 34 projects include 12 in the area of groundwater quality problems, 12 in the science and technology of water quality management, 1 in climate variability and the hydrologic cycle, 4 in institutional change in water resources management, and 5 in surface water management. For the three completed projects, the report furnishes the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investor(s); starting data; data of receipt of final report; and an abstract of the final report. Each project description provides the information needed to obtain a copy of the final report. The report contains tables showing: (1) proposals received according to area of research interest, (2) grant awards and funding according to area of research interest, (3) proposals received according to type of submitting organization, and (4) awards and funding according to type of organization. (Author 's abstract)

  11. ICPP water inventory study project summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, B.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Water inventory Study was initiated in September 1993 with the formation of a joint working group consisting of representatives from DOE-ID, State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, US Geological Survey, and INEL employees to investigate three issues that had been identified by the INEL Oversight Program at ICPP: (1) the water inventory imbalance at ICPP, (2) the source of water infiltrating into the Tank Farm vault sumps, and (3) the source of water providing potential recharge to perched water bodies underlying ICPP. These issues suggested that water was being lost from the ICPP distribution system. The INEL Oversight Program was concerned that the unaccounted for water at ICPP could be spreading contaminants that have been released over the past 40 years of operations of ICPP, possibly to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This report summarizes the findings of each of the component investigations that were undertaken to resolve each of the three issues. Concerns about the risk of spreading contaminants will be resolved as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study being undertaken at ICPP in compliance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order between DOE-H), EPA, and the State of Idaho. This report will be a key input to that study

  12. Nursing and Allied Health Shortages: TBR Responds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Treva

    Staff members of the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission worked jointly to establish a task force to investigate and develop recommendations for addressing the workforce shortages in nursing and allied health in Tennessee. The investigation established that Tennessee already has a workforce shortage of…

  13. Hygiena 3, a Forgotten Project for Electrolytic Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryštof Drnek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the interwar period, the city of Prague had to resolve the problem of treating the polluted water produced by its citizens. From 1933 - 1936 an ambitious competition was held. The idea behind the competition was to bring in new ideas and projects for a new water treatment station.Hygiena 3 was one of the projects that was submitted. It proposed a treatment procedure based on electrolytic consolidation of contaminants in water into flocks. The project was found to be inventive and interesting but too expensive and not effective. Nevertheless it was evaluated as a well developed proposal and received an award from the city.

  14. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-01-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document

  15. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  16. Modeling of seasonal water balance for crop production in Bangladesh with implications for future projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed R. Karim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Expecting the projected regional or global climate change, weather could have a significant effect on soil moisture and thereby affecting the plant growth. Water deficiency is considered as one of the major climatic restraints for crop production in Bangladesh, especially in the dry season. To better understand the crop responses to moisture variation, a quantitative analysis is done for major water balance components named, potential evapotranspiration (PET, actual evapotranspiration (AET, soil moisture storage (ST, water deficiency (WD and water surplus (WS with the use of Thornthwaite monthly water balance program. Analyses were carried out for three different seasons, together with interannual variability for 12 major rice growing districts of Bangladesh representing the north, central, southern and coastal zones. Hindcasted monthly average surface air temperature and precipitation data were collected from Bangladesh meteorological department during 1986 to 2006. Results suggested, trend of PET was same in every station and generally higher values were observed in the month of July and August. Khulna, the coastal station had the highest annual average PET of 1369 mm. The lowest annual AET of 1108 mm was estimated for Teknaf, while Dinajpur stood in second lowest position. ST was found almost at field capacity from July to September and, the southern station Chittagong experienced the highest average monthly ST. Maximum WD was found in Bogra and second highest shortage was in Dinajpur. The assessment of average WD of 178 mm yr-1 in northern Bangladesh reflected the worst situation among all regions, besides focusing the winter as the most crucial season regarding the water scarcity. Least amount of WS was noticed for the southern station Khulna. Significant positive relationship (p<0.05 between soil moisture and current rice yields proved the importance of surplus water conservation for the drought prone zone of Bangladesh. To boost up the

  17. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes, III

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages. Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used. Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals. Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.   Type: Original Research

  18. Drug shortage management in Alabama hospital pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W. Holmes III, Pharm.D. Candidate 2013

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify effective strategies used by Alabama hospitals to manage drug shortages. Moreover, this study aims to determine if there are any relationships among hospital size, utilization of a standard policy for drug shortage management and perceived usefulness of standard procedures for drug shortages.Methods: A paper survey was mailed to 129 hospital pharmacies in Alabama (per the Alabama Hospital Association directory. The survey consisted of 5 demographic questions, questions involving perception of current medication shortages, sources of information about shorted drugs, and frequency of discussion at P&T committee meetings. Most importantly, the survey contained questions about the use of a standard policy for handling drug shortages, the effectiveness of the policy if one is used, and an open-ended question asking the recipient to describe the policy being used.Results: A response rate of 55% was achieved as 71 surveys were completed and returned. Approximately 70% of the survey respondents described the current drug shortage issue as a top priority in their pharmacy department. The pharmacy distributor served as the primary source of information regarding drug shortages for 45% of the facilities. There is a direct relationship between size of hospital and likelihood of utilization of a standard policy or procedure for drug shortage management among the sample. The smaller facilities of the sample perceived their management strategies as effective more frequently than the larger hospitals.Conclusion: Common components of effective management strategies included extensive communication of shortage details and the ability to locate alternative products. The use of portable technology (e.g., Smart phones and tablets along with mobile applications may emerge as popular means for communicating drug product shortage news and updates within a facility or healthcare system.

  19. Funding Water Reuse and Conservation Projects with the Clean Water State Revolving Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet demonstrates how the CWSRF provides assistance to eligible recipients for projects promoting water reuse and conservation. It highlights successful projects for these communities in California, Virginia and Texas.

  20. Marine Hydrokinetic Projects for US Waters as of January 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pending or issued preliminary permits or issued licenses for marine hydrokinetic projects that produce energy from waves or directly from the flow of water in ocean...

  1. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, M.E.; Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m 3 of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m 3 of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

  2. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) describes planned water sampling activities and provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water sampling in 1994 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Maybell, Colorado. The WSAP identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies at the site. The ground water data will be used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for the ground water and surface water monitoring activities is derived from the EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993) and the proposed EPA standards of 1987 (52 FR 36000). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. This WSAP also includes a summary and the results of water sampling activities from 1989 through 1992 (no sampling was performed in 1993)

  3. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site

  4. Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

    1992-10-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat

  5. Lessons Learned from a Third World Water and Sanitation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins-McLean, Terri

    1991-01-01

    The seven-step project cycle used in a water sanitation project in Belize from 1986-89 is described. The direct involvement of community organizations, village councils, family gatherings, parent-teacher organizations, political groups, Village Health Committees, and volunteer organizations is emphasized. (CW)

  6. Cooperation on Water management issues, Argentina : Project in the framework of Bilateral Cooperation between Argentina and the Netherlands : Case studies on water management issues in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Morabito, J.A.; Rebori, G.

    2007-01-01

    In Argentina parts of the country have problems encountered from too much water or suffer serious water shortages. The Humid Pampas encounter an increased rainfall since the 1970’s. In Mendoza Province water resources are limited and all the water from the rivers is used for agriculture, drinking

  7. Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

    2008-11-15

    Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled.

  8. Overview of allied health personnel shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, T W

    1991-01-01

    Upon learning that 95% of all fatal traffic accidents occur within three miles of one's home, an acquaintance moved to another residence four miles away and is still alive today. The world might be a much better place if most obstacles could be overcome this handily. Unfortunately, the problem of allied health personnel shortages appears to be more intractable. Because the situation is complicated in nature, it is most unlikely that any single remedy will suffice. Public and private interests have joined forces in many states, but it is abundantly clear that conventional market forces are unlikely to prevail. These forces usually focus on supply and demand. While shortages may cause entry-level salaries to rise, they do not stimulate academic institutions to increase their output nor will they affect the availability of research funding and/or doctoral training programs. Current market forces compel health facilities to engage in bidding wars for scarce manpower. Although individual job seekers may benefit, this practice does not increase the number of training program graduates. The federal government has a decisive role to play in assuring an adequate number of personnel to meet this nation's health care needs. Assistance is necessary in the form of providing entry- and advanced-level traineeships to accelerate the flow of part-time students pursuing doctorates, and to fund model student recruitment/retention projects. This role should encompass attracting students (particularly from minority and underserved portions of the population) to academic programs. The Disadvantaged Minority Health Improvement Act, PL 101-527 that was enacted in November 1990, contains only minimal provisions for allied health. Eligibility for student scholarship assistance is restricted to a small handful of allied health professions. Moreover, allied health is not eligible for the loan repayment program aimed at individuals who agree to serve on the faculty of health professions

  9. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. C. Flanagan; J. R. Frankenberger; T. A. Cochrane; C. S. Renschler; W. J. Elliot

    2011-01-01

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based technology for prediction of soil erosion by water at hillslope profile, field, and small watershed scales. In particular, WEPP utilizes observed or generated daily climate inputs to drive the surface hydrology processes (infiltration, runoff, ET) component, which subsequently impacts the rest of the...

  10. Interest groups, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interest groups can bring about changes in the water policy arena. ... Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1 as a case study. ... attempts to influence public policy and their representation ... ties concern the relations between state actors and non-state ..... 'bears responsibility here [LHWP], since it is the sponsor of.

  11. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  12. Pressurized water reactors: the EPR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Py, J.P.; Yvon, M.

    2007-01-01

    EPR (originally 'European pressurized water reactor', and now 'evolutionary power reactor') is a model of reactor initially jointly developed by French and German engineers which fulfills the particular safety specifications of both countries but also the European utility requirements jointly elaborated by the main European power companies under the initiative of Electricite de France (EdF). Today, two EPR-based reactors are under development: one is under construction in Finland and the other, Flamanville 3 (France), received its creation permit decree on April 10, 2007. This article presents, first, the main objectives of the EPR, and then, describes the Flamanville 3 reactor: reactor type and general conditions, core and conditions of operation, primary and secondary circuits with their components, main auxiliary and recovery systems, man-machine interface and instrumentation and control system, confinement and serious accidents, arrangement of buildings. (J.S.)

  13. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilcher, Ronald O; McCombs, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    This review is designed to help readers understand seasonal blood shortages and provide solutions through the use of technology that can increase the number of red blood cell units collected and the use of recruitment and marketing initiatives that appeal to the increasingly diverse donor base. Seasonal shortages are, in reality, mostly shortages of group O red blood cells and occur most commonly during midsummer and early winter. The shortages occur primarily from increased use of group O red blood cells at times of decreased donor availability. While reducing the disproportionate use of red cells will help, blood centers can more quickly reduce the seasonal deficits by using automated red cell technology to collect double red blood cell units; targeted marketing programs to provide effective messages; seasonal advertising campaigns; and recognition, benefits, and incentives to enhance the donor motivation donation threshold. A multi-level approach to increasing blood donations at difficult times of the year can ensure that donations are increased at a time when regular donor availability is decreased. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated by understanding the nature of the shortages, why and when they occur, and using more sophisticated recruitment and marketing strategies as well as automated collection technologies to enhance the blood supply.

  14. Research project on the thermal pollution of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinlein; Becker

    1977-01-01

    The results of essentially completed and current research and development projects - as far as available in a short time - are explained in the present study, compared and their practicle applicability indicated. The number of publications in the literature index is split up into the single specialist fields as follows: 13% hydrodynamics (propagation caculations, models, measurements); 45% biology-chemistry (effects on micro and macro fauna of waters, on water contents, mathematical models of oxygen balance and biocenosis); 31% hydrometeorology including problems on the thermal economy of the waters as well as special thermal load calculations; 5% heat introduction into ground water; 6% others e.g. use of remote sensing for temperature measurement. The current research projects in the FRG are split up into the following single specialist fields: 16% hydromechanics; 42% biology-chemistry; 24% hydrometeorology including thermal economy; 10% use of ground water; 8% others (almost exclusively problems in connection with the use of remote sensing methods). (orig.) [de

  15. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a)

  16. Water balance and fertigation for crop improvement in West Asia. Results of a technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Mediterranean countries have a severe shortage of water resources for agricultural, municipal and industrial purposes. This situation is aggravated daily due to the rapidly increasing population in the area. Agriculture is the biggest consumer of water with about 80% of the renewable resource used for irrigation. Traditional irrigation methods are highly inefficient: only about one-third of the applied water is actually transpired by the crops. Clearly, there is great scope for improved irrigation management. Intensification of agricultural production to meet growing market demand requires the simultaneous application of irrigation water and fertilizers. Application of fertilizer in drip irrigation (fertigation) is an effective way to promote efficient use of these scarce and expensive resources. There is widespread interest in Mediterranean countries in fertigation. Nevertheless, information on the form and concentration of the nutrients required for different crops is presently inadequate. Moreover, the low fertilizer recoveries due to extensive fertilization practiced during the last few decades have created serious agricultural and environmental problems. High nitrate concentrations in groundwater and deterioration of some important quality parameters of agricultural products are the main concerns. Recognizing the potential role of nuclear techniques in identifying improved water and fertilizer management practices, the IAEA implemented two regional technical co-operation projects during the period 1995-2000 with eight participating countries from the West Asia region: The Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, the Syria Arab Republic, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The main objective was to establish water balance and fertigation practices using nuclear techniques, with a view to improving crop production in arid and semi-arid zones. The projects aimed to compare the following parameters under conventional fertilizer and water

  17. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  18. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  19. Development Project of Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, K.; Shiga, S.; Moriya, K.; Oka, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Takahashi, H.

    2002-01-01

    A Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor (SCPR) development project (Feb. 2001- Mar. 2005) is being performed by a joint team consisting of Japanese universities and nuclear venders with a national fund. The main objective of this project is to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through concentrating three sub-themes: 'plant conceptual design', 'thermohydraulics', and 'material and water chemistry'. The target of the 'plant conceptual design sub-theme' is simplify the whole plant systems compared with the conventional LWRs while achieving high thermal efficiency of more than 40 % without sacrificing the level of safety. Under the 'thermohydraulics sub-theme', heat transfer characteristics of supercritical-water as a coolant of the SCPR are examined experimentally and analytically focusing on 'heat transfer deterioration'. The experiments are being performed using fron-22 for water at a fossil boiler test facility. The experimental results are being incorporated in LWR analytical tools together with an extended steam/R22 table. Under the 'material and water chemistry sub-theme', material candidates for fuel claddings and internals of the SCPR are being screened mainly through mechanical tests, corrosion tests, and simulated irradiation tests under the SCPR condition considering water chemistry. In particular, stress corrosion cracking sensitivity is being investigated as well as uniform corrosion and swelling characteristics. Influences of water chemistry on the corrosion product characteristics are also being examined to find preferable water condition as well as to develop rational water chemistry controlling methods. (authors)

  20. Improving cassava productivity through mutation breeding and better water and nutrient management practices using nuclear techniques 'Project BDI 5001'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyizigiro, Ernest

    2018-01-01

    The cassava diseases, low soil fertility and moisture shortage causing a low cassava productivity and leading to poverty problem and food insecurity. The objective of the BDI 5001 Project was to develop farmers knowledge, cassava lines resistant to diseases using mutation breeding, soil fertility optimization, use nuclear techniques to retain water and control soil erosion in order to increase the cassava productivity. Procurement of laboratory equipment and other local material have been initiated by ISABU. Training and workshop was locally organized, researchers and official from burundi participated in Vienna in training courses and scientific visit for capacity building

  1. Hazard categorization of K Basin water filtration upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    This supporting document provides the hazards categorization for the K Basin Water Filtration Upgrade Project at K East. All activities associated with the project are less than Hazard Category 3, except for the handling of the ECO-ROK liners containing spent filter cartridges. All activities involving the handling of liners, containing spent cartridges, by monorail, forklift or mobile crane are classified as Hazard Category 3

  2. First interim project review meeting on management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The first project planning meeting was held in New Delhi during 1978 and the second, a project review meeting, in Papua New Guinea during June 1979, both funded by UNEP. Reports from the regional coordinators for Bangladesh, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Fiji and India are presented. Also presented are reports from the national coordinators for Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. Two visits (a visit to India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to study the feasibility of making a film on the work done with water hyacinth and a visit to the U.S. by the regional project coordinator) are also described

  3. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters

  4. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell's construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site

  5. Heavy water. An original project in the Argentine Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde Bidabehere, Luis F.

    2000-01-01

    The history of the heavy water production plant built in Arroyito, in the Argentine province of Neuquen is related. Details are given on the development of the project and on the operation of the plant. The possible complementary production of ammonia and fertilizers is analyzed

  6. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. C. Flanagan; J. R. Frankenberger; T. A. Cochrane; C. S. Renschler; W. J. Elliot

    2013-01-01

    At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillslopes and channels can be created and simulated with this GUI. However,...

  7. Pilot Projects in Water Management : Practicing Change and Changing Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, H.S.I.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot projects are widely applied in water management. They can be used to test risky innovations at confined scale, but can also be used to delay policy decisions or to advocate a particular innovation. In this book the phenomenon ‘pilot project’ is explored both theoretically and empirically. A

  8. Application in appraising inter-basin water transfer projects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-08

    Jul 8, 2013 ... transfer projects (IBTs) with significant pumping costs overestimates ... Those findings are taken further and it is established that the URV, as currently applied, fails as a suit- .... of measures such as water demand management and catchment .... It is standard practice to also do a sensitivity analysis round.

  9. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  10. Technical project for a new water purification solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Adina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is part of the RO-BG Cross-Border Cooperation Program, project “CLEANDANUBE”, MIS-ETC 653, which has finalised by providing a common strategy to prevent the Danube’s pollution technological risks with oil and oil products. This paper presents a new sustainable water purification solution. A short introduction will be offered and an overview regarding the research and new methods to greening the waste is provided. The theoretical aspects of the centrifugal separation phenomenon are studied and the preliminary project bases were established. The paper conveys the possible constructive variations and the technological implications of those. Ultimately, the technical project for a new water purification solution and conclusions with critical points encountered during the designing phase are presented.

  11. Water Pricing as an Economic Justification for Reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Tabesh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of water demand and modification of consumption patterns are becoming increasingly essential due to the increasingly limited precipitation and the growing population which have led to both severe restrictions on renewable water resources and increasing demands for water in Iran. The most important consumption management measures involve reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW and decreasing water losses in the water supply system. Non-revenue water is defined as the difference between the total inflow and the metered consumption in the supply system. The losses may be divided into the two components of apparent and real losses. Achieving reductions in non-revenue water calls for the careful study and evaluation of the operational procedures proposed in each case since reductions will be economical only when accurate and realistic values are considered in water pricing. The present study draws upon the data obtained from non-revenue water projects implemented in District 4 of Tehran Water and Wastewater Company, the measures proposed by the project consultant, and the economic justifications claimed for all the costs associated with the measures to eliminate water losses. The cost of the proposed measures are calculated for two different economic values of water proposed to ensure benefits, and under four different interest rates. Results confirm the profitability of the non-revenue water solutions based on the finished cost of water even at subsidized rates of public funds. However, project profitability will be in question if the economic price of water is assumed to be equivalent to the total trade price of water and if both real and apparent losses are to be reduced.

  12. Impact of water control projects on fisheries resources in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Monirul Qader; Ericksen, Neil J.

    1996-07-01

    Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges—Brahmaputra—Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15 20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project: Project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA Project processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1987). This scope of work will entail the following activities on a site-specific basis: Develop a compliance strategy based on modification of the UMTRA Surface Project RAPs or develop Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC concurrence on the RAP and full participation of the affected states and tribes. Implement the RAP to include institutional controls, where appropriate, as an interim measure until compliance with the standards is achieved. Institute long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate long-term surveillance program on or before the Project end date. Prepare certification or confirmation reports and modify the long-term surveillance plan (LTSP), where needed, on those sites completed prior to the Project end date

  14. A light-water detritiation project at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface, H.A.; Castillo, I.; Everatt, A.E.; Ryland, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The NRU reactor rod bays is a large, open pool of water that receives hundreds of fuel rods annually, each carrying a small amount of residual tritiated heavy water. The tritium concentration of the rod bays water has risen over the years, to a level that is of concern to the operations staff and to the environment. The proposed long-term solution is to reduce the rod bays tritium concentration by direct detritiation of the water. The Combined Electrolytic-Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process is well suited to the light-water detritiation problem. With a tritium-protium separation factor greater than five, a CECE detritiation process can easily achieve the eight orders of magnitude separation required to split a tritiated light-water feed into an essentially tritium-free effluent stream and a tritiated heavy water product suitable for recycling through a heavy water upgrader. This paper describes a CECE light-water detritiation process specifically designed to reduce the tritium concentration in the NRU rod bays to an acceptable level. The conceptual design of a 600 Mg/a detritiation process has been developed and is now at the stage of project review and the beginning of detailed design. (author)

  15. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review... establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices...

  16. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J. [Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  17. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.

    2013-01-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  18. "Dynamic Labor Shortage" In the Offing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lawrence

    1982-01-01

    The United States is on the verge of a labor shortage that is partly the result of declining birth rates. An increase in work force participation by older adults, encouraged by reversals of early retirement and other policy changes, would be advantageous to employers, workers, and the economy. (Author/SK)

  19. The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact or Fable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This research examines national data on the status of the minority teacher shortage--the low proportion of minority teachers in comparison to the increasing numbers of students of color in schools. The authors show that efforts over recent decades to recruit more minority teachers, and place them in disadvantaged schools, have been very…

  20. Nursing shortages and international nurse migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S J; Polsky, D; Sochalski, J

    2005-12-01

    The United Kingdom and the United States are among several developed countries currently experiencing nursing shortages. While the USA has not yet implemented policies to encourage nurse immigration, nursing shortages will likely result in the growth of foreign nurse immigration to the USA. Understanding the factors that drive the migration of nurses is critical as the USA exerts more pull on the foreign nurse workforce. To predict the international migration of nurses to the UK using widely available data on country characteristics. The Nursing and Midwifery Council serves as the source of data on foreign nurse registrations in the UK between 1998 and 2002. We develop and test a regression model that predicts the number of foreign nurse registrants in the UK based on source country characteristics. We collect country-level data from sources such as the World Bank and the World Health Organization. The shortage of nurses in the UK has been accompanied by massive and disproportionate growth in the number of foreign nurses from poor countries. Low-income, English-speaking countries that engage in high levels of bilateral trade experience greater losses of nurses to the UK. Poor countries seeking economic growth through international trade expose themselves to the emigration of skilled labour. This tendency is currently exacerbated by nursing shortages in developed countries. Countries at risk for nurse emigration should adjust health sector planning to account for expected losses in personnel. Moreover, policy makers in host countries should address the impact of recruitment on source country health service delivery.

  1. Witwatersrand Water Ingress Project - Information Management System (WWIPIMS), South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, S.; Sieste, M.; Barth, A.; Rudinskaya, J. [Beak Consultants GmbH, Freiberg (Germany); Croukamp, L.; Roos, M. [Council for Geoscience (CGS), Pretoria (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    The Witwatersrand Water Ingress Project at the Council for Geoscience, South Africa (CGS) deals with an inventory, a risk assessment and the development of rehabilitation strategies for abandoned mining sites in the Witwatersrand Mining Basin. The main focus is the prevention of water ingress and to understand the future decanting scenario. An Information Management System consisting of both a relational database and an application for the Witwatersrand Water Ingress Project is established for accessing and managing all project-related data. This easy to use application makes the data available to all staff at the CGS via several modules as well as a GIS-component for accessing and querying spatial data. This will enable the scientists to derive further knowledge of the water flowing processes by directly using all of the existing up-to-date data. Many additional functions, such as the support for map printing on demand, extensive possibilities for inquiries, data import and export, diagrams and a GIS-viewer for spatial inquiries do complete the system. (orig.)

  2. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities

  3. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  4. Is water age a reliable indicator for evaluating water quality effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Zou, Rui; Wang, Yilin; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Xiang; Guo, Huaicheng

    2016-11-01

    Water diversion has been applied increasingly to promote the exchange of lake water and to control eutrophication of lakes. The accelerated water exchange and mass transport by water diversion can usually be represented by water age. But the responses of water quality after water diversion is still disputed. The reliability of using water age for evaluating the effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes should be thereby explored further. Lake Dianchi, a semi-closed plateau lake in China, has suffered severe eutrophication since the 1980s, and it is one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China. There was no significant improvement in water quality after an investment of approximately 7.7 billion USD and numerous project efforts from 1996 to 2015. After the approval of the Chinese State Council, water has been transferred to Lake Dianchi to alleviate eutrophication since December 2013. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model and eight scenarios were developed in this study to quantity the influence of this water diversion project on water quality in Lake Dianchi. The model results showed that (a) Water quality (TP, TN, and Chla) could be improved by 13.5-32.2%, much lower than the approximate 50% reduction in water age; (b) Water exchange had a strong positive relationship with mean TP, and mean Chla had exactly the same response to water diversion as mean TN; (c) Water level was more beneficial for improving hydrodynamic and nutrient concentrations than variation in the diverted inflowing water volume; (d) The water diversion scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with the water level of 1886.5 m and 1887 m in the remaining months was the best water diversion mode for mean hydrodynamics and TP, but the scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with 1887 m throughout the year was optimum for mean TN and Chla; (e) Water age influenced the effectiveness of water diversion on the

  5. Canned motor pumps at Heavy Water Project, Baroda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, R.K.; Waishampayan, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Pumps to be used in heavy water plants must be reliable and should require negligible maintenance, because most of them are totally unapproachable under normal circumstances. Canned motor pumps fulfil these requirements. Their design features are described briefly. The details of: (1) the pumps in the isotopic exchange tower and (2) pumps for liquid ammonia and catalyst are given. Problems faced during commissioning of such pumps in Baroda Heavy Water Project were bulging of rotors of tower pumps, bulging of stators, jamming and failure of bearings. Solution of these problems is described. (M.G.B.)

  6. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How Project water may be used. 418.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve...

  7. Activating the role of women in water projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed T. Kholif

    2014-10-01

    Finally, the study ended up that women have a significant role in raising the efficiency and effectiveness of New Assiut Barrage. The findings of the study can be summarized as the success of water projects is depending partially on the women role through changing the negative social traditions achieving effective participation of individuals, raising of women community self-confidence, improve women different roles, stimulating their spirit of competition, participation and volunteering.

  8. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  9. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards

  10. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning

  11. Forecasting the global shortage of physicians: an economic- and needs-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny X; Kinfu, Yohannes; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Global achievements in health may be limited by critical shortages of health-care workers. To help guide workforce policy, we estimate the future demand for, need for and supply of physicians, by WHO region, to determine where likely shortages will occur by 2015, the target date of the Millennium Development Goals. Methods Using World Bank and WHO data on physicians per capita from 1980 to 2001 for 158 countries, we employ two modelling approaches for estimating the future global requirement for physicians. A needs-based model determines the number of physicians per capita required to achieve 80% coverage of live births by a skilled health-care attendant. In contrast, our economic model identifies the number of physicians per capita that are likely to be demanded, given each country’s economic growth. These estimates are compared to the future supply of physicians projected by extrapolating the historical rate of increase in physicians per capita for each country. Findings By 2015, the global supply of physicians appears to be in balance with projected economic demand. Because our measure of need reflects the minimum level of workforce density required to provide a basic health service that is met in all but the least developed countries, the needs-based estimates predict a global surplus of physicians. However, on a regional basis, both models predict shortages for many countries in the WHO African Region in 2015, with some countries experiencing a needs-based shortage, a demand-based shortage, or both. Conclusion The type of policy intervention needed to alleviate projected shortages, such as increasing health-care training or adopting measures to discourage migration, depends on the type of shortage projected. PMID:18670663

  12. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

    2008-01-01

    Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

  13. Environmental assessment of the projected uses for geopressured waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.S.; Manning, J.A.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    An assessment of possible environmental effects of the use of geopressured water of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast has been made. The uses considered include generation of electric power, production of low pressure steam for process heat and the direct use of the hot water for space heating. Based upon the projected uses, the direct and indirect emissions are estimated and the impact of these emissions upon the environment are discussed. The possible impacts of the production of large volumes of geopressured fluids are also considered in terms of possibility of subsidence and earthquakes. A summary of available analyses of Gulf Coast deep waters is listed as a guide for estimating expected emissions. Primary environmental problems are identified as waste brine disposal, accidental releases of brines, and subsidence. Minor problems such as cooling tower blowdown streams, noncondensable gas emissions, wind drift from exhaust plumes, noise levels, and construction activities are considered.

