Preparing projected entangled pair states on a quantum computer.
Schwarz, Martin; Temme, Kristan; Verstraete, Frank
2012-03-16
We present a quantum algorithm to prepare injective projected entangled pair states (PEPS) on a quantum computer, a class of open tensor networks representing quantum states. The run time of our algorithm scales polynomially with the inverse of the minimum condition number of the PEPS projectors and, essentially, with the inverse of the spectral gap of the PEPS's parent Hamiltonian.
Approximating local observables on projected entangled pair states
Schwarz, M.; Buerschaper, O.; Eisert, J.
2017-06-01
Tensor network states are for good reasons believed to capture ground states of gapped local Hamiltonians arising in the condensed matter context, states which are in turn expected to satisfy an entanglement area law. However, the computational hardness of contracting projected entangled pair states in two- and higher-dimensional systems is often seen as a significant obstacle when devising higher-dimensional variants of the density-matrix renormalization group method. In this work, we show that for those projected entangled pair states that are expected to provide good approximations of such ground states of local Hamiltonians, one can compute local expectation values in quasipolynomial time. We therefore provide a complexity-theoretic justification of why state-of-the-art numerical tools work so well in practice. We finally turn to the computation of local expectation values on quantum computers, providing a meaningful application for a small-scale quantum computer.
Characterizing symmetries in a projected entangled pair state
Perez-Garcia, D; Gonzalez-Guillen, C E [Departamento Analisis Matematico and IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, M; Cirac, J I [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wolf, M M [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: dperez@mat.ucm.es
2010-02-15
We show that two different tensors defining the same translational invariant injective projected entangled pair state (PEPS) in a square lattice must be the same up to a trivial gauge freedom. This allows us to characterize the existence of any local or spatial symmetry in the state. As an application of these results we prove that a SU(2) invariant PEPS with half-integer spin cannot be injective, which can be seen as a Lieb-Shultz-Mattis theorem in this context. We also give the natural generalization for U(1) symmetry in the spirit of Oshikawa-Yamanaka-Affleck, and show that a PEPS with Wilson loops cannot be injective.
Building projected entangled pair states with a local gauge symmetry
Zohar, Erez; Burrello, Michele
2016-04-01
Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states (PEPS), suggest an innovative approach for the study of lattice gauge theories, both from a pure theoretic point of view, and as a tool for the analysis of the recent proposals for quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories. In this paper we present a framework for describing locally gauge invariant states on lattices using PEPS. The PEPS constructed hereby shall include both bosonic and fermionic states, suitable for all combinations of matter and gauge fields in lattice gauge theories defined by either finite or compact Lie groups.
Building Projected Entangled Pair States with a Local Gauge Symmetry
Zohar, Erez
2015-01-01
Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states (PEPS), suggest an innovative approach for the study of lattice gauge theories, both from a pure theoretic point of view, and as a tool for the analysis of the recent proposals for quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories. In this paper we present a framework for describing locally gauge invariant states on lattices using PEPS. The PEPS constructed hereby shall include both bosonic and fermionic states, suitable for all combinations of matter and gauge fields in lattice gauge theories defined by either finite or compact Lie groups.
Variational optimization with infinite projected entangled-pair states
Corboz, Philippe
2016-07-01
We present a scheme to perform an iterative variational optimization with infinite projected entangled-pair states, a tensor network ansatz for a two-dimensional wave function in the thermodynamic limit, to compute the ground state of a local Hamiltonian. The method is based on a systematic summation of Hamiltonian contributions using the corner-transfer-matrix method. Benchmark results for challenging problems are presented, including the two-dimensional Heisenberg model, the Shastry-Sutherland model, and the t -J model, which show that the variational scheme yields considerably more accurate results than the previously best imaginary-time evolution algorithm, with a similar computational cost and with a faster convergence towards the ground state.
Orús, Román
2014-10-01
This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1d and 2d quantum lattice systems are also discussed.
Osorio Iregui, Juan; Troyer, Matthias; Corboz, Philippe
2017-09-01
In spite of their intrinsic one-dimensional nature, matrix product states have been systematically used to obtain remarkably accurate results for two-dimensional systems. Motivated by basic entropic arguments favoring projected entangled-pair states as the method of choice, we assess the relative performance of infinite matrix product states and infinite projected entangled-pair states on cylindrical geometries. By considering the Heisenberg and half-filled Hubbard models on the square lattice as our benchmark cases, we evaluate their variational energies as a function of both bond dimension and cylinder width. In both examples, we find crossovers at moderate cylinder widths, i.e., for the largest bond dimensions considered, we find an improvement on the variational energies for the Heisenberg model by using projected entangled-pair states at a width of about eleven sites, whereas for the half-filled Hubbard model, this crossover occurs at about seven sites.
Orús, Román, E-mail: roman.orus@uni-mainz.de
2014-10-15
This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1d and 2d quantum lattice systems are also discussed. - Highlights: • A practical introduction to selected aspects of tensor network methods is presented. • We provide analytical examples of MPS and 2d PEPS. • We provide basic aspects on several numerical methods for MPS and 2d PEPS. • We discuss a number of applications of tensor network methods from a broad perspective.
Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: an SU(2) study
Zohar, Erez; Burrello, Michele; Cirac, J Ignacio
2016-01-01
Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.
Projected Entangled Pair States with non-Abelian gauge symmetries: An SU(2) study
Zohar, Erez; Wahl, Thorsten B.; Burrello, Michele; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2016-11-01
Over the last years, Projected Entangled Pair States have demonstrated great power for the study of many body systems, as they naturally describe ground states of gapped many body Hamiltonians, and suggest a constructive way to encode and classify their symmetries. The PEPS study is not only limited to global symmetries, but has also been extended and applied for local symmetries, allowing to use them for the description of states in lattice gauge theories. In this paper we discuss PEPS with a local, SU(2) gauge symmetry, and demonstrate the use of PEPS features and techniques for the study of a simple family of many body states with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We present, in particular, the construction of fermionic PEPS able to describe both two-color fermionic matter and the degrees of freedom of an SU(2) gauge field with a suitable truncation.
Gradient methods for variational optimization of projected entangled-pair states
Vanderstraeten, Laurens; Haegeman, Jutho; Corboz, Philippe; Verstraete, Frank
2016-10-01
We present a conjugate-gradient method for the ground-state optimization of projected entangled-pair states (PEPS) in the thermodynamic limit, as a direct implementation of the variational principle within the PEPS manifold. Our optimization is based on an efficient and accurate evaluation of the gradient of the global energy functional by using effective corner environments, and is robust with respect to the initial starting points. It has the additional advantage that physical and virtual symmetries can be straightforwardly implemented. We provide the tools to compute static structure factors directly in momentum space, as well as the variance of the Hamiltonian. We benchmark our method on Ising and Heisenberg models, and show a significant improvement on the energies and order parameters as compared to algorithms based on imaginary-time evolution.
Corboz, P.
2016-01-01
An infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) is a variational tensor network ansatz for two-dimensional wave functions in the thermodynamic limit where the accuracy can be systematically controlled by the bond dimension D. We show that for the doped Hubbard model in the strongly correlated reg
Fermionic Projected Entangled Pair States and Local U(1) Gauge Theories
Zohar, Erez; Wahl, Thorsten; Cirac, J Ignacio
2015-01-01
Tensor networks, and in particular Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS), are a powerful tool for the study of quantum many body physics, thanks to both their built-in ability of classifying and studying symmetries, and the efficient numerical calculations they allow. In this work, we introduce a way to extend the set of symmetric PEPS in order to include local gauge invariance and investigate lattice gauge theories with fermionic matter. To this purpose, we provide as a case study and first example, the construction of a fermionic PEPS, based on Gaussian schemes, invariant under both global and local U(1) gauge transformations. The obtained states correspond to a truncated U(1) lattice gauge theory in 2 + 1 dimensions, involving both the gauge field and fermionic matter. For the global symmetry (pure fermionic) case, these PEPS can be studied in terms of spinless fermions subject to a p-wave superconducting pairing. For the local symmetry (fermions and gauge fields) case, we find confined and deconfined pha...
Anshu, Anurag; Arad, Itai; Jain, Aditya
2016-11-01
Two-dimensional tensor networks such as projected entangled pairs states (PEPS) are generally hard to contract. This is arguably the main reason why variational tensor network methods in two dimensions are still not as successful as in one dimension. However, this is not necessarily the case if the tensor network represents a gapped ground state of a local Hamiltonian; such states are subject to many constraints and contain much more structure. In this paper, we introduce an approach for approximating the expectation value of a local observable in ground states of local Hamiltonians that are represented by PEPS tensor networks. Instead of contracting the full tensor network, we try to estimate the expectation value using only a local patch of the tensor network around the observable. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that this is often easier to do when the system is frustrated. In such case, the spanning vectors of the local patch are subject to nontrivial constraints that can be utilized via a semidefinite program to calculate rigorous lower and upper bounds on the expectation value. We test our approach in one-dimensional systems, where we show how the expectation value can be calculated up to at least 3 or 4 digits of precision, even when the patch radius is smaller than the correlation length.
Xi Xiao-Qiang; Liu Wu-Ming
2007-01-01
Based on the calculation of all the pairwise entanglements in the n(n≤6)-qubit Heisenberg ⅩⅩ open chain with system impurity, we find an important result: pairwise entanglement can only be transferred by an entangled pair. The non-nearest pairwise entanglements will have the possibility to exist as long as there has been even number of qubits in their middle. This point indicates that we can obtain longer distance entanglement in a solid system.
Teleportation of Quantum States through Mixed Entangled Pairs
ZHENG Shi-Biao
2006-01-01
@@ We describe a protocol for quantum state teleportation via mixed entangled pairs. With the help of an ancilla,near-perfect teleportation might be achieved. For pure entangled pairs, perfect teleportation might be achieved with a certain probability without using an ancilla. The protocol is generalized to teleportation of multiparticle states and quantum secret sharing.
Implementation of nonlocal quantum swap operation on two entangled pairs
郑亦庄; 顾永建; 陈立冰; 郭光灿
2002-01-01
We propose a scheme for the implementation of nonlocal quantum swap operation on two spatially separated entangled pairs and we show that the operation can swap two qubits of these entangled pairs. We discuss the resourcesof the entangled qubits and classical communication bits required for the optimal implementation of the nonlocal quantum swap operation. We also put forward a scheme for probabilistic implementation of nonlocal swap operation via a nonmaximally entangled quantum channel. The probability of a successful nonlocal swap operation is obtained by introducing a collective unitary transformation.
An Optimum Scheme to Generate Entangled Photon Pairs
GAO Xiang; WANG Xiao-Lu; LI Jia-Ming
2007-01-01
An optimum scheme is proposed to generate a strong entangled photon-pair light source by combining two incident laser lights. Such entangled photon source should have various potential applications in many fields such as quantum metrology, quantum information, and quantum lithography, etc.
Three-qubit topological phase on entangled photon pairs
Johansson, Markus; Singh, Kuldip; Sjöqvist, Erik
2013-01-01
We propose an experiment to observe the topological phases associated with cyclic evolutions, generated by local SU(2) operations, on three-qubit entangled states prepared on different degrees of freedom of entangled photon pairs. The topological phases reveal the nontrivial topological structure of the local SU(2) orbits. We describe how to prepare states showing different topological phases, and discuss their relation to entanglement. In particular, the presence of a $\\pi/2$ phase shift is a signature of genuine tripartite entanglement in the sense that it does not exist for two-qubit systems.
Probabilistic teleportation of a two-particle entangled state via a partially entangled pair
CHEN Xiu-bo; LIU Xin-yuan; WEN Qiao-yan; ZHU Fu-chen
2006-01-01
A scheme for teleporting an unknown two-particle entangled state is proposed. In comparison with the recent protocol (Cola et al., Phys. Lett. A 337 (2005)), the entangled state as quantum channel required by this scheme is a single,partially entangled pair, which is much easier to prepare and maintain. Furthermore, a positive operator valued measure (POVM) is adopted and all kinds of transformations performed by sender and receiver are given in detail. It is shown that the probability of successful teleportation is twice the modulus square of the smaller Schmidt coefficient of the two-particle entangled state, and the fidelity can reach one.
Tsujimoto, Yoshiaki; Sugiura, Yukihiro; Ando, Makoto; Katsuse, Daisuke; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2015-05-18
We experimentally demonstrated entanglement extraction scheme by using photons at the telecommunication band for optical-fiber-based quantum communications. We generated two pairs of non-degenerate polarization entangled photons at 780 nm and 1551 nm by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and distributed the two photons at 1551 nm through a collective phase damping channel which gives the same amount of random phase shift on the two photons. Through local operation and classical communication, we extracted an entangled photon pair from two phase-disturbed photon pairs. An observed fidelity of the extracted photon pair to a maximally entangled photon pair was 0.73 ± 0.07 which clearly shows the recovery of entanglement.
Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs in Bragg reflection waveguides
Vallés Marí, Adam
2012-01-01
Integrated optics, nonlinear optics, quantum optics [ANGLÈS] We report the observation of polarization entangled photon pairs generated by means of type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) within an AlGaAs Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Even though SPDC in BRW had been observed before, the photons detected were not entangled in the polarization degree of freedom. As a necessary previous step, we also characterized the phase-matching properties of the waveguides designed by ...
Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs
Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I., E-mail: isabelle.zaquine@telecom-paristech.fr [LTCI, CNRS, Télécom ParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 75013 Paris (France); Ghalbouni, J. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences 2, Lebanese University, Campus Fanar, BP 90656 Jdeidet (Lebanon)
2015-10-14
We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.
Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs
Trapateau, J.; Ghalbouni, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.
2015-10-01
We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.
Behaviour of entanglement and Cooper pairs under relativistic boosts
Palge, Veiko; Dunningham, Jacob A
2011-01-01
Recent work has shown how single-particle entangled states are transformed when boosted in relativistic frames for certain restricted geometries. Here we extend that work to consider completely general inertial boosts. We then apply our single particle results to multiparticle entanglements by focussing on Cooper pairs of electrons. We show that a standard Cooper pair state consisting of a spin-singlet acquires spin-triplet components in a relativistically boosted inertial frame, regardless of the geometry. We also show that, if we start with a spin-triplet pair, two out of the three triplet states acquire a singlet component, the size of which depends on the geometry. This transformation between the different singlet and triplet superconducting pairs may lead to a better understanding of unconventional superconductivity.
Behavior of entanglement and Cooper pairs under relativistic boosts
Palge, Veiko; Dunningham, Jacob A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Vedral, Vlatko [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)
2011-10-15
Recent work [J. A. Dunningham, V. Palge, and V. Vedral, Phys. Rev. A 80, 044302 (2009)] has shown how single-particle entangled states are transformed when boosted in relativistic frames for certain restricted geometries. Here we extend that work to consider completely general inertial boosts. We then apply our single-particle results to multiparticle entanglements by focusing on Cooper pairs of electrons. We show that a standard Cooper pair state consisting of a spin-singlet acquires spin-triplet components in a relativistically boosted inertial frame, regardless of the geometry. We also show that, if we start with a spin-triplet pair, two out of the three triplet states acquire a singlet component, the size of which depends on the geometry. This transformation between the different singlet and triplet superconducting pairs may lead to a better understanding of unconventional superconductivity.
Purification of an unpolarized spin ensemble into entangled singlet pairs
Greiner, Johannes N; Wrachtrup, Jörg
2016-01-01
Dynamical polarization of nuclear spin ensembles is of central importance for magnetic resonance studies, precision sensing and for applications in quantum information theory. Here we propose a scheme to generate long-lived singlet pairs in an unpolarized nuclear spin ensemble which is dipolar coupled to the electron spins of a Nitrogen Vacancy center in diamond. The quantum mechanical back-action induced by frequent spin-selective readout of the NV centers allows the nuclear spins to pair up into maximally entangled singlet pairs. Counterintuitively, the robustness of the pair formation to dephasing noise improves with increasing size of the spin ensemble. We also show how the paired nuclear spin state allows for enhanced sensing capabilities of NV centers in diamond.
Li, Yujie; Dai, Yue; Shi, Yu
2017-02-01
Quantum entanglement is the characteristic quantum correlation. Here, we use this concept to analyze the quantum entanglement generated by Schwinger production of particle-antiparticle pairs in an electric field, as well as the change of entanglement as a consequence of the electric field effect on a pre-existing entangled pair of particles. The system is partitioned by using momentum modes. Various kinds of pairwise mode entanglement are calculated as functions of the electric field. Both constant and pulsed electric fields are considered. The use of entanglement exposes information beyond that in particle number distributions.
Performance of a scintillator hodoscope for detecting entangled electron pairs
Peck, Marius; Schlemme, Steffen; Enders, Joachim [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Bodek, Kazimierz; Rozpedzik, Dagmara; Zejma, Jacek [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Caban, Pawel; Rembielinski, Jakub [University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ciborowski, Jacek; Dragowski, Michal; Wlodarczyk, Marta [Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Kozela, Adam [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAS, Cracow (Poland)
2015-07-01
In the framework of a Polish-German collaboration aimed at investigating quantum entanglement of ultra-relativistic electrons following Moeller scattering a test experiment has been carried out at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC. The Moeller pairs undergo polarization analysis by means of Mott scattering. In the test experiment, the scattered electrons were tracked in drift chambers and detected by a scintillator hodoscope. The properties of this detector arrangement has been investigated off-line with radioactive sources. Results are presented, and an outlook for future improvement of the setup is given.
A Random Number Generator Based on Quantum Entangled Photon Pairs
MA Hai-Qiang; WANG Su-Mei; ZHANG Da; CHANG Jun-Tao; JI Ling-Ling; HOU Yan-Xue; WU Ling-An
2004-01-01
A new scheme for a random number generator based on quantum entangled photon pairs is demonstrated.Signal photons produced by optical parametric down-conversion are detected at two single-photon detectors after transmission or reflection at a 50/50% beamsplitter, to form a truly random binary sequence. Their arrival is signalled by their twin idler photons, so that a cw laser source may be used instead of attenuated laser pulses.Coincidence measurement is employed to obtain the bit sequences, which are shown to fully satisfy the standard tests for randomness.
On-demand source of maximally entangled photon pairs using the biexciton-exciton radiative cascade
Winik, R.; Cogan, D.; Don, Y.; Schwartz, I.; Gantz, L.; Schmidgall, E. R.; Livneh, N.; Rapaport, R.; Buks, E.; Gershoni, D.
2017-06-01
We perform full time-resolved tomographic measurements of the polarization state of pairs of photons emitted during the radiative cascade of the confined biexciton in a semiconductor quantum dot. The biexciton was deterministically initiated using a π -area pulse into the biexciton two-photon absorption resonance. Our measurements demonstrate that the polarization states of the emitted photon pair are maximally entangled. We show that the measured degree of entanglement depends solely on the temporal resolution by which the time difference between the emissions of the photon pair is determined. A route for fabricating an on-demand source of maximally polarization entangled photon pairs is thereby provided.
Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.
2008-07-01
We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states.
W. B. Cardosol; N. G. de Almeida
2008-01-01
We propose a scheme to partially teleport an unknown entangled atomic state. A high-Q cavity, supporting one mode of a weak coherent state, is needed to accomplish this process. By partial teleportation we mean that teleportation will occur by changing one of the partners of the entangled state to be teleported. The entangled state to be teleported is composed by one pair of particles, we called this surprising characteristic of maintaining the entanglement, even when one of the particle of the entangled pair being teleported is changed, of divorce of entangled states.
Engineering of Multi-Dimensional Entangled States of Photon Pairs Using Hyper-Entanglement
REN Xi-Feng; GUO Guo-Ping; LI Jian; LI Chuan-Feng; GUO Guang-Can
2006-01-01
@@ Multi-dimensional entangled states have been proven to be more powerful in some quantum information processes.Down-converted photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion are used to engineer multi-dimensional entangled states. A kind of multi-degree multi-dimensional Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states can also be generated. The hyper-entangled photons are entangled in energy-time, polarization and orbital angular momentum,which is proven to be useful to increase the dimension of systems and to investigate higher-dimensional entangled states.
Enhanced continuous-variable entanglement by a pair of nonlinearly coupled waveguides
无
2009-01-01
We seek to analyze a three-level cascade laser with a pair of nonlinearly coupled waveguides inside the cavity. Applying the pertinent master equation, we investigate the squeezing and entanglement properties intracavity produced by our system. It is shown that with the help of nonlinearly coupled waveguides highly squeezed as well as macroscopic entangled light with high intensity can be achieved.
Quantum Entanglement and Projective Ring Geometry
Planat, M R P; Kibler, M R; Planat, Michel R. P.; Saniga, Metod; Kibler, Maurice R.
2006-01-01
The paper explores the basic geometrical properties of the observables characterizing two-qubit systems by employing a novel projective ring geometric approach. After introducing the basic facts about quantum complementarity and maximal quantum entanglement in such systems, we demonstrate that the 15$\\times$15 multiplication table of the associated four-dimensional matrices exhibits a so-far-unnoticed geometrical structure that can be regarded as three pencils of lines in the projective plane of order two. All lines in each pencil carry mutually commuting operators; in one of the pencils, which we call the kernel, the observables on two lines share a base of maximally entangled states. The three operators on any line in each pencil represent a row or column of some Mermin's " magic" square, thus revealing an inherent geometrical nature of the latter. In the complement of the kernel, the eight vertices/observables are joined by twelve lines which form the edges of a cube. A substantial part of the paper is dev...
Robustness in projected entangled pair states
Cirac, J. Ignacio; Michalakis, Spyridon; Pérez-García, David; Schuch, Norbert
2013-09-01
We analyze a criterion which guarantees that the ground states of certain many-body systems are stable under perturbations. Specifically, we consider PEPS, which are believed to provide an efficient description, based on local tensors, for the low energy physics arising from local interactions. In order to assess stability in the framework of PEPS, one thus needs to understand how physically allowed perturbations of the local tensor affect the properties of the global state. In this paper, we show that a restricted version of the local topological quantum order (LTQO) condition [Michalakis and Pytel, Commun. Math. Phys.10.1007/s00220-013-1762-6 322, 277 (2013)] provides a checkable criterion which allows us to assess the stability of local properties of PEPS under physical perturbations. We moreover show that LTQO itself is stable under perturbations which preserve the spectral gap, leading to nontrivial examples of PEPS which possess LTQO and are thus stable under arbitrary perturbations.
Discrete Frequency Entangled Photon Pair Generation Based on Silicon Micro-ring Cavities
Suo, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, Shuai; Huang, Yidong; Peng, Jiangde
2016-10-01
In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a scheme to generate discrete frequency entangled photon pairs based on a silicon micro-ring resonator. The resonator is placed in a Sagnac fiber loop. Stimulated by two pump lights at two different resonance wavelengths of the resonator, photon pairs at another two resonance wavelengths are generated along two opposite directions in the fiber loop, by the nondegenerate spontaneous four wave mixing in the resonator. Their states are superposed and interfered at the output ports of the fiber loop to generate frequency entangled photon pairs. On the other hand, since the pump lights come from two continuous wave lasers, energy-time entanglement is an intrinsic property of the generated photon pairs. The entanglements on frequency and energy-time are demonstrated experimentally by the experiments of spatial quantum beating and Franson-type interference, respectively, showing that the silicon micro-ring resonators are ideal candidates to realize complex photonic quantum state generation.
Chen, L. X.; Wu, Q. P.
2012-10-01
Recently, Dada et al. reported on the experimental entanglement concentration and violation of generalized Bell inequalities with orbital angular momentum (OAM) [Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011)]. Here we demonstrate that the high-dimensional entanglement concentration can be performed in arbitrary OAM subspaces with selectivity. Instead of violating the generalized Bell inequalities, the working principle of present entanglement concentration is visualized by the biphoton OAM Klyshko picture, and its good performance is confirmed and quantified through the experimental Shannon dimensionalities after concentration.
Tensor Renormalization of Quantum Many-Body Systems Using Projected Entangled Simplex States
Z. Y. Xie
2014-02-01
Full Text Available We propose a new class of tensor-network states, which we name projected entangled simplex states (PESS, for studying the ground-state properties of quantum lattice models. These states extend the pair-correlation basis of projected entangled pair states to a simplex. PESS are exact representations of the simplex solid states, and they provide an efficient trial wave function that satisfies the area law of entanglement entropy. We introduce a simple update method for evaluating the PESS wave function based on imaginary-time evolution and the higher-order singular-value decomposition of tensors. By applying this method to the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice, we obtain accurate and systematic results for the ground-state energy, which approach the lowest upper bounds yet estimated for this quantity.
Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-04-01
We have demonstrated experimentally a nondegenerate polarization-entangled photon-pair distribution in a commercial telecom dense wave-division multiplexing device (DWDM) with eight channels. A promising point of this experiment is that an entangled photon pair is obtained via spontaneous parametric down conversion in a single type-II periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal without postselection. Another promising advantage is that we can actively switch the distribution of the photon pair between different channel pairs in DWDM at will. There is no crosstalk between different channel pairs because of a limited emission bandwidth of the source. Maximum raw visibility of 97.88%±0.86% obtained in a Bell-type interference experiment and a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality S parameter of 2.63±0.08 calculated prove high entanglement of our source. Our work is helpful for building quantum communication networks.
Quantum Entanglement and Projective Ring Geometry
Michel Planat
2006-08-01
Full Text Available The paper explores the basic geometrical properties of the observables characterizing two-qubit systems by employing a novel projective ring geometric approach. After introducing the basic facts about quantum complementarity and maximal quantum entanglement in such systems, we demonstrate that the 15 × 15 multiplication table of the associated four-dimensional matrices exhibits a so-far-unnoticed geometrical structure that can be regarded as three pencils of lines in the projective plane of order two. In one of the pencils, which we call the kernel, the observables on two lines share a base of Bell states. In the complement of the kernel, the eight vertices/observables are joined by twelve lines which form the edges of a cube. A substantial part of the paper is devoted to showing that the nature of this geometry has much to do with the structure of the projective lines defined over the rings that are the direct product of n copies of the Galois field GF(2, with n = 2, 3 and 4.
Lutz, Thomas; Jennewein, Thomas
2013-01-01
Spectrally correlated photon pairs can be used to improve performance of long range fiber based quantum communication protocols. We present a source based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion producing polarization entangled photons without spectral filtering. In addition, the spectral correlation within the photon pair can be controlled by changing the pump pulse duration or coupled spatial modes characteristics. The spectral and polarization correlations were characterized. The generated photon pairs feature both positive spectral correlations, no correlations, or negative correlations and polarization entanglement with the fidelity as high as 0.97 (no background subtraction) with the expected Bell state.
An integrable optical-fiber source of polarization entangled photon-pairs in the telecom band
Li, X; Kumar, P; Lee, K F; Liang, C; Voss, P L; Chen, Jun; Kumar, Prem; Lee, Kim Fook; Li, Xiaoying; Liang, Chuang; Voss, Paul L.
2006-01-01
We demonstrate an optical-fiber based source of polarization entangled photon-pairs with improved quality and efficiency, which has been integrated with off-the-shelf telecom components and is, therefore, well suited for quantum communication applications in the 1550\\,nm telecom band. Polarization entanglement is produced by simultaneously pumping a loop of standard dispersion-shifted fiber with two orthogonally-polarized pump pulses, one propagating in the clockwise and the other in the counter-clockwise direction. We characterize this source by investigating two-photon interference between the generated signal-idler photon-pairs under various conditions. The experimental parameters are carefully optimized to maximize the generated photon-pair correlation and to minimize contamination of the entangled photon-pairs from extraneously scattered background photons that are produced by the pump pulses for two reasons: i) spontaneous Raman scattering causes uncorrelated photons to be emitted in the signal/idler ba...
CW-pumped telecom band polarization entangled photon pair generation in a Sagnac interferometer
Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen
2015-01-01
A polarization entangled photon pair source is widely used in many quantum information processing applications such as teleportation, quantum swapping, quantum computation and high precision quantum metrology. Here, we report on the generation of a continuous-wave pumped degenerated 1550 nm polarization entangled photon pair source at telecom wavelength using a type-II phase-matched periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal in a Sagnac interferometer. Hong-Ou-Mandel-type interference measurement shows the photon bandwidth of 2.4 nm. High quality of entanglement is verified by various kinds of measurements, for example two-photon interference fringes, Bell inequality and quantum states tomography. The wavelength of photons can be tuned over a broad range by changing the temperature of crystal or pump power without losing the quality of entanglement. This source will be useful for building up long-distance quantum networks.
Enhanced continuous-variable entanglement by a pair of nonlinearly coupled waveguides
WANG KeQuan; FAN QiuBo
2009-01-01
We seek to analyze a three-level cascade laser with a pair of non,nearly coupled waveguides inside the cavity.Applying the pertinent master equation,we investigate the squeezing and entanglement prop-erties intracavity produced by our system.It is shown that with the help of nonlinearly coupled waveguides highly squeezed as well as macroscopic entangled light with high intensity can be achieved.
Qubit entanglement between ring-resonator photon-pair sources on a silicon chip.
Silverstone, J W; Santagati, R; Bonneau, D; Strain, M J; Sorel, M; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G
2015-08-06
Entanglement--one of the most delicate phenomena in nature--is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale.
A deterministic cavity-QED source of polarization entangled photon pairs
Garcia-Maraver, R; Eckert, K; Mompart, J
2006-01-01
We present two cavity quantum electrodynamics proposals that, sharing the same basic elements, allow for the deterministic generation of entangled photons pairs by means of a three-level atom successively coupled to two single longitudinal mode high-Q optical resonators presenting polarization degeneracy. In the faster proposal, the three-level atom yields a polarization entangled photon pair via two truncated Rabi oscillations, whereas in the adiabatic proposal a counterintuitive Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage process is considered. Although slower than the former process, this second method is very efficient and robust under fluctuations of the experimental parameters and, particularly interesting, almost completely insensitive to atomic decay.
The loss of the entanglement between Hawking pairs due to a black hole singularity
Oshita, Naritaka
2016-01-01
We propose that the entanglement of Hawking pairs disappears due to redshift of the infalling mode in the vicinity of a black hole singularity. More concretely, the infalling mode is redshifted as it falls away from the horizon and decoheres, which makes the state of the Hawking pair separable, namely the entanglement is broken. This implies we no longer need to introduce the firewalls to avoid the firewall paradox. In other words, we do not need to abandon any of the fundamental principle, i.e., Einstein's equivalence principle, unitarity, and quantum field theory.
The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement
Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre
2015-01-01
We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on (1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and (2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects o...
Herrmann, Harald; Thomas, Abu; Poppe, Andreas; Sohler, Wolfgang; Silberhorn, Christine
2013-01-01
We present an integrated source of polarization entangled photon pairs in the telecom regime, which is based on type II-phasematched parametric down-conversion (PDC) in a Ti-indiffused waveguide in periodically poled lithium niobate. The domain grating -- consisting of an interlaced bi-periodic structure -- is engineered to provide simultaneous phase-matching of two PDC processes, and enables the direct generation of non-degenerate, polarization entangled photon pairs with a brightness of $B=7\\times10^3$ pairs/(s mW GHz). The spatial separation of the photon pairs is accomplished by a fiber-optical multiplexer facilitating a high compactness of the overall source. Visibilities exceeding 95% and a violation of the Bell inequality with $S=2.57\\pm0.06$ could be demonstrated.
Multiplexed entangled photon-pair sources for all-fiber quantum networks
Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yin-Hai; Xu, Li-Xin; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-11-01
The ultimate goal of quantum information science is to build a global quantum network, which enables quantum resources to be distributed and shared between remote parties. Such a quantum network can be realized using only fiber elements, thus deriving the advantages of low transmission loss, low cost, scalability, and integrability through mature fiber communication techniques such as dense wavelength division multiplexing. Hence high-quality entangled-photon sources based on fibers are in high demand. Here we report multiplexed polarization- and time-bin-entangled photon-pair sources based on the dispersion-shifted fiber operating at room temperature. The associated high quality of entanglement is characterized using interference, Bell's inequality, and quantum state tomography. The simultaneous presence of both types of entanglement in multi-channel pairs of a 100-GHz dense wavelength division multiplexing device indicates a great capacity in distributing entangled photons over multiple users. Our design provides a versatile platform and takes a big step toward constructing an all-fiber quantum network.
Multiplexed entangled photon-pair sources for all-fiber quantum networks
Li, Yin-Hai; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Xu, Zhao-Huai; Xu, Li-Xin; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-10-01
The ultimate goal of quantum information science is to build a global quantum network, which enables quantum resources to be distributed and shared between remote parties. Such a quantum network can be realized using only fiber elements, thus deriving the advantages of low transmission loss, low cost, scalability, and integrability through mature fiber communication techniques such as dense wavelength division multiplexing. Hence high-quality entangled-photon sources based on fibers are in high demand. Here we report multiplexed polarization- and time-bin-entangled photon-pair sources based on the dispersion-shifted fiber operating at room temperature. The associated high quality of entanglement is characterized using interference, Bell's inequality, and quantum state tomography. The simultaneous presence of both types of entanglement in multichannel pairs of a 100-GHz dense wavelength division multiplexing device indicates a great capacity in distributing entangled photons over multiple users. Our design provides a versatile platform and takes a big step toward constructing an all-fiber quantum network.
Ji, T T; Bu, N; Chen, F J; Tao, Y C; Wang, J
2016-04-14
For Entangled electron pairs superconducting spintronics, there exist two drawbacks in existing proposals of generating entangled electron pairs. One is that the two kinds of different spin entangled electron pairs mix with each other. And the other is a low efficiency of entanglement production. Herein, we report the spin entanglement state of the ferromagnetic insulator (FI)/s-wave superconductor/FI structure on a narrow quantum spin Hall insulator strip. It is shown that not only the high production of entangled electron pairs in wider energy range, but also the perfect spin filtering of entangled electron pairs in the context of no highly spin-polarized electrons, can be obtained. Moreover, the currents for the left and right leads in the antiferromagnetic alignment both can be zero, indicating 100% tunnelling magnetoresistance with highly magnetic storage efficiency. Therefore, the spin filtering for entangled electron pairs and magnetic storage with high efficiencies coexist in one setup. The results may be experimentally demonstrated by measuring the tunnelling conductance and the noise power.
Teleportation of a two-atom entangled state using a single EPR pair in cavity QED
Ji Xin; Li Ke; Zhang Shou
2006-01-01
We propose a scheme for teleporting a two-atom entangled state in cavity quantum electrodynamics(QED).In the scheme,we choose a single Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair as the quantum channel which is shared by the sender and the receiver.By using the atom-cavity-field interaction and introducing an additional atom,we can teleport the two-atom entangled state successfully with a probability of 1.0.Moreover,we show that the scheme is insensitive to cavity decay and thermal field.
Entangled-Pair Transmission Improvement Using Distributed Phase-Sensitive Amplification
Anjali Agarwal
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate the transmission of time-bin entangled photon pairs through a distributed optical phase-sensitive amplifier (OPSA. We utilize four-wave mixing at telecom wavelengths in a 5-km dispersion-shifted fiber OPSA operating in the low-gain limit. Measurements of two-photon interference curves show no statistically significant degradation in the fringe visibility at the output of the OPSA. In addition, coincidence counting rates are higher than direct passive transmission because of constructive interference between amplitudes of input photon pairs and those generated in the OPSA. Our results suggest that application of distributed phase-sensitive amplification to transmission of entangled photon pairs could be highly beneficial towards advancing the rate and scalability of future quantum communications systems.
Entangled-Pair Transmission Improvement Using Distributed Phase-Sensitive Amplification
Agarwal, Anjali; Dailey, James M.; Toliver, Paul; Peters, Nicholas A.
2014-10-01
We demonstrate the transmission of time-bin entangled photon pairs through a distributed optical phase-sensitive amplifier (OPSA). We utilize four-wave mixing at telecom wavelengths in a 5-km dispersion-shifted fiber OPSA operating in the low-gain limit. Measurements of two-photon interference curves show no statistically significant degradation in the fringe visibility at the output of the OPSA. In addition, coincidence counting rates are higher than direct passive transmission because of constructive interference between amplitudes of input photon pairs and those generated in the OPSA. Our results suggest that application of distributed phase-sensitive amplification to transmission of entangled photon pairs could be highly beneficial towards advancing the rate and scalability of future quantum communications systems.
Simplified Scheme for Teleportation of a Multipartite Quantum State Using a Single Entangled Pair
YAN Li-Hua; GAO Yun-Feng
2009-01-01
A simple scheme for teleporting an unknown M-qubit cat-like state is proposed.The steps of this scheme can be summarized simpIy: disentangle-teleport-reconstruct entanglement.If proper unitary operations and measurements from senders are given, the teleportation of an unknown M-qubit cat-like state can be converted into single qubit teleportation.In the meantime, the receiver should also carry out right unitary operations with the introduction of appropriate ancillary qubits to confirm the successful teleportation of the demanded entangled state.The present scheme can be generalized to teleport an unknown M-quNit state, i.e., an M-quNit state can be teleported by a single quNit entangled pair.
Effects of Anisotropy on Pair-wise Entanglement of a Four-Qubit Heisenberg X X Z Chain
CAO Min; ZHU Shi-Qun
2006-01-01
@@ The pair-wise thermal entanglement in a four-qubit Heisenberg XXZ chain is investigated to study the role of anisotropy when an external magnetic field is included. It is found that pair-wise entanglement is absent between nearest- and next-nearest neighbouring qubits with anisotropic parameter △≤ -1. For two nearest-neighbouring qubits, increasing the parameter can not only induce the entanglement, but also extend the entanglement region in terms of magnetic field B and temperature T. For two next-nearest-neighbouring qubits, increasing anisotropic parameter can shift the location of the entanglement and control the extent of the entanglement in terms of magnetic field at a finite temperature.
Entanglement and Sources of Magnetic Anisotropy in Radical Pair-Based Avian Magnetoreceptors
Hogben, Hannah J.; Biskup, Till; Hore, P. J.
2012-11-01
One of the principal models of magnetic sensing in migratory birds rests on the quantum spin dynamics of transient radical pairs created photochemically in ocular cryptochrome proteins. We consider here the role of electron spin entanglement and coherence in determining the sensitivity of a radical pair-based geomagnetic compass and the origins of the directional response. It emerges that the anisotropy of radical pairs formed from spin-polarized molecular triplets could form the basis of a more sensitive compass sensor than one founded on the conventional hyperfine-anisotropy model. This property offers new and more flexible opportunities for the design of biologically inspired magnetic compass sensors.
Entanglement and Sources of Magnetic Anisotropy in Radical Pair-Based Avian Magnetoreceptors
Hogben, Hannah J; Hore, P J
2012-01-01
One of the principal models of magnetic sensing in migratory birds rests on the quantum spin-dynamics of transient radical pairs created photochemically in ocular cryptochrome proteins. We consider here the role of electron spin entanglement and coherence in determining the sensitivity of a radical pair-based geomagnetic compass and the origins of the directional response. It emerges that the anisotropy of radical pairs formed from spin-polarized molecular triplets could form the basis of a more sensitive compass sensor than one founded on the conventional hyper?ne-anisotropy model. This property offers new and more flexible opportunities for the design of biologically inspired magnetic compass sensors.
Yoshizawa, Akio; Fukuda, Daiji; Tsuchida, Hidemi
2014-02-01
We demonstrate a telecom-band fiber-optic two-photon Michelson interferometer using near-degenerate and collinear photon pairs with frequency entanglement. For spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), a continuous-wave laser diode pumps a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. Two threshold single-photon detectors record coincidence counts to observe two-photon interference and evaluate the correlation function. Multi-pair emission events are inevitable in SPDC and photon pairs without frequency entanglement are unintentionally registered as coincidence counts. In the demonstrated experiment, a mixture of photon pairs with and without frequency entanglement is present. The effects of such a mixed state on the correlation function are experimentally investigated. Two-photon interference of photon pairs without frequency entanglement is also measured for comparison.
Fan, Lin-Lin; Xia, Yan
2015-03-01
In this paper, a protocol for single-photon-assisted entanglement concentration is proposed. Resorting to the nonlinear optics of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a diamond embedded in a photonic crystal cavity coupled to a waveguide, remote parties can share the maximally entangled photon pair with a certain probability. Compared with other entanglement concentration protocols (ECPs), the current one does not need to know the accurate coefficients of the initial state and can be repeated to get a higher success probability. Meanwhile, this protocol is more suitable for multiphoton system concentration. All these advantages make the protocol useful in long-distance quantum communication.
Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photon pairs in the 1550nm telecom band
Li, X; Sharping, J E; Kumar, P; Li, Xiaoying; Voss, Paul L.; Sharping, Jay E.; Kumar, Prem
2005-01-01
We present a fiber based source of polarization-entangled photon pairs that is well suited for quantum communication applications in the 1550nm band of standard fiber-optic telecommunications. Polarization entanglement is created by pumping a nonlinear-fiber Sagnac interferometer with two time-delayed orthogonally-polarized pump pulses and subsequently removing the time distinguishability by passing the parametrically scattered signal-idler photon pairs through a piece of birefringent fiber. Coincidence detection of the signal-idler photons yields biphoton interference with visibility greater than 90%, while no interference is observed in direct detection of either the signal or the idler photons. All four Bell states can be prepared with our setup and we demonstrate violations of CHSH form of Bell's inequalities by up to 10 standard deviations of measurement uncertainty.
Entangled photon pairs from a quantum dot cascade decay: the effect of time-reordering
F. Troiani; Tejedor, C.
2008-01-01
Coulomb interactions between confined carriers remove degeneracies in the excitation spectra of quantum dots. This provides a which path information in the cascade decay of biexcitons, thus spoiling the energy-polarization entanglement of the emitted photon pairs. We theoretically analyze a strategy of color coincidence across generation (AG), recently proposed as an alternative to the previous, within generation (WG) approach. We simulate the system dynamics and compute the correlation funct...
EPR Pairs, Local Projections and Quantum Teleportation in Holography
Numasawa, Tokiro; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento
2016-01-01
In this paper we analyze three quantum operations in two dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs): local projection measurements, creations of partial entanglement between two CFTs, and swapping of subsystems between two CFTs. We also give their holographic duals and study time evolutions of entanglement entropy. By combining these operations, we present an analogue of quantum teleportation between two CFTs and give its holographic realization. We introduce a new quantity to probe tripartite entanglement by using local projection measurement.
EPR pairs, local projections and quantum teleportation in holography
Numasawa, Tokiro; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento
2016-08-01
In this paper we analyze three quantum operations in two dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs): local projection measurements, creations of partial entanglement between two CFTs, and swapping of subsystems between two CFTs. We also give their holographic duals and study time evolutions of entanglement entropy. By combining these operations, we present an analogue of quantum teleportation between two CFTs and give its holographic realization. We introduce a new quantity to probe tripartite entanglement by using local projection measurement.
Kaiser, Florian; Martin, Anthony; Labonté, Laurent; D'Auria, Virginia; De Micheli, Marc; Alibart, Olivier; Tanzilli, Sébastien
2011-01-01
International audience; In this paper we present the experimental results obtained on a new fully fibred polarization entangled photon- pair source at a telecom wavelength (1560 nm). Photon pairs are created using a type-0 interaction in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, which has been shown to be the most efficient for non linear crystals. Polarization entanglement is then generated using a polarization dependent fibre delay line. Compared to a similar configuration reported pr...
WANG Xin-Wen; WANG Zhi-Yong; XIA Li-Xin
2007-01-01
We present a theoretical scheme for perfect teleportation of an unknown multipartite two-level state by a single EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) pair,and then generalize it to multilevel,i.e.,an N-quNit state can be teleported by a single quNit entangled pair,with additional local unitary operations.The feature of the scheme is that teleporting a multipartite state with a reduced amount of entanglement costs less classical bits.
Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Yang, Tao; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Jun; Jin, Xian-Min; Feng, Fa-Yong; Yang, Bin; Yang, Jian; Yin, Juan; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Nan; Tian, Bao-Li; Pan, Jian-Wei
2005-04-22
We report free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over a noisy ground atmosphere of 13 km. It is shown that the desired entanglement can still survive after both entangled photons have passed through the noisy ground atmosphere with a distance beyond the effective thickness of the aerosphere. This is confirmed by observing a spacelike separated violation of Bell inequality of 2.45+/-0.09. On this basis, we exploit the distributed entangled photon source to demonstrate the Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum cryptography scheme. The distribution distance of entangled photon pairs achieved in the experiment is for the first time well beyond the effective thickness of the aerosphere, hence presenting a significant step towards satellite-based global quantum communication.
The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement
Zhang, Yiteng [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kais, Sabre [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Berman, Gennady Petrovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-02-02
We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on 1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and 2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects of noise. We believe that the quantum avian compass can play an important role in avian navigation and can also provide the foundation for a new generation of sensitive and selective magnetic-sensing nano-devices.
Polarization entangled photon-pair source based on quantum nonlinear photonics and interferometry
Kaiser, F.; Ngah, L. A.; Issautier, A.; Delord, T.; Aktas, D.; D'Auria, V.; De Micheli, M. P.; Kastberg, A.; Labonté, L.; Alibart, O.; Martin, A.; Tanzilli, S.
2014-09-01
We present a versatile, high-brightness, guided-wave source of polarization entangled photons, emitted at a telecom wavelength. Photon-pairs are generated using an integrated type-0 nonlinear waveguide, and subsequently prepared in a polarization entangled state via a stabilized fiber interferometer. We show that the single photon emission wavelength can be tuned over more than 50 nm, whereas the single photon spectral bandwidth can be chosen at will over more than five orders of magnitude (from 25 MHz to 4 THz). Moreover, by performing entanglement analysis, we demonstrate a high degree of control of the quantum state via the violation of the Bell inequalities by more than 40 standard deviations. This makes this scheme suitable for a wide range of quantum optics experiments, ranging from fundamental research to quantum information applications. We report on details of the setup, as well as on the characterization of all included components, previously outlined in Kaiser et al. (Laser Phys. Lett. 10 (2013) 045202).
Ghiti, M. F.; Mebarki, N.; Aissaoui, H.
2015-08-01
The noncommutative Bianchi I curved space-time vierbeins and spin connections are derived. Moreover, the corresponding noncommutative Dirac equation as well as its solutions are presented. As an application within the quantum field theory approach using Bogoliubov transformations, the von Neumann fermion-antifermion pair creation quantum entanglement entropy is studied. It is shown that its behavior is strongly dependent on the value of the noncommutativity θ parameter, k⊥-modes frequencies and the structure of the curved space-time. Various discussions of the obtained features are presented.
Li Wen-Dong; Zhang Jian-Li; Gu Yong-Jian
2006-01-01
Deterministic and exact teleportation can be achieved via two partially entangled pairs of particles[Gu Y J 2006 Opt.Comm.259 385].The key point of the protocol is a generalized measurement described by a positive operator valued measure, which can be realized by performing a unitary operation in the extended space and a conventional Von Neumann orthogonal measurement.By decomposing the evolution process from the initial state to the final state, we construct the quantum circuits for realizing the unitary operation with quantum Toffoli gates, and thus provide a physical means to realize the teleportation.Our method for constructing quantum circuits differs from the usual methods based on decomposition of unitary matrices, and is convenient for a large class of quantum processes involving generalized measurements.
Moradi, T.; Harouni, M. Bagheri; Naderi, M. H.
2017-08-01
The entanglement between photon pairs generated from the biexciton cascade transition in a semiconductor quantum dot located in the vicinity of a metal nanoparticle is theoretically investigated. In the model scheme, the biexciton-exciton and exciton-ground-state transitions are assumed to be coupled to two principal plasmon modes of orthogonal polarizations. For a broad spectral window, because the horizontal and vertical spectra overlap, the biexciton and exciton photons are degenerate in energy. This allows us to overcome the natural splitting between the intermediate exciton states. Moreover, the degree of entanglement depends on the geometrical parameters of the system, i.e., the radius of the metal nanoparticle and the distance between the quantum dot and the nanoparticle. The results reveal that such a hybrid system profoundly modifies the photon entanglement even in the absence of strong coupling between the emitter and the metal nanosphere.
Rajabpour, M A
2015-01-01
We calculate analytically the R\\'enyi bipartite entanglement entropy $S_{\\alpha}$ of the ground state of $1+1$ dimensional conformal field theories (CFT) after performing projective measurement in a part of the system. Using Cardy's method we show that the entanglement entropy in this setup is dependent on the central charge and the operator content of the system. When due to the measured region the two parts are disconnected, the entanglement entropy decreases like a power-law with respect to the characteristic distance of the two regions with an exponent which is dependent on the rank $\\alpha$ of the R\\'enyi entanglement entropy and the smallest scaling dimension present in the system. We check our findings by making numerical calculations on the Klein-Gordon field theory (coupled harmonic oscillators) after fixing the position (partial measurement) of some of the oscillators. We also comment on the post-measurement entanglement entropy in the massive quantum field theories.