  14. Nuclear industry prepares fore shortage of engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauker, Lynn.

    1991-01-01

    It is predicted that the Canadian nuclear industry will experience a shortage of qualified personnel within the next five to ten years. The reasons for this prediction are as follows: enrollment in engineering courses, particularly five courses in nuclear engineering has been declining; immigration can no longer be expected to fill the gap; the workforce is aging. Solutions may include promotional campaigns, student employment programs, and educating workers to a professional level

  15. Reducing Air Force Fighter Pilot Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    units). Pilot positions can be divided into two categories: absorbing and nonabsorbing. Absorbing positions are in operational units to which...Continued Attention to Aircrew Management Dynamics The primary source of stress in fighter- pilot management has been reductions in aircraft inventories...Fighter Pilot Shortages C O R P O R A T I O N Limited Print and Electronic Distribution Rights This document and trademark(s) contained herein are

  16. Looming labour shortages challenge Alberta resource industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.

    2005-07-01

    The shortage of skilled manpower that is threatening the viability of Alberta's resource industry is discussed. According to statistics compiled by the Canadian Resource Development the Canadian labour force grew by about 226,000 per year during the last quarter century; this will be reduced by about 125,000 per year during the current decade. It is forecast that by 2016, the annul growth will be near zero. To make up for this unprecedented shortfall, the annual rate of immigration required would have to be as high as 650,000 per year. The Alberta Chamber's Workforce Development Committee is aware of the urgency of the situation and is attempting to aggressively investigate the causes of the shortage of skilled labour and finding ways to deal with the problem. Current investigation appears to point the finger at the state of post-secondary education, most particularly the significantly higher underemployment among aboriginal youth and the likelihood that skills programs training developed to encourage First Nation's people would be the most effective way to help easing the growing labour shortage. Too few educational placement for students, a lack of adequate training equipment and financial resources in post-secondary institutions, and the variations in the quality of provincial educational standards receive the most blame, combined with a lack of awareness of employment opportunities or training programs, and the inability to migrate to high opportunity employment areas. A notable program addressing this issue is the Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training System which helps young people to start their apprenticeship training while still in high school, and encourage them to continue their training after graduation from high school. The federal government and other groups also encourage participation among Ab originals and work towards eliminating some of the underlying factors of labour shortages, including cultural biases, barriers to inter

  17. Progress report: Bangladesh [CSC Project on Management of Water Hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, S.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The CSC Project on Management of Water Hyacinth in Bangladesh was started in only April 1981. The present report from Bangladesh is based on the interim progress reports, submitted by the project coordinators of the organizations concerned, for the work during the short intervening period to 4th June 1981. It is obvious that the report deals mainly with the preliminary preparations and observations on the various aspects of the investigations. The research components assigned to various organisations in Bangladesh are: Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology; - Growth rate and biogas production; Housing and Building Research Institute; - Paper and board, and biogas; Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - Protein, enzymes and ammoacids; Dacca University - Pollution removal and studies of biomass production. Bangladesh is a flat deltaic plain formed from old and new alluvium. The areas of old alluvium are located above the general level, while the vast areas of new alluvium are situated m the flood plain of the modern rivers. The whole country is intersected by a network of rivers; the areas comprising the alluvial plains are very large. The river bank levees are high and the land gradually slopes inland away from the levees. The tract of land between two rivers are shaped like a furrow and in most cases form elongated 'beels' or swamps which are ideal place for the growth and propagation of aquatic plants particularly water hyacinth along with other aquatic organisms, both of plant and animal origin due to eutrophication. It is in the shallow swamps and derelict ponds that luxuriant growth and proliferation of water hyacinth is generally observed in Bangladesh. However, there is a feeling that much of the water hyacinth population in the open countryside was depleted during the severe drought which prevailed during the summer of 1979. But Bangladesh has the ideal water and climatic environment for conditions of rapid growth and spread

  18. European supercritical water cooled reactor (HPLWR Phase 2 project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulenberg, Thomas; Starflinger, Joerg; Marsault, Philippe; Bittermann, Dietmar; Maraczy, Czaba; Laurien, Eckart; Lycklama, Jan Aiso; Anglart, Henryk; Andreani, Michele; Ruzickova, Mariana; Heikinheimo, Liisa

    2010-01-01

    The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR), how the European Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor is called, is a pressure vessel type reactor operated with supercritical water at 25 MPa feedwater pressure and 500 deg C maximum core outlet temperature. It is designed and analyzed by a European consortium of 13 partners from 8 Euratom member states in the second phase of the HPLWR project. Most emphasis has been laid on a core with a thermal neutron spectrum, consisting of small, housed fuel assemblies with 40 fuel pins each and a central water box to improve the neutron moderation despite the low coolant density. Peak cladding temperatures of the fuel rods have been minimized by heating up the coolant in three steps with intermediate coolant mixing. The innovative core design with upward and downward flow through its assemblies has been studied with neutronic, thermal-hydraulic and stress analyses and has been reviewed carefully in a mid-term assessment. The containment design with its safety and residual heat removal systems is based on the latest boiling water reactor concept, but with different passive high pressure coolant injection systems to cause a forced convection through the core. The design concept of the steam cycle is indicating the envisaged efficiency increase to around 44%. Moreover, it provides the constraints to design the components of the balance of the plant. The project is accompanied by numerical studies of heat transfer of supercritical water in fuel assemblies and by material tests of candidate cladding alloys, performed by the consortium and supported by additional tests of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. An overview of results achieved up to now, given in this paper, is illustrating the latest scientific and technological advances. (author)

  19. Geolocation Support for Water Supply and Sewerage Projects in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qocamanov, M. H.; Gurbanov, Ch. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Drinking water supply and sewerage system designing and reconstruction projects are being extensively conducted in Azerbaijan Republic. During implementation of such projects, collecting large amount of information about the area and detailed investigations are crucial. Joint use of the aerospace monitoring and GIS play an essential role for the studies of the impact of environmental factors, development of the analytical information systems and others, while achieving the reliable performance of the existing and designed major water supply pipelines, as well as construction and exploitation of the technical installations. With our participation the GIS has been created in "Azersu" OJSC that includes systematic database of the drinking water supply and sewerage system, and rain water networks to carry out necessary geo information analysis. GIScreated based on "Microstation" platform and aerospace data. Should be mentioned that, in the country, specifically in large cities (i.e. Baku, Ganja, Sumqait, etc.,) drinking water supply pipelines cross regions with different physico-geographical conditions, geo-morphological compositions and seismotectonics.Mains water supply lines in many accidents occur during the operation, it also creates problems with drinking water consumers. In some cases the damage is caused by large-scale accidents. Long-term experience gives reason to say that the elimination of the consequences of accidents is a major cost. Therefore, to avoid such events and to prevent their exploitation and geodetic monitoring system to improve the rules on key issues. Therefore, constant control of the plan-height positioning, geodetic measurements for the detailed examination of the dynamics, repetition of the geodetic measurements for certain time intervals, or in other words regular monitoring is very important. During geodetic monitoring using the GIS has special significance. Given that, collecting geodetic monitoring measurements of the main pipelines

  20. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods

  1. Global assessment of water policy vulnerability under uncertainty in water scarcity projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Kahil, Taher; Satoh, Yusuke; Burek, Peter; Fischer, Günther; Tramberend, Sylvia; Byers, Edward; Flörke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Langan, Simon; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity is a critical environmental issue worldwide, which has been driven by the significant increase in water extractions during the last century. In the coming decades, climate change is projected to further exacerbate water scarcity conditions in many regions around the world. At present, one important question for policy debate is the identification of water policy interventions that could address the mounting water scarcity problems. Main interventions include investing in water storage infrastructures, water transfer canals, efficient irrigation systems, and desalination plants, among many others. This type of interventions involve long-term planning, long-lived investments and some irreversibility in choices which can shape development of countries for decades. Making decisions on these water infrastructures requires anticipating the long term environmental conditions, needs and constraints under which they will function. This brings large uncertainty in the decision-making process, for instance from demographic or economic projections. But today, climate change is bringing another layer of uncertainty that make decisions even more complex. In this study, we assess in a probabilistic approach the uncertainty in global water scarcity projections following different socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) and climate scenarios (RCPs) within the first half of the 21st century. By utilizing an ensemble of 45 future water scarcity projections based on (i) three state-of-the-art global hydrological models (PCR-GLOBWB, H08, and WaterGAP), (ii) five climate models, and (iii) three water scenarios, we have assessed changes in water scarcity and the associated uncertainty distribution worldwide. The water scenarios used here are developed by IIASA's Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) Initiative. The main objective of this study is to improve the contribution of hydro-climatic information to effective policymaking by identifying spatial and temporal policy

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment of a Water Transfer Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Reliable water supplies for drinking and agriculture are some of the objectives for the sustainable development of every country. However, constructed facilities such as dams and irrigation networks and drainage can exert positive and negative effects directly or indirectly on the environment. The environmental impact assessment is a method for identifying the positive and negative effects caused by a plan and suggests performance management best practices aimed at lessening the negative impacts and augmenting the positive ones. Objectives The present study sought to evaluate the environmental impacts of the water transfer project of the Jooban Dam in two phases of preparation and operation. Materials and Methods A checklist containing the positive, negative, short-term, and long-term effects as well as the continuation and probable occurrence of these effects was used. Results The results showed that the negative environmental and social impacts of the project outweighed the positive impacts in terms of type, number, and intensity. Conclusions Unless there are well-thought out strategies for minimizing the undesirable impact on the environment, it is not advisable that such projects be permitted.

  3. Advanced investigation on the change in the streamflow into the water source of the middle route of China's water diversion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Dunxian; Xia, Jun; Shao, Quanxi; Taylor, John A.; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Yanjun; Gu, Huanghe

    2017-07-01

    To alleviate water shortage in northern China, the middle route of the South to North Water Diversion Project (MRP) was constructed by the Chinese government. A dramatic reduction in the annual streamflow into Danjiangkou Reservoir (ASDR), the water source of MRP, during 1990 has raised some concerns on the MRP's operation. This paper employed an advanced segmented regression model with more recent data to have a clear picture and understand the changing pattern of the ASDR. Our study first revealed a zigzag changing pattern (decreasing-increasing-decreasing-increasing) of ASDR during 1960-2013, which was supported by statistical criteria compared with a monotonic or single abrupt change. Particularly, the significantly decreasing trend from 1990s was reversed after 2000, and such change may relieve the concern about the water availability in the future. Sensitivity analysis showed that changes in streamflow were largely influenced by the combined effects of precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and were more sensitive to P than ET0. As ET0 is estimated from other primary variables, further analysis was conducted to understand the sensitivities of ET0 to its primary driving variables (wind speed, actual vapor pressure, temperature, and sunshine duration) and indicated that ET0 is mostly sensitive to actual vapor pressure during 1960-2013. The findings will assist the MRP's operation and management. Moreover, the results in this study also indicate that an adaptive water diversion plan, rather than the current plan with a constant annual amount of diversion water, might be a better option in the MRP's operation.

  4. Is There a Shortage of Obstetrician-Gynecologists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehocker, Jody; Muruthi, Joyce; Rayburn, William F

    2017-03-01

    Projections of supply and demand for obstetricians-gynecologists suggest a current minimal or modest shortage that will worsen in the future. The US adult female population is expected to increase by more than 20% by 2045 and represents a key driver for increased demand for health care services. The annual number of obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyn) residency graduates has increased negligibly, whereas the proportion accepted into fellowships increased steadily, reducing those in general practice. The gradual increase in proportion of ob-gyns who are women coincides with desires for more work-life balance and earlier retirement from clinical practice. As the supply of advanced practice providers of women's health services grows, the need for more ob-gyns could be less to meet the projected demand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The knowledge status EFFEKT: Efficiency shortage. Basis for further research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Grande, Ove S.

    2002-02-01

    This report gives a survey of results from the ''Norges forskningsraad'' ( The Norwegian Research Council) program EFFEKT (1996-2000) and some other relevant projects. The report focuses on areas relevant to the efficiency shortage problems and is made as a part of the foundation for the start of the competence project ''Competence Building - Capacity Shortage''. The challenge is to find adequate solutions that satisfies the demands from market participants, systems operators and market actors. This mainly contains problems of both operational and long term strategic character which primarily touches the following main areas: Peak load coverage, operating security and reserves, network capacity and environmental aspects. The results are reported under these headings from several relevant projects. The major challenges in the future will be: 1) Development of mechanisms that bring the right incentives for improved use of the flexibility in the end consumption. 2) Adaptation of the market and organisational conditions in order to improve the consumer flexibility. 3) Further development of the incentive structures for the network owners and systems operators so that the existing transferring capacity is used as well as possible and the macro economic development of the network is encouraged. 4) Profit estimations and financing of larger co-originated connections particularly across the country borders, in deregulated power markets. Particularly the first two challenges are probably a condition for the deregulated power markets as the Nordic one, shall be able to survive in the long run. In an appendix main data studied in the projects as a basis for this report, are referred

  6. 77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria for evaluating the... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  9. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  10. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria for... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  11. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... to establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  12. Eco-environmental impact of inter-basin water transfer projects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The objective reality of uneven water resource distribution and imbalanced water demand of the human society makes it inevitable to transfer water. It has been an age-old method to adopt the inter-basin water transfers (IBTs) for alleviating and even resolving the urgent demand of the water-deficient areas. A number of countries have made attempts and have achieved enormous benefits. However, IBTs inevitably involve the redistribution of water resources in relevant basins and may cause changes of the ecological environment in different basins. Such changes are two-sided, namely, the positive impacts, including adding new basins for water-deficient areas, facilitating water cycle, improving meteorological conditions in the recipient basins, mitigating ecological water shortage, repairing the damaged ecological system, and preserving the endangered wild fauna and flora, as well as the negative impacts, including salinization and aridification of the donor basins, damage to the ecological environment of the donor basins and the both sides of the conveying channel system, increase of water consumption in the recipient basins, and spread of diseases, etc. Because IBTs have enormous ecological risk, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze the inter-basin water balance relationship, coordinate the possible conflicts and environmental quality problems between regions, and strengthen the argumentation of the ecological risk of water transfer and eco-compensation measures. In addition, there are some effective alternative measures for IBTs, such as attaching importance to water cycle, improving water use efficiency, developing sea water desalination, and rainwater harvesting technology, etc.

  13. Find Shortage Areas: HPSA & MUA/P by Address

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Shortage Areas: Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) and Medically Underserved Area/Population (MUA/P) by Address tool helps you determine if a specific...

  14. Projection and enterprises controlling in domestic waste water econom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Reinhard

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the cost of communal waste water disposal is widely discussed among the population, among politicians and experts. Not only the absolute amount of the charged fees are the cause of concern, but also their increase over the last few years. As part of this thesis, the PC software SloVaKon, which facilitates project and operation decision, will be designed to apply the experience gained during the building and expansion of the waste water industry in Germany´s five new federal states to the conditions in the Slovak republic. For this, a comparison of both country´s topographical, technical, legal and economical conditions proved necessary.

  15. Studies on corrosion inhibitors for the cooling water system at the Heavy Water Project, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, B.P.; Mehta, C.T.; Abubacker, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Heavy Water Project at Kota uses the water from the Rana Pratap Sagar Lake as coolant in the open recirculation system. In order to find suitable corrosion inhibitors for the above system, a series of laboratory experiments on corrosion inhibitors were carried out using the constructional materials of the cooling water system and a number of proprietary formulations and the results are tabulated. From the data thus generated through various laboratory experiments, the most useful ones have been recommended for application in practice. (author)

  16. Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

    1991-09-01

    Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that

  17. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 328.5 Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. (a) All... power boats or vessels. (b) Seaplanes on project waters and lands in excess of 24 hours shall be...

  18. Greenhouse gas and energy co-benefits of water conservation[Water Sustainability Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, C.

    2009-03-15

    Energy is needed to deliver water to, within and from communities to remove contaminants from water and wastewater, and to heat water in homes. The interconnections between water and energy are referred to as the water-energy nexus. Large volumes of water are needed to generate energy, notably to power turbines, to cool thermal or nuclear energy plants, and to extract oil from tar sands. At the same time, large amounts of energy are needed to pump, treat, heat and distribute water for urban, industrial and agricultural use and to collect and treat the resulting wastewater. The two sides of the water-energy nexus are generating new research and policy proposals to address the challenges of climate change, energy security and increasing water scarcity. This report demonstrated that a large untapped opportunity exists for water conservation to reduce energy, municipal costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The water-energy research in this study was based on a Soft Path for Water approach that incorporated facets of water demand management while moving beyond a short-term focus on cost-benefit criteria to examine how the services currently provided by water can be delivered to meet the need for economic, social and ecological sustainability. Although the research was conducted using data for municipalities in Ontario, the report is relevant to the rest of Canada and much of North America. Water conservation strategies included water efficiency measures such as high efficiency toilets and washing machines, as well as water saving measures such as xeriscaping and rainwater harvesting. The objectives of the study were to quantify the energy use associated with each component of the urban water use cycle and to determine the potential for energy and GHG emissions reductions associated with water conservation strategies. This report provided an overview of energy inputs needed for water provision. It outlined the methodology used to achieve the project objectives and

  19. San Pablo Bay Tidal Marsh Enhancement and Water Quality Improvement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP San Pablo Bay Tidal Marsh Enhancement and Water Quality Improvement Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  20. Skill shortages in health: innovative solutions using vocational education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, S I; Johns, S S; Millar, P; Le, Q; Routley, G

    2007-01-01

    This article reports findings of a project funded by the Australian National Council for Vocational Education Research. The project explores solutions to current and projected skills shortages within the health and community services sector, from a vocational education and training perspective. Its purpose is to locate, analyse and disseminate information about innovative models of health training and service delivery that have been developed in response to skill shortages. The article begins with a brief overview of Australian statistics and literature on the structure of the national health workforce and perceived skill shortages. The impact of location (state and rurality), demographics of the workforce, and other relevant factors, on health skill shortages is examined. Drawing on a synthesis of the Australian and international literature on innovative and effective models for addressing health skill shortages and nominations by key stakeholders within the health sector, over 70 models were identified. The models represent a mixture of innovative service delivery models and training solutions from Australia, as well as international examples that could be transposed to the Australian context. They include the skill ecosystem approach facilitated by the Australian National Training Authority Skill Ecosystem Project. Models were selected to represent diversity in terms of the nature of skill shortage addressed, barriers overcome in development of the model, healthcare specialisations, and different customer groups. Key barriers to the development of innovative solutions to skills shortages identified were: policy that is not sufficiently flexible to accommodate changing workplace needs; unwillingness to risk take in order to develop new models; delays in gaining endorsement/accreditation; current vocational education and training (VET) monitoring and reporting systems; issues related to working in partnership, including different cultures, ways of operating

  1. Norway's historical and projected water balance in TWh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Holmqvist, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Hydroelectric power production is closely linked to the water cycle, and variations in power production numbers reflect variations in weather. The expected climate changes will influence electricity supply through changes in annual and seasonal inflow of water to hydropower reservoirs. In Norway, more than 95 percent of the electricity production is from hydroelectric plants, and industry linked to hydropower has been an important part of the society for more than a century. Reliable information on historical and future available water resources is hence of crucial importance both for short and long-term planning and adaptation purposes in the hydropower sector. Traditionally, the Multi-area Power-market Simulator (EMPS) is used for modelling hydropower production in Norway. However, due to the models' high level of details and computational demand, this model is only used for historical analyses and a limited number of climate projections. A method has been developed that transfers water fluxes (mm day-1) and states (mm) into energy units (GWh mm-1), based on hydrological modelling of a limited number of catchments representing reservoir inflow to more than 700 hydropower plants in Norway. The advantages of using the conversion factor method, compared to EMPS, are its simplicity and low computational requirements. The main disadvantages are that it does not take into account flood losses and the time lag between inflow and power production. The method is used operationally for weekly and seasonal energy forecasts, and has proven successful at the range of results obtained for reproducing historical hydropower production numbers. In hydropower energy units, mean annual precipitation for the period 1981-2010 is estimated at 154 TWh year-1. On average, 24 TWh year-1 is lost through evapotranspiration, meaning runoff equals 130 TWh year-1. There are large interannual variations, and runoff available for power production ranges from 91 to 165 TWh year-1. The snow pack

  2. Give Water a Hand. School Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  3. Give Water a Hand. Community Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  4. Give Water a Hand. Home Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water and water conservation within the home while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  5. Drugs, money, and power: the Canadian drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the shortage of generic injectable medications in Canada that affected hospitals in 2012. It traces the events leading up to the drug shortage, the causes of the shortage, and the responses by health administrators, pharmacists, and ethicists. The article argues that generic drug shortages are an ethical problem because health care organizations and governments have an obligation to avoid exposing patients to resource scarcity. The article also discusses some options governments could pursue in order to secure the drug supply and thereby fulfill their ethical obligations.

  6. Projected Regime Shift in Arctic Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer; Russel, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (T(sub s)), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in T(sub s) that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and T(sub s), leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and T(sub s). We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

  7. Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Reclaimed Water Reuse Projects in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yupeng; Guo, Erhui; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Chang, Andrew C; Qiao, Qi; Kang, Peng

    2018-01-01

      To illustrate the benefits of water reuse project, the process-based life cycle analysis (LCA) could be combined with input-output LCA to evaluate the water reuse project. Energy is the only evaluation parameter used in this study. Life cycle assessment of all energy inputs (LCEA) is completed mainly by the life cycle inventory (LCI), taking into account the full life cycle including the construction, the operation, and the demolition phase of the project. Assessment of benefit from water reuse during the life cycle should focus on wastewater discharge reduction and water-saving benefits. The results of LCEA of Beijing water reuse project built in 2014 in a comprehensive way shows that the benefits obtained from the reclaimed water reuse far exceed the life cycle energy consumption. In this paper, the authors apply the LCEA model to estimate the benefits of reclaimed water reuse projects quantitatively.

  8. Combating pharmacist shortage through labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M

    1994-06-01

    Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.

  9. Critical evaluation of heavy water project at Thal (Preprint No. PM-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, N.S.

    1989-04-01

    The project known as Thal Ammonia Extension was a heavy water project successfully completed by Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers (RCF) Ltd. The project consisted of erecting a heavy water plant of 110 tons/year capacity at Thal. The process Know-how and engineering of the plant was supplied by the Heavy Water Projects Division of the Department of Atomic Energy. Salient features of the project, management features which resulted in fast completion of erection, bottlenecks faced and engineering innovations adopted for efficient operation of the plant are described. Some modifications which can lead to smoother operation are listed. (M.G.B.)

  10. Water dynamics and population pressure in the Nepalese Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, H; Shah, P B

    1996-10-01

    The authors investigate the impact of water shortages, especially water for irrigation, on development in Nepal. "The problems associated with hydropower development will be illustrated by using the Kulekhani watershed project as a case study." The possible future effects on food supplies and health are discussed. excerpt

  11. Price signals and end consumer flexibility in shortage situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunnes, Arngrim; Grande, Ove S.

    2002-08-01

    This report is written as a part of the project ''Consumer flexibility and efficient use of ICT''. The project aim is 1) to provide a decision basis and suggest external conditions for a priority guided development of an infrastructure based on future ICT solutions and 2) develop, test and evaluate various measures which stimulate flexibility in consumption with consideration to power price, network rent and new market solutions. The central question in the report is how to stimulate the end consumer to be flexible in the consumption of electric power. The use of power price and system rent is desired tools for communicating the right price signals to the end consumers and thereby give the end users an incentive. The focus is primarily on the short term flexibility. The first chapter in the report gives an introduction to the price signals and the two way communication. There is a clear distinction between price signals from power suppliers and price signals from network companies. The two following chapters contain a more thorough discussion. As to the price signals from the power suppliers it is pointed out that most of the existing power contracts have a design so that they in the short term do not give the right price signals to the end users. It is proposed that two new contract types are tested: 1) Spot price and time settling. 2) Contract for reduced power price in a certain period provided the consumer is willing to reduce the load when 1) the spot price exceeds a level given by the end user, 2) the present load exceeds the subscribed level. In the chapter about the price signals from network companies there is first a brief introduction to the natural monopoly and the demands of the authorities to network tariffs. There is also a survey of the size of the system tariffs in the various counties. The central section of the chapter contains suggestions for designing network tariffs. Based on the deductions it is proposed that the project will test the

  12. 75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans'' (Refuge...

  13. Implications of bulk water transfer on local water management institutions: A case study of the Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, Dhruba; Bhattarai, Madhusudan; Basnet, Govinda

    2008-01-01

    "To mitigate a drinking water crisis in Kathmandu valley, the Government of Nepal initiated the Melamchi Water Supply Project in 1997, which will divert water from the Melamchi River to Kathmandu city's water supply network. In the first phase, the Project will divert 170,000 cubic meters of water per day (at the rate of 1.97M3/sec), which will be tripled using the same infrastructure as city water demand increases in the future. The large scale transfer of water would have farreaching implic...

  14. Projection pursuit water quality evaluation model based on chicken swam algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhe

    2018-03-01

    In view of the uncertainty and ambiguity of each index in water quality evaluation, in order to solve the incompatibility of evaluation results of individual water quality indexes, a projection pursuit model based on chicken swam algorithm is proposed. The projection index function which can reflect the water quality condition is constructed, the chicken group algorithm (CSA) is introduced, the projection index function is optimized, the best projection direction of the projection index function is sought, and the best projection value is obtained to realize the water quality evaluation. The comparison between this method and other methods shows that it is reasonable and feasible to provide decision-making basis for water pollution control in the basin.

  15. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012, from 1 p.m. to... the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation...

  16. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Paula

    As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

  17. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the use...

  18. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  19. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan: Canonsburg and Burrell, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    Surface remedial action was completed at the Canonsburg and Burrell UMTRA Project sites in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1985 and 1987, respectively. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at both sites have remained relatively consistent with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) at the Canonsburg site; no MCLs are exceeded in ground water at the Burrell site. Surface water quality shows no evidence of impact from the sites

  20. SSWR Water Systems Project 2: Next Steps – Technology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for protecting America’s water resources under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and for ensuring that the Nation’s drinking water is safe under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Further, it is the responsibility of EPA to conduct research and analyses t...

  1. Skill Shortages in the Trades during Economic Downturns. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Damian

    2011-01-01

    During the recent economic downturn, media and industry reports of skill shortages in the trades continued to appear. The intent of this paper is to examine the evidence for skill shortages in the trades persisting during the economic downturns over the last 20 years, using various indicators. These include employment growth, vacancy rates,…

  2. The World Language Teacher Shortage: Taking a New Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Pete; Mason, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    Since the end of World War II, international leaders have made calls addressing the world language teacher shortage. For almost 70 years, such rhetoric has been advanced, yet world language teacher shortages remain in many countries such as Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In this article, the…

  3. Evaluation and prediction of groundwater storage changes in Beijing under the impacts of the South to North Water Diversion Project and climate change using ground observations, remote sensing and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D.; Wada, Y.; Zhao, J.; Hong, Y.; Liu, D.; You, L.

    2017-12-01

    As China's Capital, Beijing currently has a population of 22 million people with per capital water resources of less than 100 m3, one twentieth of the national average and one eightieth of the global. Groundwater withdrawals (2.3 billion m3/year) account for approximately two thirds of total water use (3.5 billion m3/year) in Beijing, resulting in significant groundwater depletion and associated environmental issues, such as land subsidence. Increases in human and ecological water demand would add further pressure on Beijing's groundwater resources. Unsustainable groundwater use threatens societal and economic development of Beijing and poses a large uncertainty in future water supply. To partly alleviate the water shortage issue in the more arid and industrialized North China, the Chinese government has launched the largest water diversion project in the world, i.e., the South to North Water Diversion Project (SNWD), which is a multi-decadal mega-infrastructure project, with the aim to transfer 44.8 billion m3 of fresh water annually from the Yangtze River in the more humid south through three canal and pipeline systems (east, central, and west routes). Its central route flows from the upper reaches of the Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze River to Beijing, Tianjin and other major cities in Hebei and Henan Provinces. Since Dec 2014 when the water transferred by the central route reached Beijing to Feb 2017, totally 2 billion m3 of water has been transferred. This has profoundly altered the structure of water supply in Beijing. This study quantifies how the SNWD project impacts groundwater storage of Beijing and projects how groundwater storage changes in the future under different climate and policy scenarios.

  4. A One-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for a Water Transfer Project with Multihydraulic Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yujun Yi; Caihong Tang; Zhifeng Yang; Shanghong Zhang; Cheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The long Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project is composed of complex hydraulic structures (aqueduct, tunnel, control gate, diversion, culvert, and diverted siphon), which generate complex flow patterns. It is vital to simulate the flow patterns through hydraulic structures, but it is a challenging work to protect water quality and maintain continuous water transfer. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was built to understand the flow and pollutant movem...

  5. The value of Waters' projection for assessing maxillary sinus inflammatory disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmenga, N; Stegenga, B; Raghoebar, G; van Hoogstraten, J; van Weissenbruch, R; Vissink, A

    Objective. The significance of the Waters' projection for judging maxillary mucosal disease is, at the least, questionable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic use of Waters' projection of the maxillary sinus with particular regard to sinus mucosal swelling as a consistent sign of

  6. The Environmental Data Exchange Network for Inland Water (EDEN-IW) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuertz, J.; Haastrup, P.; Stjernholm, M.

    The report summarizes the outcome of the EDEN -IW project. The project demonstrates access to heterogenous databases of inland water quality data using a system of software agents. The system include use of semantic web technologies to provide the use with a rich multilingual web interface...... to select, access, aggregate and visualize inland water data....

  7. The Environmental Data Exchange Network for Inland Water (EDEN-IW) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, M.; Sortkjær, O.; Preux, D.

    Project of the Information Societies Technology (IST) Programme. The report describe the funtional requirements for user access to inland water quality data through the EDEN-IW system.......Project of the Information Societies Technology (IST) Programme. The report describe the funtional requirements for user access to inland water quality data through the EDEN-IW system....

  8. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Westside... project contractors using best available cost-effective technology and best management practices.'' These...

  9. 76 FR 20802 - Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects... the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  10. 76 FR 50536 - Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists the projects... the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  11. 75 FR 71177 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice of approved projects. SUMMARY: This notice... for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18...

  12. 75 FR 23837 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice of approved projects. SUMMARY: This notice... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(e...

  13. Research on evaluating water resource resilience based on projection pursuit classification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhao, Dan; Liang, Xu; Wu, Qiuchen

    2016-03-01

    Water is a fundamental natural resource while agriculture water guarantees the grain output, which shows that the utilization and management of water resource have a significant practical meaning. Regional agricultural water resource system features with unpredictable, self-organization, and non-linear which lays a certain difficulty on the evaluation of regional agriculture water resource resilience. The current research on water resource resilience remains to focus on qualitative analysis and the quantitative analysis is still in the primary stage, thus, according to the above issues, projection pursuit classification model is brought forward. With the help of artificial fish-swarm algorithm (AFSA), it optimizes the projection index function, seeks for the optimal projection direction, and improves AFSA with the application of self-adaptive artificial fish step and crowding factor. Taking Hongxinglong Administration of Heilongjiang as the research base and on the basis of improving AFSA, it established the evaluation of projection pursuit classification model to agriculture water resource system resilience besides the proceeding analysis of projection pursuit classification model on accelerating genetic algorithm. The research shows that the water resource resilience of Hongxinglong is the best than Raohe Farm, and the last 597 Farm. And the further analysis shows that the key driving factors influencing agricultural water resource resilience are precipitation and agriculture water consumption. The research result reveals the restoring situation of the local water resource system, providing foundation for agriculture water resource management.

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

  15. An Evaluation of Water and Land Uses in the Kano River Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    project farmers apply irrigation water and cultivate land to the levels specified by the project ... to efficient performance of the irrigation project, and, hence a threat to a sustainable irrigation development. @JASEM ... sectors and for implementation and management of ..... complex innovations, which require a lot of time for.

  16. Research projects and capacity building | Breen | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... by capacity building in the context of research projects. Based on this interpretation, reasonable and unreasonable expectations with respect to the extent to which capacity building can be achieved within a given project duration are discussed. A model is suggested, which would improve understanding and delivery and ...

  17. Developing Novel Reservoir Rule Curves Using Seasonal Inflow Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-yi; Tung, Ching-pin

    2015-04-01

    Due to significant seasonal rainfall variations, reservoirs and their flexible operational rules are indispensable to Taiwan. Furthermore, with the intensifying impacts of climate change on extreme climate, the frequency of droughts in Taiwan has been increasing in recent years. Drought is a creeping phenomenon, the slow onset character of drought makes it difficult to detect at an early stage, and causes delays on making the best decision of allocating water. For these reasons, novel reservoir rule curves using projected seasonal streamflow are proposed in this study, which can potentially reduce the adverse effects of drought. This study dedicated establishing new rule curves which consider both current available storage and anticipated monthly inflows with leading time of two months to reduce the risk of water shortage. The monthly inflows are projected based on the seasonal climate forecasts from Central Weather Bureau (CWB), which a weather generation model is used to produce daily weather data for the hydrological component of the GWLF. To incorporate future monthly inflow projections into rule curves, this study designs a decision flow index which is a linear combination of current available storage and inflow projections with leading time of 2 months. By optimizing linear relationship coefficients of decision flow index, the shape of rule curves and the percent of water supply in each zone, the best rule curves to decrease water shortage risk and impacts can be developed. The Shimen Reservoir in the northern Taiwan is used as a case study to demonstrate the proposed method. Existing rule curves (M5 curves) of Shimen Reservoir are compared with two cases of new rule curves, including hindcast simulations and historic seasonal forecasts. The results show new rule curves can decrease the total water shortage ratio, and in addition, it can also allocate shortage amount to preceding months to avoid extreme shortage events. Even though some uncertainties in

  18. Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    ERDC/TN ANSRP-06-3 September 2006 Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources...Cole, R. A. (2006). “ Freshwater aquatic nuisance species impacts and management costs and benefits at Federal Water resources projects,” ANSRP...Projects1 by Richard A. Cole THE ISSUE: A small fraction of the species that inhabit the nation’s fresh waters become aquatic nuisance species (ANS

  19. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...

  20. The Jabiluka project: avoiding water management and land use conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, R.E.; Mitchell, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    A zero discharge (no release) water management system is examined and alternative methodology discussed. It is shown that a subserial tailings disposal at Jabiluka with recycle and water treatment through a vacuum compression desalination plant would allow for substantial cost savings elimination of a large environmentally intrusive water storage and of the problems arising from a succession of unpredicted wet seasons. 4 figs., 2 refs

  1. Towards Adaptive Urban Water Management: Up-Scaling Local Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, the need for adaptive urban water management approaches is advertised, but the transition towards such approaches in the urban water sector seems to be slow. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of how an innovative approach has been adopted in practice by looking...... of rainwater. This insight into the processes of learning aggregation of water practices points towards the important role that the dedicated work performed by local facilitators and intermediaries play in relation to a transition towards more adaptive urban water management....

  2. Projected energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L. D.; Hellickson, M. L.; Schmisseur, W. E.; Shearer, M. N.

    1978-10-01

    A computer model has been developed to predict present and future regional water, energy, labor, and capital requirements of irrigated agricultural production in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The energy requirements calculated were on-farm pumping, and total energies. Total energies are the combined energies of on-farm pumping, manufacture, and installation. Irrigation system selections and modifications were based on an economic analysis utilizing the following input parameters: water, energy, labor, and capital costs and requirements; groundwater and surface water pumping lifts; improved application efficiencies; and pumping plant efficiencies. Major conclusions and implications of this analysis indicate that: as water application efficiencies increases additional quantities of water will not become available to other users; an overall increase in water application efficiencies resulted in decreases in gross water applications and increases in overall on-farm pumping and total energy consumptions; more energy will be consumed as pumping and total energies than will be conserved through decreased diversion pumping energy requirements; pump-back and similar technologies have the potential of both increasing application efficiencies and energy conservation; and the interrelationships understood between applying water in quantities greater than required for crop consumptive use and leaching, and late season in-steam flow augmentation and/or aquifer recharge are not well understood, and sound policy decisions concerning agricultural use of water and energy cannot be made until these interrelationships are better understood.

  3. A One-Dimensional Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for a Water Transfer Project with Multihydraulic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project is composed of complex hydraulic structures (aqueduct, tunnel, control gate, diversion, culvert, and diverted siphon, which generate complex flow patterns. It is vital to simulate the flow patterns through hydraulic structures, but it is a challenging work to protect water quality and maintain continuous water transfer. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model was built to understand the flow and pollutant movement in this project. Preissmann four-point partial-node implicit scheme was used to solve the governing equations in this study. Water flow and pollutant movement were appropriately simulated and the results indicated that this water quality model was comparable to MIKE 11 and had a good performance and accuracy. Simulation accuracy and model uncertainty were analyzed. Based on the validated water quality model, six pollution scenarios (Q1 = 10 m3/s, Q2 = 30 m3/s, and Q3 = 60 m3/s for volatile phenol (VOP and contaminant mercury (Hg were simulated for the MRP. Emergent pollution accidents were forecasted and changes of water quality were analyzed according to the simulations results, which helped to guarantee continuously transferring water for a large water transfer project.

  4. What's the ROI for resolving the nursing faculty shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Karren; Kelley, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    The nursing faculty shortage will have a fundamental impact on the ability to produce nurses. For most nursing schools and states, however, concerns about the relative merits of different solutions to the nursing faculty shortage are misplaced. Without significantly increased visibility and definition, accompanied by a clear public, private, and health care organization return on investment (ROI), proposing solutions to the nursing faculty shortage is at best premature and at worst irrelevant. There is simply too much competition for resources to expect that a vaguely defined and invisible problem with no rationale for increased investment will receive sufficient support from critical decision makers and constituencies. First must come problem definition, visibility, and ROI. Only then can the case be made for implementing solutions to the nursing faculty shortage.

  5. Ethical framework for resource allocation during a drug supply shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Bean, Sally; Chidwick, Paula; Godkin, Dianne; Sibbald, Robert W; Wagner, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Drug supply shortages are common in health systems due to manufacturing and other delays. Frequently, shortages are successfully addressed through conservation and redistribution efforts, with limited impact on patient care. However, when Sandoz Canada Inc. announced in February 2012 that it was reducing production of a number of generic injectable drugs at its Quebec facility, the scope and magnitude of the drug supply shortage were unprecedented in Canada. The potential for an extreme scarcity of some drugs raised ethical concerns about patient care, including the need to limit access to some health services. In this article, the authors describe the development and implementation of an ethical framework to promote equitable access to drugs and healthcare services in the context of a drug supply shortage within and across health systems.

  6. Toward a Comprehensive Strategy for Addressing the Teacher Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1986-01-01

    The likely consequences of different educational policies affecting teacher supply and demand are examined in relation to the predicted teacher shortage. Includes a table describing 23 policies and practices of schools that attract qualified teachers. (MD)

  7. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  8. Can state-supported interprofessional coalitions cure preceptor shortages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Lesli; Smith, Gigi; Garr, David; Hopla, Deborah; Kern, Donna

    2018-06-01

    The shortage of clinical preceptors compromises the current and future supply of healthcare providers and patient access to primary care. This article describes how an interprofessional coalition in South Carolina formed and sought government support to address the preceptor shortage. Some states have legislated preceptor tax credits and/or deductions to support the clinical education of future primary care healthcare providers. As a result of the coalition's work, a bill to establish similar incentives is pending in the South Carolina legislature.

  9. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

  10. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements

  11. Strategies to address the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshaiqah, A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia and specifically the shortage of Saudi nurses in the healthcare workforce and to propose solutions. Literature published from 1993 to 2013 providing relevant information on the nursing shortage, cultural traditions and beliefs, and nursing education and policies in Saudi was accessed from multiple sources including Medline, CINAHL Plus and Google Scholar and from official Saudi government document and was reviewed. Saudi Arabia depends largely on an expatriate workforce, and this applies to nursing. Saudi Arabia is experiencing a nursing shortage in common with most countries in the world and a shortage of Saudi nationals, especially women, in the healthcare workforce. The world shortage of nursing is extrinsic to Saudi, but intrinsic factors include a poor image of the nursing profession in the country that is exacerbated by cultural factors. With the call for the Saudization of the workforce to replace the imported workforce by Saudi nationals, including nurses, through the 1992 Royal Decree, Saudi Arabia faces a problem in attracting and retaining Saudi nationals in the nursing workforce. Solutions are suggested that are aimed at improving the public image of nursing through education and the use of the media and improvements in the workplace by addressing working processes such as teamwork, ensuring adequate staffing levels and addressing some aspects of culture which may make working in nursing more compatible with being a Saudi national. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Performance of a prototype water Cherenkov detector for LHAASO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Q.; Bai, Y.X.; Bi, X.J.; Cao, Z.; Cao, Zhe; Chang, J.F.; Chen, G.; Chen, L.H.; Chen, M.J.; Chen, T.L.; Chen, Y.T.; Cui, S.W.; Dai, B.Z.; Danzengluobu; Feng, C.F.; Gao, B.; Gu, M.H.; Hao, X.J.; He, H.H.; Hu, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    A large high-altitude air shower observatory is to be built at Yang-Ba-Jing, Tibet, China. One of its main purposes is to survey the northern sky for very-high-energy (above 100 GeV) gamma ray sources via its ground-based water Cherenkov detector array. To gain full knowledge of water Cherenkov technique in detecting air showers, a prototype water Cherenkov detector is built at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing. The performance of the prototype water Cherenkov detector is studied by measuring its response to cosmic muons. The results are compared with those from a full Monte Carlo simulation to provide a series of information regarding the prototype detector in guiding electronics design and detector optimization.

  13. Water partnerships: IAEA regional projects for Africa TAP expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussaha, A.; Kastens, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Issues of water scarcity are on the top of governmental agendas. The efforts of the IAEA's African Member States to address these issues rely upon increasingly complex requirements for analytical tools, technologies and institutional capacities. National programmes in water resources management are receiving growing attention and a large number of bilateral and multilateral development partners are actively involved in providing technical and financial support. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important, and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. In most cases, isotope hydrology methodologies provide a qualitative definition or solution of the hydrological problem while in certain circumstances, quantification of hydrological parameters are enabled only by the application of these methodologies. Such information is essential for determining the long-term productive capacity of an aquifer, protecting vulnerable recharge areas from pollution, or limiting saltwater intrusion. Isotopes also provide useful data for constraining and validating groundwater models used for water management

  14. Collaborative Project. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, Jorge L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Dufour, Carolina [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Rodgers, Keith B. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-12-16

    The focus of this grant was on diagnosing the physical mechanisms controlling upper ocean water mass formation and carbon distribution in Earth System Models (ESMs), with the goal of improving the physics that controls their formation.

  15. Causes of shortage and delay in material supply: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Yap, Y. H.; Ramli, N. R.; Dullah, M. A.; Shamsuddin, M. S. W.

    2017-11-01

    Shortage and delay in materials supply is argued to be one of the most important factors that lead to delay in construction project delivery globally. However, the relevant underlying reasons vary from country to country. As such, this paper summarises the outcomes of a study that targeted identifying causes of shortage and delay in materials supply in Brunei Darussalam. The study was conducted through fifteen semi-structured interviews of contractors and materials suppliers in Brunei. The study identified six causes of shortageof materials and nine causes of delay in materials supply in Brunei. The most importantcausefor shortage of materials relates to the origin or availability of construction materials. On the other hand, the most influential cause of delay in material supply was found to be poor materials procurement and inventory management system, which has other underlying reasons such as late identification of the type of materials needed. The observations are expected to help in formulating or reviewing relevant policies, in order to ensure on-time project delivery.

  16. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  17. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  18. US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action ground water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy requirements of the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1988). This scope of work will entail the following activities, on a site-specific basis: Development of a compliance strategy based upon modification of the UMTRA Surface Project remedial action plans (RAP) or development of Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC and state or tribal concurrence on the RAP; implementation of the RAP to include establishment of institutional controls, where appropriate; institution of long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate DOE program on or before the Project end date; and preparation of completion reports and final licensing on those sites that will be completed prior to the Project end date

  19. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Annual progress report for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.H.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes progress during 1987 of five Hanford Site ground water monitoring projects. Four of these projects are being conducted according to regulations based on the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the state Hazardous Waste Management Act. The fifth project is being conducted according to regulations based on the state Solid Waste Management Act. The five projects discussed herein are: 300 Area Process Trenches; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins; 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds; Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill; Solid Waste Landfill. For each of the projects, there are included, as applicable, discussions of monitoring well installations, water-table measurements, background and/or downgradient water quality and results of chemical analysis, and extent and rate of movement of contaminant plumes. 14 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  20. 75 FR 15453 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Repayment Contract. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation will be initiating negotiations with the...

  1. International cooperation and shortage of doctors: an analysis of the interaction between Brazil, Angola and Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sandra Mara Campos; Oliveira, Felipe Proenço de; Matos, Mateus Falcão Martins; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Delduque, Maria Celia

    2017-07-01

    The shortage of doctors, especially in remote areas, is a critical issue for the development of national health systems and has thus been the focus of a number of international cooperation projects. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted to examine cooperation between Brazil, Angola and Cuba. A nonsystematic literature review was conducted of selected open access articles and official documents addressing relevant health cooperation initiatives. Previously selected characteristics of actions designed to redress the shortage of doctors were compared. It was concluded that the interactions between the three countries were fruitful and potentially beneficial for the health of the population of these countries. South-South cooperation between these countries showed positive results in the educational and regulatory dimensions and adopted a non-dependence perspective that seeks to strengthen endogenous capacity, which are important factors for evaluating the structural components of health systems.

  2. The laboratory workforce shortage: a managerial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortelyou-Ward, Kendall; Ramirez, Bernardo; Rotarius, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Most clinical laboratories in the nation report severe difficulties in recruitment and retention of most types of personnel. Other important factors impacting this problem include work complexities, increased automation, and a graying workforce. As a further challenge, institutional needs for clinical laboratory personnel are expected to grow significantly in the next decade. This article examines the current situation of the clinical laboratory workforce. It analyzes the different types of personnel; the managerial, supervision, and line positions that are key for different types of laboratories; the job outlook and recent projections for different types of staff; and the current issues, trends, and challenges of the laboratory workforce. Laboratory managers need to take action with strategies suggested for overcoming these challenges. Most importantly, they need to become transformational leaders by developing effective staffing models, fostering healthy and productive work environments, and creating value with a strategic management culture and implementation of knowledge management.

  3. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  4. 76 FR 16818 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Standard Criteria for Ag and Urban Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Valley Project water conservation best management practices (BMPs) that shall develop Criteria for... project contractors using best available cost- effective technology and best management practices.'' The... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Standard...

  5. Performance indicators for water injections projects; Indicadores de desempenho para projetos de injecao de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastenreiter, Livia; Correa, Antonio C. de F.; Mendes, Roberta A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently, the water injection process into oil reservoirs is the method of secondary recovery more important to increase the recovery factor. Thus, it is necessary an efficient project management, with constant data acquisitions and interpretation. This paper aims to present some indicators to evaluate the performance of water injection projects. Each indicator is presented based on a methodology that transforms the data collected in information. The results are expressed in graphical form for better viewing of the indicators measurement. (author)

  6. Changes in Federal Water Project Repayment Policies Can Reduce Federal Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-07

    a reimburs - able purpose, the users should share in cost recovery. RECOMMENDATIONS To provide for equitable cost reimbursement on underutilized...Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation that do not ensure fair and timely recovery of water projects’ reimbursable costs. We made this...such costs for reimbursable project purposes and considering them in future water price determinations, agencies often reas- signed them to

  7. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting the proposed EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own unique set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. Implementing a PEIS alternative means applying a ground water compliance strategy or strategies at a specific site. It is the use of a strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  8. Income-based projections of water footprint of food consumption in Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Frohberg, Klaus; Djanibekov, Utkur

    2013-11-01

    Assessing future water requirements for feeding the growing population of Central Asia can improve understanding of the projected water supply scenarios in the region. Future water requirements will be partially determined by the dietary habits of the populations, and are thus responsive to significant variation of income levels. Using Uzbekistan as an example, this study projects the water footprints of income driven changes on the population's diet in Central Asia. To reveal the influence of large income changes on dietary habits a Normalized Quadratic-Quadratic Expenditure System was calibrated and applied to data from 2009. The national water footprints of food consumption in Uzbekistan were projected until 2034 by applying the parameterized demand system to estimate the respective water footprint values. The results showed that for Uzbekistan the projected increase in the food consumption water footprint would be primarily linked to income growth rather than population growth. Due to the high water footprint of common food products, the composition of the population's diet, and responsiveness to income, economic growth is expected to put greater pressure on water resources in Uzbekistan unless proper measures are undertaken.

  9. European community light water reactor safety research projects. Experimental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Research programs on light water reactor safety currently carried out in the European Community are presented. They cover: accident conditions (LOCA, ECCS, core meltdown, external influences, etc...), fault and accident prevention and means of mitigation, normal operation conditions, on and off site implications and equipment under severe accident conditions, and miscellaneous subjects

  10. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  11. Water Use Optimization Toolset Project: Development and Demonstration Phase Draft Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, John R. [Argonne National Laboratory; Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Laboratory; Mahalik, Matthew R. [Argonne National Laboratory; Hayse, John W. [Argonne National Laboratory; Saha, Samrat [Argonne National Laboratory; Wigmosta, Mark S. [PNNL; Voisin, Nathalie [PNNL; Rakowski, Cynthia [PNNL; Coleman, Andre [PNNL; Lowry, Thomas S. [SNL

    2014-05-19

    This report summarizes the results of the development and demonstration phase of the Water Use Optimization Toolset (WUOT) project. It identifies the objective and goals that guided the project, as well as demonstrating potential benefits that could be obtained by applying the WUOT in different geo-hydrologic systems across the United States. A major challenge facing conventional hydropower plants is to operate more efficiently while dealing with an increasingly uncertain water-constrained environment and complex electricity markets. The goal of this 3-year WUOT project, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is to improve water management, resulting in more energy, revenues, and grid services from available water, and to enhance environmental benefits from improved hydropower operations and planning while maintaining institutional water delivery requirements. The long-term goal is for the WUOT to be used by environmental analysts and deployed by hydropower schedulers and operators to assist in market, dispatch, and operational decisions.

  12. Are radioisotope shortages a thing of the past?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2014-10-15

    Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a {sup 99}Mo supply and demand update for the period up to 2030 (A Supply and Demand Update of the Molybdenum-99 Market, OECD/NEA, 2012), identifying periods of low supply relative to demand. This paper presents the preliminary results from an updated {sup 99}Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major {sup 99}Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease {sup 99}Mo irradiations. On the demand side, the NEA had previously released a study with the results from a global survey of future demand for {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc (OECD-NEA, 2011), devising a scenario based on a data assessment by an expert advisory group. In the current analysis, the expected demand growth rate and total demand have been modified, based on the latest information from supply chain participants. On the supply side, the NEA has updated the list of current and planned new {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc irradiation and processing projects. The modelling results incorporate revisions to production start/end dates, potential additional projects, and impacts of converting to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets on {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc capacity and production. The supply forecast horizon (2015 to 2020) has been chosen to reflect upcoming, important changes in global production capacity

  13. Are radioisotope shortages a thing of the past?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo/ 99m Tc supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of reduced supply and underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally-consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a 99 Mo supply and demand update for the period up to 2030 (A Supply and Demand Update of the Molybdenum-99 Market, OECD/NEA, 2012), identifying periods of low supply relative to demand. This paper presents the preliminary results from an updated 99 Mo supply and demand forecast, focusing on the potentially critical 2015-2020 period, when two major 99 Mo producers (the NRU reactor in Canada and the OSIRIS reactor in France) are scheduled to cease 99 Mo irradiations. On the demand side, the NEA had previously released a study with the results from a global survey of future demand for 99 Mo/ 99m Tc (OECD-NEA, 2011), devising a scenario based on a data assessment by an expert advisory group. In the current analysis, the expected demand growth rate and total demand have been modified, based on the latest information from supply chain participants. On the supply side, the NEA has updated the list of current and planned new 99 Mo/ 99m Tc irradiation and processing projects. The modelling results incorporate revisions to production start/end dates, potential additional projects, and impacts of converting to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets on 99 Mo/ 99m Tc capacity and production. The supply forecast horizon (2015 to 2020) has been chosen to reflect upcoming, important changes in global production capacity - the planned shutdowns in Canada and France, and the expected

  14. INVENTORY OF ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION PROJECTS - PUBLISHED ON THE OFFICE OF WATER WEB PAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory working jointly with the Office of Water, has developed an Internet-accessible database of ecosystem restoration projects within the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) region. This article informs project owners of the i...

  15. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992 (CVPIA) and subsequent...

  16. Final Technical Report: The Water-to-Wire (W2W) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissner, Daniel N. [Free Flow Power Corporation, Boston, MA (United States); Edward, Lovelace C. [Free Flow Power Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-24

    The purpose of the Free Flow Power (FFP) Water-to-Wire Project (Project) was to evaluate and optimize the performance, environmental compatibility, and cost factors of FFP hydrokinetic turbines through design analyses and deployments in test flumes and riverine locations.

  17. Culturally appropriate organization of water and sewerage projects built through public private partnerships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Kaminsky

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the pursuit of socially sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for all people by discovering statistically robust relationships between Hofstede's dimensions of cross-cultural comparison and the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. This analysis, which represents 973 projects distributed across 24 low- and middle-income nations, uses a World Bank dataset describing high capital cost water and sewerage projects funded through private investment. The results show that cultural dimensions explain variation in the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. These results provide empirical evidence that strategies for water and sewerage project organization are not culturally neutral. The data show, for example, that highly individualistic contexts are more likely to select competitive contract award types and to depend on user fees to provide the primary project revenue stream post-construction. By selecting more locally appropriate ways to organize projects, project stakeholders will be better able to pursue the construction of socially sustainable water and sewerage infrastructure.

  18. Culturally appropriate organization of water and sewerage projects built through public private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Jessica A

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to the pursuit of socially sustainable water and sanitation infrastructure for all people by discovering statistically robust relationships between Hofstede's dimensions of cross-cultural comparison and the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. This analysis, which represents 973 projects distributed across 24 low- and middle-income nations, uses a World Bank dataset describing high capital cost water and sewerage projects funded through private investment. The results show that cultural dimensions explain variation in the choice of contract award types, project type, and primary revenue sources. These results provide empirical evidence that strategies for water and sewerage project organization are not culturally neutral. The data show, for example, that highly individualistic contexts are more likely to select competitive contract award types and to depend on user fees to provide the primary project revenue stream post-construction. By selecting more locally appropriate ways to organize projects, project stakeholders will be better able to pursue the construction of socially sustainable water and sewerage infrastructure.

  19. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Public concern regarding the potential human health and environmental effects from uranium mill tailings led Congress to pass the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Public Law 95-604) in 1978. In the UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings at 24 abandoned uranium mill processing sites needing remedial action. Uranium processing activities at most of the 24 mill processing sites resulted in the formation of contaminated ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of hazardous constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting EPA-proposed standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated with constituents from UMTRA Project sites. A major first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of the alternatives, including the proposed action. These alternatives are programmatic in that they are plans for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. This PEIS is a planning document that will provide a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assess the potential programmatic and environmental impacts of conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project; provide a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provide data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses documents more efficiently

  20. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... storage control); 5. Fish Habitat (mainstem floodplain restoration program); 6. Enhanced Water Conservation (agricultural water and municipal/ domestic conservation); and 7. Market-Based Reallocation of... water conservation/water acquisition activities, tributary fish screens, and long-term management needs...

  1. A critical review of the nursing shortage in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, T; Namasivayam, P; Narudin, D A A

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes and critically reviews steps taken to address the nursing workforce shortage in Malaysia. To address the shortage and to build health care capacity, Malaysia has more than doubled its nursing workforce over the past decade, primarily through an increase in the domestic supply of new graduates. Government reports, policy documents and ministerial statements were sourced from the Ministry of Health Malaysia website and reviewed and analysed in the context of the scholarly literature published about the health care workforce in Malaysia and more generally about the global nursing shortage. An escalation in student numbers and the unprecedented number of new graduates entering the workforce has been associated with other impacts that have been responded to symptomatically rather than through workplace reform. Whilst growing the domestic supply of nurses is a critical key strategy to address workforce shortages, steps should also be taken to address structural and other problems of the workplace to support both new graduates and the retention of more experienced staff. Nursing shortages should not be tackled by increasing the supply of new graduates alone. The creation of a safe and supportive work environment is important to the long-term success of current measures taken to grow the workforce and retain nurses within the Malaysian health care system.

  2. An analysis of news flow on the nation's nurse shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, B J; Kalisch, P A; Clinton, J

    1981-09-01

    Using data from national newspaper clipping services, this article analyzes characteristics of 1978 news coverage of the nation's nurse shortage. Based on a content analysis of nearly 3,000 newspaper articles, findings revealed that 14 per cent of the articles mentioned problems of nurse supply. Articles on nurse shortage were most frequent in the Pacific, Mid-Atlantic and South-Atlantic states and occurred least in the West-North Central and East-South Central states. Articles mentioning nurse shortage were more frequently placed on page 1, associated with clinical nursing in hospital settings and explained as the result of maldistribution of nurses, poor salaries, deficient working conditions and lack of job satisfaction. The reading public was confronted with three major consequences of current and continued shortages in nursing: 1) decline in the availability and diversity of health services; 2) erosion in the quality of care offered the public and jeopardized patient welfare; and 3) escalating health care costs. Solutions to the nurse shortage appear to be closely tied to further expansion of the issue among the public, the initiation of remedial governmental action and timely relocation of scarce resources within the health care industry.

  3. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  4. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  5. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for performing remedial action to bring surface and ground water contaminant levels at 24 inactive uranium processing sites into compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. DOE is accomplishing this through the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface and Ground Water Projects. Remedial action will be conducted with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the full participation of affected states and Indian tribes. Uranium processing activities at most of 24 the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels, the potential health and the environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently

  6. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  7. 76 FR 33019 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(e... Wilson Drilling Pad 1, ABR-201103014, Lemon Township, Wyoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of up to 2.000...

  8. Review of the water management systems in the Gujarat Medium Irrigation II Project (Credit 1496-IN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Different activities are ongoing in the Medium Irrigation II project simultaneously. These are: - emancipation of farmers through their involvement in the operation and management; - change over from Sheshpali type water management to RWS type water management; - design and construction of remaining

  9. Research Proposal: Methodology for Assessment Frameworks in Large-scale Infrastructural Water Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Saskia

    2005-01-01

    Water management is a central and ongoing issue in the Netherlands. Large infrastructural projects are being carried out and planned in a number of water systems. These initiatives operate within a complex web of interactions, between short- and long-term, economic costs and benefits, technical

  10. Programmable logic controllers in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru (Paper No. 3.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Bhaskar, R.; Maiti, A.; Venkatesu, G.; Satish, P.; Goel, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Enhancement to plant operational flexibility has been achieved in Heavy Water Project, Manuguru by installing programmable logic controllers for its control equipment. The earlier sulfide based Heavy Water Plant, Kota is using relay logic and diode based program-matrix for binary controls. Performance improvement and advantages of PLC and experience in its operation are described. (author). 3 refs

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Digital Architecture Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    There are many technologies available to the nuclear power industry to improve efficiency in plant work activities. These range from new control room technologies to those for mobile field workers. They can make a positive impact on a wide range of performance objectives – increase in productivity, human error reduction, validation of results, accurate transfer of data, and elimination of repetitive tasks. It is expected that the industry will more and more turn to these technologies to achieve these operational efficiencies to lower costs. At the same time, this will help utilities manage a looming staffing problem as the inevitable retirement wave of the more seasoned workers affects both staffing levels and knowledge retention. A barrier to this wide-scale implementation of new technologies for operational efficiency is the lack of a comprehensive digital architecture that can support the real-time information exchanges needed to achieve the desired operational efficiencies. This project will define an advanced digital architecture that will accommodate the entire range of system, process, and plant worker activity to enable the highest degree of integration, thereby creating maximum efficiency and productivity. This pilot project will consider a range of open standards that are suitable for the various data and communication requirements of a seamless digital environment. It will map these standards into an overall architecture to support the II&C developments of this research program.

  12. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  13. Impact analysis of government investment on water projects in the arid Gansu Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan; Deng, Xiangzheng; Li, Xiubin; Zhou, Qing; Yan, Haiming

    In this paper, we introduced three-nested Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function into a static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model. Through four levels of factor productivity, we constructed three nested production function of land use productivity in the conceptual modeling frameworks. The first level of factor productivity is generated by the basic value-added land. On the second level, factor productivity in each sector is generated by human activities that presents human intervention to the first level of factor productivity. On the third level of factor productivity, water allocation reshapes the non-linear structure of transaction among first and second levels. From the perspective of resource utilization, we examined the economic efficiency of water allocation. The scenario-based empirical analysis results show that the three-nested CES production function within CGE model is well-behaved to present the economy system of the case study area. Firstly, water scarcity harmed economic production. Government investment on water projects in Gansu thereby had impacts on economic outcomes. Secondly, huge governmental financing on water projects bring depreciation of present value of social welfare. Moreover, water use for environment adaptation pressures on water supply. The theoretical water price can be sharply increased due to the increasing costs of factor inputs. Thirdly, water use efficiency can be improved by water projects, typically can be benefited from the expansion of water-saving irrigation areas even in those expanding dry area in Gansu. Therefore, increasing governmental financing on water projects can depreciate present value of social welfare but benefit economic efficiency for future generation.

  14. The Navruz Project: Cooperative transboundary monitoring data sharing and modeling of water resources in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, Howard David; Barber, David S.; Solodukhin, V.; Khazekhber, S.; Pozniak, V.; Vasiliev, I.; Alekhina, V.; Djuraev, Akram; Radyuk, R.; Suozzi, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase I of the project was initiated in 2000 with 15 sampling points in each of the four countries with sample analysis performed for over 100 parameters. Phase II of the project began in 2003 and expanded sampling to include at least 30 points in each country in an effort to characterize ''hot spots'' and to identify sources. Phase III of the project began in 2006 and will integrate decision support modeling with the existing monitoring. Overall, the project addresses four main goals: to create collaboration among Central Asian scientists and countries; to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and nonproliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, and agricultural activities, as well as radioactive contamination from a legacy of uranium mining and related activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia.