Octavian Dănilă
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Entanglement between two quantum elements is a phenomenon which presents a broad application spectrum, being used largely in quantum cryptography schemes and in physical characterisation of the universe. Commonly known entangled states have been obtained with photons and electrons, but other quantum elements such as quarks, leptons, and neutrinos have shown their informational potential. In this paper, we present the perspective of exploiting the phenomenon of entanglement that appears in nuclear particle interactions as a resource for quantum key distribution protocols.
Compact Tunable High-Efficiency Entangled Photon Source Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MagiQ proposes to develop a compact tunable high-efficiency low-power-consumption entangled photon source. The source, based on inter-Fabry-Perot-cavity Spontaneous...
Chen, Geng; Zou, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Zi-Huai; Zhou, Zong-Quan; He, De-Yong; Tang, Jian-Shun; Liu, Bi-Heng; Yu, Ying; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-05-01
Quantum emitters generating individual entangled photon pairs (IEPP) have significant fundamental advantages over schemes that suffer from multiple photon emission, or schemes that require post-selection techniques or the use of photon-number discriminating detectors. Quantum dots embedded within nanowires (QD-NWs) represent one of the most promising candidate for quantum emitters that provide a high collection efficiency of photons. However, a quantum emitter that generates IEPP in the telecom band is still an issue demanding a prompt solution. Here, we demonstrate in principle that IEPPs in the telecom band can be created by combining a single QD-NW and a nonlinear crystal waveguide. The QD-NW system serves as the single photon source, and the emitted visible single photons are split into IEPPs at approximately 1.55 μm through the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The compatibility of the QD-PPLN interface is the determinant factor in constructing this novel hybrid-quantum-emitter (HQE). Benefiting from the desirable optical properties of QD-NWs and the extremely high nonlinear conversion efficiency of PPLN waveguides, we successfully generate IEPPs in the telecom band with the polarization degree of freedom. The entanglement of the generated photon pairs is confirmed by the entanglement witness. Our experiment paves the way to producing HQEs inheriting the advantages of multiple systems.
Observation of strongly entangled photon pairs from a nanowire quantum dot
Versteegh, M.A.; Reimer, M.E.; Jöns, K.D.; Dalacu, D.; Poole, P.J.; Gulinatti, A.; Giudice, A.; Zwiller, V.
2014-01-01
A bright photon source that combines high-fidelity entanglement, on-demand generation, high extraction efficiency, directional and coherent emission, as well as position control at the nanoscale is required for implementing ambitious schemes in quantum information processing, such as that of a quant
Yoshizawa, Akio; Fukuda, Daiji; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Noritsugu
2015-05-01
The chromatic group velocity dispersion tolerance of a fiber-optic two-photon interferometer is characterized for telecom-band photon pairs that are frequency entangled. Two indium-gallium-arsenide single-photon detectors are used to record the coincidence counts. A single-wavelength laser diode continuously pumps a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide of 1-mm length. For near-degenerate spontaneous parametric downconversion, it generates wideband entangled collinear photon pairs. The spectral width of 115.8 nm is centered at 1550 nm. It is restricted by the performance of the single-photon detectors whose efficiency is poor beyond 1610 nm. Using a Michelson interferometer, two-photon interference signals are recorded with and without frequency entanglement. The frequency-entangled photon pairs are found to exhibit dispersion-tolerant two-photon interference, even though the two paths through the interferometer have different group velocity dispersion. The observed two-photon interference signal has a correlation time of 42.7 fs, in good agreement with calculations for a 115.8-nm spectral width. For comparison, results are also presented for photon pairs lacking frequency entanglement.
Quantum Entanglement on a Hypersphere
Peters, James F.; Tozzi, Arturo
2016-08-01
A quantum entanglement's composite system does not display separable states and a single constituent cannot be fully described without considering the other states. We introduce quantum entanglement on a hypersphere - which is a 4D space undetectable by observers living in a 3D world -, derived from signals originating on the surface of an ordinary 3D sphere. From the far-flung branch of algebraic topology, the Borsuk-Ulam theorem states that, when a pair of opposite (antipodal) points on a hypersphere are projected onto the surface of 3D sphere, the projections have matching description. In touch with this theorem, we show that a separable state can be achieved for each of the entangled particles, just by embedding them in a higher dimensional space. We view quantum entanglement as the simultaneous activation of signals in a 3D space mapped into a hypersphere. By showing that the particles are entangled at the 3D level and un-entangled at the 4D hypersphere level, we achieved a composite system in which each local constituent is equipped with a pure state. We anticipate this new view of quantum entanglement leading to what are known as qubit information systems.
Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project
Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.
1985-01-01
The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.
Dietz, Otto; Kreißl, Thomas; Herzog, Ulrike; Kroh, Tim; Ahlrichs, Andreas; Benson, Oliver
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a two-color entangled pho ton pair source which can be adapted easily to a wide range of wavelengths combinations. A Fresnel rhomb as a geometrical quarter-wave plate and a versatile combination of compensation crystals are key components of the source. Entanglement of two photons at the Cs D1 line (894.3 nm) and at the telecom O-band (1313.1 nm) with a fidelity of $F = 0.753 \\pm 0.021$ is demonstrated and improvements of the setup are discussed.
Kim, Heonoh; Lee, Sang Min; Moon, Han Seb
2015-01-01
We present a highly efficient source for discrete frequency-entangled photon pairs based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion using 3rd order type-0 quasi-phase matching in a periodically poled MgO-doped stoichiometric LiTaO3 crystal pumped by a 355.66 nm laser. Correlated two-photon states were generated with automatic conservation of energy and momentum in two given spatial modes. These states have a wide spectral range, even under small variations in crystal temperature, which consequently results in higher discreteness. Frequency entanglement was confirmed by measuring two-photon quantum interference fringes without any spectral filtering.
Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation.
Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens
2016-01-15
Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics-ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators-with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.
Spatial properties of entangled photon pairs generated in nonlinear layered structures
Perina, Jan
2011-01-01
A spatial quantum model of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in nonlinear layered structures is developed expanding the interacting vectorial fields into monochromatic plane waves. A two-photon spectral amplitude depending on the signal- and idler-field frequencies and propagation directions is used to derive transverse profiles of the emitted fields as well as their spatial correlations. Intensity spatial profiles and their spatial correlations are mainly determined by the positions of transmission peaks formed in these structures with photonic bands. A method for geometry optimization of the structures with respect to efficiency of the nonlinear process is suggested. Several structures composed of GaN/AlN layers are analyzed as typical examples. They allow the generation of photon pairs correlated in several emission directions. Photon-pair generation rates increasing better than the second power of the number of layers can be reached. Also structures efficiently generated photon pairs showing anti-bun...
Creation of Multipartite Entanglement and Entanglement Transfer via Heisenberg Interaction
ZHANG Yong; CAO Wan-Cang; LONG Gui-Lu
2005-01-01
@@ We discuss how to create multipartite entanglement. By coupling a new particle with entangled particles via Heisenberg interaction between two particles, we can prepare three-particle entangled states. For some special coupling strength, entanglement transfer can be achieved from entangled pair AB to particles A and C that never interact by coupling particle C with particle B, which can be used to create entanglement between two separated particles.
Stochastic number projection method in the pairing-force problem
Capote, R; Capote, Roberto; Gonzalez, Augusto
1999-01-01
A new stochastic number projection method is proposed. The component of the BCS wave function corresponding to the right number of particles is obtained by means of a Metropolis algorithm in which the weight functions are constructed from the single-particle occupation probability. Either standard BCS or Lipkin-Nogami probability distributions can be used, thus the method is applicable for any pairing strength. The accuracy of the method is tested in the computation of pairing energies of model and real systems.
Novotny, J; Jex, I
2006-01-01
The structure of all completely positive quantum operations is investigated which transform pure two-qubit input states of a given degree of entanglement in a covariant way. Special cases thereof are quantum NOT operations which transform entangled pure two-qubit input states of a given degree of entanglement into orthogonal states in an optimal way. Based on our general analysis all covariant optimal two-qubit quantum NOT operations are determined. In particular, it is demonstrated that only in the case of maximally entangled input states these quantum NOT operations can be performed perfectly.
戴宏毅; 李承祖; 陈平行
2003-01-01
We present a scheme to probabilistically teleport an arbitrary and unknown three-particle state via a two-particle non-maximally entangled state and a four-particle non-maximally entangled state as the quantum channel. With the help of Bell-state measurements, an arbitrary three-particle state can be perfectly teleported if a receiver introduces a collective unitary transformation. All kinds of unitary transformations are given in greater detail. This scheme can be generalized to the teleportation of an arbitrary and unknown multiparticle state.
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms.
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A
2016-01-28
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement--correlations in the properties of microscopic systems--to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million (87)Rb atoms in their 'clock' states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.
Properties of entanglement molecules
Huang Yanxia [Department of Physics, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002 (China); Zhan Mingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)
2004-09-14
We propose a scheme to prepare a certain kind of N-atom entangled state that allows us to construct some possible types of entanglement molecules via cavity QED. The entanglement properties of entanglement molecules vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} are studied with respect to bipartite entanglement that is robust against the disposal of particles and are compared with entanglement molecules {rho}{sub I} introduced in Dur (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 020303). We also give the maximal amount of entanglement achievable for two particular situations in two possible configurations. Meanwhile, we investigate the entanglement properties of entanglement molecules vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} in terms of local measurement using the maximum connectedness and persistency and compare them with other kinds of N-atom entangled states such as |GHZ), vertical bar W{sub N}) and vertical bar {phi}{sub N}). We show that the maximal value N - 1 of the persistency of the state vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} corresponds to the case that all atoms are pairwise entangled. If any pair of atoms {rho}{sub ij} is disentangled, the entanglement of the state vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} is very easy to destroy by a single local measurement.
Properties of entanglement molecules
Huang, Yan-Xia; Zhan, Ming-Sheng
2004-09-01
We propose a scheme to prepare a certain kind of N-atom entangled state that allows us to construct some possible types of entanglement molecules via cavity QED. The entanglement properties of entanglement molecules |psgrNrangagr are studied with respect to bipartite entanglement that is robust against the disposal of particles and are compared with entanglement molecules rgrI introduced in Dur (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 020303). We also give the maximal amount of entanglement achievable for two particular situations in two possible configurations. Meanwhile, we investigate the entanglement properties of entanglement molecules |psgrNrangagr in terms of local measurement using the maximum connectedness and persistency and compare them with other kinds of N-atom entangled states such as |GHZrang, |WNrang and |phgrNrang. We show that the maximal value N - 1 of the persistency of the state |psgrNrangagr corresponds to the case that all atoms are pairwise entangled. If any pair of atoms rgrij is disentangled, the entanglement of the state |psgrNrangagr is very easy to destroy by a single local measurement.
Testing for entanglement with periodic images
Tasca, Daniel S; Aspden, Reuben S; Padgett, Miles J; Ribeiro, Paulo H Souto; Walborn, Stephen P
2015-01-01
For more than twenty years, the spatial entanglement of photon pairs have been used to uncover interesting aspects of quantum physics. A key advantage of spatial variables of single photons relates to the intrinsic high dimensionality of its state space, which allows for the investigation of multi-dimensional entanglement and the efficient encoding and processing of quantum information. As a drawback, the characterization of the spatial correlations over a wide range of spatial modes can be costly, implying a large number of measurements. Here we develop and experimentally test novel entanglement criteria based on a periodic discretization of the spatial variables. This discretization allows for the definition of $d$-outcome measurements of arbitrary dimensionality that we experimentally implement using a finite set of $d$ periodic spatial masks as mode analysers. Our entanglement criteria are computable from $2d^2$ joint projective measurements, required to characterize the correlation of the photons over th...
Krenn, Mario; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton
2016-01-01
Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional photonic systems, exploiting an idea introduced by the group of Leonard Mandel 25 years ago. The two ingredients are 1) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and 2) aligning photon paths such that they emerge from the same output mode. We explain examples for the creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces -- starting only from separable (non-entangled) photon pairs. For two photons, we show how arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. Interestingly, a common source for two-photon polarization entanglement is found as a special case. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm designing quantum experiments, and generalized it ...
Optimization of the pro jected entangled pair state algorithm for quantum systems%基于投影纠缠对态算法优化的研究
李生好; 伍小兵; 黄崇富; 王洪雷
2014-01-01
二维强关联电子量子格点系统的投影纠缠对态(PEPS)算法是数值计算领域中研究二维强关联电子量子格点系统最为重要的张量网络算法。基于PEPS算法研究二维量子XYX模型与二维量子Ising模型，本文对PEPS算法进行了一些优化和改进研究，这些优化和改进主要体现在如何进行PEPS张量的更新与如何进行物理观测量的计算这两个方面，从而可以大大提高计算资源的利用。因而优化和改进后的PEPS算法可为研究热力学极限下的二维强关联电子量子格点系统的量子相变和量子临界现象提供一种更有效的强大的工具。%In the numerical calculation, the projected entangled pair state (PEPS) algorithm is the most important tensor network algorithm for two-dimensional strongly correlated electron quantum lattice system. In this paper, the optimiza-tion of PEPS for two-dimensional quantum system is discussed. An optimization connection between how to update the PEPS tensor and how to calculate the physical observable is investigated, for the tensor network algorithm based on the PEPS representation, which can greatly improve the utilization of computing resources. In this case, optimized PEPS algorithm, as a powerful tool, can be used to study quantum phase transitions and quantum critical phenomena in the thermodynamic limit of the two-dimensional strongly correlated electron quantum lattice system. Of course, optimization of PEPS algorithm program has many other applications, such as adding U(1) and SO(2) symmetry in PEPS algorithm, etc.
Phase-Tuned Entangled State Generation between Distant Spin Qubits
Stockill, R.; Stanley, M. J.; Huthmacher, L.; Clarke, E.; Hugues, M.; Miller, A. J.; Matthiesen, C.; Le Gall, C.; Atatüre, M.
2017-07-01
Quantum entanglement between distant qubits is an important feature of quantum networks. Distribution of entanglement over long distances can be enabled through coherently interfacing qubit pairs via photonic channels. Here, we report the realization of optically generated quantum entanglement between electron spin qubits confined in two distant semiconductor quantum dots. The protocol relies on spin-photon entanglement in the trionic Λ system and quantum erasure of the Raman-photon path information. The measurement of a single Raman photon is used to project the spin qubits into a joint quantum state with an interferometrically stabilized and tunable relative phase. We report an average Bell-state fidelity for |ψ(+)⟩ and |ψ(-)⟩ states of 61.6 ±2.3 % and a record-high entanglement generation rate of 7.3 kHz between distant qubits.
Remote Preparation of Multipartite Equatorial Entangled States in High Dimensions with Three Parties
HOU Kui; WANG Jing; SHI Shou-Hua
2009-01-01
A scheme for probabilistic remotely preparing N-particle d-dimensional equatorial entangled states via entangled swapping with three parties is presented. The quantum channel is composed of N - 1 pairs of bipartite d-dimensional non-maximally entangled states and a tripartite d-dimension non-maximally entangled state. It is shown that the sender can help either of the two receivers to remotely prepare the original state, and the N-particle projective measurement and the genera//zed Hadamard transformation are needed in this scheme. The total success probability and classical communication cost are calculated.
Shiladitya Mal
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We address the recently posed question as to whether the nonlocality of a single member of an entangled pair of spin 1 / 2 particles can be shared among multiple observers on the other wing who act sequentially and independently of each other. We first show that the optimality condition for the trade-off between information gain and disturbance in the context of weak or non-ideal measurements emerges naturally when one employs a one-parameter class of positive operator valued measures (POVMs. Using this formalism we then prove analytically that it is impossible to obtain violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH inequality by more than two Bobs in one of the two wings using unbiased input settings with an Alice in the other wing.
Zhang, Yi; Vishwanath, Ashvin
2013-04-01
We use entanglement entropy signatures to establish non-Abelian topological order in projected Chern-insulator wave functions. The simplest instance is obtained by Gutzwiller projecting a filled band with Chern number C=2, whose wave function may also be viewed as the square of the Slater determinant of a band insulator. We demonstrate that this wave function is captured by the SU(2)2 Chern-Simons theory coupled to fermions. This is established most persuasively by calculating the modular S-matrix from the candidate ground-state wave functions, following a recent entanglement-entropy-based approach. This directly demonstrates the peculiar non-Abelian braiding statistics of Majorana fermion quasiparticles in this state. We also provide microscopic evidence for the field theoretic generalization, that the Nth power of a Chern number C Slater determinant realizes the topological order of the SU(N)C Chern-Simons theory coupled to fermions, by studying the SU(2)3 (Read-Rezayi-type state) and the SU(3)2 wave functions. An advantage of our projected Chern-insulator wave functions is the relative ease with which physical properties, such as entanglement entropy and modular S-matrix, can be numerically calculated using Monte Carlo techniques.
Transport of Entanglement Through a Heisenberg-XY Spin Chain
Subramanian, V; Lakshminarayan, Arul
2004-01-01
The entanglement dynamics of spin chains is investigated using Heisenberg-XY spin Hamiltonian dynamics. The various measures of two-qubit entanglement are calculated analytically in the time-evolved state starting from initial states with no entanglement and exactly one pair of maximally-entangled qubits. The localizable entanglement between a pair of qubits at the end of chain captures the essential features of entanglement transport across the chain, and it displays the difference between an initial state with no entanglement and an initial state with one pair of maximally-entangled qubits.
Collective Uncertainty Entanglement Test
Rudnicki, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol
2011-01-01
For a given pure state of a composite quantum system we analyze the product of its projections onto a set of locally orthogonal separable pure states. We derive a bound for this product analogous to the entropic uncertainty relations. For bipartite systems the bound is saturated for maximally entangled states and it allows us to construct a family of entanglement measures, we shall call collectibility. As these quantities are experimentally accessible, the approach advocated contributes to the task of experimental quantification of quantum entanglement, while for a three-qubit system it is capable to identify the genuine three-party entanglement.
Teleportation of N-particle entangled W state via entanglement swapping
Zhan You-Bang
2004-01-01
A scheme for teleporting an unknown N-particle entangled W state is proposed via entanglement swapping. In this scheme, N maximally entangled particle pairs are used as quantum channel. As a special case, the teleportation of an unknown four-particle entangled W state is studied.
Probabilistic Teleportation of a Four-Particle Entangled State
ZHAN You-Bang; FU Hao; DONG Zheng-Chao
2005-01-01
A Scheme for teleporting an unknown four-particle entangled state is proposed via entangled swapping. In this scheme, four pairs of entangled particles are used as quantum channel. It is shown that, if the four pairs of particles are nonmaximally entangled, the teleportation can be successfully realized with certain probability if a receiver adopts some appropriate unitary transformations.
Quantum entanglement: theory and applications
Schuch, N.
2007-10-10
information perspective on MPS, a natural extension to two dimensions, so-called projected entangled pair states (PEPS), can be found. While MPS can be both created and simulated efficiently, this does not seem to hold for PEPS any more. We make this rigorous by deriving the exact computational complexity of both the creation and the simulation of PEPS. Finally, motivated by the success of MPS and PEPS in describing lattices of finite-dimensional systems, we introduce Gaussian MPS, i.e. MPS for states with a Gaussian Wigner function, and derive their properties in analogy to the finite dimensional case. (orig.)
Quantum entanglement percolation
Siomau, Michael
2016-09-01
Quantum communication demands efficient distribution of quantum entanglement across a network of connected partners. The search for efficient strategies for the entanglement distribution may be based on percolation theory, which describes evolution of network connectivity with respect to some network parameters. In this framework, the probability to establish perfect entanglement between two remote partners decays exponentially with the distance between them before the percolation transition point, which unambiguously defines percolation properties of any classical network or lattice. Here we introduce quantum networks created with local operations and classical communication, which exhibit non-classical percolation transition points leading to striking communication advantages over those offered by the corresponding classical networks. We show, in particular, how to establish perfect entanglement between any two nodes in the simplest possible network—the 1D chain—using imperfectly entangled pairs of qubits.
Ljunggren, D; Ljunggren, Daniel; Tengner, Maria
2005-01-01
We present a theoretical and experimental investigation of the emission characteristics and the flux of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion in quasi-phase matched bulk crystals for the use in quantum communication sources. We show that, by careful design, one can attain well defined modes close to the fundamental mode of optical fibers and obtain high coupling efficiencies also for bulk crystals, these being more easily aligned than crystal waveguides. We distinguish between singles coupling, conditional coincidence, and pair coupling, and show how each of these parameters can be maximized by varying the focusing of the pump mode and the fiber-matched modes using standard optical elements. Specifically we analyze a periodically poled KTP-crystal pumped by a 532 nm laser creating photon pairs at 810 nm and 1550 nm. Numerical calculations lead to coupling efficiencies above 94% at optimal focusing, which is found by the geometrical relation L/z_R to be ~ 1 to 2 for the pump mode and ...
Approaches to measuring entanglement in chemical magnetometers.
Tiersch, M; Guerreschi, G G; Clausen, J; Briegel, H J
2014-01-01
Chemical magnetometers are radical pair systems such as solutions of pyrene and N,N-dimethylaniline (Py-DMA) that show magnetic field effects in their spin dynamics and their fluorescence. We investigate the existence and decay of quantum entanglement in free geminate Py-DMA radical pairs and discuss how entanglement can be assessed in these systems. We provide an entanglement witness and propose possible observables for experimentally estimating entanglement in radical pair systems with isotropic hyperfine couplings. As an application, we analyze how the field dependence of the entanglement lifetime in Py-DMA could in principle be used for magnetometry and illustrate the propagation of measurement errors in this approach.
Concentration of Unknown Atomic Entangled States via Entanglement Swapping through Raman Interaction
ZOU Jin-Hua; HU Xiang-Ming
2008-01-01
We show that entanglement concentration of unknown atomic entangled states is achieved via the implementation of entanglement swapping based on Raman interaction in cavity QED. A maximally entangled state is obtained from a pair of partially entangled states probabilistically. Due to Raman interaction of two atoms with a cavity mode and an external driving field, the influence of atomic spontaneous emission has been eliminated. Because of the virtual excitation of the cavity mode, the decoherence of cavity decay and thermal field is neglected.
Chang, Jung; Lee, Jae Sik; Lu, Chih-Ting
2016-01-01
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations observed the excess in the associated Higgs production with a top-quark pair ($t\\bar t h$) and reported the signal strengths of $ \\mu_{tth}^{\\rm ATLAS}=1.81\\pm 0.80$ and $\\mu_{tth}^{\\rm CMS}=2.75\\pm 0.99 $ based on the data collected at $\\sqrt{s}$= 7 and 8 TeV. In this work, we attempt to interpret the excess by exploiting the strong entanglement between the associated Higgs production with a single top quark ($thX$) and $t\\bar t h$ production in the presence of anomalous top-Yukawa coupling. As well known, $t\\bar t h$ production only depends on the absolute value of the top-Yukawa coupling. Meanwhile, in $thX$ production, this degeneracy is lifted through the strong interference between the two main contributions which are proportional to the top-Yukawa and the gauge-Higgs couplings, respectively. Especially, when the relative sign of the top-Yukawa coupling with respect to the gauge-Higgs coupling is reversed, the $thX$ cross section can be enhanced by more than one order of...
Inter-Universal Quantum Entanglement
Robles-Pérez, S. J.; González-Díaz, P. F.
2015-01-01
The boundary conditions to be imposed on the quantum state of the whole multiverse could be such that the universes would be created in entangled pairs. Then, interuniversal entanglement would provide us with a vacuum energy for each single universe that might be fitted with observational data, making testable not only the multiverse proposal but also the boundary conditions of the multiverse. Furthermore, the second law of the entanglement thermodynamics would enhance the expansion of the single universes.
Entanglement Generation by Electric Field Background
Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz
2014-01-01
The quantum vacuum is unstable under the influence of an external electric field and decays into pairs of charged particles, a process which is known as the Schwinger pair production. We propose and demonstrate that this electric field can generate entanglement. Using the Schwinger pair production for constant and pulsed electric fields, we study entanglement for scalar particles with zero spins and Dirac fermions. One can observe the variation of the entanglement produced for bosonic and fer...