  15. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Roberts, Barry L.; Passell, Howard D.; Jensen, Daniel; Forsgren, Christopher; Sehlke, Gerald; Cook, Margaret A.; King, Carey W.; Larsen, Sara

    2014-05-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  16. The nurse manager: job satisfaction, the nursing shortage and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Diane Randall; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2005-07-01

    A critical shortage of registered nurses exists in the United States and this shortage is expected to worsen. It is predicted that unless this issue is resolved, the demand for nursing services will exceed the supply by nearly 30% in 2020. Extensive analysis of this pending crisis has resulted in numerous recommendations to improve both recruitment and retention. The purpose of this article is to clearly outline the issues contributing to this problem, and to provide the nurse manager with information regarding specific influences on job satisfaction as it relates to job turnover and employee retention. To accomplish this, an analysis of the literature using both national and international sources is used to formulate the lessons learned as well as strategies and future courses of action designed to address this shortage.

  17. Potential impacts of climate change on rainfall erosivity and water availability in China in the next 100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer Moore; Corey Bunch; Jian Ni

    2002-01-01

    Soil erosion and water shortages threaten China’s social and economic development in the 21st century. This paper examines how projected climate change could affect soil erosion and water availability across China. We used both historical climate data (1961-1980) and the UKMO Hadley3 climate scenario (1960-2099) to drive regional hydrology and soil erosivity models....

  18. Water and waste water, when brine's just fine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Garth

    2007-01-01

    Desalination has always sounded a good solution to rainfall shortages, who wouldn't rather drink purified seawater than recycled sewage? But projects in Australia and around the world have often been dogged by question marks over cost and greenhouse effects and saline discharge issues. Solar powered pilot plant is being developed in South Australia which will not discharge a drop of briny reject water back to the sea

  19. Sustainability of donor-funded rural water supply and sanitation projects in Mbire district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwangware, Johnson; Mayo, Aloyce; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    The sustainability of donor-funded rural water supply and sanitation projects was assessed in Mbire district, Zimbabwe in terms of level of community participation, quality of implementation and reliability of the systems. The study was carried out through questionnaires, focus group discussions, interviews and field observations. The results show that the quality of implementation of the projects was deemed to be good and participation of the communities in project ideas initiation and choice of technology was found to be very low. Reliability of the systems was found to be very high with 97% of the boreholes in all the three wards studied being functional. Financial management mechanisms were very poor because water consumers were not willing to pay for operation and maintenance. The projects were classified as potentially sustainable with sustainability index between 5.00 and 6.67. Poor financial management mechanisms for effective borehole maintenance, poor quality of construction and lack of community participation in project planning were found to be potential threats to the sustainability of the projects. Future projects should establish the need for the service and should thus be demand driven to ensure effective participation of the water consumers and enhance project's potential for sustainability.

  20. Rural water-supply and sanitation planning: The use of socioeconomic preconditions in project identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Dennis B.

    1984-02-01

    Recognition of the socioeconomic preconditions for successful rural water-supply and sanitation projects in developing countries is the key to identifying a new project. Preconditions are the social, economic and technical characteristics defining the project environment. There are two basic types of preconditions: those existing at the time of the initial investigation and those induced by subsequent project activities. Successful project identification is dependent upon an accurate recognition of existing constraints and a carefully tailored package of complementary investments intended to overcome the constraints. This paper discusses the socioeconomic aspects of preconditions in the context of a five-step procedure for project identification. The procedure includes: (1) problem identification; (2) determination of socioeconomic status; (3) technology selection; (4) utilization of support conditions; and (5) benefit estimation. Although the establishment of specific preconditions should be based upon the types of projects likely to be implemented, the paper outlines a number of general relationships regarding favourable preconditions in water and sanitation planning. These relationships are used within the above five-step procedure to develop a set of general guidelines for the application of preconditions in the identification of rural water-supply and sanitation projects.

  1. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  2. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The QAIP outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance activities as management tools to ensure that UMTRA Project activities are carried out in amanner to protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project, and meet or exceed contract requirements

  3. Drug shortages in Israel: regulatory perspectives, challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Eyal; Ainbinder, Denize; Vishkauzan, Alla; Gamzu, Ronni

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical drug shortages (DSs) are a global problem which presents challenges to countries around the world. Shortages of pharmaceutical products may have a direct detrimental impact on public health and patients' wellbeing by causing delayed, or even lack of, treatment. Moreover, DSs may force both patients and caregivers to use unfamiliar drugs, which could lead to medication errors. The objective of our study was to analyze DSs in Israel during the years 2013-2015, assessing their etiology and exploring the steps taken for their mitigation and prevention. The database of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) on drug shortages contains all the DSs recorded in Israel since 2013, detailing the cause of the DS, its duration, steps taken in its' management and the availability of generic or therapeutic alternatives. Selected examples of DSs from the database are described in this paper in order to identify the causes of DSs, the scope of the problem and possible solutions. Additionally, we have reviewed the recent activities performed by European Medicine Agency (EMA) and the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in their efforts to minimize this problem. Several factors contributing towards DSs in Israel were identified, including quality problems in both the final drug product and in the raw materials, upgrades and improvements of the manufacturing process required by the MoH, manufacturing by a sole supplier, dramatic price decrease in off-patent medications causing the manufacturer to discontinue the distribution of the product in Israel, just-in-time inventory control, and others. One of the most important steps in managing drug shortages was identified to be early notification of the shortage by the Marketing Authorization Holder (MAH) to the MoH. In 2013, the Israeli MoH updated the regulation on drug shortages instructing MAHs on their obligation of early notification to the MoH. Furthermore, various steps dealing with marketing withdrawal of drugs

  4. Cooling water treatment for heavy water project (Paper No. 6.9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsangkar, H.N.

    1992-01-01

    With minor exceptions, water is the preferred industrial medium for the removal of unwanted heat from process systems. The application of various chemical treatments is required to protect the system from water related and process related problems of corrosion, scale and deposition and biofouling. The paper discusses the cooling water problems for heavy water industries along with the impact caused by associated fertilizer units. (author). 6 figs

  5. Impact of Redevelopment Projects on Waste Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Prashant; Rahate, Sarvesh

    2018-05-01

    In the last few decades there has been a tremendous increase in urban population globally. Metropolitan cities in India are experiencing rapid change in their population due to migration from rural to urban areas. Due to limited land Mumbai city is experiencing vertical growth in the form of redevelopment projects, signifying a change in population density. Wastewater collection systems greatly contribute to the cost of the overall municipal sewerage system. Present study is an attempt to understand the impact of the redevelopment activities on the wastewater infrastructure. Existing sewerage network of an urban area in Central Mumbai was redesigned and analysed for four different planning scenarios with Bentley's SewerGEM. Results have shown significant change in diameters of the conduits within the sewer network, thus making it inefficient by 13, 19, 31 and 42% with each changing scenario. The results and analysis derived from the study are significant with respect to the urban town planners, developing solutions in alleviating the rising problem of sewer overflows and the economic impact being caused.

  6. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1, Version 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes the planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the Grand Junction US DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site (GRJ-01) in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at the Cheney Disposal Site (GRJ-03) near Grand Junction. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for the routine monitoring stations at the sites. Regulatory basis is in the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA ground water quality standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). This plan summarizes results of past water sampling activities, details water sampling activities planned for the next 2 years, and projects sampling activities for the next 5 years

  7. The Water Reuse project: Sustainable waste water re-use technologies for irrigated land in NIS and southern European states; project overview and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, E.; Doerr, S.; Ritsema, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    In irrigated areas in the New Independent States (NIS) and southern European States, inefficient use of conventional water resources occurs through incomplete wetting of soils, which causes accelerated runoff and preferential flow, and also through excessive evaporation associated with unhindered capillary rise. Furthermore, a largely unexploited potential exists to save conventional irrigation water by supplementation with organic-rich waste water, which, if used appropriately, can also lead to improvements to soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. This project aims to (a) reduce irrigation water losses by developing, evaluating and promoting techniques that improve the wetting properties of soils, and (b) investigate the use of organic-rich waste water as a non-conventional water resource in irrigation and, in addition, as a tool in improving soil physical properties and soil nutrient and organic matter content. Key activities include (i) identifying, for the NIS and southern European partner countries, the soil type/land use combinations, for which the above approaches are expected to be most effective and their implementation most feasible, using physical and socio-economic research methods, and (ii) examining the water saving potential, physical, biological and chemical effects on soils of the above approaches, and also their impact on performance. Expected outputs include techniques for sustainable improvements in soil wettability management as a novel approach in water saving, detailed evaluation of the prospects and effects of using supplemental organic-rich waste waters in irrigation, an advanced process-based numerical hydrological model, fully adapted to quantify and upscale resulting water savings and nutrient and potential contaminant fluxes for irrigated areas, and identification of suitable areas in the NIS and Mediterranean (in soil, land use, legislative and socio-economic terms) for implementation.

  8. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  9. BIPM project: Intercomparison of water triple-point cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattle, M. V.; Butler, J.

    1994-12-01

    The paper presents the results of an intercomparison between 3 triple point of water cells circulated by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures (BIPM), and a cell which is one of those used as a reference cell at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). All 4 cells were prepared, stored and measured in the manner normally adopted at NPL. The results of the intercomparison show that over the course of about 6 weeks the temperatures of the 3 circulated cells generally agreed within 0.20 mK, with a maximum difference of 0.27(7) mK. Over the same period, the total variations of temperature measured in the 3 individual cells were 0.04 mK, 0.08 mK and 0.18 mK, respectively; the NPL cell varied by 0.10 mK. Gallium point measurements made over a similar period confirmed that these differences were partly due to small drifts in the thermometer resistance or in the measuring system.

  10. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  11. Integrating Economic Models with Biophysical Models in the Willamette Water 2100 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, W. K.; Plantinga, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper highlights the human system modeling components for Willamette Water 2100, a comprehensive, highly integrated study of hydrological, ecological, and human factors affecting water scarcity in the Willamette River Basin (WRB). The project is developing a spatiotemporal simulation model to predict future trajectories of water scarcity, and to evaluate mitigation policies. Economic models of land use and water use are the main human system models in WW2100. Water scarcity depends on both supply and demand for water, and varies greatly across time and space (Jaeger et al., 2013). Thus, the locations of human water use can have enormous influence on where and when water is used, and hence where water scarcity may arise. Modeling the locations of human uses of water (e.g., urban versus agricultural) as well as human values and choices, are the principal quantitative ways that social science can contribute to research of this kind. Our models are empirically-based models of human resource allocation. Each model reflects private behavior (choices by households, farms, firms), institutions (property rights, laws, markets, regulations), public infrastructure (dams, canals, highways), and also 'external drivers' that influence the local economy (migration, population growth, national markets and policies). This paper describes the main model components, emphasizing similarities between human and biophysical components of the overall project, and the model's linkages and feedbacks relevant to our predictions of changes in water scarcity between now and 2100. Results presented include new insights from individual model components as well as available results from the integrated system model. Issues include water scarcity and water quality (temperature) for out-of-stream and instream uses, the impact of urban expansion on water use and potential flood damage. Changes in timing and variability of spring discharge with climate change, as well as changes in human uses of

  12. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  13. Salt repository project site study plan for water resources: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Water Resources describes a field program consisting of surface-water and ground-water characterization. The surface-water studies will determine the drainage basin characteristics (i.e., topography, soils, land use), hydrometeorology, runoff to streams and playas, and surface-water quality (i.e., offsite pollution sources in playa lakes and in streams). The environmental ground-water studies will focus on ground-water quality characterization. The site study plan describes for each study the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Projects Requirements Document. 78 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Administration of the natural gas shortage in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluge, W [Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1978-05-01

    The natural gas deficit is basically a consequence of the price policy of the U.S. government which keeps the prices of natural gas transported from one state to another subject to a maximum-price regulation. In the course of this development, the U.S. natural gas market has been characterized by three different types of shortage since the early seventies. There are regional differences in the administration of the shortage. Compared to the alternatives the rationing plan of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the best solution from on overall economic point of view, but it is rather impracticable and hard to put through completely. Natural gas rationing in the USA did not prevent temporary production losses and unemployment due to shortage. If the maximum-price regulation policy for natural gas is continued, the supply deficit for this energy carrier will become even greater. If, as the National Energy Plan proposes, the maximum-price regulation for natural gas would also pertain to the intrastate market in the future, natural gas shortages would occur there, too.

  15. Shortage of Mathematics Teachers in Thai Basic Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian; Rattanatumma, Tawachai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for shortage of Mathematics teachers at Thai Basic Education level. This research is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. For the purpose of study, survey was conducted with senior high school students, in order to find out their willingness to pursue mathematics in Bachelor of…

  16. SREB Study Indicates Serious Shortage of Nursing Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing appointed an ad hoc committee to study the implications of nursing shortages for nursing education programs in the 16 SREB states and the District of Columbia. In May 2001, surveys were sent to 491 colleges and universities that prepare students for licensure…

  17. 7 CFR 3431.5 - Solicitation of veterinarian shortage situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Secretary reserves the right to solicit veterinarian shortage situations every year or every three years, as... of nominations that may be submitted by each State animal health official. (e) Nominations... the position is not secured. (f) Nominating Official. The State animal health official in each state...

  18. Energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Tianxing; Zhao, Chuanyu; Xu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The consequence of short-time energy shortage under extreme conditions, such as earthquake, tsunami, and hurricane, may cause local areas to suffer from delayed rescues, widespread power outages, tremendous economic losses, and even public safety threats. In such urgent events of local energy shortage, agile energy dispatching through an effective energy transportation network, targeting the minimum energy recovery time, should be a top priority. In this paper, a novel methodology is developed for energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage, which includes four stages of work. First, emergency-area-centered energy network needs to be characterized, where the capacity, quantity, and availability of various energy sources are determined. Second, the energy initial situation under emergency conditions needs to be identified. Then, the energy dispatch optimization is conducted based on a developed MILP (mixed-integer linear programming) model in the third stage. Finally, the sensitivity of the minimum dispatch time with respect to uncertainty parameters is characterized by partitioning the entire space of uncertainty parameters into multiple subspaces. The efficacy of the developed methodology is demonstrated via a case study with in-depth discussions. -- Highlights: ► Address the energy network dispatch problem under emergency of local energy shortage. ► Minimize the energy restoration time for the entire energy network under emergency events. ► Develop a new MILP model and a sensitivity analysis method with respect to uncertainties.

  19. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply......, such as prior period slack creation or pessimistic managerial expectations with respect to future demand....

  20. Project proposal: integrated farming scheme incorporating management of water hyacinth - Water hyacinth as a pig feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of pig research undertaken by the Research Section of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Fiji), is to evaluate local feed sources in an attempt to reduce importation of pig feeds. Protein is the major limiting nutrient in most local feed sources. Fish and meat meals are incorporated in pig feeds by many farmers but the cost of these are very high. Chemical analysis of water hyacinth taken from Rewa River showed that leaves contain 22% crude protein and stems 8%. This was determined on a dry weight basis. Therefore, water hyacinth could be a good source of protein for pigs. Utilization of water hyacinth was considered in the First Review; meeting on Management of Water Hyacinth conducted by Commonwealth Regional (Asia/Pacific) Rural Technology Programme. Water hyacinth as an animal feed was discussed in that review. It points out that the following has to be taken into account in considering the use of water hyacinth as an animal feed. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of water hyacinth as a feed for pigs in an integrated farming system involving a piggery, biogas digester and a pond and: compare pig preference for water hyacinth when fed fresh or dry compare the performance of pigs when fed water hyacinth only and in combination with a normal diet and cost/benefit analysis

  1. Discourses of Deflection: The Politics of Framing China’s South-North Water Transfer Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Crow-Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant financial, ecological and social trade-offs, China has moved forward with constructing and operationalising the world’s largest interbasin water transfer project to date, the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP. While it is fundamentally linked to broader political-economic goals within the context of China’s post-Mao development agenda, the SNWTP is frequently discussed in apolitical terms. Based on extensive discourse analysis and interviews with government officials across North China, I argue that the Chinese government is using "discourses of deflection" to present the project as politically neutral in order to serve its ultimate goal of maintaining the high economic growth rates that underpin its continued legitimacy. These discourses, which replace concerns with human-exacerbated water stress with naturalised narratives about water scarcity and the ecological benefits of water transfer, serve to deflect attention away from anthropogenic sources of water stress in the North China Plain and serve as apolitical justifications for pursuing a short-term supply-side approach rather than the more politically challenging and longer-term course of dealing with the underlying drivers of water stress in the region.

  2. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  3. Hierarchical biodiversity and environment impact assessment of South-to-North Water Diversion Project of China

    OpenAIRE

    Youhua Chen

    2013-01-01

    In this brief review, the potential environmental and biodiversity impact of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD) project in China on regional environments was assessed. I used the hierarchical environmental impact assessment to classify the possible impacts into three orders caused by the construction of SNWD and then presented the current research advances on each order of the impacts. Further impact assessments should be reinforced during the construction period of SNDW project for the su...

  4. Water level determination for transportation projects : mean high water manual, final report, November 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    To ensure proficient network management and safe usage of navigable waterways especially in waters that are : subject to tides, it is essential that the height of the water at various tidal phases be known. This knowledge is also : essential for prop...

  5. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one Indian tribe, is the approval of... Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.56 If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

  6. 43 CFR 404.12 - Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? 404.12 Section 404.12 Public... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.12 Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? Reclamation may provide assistance with the...

  7. Bio nitrate Project: a new technology for water nitrate elimination by means of ionic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano Ortiz, J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of ion exchange resins for nitrate elimination from water generates a waste containing a sodium chloride mixture plus the retained nitrates. this waste must be correctly disposed. In this project, the resin ionic form is modified to be regenerated with other compounds, different from the common salt, which are interesting because of the presence of mineral nutrition. So, with Bio nitrate Project, nitrates are recovered and the regeneration waste is apt to be use as fertilizer, for agricultural uses, or as complementary contribution of nutrients in biological water treatment. (Author) 27 refs.

  8. Joint optimization scheduling for water conservancy projects in complex river networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we simulated water flow in a water conservancy project consisting of various hydraulic structures, such as sluices, pumping stations, hydropower stations, ship locks, and culverts, and developed a multi-period and multi-variable joint optimization scheduling model for flood control, drainage, and irrigation. In this model, the number of sluice holes, pump units, and hydropower station units to be opened were used as decision variables, and different optimization objectives and constraints were considered. This model was solved with improved genetic algorithms and verified using the Huaian Water Conservancy Project as an example. The results show that the use of the joint optimization scheduling led to a 10% increase in the power generation capacity and a 15% reduction in the total energy consumption. The change in the water level was reduced by 0.25 m upstream of the Yundong Sluice, and by 50% downstream of pumping stations No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4. It is clear that the joint optimization scheduling proposed in this study can effectively improve power generation capacity of the project, minimize operating costs and energy consumption, and enable more stable operation of various hydraulic structures. The results may provide references for the management of water conservancy projects in complex river networks.

  9. Ecological effects and potential risks of the water diversion project in the Heihe River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Shuai; Fu, Bojie; Gao, Guangyao; Shen, Qin

    2018-04-01

    To curb the severe ecological deterioration in the lower Heihe River Basin (HRB) in northwest China, a water diversion project was initiated in 2000. A comprehensive analysis of the ecological effects and potential risks associated with the project is needed. We assessed the hydrological and ecological achievements, and also analyzed the potential problems after the project was completed. We found that since the project began the hydrological regime has changed, with more than 57.82% of the upstream water being discharged to the lower reaches on average. As a result, the groundwater level in the lower reaches has risen; the terminal lake has gradually expanded to a maximum area in excess of 50km 2 since 2010, and there has been a significant recovery of vegetation in the riparian zone and the Ejin core oases, which represents the initial rehabilitation of the degraded downstream environment. Additionally, the economy of Ejin has developed spectacularly, with an annual growth rate of 28.06%. However, in the middle reaches, the average groundwater level has continuously declined by a total of 5.8m and significant degradation of the vegetation has occurred along the river course. The discrepancy in the water allocation between the middle and lower reaches has intensified. This highlights the inability of the current water diversion scheme to realize further ecological restoration and achieve sustainable development throughout the whole basin. In future water management programs, we recommend that water allocation is coordinated by considering the basin as an integrated entity and to scientifically determine the size of the midstream farmland and downstream oasis; restrict non-ecological water use in the lower reaches, and jointly dispatch the surface water and groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Carmel River Lagoon Enhancement Project: Water Quality and Aquatic Wildlife Monitoring, 2006-7

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, William; Watson, Fred; Casagrande, Joel; Hanley, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This is a report to the California Department of Parks and Recreation. It describes water quality and aquatic invertebrate monitoring after the construction of the Carmel River Lagoon Enhancement Project. Included are data that have been collected for two years and preliminary assessment of the enhanced ecosystem. This report marks the completion of 3-years of monitoring water quality and aquatic habitat. The report adopts the same format and certain background text from previous ...

  11. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is in McKinley County, New Mexico. As part of UMTRA surface remediation, residual radioactive materials were consolidated on the site in a disposal cell that was completed July 1995. The need for ground water monitoring was evaluated and found not to be necessary beyond the completion of the remedial action because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer is classified as limited use

  12. Boosting innovation in the water sector - The role and lessons learned from collaborative projects

    OpenAIRE

    Alegre, H.; Coelho, S.T.; Feliciano, J.; Matos, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    A key worldwide challenge in most sectors is to boost the effective adoption of innovation, as underpinned by the new European Union research programme Horizon 2020, which focuses on increasing innovation in Europe from 2014 to 2020. This is particularly relevant in the water sector, often perceived as conservative and averse to change. This paper discusses the role that collaborative knowledge-transfer projects can play in effectively rolling out R&D in the water industry. LNEC (Laboratório ...

  13. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  14. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  15. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  16. Joint-operation in water resources project in Indonesia: Integrated or non-integrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophiyandri, Taufika; Istijono, Bambang; Hidayat, Benny

    2017-11-01

    The construction of large water resources infrastructure project often involved a joint-operation (JO) project between two or more construction companies. The form of JO can be grouped into two categories - an integrated type and a non-integrated type. This paper investigates the reason of forming a JO project made by companies. The specific advantages and problems of JO project is also analysed in this paper. In order to achieve the objectives, three water resources infrastructure projects were selected as case studies. Data was gathered by conducting 11 semi-structured interviews to project owners, contractor managers, and project staffs. Data was analysed by means of content analysis. It was found that the most fundamental factor to form a JO is to win a competition or tender. An integrated model is in favour because it can reduce overhead costs and has a simple management system, while a non-integrated model is selected because it can avoid a sleeping partner and make contractor more responsible for their own job.

  17. Management of water hyacinth. A CSC/UNEP project. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    The water hyacinth project was initially proposed at the Regional Workshop on Rural Technology held at Dacca in January 1978. In November 1978, national coordinators met at New Delhi and outlined the project in detail as reported in CSC(79)RT-4. The meeting was attended by delegates from Bangladesh, Egypt, Guyana, India, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Commonwealth Science Council and the United Nations Environment Programme. Following this a proposal was submitted to UNEP seeking funding support to meet the external cost component of the project. This support was subsequently granted. The project aims to achieve an integrated approach towards managing water hyacinth. The underlying intention was that management would cover both eradication of the plant as well as making productive use of it when possible. Productive uses envisaged include biogas synthesis, production of papers and boards and as a source of proteins. Another interesting possibility is the use of the plant to control industrial as well as domestic water pollution . All these were detailed in a three and a half year time plan. The project had its first review meeting in June 1979 in Papua New Guinea. The major intention of this meeting was to examine status reports from each country in an attempt to quantify the problem caused by water hyacinth and assess the work plan in relation to this. The report of this meeting has been published as CSC(79)RT-5. At this meeting Papua New Guinea decided to withdraw from this project as water hyacinth was not regarded as a severe problem. The use of dugong as a control agent was not recommended by Papua New Guinea. In April 1980 an interim review meeting attended by the Regional Coordinator and representatives of UNEP and CSC was held in London where, based on the progress made in the participating countries, activities and time schedules were refined and sharpened (CSC (80)RT-16). It look some time to resolve the external funding question . It was

  18. Natural Resources Management on Corps of Engineers Water Resources Development Projects: Practices, Challenges, and Perspectives on the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasual, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Natural resources management on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers water resources development projects was documented from the responses of management personnel to a detailed questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample of projects...

  19. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within ;water-balance subregions; (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori. The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the current water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations and

  20. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ''Vitro'' site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ''Clive'' disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer

  1. Superficial Water Resource at Tempisque River Watershed, Costa Rica: Availability and Requirement Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán-Arias, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the status of water resources availability and demand in the upper and middle Tempisque watershed projected up to 2030 and the proposed actions to start a planning process. The resource availability scenarios incorporate the modifications inwater flows due to land use and cli­mate changes; these combined effects increases the problems of water shortages during the dry season. The resource demand scenarios include projections provided by the major users in the watershed, o...

  2. Superficial Water Resource at Tempisque River Watershed, Costa Rica: Availability and Requirement Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Guzmán-Arias

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the status of water resources availability and demand in the upper and middle Tempisque watershed projected up to 2030 and the proposed actions to start a planning process. The resource availability scenarios incorporate the modifications inwater flows due to land use and cli­mate changes; these combined effects increases the problems of water shortages during the dry season. The resource demand scenarios include projections provided by the major users in the watershe...

  3. 43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with the requirements in this rule... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.58 Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with...

  4. High-resolution projections of surface water availability for Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bennett

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes to streamflows caused by climate change may have major impacts on the management of water for hydro-electricity generation and agriculture in Tasmania, Australia. We describe changes to Tasmanian surface water availability from 1961–1990 to 2070–2099 using high-resolution simulations. Six fine-scale (∼10 km2 simulations of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration are generated with the CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM, a variable-resolution regional climate model (RCM. These variables are bias-corrected with quantile mapping and used as direct inputs to the hydrological models AWBM, IHACRES, Sacramento, SIMHYD and SMAR-G to project streamflows.

    The performance of the hydrological models is assessed against 86 streamflow gauges across Tasmania. The SIMHYD model is the least biased (median bias = −3% while IHACRES has the largest bias (median bias = −22%. We find the hydrological models that best simulate observed streamflows produce similar streamflow projections.

    There is much greater variation in projections between RCM simulations than between hydrological models. Marked decreases of up to 30% are projected for annual runoff in central Tasmania, while runoff is generally projected to increase in the east. Daily streamflow variability is projected to increase for most of Tasmania, consistent with increases in rainfall intensity. Inter-annual variability of streamflows is projected to increase across most of Tasmania.

    This is the first major Australian study to use high-resolution bias-corrected rainfall and potential evapotranspiration projections as direct inputs to hydrological models. Our study shows that these simulations are capable of producing realistic streamflows, allowing for increased confidence in assessing future changes to surface water variability.

  5. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  6. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs

  7. Water cycle research associated with the CaPE hydrometeorology project (CHymP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchon, Claude E.

    1993-01-01

    One outgrowth of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment that took place in central Florida during July and August 1991 was the creation of the CaPE Hydrometeorology Project (CHymP). The principal goal of this project is to investigate the daily water cycle of the CaPE experimental area by analyzing the numerous land and atmosphere in situ and remotely sensed data sets that were generated during the 40-days of observations. The water cycle comprises the atmospheric branch. In turn, the atmospheric branch comprises precipitation leaving the base of the atmospheric volume under study, evaporation and transpiration entering the base, the net horizontal fluxes of water vapor and cloud water through the volume and the conversion of water vapor to cloud water and vice-versa. The sum of these components results in a time rate of change in the water and liquid water (or ice) content of the atmospheric volume. The components of the land branch are precipitation input to and evaporation and transpiration output from the surface, net horizontal fluxes of surface and subsurface water, the sum of which results in a time rate of change in surface and subsurface water mass. The objective of CHymP is to estimate these components in order to determine the daily water budget for a selected area within the CaPE domain. This work began in earnest in the summer of 1992 and continues. Even estimating all the budget components for one day is a complex and time consuming task. The discussions below provides a short summary of the rainfall quality assessment procedures followed by a plan for estimating the horizontal moisture flux.

  8. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. Semiannual water sampling is scheduled for the spring and fall. Water quality sampling is conducted at the processing site (1) to ensure protection of human health and the environment, (2) for ground water compliance monitoring during remedial action construction, and (3) to define the extent of contamination. At the processing site, the frequency and duration of sampling will be dependent upon the nature and extent of residual contamination and the compliance strategy chosen. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  9. 77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-2079-069--CA] Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Public Meetings a. Date and Time of Meetings: Tuesday, August 28, 2012, from 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. and...

  10. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to... Conservationist for Planning, 210 Walnut Street, Room 693, Des Moines, IA 50309-2180, telephone: 515-284- 4769... available at the Iowa NRCS Web site at http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov . A map of the Clarke County Water Supply...

  11. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  12. Adapting the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for forest applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhui Dun; Joan Q. Wu; William J. Elliot; Peter R. Robichaud; Dennis C. Flanagan; James R. Frankenberger; Robert E. Brown; Arthur C. Xu

    2009-01-01

    There has been an increasing public concern over forest stream pollution by excessive sedimentation due to natural or human disturbances. Adequate erosion simulation tools are needed for sound management of forest resources. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) watershed model has proved useful in forest applications where Hortonian flow is the major form of...

  13. Advances in the ROBLINKS project on long-range shallow-water robust acoustic communciation links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, M.B. van; Walree, P.A. van; Cano, D.; Passerieux, J-M.; Waldhorst, A.; Weber, R.

    2000-01-01

    Within the ROBLINKS project waveforms and algorithms have been developed to establish robust underwater acoustic communication links with high data rates in shallow water. To evaluate the signalling schemes, a wide range of experiments has been performed during a sea trial that has been held in May

  14. Technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Torres Ten, Alonso; Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Fuetes lombá, Osmanys; Massipe Hernández, J. Raúl; Gonzalez, Wagner Roberto

    2017-01-01

    It is presented the technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 20 Cabannas type tourism and a one of 2 square meter flat solar collector will be used, with a storage tank of 200 liters capacity, that is to say one system per cabin. (author)

  15. A Shortage of Medical Residency Positions: Parallels with Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Donna; Robiner, William N; Yozwiak, John A; Brosig, Cheryl; Cubic, Barbara; Leventhal, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Physician shortages in the US are expected to intensify with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These shortages may negatively impact access to care, quality of care, and confidence in the system's ability to adequately provide for health needs in the US. Concerns regarding physician demand underscore how critical Graduate Medical Education funding is to preparing the physician workforce. In 2014 5.6 % of US medical school seniors did not match into residency. Psychology has faced longstanding training imbalance issues with a misalignment between the number of internship positions and the number of applicants. The authors summon attention to the damaging effects a training imbalance poses to a health care profession, its trainees, and ultimately the public it serves.

  16. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Source Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schroeder, J. N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Horner, R. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patton, T. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Durham, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Murphy, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Clark, C. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel–based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  17. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Droogers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. An advanced, physically based, distributed, hydrological model is applied to determine the internal and external renewable water resources for the current situation and under future changes. Subsequently, a water allocation model is used to combine the renewable water resources with sectoral water demands. Results show that total demand in the region will increase to 393 km3 yr−1 in 2050, while total water shortage will grow to 199 km3 yr−1 in 2050 for the average climate change projection, an increase of 157 km3 yr−1. This increase in shortage is the combined impact of an increase in water demand by 50% with a decrease in water supply by 12%. Uncertainty, based on the output of the nine GCMs applied, reveals that expected water shortage ranges from 85 km3 yr−1 to 283 km3 yr−1~in 2050. The analysis shows that 22% of the water shortage can be attributed to climate change and 78% to changes in socio-economic factors.

  18. Supplement to the UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado. The initial WSAP was finalized in August 1994 and will be completely revised in accordance with the WSAP guidance document (DOE, 1995) in late 1996. This version supplements the initial WSAP, reflects only minor changes in sampling that occurred in 1995, covers sampling scheduled for early 1996, and provides a preliminary projection of the next 5 years of sampling and monitoring activities. Once surface remedial action is completed at the former processing sites, additional and more detailed hydrogeologic characterization may be needed to develop the Ground Water Program conceptual ground water model and proposed compliance strategy. In addition, background ground water quality needs to be clearly defined to ensure that the baseline risk assessment accurately estimated risks from the contaminants of potential concern in contaminated ground water at the UC and NC sites

  19. A study on projection angles for an optimal image of PNS water's view on children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Sang Hyuk; Song, Young Geun; Kim, Sung Kyu; Hong, Sang Woo; Kim, Je Bong

    2007-01-01

    This study is to calculate the proper angle for the optimal image of PNS Water's view on children, comparing and analyzing the PNS Water's projection angles between children and adults at every age. This study randomly selected 50 patients who visited the Medical Center from January to May in 2005, and examined the incidence path of central ray, taking a PNS Water's and skull trans-Lat. view in Water's filming position while attaching a lead ball mark on the Orbit, EAM, and acanthion of the patient's skull. And then, we calculated the incidence angles (angle A) of the line connected from OML and the petrous ridge to the inferior margin of maxilla on general (random) patient's skull image, following the incidence path of central ray. Finally, we analyzed two pieces of the graphs at ages, developing out the patient's ideal images at PNS Water's filming position taken by a digital camera, and calculating the angle (angle B) between OML and IP(Image Plate). The angle between OML and IP is about 43 .deg. in 4-years-old children, which is higher than 37 .deg. as age increases the angle decreases, it goes to 37 .deg. around 30 years of age. That is similar result to maxillary growth period. We can get better quality of Water's image for children when taking the PNS Water's view if we change the projection angles, considering maxillary growth for patients in every age stage

  20. Coast Salish and U.S. Geological Survey 2009 Tribal Journey water quality project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Sarah K.; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    The Salish Sea, contained within the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is the homeland of the Coast Salish Peoples and contains a diverse array of marine resources unique to this area that have sustained Coast Salish cultures and traditions for millennia. In July 2009, the Coast Salish People and U.S. Geological Survey conducted a second water quality study of the Salish Sea to examine spatial and temporal variability of environmental conditions of these surface waters as part of the annual Tribal Journey. Six canoes of approximately 100 towed multi parameter water-quality sondes as the Salish People traveled their ancestral waters during the middle of summer. Sea surface temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were measured simultaneously at ten-second intervals, and more than 54,000 data points spanning 1,300 kilometers of the Salish Sea were collected. The project also synthesized Coast Salish ecological knowledge and culture with scientific monitoring to better understand and predict the response of coastal habitats and marine resources. Comparisons with data collected in 2008 reveal significantly higher mean surface-water temperatures in most subbasins in 2009 linked to record air temperatures that affected the Pacific Northwest in July 2009. Through large-scale spatial measurements collected each summer, the project helps to identify patterns in summer water quality, areas of water-quality impairment, and trends occurring through time.

  1. U.S. vaccine and immune globulin product shortages, 2001-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesenitz, Victoria C; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann; Zocchi, Mark S; Fox, Erin R; May, Larissa S

    2017-11-15

    Trends in shortages of vaccines and immune globulin products from 2001 through 2015 in the United States are described. Drug shortage data from January 2001 through December 2015 were obtained from the University of Utah Drug Information Service. Shortage data for vaccines and immune globulins were analyzed, focusing on the type of product, reason for shortage, shortage duration, shortages requiring vaccine deferral, and whether the drug was a single-source product. Inclusion of the product into the pediatric vaccination schedule was also noted. Of the 2,080 reported drug shortages, 59 (2.8%) were for vaccines and immune globulin products. Of those, 2 shortages (3%) remained active at the end of the study period. The median shortage duration was 16.8 months. The most common products on shortage were viral vaccines (58%), especially hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies, and varicella vaccines (4 shortages each). A vaccine deferral was required for 21 shortages (36%), and single-source products were on shortage 30 times (51%). The most common reason for shortage was manufacturing problems (51%), followed by supply-and-demand issues (7%). Thirty shortages (51%) were for products on the pediatric schedule, with a median duration of 21.7 months. Drug shortages of vaccines and immune globulin products accounted for only 2.8% of reported drug shortages within a 15-year period, but about half of these shortages involved products on the pediatric vaccination schedule, which may have significant public health implications. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Project plan for the decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory Experimental Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.

    1989-12-01

    In 1956, the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) Facility was first operated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as a test reactor to demonstrate the feasibility of operating an integrated power plant using a direct cycle boiling water reactor as a heat source. In 1967, ANL permanently shut down the EBWR and placed it in dry lay-up. This project plan presents the schedule and organization for the decontamination and decommissioning of the EBWR Facility which will allow it to be reused by other ANL scientific research programs. The project total estimated cost is $14.3M and is projected to generate 22,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste which will be disposed of at an approved DOE burial ground. 18 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Project plan for the decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory Experimental Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.

    1989-12-01

    In 1956, the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) Facility was first operated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as a test reactor to demonstrate the feasibility of operating an integrated power plant using a direct cycle boiling water reactor as a heat source. In 1967, ANL permanently shut down the EBWR and placed it in dry lay-up. This project plan presents the schedule and organization for the decontamination and decommissioning of the EBWR Facility which will allow it to be reused by other ANL scientific research programs. The project total estimated cost is $14.3M and is projected to generate 22,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste which will be disposed of at an approved DOE burial ground. 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Energy-efficient architecture of industrial facilities associated with the desalination of sea water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazizov Timur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers an actual solution of a problem of drinking water shortage in the territory of the Crimean coast, in the city of Sudak, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Russia. The project includes a development of energy-efficient architecture, its implementation in industrial facilities, such as stations for seawater desalination and an active use of alternative energy sources.

  5. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters(+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  6. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Belfield and Bowman Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in the spring of 1996. Water sampling was conducted in 1993 at both the Belfield processing site and the Bowman processing/disposal site. Results of the sampling at both sites indicate that ground water conditions have remained relatively stable over time. Water sampling activities are not scheduled for 1994 because ground water conditions at the two sites are relatively stable, the 1993 sampling was comprehensive, and surface remediation activities are not scheduled to start until 1996. The next water sampling event is scheduled before the start of remedial activities and will include sampling selected monitor wells at both sites and several domestic wells in the vicinity

  7. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Howe Sim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation and decreasing transplantation rates. Even if Canada were able to increase its organ donor rate to that of Spain (40 to 50/million, where organ donation is governed by ‘presumed consent’ legislation, this would not alleviate the problem of donor shortage. Interest in xenotransplantation stems from the need to overcome this increasingly severe shortage of human organs. Indeed, some argue that xenotransplantation is the only potential way of addressing this shortage. As immunological barriers to xenotransplantation are better understood, those hurdles are being addressed through genetic engineering of donor animals and the development of new drug therapies. However, before xenotransplantation can be fully implemented, both the scientific/medical communities and the general public must seriously consider and attempt to resolve the many complex ethical, social and economic issues that it presents.

  8. Drinking-water power plant Ri di Foch in Prato-Leventina - Concession project; Microcentrale sulla nuova condotta d'adduzione acqua potabile Ri di Foch - Fondazione Ri di Foch Comune di Prato-Leventina - Progetto di massima per la richiesta preliminare di concessione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents a technical and economical analysis of a project aiming at the installation of a small hydropower station in the drinking water supply system for an alpine community in the Italian speaking part of Switzerland. The study has been initiated by frequent drinking water shortages in recent time. Taking advantage of the foreseen inclusion of new springs into the water supply network, a water turbine should be installed on the main water supply line connecting the springs to the reservoir located about 550 m lower. The study concludes that the project is feasible. The annual average water flow rate is estimated to 30 l/s. The power station should be built underground and equipped with a 240 kW Pelton type turbine. The average electrical power generated is estimated to 164 kW. At the outlet of the power station, excess water, if available, would be led back to the river. The economic analysis shows the viability of the project. The report also includes a table showing the installation efficiency at the various water flow rates which may occur during the year, as well as several pictures of the springs.

  9. FREEWAT: an HORIZON 2020 project to build open source tools for water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Borsi, Iacopo; Foglia, Laura

    2015-04-01

    FREEWAT is an HORIZON 2020 project financed by the EU Commission under the call WATER INNOVATION: BOOSTING ITS VALUE FOR EUROPE. FREEWAT main result will be an open source and public domain GIS integrated modelling environment for the simulation of water quantity and quality in surface water and groundwater with an integrated water management and planning module. FREEWAT aims at promoting water resource management by simplifying the application of the Water Framework Directive and other EU water related Directives. Specific objectives of the FREEWAT project are: to coordinate previous EU and national funded research to integrate existing software modules for water management in a single environment into the GIS based FREEWAT and to support the FREEWAT application in an innovative participatory approach gathering technical staff and relevant stakeholders (in primis policy and decision makers) in designing scenarios for the proper application of water policies. The open source characteristics of the platform allow to consider this an initiative "ad includendum" (looking for inclusion of other entities), as further research institutions, private developers etc. may contribute to the platform development. The core of the FREEWAT platform will be the SID&GRID framework in its version ported to the QGIS desktop. SID&GRID (GIS integrated physically-based distributed numerical hydrological model based on a modified version of MODFLOW 2005; Rossetto et al. 2013) is an open source and public domain modelling platform firstly developed within the EU-POR FSE 2007-2013 Regione Toscana - Italy and then ported to the QGIS desktop through a dedicated fund by Regione Toscana. SID&GRID will be complemented by June 2015 with solute transport (also density dependent) capabilities in aquifers within the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII project. Activities will be mainly carried out on two branches: (i) integration of modules, so that the software will fit the end-users requirements, including

  10. Give Water a Hand. Farm and Ranch Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation on a farm or ranch, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  11. Projections of Virtual Water Trade Under Agricultural Policy Scenarios in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2014-12-01

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by a sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources and rich foods will deepen the challenge to sustainably feed the population and balance environmental and agricultural policies. In previous work, Inner Mongolia was identified as a target province for trade or agricultural policies aimed at water-use efficiency improvements, due to its large production relying on particularly significant irrigation water use. In addition, water scarcity issues may arises in the greater Beijing area, which represents the largest urban area of arid Northern China. Increasing residential and industrial water demand in this region may lead to fewer available water for irrigation. For these reasons, it is important to estimate the impacts of specific policies aiming at reducing excessive water use for crop production in Inner Mongolia, as well as exploring ways to mitigate pressure on water resources in dry urban areas. In this study, we use socio-economic projections to assess the future state of China's virtual water trade (VWT) network. We then quantify the effects of agricultural policies on the national VWT system and on the efficiency of food trade in terms of water resources. This study addresses the following questions: (1) How future socio-economic changes will affect China's food trade and associated water transfers? (2) To which extent localized reductions of irrigated area can decrease agricultural water use while maintaining national food security? (3) How would these policies affect China's domestic and international VWT network and induced water resources savings (losses)?

  12. Managing water, fish and power : trends in environmental regulation of hydropower projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursey, D.; McLean, J.; Longe, R. [Bull, Housser and Tupper LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Recent trends in federal legislation related to the environmental impacts of hydroelectric power projects were reviewed. The study focused on a discussion of recent and proposed amendments to the Species at Risk Act, the Fisheries Act, and the Navigable Waters Protection Act. Challenges associated with risk management, the public perception of risk, and the communication of decisions related to the management and protection of aquatic ecosystems were discussed. The Brilliant Expansion Power Project (BRX) examined the interactions with white sturgeon on the Kootenay River in British Columbia (BC). A monitoring program was conducted during the project's construction in order to reduce the risk to sturgeon from blasting. A habitat enhancement feature was also constructed. It was concluded that the mitigation strategies used during the BRX project provide a useful example of innovation and adaptive management. 19 refs.

  13. Systematic impact assessment on inter-basin water transfer projects of the Hanjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Hong, Xingjun; Chang, Fi-John

    2017-10-01

    China's inter-basin water transfer projects have gained increasing attention in recent years. This study proposes an intelligent water allocation methodology for establishing optimal inter-basin water allocation schemes and assessing the impacts of water transfer projects on water-demanding sectors in the Hanjiang River Basin of China. We first analyze water demands for water allocation purpose, and then search optimal water allocation strategies for maximizing the water supply to water-demanding sectors and mitigating the negative impacts by using the Standard Genetic Algorithm (SGA) and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA), respectively. Lastly, the performance indexes of the water supply system are evaluated under different scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects. The results indicate that: the AGA with adaptive crossover and mutation operators could increase the average annual water transfer from the Hanjiang River by 0.79 billion m3 (8.8%), the average annual water transfer from the Changjiang River by 0.18 billion m3 (6.5%), and the average annual hydropower generation by 0.49 billion kW h (5.4%) as well as reduce the average annual unmet water demand by 0.40 billion m3 (9.7%), as compared with the those of the SGA. We demonstrate that the proposed intelligent water allocation schemes can significantly mitigate the negative impacts of inter-basin water transfer projects on the reliability, vulnerability and resilience of water supply to the demanding sectors in water-supplying basins. This study has a direct bearing on more intelligent and effectual water allocation management under various scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects.

  14. South Asia river-flow projections and their implications for water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, C.; Wiltshire, A. J.; Falloon, P.; Challinor, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    South Asia is a region with a large and rising population, a high dependence on water intense industries, such as agriculture and a highly variable climate. In recent years, fears over the changing Asian summer monsoon (ASM) and rapidly retreating glaciers together with increasing demands for water resources have caused concern over the reliability of water resources and the potential impact on intensely irrigated crops in this region. Despite these concerns, there is a lack of climate simulations with a high enough resolution to capture the complex orography, and water resource analysis is limited by a lack of observations of the water cycle for the region. In this paper we present the first 25 km resolution regional climate projections of river flow for the South Asia region. Two global climate models (GCMs), which represent the ASM reasonably well are downscaled (1960-2100) using a regional climate model (RCM). In the absence of robust observations, ERA-Interim reanalysis is also downscaled providing a constrained estimate of the water balance for the region for comparison against the GCMs (1990-2006). The RCM river flow is routed using a river-routing model to allow analysis of present-day and future river flows through comparison with available river gauge observations. We examine how useful these simulations are for understanding potential changes in water resources for the South Asia region. In general the downscaled GCMs capture the seasonality of the river flows but overestimate the maximum river flows compared to the observations probably due to a positive rainfall bias and a lack of abstraction in the model. The simulations suggest an increasing trend in annual mean river flows for some of the river gauges in this analysis, in some cases almost doubling by the end of the century. The future maximum river-flow rates still occur during the ASM period, with a magnitude in some cases, greater than the present-day natural variability. Increases in river flow

  15. The projects for heavy water production of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Bourg, J.M.; Garcia, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    The bases and scope of the projects for heavy water production that are being currently developed by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) are described. As an introduction, the following points are presented: a) the fundamentals of heavy water utilization in a nuclear reactor, with a mention of its properties and uses, b) a review of the physicochemical bases of the principal methods for heavy water production: chemical exchange (monothermal and bithermal processes), distillation and electrolysis, with tables summarizing the fundamental characteristics of the first two ones, and an evaluation of the different production methods from the viewpoint of their application in an industrial scale; and c) a synthetic information, in the form of tables, about the world's heavy water production. The subject of heavy water production in Argentina is treated in the principal section, describing the scope, location, main characteristics and chemical processes corresponding to the projects being developed by CNEA, which currently are the installation of an Industrial Plant in Arroyito (Province of Neuquen), purchased on a turnkey basis and using the NH 3 /H 2 isotopic exchange method; the installation of an Experimental Plant in Atucha (Province of Buenos Aires), for the development of the domestic technology of heavy-water production by the SH 2 /H 2 O isotopic exchange method, and the development of the engineering of an industrial plant (''Module 80''), based on the Experimental Plant's technology. (M.E.L.) [es

  16. Impact of Inter‐Basin Water Transfer Projects on Regional Ecological Security from a Telecoupling Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Quan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inter‐basin water transfer projects (IBWTPs offer one of the most important means to solve the mismatch between supply and demand of regional water resources. IBWTPs have impacts on the complex ecosystems of the areas from which water is diverted and to which water is received. These impacts increase damage or risk to regional ecological security and human wellbeing. However, current methods make it difficult to achieve comprehensive analysis of the impacts of whole ecosystems, because of the long distance between ecosystems and the inconsistency of impact events. In this study, a model was proposed for the analysis of the impacts of IBWTPs on regional ecological security. It is based on the telecoupling framework, and the Driver‐Pressure‐State‐ Impact‐Response (DPSIR model was used to improve the analysis procedure within the telecoupling framework. The Middle Line of the South‐to‐North Water Diversion Project was selected as a case study to illustrate the specific analysis procedure. We realized that information sharing is a key issue in the management of regional security, and that the ecological water requirement, in the form of a single index, could be used to quantitatively assess the impacts on ecological security from IBWTPs.

  17. The Influence of Water Conservancy Projects on River Network Connectivity, A Case of Luanhe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Connectivity is one of the most important characteristics of a river, which is derived from the natural water cycle and determine the renewability of river water. The water conservancy project can change the connectivity of natural river networks, and directly threaten the health and stability of the river ecosystem. Based on the method of Dendritic Connectivity Index (DCI), the impacts from sluices and dams on the connectivity of river network are deeply discussed herein. DCI quantitatively evaluate the connectivity of river networks based on the number of water conservancy facilities, the connectivity of fish and geographical location. The results show that the number of water conservancy facilities and their location in the river basin have a great influence on the connectivity of the river network. With the increase of the number of sluices and dams, DCI is decreasing gradually, but its decreasing range is becoming smaller and smaller. The dam located in the middle of the river network cuts the upper and lower parts of the whole river network, and destroys the connectivity of the river network more seriously. Therefore, this method can be widely applied to the comparison of different alternatives during planning of river basins and then provide a reference for the site selection and design of the water conservancy project and facility concerned.

  18. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  20. Cloud/Fog Computing System Architecture and Key Technologies for South-North Water Transfer Project Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoling Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the real-time and distributed features of Internet of Things (IoT safety system in water conservancy engineering, this study proposed a new safety system architecture for water conservancy engineering based on cloud/fog computing and put forward a method of data reliability detection for the false alarm caused by false abnormal data from the bottom sensors. Designed for the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP, the architecture integrated project safety, water quality safety, and human safety. Using IoT devices, fog computing layer was constructed between cloud server and safety detection devices in water conservancy projects. Technologies such as real-time sensing, intelligent processing, and information interconnection were developed. Therefore, accurate forecasting, accurate positioning, and efficient management were implemented as required by safety prevention of the SNWTP, and safety protection of water conservancy projects was effectively improved, and intelligential water conservancy engineering was developed.

  1. Engaging the public in hydrological observations - first experiences from the CrowdWater project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jan; Strobl, Barbara; Etter, Simon; Vis, Marc; Ewen, Tracy; (Ilja) van Meerveld, H. J.

    2017-04-01

    The project CrowdWater (www.crowdwater.ch) explores opportunities for citizen scientists in hydrological observations. For data collection in CrowdWater, we use a "geocaching" type approach with the help of a smartphone app. Citizens can participate in the collection of hydrological data using the smartphone app, which allows both the submission of observations for existing sites and to set up new sites. A crucial challenge in any citizen science project is finding ways to connect to enough people who want to participate and to keep them motivation to contribute to the project. Here, we present the approaches that will be used in the CrowdWater project and discuss our first experiences. To connect to the public and recruit participants we use publications in traditional media, social media and a MOOC (massive open online course). In order to keep participant motivated the collected data is immediately shown in the app and online and gamification elements are used in the app.

  2. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) supplement supports the regulatory and technical basis for water sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, as defined in the 1994 WSAP document for Riverton (DOE, 1994). Further, the supplement serves to confirm the Project's present understanding of the site relative to the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution as well as the intent to continue to use the sampling strategy as presented in the 1994 WSAP document for Riverton. Ground water and surface water monitoring activities are derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 and 60 FR 2854. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. Additional site-specific documents relevant to the Riverton site are the Riverton Baseline Risk Assessment (BLRA) (DOE, 1995a) and the Riverton Site Observational Work Plan (SOWP) (DOE, 1995b)

  3. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Falls City, Texas, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). The following plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. The Falls City site is in Karnes County, Texas, approximately 8 miles [13 kilometers southwest of the town of Falls City and 46 mi (74 km) southeast of San Antonio, Texas. Before surface remedial action, the tailings site consisted of two parcels. Parcel A consisted of the mill site, one mill building, five tailings piles, and one tailings pond south of Farm-to-Market (FM) Road 1344 and west of FM 791. A sixth tailings pile designated Parcel B was north of FM 791 and east of FM 1344

  4. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Surface water data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloo, S.

    1991-08-01

    The report summarizes the surface water sampling program at the Amoco Refinery at Yorktown, Virginia. This was undertaken as a part of the joint project between Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to review pollution prevention alternatives at a petroleum refinery. The surface water data provides a snapshot of surface water pollutant generation and discharge from the refinery. Different process units contribute to the total wastewater flow of 460 GPM in the refinery. Water in the ditch system, which is non-process water, is free of organic contamination. Oil and grease, phenols, ammonia and sulfides are the significant components measured in the process wastewater. The concentrations of organics in most water streams leaving the individual process units are relatively low, in the 1-5 parts per million (ppm) range. A few individual streams such as the crude desalter brine and tank water draws have high pollutant loadings. Concentrations of metals in the refinery wastewater are very low. The wastewater treatment plant is very effective in reducing the pollutant loading in the water with overall removal efficiencies greater than 99% for most organics and inorganics

  5. Modeling water flow and solute transport in unsaturated zone inside NSRAWD project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, A.; Diaconu, D.; Bucur, C.; Genty, A.

    2015-01-01

    The NSRAWD project (2010-2013) - Numerical Simulations for Radioactive Waste Disposal was initiated under a collaboration agreement between the Institute for Nuclear Research and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). The context of the project was favorable to combine the modeling activities with an experimental part in order to improve and validate the numerical models used so far to simulate water flow and solute transport at Saligny site, Romania. The numerical models developed in the project were refined and validated on new hydrological data gathered between 2010-2012 by a monitoring station existent on site which performs automatic determination of soil water content and matrix potential, as well as several climate parameters (wind, temperature and precipitations). Water flow and solute transport was modeled in transient conditions, by taking into consideration, as well as neglecting the evapotranspiration phenomenon, on the basis of a tracer test launched on site. The determination of dispersivities for solute transport was targeted from the solute plume. The paper presents the main results achieved in the NSRAWD project related to water flow and solute transport in the unsaturated area of the Saligny site. The results indicated satisfactory predictions for the simulation of water flow in the unsaturated area, in steady state and transient conditions. In the case of tracer transport modeling, dispersivity coefficients could not be finally well fitted for the data measured on site and in order to obtain a realistic preview over the values of these parameters, further investigations are recommended. The article is followed by the slides of the presentation

  6. Science serving people. IAEA-supported projects are helping countries apply the right tools to fight food, health, and water problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A new booklet 'Science Serving People' features stories about how IAEA-supported projects are making a difference in many poorer countries. The stories describe applications of nuclear science and technology that are being used through technical cooperation channels to overcome challenges of water scarcity, food shortage, malnutrition, malaria, environmental degradation and many other problems. They also illustrate how the complementary development, safety, and security initiatives of the IAEA are fostering atoms for peace in the developing world. Extreme poverty and deprivation remain a problem of monumental proportions at the dawn of the 21st century, notes IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei in the booklet's Introduction. Through effective partnerships, collaborative research, and strategic direction, the IAEA is contributing to global efforts to help the poor. IAEA programmes have entered an important phase, he said, in which scientific contributions to Member States are yielding very sizeable human benefits. It's clear that science and technology must be better mobilized to meet the needs of the poor, emphasizes Jeffrey Sachs, Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, USA, and Special Advisor to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. The UN agencies, such as the IAEA, have a great role to play, he says in the booklet's Foreword. This is especially so, he points out, if they act as a bridge between the activities of advanced- country and developing country scientific centres, and if they help to harness the advances of world science for the poor as well as the rich. The bottom line, he concludes, is that rich countries should expand support for those United Nations organizations that can help in solving the unique problems confronting the world's poorest peoples. The booklet features stories on managing water resources, promoting food security, focusing science on health problems, new tools for environmental management, and strengthening nuclear

  7. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of selecting a ground water compliance strategy for the Gunnison, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This Environmental Assessment (EA) discusses two alternatives and the effects associated with each. The two alternatives are (1) natural flushing coupled with institutional controls and continued monitoring and (2) no action. The compliance strategy must meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards defined in Title 40 ''Code of Federal Regulations'' Part 192, Subpart B, in areas where ground water beneath and around the site is contaminated as a result of past milling operations. It has been determined that contamination in the ground water at the Gunnison site consists of soluble residual radioactive material (RRM) as defined in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA)

  8. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  9. The social impacts of the energy shortage, behavioral and attitude shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    An analysis of the social impacts of the energy shortage; specifically, an : analysis of shifts in social behavior, or trip-making characteristics, and : shifts in social attitudes towards the energy shortage and conservation policies, : Data were ob...

  10. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This report contains the comments and responses received on the draft PEIS

  11. Managing aquatic ecosystems and water resources under multiple stress--an introduction to the MARS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Daniel; Carvalho, Laurence; Argillier, Christine; Beklioglu, Meryem; Borja, Angel; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Duel, Harm; Ferreira, Teresa; Globevnik, Lidija; Hanganu, Jenica; Hellsten, Seppo; Jeppesen, Erik; Kodeš, Vit; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Nõges, Tiina; Ormerod, Steve; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Schmutz, Stefan; Venohr, Markus; Birk, Sebastian

    2015-01-15

    Water resources globally are affected by a complex mixture of stressors resulting from a range of drivers, including urban and agricultural land use, hydropower generation and climate change. Understanding how stressors interfere and impact upon ecological status and ecosystem services is essential for developing effective River Basin Management Plans and shaping future environmental policy. This paper details the nature of these problems for Europe's water resources and the need to find solutions at a range of spatial scales. In terms of the latter, we describe the aims and approaches of the EU-funded project MARS (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) and the conceptual and analytical framework that it is adopting to provide this knowledge, understanding and tools needed to address multiple stressors. MARS is operating at three scales: At the water body scale, the mechanistic understanding of stressor interactions and their impact upon water resources, ecological status and ecosystem services will be examined through multi-factorial experiments and the analysis of long time-series. At the river basin scale, modelling and empirical approaches will be adopted to characterise relationships between multiple stressors and ecological responses, functions, services and water resources. The effects of future land use and mitigation scenarios in 16 European river basins will be assessed. At the European scale, large-scale spatial analysis will be carried out to identify the relationships amongst stress intensity, ecological status and service provision, with a special focus on large transboundary rivers, lakes and fish. The project will support managers and policy makers in the practical implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), of related legislation and of the Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources by advising the 3rd River Basin Management Planning cycle, the revision of the WFD and by developing new tools for

  12. Cluster analysis and quality assessment of logged water at an irrigation project, eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mahbub; Ahmed, Syed Munaf; Abderrahman, Walid

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate statistical technique, cluster analysis, was used to assess the logged surface water quality at an irrigation project at Al-Fadhley, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The principal idea behind using the technique was to utilize all available hydrochemical variables in the quality assessment including trace elements and other ions which are not considered in conventional techniques for water quality assessments like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Furthermore, the area belongs to an irrigation project where water contamination associated with the use of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides is expected. This quality assessment study was carried out on a total of 34 surface/logged water samples. To gain a greater insight in terms of the seasonal variation of water quality, 17 samples were collected from both summer and winter seasons. The collected samples were analyzed for a total of 23 water quality parameters including pH, TDS, conductivity, alkalinity, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, nitrate, phosphate, bromide, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, arsenic, boron, copper, cobalt, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, mercury and zinc. Cluster analysis in both Q and R modes was used. Q-mode analysis resulted in three distinct water types for both the summer and winter seasons. Q-mode analysis also showed the spatial as well as temporal variation in water quality. R-mode cluster analysis led to the conclusion that there are two major sources of contamination for the surface/shallow groundwater in the area: fertilizers, micronutrients, pesticides, and insecticides used in agricultural activities, and non-point natural sources.

  13. The CARIPANDA project: Climate change and water resources in the Adamello Natural Park of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchiola, D.

    2009-04-01

    The three years (2007-2009) CARIPANDA project funded by the Cariplo Foundation of Italy is aimed to evaluate scenarios for water resources in the Adamello natural Park of Italy in a window of 50 years or so (until 2050). The project is led by Ente Parco Adamello and involves Politecnico di Milano, Università Statale di Milano, Università di Brescia, and ARPA Lombardia as scientific partners, while ENEL hydropower Company of Italy joins the project as stake holder. The Adamello Natural Park is a noteworthy resource in the Italian Alps. The Adamello Group is made of several glacierized areas (c. 24 km2), of both debris covered and free ice types, including the widest Italian Glacier, named Adamello, spreading on an area of about c. 18 km2. Also the Adamello Natural Reserve, covering 217 km2 inside the Adamello Park and including the Adamello glaciers, hosts a number of high altitude safeguarded vegetal and animal species, the safety of which is a primary task of the Reserve. Project's activity involves analysis of local climate trend, field campaigns on glaciers, hydrological modelling and remote sensing of snow and ice covered areas, aimed to build a consistent model of the present hydrological conditions and of the areas. Then, properly tailored climate change projections for the area, obtained using local data driven downscaling of climate change projections from GCMs model, are used to infer the likely response to expected climate change conditions. With two years in the project now some preliminary findings can be highlighted and some preliminary trend analysis carried out. The proposed poster provides a resume of the main results of the project insofar, of interest as a benchmark for similar ongoing and foregoing projects about climate change impact on European mountainous natural areas.