Entanglement Generation by Electric Field Background
Ebadi, Zahra
2014-01-01
The quantum vacuum is unstable under the influence of an external electric field and decays into pairs of charged particles, a process which is known as the Schwinger pair production. We propose and demonstrate that this electric field can generate entanglement. Using the Schwinger pair production for constant and pulsed electric fields, we study entanglement for scalar particles with zero spins and Dirac fermions. One can observe the variation of the entanglement produced for bosonic and fermionic modes with respect to different parameters.
A Project Risk Ranking Approach Based on Set Pair Analysis
Gao Feng; Chen Yingwu
2006-01-01
Set Pair Analysis (SPA) is a new methodology to describe and process system uncertainty. It is different from stochastic or fuzzy methods in reasoning and operation, and it has been applied in many areas recently. In this paper, the application of SPA in risk ranking is presented, which includes review of risk ranking, introduction of Connecting Degree (CD) that is a key role in SPA., Arithmetic and Tendency Grade (TG) of CDs, and a risk ranking approach proposed. Finally a case analysis is presented to illustrate the reasonability of this approach. It is found that this approach is very convenient to operate, while the ranking result is more comprehensible.
Efficient entanglement purification for doubly entangled photon state
WANG Chuan; SHENG YuBo; LI XiHan; DENG FuGuo; ZHANG Wei; LONG GuiLu
2009-01-01
In this paper,we present an efficient purification scheme that improves the efficiency of entanglement purification of the recently proposed entanglement purification scheme for doubly entangled photon states(Phys.Rev.A,2008,77:042315).This modified scheme contains the bit-flip error correction where all the photon pairs can be kept while all the bit-flip errors are corrected and the entanglement purification of phase-flip errors where a wavelength conversion process is used.This scheme has the advantage of high efficiency and a much lower minimum fidelity of the original state.It works under existing technology.
Efficient entanglement purification for doubly entangled photon state
无
2009-01-01
In this paper,we present an efficient purification scheme that improves the efficiency of entanglement purification of the recently proposed entanglement purification scheme for doubly entangled photon states (Phys.Rev.A,2008,77:042315).This modified scheme contains the bit-flip error correction where all the photon pairs can be kept while all the bit-flip errors are corrected and the entanglement purification of phase-flip errors where a wavelength conversion process is used.This scheme has the advantage of high efficiency and a much lower minimum fidelity of the original state.It works under existing technology.
A number-projected model with generalized pairing interaction in application to rotating nuclei
Satula, W. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)]|[Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Wyss, R. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)
1996-12-31
A cranked mean-field model that takes into account both T=1 and T=0 pairing interactions is presented. The like-particle pairing interaction is described by means of a standard seniority force. The neutron-proton channel includes simultaneously correlations among particles moving in time reversed orbits (T=1) and identical orbits (T=0). The coupling between different pairing channels and nuclear rotation is taken into account selfconsistently. Approximate number-projection is included by means of the Lipkin-Nogami method. The transitions between different pairing phases are discussed as a function of neutron/proton excess, T{sub z}, and rotational frequency, {Dirac_h}{omega}.
Angular momentum projection for a Nilsson mean-field plus pairing model
Wang, Yin; Pan, Feng; Launey, Kristina D.; Luo, Yan-An; Draayer, J. P.
2016-06-01
The angular momentum projection for the axially deformed Nilsson mean-field plus a modified standard pairing (MSP) or the nearest-level pairing (NLP) model is proposed. Both the exact projection, in which all intrinsic states are taken into consideration, and the approximate projection, in which only intrinsic states with K = 0 are taken in the projection, are considered. The analysis shows that the approximate projection with only K = 0 intrinsic states seems reasonable, of which the configuration subspace considered is greatly reduced. As simple examples for the model application, low-lying spectra and electromagnetic properties of 18O and 18Ne are described by using both the exact and approximate angular momentum projection of the MSP or the NLP, while those of 20Ne and 24Mg are described by using the approximate angular momentum projection of the MSP or NLP.
How to construct indecomposable entanglement witnesses
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej [Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5/7, 87-100 Torun (Poland)
2008-04-11
We present a very simple method for constructing indecomposable entanglement witnesses out of a given pair-an entanglement witness W and the corresponding state detected by W. This method may be used to produce new classes of atomic witnesses which are able to detect the 'weakest' quantum entanglement. Actually, it works perfectly in the multipartite case, too. Moreover, this method provides a powerful tool for constructing new examples of bound entangled states.
Entanglement Transfer in a Four-Qubit Dimerized Heisenberg System
SHAO Bin; HUANG Min; WANG Zhao-ming; ZOU Jian
2008-01-01
Entanglement transfer is investigated in a dimerized Heisenberg system.Coneurrence as the measure of entanglement is calculated by the time-evolved state starting from an initially entangled state of spin pair.It is shown that perfect entanglement transfer can be realized at 80me special time and suitable interacting.
Entanglement Distribution in Optical Networks
Ciurana, Alex; Martinez-Mateo, Jesus; Schrenk, Bernhard; Peev, Momtchil; Poppe, Andreas
2014-01-01
The ability to generate entangled photon-pairs over a broad wavelength range opens the door to the simultaneous distribution of entanglement to multiple users in a network by using centralized sources and flexible wavelength-division multiplexing schemes. Here we show the design of a metropolitan optical network consisting of tree-type access networks whereby entangled photon-pairs are distributed to any pair of users, independent of their location. The network is constructed employing commercial off-the-shelf components and uses the existing infrastructure, which allows for moderate deployment costs. We further develop a channel plan and a network-architecture design to provide a direct optical path between any pair of users, thus allowing classical and one-way quantum communication as well as entanglement distribution. This allows the simultaneous operation of multiple quantum information technologies. Finally, we present a more flexible backbone architecture that pushes away the load limitations of the ori...
Collaborative Projects: A Study of Paired Work in a Malaysian University.
Holmes, Richard
2003-01-01
Examines the project work of university students in a TESOL (Teaching of English as a Second Language) program in Malaysia. Compares phonetics and phonology projects completed by students working in pairs with those completed by students alone and reports student attitudes and strategies. (Author/LRW)
Collaborative Projects: A Study of Paired Work in a Malaysian University.
Holmes, Richard
2003-01-01
Examines the project work of university students in a TESOL (Teaching of English as a Second Language) program in Malaysia. Compares phonetics and phonology projects completed by students working in pairs with those completed by students alone and reports student attitudes and strategies. (Author/LRW)
High-dimensional entanglement certification.
Huang, Zixin; Maccone, Lorenzo; Karim, Akib; Macchiavello, Chiara; Chapman, Robert J; Peruzzo, Alberto
2016-06-17
Quantum entanglement is the ability of joint quantum systems to possess global properties (correlation among systems) even when subsystems have no definite individual property. Whilst the 2-dimensional (qubit) case is well-understood, currently, tools to characterise entanglement in high dimensions are limited. We experimentally demonstrate a new procedure for entanglement certification that is suitable for large systems, based entirely on information-theoretics. It scales more efficiently than Bell's inequality and entanglement witness. The method we developed works for arbitrarily large system dimension d and employs only two local measurements of complementary properties. This procedure can also certify whether the system is maximally entangled. We illustrate the protocol for families of bipartite states of qudits with dimension up to 32 composed of polarisation-entangled photon pairs.
Bound entanglement and entanglement bounds
Sauer, Simeon [Physikalisch-Astronomische Fakultaet, Friedrich-Schiller-Univesitaet Jena (Germany)]|[Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Melo, Fernando de; Mintert, Florian; Buchleitner, Andreas [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str.38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-012 (Korea); Hiesmayr, Beatrix [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)
2008-07-01
We investigate the separability of Bell-diagonal states of two qutrits. By using lower bounds to algebraically estimate concurrence, we find convex regions of bound entangled states. Some of these regions exactly coincide with the obtained results when employing optimal entanglement witnesses, what shows that the lower bound can serve as a precise detector of entanglement. Some hitherto unknown regions of bound entangled states were discovered with this approach, and delimited efficiently.
Gualdi, Giulia; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-01-01
We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting blocks of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent blocks. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and non-interacting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.
Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2011-02-04
We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.
Free-fermion entanglement spectrum through Wannier interpolation
Lee, Ching Hua; Ye, Peng
2015-02-01
Quantum entanglement plays a ubiquitous role in theoretical physics, from the characterization of novel phases of matter to understanding the efficacy of numerical algorithms. As such, there have been extensive studies on the entanglement spectrum (ES) of free-fermion systems, particularly in the relation between its spectral flow and topological charge pumping. However, far less has been studied about the spacing between adjacent entanglement eigenenergies, which affects the truncation error in numerical computations involving matrix product states or projected entangled pair states. In this paper, we shall hence derive asymptotic bounds for the ES spacings through an interpolation argument that utilizes known results on Wannier function decay. For translationally invariant systems, the entanglement energies are shown to decay at a rate monotonically related to the complex gap between the filled and occupied bands. This interpolation also demonstrates the one-to-one correspondence between the ES and the edge states. Our results also provide asymptotic bounds for the eigenvalue distribution of certain types of block Toeplitz matrices common in physics, even for those not arising from entanglement calculations.
Probabilistic Teleportation of an Arbitrary n-Particle Entangled State
XI Yong-Jun; FANG Jian-Xing; ZHU Shi-Qun; GUO Zhan-Ying
2005-01-01
A scheme for teleporting an arbitrary n-particle entangled state via n pairs of non-maximally entangled states is proposed. The probability of successful teleportation is determined only by the smaller coefficients of the partially entangled pairs. The method is very easy to be realized.
Entanglement replication in driven dissipative many-body systems.
Zippilli, S; Paternostro, M; Adesso, G; Illuminati, F
2013-01-25
We study the dissipative dynamics of two independent arrays of many-body systems, locally driven by a common entangled field. We show that in the steady state the entanglement of the driving field is reproduced in an arbitrarily large series of inter-array entangled pairs over all distances. Local nonclassical driving thus realizes a scale-free entanglement replication and long-distance entanglement distribution mechanism that has immediate bearing on the implementation of quantum communication networks.
Baez, John C.; Vicary, Jamie
2014-11-01
Maldacena and Susskind have proposed a correspondence between wormholes and entanglement, dubbed ER=EPR. We study this in the context of three-dimensional topological quantum field theory (TQFT), where we show that the formation of a wormhole is the same process as creating a particle-antiparticle pair. A key feature of the ER=EPR proposal is that certain apparently entangled degrees of freedom turn out to be the same. We name this phenomenon ‘fake entanglement’, and show how it arises in our TQFT model.
Generation and Purification of Atomic Entangled States
YANG Ming; SONG Wei; LI Yingqun; SHI Shouhua; CAO Zhuoliang
2004-01-01
@@ Entangled state plays a more and more important role in quantum information, so the generation of entangled state is of scientific value and practical significance.Although the experimental realization of entangled pairs of atoms and polarized photons have been reported recently, the current preparation schemes cannot meet the need of the practical application of entangled state in Quantum Communication and Quantum Computation.At the same time, resulting from the coupling between the quantum systems and its environment, decoherence of the quantum systems is unavoidable, which sets a vital obstacle on the way of the application of entanglement.There exist some entanglement generation and purification schemes, but the range of its application is relative small.So we proposed a more efficient scheme for entanglement generation and purification.The scheme is mainly based on the combination of linear optics and Cavity QED technique.The entanglement generation scheme can entangle two atoms by using MZI plus an optical cavity.Pure maximally entangled atomic states can be generated from product states or mixed states.Using a MZI, we can extract not only two-atom near-maximally entangled states but also four-atom maximally entangled states from less entangled pure or mixed states.
Popp, M; Martín-Delgado, M A; Cirac, J I
2004-01-01
We consider systems of interacting spins and study the entanglement that can be localized, on average, between two separated spins by performing local measurements on the remaining spins. This concept of Localizable Entanglement (LE) leads naturally to notions like entanglement length and entanglement fluctuations. For both spin-1/2 and spin-1 systems we prove that the LE of a pure quantum state can be lower bounded by connected correlation functions. We further propose a scheme, based on matrix-product states and the Monte Carlo method, to efficiently calculate the LE for quantum states of a large number of spins. The virtues of LE are illustrated for various spin models. In particular, characteristic features of a quantum phase transition such as a diverging entanglement length can be observed. We also give examples for pure quantum states exhibiting a diverging entanglement length but finite correlation length. We have numerical evidence that the ground state of the antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chai...
Entanglement Concentration for Higher-Dimensional Quantum Systems
姚春梅; 顾永建; 叶柳; 郭光灿
2002-01-01
Using local operations and classicalcommunication, we present two schemes for realizing entanglement concentration from pure entangled pairs of qutrits. These methods can be easily generalized to d-dimensional (d ＞ 3)quantum systems.
Spatial Entanglement of a Free Bosonic Field
Heaney, L; Vedral, V; Anders, Janet; Heaney, Libby; Vedral, Vlatko
2006-01-01
We investigate entanglement between two spatial regions of a free bosonic gas using a separability criterion for continuous variable systems. We find entanglement between the regions only when we post-select certain momenta related to the size of the regions under investigation. We relate the presence of entanglement to the temperature of the system and providing we can probe increasingly smaller regions we argue that entanglement exists at arbitrarily high temperatures. Moreover, the entanglement we find is useful as it can be extracted to a pair of atoms.
Entanglement transfer between bipartite systems
Bougouffa, Smail
2011-01-01
The problem of a controlled transfer of an entanglement initially encoded into two two-level atoms that are successively sent through two single-mode cavities is investigated. The atoms and the cavity modes form a four qubit system and we demonstrate under which conditions the initial entanglement encoded into the atoms can be completely transferred to other pairs of qubits. We find that in the case of a nonzero detuning between the atomic transition frequencies and the cavity mode frequencies, no complete transfer of the initial entanglement is possible to any of the other pairs of qubits. In the case of exact resonance and equal coupling strengths of the atoms to the cavity modes, an initial maximally entangled state of the atoms can be completely transferred to the cavity modes. The complete transfer of the entanglement is restricted to the cavity modes only with the transfer to the other pairs being limited to up to 50%. We have found that the complete transfer of an initial entanglement to other pairs of...
Quantum communication using a multiqubit entangled channel
Ghose, Shohini, E-mail: sghose@wlu.ca [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Hamel, Angele [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)
2015-12-31
We describe a protocol in which two senders each teleport a qubit to a receiver using a multiqubit entangled state. The multiqubit channel used for teleportation is genuinely 4-qubit entangled and is not equivalent to a product of maximally entangled Bell pairs under local unitary operations. We discuss a scenario in which both senders must participate for the qubits to be successfully teleported. Such an all-or-nothing scheme cannot be implemented with standard two-qubit entangled Bell pairs and can be useful for different communication and computing tasks.
Dahlsten, Oscar C. O.; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Serafini, Alessio
2014-09-01
We provide a summary of both seminal and recent results on typical entanglement. By ‘typical’ values of entanglement, we refer here to values of entanglement quantifiers that (given a reasonable measure on the manifold of states) appear with arbitrarily high probability for quantum systems of sufficiently high dimensionality. We shall focus on pure states and work within the Haar measure framework for discrete quantum variables, where we report on results concerning the average von Neumann and linear entropies as well as arguments implying the typicality of such values in the asymptotic limit. We then proceed to discuss the generation of typical quantum states with random circuitry. Different phases of entanglement, and the connection between typical entanglement and thermodynamics are discussed. We also cover approaches to measures on the non-compact set of Gaussian states of continuous variable quantum systems.
Scheme for probabilistic remotely preparing a multi-particle entangled GHZ state
Ma Peng-Cheng; Zhan You-Bang
2008-01-01
This paper presents a scheme for probabilistic remote preparation of a three-particle entangled GreenbergerHorne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state via three-particle orthonormal basis projective measurement,and then directly generalize the scheme to multi-particle case.It is shown that by using N pairs of bipartite non-maximally entangled states as the quantum channel and N-particle orthonormal basis projective measurement,the multi-particle remote preparation can be successfully realized with a certain probability.
Multi pulse control of entanglement
Uchiyama, C; Uchiyama, Chikako; Aihara, Masaki
2004-01-01
We study the effectiveness of multi pulse control to suppress the degradation of entanglement. Based on a linearly interacting spin-boson model, we show that the multi pulse application recovers the decay of concurrence when an entangled pair of spins interacts with a reservoir that has the non-Markovian nature. We present the effectiveness of multi pulse control for both the common bath case and the individual bath case.
Entanglement witnessing in superconducting beamsplitters
Soller, H.; Hofstetter, L.; Reeb, D.
2013-06-01
We analyse a large class of superconducting beamsplitters for which the Bell parameter (CHSH violation) is a simple function of the spin detector efficiency. For these superconducting beamsplitters all necessary information to compute the Bell parameter can be obtained in Y-junction setups for the beamsplitter. Using the Bell parameter as an entanglement witness, we propose an experiment which allows to verify the presence of entanglement in Cooper pair splitters.
State-projective scheme for generating pair coherent states in traveling-wave optical fields
Gerry, Christopher C.; Mimih, Jihane; Birrittella, Richard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States)
2011-08-15
The pair coherent states of a two-mode quantized electromagnetic field introduced by Agarwal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 827 (1986)] have yet to be generated in the laboratory. The states can mathematically be obtained from a product of ordinary coherent states via projection onto a subspace wherein identical photon number states of each mode are paired. We propose a scheme by which this projection can be engineered. The scheme requires relatively weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, the ability to perform a displacement operation on a beam mode, and photon detection ability able to distinguish between zero and any other number of photons. These requirements can be fulfilled with currently available technology or technology that is on the horizon.
Experimental generation of complex noisy photonic entanglement
Dobek, K; Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, R; Banaszek, K; Horodecki, P
2011-01-01
We describe an experimental setup based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion to produce multiple photon pairs in maximally entangled polarization states using an arrangement of two type-I nonlinear crystals. By introducing correlated polarization noise in the paths of the generated photons one can prepare mixed entangled states whose properties illustrate fundamental results obtained recently in quantum information theory, in particular those concerning bound entanglement and privacy.
Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass
Pauls, James A.; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P.; Kais, Sabre
2013-06-01
The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models.
Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass.
Pauls, James A; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P; Kais, Sabre
2013-06-01
The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models.
Experimental considerations for quantum-entanglement studies with relativistic fermions
Schlemme, Steffen; Peck, Marius; Enders, Joachim [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Bodek, Kazimierz; Rozpedzik, Dagmara; Zejma, Jacek [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Caban, Pawel; Rembielinski, Jakub [University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Ciborowski, Jacek; Dragowski, Michal; Wlodarczyk, Marta [Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Kozela, Adam [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAS, Cracow (Poland)
2015-07-01
The QUEST (Quantum entanglement of Ultra-relativistic Electrons in Singlet and Triplet states) project is aimed at the determination of the electron spin correlation function at relativistic energies. Electron pairs are created through Moeller scattering, and polarization observables are planned to be measured in Mott scattering. The predicted spin correlation function is energy dependent with values of several per cent at energies of 10-20 MeV. The results of a first test experiment at the S-DALINAC were not sensitive enough to detect entangled and Mott-scattered electron pairs at the expected energies. Further steps are either to improve the former setup or design a new polarimeter for lower energies to improve statistics due to the higher scattering cross sections. This contribution presents general considerations, test results, and an outlook.
Quantum Teleportation of a Three-Particle Entangled State
刘金明; 郭光灿
2002-01-01
We present a scheme for teleporting a three-particle entangled state to three remote particles. In this scheme, three pairs of pure nonmaximally entangled states are considered as quantum channels. It is found that by means of optimal discrimination between two nonorthogonal quantum states, probabilistic teleportation of the three-particle entangled state can be achieved.
Generation of Entangled State and Entanglement Swapping
YE Liu; GUO Guangcan
2002-01-01
A scheme is proposed for the generation of entangled atomic states and a method is presented to produce entangled photon states. It is shown that entanglement can be swapped from atoms to cavities via atom-cavity interaction.
Entanglement dynamics in the presence of controlled unital noise.
Shaham, A; Halevy, A; Dovrat, L; Megidish, E; Eisenberg, H S
2015-06-10
Quantum entanglement is notorious for being a very fragile resource. Significant efforts have been put into the study of entanglement degradation in the presence of a realistic noisy environment. Here, we present a theoretical and an experimental study of the decoherence properties of entangled pairs of qubits. The entanglement dynamics of maximally entangled qubit pairs is shown to be related in a simple way to the noise representation in the Bloch sphere picture. We derive the entanglement level in the case when both qubits of a Bell state are transmitted through any arbitrary unital Pauli channel, and compare it to the case when the channel is applied only to one of the qubits. The dynamics of both cases was verified experimentally using an all-optical setup. We further investigated the evolution of partially entangled initial states. Different dynamics was observed for initial mixed and pure states of the same entanglement level.
Quality of Spatial Entanglement Propagation
Reichert, Matthew; Fleischer, Jason W
2016-01-01
We explore, both experimentally and theoretically, the propagation dynamics of spatially entangled photon pairs (biphotons). Characterization of entanglement is done via the Schmidt number, which is a universal measurement of the degree of entanglement directly related to the non-separability of the state into its subsystems. We develop expressions for the terms of the Schmidt number that depend on the amplitude and phase of the commonly used double-Gaussian approximation for the biphoton wave function, and demonstrate migration of entanglement between amplitude and phase upon propagation. We then extend this analysis to incorporate both phase curvature in the pump beam and higher spatial frequency content of more realistic non-Gaussian wave functions. Specifically, we generalize the classical beam quality parameter $M^2$ to the biphotons, allowing the description of more information-rich beams and more complex dynamics. Agreement is found with experimental measurements using direct imaging and Fourier optics...
DNA Replication via Entanglement Swapping
Pusuluk, Onur
2010-01-01
Quantum effects are mainly used for the determination of molecular shapes in molecular biology, but quantum information theory may be a more useful tool to understand the physics of life. Molecular biology assumes that function is explained by structure, the complementary geometries of molecules and weak intermolecular hydrogen bonds. However, both this assumption and its converse are possible if organic molecules and quantum circuits/protocols are considered as hardware and software of living systems that are co-optimized during evolution. In this paper, we try to model DNA replication as a multiparticle entanglement swapping with a reliable qubit representation of nucleotides. In the model, molecular recognition of a nucleotide triggers an intrabase entanglement corresponding to a superposition state of different tautomer forms. Then, base pairing occurs by swapping intrabase entanglements with interbase entanglements.
Efficient entanglement purification in quantum repeaters
Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan; Cheng Wei-Wen; Gong Long-Yan; Zhao Sheng-Mei; Zheng Bao-Yu
2012-01-01
We present an efficient entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with controlled-not (CNOT) gates and linear optics.With the CNOT gates,our EPP can reach a higher fidelity than the conventional one.Moreover,it does not require the fidelity of the initial mixed state to satisfy · · 1· 2.If the initial state is not entangled,it still can be purified.With the linear optics,this protocol can get pure maximally entangled pairs with some probabilities.Meanwhile,it can be used to purify the entanglement between the atomic ensembles in distant locations.This protocol may be useful in long-distance quantum communication.
Time-bin Entanglement from Quantum Dots
Weihs, Gregor; Predojević, Ana
2016-01-01
The desire to have a source of single entangled photon pairs can be satisfied using single quantum dots as emitters. However, we are not bound to pursue only polarization entanglement, but can also exploit other degrees of freedom. In this chapter we focus on the time degree of freedom, to achieve so-called time-bin entanglement. This requires that we prepare the quantum dot coherently into the biexciton state and also build special interferometers for analysis. Finally this technique can be extended to achieve time-bin and polarization hyper-entanglement from a suitable quantum dot.
McNickle, Emmet; Carson, Richard G
2015-04-01
Many types of non-invasive brain stimulation alter corticospinal excitability (CSE). Paired associative stimulation (PAS) has attracted particular attention as its effects ostensibly adhere to Hebbian principles of neural plasticity. In prototypical form, a single electrical stimulus is directed to a peripheral nerve in close temporal contiguity with transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered to the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1). Repeated pairing of the two discrete stimulus events (i.e. association) over an extended period either increases or decreases the excitability of corticospinal projections from M1, contingent on the interstimulus interval. We studied a novel form of associative stimulation, consisting of brief trains of peripheral afferent stimulation paired with short bursts of high frequency (≥80 Hz) transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over contralateral M1. Elevations in the excitability of corticospinal projections to the forearm were observed for a range of tACS frequency (80, 140 and 250 Hz), current (1, 2 and 3 mA) and duration (500 and 1000 ms) parameters. The effects were at least as reliable as those brought about by PAS or transcranial direct current stimulation. When paired with tACS, muscle tendon vibration also induced elevations of CSE. No such changes were brought about by the tACS or peripheral afferent stimulation alone. In demonstrating that associative effects are expressed when the timing of the peripheral and cortical events is not precisely circumscribed, these findings suggest that multiple cellular pathways may contribute to a long term potentiation-type response. Their relative contributions will differ depending on the nature of the induction protocol that is used.