  14. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy [Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  15. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Lockwood, Brian; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori.

  16. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  17. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR): Project final report, Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellhauer, C.R.; Boing, L.E.; Aldana, J.

    1997-03-01

    The Final Report for the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E) Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) facility contains the descriptions and evaluations of the activities and the results of the EBWR D ampersand D project. It provides the following information: (1) An overall description of the ANL-E site and EBWR facility. (2) The history of the EBWR facility. (3) A description of the D ampersand D activities conducted during the EBWR project. (4) A summary of the final status of the facility, including the final and confirmation surveys. (5) A summary of the final cost, schedule, and personnel exposure associated with the project, including a summary of the total waste generated. This project report covers the entire EBWR D ampersand D project, from the initiation of Phase I activities to final project closeout. After the confirmation survey, the EBWR facility was released as a open-quotes Radiologically Controlled Area,close quotes noting residual elevated activity remains in inaccessible areas. However, exposure levels in accessible areas are at background levels. Personnel working in accessible areas do not need Radiation Work Permits, radiation monitors, or other radiological controls. Planned use for the containment structure is as an interim transuranic waste storage facility (after conversion)

  18. Satisfaction in nursing in the context of shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Lynn, Mary R

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the central themes nurses identify as important to their overall evaluation of their work. In particular, this paper highlights how the context of the nursing shortage interacts with what nurses understand to be satisfying about their work. On the brink of a current and enduring nursing shortage in the US, this study provides Nurse Managers with an understanding of the dimensions of work satisfaction which they can then utilize to improve retention of incumbent nurses. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 currently employed nurses to explore the concepts that shape their work satisfaction. The nurses, 25 to 55 years old, were predominantly female and Associate Degree or Baccalaureate prepared. Nurses have both intrinsic and extrinsic satisfiers in their work. The traditional satisfiers (pay and benefits) are not the principle satisfiers of today's nurses. In the context of shortage, the aspects of nursing that are the most rewarding are the aspects that are most often sacrificed in the interest of 'getting the job done'. Nurses are finding it difficult to continue to do 'more with less' and are frustrated they are not able to provide the care they were educated to be able to deliver. The description of the dimensions of work satisfaction can provide insight for Nurse Managers and administrators who are interested in improving both recruitment and retention of nurses. Areas identified worthy of focus in retention efforts include: increasing autonomy; reallocating work in a more patient-centred way; creating systems to recognize achievement in the areas of mentoring nurses, educating patients and personal growth in practice; creating meaningful internal labour markets; and enhancing supervisor and administrative support. Managers and administrators should focus on the satisfiers nurses identify if they wish to retain nurses. The traditional focus on extrinsic rewards will not likely be sufficient to retain today's nurses. Retention

  19. 18 CFR 294.101 - Shortages of electric energy and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... customers; and (ii) It will report any modifications to its contingency plans for accommodating shortages... REGULATORY POLICIES ACT OF 1978 § 294.101 Shortages of electric energy and capacity. (a) Definition of... customers. (4) If a plan for accommodating any shortages of electric energy or capacity affecting its firm...

  20. Investigating Appropriate Financing Methods in Collaborative Projects of Water and Wastewater with AHP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vosoughi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A mix of public and private funding is employed worldwide to enable the construction of large public projects and even, in some cases, the work of public services. In this study, the selected methods of financing of participatory projects of water and water wastes were studied and prioritized. Questionnaires and comments of experts were used along with AHP decision-making and Expert Choice software. Different financing methods include: BOT and BOO and its types, the publication of bonds, foreign direct investment, the method of buyback, internal financing, current financing, development banks, Barter transactions, new tax resources and foreign financing. Results are shown and discussed and a final ranking is provided.

  1. A production inventory model with deteriorating items and shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous production control inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages is developed. A number of structural properties of the inventory system are studied analytically. The formulae for the optimal average system cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time are derived when the deterioration rate is very small. Numerical examples are taken to illustrate the procedure of finding the optimal total inventory cost, stock level, backlog level and production cycle time. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to demonstrate the effects of changing parameter values on the optimal solution of the system.

  2. Successful importation of cytarabine into the United States during a critical national drug shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnisett-Dritz, Dee

    2012-08-15

    The importation of cytarabine into the United States during a critical national drug shortage is described. In March 2011, the hospital pharmacy team at an acute care hospital was struggling to supply cytarabine for four specific patients, all of whom needed critical maintenance therapy after induction. Cytarabine was not available from any source in the United States, and the team had no realistic projected release dates for back orders. Idis UK, a pharmaceutical distributor, was asked to identify available drug and eventually found an unrestricted source of cytarabine in Switzerland. Once available drug was identified, a price quote for the supply amount was written for our consideration. This was inspected carefully to ensure that the drug, strength, dosage form, and any other ingredients listed were indeed what were expected. The pharmacy department worked with the hospital's department of finance and accounting to submit the necessary financial paperwork. Payment was electronically sent to the distributor before the drug was shipped. Before the order for cytarabine was placed, the associated risks and benefits were assessed. The patients provided consent to treatment with the unapproved product. Acceptance of the price quote and instructions to order the drug were e-mailed to the distributor. The necessary documentation was completed and included with the shipment. The importation process, from initial inquiries to delivery, took 21 days. The importation of cytarabine amid a drug shortage required a complex process that involved the efforts of an overseas distributor, the cooperation of multiple health professionals, and meticulous attention to detail.

  3. Simulation of Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Allocation of Surafce and Underground Water Resources to Drinking Water Demand in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Atashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that both surface and groundwater resources inside and outside the city of Mashhad have been already exploited to their maximum capacity and that the large water transfer Doosti Dam Project has been already implemented to transfer a considerable quanity of water to Mashhad, the city will be encountering a daily water shortage of about 1.7 m3/s by 2021. The problem would be even worse if the quality of the water resources are taken into account, in which case, the shortage would start even sooner in 2011 when the water deficit will be about 0.9 m3/s. As a result, it is essential to develop short- and medium-term strategies for secure adequate water supplies for the city's domestic water demand. The present study aims to carry out a qualitative and quantitative modeling of surface and groundwater resources supplying Mashhad domestic water. The qualitative model is based on the quality indices of surface and groundwater resources according to which the resources are classified in the three quality categories of resources with no limitation, those with moderate limitations, and those with high limitations for use as domestic water supplies. The pressure zones are then examined with respect to the potable water demand and supply to be simulated in the MODSIM environment. The model thus developed is verified for the 2012 data based on the measures affecting water resources in the region and various scenarios are finally evaluated for a long-term 30-year period. Results show that the peak hourdaily water shortage in 2042for the zone supplied from no limitation resources will be 38%. However, this value will drop to 28% if limitations due to resource quality are also taken into account. Finally, dilution is suggested as a solution for exploiting the maximum quantitative and qualitative potential of the resources used as domestic water supplies. In this situation, the daily peak hour water shortage will be equal to 31%.

  4. Alternative movement : collaborative project has researchers looking to ceramic membranes to improve produced water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.

    2009-10-15

    Ceramic membranes have high chemical and thermal stability coupled with mechanical strength and are therefore used in a range of microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration applications. This article described a new technology that involves the use of ceramic membranes in the treatment of produced water in thermal heavy oil recovery operations. The efficacy of advanced ceramic nano-membrane technology (CMT) is being examined in bench-scale experiments at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) in collaboration with the department of chemical and petroleum engineering at the University of Calgary. In one project, next-generation ceramic membrane technology is being used as part of the overall treatment process of produced water. The project is funded through a Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers fund and the Alberta Department of Energy. It is facilitated by the Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada in an effort to find cost-effective treatment solutions for recycling produced water for the conventional oil and gas industry. The key objective is to increase the amount of produced water that can be reused rather than disposed into deep saline aquifers. The research focuses on the pre-treatment of produced water and related salt impacted water by using ceramic membranes for the removal of organic compounds for beneficial reuse downstream. Ceramic membranes consist of a multilayer system and their performance depends on the separation and permeation properties of the membrane as well as its mechanical integrity. It was concluded that the CMT findings will be beneficial to the oil and gas industry in providing practical solutions for the challenging issues associated with de-oiling and produced water treatment. 2 figs.

  5. Field verification of social and environmental issues of selected water sector projects in Punjab-Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayesha, A.

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation helps in increasing the agricultural yield and the irrigation projects are carried out for the welfare of people. The importance of environment for sustainable development of irrigation projects has been realized. Environmental Impact Assessment is being increasingly used as a tool for appropriate environmental planning. In Pakistan, PEP A (Pakistan Environmental Protection Act),1997 establishes the framework to carry out Environmental Assessment of development projects. Various national and international agencies have developed Environmental Assessment Guidelines and Checklists for systematic evaluation of environmental impacts and their mitigation. The Social and Environmental Management Unit of Punjab Irrigation and Drainage Authority developed checklist for assessment of irrigation projects in 2007. The present study was conducted on three water sector projects namely: Concrete Lining of Dhudi Minor, Improving Nikki Deg Drain System and Rehabilitation of Khanki Barrage. The field verification of social and environmental issues of the projects was carried out according to the checklist of Social and Environmental Management Unit. The most noticeable impacts which were identified include: extended canal closure, emissions and effluents, waste generation and disposal, effect on flora, public health and safety, land acquisition, and social issues. The mitigatory measures proposed: proper project scheduling to minimize the canal closure periods, waste disposal through proper planning, preparation of detailed resettlement action plans and compensation, location of labor camps away from the settlements, avoiding unnecessary cutting of trees, and deployed machinery should be in good working condition. The recommendations of the study are to review and improve the checklists through a gradual and phased process into a more comprehensive social and environmental assessment process; capacity building of all the stake holders; collaboration between different

  6. Quantitative analysis on the environmental impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Yan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatio-temporal change of water resources to secure the amount of water available. Large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes uncertainty and additive effect of the environmental impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of megaprojects in both construction and operation phases has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis, we identified the influencing factors and established the diagnostic index system. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to simulate and predict ecological and environmental responses of the water resource area in a changing environment. The emphasis of impact evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment below the dam sites. In the end, an overall evaluation of the comprehensive influence of the project was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects: the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water extraction. The impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

  7. Quantitative analysis on the environmental impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Li, H. H.; Wang, G.; Qin, T. L.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatio-temporal change of water resources to secure the amount of water available. Large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes uncertainty and additive effect of the environmental impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of megaprojects in both construction and operation phases has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis, we identified the influencing factors and established the diagnostic index system. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to simulate and predict ecological and environmental responses of the water resource area in a changing environment. The emphasis of impact evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment below the dam sites. In the end, an overall evaluation of the comprehensive influence of the project was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects: the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water extraction. The impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

  8. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) supplement supports the regulatory and technical basis for water sampling at the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, as defined in the 1994 WSAP document for Maybell (DOE, 1994a). Further, this supplement serves to confirm our present understanding of the site relative to the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution as well as our intention to continue to use the sampling strategy as presented in the 1994 WSAP document for Maybell. Ground water and surface water monitoring activities are derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and 60 CFR 2854 (1 995). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. Additional site-specific documents relevant to the Maybell site are the Maybell Baseline Risk Assessment (currently in progress), the Maybell Remedial Action Plan (RAP) (DOE, 1994b), and the Maybell Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1995)

  9. Status of the ground water flow model for the UMTRA Project, Shiprock, New Mexico, site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model was constructed for the alluvial aquifer in the area of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Shiprock, New Mexico, site. This model was used to investigate the effects of various hydrologic parameters on the evolution of the ground water flow field. Results of the model are useful for defining uncertainties in the site conceptual model and suggesting data collection efforts to reduce these uncertainties. The computer code MODFLOW was used to simulate the two-dimensional flow of ground water in the alluvium. The escarpment was represented as a no-flow boundary. The San Juan River was represented with the MODFLOW river package. A uniform hydraulic conductivity distribution with the value estimated by the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and a uniform recharge distribution was used. Infiltration from the flowing artesian well was represented using the well package. The ground water flow model was calibrated to ground water levels observed in April 1993. Inspection of hydrographs shows that these levels are representative of typical conditions at the site

  10. 129I, 60Co, and 106Ru measurements on water samples from the Hanford project environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, F.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Groundwater flow and contamination patterns beneath the Hanford project reservation have been studied since the early days of the project. The measurement of radioactive materials at concentrations much below those required for radiation protection are useful for tracing groundwater movement and detection of potential contamination problems before they are apt to occur. Groundwater samples from a number of wells on or near the Hanford reservation have been analyzed for 129 I by neutron activation analysis and for gamma radioactivity by low-level coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry. The major radionuclides in addition to natural radioactivity detected in the underground waters by gamma-ray spectrometry were 106 Ru and 60 Co. Local river and rain water samples were also analyzed for 129 I and long-lived radionuclides. Special sample collection methods were developed to prevent contamination of the water samples during collection. Anions travel farther than cations in underground water systems since soils are primarily cation exchangers and retain the cations. Anion exchange techniques were used in the field and the laboratory to recover the desired radionuclides. Sample sizes ranged up to several thousand liters. This paper discusses the sample collection methods,analysis methods, and results obtained. The methods used were found to provide high sensitivity for groundwater studies. (auth)

  11. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) supplement supports the regulatory and technical basis for water sampling at the Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, as defined in the 1994 WSAP document for Mexican Hat (DOE, 1994). Further, the supplement serves to confirm our present understanding of the site relative to the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution as well as our intention to continue to use the sampling strategy as presented in the 1994 WSAP document for Mexican Hat. Ground water and surface water monitoring activities are derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1991) and 60 FR 2854 (1995). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. Additional site-specific documents relevant to the Mexican Hat site are the Mexican Hat Long-Term Surveillance Plan (currently in progress), and the Mexican Hat Site Observational Work Plan (currently in progress)

  12. Inflow shortages in deregulated power markets - Reasons for concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bye, Torstein; Bruvoll, Annegrete; Aune, Finn Roar [Research Department, Statistics Norway, P.O. Box 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-15

    In many countries hydropower constitutes a large share of the electricity producing capacity. In the earlier regulated electricity markets, production capacities exceeded demand due to security of supply concerns. The present deregulated markets base investments upon profitability alone, and security of supply issues are claimed to be less important. Market operators trust the pricing mechanism in competitive markets to clear. Then low inflow constitutes a less problem. Several markets, both under regulated and deregulated regimes, have faced serious droughts. Some of them have experienced problems with market clearance (Chile, Brazil, California) while other markets functioned well (The Nordic market). Important features to the market response are the flexibility of demand, the pattern of inflow shortage, the storage capacities, the possibility of trade between regions with different production technologies, and the market design and concentration. We apply an empirical based market model to simulate the effects under two inflow shortage scenarios in an international market with combined hydro and thermal capacities and restricted transmission capacities. We compare the scenarios with actual events and show that the model and the real market outcome are comparable. The simulations do not reveal any problems with the functioning of the market, which should calm down the anxiousness about security of supply in deregulated markets with stochastic energy supply. (author)

  13. Inflow shortages in deregulated power markets - Reasons for concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, Torstein; Bruvoll, Annegrete; Aune, Finn Roar

    2008-01-01

    In many countries hydropower constitutes a large share of the electricity producing capacity. In the earlier regulated electricity markets, production capacities exceeded demand due to security of supply concerns. The present deregulated markets base investments upon profitability alone, and security of supply issues are claimed to be less important. Market operators trust the pricing mechanism in competitive markets to clear. Then low inflow constitutes a less problem. Several markets, both under regulated and deregulated regimes, have faced serious droughts. Some of them have experienced problems with market clearance (Chile, Brazil, California) while other markets functioned well (The Nordic market). Important features to the market response are the flexibility of demand, the pattern of inflow shortage, the storage capacities, the possibility of trade between regions with different production technologies, and the market design and concentration. We apply an empirical based market model to simulate the effects under two inflow shortage scenarios in an international market with combined hydro and thermal capacities and restricted transmission capacities. We compare the scenarios with actual events and show that the model and the real market outcome are comparable. The simulations do not reveal any problems with the functioning of the market, which should calm down the anxiousness about security of supply in deregulated markets with stochastic energy supply

  14. Credit financing for deteriorating imperfect quality items with allowable shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Khanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outset of new technologies, systems and applications in manufacturing sector has no doubt lighten up our workload, yet the chance causes of variation in production system cannot be eliminated completely. Every produced/ordered lot may have some fraction of defectives which may vary from process to process. In addition the situation is more susceptible when the items are deteriorating in nature. However, the defective items can be secluded from the good quality lot through a careful inspection process. Thus, a screening process is obligatory in today’s technology driven industry which has the customer satisfaction as its only motto. Moreover, in order to survive in the current global markets, credit financing has been proven a very influential promotional tool to attract new customers and a good inducement policy for the retailers. Keeping this scenario in mind, the present paper investigates an inventory model for a retailer dealing with imperfect quality deteriorating items under permissible delay in payments. Shortages are allowed and fully backlogged. This model jointly optimizes the order quantity and shortages by maximizing the expected total profit. A mathematical model is developed to depict this scenario. Results have been validated with the help of numerical example. Comprehensive sensitivity analysis has also been presented.

  15. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to...

  16. Assessment of heavy metal concentration in water around the proposed Mkuju river uranium project in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzi, F.P.; Msaki, P.K.; Mohammed, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Effective verification for compliance with water quality standards in uranium mining in Tanzania requires data sensitive to monitor heavy metal concentration in water around the Mkuju River Uranium Project before mining commences. The area susceptible for pollution by the project was estimated using AERMOD dispersion model and found to cover about 1300 km"2. Thirty one surface and groundwater samples were collected and analysed for heavy metals and physicochemical properties using ICP-MS and standards techniques, respectively. The physicochemical properties for water samples analysed ranges from 5.7 to 7.8 for pH, 2.8 to 80.2 mg/L for TDS and 15 to 534.5 mS/cm for EC. These values show that the water in the vicinity of the Mkuju River Uranium Project is normal. The ranges of concentration of heavy metals (µgL"-"1) determined in water ranges were: Al(2 to 9049), Cr(0.2 to 19.96), Mn (0.1 to 1452), Fe(2 to 53890), Co(0.02 to 27.63), Ni(0.2 to 9.7), Cu(2 to 17), Zn(2 to 62.94), As(0.4 to 19.17), Cd(0.02 to 0.14), Pb (0.02 to 78.68), Th (0.002 to 1.73), U(0.002 to 29.76). These values are below the tolerance levels of concentrations set by different International organisations. Therefore heavy metal toxicity in the study area is marginal. The parameters that could serve as baseline data because of their enhanced sensitivity to pollution were (i) concentration of chromium, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead in water (ii) pH, TDS and EC for water, (iii) TDS ratio for surface to ground water values and (iv) correlation coefficients between the heavy metals. However, since TDS values are season dependent, this indicator can serve as baseline data when measured during the dry season as was the case in the study. (author)

  17. Geotechnical and water resource aspects of uranium mill tailings pile reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Tackston, J.W.; Portillo, R.

    1986-01-01

    Design and construction work is currently in progress at more than twenty sites associated with the UMTRA Project - this involves final reclamation of the uranium mill tailings piles so that they are stable for at least 200 years and for up to 1000 years. Remedial action construction plans for the tailings piles involve detailed consideration of the present and possible future ground water and surface-water impacts of the pile. Since the stabilized pile is ultimately a major geotechnical structure, detailed consideration of the long-term resistance to erosion and containment of radioactive material is also required. A case history illustrates how the critical design criteria governing the remedial action activities at the various piles are applied to the pile at the Lakeview site to provide for long-term protection of the water resource and public health and safety

  18. Study on single-channel signals of water Cherenkov detector array for the LHAASO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.C., E-mail: lihuicai@ihep.ac.cn [University of Nankai, Tianjin 300071 (China); Yao, Z.G.; Chen, M.J. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, C.X. [University of Nankai, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zha, M.; Wu, H.R.; Gao, B.; Wang, X.J. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, J.Y.; Liao, W.Y. [University of Nankai, Tianjin 300071 (China); Huang, D.Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-05-11

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) is planned to be built at Daocheng, Sichuan Province, China. The water Cherenkov detector array (WCDA), with an area of 78,000 m{sup 2} and capacity of 350,000 tons of purified water, is one of the major components of the LHAASO project. A 9-cell detector prototype array has been built at the Yangbajing site, Tibet, China to comprehensively understand the water Cherenkov technique and investigate the engineering issues of WCDA. In this paper, the rate and charge distribution of single-channel signals are evaluated using a full detail Monte Carlo simulation. The results are discussed and compared with the results obtained with prototype array.

  19. Guidance document for preparing water sampling and analysis plans for UMTRA Project sites. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    A water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is prepared for each Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide the rationale for routine ground water sampling at disposal sites and former processing sites. The WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine ground water monitoring stations at each site. This guidance document has been prepared by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Its purpose is to provide a consistent technical approach for sampling and monitoring activities performed under the WSAP and to provide a consistent format for the WSAP documents. It is designed for use by the TAC in preparing WSAPs and by the DOE, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, state and tribal agencies, other regulatory agencies, and the public in evaluating the content of WSAPS

  20. The performance of a prototype array of water Cherenkov detectors for the LHAASO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Q. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Bai, Y.X.; Bi, X.J.; Cao, Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chang, J.F. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, G.; Chen, M.J. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, S.M. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, S.Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, T.L. [University of Tibet, Lhasa 851600 (China); Chen, X. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Y.T. [University of Yunnan, Kunming 650091 (China); Cui, S.W. [Normal University of Hebei, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Dai, B.Z. [University of Yunnan, Kunming 650091 (China); Du, Q. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Danzengluobu [University of Tibet, Lhasa 851600 (China); Feng, C.F. [University of Shandong, Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, S.H.; Gao, B. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, S.Q. [National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); and others

    2013-10-01

    A large high-altitude air-shower observatory (LHAASO) is to be built at Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China. This observatory is intended to conduct sub-TeV gamma astronomy, and as an important component of the LHAASO project, a water Cherenkov detector array (WCDA) is proposed. To investigate engineering issues and fully understand the water Cherenkov technique for detecting air showers, a prototype array at 1% scale of the LHAASO-WCDA has been built at Yang-Ba-Jing, Tibet, China. This paper introduces the prototype array setup and studies its performance by counting rate of each photomultiplier tube (PMT), trigger rates at different PMT multiplicities, and responses to air showers. Finally, the reconstructed shower directions and angular resolutions of the detected showers for the prototype array are given. -- Highlights: • The technique of the water Cherenkov array is studied. • Engineering issues of the water Cherenkov array are investigated. • The PMTs and electronics of the water Cherenkov array are tested. • Some key parameters of the water Cherenkov array are measured.

  1. The performance of a prototype array of water Cherenkov detectors for the LHAASO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Q.; Bai, Y.X.; Bi, X.J.; Cao, Z.; Chang, J.F.; Chen, G.; Chen, M.J.; Chen, S.M.; Chen, S.Z.; Chen, T.L.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.T.; Cui, S.W.; Dai, B.Z.; Du, Q.; Danzengluobu; Feng, C.F.; Feng, S.H.; Gao, B.; Gao, S.Q.

    2013-01-01

    A large high-altitude air-shower observatory (LHAASO) is to be built at Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China. This observatory is intended to conduct sub-TeV gamma astronomy, and as an important component of the LHAASO project, a water Cherenkov detector array (WCDA) is proposed. To investigate engineering issues and fully understand the water Cherenkov technique for detecting air showers, a prototype array at 1% scale of the LHAASO-WCDA has been built at Yang-Ba-Jing, Tibet, China. This paper introduces the prototype array setup and studies its performance by counting rate of each photomultiplier tube (PMT), trigger rates at different PMT multiplicities, and responses to air showers. Finally, the reconstructed shower directions and angular resolutions of the detected showers for the prototype array are given. -- Highlights: • The technique of the water Cherenkov array is studied. • Engineering issues of the water Cherenkov array are investigated. • The PMTs and electronics of the water Cherenkov array are tested. • Some key parameters of the water Cherenkov array are measured

  2. The Advanced Exploration Systems Water Recovery Project: Innovation on 2 Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam M.; Neumeyer, Derek; Shull, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    As NASA looks forward to sending humans farther away from Earth, we will have to develop a transportation architecture that is highly reliable and that can sustain life for long durations without the benefit of Earth s proximity for continuous resupply or even operational guidance. NASA has consistently been challenged with performing great feats of innovation, but particularly in this time of economic stress, we are challenged to go farther with less. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) projects were implemented to address both of these needs by not only developing innovative technologies, but by incorporating innovative management styles and processes that foster the needed technical innovation given a small amount of resources. This presentation explains how the AES Water Recovery Project is exhibiting innovation on both fronts; technical and process. The AES Water Recovery Project (WRP) is actively engineering innovative technologies in order to maximize the efficiency of water recovery. The development of reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support (ECLS) is critical to enable long-duration human missions outside of low-Earth orbit. Recycling of life support consumables is necessary to reduce resupply mass and provide for vehicle autonomy. To address this, the WRP is working on a rotary distiller that has shown enhanced performance over the state-of-the-art (SOA). Additionally, the WRP is looking at innovative ways to address issues present in the state-of-the-art (SOA) systems pertaining to toxicity and calcium scale buildup. As an AES project, the WRP has a more streamlined Skunk Works like approach to technology development intended to reduce overhead but achieve a more refined end product. The project has incorporated key partnerships between NASA centers as well as between NASA and industry. A minimal project management style has been implemented such that risks are managed and

  3. The water reactor safety research project index: a description of the computerized system for its databank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Loggia, E.; Primavera, R.

    1993-01-01

    The water reactor nuclear safety research project index has been published by the CEC for many years as a compilation of information on research projects relating to LWR nuclear safety. Since 1981, it has been published, alternatively with NEA (OECD), every second year. The number of contributions from research organizations in Community member countries has steadily increased and reached the level of 1 700 pages, in which more than 600 project descriptions have been collected. In 1988, for the first time, the document was produced using a computerized system developed with the assistance of the ISEI (Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics) of JRC Ispra. The data have been stored in a computer based in Ispra. The system allows searching a preselected set of subjects through the information stored in the computer: it makes the updating of the projects description much easier and makes the retrieval of the data possible. This report presents a short description of the computerized system developed for the databank of the index. The computerized system presented in this report is structured in a quite general way and for that reason can be adapted very easily to every field where a databank needs to be constituted in order to collect extended information on several projects. (authors). 6 figs., 5 tabs., 5 refs

  4. Analysis of the impact of water level fluctuations on macrophytes in Miyun Reservoir after receiving water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Gu, H.; Lou, C. H.; Zhang, L.; Meng, Q. Y.

    2016-08-01

    As the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, macrophytes affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, and their distribution is controlled by water depth. Miyun Reservoir in Beijing will have to experience substantial changes in water level and surface area as it begins to receive water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, which will have an adverse impact on the macrophytes growing there. In this study, a hydrodynamic model was constructed with MIKE21 and then used in a simulation in three scenarios: dry year, normal year and wet year. The results suggest that during water diversion, the annual and interannual water level fluctuations will be too significant for them to adapt and as a result, the original macrophytes in the reservoir tend to die and disappear completely. The area of the zone suitable for macrophyte growth, or suitable growth zone (SGZ), fluctuated. Restricted by the main dam and auxiliary dam to its south, the overall suitable growth zone moved toward the northeast and northwest of the reservoir, with a northeastward movement of its centroid. The distance and path of movement varied between scenarios. After the water diversion was completed, the suitable growth zone shrunk in the three scenarios. It is predicted that the macrophyte species diversity and richness of the reservoir can recover to the levels recorded before water diversion only in dry year. These results suggest that manual interventions should be implemented after water diversion to speed up the natural recovery of aquatic plant communities in Miyun Reservoir and thereby maintain the stability of the aquatic ecosystem.

  5. Investigation of the noble metal deposition behaviour in boiling water reactors - the NORA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.; Karastoyanov, V.; Abolhassani-Dadras, S.; Guenther-Leopold, I.; Kivel, N.