Investigating student understanding of quantum entanglement
Kohnle, Antje
2015-01-01
Quantum entanglement is a central concept of quantum theory for multiple particles. Entanglement played an important role in the development of the foundations of the theory and makes possible modern applications in quantum information technology. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualization Project, we developed an interactive simulation "Entanglement: The nature of quantum correlations" using two-particle entangled spin states. We investigated student understanding of entanglement at the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels by collecting student activity and post-test responses using two versions of the simulation and carrying out a small number of student interviews. Common incorrect ideas found include statements that all entangled states must be maximally entangled (i.e. show perfect correlations or anticorrelations along all common measurement axes), that the spins of particles in a product state must have definite values (cannot be in a superposition state with respect to spin) and di...
Paired MEG data set source localization using recursively applied and projected (RAP) MUSIC.
Ermer, J J; Mosher, J C; Huang, M; Leahy, R M
2000-09-01
An important class of experiments in functional brain mapping involves collecting pairs of data corresponding to separate "Task" and "Control" conditions. The data are then analyzed to determine what activity occurs during the Task experiment but not in the Control. Here we describe a new method for processing paired magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data sets using our recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm. In this method the signal subspace of the Task data is projected against the orthogonal complement of the Control data signal subspace to obtain a subspace which describes spatial activity unique to the Task. A RAP-MUSIC localization search is then performed on this projected data to localize the sources which are active in the Task but not in the Control data. In addition to dipolar sources, effective blocking of more complex sources, e.g., multiple synchronously activated dipoles or synchronously activated distributed source activity, is possible since these topographies are well-described by the Control data signal subspace. Unlike previously published methods, the proposed method is shown to be effective in situations where the time series associated with Control and Task activity possess significant cross correlation. The method also allows for straightforward determination of the estimated time series of the localized target sources. A multiepoch MEG simulation and a phantom experiment are presented to demonstrate the ability of this method to successfully identify sources and their time series in the Task data.
Matching relations for optimal entanglement concentration and purification.
Kong, Fan-Zhen; Xia, Hui-Zhi; Yang, Ming; Yang, Qing; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2016-05-18
The bilateral controlled NOT (CNOT) operation plays a key role in standard entanglement purification process, but the CNOT operation may not be the optimal joint operation in the sense that the output entanglement is maximized. In this paper, the CNOT operations in both the Schmidt-projection based entanglement concentration and the entanglement purification schemes are replaced with a general joint unitary operation, and the optimal matching relations between the entangling power of the joint unitary operation and the non-maximal entangled channel are found for optimizing the entanglement in- crement or the output entanglement. The result is somewhat counter-intuitive for entanglement concentration. The output entanglement is maximized when the entangling power of the joint unitary operation and the quantum channel satisfy certain relation. There exist a variety of joint operations with non-maximal entangling power that can induce a maximal output entanglement, which will greatly broaden the set of the potential joint operations in entanglement concentration. In addition, the entanglement increment in purification process is maximized only by the joint unitary operations (including CNOT) with maximal entangling power.
Entanglement Transfer via Heisenberg Interaction in a Four-Qubit System
REN Feng-Hua; WANG Zhao-Ming
2007-01-01
We investigate the entanglement transfer in a four-qubit system and calculate the concurrence between any two qubits in different initial states.We show that both the pure entangled state and mixed entangled state can be transferred.For some special coupling constants and some evolution time,entanglement can be completely transferred from one pair particles to another.
How entangled are bound entangled states?
Wei, T C; Goldbart, P M; Munro, W J; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Altepeter, Joseph B.; Goldbart, Paul M.; Munro, William J.
2003-01-01
Bound entangled states are states that are entangled but from which no entanglement can be distilled if all parties are allowed only local operations and classical communication. However, in creating these states one needs nonzero entanglement to start with. To date, no analytic results reveal the entanglement content of these strange states. Here, the entanglement of two distinct multipartite bound entangled states is determined analytically in terms of geometric measure of entanglement and a related quantity. The results are compared with those for the relative entropy of entanglement and the negativity, and plausible lower bounds on the entanglement of formation are given. Along the way, an intriguing example emerges, in which a bipartite mixed state, associated with Smolin's bound entangled state, can be reversibly converted into a bipartite Bell state, and vice versa. Furthermore, for any N-qubit state that is PPT for all bipartite partitionings, there is no violation of the two-setting, three-setting, a...
Squeezing and Entanglement in Continuous Variable Systems
XIA Yun-Jie; GUO Guang-Can
2004-01-01
Based on total variance of a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type operators, the generalized EPR entangled states in continuous variable systems are defined. We show that such entangled states must correspond to two-mode squeezing states whether these states are Gaussian or not and whether they are pure or not. With help of the relation between the total variance and the entanglement, the degree of such entanglement is also defined. Through analysing some specific cases, we see that this method is very convenient and easy in practical applications. In addition, an entangled state with no squeezing is studied, which reveals that there certainly exists something unknown about entanglement in continuous variable systems.
Photonic Crystal Fiber Based Entangled Photon Sources
2014-03-01
new entanglement source is to make sure the source can provide an efficient and scalable quantum information processor . They are usually generated...multiple scattering on the telecom wavelength photon-pair. Our findings show that quantum correlation of polarization-entangled photon-pairs is...Fiber, Quantum communication, Keyed Communication in Quantum Noise (KCQ) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18
Atomic entanglement and decoherence
Genes, Claudiu
The generation of entanglement in atomic systems plays a central topic in the fields of quantum information storage and processing. Moreover, a special category of entangled states of multi-atom ensembles, spin squeezed states, have been proven to lead to considerable improvement in the sensitivity of precision measurements compared to systems involving uncorrelated atoms. A treatment of entanglement in open systems is, however, incomplete without a precise description of the process of decoherence which necessarily accompanies it. The theory of entanglement and decoherence are the two main topics of this thesis. Methods are described for the generation of strong correlations in large atomic ensembles using either cavity quantum electrodynamics or measurement outcome conditioned quantum dynamics. Moreover, the description of loss of entanglement resulting from the coupling to a noise reservoir (electromagnetic vacuum) is explored. A spin squeezing parameter is used throughout this thesis as both a measure of entanglement strength and as an indication of the sensitivity improvement above the so-called standard quantum limit (sensitivity obtained with uncorrelated particles) in metrology. The first scheme considered consists of a single mode cavity field interacting with a collection of atoms for which spin squeezing is produced in both resonant and off-resonant regimes. In the resonant case, transfer of squeezing from a field state to the atoms is analyzed, while in the off-resonant regime squeezing is produced via an effective nonlinear interaction (one-axis twisting Hamiltonian). A second, more experimentally realistic case, is one involving the interaction of free space atoms with laser pulses; a projective measurement of a source field originating from atomic fluctuations provides a means of preparing atomic collective states such as spin squeezed and Schrodinger cat states. A new "unravelling" is proposed, that employs the detection of photon number in a single
Astaneh, Amin Faraji
2015-01-01
We use the Heat Kernel method to calculate the Entanglement Entropy for a given entangling region on a fractal. The leading divergent term of the entropy is obtained as a function of the fractal dimension as well as the walk dimension. The power of the UV cut-off parameter is (generally) a fractional number which indeed is a certain combination of these two indices. This exponent is known as the spectral dimension. We show that there is a novel log periodic oscillatory behavior in the entropy which has root in the complex dimension of a fractal. We finally indicate that the Holographic calculation in a certain Hyper-scaling violating bulk geometry yields the same leading term for the entanglement entropy, if one identifies the effective dimension of the hyper-scaling violating theory with the spectral dimension of the fractal. We provide more supports with comparing the behavior of the thermal entropy in terms of the temperature in these two cases.
Horodecki, R; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, Ryszard; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Karol
2007-01-01
All our former experience with application of quantum theory seems to say: {\\it what is predicted by quantum formalism must occur in laboratory}. But the essence of quantum formalism - entanglement, recognized by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen and Schr\\"odinger - waited over 70 years to enter to laboratories as a new resource as real as energy. This holistic property of compound quantum systems, which involves nonclassical correlations between subsystems, is a potential for many quantum processes, including ``canonical'' ones: quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation and dense coding. However, it appeared that this new resource is very complex and difficult to detect. Being usually fragile to environment, it is robust against conceptual and mathematical tools, the task of which is to decipher its rich structure. This article reviews basic aspects of entanglement including its characterization, detection, distillation and quantifying. In particular, the authors discuss various manifestations of entanglement via ...
Entanglement evolution and transfer in a double Tavis-Cumming model in cavity QED
Xu Qing-Jun; Zhang Shi-Ying
2009-01-01
We have studied entanglement evolution and transfer in a double Tavis-Cumming model where two pairs of entangled two-level atoms AB and CD interact with two single-mode cavity fields a and b. We show that the Bell-like initial state of atoms AB can exhibit entanglement sudden death which should be independent of the initial entanglement of atoms CD. Also, we show that the initial entanglement of one atomic pair can he transferred into another pair, as well as the possible subsystems, that become entangled during evolution.
Entanglement distribution in quantum networks
Perseguers, Sebastien
2010-04-15
This Thesis contributes to the theory of entanglement distribution in quantum networks, analyzing the generation of long-distance entanglement in particular. We consider that neighboring stations share one partially entangled pair of qubits, which emphasizes the difficulty of creating remote entanglement in realistic settings. The task is then to design local quantum operations at the stations, such that the entanglement present in the links of the whole network gets concentrated between few parties only, regardless of their spatial arrangement. First, we study quantum networks with a two-dimensional lattice structure, where quantum connections between the stations (nodes) are described by non-maximally entangled pure states (links). We show that the generation of a perfectly entangled pair of qubits over an arbitrarily long distance is possible if the initial entanglement of the links is larger than a threshold. This critical value highly depends on the geometry of the lattice, in particular on the connectivity of the nodes, and is related to a classical percolation problem. We then develop a genuine quantum strategy based on multipartite entanglement, improving both the threshold and the success probability of the generation of long-distance entanglement. Second, we consider a mixed-state definition of the connections of the quantum networks. This formalism is well-adapted for a more realistic description of systems in which noise (random errors) inevitably occurs. New techniques are required to create remote entanglement in this setting, and we show how to locally extract and globally process some error syndromes in order to create useful long-distance quantum correlations. Finally, we turn to networks that have a complex topology, which is the case for most real-world communication networks such as the Internet for instance. Besides many other characteristics, these systems have in common the small-world feature, stating that any two nodes are separated by a
Remote State Preparation with Genuine Multipartite Entanglement
MA Yi-Cong; ZHANG Yong-Sheng; GUO Guang-Can
2007-01-01
Enlightened by the work of Yeo and Chua [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 060502] for teleportation and dense coding with genuine multipartite entanglement, we present an explicit protocol for faithful remote state preparation in a real coefficient case by using the same four-particle entangled state which is not reducible to pair of Bell states.It is shown that any complex coefficient case can be changed to a real coefficient case. With this protocol, the state can play an analogous role to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs in the theory of multipartite entanglement.
Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality
Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Padgett, Miles J; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.022115
2011-01-01
We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting "hybrid" entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion, by employing a $q$-plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also non-local, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.
Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille
the organizational scenography as one that supports entangled becomings rather than singular, separate beings of citizens and organizational silos with clear cut boundaries. Related to this conclusion another equally recommended practice was the continuation of the material-discursive practice of ‘lighthouse...
Experimental higher dimensional entanglement
Richart, Daniel L.; Wieczorek, Witlef; Weinfurter, Harald [MPI fuer Quantenoptik, Hans Kopfermannstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Schellingstr. 4, D-80797 Muenchen (Germany)
2009-07-01
Higher dimensional states (qudits) allow to implement quantum communication schemes of increasing complexity, as e.g. superdense coding. Similarly, qudits allow further research into the fundaments of quantum theory. Here we report on first steps towards the implementation of states with correlated photon pairs in a 2 x 8 dimensional Hilbert space. To this end the photon pairs are prepared in the energy-time basis, as initially proposed in: Using unbalanced interferometers, information can be encoded in the different arrival times of the photon pairs, early and late, as was experimentally realized in. Here, we extend this scheme by proposing and characterizing a scalable multiple time delay interferometer. This interferometer system allows an exponential increase in the dimensionality of the entangled state with only a linear increase in the optical components used. Using the proposed interferometer system, first experimental tests on a two-dimensional state yielded a violation of a Bell inequality by four standard deviations.
Self-healing of quantum entanglement after an obstruction
McLaren, M
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Quantum entanglement between photon pairs is fragile and can easily be masked by losses in transmission path and noise in the detection system. When observing the quantum entanglement between the spatial states of photon pairs produced by parametric...
Saniga, M; Planat, Michel; Saniga, Metod
2006-01-01
The paper deals with the projective line over the finite factor ring $R\\_{\\clubsuit} \\equiv$ GF(2)[$x$]/$$. The line is endowed with 18 points, spanning the neighbourhoods of three pairwise distant points. As $R\\_{\\clubsuit}$ is not a local ring, the neighbour (or parallel) relation is not an equivalence relation so that the sets of neighbour points to two distant points overlap. There are nine neighbour points to any point of the line, forming three disjoint families under the reduction modulo either of two maximal ideals of the ring. Two of the families contain four points each and they swap their roles when switching from one ideal to the other; the points of the one family merge with (the image of) the point in question, while the points of the other family go in pairs into the remaining two points of the associated ordinary projective line of order two. The single point of the remaining family is sent to the reference point under both the mappings and its existence stems from a non-trivial character of t...
Teleportation of N-Particle Entangled GHZ State via Entanglement Swapping
SHA Jin-Qiao; FANG Jian-Xing; ZHU Shi-Qun; JIANG Wei-Xing; QIAN Xue-Min
2006-01-01
In this scheme, N non-maximally entangled particle pairs are used as quantum channel to teleport an unknown N-particle entangled GHZ state via entanglement swapping. In order to realize this teleportation, the sender Alice operates Bell-state measurement on particles belonging to herself. Then she informs the results to the receiver Bob through classical communication. According to the results, Bob operates corresponding transformation to reconstruct the initial state. The advantage of this scheme is that it needs only one common unitary matrix for Alice's different results, which has a more general meaning. As a special case, teleporting an unknown three-particle entangled GHZ state is proposed.
Experimental entanglement redistribution under decoherence channels.
Aguilar, G H; Valdés-Hernández, A; Davidovich, L; Walborn, S P; Souto Ribeiro, P H
2014-12-12
When an initially entangled pair of qubits undergoes local decoherence processes, there are a number of ways in which the original entanglement can spread throughout the multipartite system consisting of the two qubits and their environments. Here, we report theoretical and experimental results regarding the dynamics of the distribution of entanglement in this system. The experiment employs an all optical setup in which the qubits are encoded in the polarization degrees of freedom of two photons, and each local decoherence channel is implemented with an interferometer that couples the polarization to the path of each photon, which acts as an environment. We monitor the dynamics and distribution of entanglement and observe the transition from bipartite to multipartite entanglement and back, and show how these transitions are intimately related to the sudden death and sudden birth of entanglement. The multipartite entanglement is further analyzed in terms of three- and four-partite entanglement contributions, and genuine four-qubit entanglement is observed at some points of the evolution.
Entanglement in Anisotropic Heisenberg Model with Non-Uniform External Fields
WANG Yuan-Feng; CAO Jun-Peng; WANG Yu-Peng
2005-01-01
@@ We study entanglement properties of the three-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model with both uniform and nonuniform external magnetic fields. Analytic expressions for the measures of entanglement at the ground state are obtained. We show that the pairwise entanglement and global entanglement of the system at the ground state clearly depend on the strength and configuration of external fields. The entanglement between some pairs can be enhanced by non-uniform external fields.
How a single photon can mediate entanglement between two others
de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio
2016-10-01
We describe a novel quantum information protocol, which probabilistically entangles two distant photons that have never interacted. Different from the entanglement swapping protocol, which requires two pairs of maximally entangled photons as the input states, as well as a Bell-state measurement (BSM), the present scheme only requires three photons: two to be entangled and another to mediate the correlation, and no BSM, in a process that we call "entanglement mediation". Furthermore, in analyzing the paths of the photons in our arrangement, we conclude that one of them, the mediator, exchanges information with the two others simultaneously, which seems to be a new quantum-mechanical feature.
Hadjiivanov, Ludmil
2015-01-01
Expository paper providing a historical survey of the gradual transformation of the "philosophical discussions" between Bohr, Einstein and Schr\\"odinger on foundational issues in quantum mechanics into a quantitative prediction of a new quantum effect, its experimental verification and its proposed (and loudly advertised) applications. The basic idea of the 1935 paper of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) was reformulated by David Bohm for a finite dimensional spin system. This allowed John Bell to derive his inequalities that separate the prediction of quantum entanglement from its possible classical interpretation. We reproduce here their later (1971) version, reviewing on the way the generalization (and mathematical derivation) of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations (due to Weyl and Schr\\"odinger) needed for the passage from EPR to Bell. We also provide an improved derivation of the quantum theoretic violation of Bell's inequalities. Soon after the experimental confirmation of the quantum entanglement (culminati...
Vidal, G
2007-11-30
We propose a real-space renormalization group (RG) transformation for quantum systems on a D-dimensional lattice. The transformation partially disentangles a block of sites before coarse-graining it into an effective site. Numerical simulations with the ground state of a 1D lattice at criticality show that the resulting coarse-grained sites require a Hilbert space dimension that does not grow with successive RG transformations. As a result we can address, in a quasi-exact way, tens of thousands of quantum spins with a computational effort that scales logarithmically in the system's size. The calculations unveil that ground state entanglement in extended quantum systems is organized in layers corresponding to different length scales. At a quantum critical point, each relevant length scale makes an equivalent contribution to the entanglement of a block.
The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms
Zong-Cheng Xu; Mai-Lin Liang; Ya-Ting Zhang; Jian-Quan Yao
2016-03-01
The entanglement properties of two entangled atoms interacting with the field under intensity-dependent coupling are studied in detail. It is found that the degree of entanglement between the two atoms changes periodically and undergoes the entanglement sudden death (ESD) and sudden birth at some time. The entanglement properties between the field and the atom insidethe cavity are dependent on the photon number. Most interestingly, the entanglement between the field and the atom in the field is influenced significantly by manipulating the atom outside the field.
Polygamy of distributed entanglement
Buscemi, Francesco; Gour, Gilad; Kim, Jeong San
2009-07-01
While quantum entanglement is known to be monogamous (i.e., shared entanglement is restricted in multipartite settings), here we show that distributed entanglement (or the potential for entanglement) is by nature polygamous. By establishing the concept of one-way unlocalizable entanglement (UE) and investigating its properties, we provide a polygamy inequality of distributed entanglement in tripartite quantum systems of arbitrary dimension. We also provide a polygamy inequality in multiqubit systems and several trade-offs between UE and other correlation measures.
S-matrix Theory and Entanglement
Fujikawa, Kazuo; Zhang, Chengjie
2013-01-01
The entanglement is studied in the framework of Dyson's S-matrix theory in relativistic quantum field theory, which leads to the natural definitions of entangled states of a particle-antiparticle pair and the associated spin operator from a Noether current. The decay of a massive pseudo-scalar particle into a pair of electron and positron is analyzed. The entanglement measured by spin correlation becomes maximal at the threshold of the decay where the electron-positron pair is extremely non-relativistic, while we argue that the entanglement is replaced by the maximal correlation for the ultra-relativistic electron-positron pair by analogy to the case of neutrinos, for which a hidden-variables-type description is possible. The possible use of weak interactions in the analysis of entanglement at high energies is suggested. No issues of space-time non-locality and causality appear in this S-matrix theory, and the perfect consistency of the S-matrix description of entanglement with the uncertainty principle is em...
Enhanced dynamical entanglement transfer with multiple qubits
Serafini, A; Kim, M S; Paternostro, M
2005-01-01
We present two strategies to enhance the dynamical entanglement transfer from continuous variable (CV) to finite dimensional systems by employing multiple qubits. First, we consider the entanglement transfer to a composite finite dimensional system of many qubits simultaneously interacting with a bipartite CV field. We show that, considering realistic conditions in the generation of CV entanglement, a small (``mesoscopic'') number of qubits resonantly coupled to the CV system is sufficient for an almost complete dynamical transfer of the entanglement. Our analysis also sheds further light on the transition between mesoscopic and macroscopic behaviours of composite finite dimensional systems coupled to bosonic fields (like atomic clouds interacting with light). Furthermore, we present a protocol based on sequential interactions of the CV system with some ancillary qubit systems and on subsequent measurements, allowing to probabilistically convert CV entanglement into `almost perfect' Bell pairs of two qubits. ...
Bipartite and Multipartite Entanglement of Gaussian States
Adesso, G; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2005-01-01
In this chapter we review the characterization of entanglement in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For two-mode Gaussian states, we discuss how their bipartite entanglement can be accurately quantified in terms of the global and local amounts of mixedness, and efficiently estimated by direct measurements of the associated purities. For multimode Gaussian states endowed with local symmetry with respect to a given bipartition, we show how the multimode block entanglement can be completely and reversibly localized onto a single pair of modes by local, unitary operations. We then analyze the distribution of entanglement among multiple parties in multimode Gaussian states. We introduce the continuous-variable tangle to quantify entanglement sharing in Gaussian states and we prove that it satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality. Nevertheless, we show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states, at variance with their discrete-variable counterparts, allow a promiscuous sharing of ...
Anderson localization and colocalization of spatially entangled photons
Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.
2012-10-01
We explore the propagation of light in a two-photon state in disordered optical systems that induce Anderson localization. We show that entangled-photon pairs demonstrate a surprising behavior that we call Anderson colocalization: While neither photon exhibits Anderson localization, the spatial correlations of the pair remain intact. Furthermore, we show that entangled-photon pairs colocalize faster than classical light localizes in the same system. We also explore the propagation of anticorrelated and partially entangled photon pairs in such systems. The results are developed using a linear systems theory that extends the scope of quantum imaging to incorporate disordered systems.
Creation of Entangled Universes Avoids the Big Bang Singularity
Salvador J. Robles-Pérez
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The creation of universes in entangled pairs may avoid the initial singularity and it would have observable consequences in a large macroscopic universe like ours, at least in principle. In this paper we describe the creation of an entangled pair of universes from a double instanton, which avoids the initial singularity, in the case of a homogeneous and isotropic universe with a conformally coupled massless scalar field. The thermodynamical properties of interuniversal entanglement might have observable consequences on the properties of our single universe provided that the thermodynamics of entanglement is eventually related to the classical formulation of thermodynamics.
Exact entanglement bases and general bound entanglement
Zhong, Z Z
2004-01-01
In this paper, we give the more general bound entangled states associated with the unextendible product bases (UPB), i.e. by using of the exact entanglement bases (EEB) and the complete basis with unextendible product bases (CBUPB), we prove that the arbitrary convex sums of the uniform mixtures (bound entangled states) associated with UPBs are still bound entangled states. Further, we discuss the equivalent transformation group and classification of the CBUPBs, and by using this classification, we prove that in the meaning of indistinguishability, the set of the above all possible bound entangled states can be reduced to the set of all possible mixtures of some fixed basic bound entangled states. At last, we prove that every operating of the partial transposition (PT) map acting upon a density matrix under any bipartite partitioning induces a mapping from the above reduced set of bound entangled states to oneself, which corresponds to a non-identical permutation of the basic bound entangled states.
Charcterization of multipartite entanglement
Chong, Bo
2006-06-23
In this thesis, we discuss several aspects of the characterization of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems, including detection, classification and quantification of entanglement. First, we discuss triqubit pure entanglement and propose a special true tripartite entanglement, the mixed entanglement, besides the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement and the W entanglement. Then, based on quantitative complementarity relations, we draw entanglement Venn diagrams for triqubit pure states with different entanglements and introduce the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} to quantify total entanglement of triqubit pure states by defining the union I that is equivalent to the total tangle {tau}{sup (T)} from the mathematical point of view. The generalizations of entanglement Venn diagrams and the union I to N-qubit pure states are also discussed. Finally, based on the ranks of reduced density matrices, we discuss the separability of multiparticle arbitrary-dimensional pure and mixed states, respectively. (orig.)