    2010-01-01

    NobleChem™ is a technology developed by General Electric to reduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in reactor internals and recirculation pipes of boiling water reactors (BWRs) while preventing the negative side effects of classical hydrogen water chemistry. Noble metals (Pt, Rh) acting as electrocatalysts for the recombination of O 2 and H 2 O 2 with H 2 to H 2 O and thus reducing the corrosion potential more efficiently are injected into the feed water during reactor shut-down (classical method) or on-line during power operation. They are claimed to deposit as very fine metallic particles on all water-wetted surfaces including the most critical regions inside existing cracks and to stay electrocatalytic over long periods of time. The effectiveness of this technology in plants remains still to be demonstrated. Based on highly credible laboratory experiments down to the sub-ppb Pt concentration range, SCC mitigation may be expected, provided that a stoichiometric excess of H 2 and a sufficient surface coverage with very fine Pt particles exist simultaneously at the critical locations. Very little is known about the deposition and (re-)distribution behaviour of the Pt in the reactor. For the validation of this technique the research project NORA (noble metal deposition behaviour in BWRs) has been started at PSI with two main objectives: (i) to gain phenomenological insights and a better basic understanding of the Pt distribution and deposition behaviour in BWRs; (ii) to develop and qualify a non-destructive technique to characterise the size and distribution of the Pt particles and its local concentration on reactor components. This paper presents the objectives of the project, the planned work and a brief description of the status of the project. (author)

  6. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Old and New Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action at the Rifle, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site began in the spring of 1992. Results of water sampling at the Old and New Rifle processing sites for recent years indicate that ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined alluvial aquifer (the uppermost aquifer) and less extensively in the underlying Wasatch Formation. Uranium and sulfate continue to exceed background ground water concentrations and/or maximum concentration limits at and downgradient from the former processing sites. These constituents provide the best indication of changes in contaminant distribution. Contamination in the uppermost (alluvial) aquifer at New Rifle extends a minimum of approximately 5000 feet (ft) (1,524 meters [m]) downgradient. At Old Rifle, the extent of contamination in the alluvial aquifer is much less (a minimum of approximately 1,000 ft [305 m]), partially due to differences in hydrologic regime. For example, the Old Rifle site lies in a relatively narrow alluvial floodplain; the New Rifle site lies in a broad floodplain. Data gathering for the Rifle baseline risk assessment is under way. The purpose of this effort is to determine with greater precision the background ground water quality and extent of ground water contamination at the processing sites. Historical surface water quality indicates that the Colorado River has not been affected by uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring of the Estes Gulch disposal cell has been proposed, because ground water in the underlying Wasatch Formation is limited use (Class 111) ground water and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer

  7. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  8. Puget Sound Tidal Energy In-Water Testing and Development Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collar, Craig W

    2012-11-16

    Tidal energy represents potential for the generation of renewable, emission free, environmentally benign, and cost effective energy from tidal flows. A successful tidal energy demonstration project in Puget Sound, Washington may enable significant commercial development resulting in important benefits for the northwest region and the nation. This project promoted the United States Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program's goals of advancing the commercial viability, cost-competitiveness, and market acceptance of marine hydrokinetic systems. The objective of the Puget Sound Tidal Energy Demonstration Project is to conduct in-water testing and evaluation of tidal energy technology as a first step toward potential construction of a commercial-scale tidal energy power plant. The specific goal of the project phase covered by this award was to conduct all activities necessary to complete engineering design and obtain construction approvals for a pilot demonstration plant in the Admiralty Inlet region of the Puget Sound. Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County (The District) accomplished the objectives of this award through four tasks: Detailed Admiralty Inlet Site Studies, Plant Design and Construction Planning, Environmental and Regulatory Activities, and Management and Reporting. Pre-Installation studies completed under this award provided invaluable data used for site selection, environmental evaluation and permitting, plant design, and construction planning. However, these data gathering efforts are not only important to the Admiralty Inlet pilot project. Lessons learned, in particular environmental data gathering methods, can be applied to future tidal energy projects in the United States and other parts of the world. The District collaborated extensively with project stakeholders to complete the tasks for this award. This included Federal, State, and local government agencies, tribal governments, environmental groups, and

  9. Physical therapy workforce shortage for aging and aged societies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiwong, Ratchanok; Vongsirinavarat, Mantana; Soonthorndhada, Kusol

    2014-07-01

    According to demographic changes, the size of the aging population has rapidly increased. Thailand has been facing the "aging society" since 2005 and the "aged society" has been projected to appear by the year 2025. Increased life expectancy is associated with health problems and risks, specifically chronic diseases and disability. Aging and aged societies and related specific conditions as stroke require the provision of services from health professionals. The shortage of the physical therapy workforce in Thailand has been reported. This study investigated the size of physical therapy workforce required for the approaching aging society of Thailand and estimated the number of needed physical therapists, specifically regarding stroke condition. Evidently, the issue of the physical therapy workforce to serve aging and aged societies in Thailand requires advocating and careful arranging.

  10. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ( 222 Rn), uranium ( 238,234 U), radium ( 226 , 228 Ra), lead ( 210 Pb) and polonium ( 210 Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 μSv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong acidic cation exchange resins

  11. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T. [eds.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ({sup 222}Rn), uranium ({sup 238,234}U), radium ({sup 226}, {sup 228}Ra), lead ({sup 210}Pb) and polonium ({sup 210}Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 {mu}Sv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong

  12. Identifying The Effective Factors for Cost Overrun and Time Delay in Water Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mirzai Matin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water construction projects in Iran frequently face problems which cause cost overrun and time delay, the two most common issues in construction projects in general. The objective of this survey is to identify and quantify these problems and thus help in avoiding them. This survey represents a collection of the most significant problems found in the literature, classified into 11 groups according to their source. The questionnaire form used contains 84 questions which were answered by random engineers who work in water construction projects. The Relative Importance Weight (RIW method is used to weight the importance of each one of the 84 problems. The focus of this survey is on overall top ten issues which are: bureaucracy in bidding method, inflation, economical condition of the government, not enough information gathered and surveys done before design, monthly payment difficulties, material cost changes, law changes by the government, financial difficulties, mode of financing and payment for completed work and changes made by the owner. A section for each of these issues provides additional information about them. In the full text of this survey the same weighting method is used to classify the main groups, and the results show that issues related to the groups of government, owner and consultant has the most significant impact. The last part of this survey describes the point of view of the engineers who took part in this survey and the recommendations they made.

  13. Boosting innovation in the water sector--the role and lessons learned from collaborative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, H; Coelho, S T; Feliciano, J F; Matos, R

    2015-01-01

    A key worldwide challenge in most sectors is to boost the effective adoption of innovation, as underpinned by the new European Union research programme Horizon 2020, which focuses on increasing innovation in Europe from 2014 to 2020. This is particularly relevant in the water sector, often perceived as conservative and averse to change. This paper discusses the role that collaborative knowledge-transfer projects can play in effectively rolling out R&D in the water industry. LNEC (Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil) has designed a structured model based on a phased programme and a network of utilities and researchers. The paper presents the core principles, the rationale, the model and methods used, and the theoretical background, as well as the project's impact, outcomes and products. The discussion highlights the lessons learnt and provides a formal analysis of the advantages of focusing on middle management as an effective entry point, even if innovation is needed across the organization. Making training materials, guidelines, use cases, data and software publicly available after the project's end has proven to have a decisive multiplying effect. The paper also argues in favour of the collaborative model as a basis for R&D sustainability, and details on-going and planned developments.

  14. Water Supply: Management of Water Sources in the City of San Luis Potosí (México, 1831-1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuritzi Hernández Fuentes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach about the management of water sources, hydraulic systems and the measures taken by the city government of San Luis Potosí (México concerning the need of water supply during the years 1831 to 1886. This paper examines two important projects on water management in the city: the aqueduct of La Cañada del Lobo and the policies taken by the authorities on waterways through La Corriente. Both projects faced several problems, including the outbreak of illnesses associated with bodies of water and shortage of liquid flow through the aqueduct of La Cañada del Lobo.

  15. Preventing diarrhoea with household ceramic water filters: assessment of a pilot project in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon M

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to prevent diarrhoea in a rural community in central Bolivia, an international non-governmental organization implemented a pilot project to improve drinking water quality using gravity-fed, household-based, ceramic water filters. We assessed the performance of the filters by conducting a five-month randomized controlled trial among all 60 households in the pilot community. Water filters eliminated thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms from almost all intervention households and significantly reduced turbidity, thereby improving water aesthetics. Most importantly, the filters were associated with a 45.3% reduction in prevalence of diarrhoea among the study population (p = 0.02). After adjustment for household clustering and repeated episodes in individuals and controlling for age and baseline diarrhoea, prevalence of diarrhoea among the intervention group was 51% lower than controls, though the protective effect was only borderline significant (OR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.01; p = 0.05). A follow-up survey conducted approximately 9 months after deployment of the filters found 67% being used regularly, 13% being used intermittently, and 21% not in use. Water samples from all regularly used filters were free of thermotolerant coliforms.

  16. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project: Final report. [October 21, 1992-April, 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D. [Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US); Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc., Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (US); Nielson, D.L.; Lutz, S.J. [Energy and Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. Comprehensive reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations of the Monument Butte, Travis and Boundary units were presented in the two published project yearly reports. The primary and the secondary production from the Monument Butte unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close to its bubble point. The water flood in the smaller Travis unit appeared affected by natural and possibly by large interconnecting hydraulic fractures. Water flooding the boundary unit was considered more complicated due to the presence of an oil water contact in one of the wells. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter c ore, Formation Micro Imaging logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir characterization efforts identified new reservoirs in the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2000 barrels per day.

  17. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project: Final report, October 21, 1992-April, 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, M.D.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D.; Nielson, D.L.; Lutz, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. Comprehensive reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations of the Monument Butte, Travis and Boundary units were presented in the two published project yearly reports. The primary and the secondary production from the Monument Butte unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close to its bubble point. The water flood in the smaller Travis unit appeared affected by natural and possibly by large interconnecting hydraulic fractures. Water flooding the boundary unit was considered more complicated due to the presence of an oil water contact in one of the wells. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter c ore, Formation Micro Imaging logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir characterization efforts identified new reservoirs in the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2000 barrels per day

  18. The potential impact of an inter-basin water transfer project on nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and chlorophyll a of the receiving water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghui; Qin, Lihuan; Li, Xuyong

    2015-12-01

    Any inter-basin water transfer project would cause complex physical, chemical, hydrological and biological changes to the receiving system. The primary channel of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project has a total length of 1267 km. There is a significant difference between the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the originating and receiving drinking water conservation districts. To predict the impacts of this long-distance inter-basin water transfer project on the N&P (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations and eutrophication risk of the receiving system, an environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) model was applied. The calibrated model accurately reproduced the hydrodynamic, water quality and the entire algal bloom process. Thirteen scenarios were defined to fully understand the N&P and chlorophyll a (Chl a) variation among different hydrological years, different quantity and timing of water transfer, and different inflows of N&P concentrations. The results showed the following: (a) The water transfer project would not result in a substantial difference to the trophic state of the Miyun reservoir in any of the hydrological years. (b) The area affected by the water transfer did not involve the entire reservoir. To minimize the impact of water transfer on N&P nutrients and Chl a, water should be transferred as uniform as possible with small discharge. (c) The variation in Chl a was more sensitive to an increase in P than an increase in N for the transferred water. The increased percentages of the average Chl a concentration when water was transferred in the spring, summer and autumn were 7.76%, 16.67% and 16.45%. Our findings imply that special attention should be given to prevent P increment of the transferred water from May to October to prevent algal blooms. The results provide useful information for decision makers about the quantity and timing of water transfers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural Water Retention Measures (NWRM): from Design to Implementation through European Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdaleno Mas, F.; Dalacamara Andres, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Centre for Applied Technique Studies (CETA) of CEDEX has been working over the last few years in different European projects related with the design and development of natural water retention measures (NWRM). These are a number of measures, boosted by the Water Unit of the Environment Directorate-General of the European Commission. with close links to green infrastructures, which try to integrate, from a multifunctional approach, different legal and technical requirements aimed at a better adaptation to extreme hydro meteorological events, environmental protection and conservation, and maintenance of ecosystem services. This paper reviews the underpinning foundations of the concept and the mechanisms for designing and implementing NWRM. It also shows the way they can be applied, by presenting different initiatives developed by CETA since 2008 in Navarra (Arga-Aragon rivers system). For fulfilling those works, CETA has collaborated with environmental and hydraulic authorities of Navarra. It has also actively cooperated with research centres, such as the Institute IMDEA Water. specifically in a European project devoted to the diffusion, assessment, and presentation of NWRM within the context of the EU River Basin Districts. (Author)

  20. The Tibagi river and representations: a water controversy and development of Tibagi Project(1970 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Aparecida Biasetto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The river Tibagi from the city of Londrina, in the years 1970 and 1980 was a subject of much discussion and controversy due to the project of raising its waters to supply the population of the cities of Londrina and region. In articles published in newspapers, especially in the Folha de Londrina, in the 1970s and 1980s, it was identified that, this time, the perception emerged that the river was polluted. Thus, our primary goal in the first part of this research is to investigate how it came to creating this image. Therefore, we used a collection of newspaper clippings about the controversy raised from the waters Tibagi and interviews with Nelson Amanthea civil engineer and agronomist Marcos Antonio Castanheira, both participated in discussions on the project. It was in this period that the ideas of ecology was entered and began to circulate in the city in the late 1970s. In this context, the emergence of the "age of ecology”, allegations and actions to combat pollution started to become more effective and broad, as well as, arose environmental associations, specialized government agencies and specific legislation. Thus, the objective of this research is also investigating the involvement of scientists and institutions in environmental issues through research of river Tibagi that became evident in the late 1980 and early next decade when the University State of Londrina initiated research in Tibagi river basin. Is emphasized the participation of members of the Department of Animal Biology and Plant - UEL, the company Klabin Pulp and Paper, Telêmaco Borba - PR and COPATI - Intermunicipal Consortium of Tibagi Basin, projects and actions in order to promote their recovery. A major action was investigated Project “Appearance of  Fauna and Flora River Tibagi” which became known as “Project Tibagi “. In this sense sought to investigate the origins of the project, the main participants involved, their development, search results, the

  1. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-23

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  2. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Naturita, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment addresses the environmental effects of a proposed action and the no action alternative to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at the Naturita, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) completed surface cleanup at the site and encapsulated the tailings in a disposal cell 15 miles northwest near the former town of Uravan, Colorado. Ground water contaminants of potential concern at the Naturita site are uranium and vanadium. Uranium concentrations exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) of 0.044 milligram per liter (mg/L). Vanadium has no MCL; however, vanadium concentrations exceed the EPA Region III residential risk-based concentration of 0.33 mg/L (EPA 2002). The proposed compliance strategy for uranium and vanadium at the Naturita site is no further remediation in conjunction with the application of alternate concentration limits. Institutional controls with ground water and surface water monitoring will be implemented for these constituents as part of the compliance strategy. This compliance strategy will be protective of human health and the environment. The proposed monitoring program will begin upon regulatory concurrence with the Ground Water Compliance Action Plan (DOE 2002a). Monitoring will consist of verifying that institutional controls remain in place, collecting ground water samples to verify that concentrations of uranium and vanadium are decreasing, and collecting surface water samples to verify that contaminant concentrations do not exceed a regulatory limit or risk-based concentration. If these criteria are not met, DOE would reevaluate the proposed action and determine the need for further National Environmental Policy Act documentation. No comments were received from the public during the public comment period. Two public meetings were held during this period. Minutes of these meetings are included as

  3. A strategy to address the nursing faculty shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Barbara J; Sheets, Ingrid

    2009-07-01

    This article describes one university's experience in creating a master's geriatric clinical nurse specialist-nurse educator program to address the nursing faculty shortage and the need for geriatric clinical nurse specialists. The successes and challenges are outlined, and curricular ideas that may be beneficial to other nursing programs also are presented. This program has enhanced the university's pool of clinical instructors, increased its ability to provide services to older adults, and allowed faculty to instruct and focus undergraduates in the distinctions of geriatric nursing care. The biggest challenges faced were marketing and recruitment of nurses; these challenges were addressed, and possible solutions are offered. The most immediate benefit of this program was the generation of geriatric clinical nurse specialists.

  4. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Surface remedial action was completed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Canonsburg and Burrell Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1985 and 1987, respectively. The Burrell disposal site, included in the UMTRA Project as a vicinity property, was remediated in conjunction with the remedial action at Canonsburg. On 27 May 1994, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) accepted the DOE final Long-Term Surveillance Plan (LTSP) (DOE, 1993) for Burrell thus establishing the site under the general license in 10 CFR section 40.27 (1994). In accordance with the DOE guidance document for long-term surveillance (DOE, 1995), all NRC/DOE interaction on the Burrell site's long-term care now is conducted with the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and is no longer the responsibility of the DOE UMTRA Project Team in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Therefore, the planned sampling activities described in this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) are limited to the Canonsburg site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring at the Canonsburg site for calendar years 1995 and 1996. Currently, the analytical data further the site characterization and demonstrate that the disposal cell's initial performance is in accordance with design requirements

  5. Engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal projects of sudden water pollution incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Jiang, Jiping; Liu, Rentao; Khan, Afed Ullah; Wang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Without an engineering risk assessment for emergency disposal in response to sudden water pollution incidents, responders are prone to be challenged during emergency decision making. To address this gap, the concept and framework of emergency disposal engineering risks are reported in this paper. The proposed risk index system covers three stages consistent with the progress of an emergency disposal project. Fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA), a logical and diagrammatic method, was developed to evaluate the potential failure during the process of emergency disposal. The probability of basic events and their combination, which caused the failure of an emergency disposal project, were calculated based on the case of an emergency disposal project of an aniline pollution incident in the Zhuozhang River, Changzhi, China, in 2014. The critical events that can cause the occurrence of a top event (TE) were identified according to their contribution. Finally, advices on how to take measures using limited resources to prevent the failure of a TE are given according to the quantified results of risk magnitude. The proposed approach could be a potential useful safeguard for the implementation of an emergency disposal project during the process of emergency response.

  6. Is there a shortage of neurosurgeons in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Judy; Slane, Steve; Dery, Beth; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Couldwell, William T

    2013-08-01

    Neurosurgical workforce decision-making is typically driven by the 1 neurosurgeon per 100,000 population ratio proposed in 1977 in the Study on Surgical Services for the United States report. The actual ratio has always been higher than suggested. We evaluated whether the 1:100,000 ratio from the Study on Surgical Services for the United States report is still valid, whether there are enough neurosurgeons in the United States to meet patient needs, and whether demand is driven by patient need. For our analysis, the distribution of practicing US neurosurgeons was merged with census data to yield density indices of neurosurgeons by state; a survey assessing practice characteristics was e-mailed to practicing neurosurgeons; and a compilation of job advertisements for US neurosurgeons was evaluated. Multivariant statistical analyses yielded inconclusive results regarding patient demand because existing data sets are not designed to establish patient demand and many neurosurgeons are subspecialized. The data indicated that the ratio of neurosurgeons to total US population is 1:65,580. In the survey responses, neurosurgeon-to-patient ratios varied dramatically by state and were inconsistently correlated with whether neurosurgeons indicated they were overworked or underworked. The 305 job advertisements may indicate a shortage. Twenty-four percent of advertising practices indicated that they are recruiting only for emergency department coverage, and an additional 26% indicated that they might not be recruiting if not for the need for emergency coverage. Demand ratios should be reevaluated by region and subspecialty to consider changes in neurosurgery practice. A "shortage" in the employment market may reflect factors other than patient need.

  7. The nursing shortage: part way down the slippery slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Leanne; Jacobsson, Denise

    2003-07-01

    The shortage of nurses has reached a crisis point for health care services. A number of issues including the effects of economic rationalism, generational differences, working conditions and nurse education are revisited in a discussion that aims to refuel the debate on workplace reform for nurses. Economic rationalism has altered the healthcare service landscape. Attempts to balance service delivery with workforce resources have led to possibly unforeseen changes. Highly skilled nurses are required in acute services, however resource allocation may prevent this. The nursing workforce is aging although the current nursing workforce consists of three generations: baby boomers, generation X and generation Y. There are significant ideological and work organisational differences between these generations leading to possible conflict between nurses. The pool of available nurses to fill employment vacancies is finite. Attracting overseas nurses to fill nurse vacancies will leave vacancies elsewhere and is not a long-term solution to the nursing shortage. Moreover, if the workplace has not addressed the reasons why nurses have left the health care workplace then there is a real danger of losing those recently attracted back into the workplace. Working conditions are a critical element within the retention puzzle. Job satisfaction dimensions such as autonomy and professional relationships are key components for improving working conditions. The final issue explored is the question of whether the tertiary education system is the most appropriate place in which to develop and educate nurses. It is suggested that workplace reforms should be the target of retention strategies rather than changes in the educational process of nursing.

  8. Ground-water investigations of the Project Gnome area, Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.B.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, through the Office of Test Operations, Albuquerque Operations Office, plans to detonate a nuclear device in a massive salt bed 1,200 feet beneath the land surface. The project, known as Project Gnome, is an element of the Plowshare program--a study of peacetime applications of nuclear fission. The location of the proposed underground shot is in a sparsely-populated area in southeastern Eddy County, N. Mex., east of the Pecos River and about 25 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad. The area is arid to Semiarid and ground water is a vital factor in the economic utilization of the land, which is primarily used for stock raising. An investigation of the Project Gnome site and surrounding area for the purposes of evaluating the ground-water resources and the possible effect upon them from the detonation of the nuclear shot was desired by the Commission. This report describes work done by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Commission and presents results of the investigation of the ground-water resources and geology of the area. The most intensive investigations were made within a 15-mile radius of the site of Project Gnome and mainly on the east side of the Pecos River. The total area of study of over 1,200 square miles includes parts of Eddy and Lea Counties, N. Mex. The Project Gnome site is in the sedimentary Delaware Basin. It is underlain by about 18,000 feet of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Ordovician to Recent. Upper Permian evaporitic rocks, which contain the principal source of potash available in the United States, are worked in nearby mines. The potash minerals are found in a massive salt bed about 1,400 feet thick in the Salado Formation of Permian age. The land surface of the area is covered mostly by a wind-blown sand and caliche; however, rocks of the Rustler Formation of Permian age and younger rocks of Permian, Triassic, Pleistocene(?) and Recent age crop out at several localities. Solution by

  9. High Pressure Water Jet System Performance Assessment Project A-2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Performance assessment for canister cleaning system in the KE Basin. Information obtained from this assessment will be used to design any additional equipment used to clean canisters. After thorough review of the design, maintenance history and operational characteristics of the 105 K East (KE) canister cleaning system, Bartlett recommends that the high pressure water jet system (HPWJS) be modified as outlined in section 5.0, and retained for future use. Further, it is recommended that Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project consider use of a graded approach for canister cleaning, based on individual canister type and characteristics. This approach would allow a simple method to be used on canisters not needing the more rigorous, high-pressure method. Justification is provided in section 5.0. Although Bartlett has provided some preliminary cost estimates, it is recommended that SNF Project perform a detailed cost-benefit analysis to weigh the alternatives presented

  10. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D D; Jiang, J; Zhao, Z; Yi, W S; Lan, G

    2013-01-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system

  11. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  12. Investigation of noble metal deposition behaviour in boiling water reactors. The NORA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, Stefan; Karastoyanov, Vasil; Abolhassani-Dadras, Sousan; Guenther-Leopold, Ines; Kivel, Niko

    2010-01-01

    NobleChem trademark is a technology developed by General Electric to reduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in reactor internals and recirculation pipes of boiling water reactors (BWRs) while preventing the negative side effects of classic hydrogen water chemistry. Noble metals (Pt, Rh) acting as electrocatalysts for the recombination of O 2 and H 2 O 2 with H 2 to H 2 O and thus reducing the corrosion potential more efficiently are injected into the feedwater during reactor shutdown (classic method) or on-line during power operation. They are claimed to deposit as very fine metallic particles on all water-wetted surfaces, including the most critical regions inside existing cracks, and to stay electrocatalytic over long periods of time. The effectiveness of this technology in plants still remains to be demonstrated. Based on highly credible laboratory experiments down to the sub-μg . kg -1 Pt concentration range, SCC mitigation may be expected, provided that a stoichiometric excess of H 2 and a sufficient surface coverage with very fine Pt particles exist simultaneously at the critical locations [1]. Very little is known about the deposition and (re-)distribution behaviour of the Pt in the reactor. For the validation of this technique the research project NORA (noble metal deposition behaviour in BWRs) has been started at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) with two main objectives: (i) to gain phenomenological insights and a better basic understanding of the Pt distribution and deposition behaviour in BWRs; (ii) to develop and qualify a non-destructive technique to characterise the size and distribution of the Pt particles and the local concentration of Pt on reactor components. This paper presents the objectives of the project, the planned work and a brief description of the status of the project. (orig.)

  13. Early hydrogen water chemistry project review, improvement opportunities and conceptural design options at Exelon boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Odell, Andrew D.; Giannelli, Joseph F.

    2012-09-01

    Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) and its impacts have been a major concern to the BWR fleet since the mid-70's. Several alternative strategies have been employed to reduce the negative impacts, however, the newest being Early Hydrogen Water Chemistry (EHWC). The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the BWRVIP (Vessel Internals Project) has strongly supported the development of EHWC, including laboratory testing and a demonstration program that was performed at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station in October 2011. This paper will review the impacts of a 'Special Test Program' on a BWR plant including: Project management findings; technical reviews and documents required to support such a demonstration program; temporary equipment design, installation and testing; keeping the demonstration progressing along with the plant return from a refuel outage; and lessons learned that can be applied to EHWC implementation during future start-ups. Details will be compared between various Exelon BWRs in support of conceptual designs for EHWC systems and operation. Some comparisons on operational impacts will be provided between various types of BWR plants with differing 'Balance of Plant' designs. (authors)

  14. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA - USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT DESERT SANDS MDWCA, NM SIX MONTH EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during, and the results obtained from, the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Desert Sands Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Association (MDWCA) facility in Anthony, NM. The object...

  15. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  16. The performance of a prototype array of water Cherenkov detectors for the LHAASO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Q.; Bai, Y. X.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chang, J. F.; Chen, G.; Chen, M. J.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y. T.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Du, Q.; Danzengluobu; Feng, C. F.; Feng, S. H.; Gao, B.; Gao, S. Q.; Ge, M. M.; Gu, M. H.; Hao, X. J.; He, H. H.; Hou, C.; Hu, H. B.; Hu, X. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, W. P.; Jia, H. Y.; Jiang, K.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. S.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. N.; Li, Q. J.; Li, C.; Li, F.; Li, H. C.; Li, X. R.; Lu, H.; Lv, H. K.; Mao, Y. J.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Shao, J.; Shao, M.; Sheng, X. D.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, Z. B.; Tang, Z. B.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, G.; Xu, Y.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, R.; Yao, Z. G.; You, X. H.; Yuan, A. F.; Zhang, B. K.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, S. R.; Zhang, S. S.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhai, L. M.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zha, M.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhuang, J.; Zuo, X.

    2013-10-01

    A large high-altitude air-shower observatory (LHAASO) is to be built at Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China. This observatory is intended to conduct sub-TeV gamma astronomy, and as an important component of the LHAASO project, a water Cherenkov detector array (WCDA) is proposed. To investigate engineering issues and fully understand the water Cherenkov technique for detecting air showers, a prototype array at 1% scale of the LHAASO-WCDA has been built at Yang-Ba-Jing, Tibet, China. This paper introduces the prototype array setup and studies its performance by counting rate of each photomultiplier tube (PMT), trigger rates at different PMT multiplicities, and responses to air showers. Finally, the reconstructed shower directions and angular resolutions of the detected showers for the prototype array are given.

  17. Innovative characterization techniques and decision support systems for ground water contamination projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Ground water contamination projects throughout the world must be approached as individual and unique problems. Many traditional investigation techniques require modification to meet the needs of site-specific situations. Because the age of the science of contaminant hydrogeology can be measured only in a few decades, the field is ripe for innovation. This paper describes the following new technologies: At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have developed a new drilling and sampling method, which allows the evaluation of the vertical extent of contamination in a single borehole. We are also using new fiber-optic-based chemical analytical sensors that promise to greatly increase the case of obtaining chemical analyses in the subsurface while greatly reducing costs. Because ground water investigations are data intensive, we need the best decision support system information tools to proceed with investigation and cleanup. These tools have three components: a relational database, data analysis tools, and tools for data display

  18. South Asia river flow projections and their implications for water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, C.; Wiltshire, A. J.; Falloon, P.; Challinor, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    South Asia is a region with a large and rising population and a high dependance on industries sensitive to water resource such as agriculture. The climate is hugely variable with the region relying on both the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) and glaciers for its supply of fresh water. In recent years, changes in the ASM, fears over the rapid retreat of glaciers and the increasing demand for water resources for domestic and industrial use, have caused concern over the reliability of water resources both in the present day and future for this region. The climate of South Asia means it is one of the most irrigated agricultural regions in the world, therefore pressures on water resource affecting the availability of water for irrigation could adversely affect crop yields and therefore food production. In this paper we present the first 25 km resolution regional climate projections of river flow for the South Asia region. ERA-Interim, together with two global climate models (GCMs), which represent the present day processes, particularly the monsoon, reasonably well are downscaled using a regional climate model (RCM) for the periods; 1990-2006 for ERA-Interim and 1960-2100 for the two GCMs. The RCM river flow is routed using a river-routing model to allow analysis of present day and future river flows through comparison with river gauge observations, where available. In this analysis we compare the river flow rate for 12 gauges selected to represent the largest river basins for this region; Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins and characterize the changing conditions from east to west across the Himalayan arc. Observations of precipitation and runoff in this region have large or unknown uncertainties, are short in length or are outside the simulation period, hindering model development and validation designed to improve understanding of the water cycle for this region. In the absence of robust observations for South Asia, a downscaled ERA-Interim RCM simulation provides a

  19. New era / new solutions: The role of alternative tariff structures in water supply projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F Silva; Marques, R Cunha

    2017-12-01

    Water utilities face different challenges that may force them to seek prioritized objectives. When doing so, particular projects may have to be developed, being important to understand their impact on water tariffs, and thus, on customers. Such consequences may bear an increased relevance in cases stressed with, e.g., resource scarcity, poverty, and the need for infrastructure investments. The resulting cost and revenue variability demand a comprehensive study. If the first may require a stochastic modeling (in major cost components) in order to consider its inherent uncertainty, the second needs to be modeled following context-specific objectives set by the relevant stakeholders. The solutions achieved will likely promote distinct revenue sources, as well as diversified water tariff structures. A multi-objective optimization model (i.e., a Framework for Suitable Prices) is built to deal with those diversified requirements (e.g., stochastic energy costs, affordability, cost recovery, or administrative simplicity). The model is solved through achievement scalarizing functions with several weighting coefficients for a reference point, so as to provide a significant perception of possible revenue options (and their impact) to the decision makers. The proposed method is applied to a case study, Boa Vista Island in Cabo Verde, in which the background characteristics, namely water sources availability (e.g., the adoption of desalination technologies), economic development and other contextual factors were considered. The key role of tariff structure selection is displayed, instead of assuming it a priori, giving important insights regarding project feasibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ENTHALPY EU PROJECT: ENABLING THE DRYING PROCESS TO SAVE ENERGY AND WATER, REALISING PROCESS EFFICIENCY IN THE DAIRY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta ALVAREZ PENEDO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The EU funded ENTHALPY project aims to significantly reduce the consumption of water and energy in milk powder production to increase efficiency in the dairy production chain. Using a systematic approach, ENTHALPY project focusses on innovations within the post-harvest chain representing the highest energy and water consumption such as RF heating, solar thermal energy, mono-disperse atomising, dryer modelling, inline monitoring, enzymatic cleaning and membrane technology,

  1. ENTHALPY EU PROJECT: ENABLING THE DRYING PROCESS TO SAVE ENERGY AND WATER, REALISING PROCESS EFFICIENCY IN THE DAIRY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Berta ALVAREZ PENEDO; Sandra FORSTNER; Alexandru RUSU

    2016-01-01

    The EU funded ENTHALPY project aims to significantly reduce the consumption of water and energy in milk powder production to increase efficiency in the dairy production chain. Using a systematic approach, ENTHALPY project focusses on innovations within the post-harvest chain representing the highest energy and water consumption such as RF heating, solar thermal energy, mono-disperse atomising, dryer modelling, inline monitoring, enzymatic cleaning and membrane technology,

  2. Factors that affect public-supply water use in Florida, with a section on projected water use to the year 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Public-supply water use in Florida increased 242 percent between 1960 and 1987 from 530 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) to 1,811 Mgal/d. This change is primarily a result of increases in population and tourism since 1960. Public-supply utilities provide water to a variety of users. In 1985, 71 percent of the water used for public supply was delivered for residential uses, 15 percent for commercial uses, 9 percent for industrial uses, and the remaining 5 percent for public use or other uses. Residential use of public-supply water in Florida has increased nearly 280 Mgal/d, but has decreased in the proportion of total deliveries from 80 to 71 percent between 1975 and 1985. This trend resulted from increased tourism and related commercial services associated with population and visitors. One of several factors that influences public-supply water use in Florida is the increase in resident population, which increased from 4.95 million in 1960 to more than 12.0 million in 1987. Additionally, Florida's nonresident population increased from 18.8 million visitors in 1977, to 34.1 million visitors in 1987, and the part of Florida?s population that relies on public-supply water increased from 68 percent in 1960, to 86 percent in 1987. The public supply per capita use was multiplied by the projected populations for each county for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020 to forecast public-supply water use. Using medium projections, Florida?s population is expected to increase to nearly 16 million in the year 2000, to 18 million in the year 2010, and to almost 20 million in the year 2020, of which an estimated 13.5 million people will be supplied water from public-supply water systems in the year 2000, 15 million in 2010, and nearly 17 million by the year 2020. Public-supply water use is expected to increase to a projected (medium) 2,310 Mgal/d in the year 2000, 2,610 Mgal/d in the year 2010, and 2,890 Mgal/d in the year 2020. If the population exceeds the medium projections for the

  3. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  4. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Guen Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6. The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  5. The SOLUTIONS project : Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Krauss, Martin; López Herráez, David; van Gils, Jos; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Munthe, John; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; van Wezel, Annemarie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141376074; Schriks, Merijn; Hollender, Juliane; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Mekenyan, Ovanes; Dimitrov, Saby; Bunke, Dirk; Cousins, Ian; Posthuma, Leo; van den Brink, Paul J.; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Faust, Michael; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Scrimshaw, Mark; Ignatova, Svetlana; Engelen, Guy; Massmann, Gudrun; Lemkine, Gregory; Teodorovic, Ivana; Walz, Karl Heinz; Dulio, Valeria; Jonker, Michiel T O|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/175518793; Jäger, Felix; Chipman, Kevin; Falciani, Francesco; Liska, Igor; Rooke, David; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hollert, Henner; Vrana, Branislav; Hilscherova, Klara; Kramer, Kees; Neumann, Steffen; Hammerbacher, Ruth; Backhaus, Thomas; Mack, Juliane; Segner, Helmut; Escher, Beate; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification,

  6. Applying systems engineering in the civil engineering industry : an analysis of systems engineering projects of a Dutch water board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R. S. (Robin); Vromen, R. M.(Rick); Boes, J. (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    The past decade, practice and literature have shown an increasing interest in Systems Engineering (SE) in the civil engineering industry. The aim of this study is to analyse to what extent SE is applied in six civil engineering SE projects of a Dutch water board. The projects were analysed using a

  7. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA -- USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT ROLLINSFORD, NH, SIX MONTH EVALUTION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Rollinsford Water and Sewer District facility in Rollinsford, NH. The objectives of the project are to...

  8. The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, W.; Altenburger, R.; Schuurmann, G.; Krauss, M.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    SOLUTIONS (2013 to 2018) is a European Union Seventh Framework Programme Project (EU-FP7). The project aims to deliver a conceptual framework to support the evidence-based development of environmental policies with regard to water quality. SOLUTIONS will develop the tools for the identification,

  9. Transferring water management knowledge: how actors, interaction and context influence the effectiveness of Dutch-funded projects in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke-de Kruijf, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Countries around the world face pressing, often similar, water problems. International projects in which knowledge is transferred from one country to another can contribute to solving these problems. Building on the experiences of three Dutch-funded flood risk management projects in Romania, this

  10. The radiological exposure of the population of the European Community from radioactivity in North European marine waters Project 'Marina'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Project Marina was set up by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985 to look at the radiological impact of radionuclides, both natural and anthropogenic, in northern European marine waters. This paper is a summary of project Marina's work and its conclusions

  11. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  12. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  13. Water transfer and major environmental provisions of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act: A preliminary economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John B.

    1994-06-01

    Increasing block water pricing, water transfer, and wildlife refuge water supply provisions of the Central Valley Project (CVP) Improvement Act are analyzed in terms of likely farmer response and economic efficiency of these provisions. Based on a simplified partial equilibrium analysis, we estimate small, but significant water conservation savings due to pricing reform, the potential for substantial water transfers to non-CVP customers in severe drought years when the water price exceeds 110 per acre foot (1 acre foot equals 1.234 × 103 m3) and positive net benefits for implementation of the wildlife refuge water supply provisions. The high threshold water price is partly a result of requiring farmers to pay full cost on transferred water plus a surcharge of 25 per acre foot if the water is transferred to a non-CVP user. The act also sets an important precedent for water pricing reform, water transfer provisions, and environmental surcharges on water users that may find their way to other Bureau of Reclamation projects.

  14. Phase II Water Rental Pilot Project: Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Stacey H.

    1994-08-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented in 1991 as part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to quantify resident fish and wildlife impacts resulting from salmon flow augmentation releases made from the upper Snake River Basin. Phase I summarized existing resource information and provided management recommendations to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat resulting from storage releases for the I improvement of an adromous fish migration. Phase II includes the following: (1) a summary of recent biological, legal, and political developments within the basin as they relate to water management issues, (2) a biological appraisal of the Snake River between American Falls Reservoir and the city of Blackfoot to examine the effects of flow fluctuation on fish and wildlife habitat, and (3) a preliminary accounting of 1993--1994 flow augmentation releases out of the upper Snake, Boise, and Payette river systems. Phase III will include the development of a model in which annual flow requests and resident fish and wildlife suitability information are interfaced with habitat time series analysis to provide an estimate of resident fish and wildlife resources.

  15. A generic method for projecting and valuing domestic water uses, application to the Mediterranean basin at the 2050 horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

    2014-05-01

    The aim is to be able to assess future domestic water demands in a region with heterogeneous levels of economic development. This work offers an original combination of a quantitative projection of demands (similar to WaterGAP methodology) and an estimation of the marginal benefit of water. This method is applicable to different levels of economic development and usable for large-scale hydroeconomic modelling. The global method consists in building demand functions taking into account the impact of both the price of water and the level of equipment, proxied by economic development, on domestic water demand. Our basis is a 3-blocks inverse demand function: the first block consists of essential water requirements for food and hygiene; the second block matches intermediate needs; and the last block corresponds to additional water consumption, such as outdoor uses, which are the least valued. The volume of the first block is fixed to match recommended basic water requirements from the literature, but we assume that the volume limits of blocks 2 and 3 depend on the level of household equipment and therefore evolve with the level of GDP per capita (structural change), with a saturation. For blocks 1 and 2 we determine the value of water from elasticity, price and quantity data from the literature, using the point-extension method. For block 3, we use a hypothetical zero-cost demand and maximal demand with actual water costs to linearly interpolate the inverse demand function. These functions are calibrated on the 24 countries part of the Mediterranean basin using data from SIMEDD, and are used for the projection and valuation of domestic water demands at the 2050 horizon. They enable to project total water demand, and also the respective shares of the different categories of demand (basic demand, intermediate demand and additional uses). These projections are performed under different combined scenarios of population, GDP and water costs.

  16. Fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating items, with time depended demand, shortages, and fully backlogging

    OpenAIRE

    Wasim Akram Mandal; Sahidul Islam

    2016-01-01

    In this paper analyzes fuzzy inventory system for deterioration item with time depended demand. Shortages are allowed under fully backlogged. Fixed cost, deterioration cost, shortages cost, holding cost are the cost considered in this model. Fuzziness is applying by allowing the cost components (holding cost, deterioration, shortage cost, holding cost, etc). In fuzzy environment it considered all required parameter to be triangular fuzzy numbers. One numerical solution of the model is obtaine...

  17. Approach to the health-risk management on municipal reclaimed water reused in landscape water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Li, J.; Liu, W.

    2008-12-01

    Water pollution and water heavily shortage are both main environmental conflicts in China. Reclaimed water reuse is an important approach to lessen water pollution and solve the water shortage crisis in the city. The heath risk of reclaimed water has become the focus of the public. It is impending to evaluate the health risk of reclaimed water with risk assessment technique. Considering the ways of the reclaimed water reused, it is studied that health risk produced by toxic pollutants and pathogenic microbes in the processes of reclaimed water reused in landscape water system. The pathogenic microbes monitoring techniques in wastewater and reclaimed water are discussed and the hygienic indicators, risk assessment methods, concentration limitations of pathogenic microbes for various reclaimed water uses are studied. The principle of health risk assessment is used to research the exposure level and the health risk of concerned people in a wastewater reuse project where the reclaimed water is applied for green area irrigation in a public park in Beijing. The exposure assessment method and model of various reclaimed water uses are built combining with Beijing reclaimed water project. Firstly the daily ingesting dose and lifetime average daily dose(LADD) of exposure people are provided via field work and monitoring analysis, which could be used in health risk assessment as quantitative reference. The result shows that the main risk comes from the pathology pollutants, the toxic pollutants, the eutrophication pollutants, pathogenic microbes and the secondary pollutants when municipal wastewater is reclaimed for landscape water. The major water quality limited should include pathogenic microbes, toxic pollutants, and heavy metals. Keywords: municipal wastewater, reclaimed water, landscape water, health risk

  18. Status report on the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, L.; Garlock, G.; Mencarelli, R.; Fellhauer, C.

    1994-01-01

    ALARON Corporation is under contract, to Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E), to complete the decontamination and decommissioning of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR). The project, begun, in 1986 by ANL-E personnel, is projected to be completed by the end of 1994. The final phase of work was awarded to ALARON in December 1993 with the scope of work including the disassembly and removal of all remaining reactor internals, the reactor vessel, the lead bio-shield, the core liner, and the activated portion of the concrete bio-shield. This paper discusses the work undertaken beginning in January 1994 and continuing through July 1994. During this period the required pre-mobilization documentation was prepared and approved, mobilization was completed, and the reactor internals, reactor vessel, lead bio-shield and core liner were removed. The paper will compare the planned schedule to the actual schedule, discuss problems encountered, review volume reduction techniques and health and safety issues including radiological aspects of the project

  19. Interdisciplinary Project-Based Learning through an Environmental Water Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Lorie; Yearsley, Kaye; Silva, Andrew J.

    1997-12-01

    An interdisciplinary environmental water quality study was designed and conducted to enhance training and employability of chemical and environmental technician students in associate degree programs. Four project objectives were identified as a means to enhance the educational experience and employability of our students: provide experience on analytical instrumentation for organic compounds (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, GC/MS), require interdisciplinary group interactions and problem solving, provide experience with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures, and require cooperation with state agencies/private organizations. Students worked in groups that included representatives from both programs to develop project objectives and a Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) following EPA standards. Input from personnel at Idaho's Department of Environmental Quality and Bureau of Laboratories and from volunteers in an environmental "watch dog" organization called the Henry's Fork Foundation aided students in the development and implementation of their SAP. Subsequently, groups sampled sections of the Henry's Fork River and analyzed for organic, inorganic, and fecal contaminants. Analysis included EPA method 525.2 for pesticides using GC/MS. Data from all river segments was shared and each group submitted a final report analyzing results. Surveys completed by students and instructors indicate that the project is a successful teaching method allowing introduction of new skills as well as review of important technical and employability skills.

  20. Data of groundwater from boreholes, river water and precipitation for the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. 2011-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Nanjyo, Isao; Murakami, Hiroaki; Yokota, Hideharu; Yamazaki, Masanori; Iwatsuki, Teruki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Geological Isolation Research and Development Directorate, Horonobe, Hokkaido (Japan); Kunimaru, Takanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Geological Isolation Research and Development Directorate, Mizunami, Gifu (Japan); Oyama, Takahiro [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, groundwater from boreholes, river water and precipitation have been analyzed for the environmental monitoring since the fiscal year 2001. This report shows the data set of water chemistry since the fiscal year 2001 to the fiscal year 2010. (author)

  1. Watershed-scale evaluation of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model in the Lake Tahoe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin S. Brooks; Mariana Dobre; William J. Elliot; Joan Q. Wu; Jan Boll

    2016-01-01

    Forest managers need methods to evaluate the impacts of management at the watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) has the ability to model disturbed forested hillslopes, but has difficulty addressing some of the critical processes that are important at a watershed scale, including baseflow and water yield. In order to apply WEPP to...

  2. Data of groundwater from boreholes, river water and precipitation for the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. 2011-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Nanjyo, Isao; Murakami, Hiroaki; Yokota, Hideharu; Yamazaki, Masanori; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Kunimaru, Takanori; Oyama, Takahiro

    2012-02-01

    In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, groundwater from boreholes, river water and precipitation have been analyzed for the environmental monitoring since the fiscal year 2001. This report shows the data set of water chemistry since the fiscal year 2001 to the fiscal year 2010. (author)

  3. Mega drought in the Colorado River Basin, water supply, and adaptive scenario planning for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area; simulations using WaterSim 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC), a boundary organization, bridges science and policy (to foster knowledge-based decision making); we study how decisions are made in the face of uncertainty. Our water policy and management model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (hereafter "Phoenix"), termed WaterSim, represents one such bridging mechanism. We evaluated the effect of varying the length of drought on water availability for Phoenix. We examined droughts (starting in 2000) lasting 15, 25, and 50 years. We picked a 60-year window of runoff estimates from the paleo reconstruction data for the Colorado River (CO) (1121 through 1180 A.D.), and the two local rivers (1391 through 1450 A.D.), and assumed that the proportional difference in median flow between these periods and the long-term record represented an estimate of potential drought reductions on river flows. This resulted in a 12%, and 19% reduction in flows for the CO River and the Salt-Verde (SV) Rivers, respectively. WaterSim uses 30-year trace periods from the historical flow records to simulate river flow for future projections. We used each 30-year trace from the historical record (1906 to present, CO River; 1945 to present SV Rivers) , and default settings, to simulate 60 year projections of Lake Mead elevation and the accompanying Colorado River water shortages to Phoenix. Overall, elevations for Lake Mead fell below the 1st shortage sharing tier (1075 ft) in 83% of the simulations; 74% of the simulations fell below the 2nd tier (1050 ft), and 64% fell below the 3rd (1025 ft). Length of drought, however, determined the shortage tiers met. Median elevations for droughts ending in 2015, 2025, and 2050 were 1036, 1019, and 967 feet msl, respectively. We present the plausible water futures with adaptive anticipatory scenario planning for the projected reductions in surface water availability to demonstrate decision points for water conservation measures to effectively manage shortage conditions.

  4. Integrating Forage, Wildlife, Water, and Fish Projections with Timber Projections at the Regional Level: A Case Study in Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Curtis H. Flather; Patricia A. Flebbe; Thomas W. Hoekstra; Stan J. Ursic

    1990-01-01

    The impact of timber management and land-use change on forage production, turkey and deer abundance, red-cockaded woodpecker colonies, water yield, and trout abundance was projected as part of a policy study focusing on the southern United States. The multiresource modeling framework used in this study linked extant timber management and land-area policy models with...

  5. Projecting water resources changes in potential large-scale agricultural investment areas of the Kafue River Basin in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Trainor, A. M.; Baker, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change impacts regional water availability through the spatial and temporal redistribution of available water resources. This study focuses on understanding possible response of water resources to climate change in regions where potentials for large-scale agricultural investments are planned in the upper and middle Kafue River Basin in Zambia. We used historical and projected precipitation and temperature to assess changes in water yield, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. Some of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model outputs for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios project a temperature warming range from 1.8 - 5.7 °C over the region from 2020 to 2095. Precipitation projection patterns vary monthly but tend toward drier dry seasons with a slight increase in precipitation during the rainy season as compared to the historical time series. The best five calibrated parameter sets generated for the historical record (1965 - 2005) were applied for two future periods, 2020 - 2060 and 2055 - 2095, to project water yield change. Simulations projected that the 90th percentile water yield would be exceeded across most of the study area by up to 800% under the medium-low (RCP4.5) CO2 emission scenario, whereas the high (RCP8.5) CO2 emission scenario resulted in a more spatially varied pattern mixed with increasing (up to 500%) and decreasing (up to -54%) trends. The 10th percentile water yield indicated spatially varied pattern across the basin, increasing by as much as 500% though decreasing in some areas by 66%, with the greatest decreases during the dry season under RCP8.5. Overall, available water resources in the study area are projected to trend toward increased floods (i.e. water yields far exceeding 90th percentile) as well as increasing drought (i.e. water yield far below 10th percentile) vulnerability. Because surface water is a primary source for agriculture

  6. The future of the nurse shortage: will wage increases close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Given, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the U.S. media have been reporting a shortage of registered nurses (RNs). In theory, labor-market shortages are self-correcting; wage increases will bring labor markets into equilibrium, and policy intervention is not necessary. In this paper we develop a simple forecasting model and ask the question: How high must RN wages rise in the future to end the RN shortage? We find that inflation-adjusted wages must increase 3.2-3.8 percent per year between 2002 and 2016, with wages cumulatively rising up to 69 percent, to end the shortage. Total RN expenditures would more than double by 2016.

  7. Concerns for Skills Shortages in the 21st Century: A Review into the Construction Industry, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Watson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Construction Industry is now facing skills shortages in all trades. As an industry focused on the skill of its workforce, there is now concern the Australian standard in quality, workmanship, and productivity will inhibit both at national and international level.This research paper addresses the underlying, influential factors concerning skills shortages in the Australian construction industry. The influential factors addressed include funding, training statistics, employer expectations, financial limitations, Industrial Relations and immigration. Given the reference to skills shortages within the industry, and documented in related literature, if skills shortages are to continue to exist, their effect will impact upon the overall performance of construction companies throughout Australia.

  8. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SPRINGFIELD, OH. PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at the Chateau Estates Mobile Home Park in Springfield, OH. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies’ AD-33 media in removing arsenic to meet t...

  9. IAEA coordinated research project on thermal-hydraulics of Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, K.; Aksan, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is an innovative water-cooled reactor concept, which uses supercritical pressure water as reactor coolant. It has been attracting interest of many researchers in various countries mainly due to its benefits of high thermal efficiency and simple primary systems, resulting in low capital cost. The IAEA started in 2008 a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Thermal-Hydraulics of SCWRs as a forum to foster the exchange of technical information and international collaboration in research and development. This paper summarizes the activities and current status of the CRP, as well as major progress achieved to date. At present, 15 institutions closely collaborate in several tasks. Some organizations have been conducting thermal-hydraulics experiments and analysing the data, and others have been participating in code-to-test and/or code-to-code benchmark exercises. The expected outputs of the CRP are also discussed. Finally, the paper introduces several IAEA activities relating to or arising from the CRP. (authors)

  10. Phase I of the Kissimmee River restoration project, Florida, USA: impacts of construction on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, David J; Jones, Bradley L

    2005-03-01

    Phase I of the Kissimmee River restoration project included backfilling of 12 km of canal and restoring flow through 24 km of continuous river channel. We quantified the effects of construction activities on four water quality parameters (turbidity, total phosphorus flow-weighted concentration, total phosphorus load and dissolved oxygen concentration). Data were collected at stations upstream and downstream of the construction and at four stations within the construction zone to determine if canal backfilling and construction of 2.4 km of new river channel would negatively impact local and downstream water quality. Turbidity levels at the downstream station were elevated for approximately 2 weeks during the one and a half year construction period, but never exceeded the Florida Department of Environmental Protection construction permit criteria. Turbidity levels at stations within the construction zone were high at certain times. Flow-weighted concentration of total phosphorus at the downstream station was slightly higher than the upstream station during construction, but low discharge limited downstream transport of phosphorus. Total phosphorus loads at the upstream and downstream stations were similar and loading to Lake Okeechobee was not significantly affected by construction. Mean water column dissolved oxygen concentrations at all sampling stations were similar during construction.

  11. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibing

    2018-01-01

    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km 2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  12. Understanding the pediatric dermatology workforce shortage: mentoring matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admani, Shehla; Caufield, Maura; Kim, Silvia S; Siegfried, Elaine C; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2014-02-01

    To target pediatric dermatologists directly in order to evaluate their current demographics and the most important motivating factors that influenced their career choice. Pediatric dermatology is one of the pediatric subspecialties with an inadequate supply to meet current patient needs. A survey was designed to evaluate the training pathway, employment status, participation in teaching, and clinical practice characteristics of pediatric dermatologists. The survey was administered to attendants of the 2010 Society for Pediatric Dermatology annual meeting. Any remaining board certified pediatric dermatologists who had not previously responded were queried via Survey Monkey. There was a 71% response rate. The majority chose a career in pediatric dermatology early, often prior to starting a dermatology residency. The vast majority of respondents noted mentorship as the most important influence on their decision to pursue a career in pediatric dermatology. The most common obstacles cited by respondents were financial hardship and resistance of some dermatology programs to accept applicants previously trained in pediatrics. Our survey provides evidence to support the importance of early exposure to the field and, most importantly, to committed pediatric dermatologists who can serve as mentors. This information may be helpful in approaching solutions to the workforce shortage in the field of pediatric dermatology. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy shortages in Europe? strategic meetings on energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, M.

    2005-01-01

    On the RTE's initiative, the Economic and Social Council welcome the first 'Strategic Meetings on Energy Security' event on July 11, 2005. With its 'Energy Shortages in Europe?' subtitle, the convention was in line with the topical issue of oil price increases. Opening the convention, Hubert Bouchet, the vice-president of the Research and Technology Productive Activities section of the Economic and Social Council (CES) stated that with its 400 million citizens, Europe uses over 2 500 tWh of electricity a year, and that its demand for primary energy is growing, making it the largest importer of energy in the world and the top second user after the United States. The trend should continue at least until 2030. H Bouchet also stress that though the worlds is using increasing amounts of energy, over 1.5 billion people do not have access to modern energy sources. Therefore, there are huge needs. There were four round-tables introducing rich debates with the room. The first one was about the issue of the 'energy market: the end of overcapacity', and the second one, dedicated so secure supplies, was titled: 'An ill adapted regulatory framework and European context'. In the afternoon, exchanges covered 'Strategies to prepare the energy offer for new stakes' and 'Major strategies for France and Europe'. (author)

  14. Solve the organ shortage: let the bidding begin!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, J

    2001-01-01

    Commercialization of transplantable human organs is the only sure way to end the crisis of their supply. This is best accomplished by implementing a free, non-profit, nationwide, ultimately global online auction market. It should be independent of the current United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) system dealing solely with altruistic donation, and of governmental, sectarian, academic, and other bureaucratic control. The operation of such an auction is described with a hypothetical example. An included provision guarantees equity for poor, uninsured, and indigent recipients. Money accrued can be substantial, and would be disbursed by established formula, with major portions going to donors' families and to special funds to be used to bid for the poor and to defray costs incurred by them. As the organ shortage eases, bid prices should drop, resulting perhaps in eventual altruistic donation. Objections to commericalization based on ethics, bodily sanctity, inequity, pecuniary greed, and the slippery slope tocsin are nullified by cogent arguments and examples. The current situation has worsened despite so-called required request laws, proposed token payments to cover funeral expenses for donor families, and extensive media advertising to spur altruistic donation. Prohibitive national and state laws must be rescinded for the sake of more than 60,000 patients now on lengthening waiting lists. A profession committed to saving lives is duty-bound to endorse, help implement, and participate in an auction system dedicated to that end.

  15. Enterprise Policies for Tackling the Digital Skills Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela BORISOV

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays as results of the turbulent crisis, economies are confronted with the effects of the financial crisis, consequently many European states members are faced with strategic challenges in decisions about personnel development. Some of industries have faced shortages in the digital skill attainment of the currently employed personnel, or short supply of IT-related personnel due to the inadequacy of new entrants on the labor market. These problems are encountered in several traditional industries affected too rapidly by the technological advance. Along to these aspects, there are other difficulties for employers and employees as well, such as structural changes in job offering in various sectors or disparity in the employees; age categories – because of high unemployment rates in youth for instance. These are complemented by fewer job opportunities for young individuals (eventually, graduates for the tertiary sector of formal education that fit according to their specializations or even new type of skills’ demand – much oriented on the digitalization. The paper intends to presents some empirical aspects raised from the statistical evidence useful to point out critical aspects in the domestic and eventually, European approach to entreprice policy, in developing proper curricula to empower the academic institutions to provide knowledge, to foster skills for current enrolled students. On short term already, the future workforce needs to be prepared for the digitalization of the professional activity, regardless the specific domain of work and, in this view; companies should be in the position to manage this potential crisis of the labour market.

  16. Identifying Areas of Primary Care Shortage in Urban Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Liao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study considers both spatial and a-spatial variables in examining accessibility to primary healthcare in the three largest urban areas of Ohio (Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. Spatial access emphasizes the importance of geographic barriers between individuals and primary care physicians, while a-spatial variables include non-geographic barriers or facilitators such as age, sex, race, income, social class, education, living conditions and language skills. Population and socioeconomic data were obtained from the 2000 Census, and primary care physician data for 2008 was provided by the Ohio Medical Board. We first implemented a two-step method based on a floating catchment area using Geographic Information Systems to measure spatial accessibility in terms of 30-minute travel times. We then used principal component analysis to group various socio-demographic variables into three groups: (1 socioeconomic disadvantages, (2 living conditions, and (3 healthcare needs. Finally, spatial and a-spatial variables were integrated to identify areas with poor access to primary care in Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. KEYWORDS: Geographic information systems, healthcare access, spatial accessibility, primary care shortage areas

  17. On the electricity shortage, price and electricity theft nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is facing severe electricity shortfall of its history since 2006. Several measures have been implemented in order to mitigate electricity shortage. The focus has been on raising the installed capacity of electricity generation and transmission. The present policy results in expensive thermal electricity generation mostly using expensive and environmentally hazardous furnace oil and inability of utilities to recover their cost of supply although there is unprecedented rise in electricity tariffs. This study concentrates on the electricity demand and traces the relationship between electricity shortfalls, tariff rate and electricity theft in the background of recent electricity crisis using the data for the period 1985–2010. We employed the Granger causality test through error correction model and out-of-sample causality through variance decomposition method. Empirical evidence shows that electricity theft greatly influences electricity shortfalls through lowering investment and inefficient use of electricity. The study concludes that electricity crisis cannot be handled without combating rampant electricity theft in the country. - Highlights: ► The study investigates relationship among electricity outages, price and electricity theft. ► It employed Johansen approach, ECM and variance decomposition analysis. ► Empirical evidence shows that electricity theft causes outages and rising tariff rates. ► Variance decomposition analysis results are slightly different from ECM

  18. Projecting Future Sea Level Rise for Water Resources Planning in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Kao, K.; Chung, F.

    2008-12-01

    Sea level rise is one of the major concerns for the management of California's water resources. Higher water levels and salinity intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta could affect water supplies, water quality, levee stability, and aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna species and their habitat. Over the 20th century, sea levels near San Francisco Bay increased by over 0.6ft. Some tidal gauge and satellite data indicate that rates of sea level rise are accelerating. Sea levels are expected to continue to rise due to increasing air temperatures causing thermal expansion of the ocean and melting of land-based ice such as ice on Greenland and in southeastern Alaska. For water planners, two related questions are raised on the uncertainty of future sea levels. First, what is the expected sea level at a specific point in time in the future, e.g., what is the expected sea level in 2050? Second, what is the expected point of time in the future when sea levels will exceed a certain height, e.g., what is the expected range of time when the sea level rises by one foot? To address these two types of questions, two factors are considered: (1) long term sea level rise trend, and (2) local extreme sea level fluctuations. A two-step approach will be used to develop sea level rise projection guidelines for decision making that takes both of these factors into account. The first step is developing global sea level rise probability distributions for the long term trends. The second step will extend the approach to take into account the effects of local astronomical tides, changes in atmospheric pressure, wind stress, floods, and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. In this paper, the development of the first step approach is presented. To project the long term sea level rise trend, one option is to extend the current rate of sea level rise into the future. However, since recent data indicate rates of sea level rise are accelerating, methods for estimating sea level rise

  19. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The EPA standards allow the use of different strategies for achieving compliance with the standards. This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. Each of the four alternatives evaluated in the PEIS is based on a different mix of strategies to meet EPA ground water standards. The PEIS is intended to serve as a programmatic planning document that provides an objective basis for determining site-specific ground water compliance strategies and data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impact analyses more efficiently. DOE will prepare appropriate further National Environmental Policy Act documentation before making site-specific decisions to implement the Ground Water Project. Affected States, Tribes, local government agencies, and members of the public have been involved in the process of preparing this PEIS; DOE encourages their continued participation in the site-specific decision making process

  20. City of Flagstaff Project: Ground Water Resource Evaluation, Remote Sensing Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Pat S.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Bowell, Jo-Ann; Sides, Stuart C.; Gonzalez, Rosendo R.; Soltesz, Deborah L.

    1996-01-01

    Many regions, cities, and towns in the Western United States need new or expanded water resources because of both population growth and increased development. Any tools or data that can help in the evaluation of an area's potential water resources must be considered for this increasingly critical need. Remotely sensed satellite images and subsequent digital image processing have been under-utilized in ground water resource evaluation and exploration. Satellite images can be helpful in detecting and mapping an area's regional structural patterns, including major fracture and fault systems, two important geologic settings for an area's surface to ground water relations. Within the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Flagstaff Field Center, expertise and capabilities in remote sensing and digital image processing have been developed over the past 25 years through various programs. For the City of Flagstaff project, this expertise and these capabilities were combined with traditional geologic field mapping to help evaluate ground water resources in the Flagstaff area. Various enhancement and manipulation procedures were applied to the digital satellite images; the results, in both digital and hardcopy format, were used for field mapping and analyzing the regional structure. Relative to surface sampling, remotely sensed satellite and airborne images have improved spatial coverage that can help study, map, and monitor the earth surface at local and/or regional scales. Advantages offered by remotely sensed satellite image data include: 1. a synoptic/regional view compared to both aerial photographs and ground sampling, 2. cost effectiveness, 3. high spatial resolution and coverage compared to ground sampling, and 4. relatively high temporal coverage on a long term basis. Remotely sensed images contain both spectral and spatial information. The spectral information provides various properties and characteristics about the surface cover at a given location or pixel