The entangled accelerating universe
Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Pedro de Alvarado, 14, 06411-Medellin (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es; Robles-Perez, Salvador [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Pedro de Alvarado, 14, 06411-Medellin (Spain)
2009-08-31
Using the known result that the nucleation of baby universes in correlated pairs is equivalent to spacetime squeezing, we show in this Letter that there exists a T-duality symmetry between two-dimensional warp drives, which are physically expressible as localized de Sitter little universes, and two-dimensional Tolman-Hawking and Gidding-Strominger baby universes respectively correlated in pairs, so that the creation of warp drives is also equivalent to spacetime squeezing. Perhaps more importantly, it has been also seen that the nucleation of warp drives entails a violation of the Bell's inequalities, and hence the phenomena of quantum entanglement, complementarity and wave function collapse. These results are generalized to the case of any dynamically accelerating universe filled with dark or phantom energy whose creation is also physically equivalent to spacetime squeezing and to the violation of the Bell's inequalities, so that the universe we are living in should be governed by essential sharp quantum theory laws and must be a quantum entangled system.
Entanglement entropy of electronic excitations.
Plasser, Felix
2016-05-21
A new perspective into correlation effects in electronically excited states is provided through quantum information theory. The entanglement between the electron and hole quasiparticles is examined, and it is shown that the related entanglement entropy can be computed from the eigenvalue spectrum of the well-known natural transition orbital (NTO) decomposition. Non-vanishing entanglement is obtained whenever more than one NTO pair is involved, i.e., in the case of a multiconfigurational or collective excitation. An important implication is that in the case of entanglement it is not possible to gain a complete description of the state character from the orbitals alone, but more specific analysis methods are required to decode the mutual information between the electron and hole. Moreover, the newly introduced number of entangled states is an important property by itself giving information about excitonic structure. The utility of the formalism is illustrated in the cases of the excited states of two interacting ethylene molecules, the conjugated polymer para-phenylene vinylene, and the naphthalene molecule.
Microscopic wormholes and the geometry of entanglement
Lobo, Francisco S N; Rubiera-Garcia, D
2014-01-01
It has recently been suggested that Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridges can be interpreted as maximally entangled states of two black holes that form a complex Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair. This relationship has been dubbed as the ER = EPR correlation. In this work, we consider the latter conjecture in the context of quadratic Palatini theory. Our results show that spacetime may have a foam-like microstructure with wormholes generated by fluctuations of the quantum vacuum. This involves the spontaneous creation/annihilation of entangled particle-antiparticle pairs, existing in a maximally entangled state connected by a non-traversable wormhole. Since the particles are produced from the vacuum and therefore exist in a singlet state, they are necessarily entangled with one another. This gives further support to the ER=EPR claim.
Generation of tripartite entanglement from cascaded four-wave mixing processes.
Wang, Hailong; Zheng, Zhan; Wang, Yaxian; Jing, Jietai
2016-10-03
We investigate the possibility of an experimentally feasible cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) system [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)] to generate tripartite entanglement. We verify that genuine tripartite entanglement is present in this system by calculating the covariances of three output beams and then considering the violations of the inequalities of the three-mode entanglement criteria, such as two-condition criterion, single-condition criterion, optimal single-condition criterion and the positivity under partial transposition (PPT) criterion. We also consider the possibilities of the bipartite entanglement of any pair of the three output beams using the Duan-Giedke-Cirac-Zoller criterion and PPT criterion. We find that the tripartite entanglement and the bipartite entanglement for the two pairs are present in the whole gain region. The entanglement characteristics under different entanglement criteria are also considered. Our results pave the way for the realization and application of multipartite entanglement based on the cascaded FWM processes.
Generation of High Purity Photon-Pair in a Short Highly Non-Linear Fiber
2013-01-01
of entangled photon pairs in optical fiber attracted enormous interest due to its better spatial mode definition and inherent compatibility with...existing fiber optics technologies for long distance transmission, storage and processing. Entangled photon pair generation in optical fiber is...nonlinear microstructure fiber (HNMSF) [7]. In contrast, entangled photon pair generation at telecom wavelengths via SFWM using highly nonlinear fiber
Cool horizons for entangled black holes
Maldacena, Juan
2013-01-01
General relativity contains solutions in which two distant black holes are connected through the interior via a wormhole, or Einstein-Rosen bridge. These solutions can be interpreted as maximally entangled states of two black holes that form a complex EPR pair. We suggest that similar bridges might be present for more general entangled states. In the case of entangled black holes one can formulate versions of the AMPS(S) paradoxes and resolve them. This suggests possible resolutions of the firewall paradoxes for more general situations.
Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km.
Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton
2015-11-17
As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.
Generation of heralded entanglement between distant quantum dot hole spins
Delteil, Aymeric
Entanglement plays a central role in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics as well as in the burgeoning field of quantum information processing. Particularly in the context of quantum networks and communication, some of the major challenges are the efficient generation of entanglement between stationary (spin) and propagating (photon) qubits, the transfer of information from flying to stationary qubits, and the efficient generation of entanglement between distant stationary (spin) qubits. In this talk, I will present such experimental implementations achieved in our team with semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots.Not only are self-assembled quantum dots good single-photon emitters, but they can host an electron or a hole whose spin serves as a quantum memory, and then present spin-dependent optical selection rules leading to an efficient spin-photon quantum interface. Moreover InGaAs quantum dots grown on GaAs substrate can profit from the maturity of III-V semiconductor technology and can be embedded in semiconductor structures like photonic cavities and Schottky diodes.I will report on the realization of heralded quantum entanglement between two semiconductor quantum dot hole spins separated by more than five meters. The entanglement generation scheme relies on single photon interference of Raman scattered light from both dots. A single photon detection projects the system into a maximally entangled state. We developed a delayed two-photon interference scheme that allows for efficient verification of quantum correlations. Moreover the efficient spin-photon interface provided by self-assembled quantum dots allows us to reach an unprecedented rate of 2300 entangled spin pairs per second, which represents an improvement of four orders of magnitude as compared to prior experiments carried out in other systems.Our results extend previous demonstrations in single trapped ions or neutral atoms, in atom ensembles and nitrogen vacancy centers to the domain of
Tomographic reconstruction of time-bin-entangled qudits
Nowierski, Samantha J.; Oza, Neal N.; Kumar, Prem; Kanter, Gregory S.
2016-10-01
We describe an experimental implementation to generate and measure high-dimensional time-bin-entangled qudits. Two-photon time-bin entanglement is generated via spontaneous four-wave mixing in single-mode fiber. Unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers transform selected time bins to polarization entanglement, allowing standard polarization-projective measurements to be used for complete quantum state tomographic reconstruction. Here we generate maximally entangled qubits (d =2 ) , qutrits (d =3 ) , and ququarts (d =4 ) , as well as other phase-modulated nonmaximally entangled qubits and qutrits. We reconstruct and verify all generated states using maximum-likelihood estimation tomography.
Experimental delayed-choice entanglement swapping
Ma, Xiao-Song; Zotter, Stefan; Kofler, Johannes; Ursin, Rupert; Jennewein, Thomas; Brukner, Časlav; Zeilinger, Anton
2012-06-01
Motivated by the question of which kind of physical interactions and processes are needed for the production of quantum entanglement, Peres has put forward the radical idea of delayed-choice entanglement swapping. There, entanglement can be `produced a posteriori, after the entangled particles have been measured and may no longer exist'. Here, we report the realization of Peres's gedanken experiment. Using four photons, we can actively delay the choice of measurement--implemented through a high-speed tunable bipartite-state analyser and a quantum random-number generator--on two of the photons into the time-like future of the registration of the other two photons. This effectively projects the two already registered photons onto one of two mutually exclusive quantum states in which the photons are either entangled (quantum correlations) or separable (classical correlations). This can also be viewed as `quantum steering into the past'.
Experimental delayed-choice entanglement swapping
Ma, Xiao-song; Kofler, Johannes; Ursin, Rupert; Jennewein, Thomas; Brukner, Časlav; Zeilinger, Anton
2012-01-01
Motivated by the question, which kind of physical interactions and processes are needed for the production of quantum entanglement, Peres has put forward the radical idea of delayed-choice entanglement swapping. There, entanglement can be "produced a posteriori, after the entangled particles have been measured and may no longer exist". In this work we report the first realization of Peres' gedanken experiment. Using four photons, we can actively delay the choice of measurement-implemented via a high-speed tunable bipartite state analyzer and a quantum random number generator-on two of the photons into the time-like future of the registration of the other two photons. This effectively projects the two already registered photons onto one definite of two mutually exclusive quantum states in which either the photons are entangled (quantum correlations) or separable (classical correlations). This can also be viewed as "quantum steering into the past".
Partial recovery of lost entanglement in bipartite entanglement transformations
Bandyopadhyay, S; Vatan, F; Roychowdhury, Vwani; Vatan, Farrokh
2002-01-01
We show that partial recovery of the entanglement lost in a bipartite pure state entanglement transformations is almost always possible irrespective of the dimension. Let $\\ket{\\psi}$ and $\\ket{\\vph}$ be $n\\times n$ states and $\\ket{\\psi} \\longrightarrow \\ket{\\vph}$ under local operations. We ask whether there exists $k\\times k$ states, $\\ket{\\chi}$ and $\\ket{\\omega}$, $k E(\\ket{\\chi})$, $E$ being the entropy of entanglement such that $\\ket{\\psi}\\otimes\\ket{\\chi} \\longrightarrow \\ket{\\vph}\\otimes\\ket{\\omega}$ under LOCC. We show that for almost all pairs of comparable states recovery is achievable by $2\\times 2$ states, no matter how large the dimension of the parent states are. For other cases we show that the dimension of the auxiliary entangled state depends on the presence of equalities in the majorization relations of the parent states. We identify those states and show that recovery is still possible using states in $k\\times k$, $2
Maximal entanglement of squeezed vacuum states via swapping with number-phase measurement
Kitagawa, A; Kitagawa, Akira; Yamamoto, Katsuji
2002-01-01
We propose a method to realize entanglement via swapping from a pair of squeezed vacuum states by performing number sum and phase difference measurements. The resultant states are maximally entangled by adjusting the two squeezing parameters to the same value. We then describe a teleportation protocol by using the entangled states prepared in this way.
Quantum Entanglement in Heisenberg Antiferromagnets
Subramanian, V
2004-01-01
Entanglement sharing among pairs of spins in Heisenberg antiferromagnets is investigated using the concurrence measure. For a nondegenerate S=0 ground state, a simple formula relates the concurrence to the diagonal correlation function. The concurrence length is seen to be extremely short. A few finite clusters are studied numerically, to see the trend in higher dimensions. It is argued that nearest-neighbour concurrence is zero for triangular and Kagome lattices. The concurrences in the maximal-spin states are explicitly calculated, where the concurrence averaged over all pairs is larger than the S=0 states.
Scheme for purifying a general mixed entangled state and its linear optical implementation
董冬; 张延磊; 邹长铃; 邹旭波; 郭光灿
2015-01-01
We propose a scheme for purification of a general mixed entangled state. In this scheme, we start from a large number of general mixed entangled states and end up, after local operation and classical communication, with a smaller number of Bell diagonal states with higher entanglement. In particular, the scheme can purify one maximally entangled state from two entangled pairs prepared in a class of mixed entangled state. Furthermore we propose a linear optical implementation of the present scheme with polarization beam splitters and photon detectors.
Characterizing Entanglement Sources
Lougovski, Pavel
2009-01-01
We discuss how to characterize entanglement sources with finite sets of measurements. The measurements do not have to be tomographically complete, and may consist of POVMs rather than von Neumann measurements. Our method yields a probability that the source generates an entangled state as well as estimates of any desired calculable entanglement measures, including their error bars. We apply two criteria, namely Akaike's information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion, to compare and assess different models (with different numbers of parameters) describing entanglement-generating devices. We discuss differences between standard entanglement-verificaton methods and our present method of characterizing an entanglement source.
Remote entanglement of transmon qubits
Hatridge, M.; Sliwa, K.; Narla, A.; Shankar, S.; Leghtas, Z.; Mirrahimi, M.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.
2014-03-01
An open challenge in quantum information processing with superconducting circuits is to entangle distant (non-nearest neighbor) qubits. This can be accomplished by entangling the qubits with flying microwave oscillators (traveling pulses), and then performing joint operations on a pair of these oscillators. Remarkably, such a process is embedded in the act of phase-preserving amplification, which transforms two input modes (termed signal and idler) into a two-mode squeezed output state. For an ideal system, this process generates heralded, perfectly entangled states between remote qubits with a fifty percent success rate. For an imperfect system, the loss of information from the flying states degrades the purity of the entanglement. We show data on such a protocol involving two transmon qubits imbedded in superconducting cavities connected to the signal and idler inputs of a Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC) operated as a nearly-quantum limited phase-preserving amplifier. Strategies for optimizing performance will also be discussed. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.
Quantum entanglement and quantum operation
无
2008-01-01
It is a simple introduction to quantum entanglement and quantum operations. The authors focus on some applications of quantum entanglement and relations between two-qubit entangled states and unitary operations. It includes remote state preparation by using any pure entangled states, nonlocal operation implementation using entangled states, entanglement capacity of two-qubit gates and two-qubit gates construction.
Final Report on project Photoinduced Dipoles and Charge Pairs in Condensed Media
Braun, Charles L.
2006-09-27
Most of our work involves photogenerated donor (D+) and acceptor (A-) radical ion pairs and their escape and recombination. The geminate radical ions are produced by inter or intramolecular electron transfer quenching of photoexcited acceptors. We made great progress in understanding the effect of charge separation distance and other factors on free ion formation. For geminate radical ion pairs formed by intermolecular electron transfer quenching, we found that, at least in a medium polarity solvent lilce dichloromethane, free radical ions are mainly formed from solvent separated radical ion pairs (SSRIPs). Contact radical ion pairs (CRIPs) make a very small contribution to free radical ion formation. It is observed that CRIPs and SSRIPs are kinetically distinguishable species. There is a potential barrier between CRIPs and SSRIPs that prevents a fast equilibrium between the two during the recombination of radical ion pairs and free radical ion formation. We confirmed for the first time that, for the recombination of both CRIPs and SSRIPs that are in the Marcus inverted region, rate constants of SSRIPs are larger than those of CRIPs. Our study indicates that initial charge separation distance and the potential barrier between CRIPs and SSRIPs play a more important role than recombination rate on free ion formation. Temperature dependence experiments reveal that through-tunneling back electron transfer is the dominant approach for the SSRIP recombination process. We believe that our discovery of the roles played by the initial charge separation distance and the potential barrier between radical ion pairs of different separation have very important implications for the development of new concepts for the design of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Photoinduced transient dipole experiments are used to probe the effective charge separation distance of flexible electron donor/acceptor systems, D-(CH2)n-A, where D is 4-N-N-dimethylaniline, A is 9-anthryl and n=3, 4. We
Wang, He; Zhang, Yu Qing; Liu, Xue Feng; Hu, Yu Pu
2016-06-01
We propose a novel quantum dialogue protocol by using the generalized Bell states and entanglement swapping. In the protocol, a sequence of ordered two-qutrit entangled states acts as quantum information channel for exchanging secret messages directly and simultaneously. Besides, a secret key string is shared between the communicants to overcome information leakage. Different from those previous information leakage-resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the particles, composed of one of each pair of entangled states, are transmitted only one time in the proposed protocol. Security analysis shows that our protocol can overcome information leakage and resist several well-known attacks. Moreover, the efficiency of our scheme is acceptable.
Entanglement and entropy engineering of atomic two-qubit states
Clark, S G
2002-01-01
We propose a scheme employing quantum-reservoir engineering to controllably entangle the internal states of two atoms trapped in a high finesse optical cavity. Using laser and cavity fields to drive two separate Raman transitions between metastable atomic ground states, a system is realized corresponding to a pair of two-state atoms coupled collectively to a squeezed reservoir. Phase-sensitive reservoir correlations lead to entanglement between the atoms, and, via local unitary transformations and adjustment of the degree and purity of squeezing, one can prepare entangled mixed states with any allowed combination of linear entropy and entanglement of formation.
Thermal Entanglement in Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick Model
DU Long; ZHANG Wen-Xin; DING Jia-Yan; WANG Guo-Xiang; HOU Jing-Min
2011-01-01
We investigate the thermal entanglement in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model which consists of spin-1/2 particles with XXZ-type exchange interactions between any pair of them. The ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) cases are completely analyzed at both finite temperature and zero temperature. According to the results obtained by accurate numerical calculation, several interesting physic phenomena and characteristics of thermal entanglement in the LMG model are found. Not only do we evaluate the entanglement of the LMG model, but also discover the correlations between macroscopic physical quantities and thermal entanglement.
Entanglement and double occupancy in many-electron states
Subrahmanyam, V., E-mail: vmani@iitk.ac.i [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)
2010-07-12
The entanglement in many-electron states is investigated using a global entanglement measure, viz. average site mixedness. We have examined metallic states of noninteracting electrons, Nagaoka and Gutzwiller states of strongly-correlated electrons, and superconducting states. Uncorrelated metallic states at half filling seem to maximize entanglement, as these states optimize the number of holes, the number of doubly-occupied sites. Entanglement is calculated explicitly for Gutzwiller-projected many-electron states in one dimension, which have less entanglement as double occupancy is inhibited in these states. Entanglement in superconducting states, which tend to promote double occupancy, is calculated as a function of the energy gap, and found to be lower than the metallic state entanglement. There is a possibility of a regime with a nonzero single-site concurrence depending on the energy gap.
Topological phase structure of entangled qudits
Khoury, A. Z.; Oxman, L. E.
2014-03-01
We discuss the appearance of fractional topological phases on cyclic evolutions of entangled qudits. The original result reported by Oxman and Khoury [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 240503 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.240503] is detailed and extended to qudits of different dimensions. The topological nature of the phase evolution and its restriction to fractional values are related to both the structure of the projective space of states and entanglement. For maximally entangled states of qudits with the same Hilbert-space dimension, the fractional geometric phases are the only ones attainable under local SU(d) operations, an effect that can be experimentally observed through conditional interference.
Faithful Squashed Entanglement
Brandao, Fernando G S L; Yard, Jon
2010-01-01
Squashed entanglement is a measure for the entanglement of bipartite quantum states. In this paper we present a lower bound for squashed entanglement in terms of the LOCC distance to the set of separable states. This implies that squashed entanglement is faithful, that is, it is strictly positive if and only if the state is entangled. We derive the lower bound on squashed entanglement from a lower bound on the quantum conditional mutual information which is used to define squashed entanglement. The quantum conditional mutual information corresponds to the amount by which strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy fails to be saturated. Our result therefore sheds light on the structure of states that almost satisfy strong subadditivity with equality. The proof is based on two recent results from quantum information theory: the operational interpretation of the quantum mutual information as the optimal rate for state redistribution and the interpretation of the regularised relative entropy of entanglement as a...
Ma, Chen-Te
2015-01-01
Entanglement is a physical phenomenon that each state cannot be described individually. Entanglement entropy gives quantitative understanding to the entanglement. We use decomposition of the Hilbert space to discuss properties of the entanglement. Therefore, partial trace operator becomes important to define the reduced density matrix from different centers, which commutes with all elements in the Hilbert space, corresponding to different entanglement choices or different observations on entangling surface. Entanglement entropy is expected to satisfy the strong subadditivity. We discuss decomposition of the Hilbert space for the strong subadditivity and other related inequalities. The entanglement entropy with centers can be computed from the Hamitonian formulations systematically, provided that we know wavefunctional. In the Hamitonian formulation, it is easier to obtain symmetry structure. We consider massless $p$-form theory as an example. The massless $p$-form theory in ($2p+2)$-dimensions has global symm...
Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode
Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2015-12-28
Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.
Limitations to sharing entanglement
Kim, Jeong San; Sanders, Barry C
2011-01-01
We discuss limitations to sharing entanglement known as monogamy of entanglement. Our pedagogical approach commences with simple examples of limited entanglement sharing for pure three-qubit states and progresses to the more general case of mixed-state monogamy relations with multiple qudits.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is involved with transferring information through the vast distances of space. The challenge is that it is difficult to get many photons from a...
Entanglement of two individual neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade.
Wilk, T; Gaëtan, A; Evellin, C; Wolters, J; Miroshnychenko, Y; Grangier, P; Browaeys, A
2010-01-08
We report the generation of entanglement between two individual 87Rb atoms in hyperfine ground states |F=1,M=1> and |F=2,M=2> which are held in two optical tweezers separated by 4 microm. Our scheme relies on the Rydberg blockade effect which prevents the simultaneous excitation of the two atoms to a Rydberg state. The entangled state is generated in about 200 ns using pulsed two-photon excitation. We quantify the entanglement by applying global Raman rotations on both atoms. We measure that 61% of the initial pairs of atoms are still present at the end of the entangling sequence. These pairs are in the target entangled state with a fidelity of 0.75.
Self-healing of quantum entanglement after an obstruction.
McLaren, Melanie; Mhlanga, Thandeka; Padgett, Miles J; Roux, Filippus S; Forbes, Andrew
2014-01-01
Quantum entanglement between photon pairs is fragile and can easily be masked by losses in transmission path and noise in the detection system. When observing the quantum entanglement between the spatial states of photon pairs produced by parametric down-conversion, the presence of an obstruction introduces losses that can mask the correlations associated with the entanglement. Here we show that we can overcome these losses by measuring in the Bessel basis, thus once again revealing the entanglement after propagation beyond the obstruction. We confirm that, for the entanglement of orbital angular momentum, measurement in the Bessel basis is more robust to these losses than measuring in the usually employed Laguerre-Gaussian basis. Our results show that appropriate choice of measurement basis can overcome some limitations of the transmission path, perhaps offering advantages in free-space quantum communication or quantum processing systems.
Entangled Photons from Radiative Cascades in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Akopian, N; Poem, E; Berlatzky, Y; Avron, J; Gershoni, D; Gerardot, B D; Petroff, P M
2005-01-01
We show, for the first time, that polarization-entangled photon pairs can be produced from the biexciton radiative cascade in a semiconductor quantum dot. We select an energy window that erases the ``which path'' information contained in the colors of the emitted photons, and use tomographic analysis to demonstrate that the photon pair violate Bell's inequality and satisfy Peres criterion for entanglement by more than 3 standard deviations of the experimental uncertainty. Our quantitative analysis show that semiconductor quantum dots can be used as sources for ``event-ready'' entangled photons.
Programmable entanglement oscillations in a non Markovian channel
Cialdi, Simone; Tesio, Enrico; Paris, Matteo G A
2010-01-01
We suggest and demonstrate an all-optical experimental setup to observe and engineer entanglement oscillations of a pair of polarization qubits in a non-Markovian channel. We generate entangled photon pairs by spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), and then insert a programmable spatial light modulator in order to impose a polarization dependent phase-shift on the spatial domain of the SPDC output and to create an effective non-Markovian environment. Modulation of the enviroment spectrum is obtained by inserting a spatial grating on the signal arm. In our experiment, programmable oscillations of entanglement are achieved, with the maximally revived state that violates Bell's inequality by 17 standard deviations.
Femtosecond Time-Bin Entangled Qubits for Quantum Communication
Marcikic, I; Tittel, W; Scarani, V; Zbinden, H; Gisin, Nicolas; Marcikic, Ivan; Riedmatten, Hugues de; Tittel, Wolfgang; Scarani, Valerio; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas
2002-01-01
We create pairs of non-degenerate time-bin entangled photons at telecom wavelengths with ultra-short pump pulses. Entanglement is shown by performing Bell kind tests of the Franson type with visibilities of up to 91%. As time-bin entanglement can easily be protected from decoherence as encountered in optical fibers, this experiment opens the road for complex quantum communication protocols over long distances. We also investigate the creation of more than one photon pair in a laser pulse and present a simple tool to quantify the probability of such events to happen.
Serendipitous Discovery of a Projected Pair of QSOs Separated by 4.5 arcsec on the Sky
Heintz, K. E.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krogager, J.-K.; Vestergaard, M.; Møller, P.; Arabsalmani, M.; Geier, S.; Noterdaeme, P.; Ledoux, C.; Saturni, F. G.; Venemans, B.
2016-07-01
We present the serendipitous discovery of a projected pair of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) with an angular separation of Δθ = 4.50 arcsec. The redshifts of the two QSOs are widely different: one, our program target, is a QSO with a spectrum consistent with being a narrow line Seyfert 1 active galactic nucleus at z = 2.05. For this target we detect Lyα, C iv, and C iii]. The other QSO, which by chance was included on the spectroscopic slit, is a Type 1 QSO at a redshift of z = 1.68, for which we detect C iv, C iii], and Mg ii. We compare this system to previously detected projected QSO pairs and find that only about a dozen previously known pairs have smaller angular separation. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, on the island of La Palma jointly operated by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.
Quantum Entanglement Swapping between Two Multipartite Entangled States
Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Deng, Xiaowei; Li, Qiang; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2016-12-01
Quantum entanglement swapping is one of the most promising ways to realize the quantum connection among local quantum nodes. In this Letter, we present an experimental demonstration of the entanglement swapping between two independent multipartite entangled states, each of which involves a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state of an optical field. The entanglement swapping is implemented deterministically by means of a joint measurement on two optical modes coming from the two multipartite entangled states respectively and the classical feedforward of the measurement results. After entanglement swapping the two independent multipartite entangled states are merged into a large entangled state in which all unmeasured quantum modes are entangled. The entanglement swapping between a tripartite GHZ state and an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state is also demonstrated and the dependence of the resultant entanglement on transmission loss is investigated. The presented experiment provides a feasible technical reference for constructing more complicated quantum networks.
Maximally entangled states in pseudo-telepathy games
Mančinska, Laura
2015-01-01
A pseudo-telepathy game is a nonlocal game which can be won with probability one using some finite-dimensional quantum strategy but not using a classical one. Our central question is whether there exist two-party pseudo-telepathy games which cannot be won with probability one using a maximally entangled state. Towards answering this question, we develop conditions under which maximally entangled states suffice. In particular, we show that maximally entangled states suffice for weak projection...
Quantum random number generator using photon-number path entanglement
Kwon, Osung; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2010-08-01
We report an experimental implementation of quantum random number generator based on the photon-number-path entangled state. The photon-number-path entangled state is prepared by means of two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference at a beam splitter. The randomness in our scheme is of truly quantum mechanical origin as it comes from the projection measurement of the entangled two-photon state. The generated bit sequences satisfy the standard randomness test.
Enhancing and expanding remote photonic entanglement via local filtering operations
Xing, Hai-Bo; Yang, Ming; Dong, Ping; Fang, Shu-Dong; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2014-06-01
We present an entanglement distillation scheme for enhancing remote two-photon polarization entanglement of mixed states. Although the main idea of the current scheme is based on Gisin's work (Phys. Lett. A 210 (1996) 151 [21]), there are new advantages in our new scheme, which are guaranteed by the nondemolition measurement of photonic state and the re-distillation of the garbage states. This entanglement distillation scheme not only can enhance the remote entanglement of mixed states, but also can expand two-photon entangled states to four-photon entangled states. So this scheme is an apparently feasible way for preparing multi-photon entangled states. The main idea is based on the principle of the cross-Kerr nonlinearity and the parity-check measurements (a nondemolition measurement) on photonic states. Two distant users Alice and Bob first start with one shared but less entangled photon pair, and with the help of local auxiliary photons, parity-check measurements and classical communication they can get a four-photon highly entangled states with a high success probability. For the fail result, although the garbage state is less entangled than the initial one, there is still entanglement in it. So these garbage states can be re-collected and distilled again instead of being discarded. In this sense, we can see that this protocol has a high yield, and the fidelity (with respect to the Bell state) of the initial state is not required to be bigger than 1/2 (a common threshold of the standard entanglement purification theory). In addition, post-selection measurements on the entangled photons are not needed here because of the nondemolition measurement. The nondemolition character of the measurement allows further processing of the resulting states. These advantages make the current scheme more feasible within the current technology.
Fiber-Optic Sources of Quantum Entanglement
Kumar, P; Fiorentino, M; Voss, P L; Sharping, J E; Barbosa, G A
2002-01-01
We present a fiber-based source of polarization-entangled photon pairs that is well suited for quantum communication applications in the 1.5$\\mu$m band of standard telecommunication fiber. Quantum-correlated signal and idler photon pairs are produced when a nonlinear-fiber Sagnac interferometer is pumped in the anomalous-dispersion region of the fiber. Recently, we have demonstrated nonclassical properties of such photon pairs by using Geiger-mode InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes. Polarization entanglement in the photon pairs can be created by pumping the Sagnac interferometer with two orthogonally polarized pulses. In this case the parametrically scattered signal-idler photons yield biphoton interference with $>$90% visibility in coincidence detection, while no interference is observed in direct detection of either the signal or the idler photons.
Entanglement and the shareability of quantum states
Doherty, Andrew C.
2014-10-01
This brief review discusses the problem of determining whether a given quantum state is separable or entangled. I describe an established approach to this problem that is based on the monogamy of entanglement, which is the observation that a pair of quantum systems that are strongly entangled must be uncorrelated with the rest of the world. Unentangled states on the other hand involve correlations that can be shared with many other parties. Checking whether a given quantum state is shareable involves constructing certain symmetric quantum state extensions and I discuss how to do this using a class of optimizations known as semidefinite programs. An attractive feature of this approach is that it generates explicit entanglement witnesses that can be measured to demonstrate the entanglement experimentally. In recent years analysis of this approach has greatly increased our understanding of the complexity of determining whether a given quantum state is entangled and this review aims to give a unified discussion of these developments. Specifically, I describe how to use finite quantum de Finetti theorems to prove that highly shareable states are nearly separable and use these results to understand the computational complexity of the problem. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons
Löffler, W.; Eliel, E. R.; Woerdman, J. P.; Euser, T. G.; Scharrer, M.; Russell, P.
2012-03-01
High-dimensional entangled photons pairs are interesting for quantum information and cryptography: Compared to the well-known 2D polarization case, the stronger non-local quantum correlations could improve noise resistance or security, and the larger amount of information per photon increases the available bandwidth. One implementation is to use entanglement in the spatial degree of freedom of twin photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which is equivalent to orbital angular momentum entanglement, this has been proven to be an excellent model system. The use of optical fiber technology for distribution of such photons has only very recently been practically demonstrated and is of fundamental and applied interest. It poses a big challenge compared to the established time and frequency domain methods: For spatially entangled photons, fiber transport requires the use of multimode fibers, and mode coupling and intermodal dispersion therein must be minimized not to destroy the spatial quantum correlations. We demonstrate that these shortcomings of conventional multimode fibers can be overcome by using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which follows the paradigm to mimic free-space transport as good as possible, and are able to confirm entanglement of the fiber-transported photons. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons is largely unexplored yet, therefore we discuss the main complications, the interplay of intermodal dispersion and mode mixing, the influence of external stress and core deformations, and consider the pros and cons of various fiber types.
Probabilistic Remote Preparation of a Tripartite High-Dimensional Equatorial Entangled State
SHI Jin; ZHAN You-Bang
2009-01-01
We present a scheme for probabilistic remote preparation of a tripartite qutrit entangled state with a partial tripartite qutrit entangled state and a partial bipartite qutrit entangled state as the quantum channel.It is found that a bipartite qutrit orthogonal projective measurement, an auxiliary qutrit particle, and the corresponding unitary transformation are required.A scheme for probabilistic remote preparation of a tripartite qudit equatorial entangled state by using a partial tripartite qudit entangled state and a partial bipartite qudit entangled state as the quantum channel is also proposed.We calculate the successful total probability and the total classical communication cost required in the RSP process, respectively.
Spectral conditions for entanglement witnesses versus bound entanglement
Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej; Sarbicki, Gniewomir
2009-10-01
It is shown that entanglement witnesses constructed via the family of spectral conditions are decomposable, i.e., cannot be used to detect bound entanglement. It supports several observations that bound entanglement reveals highly nonspectral features.
Spectral conditions for entanglement witnesses vs. bound entanglement
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Sarbicki, Gniewomir
2009-01-01
It is shown that entanglement witnesses constructed via the family of spectral conditions are decomposable, i.e. cannot be used to detect bound entanglement. It supports several observations that bound entanglement reveals highly non-spectral features.
Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Fengli; Xu, Jingzhou
2016-08-01
We show how to concentrate an arbitrary four-photon polarization entangled state into a maximally entangled state based on some quantum nondemolition detectors. The entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) resorts to an ancillary single-photon resource and the conventional projection measurement on photons to assist the concentration, which makes it more economical. Our ECP involves weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, X homodyne measurement and basic linear-optical elements, which make it feasible in the current experimental technology. Moreover, the ECP considers cyclic utilization to enhance a higher success probability. Thus, our scheme is meaningful in practical applications in quantum communication.
Entanglement, Holography and Causal Diamonds
de Boer, Jan; Heller, Michal P; Myers, Robert C
2016-01-01
We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the va...
Quantum cryptography with entangled photons
Jennewein; Simon; Weihs; Weinfurter; Zeilinger
2000-05-15
By realizing a quantum cryptography system based on polarization entangled photon pairs we establish highly secure keys, because a single photon source is approximated and the inherent randomness of quantum measurements is exploited. We implement a novel key distribution scheme using Wigner's inequality to test the security of the quantum channel, and, alternatively, realize a variant of the BB84 protocol. Our system has two completely independent users separated by 360 m, and generates raw keys at rates of 400-800 bits/s with bit error rates around 3%.
Entanglement properties of the two-dimensional SU(3) Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state
Gauthé, Olivier; Poilblanc, Didier
2017-09-01
Two-dimensional (spin-2) Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) type valence bond solids on a square lattice are known to be symmetry-protected topological (SPT) gapped spin liquids [S. Takayoshi, P. Pujol, and A. Tanaka Phys. Rev. B 94, 235159 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.235159]. Using the projected entangled pair state framework, we extend the construction of the AKLT state to the case of SU(3 ) , relevant for cold atom systems. The entanglement spectrum is shown to be described by an alternating SU(3 ) chain of "quarks" and "antiquarks", subject to exponentially decaying (with distance) Heisenberg interactions, in close similarity with its SU(2 ) analog. We discuss the SPT feature of the state.
On Relativistic Quantum Information Properties of Entangled Wave Vectors of Massive Fermions
Cafaro, Carlo; Capozziello, Salvatore; Mancini, Stefano
2012-08-01
We study special relativistic effects on the entanglement between either spins or momenta of composite quantum systems of two spin-1/2 massive particles, either indistinguishable or distinguishable, in inertial reference frames in relative motion. For the case of indistinguishable particles, we consider a balanced scenario where the momenta of the pair are well-defined but not maximally entangled in the rest frame while the spins of the pair are described by a one-parameter ( η) family of entangled bipartite states. For the case of distinguishable particles, we consider an unbalanced scenario where the momenta of the pair are well-defined and maximally entangled in the rest frame while the spins of the pair are described by a one-parameter ( ξ) family of non-maximally entangled bipartite states. In both cases, we show that neither the spin-spin ( ss) nor the momentum-momentum ( mm) entanglements quantified by means of Wootters' concurrence are Lorentz invariant quantities: the total amount of entanglement regarded as the sum of these entanglements is not the same in different inertial moving frames. In particular, for any value of the entangling parameters, both ss and mm-entanglements are attenuated by Lorentz transformations and their parametric rates of change with respect to the entanglements observed in a rest frame have the same monotonic behavior. However, for indistinguishable (distinguishable) particles, the change in entanglement for the momenta is (is not) the same as the change in entanglement for spins. As a consequence, in both cases, no entanglement compensation between spin and momentum degrees of freedom occurs.
Witnessing Continuous Variable Entanglement with Discrete Measurements
Schneeloch, James; Howland, Gregory A; Broadbent, Curtis J; Howell, John C
2012-01-01
In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous variable (CV) systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details of the measurement apparatus. We use this inequality to witness entanglement between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC). We examine the asymmetry between parties in this inequality, and show that this asymmetry can be used to reduce the technical requirements of experimental setups intended to witness entanglement. Furthermore, we develop a more stringent steering inequality that is symmetric between parties, and use it to witness symmetric EPR steering.
How much entanglement can be generated between two atoms by detecting photons?
Lamata, L.; Garcia-Ripoll, J. J.; Cirac, J. I.
2006-01-01
It is possible to achieve an arbitrary amount of entanglement between two atoms using only spontaneously emitted photons, linear optics, single photon sources and projective measurements. This is in contrast to all current experimental proposals for entangling two atoms, which are fundamentally restricted to one entanglement bit or ebit.
How much entanglement can be generated between two atoms by detecting photons?
Lamata, L; García-Ripoll, J J; Cirac, J I
2007-01-05
It is possible to achieve an arbitrary amount of entanglement between two atoms using only spontaneously emitted photons, linear optics, single-photon sources, and projective measurements. This is in contrast to all current experimental proposals for entangling two atoms, which are fundamentally restricted to one entanglement bit or "ebit."
Theory of entanglement and entanglement-assisted communication
Bennett, Charles H.
2011-03-01
Protocols such as quantum teleportation and measurement-based quantum computation highlight the importance of entanglement as a resource to be quantified and husbanded. Unlike classical shared randomness, entanglement has a profound effect on the capacity of quantum channels: a channel's entanglement-assisted capacity can be much greater than its unassisted capacity, and in any case is given by much a simpler formula, paralleling Shannon's original formula for the capacity of a classical channel. We review the differences between entanglement and weaker forms of correlation, and the theory of entanglement distillation and entanglement-assisted communication, including the role of strong forms of entanglement such as entanglement-embezzling states.
Analysis of the entanglement between two individual atoms using global Raman rotations
Gaetan, A; Wolters, J; Grangier, P; Wilk, T; Browaeys, A
2009-01-01
Making use of the Rydberg blockade, we generate entanglement between two atoms individually trapped in two optical tweezers. In this paper we detail the analysis of the data and show that we can determine the amount of entanglement between the atoms in the presence of atom losses during the entangling sequence. Our model takes into account states outside the qubit basis and allows us to perform a partial reconstruction of the density matrix describing the two atom state. With this method we extract the amount of entanglement between pairs of atoms still trapped after the entangling sequence and measure the fidelity with respect to the expected Bell state. We find a fidelity $F_{\\rm pairs} =0.74(7)$ for the 62% of atom pairs remaining in the traps at the end of the entangling sequence.
Analysis of the entanglement between two individual atoms using global Raman rotations
Gaetan, A; Evellin, C; Wolters, J; Grangier, P; Wilk, T; Browaeys, A, E-mail: antoine.browaeys@institutoptique.f [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris-Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, 91127 Palaiseau cedex (France)
2010-06-15
Making use of the Rydberg blockade, we generate entanglement between two atoms individually trapped in two optical tweezers. In this paper, we detail the analysis of the data and show that we can determine the amount of entanglement between the atoms in the presence of atom losses during the entangling sequence. Our model takes into account states outside the qubit basis and allows us to perform a partial reconstruction of the density matrix describing the two-atom state. With this method, we extract the amount of entanglement between pairs of atoms still trapped after the entangling sequence and measure the fidelity with respect to the expected Bell state. We find a fidelity F{sub pairs}=0.74(7) for the 62% of atom pairs remaining in the traps at the end of the entangling sequence.
Thermalization of entanglement.
Zhang, Liangsheng; Kim, Hyungwon; Huse, David A
2015-06-01
We explore the dynamics of the entanglement entropy near equilibrium in highly entangled pure states of two quantum-chaotic spin chains undergoing unitary time evolution. We examine the relaxation to equilibrium from initial states with either less or more entanglement entropy than the equilibrium value, as well as the dynamics of the spontaneous fluctuations of the entanglement that occur in equilibrium. For the spin chain with a time-independent Hamiltonian and thus an extensive conserved energy, we find slow relaxation of the entanglement entropy near equilibration. Such slow relaxation is absent in a Floquet spin chain with a Hamiltonian that is periodic in time and thus has no local conservation law. Therefore, we argue that slow diffusive energy transport is responsible for the slow relaxation of the entanglement entropy in the Hamiltonian system.
Probabilistic Implementation of Non-Local CNOT Operation and Entanglement Purification
郑亦庄; 叶鹏; 郭光灿
2004-01-01
We propose a protocol for implementation of nonlocal CNOT operation using a partially entangled channel and show that when partially entangled pairs are taken as quantum channels, the nonlocal CNOT operation can be implemented probabilistically by introducing a collective unitary transformation. The required resources for implementation of the nonlocal CNOT operation in this case are discussed. We also point out that the nonlocal CNOT operation can be used as a purification protocol to concentrate entanglement from an ensemble of partially entangled particles into a subensemble of maximally entanglement ones.
Quantum entanglement and quantum operation
2008-01-01
It is a simple introduction to quantum entanglement and quantum operations.The authors focus on some applications of quantum entanglement and relations between two-qubit entangled states and unitary operations.It includes remote state preparation by using any pure entangled states,nonlocal operation implementation using entangled states,entanglement capacity of two-qubit gates and two-qubit gates construction.
Kerrouchi S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The neutron-proton isovector pairing effect on the beta-plus decay log ft values is studied in typical mirror N≃Z nuclei. The log ft values are calculated by including or not the isovector pairing before and after a particle-number projection using the Sharp-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (SBCS method. It is shown that the values obtained after projection in the isovector pairing case are the closest ones to experimental data. The effect of the deformation of the mother and daughter nuclei on the log ft is also studied.
Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-08-01
We present several criteria for genuine multipartite entanglement from universal uncertainty relations based on majorization theory. Under non-negative Schur-concave functions, the vector-type uncertainty relation generates a family of infinitely many detectors to check genuine multipartite entanglement. We also introduce the concept of k-separable circles via geometric distance for probability vectors, which include at most ( k-1)-separable states. The entanglement witness is also generalized to a universal entanglement witness which is able to detect the k-separable states more accurately.
Holographic Quantum Entanglement Negativity
Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam
2016-01-01
We propose a holographic prescription to compute the entanglement negativity for conformal field theories at finite temperatures which exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity for (1+1)- dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures dual to (2+1)- dimensional bulk Euclidean BTZ black holes. We observe that the holographic entanglement negativity captures the distillable pure quantum entanglement and is related to the holographic mutual information. The application of our prescription to higher dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures within a $AdS_{d+1}/CFT_{d}$ scenario involving dual bulk $AdS$-Schwarzschild black holes is discussed to elucidate the universality of our conjecture.
轨道角动量纠缠光子对联合探测概率的研究%Joint detection probability of orbital angular momentum entangled photon pairs
谌娟; 柯熙政; 王铁成
2013-01-01
研究了自发参量下转换过程产生的轨道角动量纠缠光子对的联合探测概率,在忽略光子偏振和晶体为薄晶体的情况下推导出轨道角动量纠缠光子对联合探测概率的表达式.研究结果表明:自发参量下转换过程中抽运光、信号光以及空闲光参数(束腰、轨道角动量和径向指数)的大小决定着纠缠光子的联合探测概率.%The joint detection probability of orbital angular momentum entangled photons of spontaneous parametric down conversion process was studied.In the case of ignoring the polarization of photon with a thin crystal,expression of the joint detection probability of orbital angular momentum entangled photons was derived.It's shown that in the spontaneous parametric down conversion process,choice of pump photon,signal photon and idler photon,size of their parameters (waist,orbital angular momentum and radial index)affect the joint detection probability of entangled photons.
Entanglement Swapping Model of DNA Replication
Pusuluk, Onur
2011-01-01
Molecular biology explains function of molecules by their geometric and electronic structures which are mainly determined by utilization of quantum effects in chemistry. However, further quantum effects are not thought to play any significant role in the essential processes of life. On the contrary, consideration of quantum circuits/protocols and organic molecules as software and hardware of living systems that are co-optimized during evolution, may be useful to pass over the difficulties raised by biochemical complexity and to understand the physics of life. In this sense, we model DNA replication with a reliable qubit representation of the nucleotides: 1) molecular recognition of a nucleotide is assumed to trigger an intrabase entanglement corresponding to a superposition of different tautomer forms and 2) pairing of complementary nucleotides is described by swapping intrabase entanglements with interbase entanglements. We examine possible realizations of quantum circuits/protocols to be used to obtain intr...
Entanglement of Vector-Polarization States of Photons
Kong, Ling-Jun; Si, Yu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian
2015-01-01
Photons may have homogeneous polarization and may carry quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM). Photon entanglement has been realized in various degrees of freedom such as polarization and OAM. Using a pair of orthogonally polarized states carrying opposite-handedness quantized OAMs could create "quantized" vector polarization states with space-variant polarization structures. It is thus possible to extend the polarization degree of freedom from two dimensional space to indefinite dimensional discrete Hilbert space. We present a class of vector-polarization entangled Bell states, which use the spatial modes of the vector fields with space-variant polarization structure. We propose a scheme of creating the vector-polarization entangled Bell states using a Sagnac interferometer. We also design an analyzer for identifying the vector-polarization entangled Bell states. Such a class of entanglement is important for quantum information science and technology, and fundamental issues of quantum theory, due to its a...
Multiplexed entangled photon sources for all fiber quantum networks
Zhou, Yin-Hai Li Zhi-Yuan; Xu, Li-Xin; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-01-01
The ultimate goal of quantum information science is to build a global quantum network, which enables quantum resources to be distributed and shared between remote parties. Such quantum network can be realized by all fiber elements, which takes advantage of low transmission loss,low cost, scalable and mutual fiber communication techniques such as dense wavelength division multiplexing. Therefore high quality entangled photon sources based on fibers are on demanding for building up such kind of quantum network. Here we report multiplexed polarization and timebin entanglement photon sources based on dispersion shifted fiber operating at room temperature. High qualities of entanglement are characterized by using interference, Bell inequality and quantum state tomography. Simultaneous presence of entanglements in multichannel pairs of a 100GHz DWDM shows the great capacity for entanglements distribution over multi-users. Our research provides a versatile platform and moves a first step toward constructing an all f...
Explicit Protocol for Deterministic Entanglement Concentration
GU Yong-Jian; GAO Peng; GUO Guang-Can
2005-01-01
@@ We present an explicit protocol for extraction of an EPR pair from two partially entangled pairs in a deterministic fashion via local operations and classical communication. This protocol is constituted by a local measurement described by a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), one-way classical communication, and a corresponding local unitary operation or a choice between the two pairs. We explicitly construct the required POVM by the analysis of the doubly stochastic matrix connecting the initial and the final states. Our scheme might be useful in future quantum communication.
Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.
Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M
2016-06-17
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.
Robust Concurrent Remote Entanglement Between Two Superconducting Qubits
A. Narla
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Entangling two remote quantum systems that never interact directly is an essential primitive in quantum information science and forms the basis for the modular architecture of quantum computing. When protocols to generate these remote entangled pairs rely on using traveling single-photon states as carriers of quantum information, they can be made robust to photon losses, unlike schemes that rely on continuous variable states. However, efficiently detecting single photons is challenging in the domain of superconducting quantum circuits because of the low energy of microwave quanta. Here, we report the realization of a robust form of concurrent remote entanglement based on a novel microwave photon detector implemented in the superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics platform of quantum information. Remote entangled pairs with a fidelity of 0.57±0.01 are generated at 200 Hz. Our experiment opens the way for the implementation of the modular architecture of quantum computation with superconducting qubits.
Robust Concurrent Remote Entanglement Between Two Superconducting Qubits
Narla, A.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Leghtas, Z.; Sliwa, K. M.; Zalys-Geller, E.; Mundhada, S. O.; Pfaff, W.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.
2016-07-01
Entangling two remote quantum systems that never interact directly is an essential primitive in quantum information science and forms the basis for the modular architecture of quantum computing. When protocols to generate these remote entangled pairs rely on using traveling single-photon states as carriers of quantum information, they can be made robust to photon losses, unlike schemes that rely on continuous variable states. However, efficiently detecting single photons is challenging in the domain of superconducting quantum circuits because of the low energy of microwave quanta. Here, we report the realization of a robust form of concurrent remote entanglement based on a novel microwave photon detector implemented in the superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics platform of quantum information. Remote entangled pairs with a fidelity of 0.57 ±0.01 are generated at 200 Hz. Our experiment opens the way for the implementation of the modular architecture of quantum computation with superconducting qubits.
Altepeter, Joseph B; Medic, Milja; Jeffrey, Evan R; Kumar, Prem
2011-01-01
We construct an entangled photon polarimeter capable of monitoring a two-qubit quantum state in real time. Using this polarimeter, we record a nine frames-per-second video of a two-photon state's transition from separability to entanglement.
Entanglement and nonextensive statistics
1999-01-01
It is presented a generalization of the von Neumann mutual information in the context of Tsallis' nonextensive statistics. As an example, entanglement between two (two-level) quantum subsystems is discussed. Important changes occur in the generalized mutual information, which measures the degree of entanglement, depending on the entropic index q.
Quantum Entanglement and Teleportation
2011-01-01
Even Einstein has to be wrong sometimes. However, when Einstein was wrong he created a 70 year debate about the strange behavior of quantum mechanics. His debate helped prove topics such as the indeterminacy of particle states, quantum entanglement, and a rather clever use of quantum entanglement known as quantum teleportation.
On Fermionic Entangled State Representation and Fermionic Entangled Wigner Operator
无
2007-01-01
By analogy with the bosonic bipartite entangled state we construct fermionic entangled state with the Grassmann numbers. The Wigner operator in the fermionic entangled state representation is introduced, whose marginal distributions are understood in an entangled way. The technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of Fermi operators is used in our discussion.
Adebileje, Sikiru Afolabi; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Aiyelabegan, Hammed Tanimowo; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza
2017-04-01
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful noninvasive technique that complements the structural images of cMRI, which aids biomedical and clinical researches, by identifying and visualizing the compositions of various metabolites within the tissues of interest. However, accurate classification of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is still a challenging issue in clinics due to low signal-to-noise ratio, overlapping peaks of metabolites, and the presence of background macromolecules. This paper evaluates the performance of a discriminate dictionary learning classifiers based on projective dictionary pair learning method for brain gliomas proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra classification task, and the result were compared with the sub-dictionary learning methods. The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy data contain a total of 150 spectra (74 healthy, 23 grade II, 23 grade III, and 30 grade IV) from two databases. The datasets from both databases were first coupled together, followed by column normalization. The Kennard-Stone algorithm was used to split the datasets into its training and test sets. Performance comparison based on the overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision was conducted. Based on the overall accuracy of our classification scheme, the dictionary pair learning method was found to outperform the sub-dictionary learning methods 97.78% compared with 68.89%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Generating entangled quantum microwaves in a Josephson-photonics device
Dambach, Simon; Kubala, Björn; Ankerhold, Joachim
2017-02-01
When connecting a voltage-biased Josephson junction in series to several microwave cavities, a Cooper-pair current across the junction gives rise to a continuous emission of strongly correlated photons into the cavity modes. Tuning the bias voltage to the resonance where a single Cooper pair provides the energy to create an additional photon in each of the cavities, we demonstrate the entangling nature of these creation processes by simple witnesses in terms of experimentally accessible observables. To characterize the entanglement properties of the such created quantum states of light to the fullest possible extent, we then proceed to more elaborate entanglement criteria based on the knowledge of the full density matrix and provide a detailed study of bi- and multipartite entanglement. In particular, we illustrate how due to the relatively simple design of these circuits changes of experimental parameters allow one to access a wide variety of entangled states differing, e.g., in the number of entangled parties or the dimension of state space. Such devices, besides their promising potential to act as a highly versatile source of entangled quantum microwaves, may thus represent an excellent natural testbed for classification and quantification schemes developed in quantum information theory.
Locality of quantum entanglement
Guowen, W
2005-01-01
This article presents a local realistic interpretation of quantum entanglement. The entanglement is explained as innate interference between the non-empty state associated with the peaked piece of one particle and the empty states associated with the non-peaked pieces of the others of entangled particles, which inseparably join together. The correlation of the results of measurements on the ensemble of composite entangled systems is related to this kind of interference. Consequently, there is no nonlocal influence between entangled particles in measurements. Particularly, this explanation thus rules out the possibility of quantum teleportation which is nowadays considered as one of cornerstones of quantum information processing. Besides, likewise, communication and computation schemes based on alleged spooky action at a distance are unlikely to be promising.
Dynamics of quantum entanglement
Zyczkowski, K; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, R; Zyczkowski, Karol; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard
2002-01-01
A model of discrete dynamics of entanglement of bipartite quantum state is considered. It involves a global unitary dynamics of the system and periodic actions of local bistochastic or decaying channel. For initially pure states the decay of entanglement is accompanied with an increase of von Neumann entropy of the system. We observe and discuss revivals of entanglement due to unitary interaction of both subsystems. For some mixed states having different marginal entropies of both subsystems (one larger than the global entropy and one smaller) we find an asymmetry in speed of entanglement decay. The entanglement of these states decreases faster, if the depolarizing channel acts on the "classical" subsystem, characterized by smaller marginal entropy.
Entanglement generated by dissipation
Krauter, Hanna; Jensen, Kasper; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Petersen, Jonas M; Cirac, J Ignacio; Polzik, Eugene S
2010-01-01
Entanglement is not only one of the most striking features of Quantum Mechanics but also an essential ingredient in most applications in the field of Quantum Information. Unfortunately, this property is very fragile. In experiments conducted so far, coupling of the system to a quantum mechanical environment, commonly referred to as dissipation, either inhibits entanglement or prevents its generation. In this Letter, we report on an experiment in which dissipation induces entanglement between two atomic objects rather than impairing it. This counter-intuitive effect is achieved by engineering the dissipation by means of laser- and magnetic fields, and leads to entanglement which is very robust and therefore long-lived. Our system consists of two distant macroscopic ensembles containing about 10^{12} atoms coupled to the environment composed of the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. The two atomic objects are kept entangled by dissipation at room temperature for about 0.015s. The prospects of using this...
Entangled photons from on-chip slow light
Takesue, Hiroki; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya
2014-01-01
We report the first entanglement generation experiment using an on-chip slow light device. With highly efficient spontaneous four-wave mixing enhanced by the slow light effect in a coupled resonator optical waveguide based on a silicon photonic crystal, we generated 1.5-$\\mu$m-band high-dimensional time-bin entangled photon pairs. We undertook two-photon interference experiments and observed the coincidence fringes with visibilities $>74\\%$. The present result enables us to realize an on-chip entanglement source with a very small footprint, which is an essential function for quantum information processing based on integrated quantum photonics.
Quantum-optical coherence tomography with collinear entangled photons.
Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Novotny, Lukas
2012-10-01
Quantum-optical coherence tomography (QOCT) combines the principles of classical OCT with the correlation properties of entangled photon pairs [Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002)]. The standard QOCT configuration is based on the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer, which uses entangled photons propagating in separate interferometer arms. This noncollinear configuration imposes practical limitations, e.g., misalignment due to drift and low signal-to-noise. Here, we introduce and implement QOCT based on collinear entangled photons. It makes use of a two-photon Michelson interferometer and offers several advantages, such as simplicity, robustness, and adaptability.
Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay
Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang
2016-06-01
Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.
Probabilistic Teleportation of a Four-Particle Entangled W State
ZHAN You-Bang; FU Hao
2005-01-01
In this paper, two schemes for teleporting an unknown four-particle entangled W state is proposed. In the first scheme, two partial entangled four-particle states are used as quantum channels, while in the second scheme,four non-maximally entangled particle pairs are considered as quantum channels. It is shown that the teleportation can be successfully realized with certain probability, for both schemes, if a receiver adopts some appropriate unitary transformations. It is also shown that the successful probabilities of these two schemes are different.
Entangling the Whole by Beam Splitting a Part.
Croal, Callum; Peuntinger, Christian; Chille, Vanessa; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Korolkova, Natalia; Mišta, Ladislav
2015-11-06
A beam splitter is a basic linear optical element appearing in many optics experiments and is frequently used as a continuous-variable entangler transforming a pair of input modes from a separable Gaussian state into an entangled state. However, a beam splitter is a passive operation that can create entanglement from Gaussian states only under certain conditions. One such condition is that the input light is suitably squeezed. We demonstrate, experimentally, that a beam splitter can create entanglement even from modes which do not possess such a squeezing provided that they are correlated to, but not entangled with, a third mode. Specifically, we show that a beam splitter can create three-mode entanglement by acting on two modes of a three-mode fully separable Gaussian state without entangling the two modes themselves. This beam splitter property is a key mechanism behind the performance of the protocol for entanglement distribution by separable states. Moreover, the property also finds application in collaborative quantum dense coding in which decoding of transmitted information is assisted by interference with a mode of the collaborating party.
Teleporting entanglement during black hole evaporation
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.
2016-10-01
The unitary evaporation of a black hole (BH) in an initially pure state must lead to the eventual purification of the emitted radiation. It follows that the late radiation has to be entangled with the early radiation and, as a consequence, the entanglement among the Hawking pair partners has to decrease continuously from maximal to vanishing during the BH's life span. Starting from the basic premise that both the horizon radius and the center of mass of a finite-mass BH are fluctuating quantum mechanically, we show how this process is realized. First, it is shown that the horizon fluctuations induce a small amount of variance in the total linear momentum of each created pair. This is in contrast to the case of an infinitely massive BH, for which the total momentum of the produced pair vanishes exactly on account of momentum conservation. This variance leads to a random recoil of the BH during each emission and, as a result, the center of mass of the BH undergoes a quantum random walk. Consequently, the uncertainty in its momentum grows as the square root of the number of emissions. We then show that this uncertainty controls the amount of deviation from maximal entanglement of the produced pairs and that this deviation is determined by the ratio of the cumulative number of emitted particles to the initial BH entropy. Thus, the interplay between the horizon and center-of-mass fluctuations provides a mechanism for teleporting entanglement from the pair partners to the BH and the emitted radiation.
Teleporting entanglement during black hole evaporation
Brustein, Ram [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Medved, A.J.M. [Department of Physics & Electronics, Rhodes University,Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP),Western Cape 7602 (South Africa)
2016-10-06
The unitary evaporation of a black hole (BH) in an initially pure state must lead to the eventual purification of the emitted radiation. It follows that the late radiation has to be entangled with the early radiation and, as a consequence, the entanglement among the Hawking pair partners has to decrease continuously from maximal to vanishing during the BH’s life span. Starting from the basic premise that both the horizon radius and the center of mass of a finite-mass BH are fluctuating quantum mechanically, we show how this process is realized. First, it is shown that the horizon fluctuations induce a small amount of variance in the total linear momentum of each created pair. This is in contrast to the case of an infinitely massive BH, for which the total momentum of the produced pair vanishes exactly on account of momentum conservation. This variance leads to a random recoil of the BH during each emission and, as a result, the center of mass of the BH undergoes a quantum random walk. Consequently, the uncertainty in its momentum grows as the square root of the number of emissions. We then show that this uncertainty controls the amount of deviation from maximal entanglement of the produced pairs and that this deviation is determined by the ratio of the cumulative number of emitted particles to the initial BH entropy. Thus, the interplay between the horizon and center-of-mass fluctuations provides a mechanism for teleporting entanglement from the pair partners to the BH and the emitted radiation.
Entanglement and decoherence: fragile and robust entanglement
Novotný, Jaroslav; Jex, Igor
2011-01-01
The destruction of entanglement of open quantum systems by decoherence is investigated in the asymptotic long-time limit. Starting from a general and analytically solvable decoherence model which does not involve any weak-coupling or Markovian assumption it is shown that two fundamentally different classes of entangled states can be distinguished. Quantum states of the first class are fragile against decoherence so that they can be disentangled asymptotically even if coherences between pointer states are still present. Quantum states of the second type are robust against decoherence. Asymptotically they can be disentangled only if also decoherence is perfect. A simple criterion for identifying these two classes on the basis of two-qubit entanglement is presented.
Microscopic wormholes and the geometry of entanglement
Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2014-06-15
It has recently been suggested that Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridges can be interpreted as maximally entangled states of two black holes that form a complex Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair. This relationship has been dubbed as the ER = EPR correlation. In this work, we consider the latter conjecture in the context of quadratic Palatini theory. An important result, which stems from the underlying assumptions as regards the geometry on which the theory is constructed, is the fact that all the charged solutions of the quadratic Palatini theory possess a wormhole structure. Our results show that spacetime may have a foam like microstructure with wormholes generated by fluctuations of the quantum vacuum. This involves the spontaneous creation/annihilation of entangled particle-antiparticle pairs, existing in a maximally entangled state connected by a nontraversable wormhole. Since the particles are produced from the vacuum and therefore exist in a singlet state, they are necessarily entangled with one another. This gives further support to the ER = EPR claim. (orig.)
Fingerprints of entangled states in reactions with rare isotopes
Bertulani, C A
2003-01-01
We study the presence of entangled states of nucleon pairs from nuclear decays and in reactions with exotic nuclei, e.g., 11Li, or 6He. It is shown that the fingerprints of entangled states in these subsystems are visible in correlation measurements and can be accessed with present experimental techniques. This shows that not only atomic and optical systems, but also nuclear systems serve as important tools to obtain dichotomic outcomes for tests of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox.
Influence of a superconducting lead on orbital entanglement production in chaotic cavities
Rodriguez-Perez, Sergio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Novaes, Marcel, E-mail: sergio.rodriguez@ect.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica
2015-10-15
We study orbital entanglement production in a chaotic cavity connected to four single-channel normal metal leads and one superconducting lead, assuming the presence of time-reversal symmetry and within a random matrix theory approach. The scattered state of two incident electrons is written as the superposition of several two-outgoing quasi-particle components, four of which are orbitally entangled in a left-right bipartition. We calculate numerically the mean value of the squared norm of each entangled component, as functions of the number of channels in the superconducting lead. Its behavior is explained as resulting from the proximity effect. We also study statistically the amount of entanglement carried by each pair of outgoing quasi-particles. When the influence of the superconductor is more intense, the device works as an entangler of electron-hole pairs, and the average entanglement is found to be considerably larger than that obtained without the superconducting lead. (author)
Entanglement negativity in the multiverse
Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro
2014-01-01
We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.
Entanglement negativity in the multiverse
Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro
2015-03-01
We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.
Entanglement negativity in the multiverse
Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
2015-03-10
We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.
Experimental activation of bound entanglement.
Kaneda, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi
2012-07-27
Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet, there is another type of entanglement, called "bound entanglement," which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate the experimental "activation" of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and local operations and classical communication. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement.
Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication
Brendel, J; Tittel, W; Zbinden, H
1999-01-01
A pulsed source of energy-time entangled photon pairs pumped by a standard laser diode is proposed and demonstrated. The basic states can be distinguished by their time of arrival. This greatly simplifies the realization of 2-photon quantum cryptography, Bell state analyzers, quantum teleportation, dense coding, entanglement swapping, GHZ-states sources, etc. Moreover the entanglement is well protected during photon propagation in telecom optical fibers, opening the door to few-photon applications of quantum communication over long distances.
Scale-free entanglement replication in driven-dissipative many body systems
Zippilli, S; Adesso, G; Illuminati, F
2012-01-01
We study the dynamics of independent arrays of many-body dissipative systems, subject to a common driving by an entangled light field. We show that in the steady state the global system orders in a series of inter-array strongly entangled pairs over all distances. Such scale-free entanglement replication and long-distance distribution mechanism has potential applications for the implementation of robust quantum networked communication.
Three-qutrit entanglement and simple singularities
Holweck, Frédéric; Jaffali, Hamza
2016-11-01
In this paper, we use singularity theory to study the entanglement nature of pure three-qutrit systems. We first consider the algebraic variety X of separable three-qutrit states within the projective Hilbert space {{P}}({ H })={{{P}}}26. Given a quantum pure state | \\varphi > \\in {{P}}({ H }) we define the X φ -hypersuface by cutting X with a hyperplane H φ defined by the linear form ranges over the stochastic local operation and classical communication entanglement classes, the ‘worst’ possible singular X φ -hypersuface with isolated singularities, has a unique singular point of type D 4.
Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses
Chruściński, Dariusz; Pytel, Justyna; Sarbicki, Gniewomir
2009-12-01
We provide a class of indecomposable entanglement witnesses. In 4×4 case, it reproduces the well-known Breuer-Hall witness. We prove that these witnesses are optimal and atomic, i.e., they are able to detect the “weakest” quantum entanglement encoded into states with positive partial transposition. Equivalently, we provide a construction of indecomposable atomic maps in the algebra of 2k×2k complex matrices. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels. This result supports recent conjecture by Korbicz [Phys. Rev. A 78, 062105 (2008)].
Entanglement in Anderson Nanoclusters
Samuelsson, Peter
2007-01-01
We investigate the two-particle spin entanglement in magnetic nanoclusters described by the periodic Anderson model. An entanglement phase diagram is obtained, providing a novel perspective on a central property of magnetic nanoclusters, namely the temperature dependent competition between local Kondo screening and nonlocal Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida spin ordering. We find that multiparticle entangled states are present for finite magnetic field as well as in the mixed valence regime and away from half filling. Our results emphasize the role of charge fluctuations.
Entanglement as a quantum order parameter
Brandão, F G S L
2005-01-01
We show that the quantum order parameters (QOP) associated with the transitions between a normal conductor and a superconductor in the BCS and $\\eta$-pairing models and between a Mott-insulator and a superfluid in the Bose-Hubbard model are directly related to the amount of entanglement existent in the ground state of each system. This gives a physical meaningful interpretation to these QOP, which shows the intrinsically quantum nature of the phase transitions considered.
Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds
de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.
2016-08-01
We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.
Quantum memory, entanglement and sensing with room temperature atoms
Jensen, K; Wasilewski, W; Krauter, H; Fernholz, T; Nielsen, B M; Petersen, J M; Renema, J J; Balabas, M V; Wolf, M M; Mueller, J H; Polzik, E S [Niels Bohr Institute, Danish Quantum Optics Center QUANTOP, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Owari, M; Plenio, M B [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Serafini, A [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Muschik, C A; Cirac, J I, E-mail: polzik@nbi.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2011-01-10
Room temperature atomic ensembles in a spin-protected environment are useful systems both for quantum information science and metrology. Here we utilize a setup consisting of two atomic ensembles as a memory for quantum information initially encoded in the polarization state of two entangled light modes. We also use the ensembles as a radio frequency entanglement-assisted magnetometer with projection noise limited sensitivity below femtoTesla/{radical}Hz. The performance of the quantum memory as well as the magnetometer was improved by spin-squeezed or entangled atomic states generated by quantum non demolition measurements. Finally, we present preliminary results of long lived entangled atomic states generated by dissipation. With the method presented, one should be able to generate an entangled steady state.
Entanglement-preserving absorption of single SPDC photons by a single atom
Huwer, J; Piro, N; Schug, M; Dubin, F; Eschner, J
2011-01-01
We study the controlled interaction between a single trapped Ca40+ ion and single photons belonging to entangled photon pairs. The ion is prepared as a polarization-sensitive single-photon absorber; the absorption of one photon from a pair is marked by a quantum jump of the atomic state and heralded by the coincident detection of the entangled partner photon. For three polarization basis settings of absorption and detection of the herald, we find maximum coincidences always for orthogonal polarizations. Tomographic reconstruction of the biphoton quantum state from the absorption-herald coincidences reveals 93% overlap with the maximally entangled state. This proves that the polarization entanglement shared by the photon pair is preserved in the absorption process and converted to transient photon-atom entanglement.
Experimental many-pairs nonlocality
Poh, Hou Shun; Cerè, Alessandro; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Cai, Yu; Sangouard, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Kurtsiefer, Christian
2017-08-01
Collective measurements on large quantum systems together with a majority voting strategy can lead to a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. In the presence of many entangled pairs, this violation decreases quickly with the number of pairs and vanishes for some critical pair number that is a function of the noise present in the system. Here we show that a different binning strategy can lead to a more substantial Bell violation when the noise is sufficiently small. Given the relation between the critical pair number and the source noise, we then present an experiment where the critical pair number is used to quantify the quality of a high visibility photon pair source. Our results demonstrate nonlocal correlations using collective measurements operating on clusters of more than 40 photon pairs.
Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre
2012-01-01
Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation......, along with protocols for using the encoding scheme in practice. Protocols for cloud storage find application in the cloud setting, where clients store their files on a remote server and need to be ensured that the cloud provider will not delete their data illegitimately. Current solutions, e.g., based...
Myers, Robert C; Smolkin, Michael
2013-01-01
We examine the idea that in quantum gravity, the entanglement entropy of a general region should be finite and the leading contribution is given by the Bekenstein-Hawking area law. Using holographic entanglement entropy calculations, we show that this idea is realized in the Randall-Sundrum II braneworld for sufficiently large regions in smoothly curved backgrounds. Extending the induced gravity action on the brane to include the curvature-squared interactions, we show that the Wald entropy closely matches the expression describing the entanglement entropy. The difference is that for a general region, the latter includes terms involving the extrinsic curvature of the entangling surface, which do not appear in the Wald entropy. We also consider various limitations on the validity of these results.
Entanglement in neutrino oscillations
Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)
2009-03-15
Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)
Gaussian Intrinsic Entanglement
Mišta, Ladislav; Tatham, Richard
2016-12-01
We introduce a cryptographically motivated quantifier of entanglement in bipartite Gaussian systems called Gaussian intrinsic entanglement (GIE). The GIE is defined as the optimized mutual information of a Gaussian distribution of outcomes of measurements on parts of a system, conditioned on the outcomes of a measurement on a purifying subsystem. We show that GIE vanishes only on separable states and exhibits monotonicity under Gaussian local trace-preserving operations and classical communication. In the two-mode case, we compute GIE for all pure states as well as for several important classes of symmetric and asymmetric mixed states. Surprisingly, in all of these cases, GIE is equal to Gaussian Rényi-2 entanglement. As GIE is operationally associated with the secret-key agreement protocol and can be computed for several important classes of states, it offers a compromise between computable and physically meaningful entanglement quantifiers.
Holographic Entanglement Entropy
Rangamani, Mukund
2016-01-01
We review the developments in the past decade on holographic entanglement entropy, a subject that has garnered much attention owing to its potential to teach us about the emergence of spacetime in holography. We provide an introduction to the concept of entanglement entropy in quantum field theories, review the holographic proposals for computing the same, providing some justification for where these proposals arise from in the first two parts. The final part addresses recent developments linking entanglement and geometry. We provide an overview of the various arguments and technical developments that teach us how to use field theory entanglement to detect geometry. Our discussion is by design eclectic; we have chosen to focus on developments that appear to us most promising for further insights into the holographic map. This is a preliminary draft of a few chapters of a book which will appear sometime in the near future, to be published by Springer. The book in addition contains a discussion of application o...
D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Graffitti, Francesco; Vitelli, Chiara; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio
2016-09-01
Light beams having a vectorial field structure, or polarization, that varies over the transverse profile and a central optical singularity are called vector vortex (VV) beams and may exhibit specific properties such as focusing into "light needles" or rotation invariance. VV beams have already found applications in areas ranging from microscopy to metrology, optical trapping, nano-optics, and quantum communication. Individual photons in such beams exhibit a form of single-particle quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the quantum states of two photons can be also entangled with each other. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate the generation of quantum entanglement between two photons that are both in VV states: a form of entanglement between two complex vectorial fields. This result may lead to quantum-enhanced applications of VV beams as well as to quantum information protocols fully exploiting the vectorial features of light.
Kus, M; Kus, Marek; Zyczkowski, Karol
2001-01-01
Geometric properties of the set of quantum entangled states are investigated. We propose an explicit method to compute the dimension of local orbits for any mixed state of the general K x M problem. In particular we analyze the simplest case of 2 x 2 problem finding a stratification of the 6-D set of N=4 pure states. The set of effectively different states (which cannot be related by local transformations) is one dimensional. It starts at a 3-D manifold of maximally entangled states, cuts generic 5-D manifolds of entangled states (labeled by non-zero values of the entropy of entanglement), and ends at a single 4-D manifold of separable states.
Cosmological quantum entanglement
Martin-Martinez, Eduardo
2012-01-01
We review recent literature on the connection between quantum entanglement and cosmology, with an emphasis on the context of expanding universes. We discuss recent theoretical results reporting on the production of entanglement in quantum fields due to the expansion of the underlying spacetime. We explore how these results are affected by the statistics of the field (bosonic or fermionic), the type of expansion (de Sitter or asymptotically stationary), and the coupling to spacetime curvature (conformal or minimal). We then consider the extraction of entanglement from a quantum field by coupling to local detectors and how this procedure can be used to distinguish curvature from heating by their entanglement signature. We review the role played by quantum fluctuations in the early universe in nucleating the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures through their conversion into classical density anisotropies during and after inflation. We report on current literature attempting to account for this trans...
Converting Nonclassicality into Entanglement
Killoran, N.; Steinhoff, F. E. S.; Plenio, M. B.
2016-02-01
Quantum mechanics exhibits a wide range of nonclassical features, of which entanglement in multipartite systems takes a central place. In several specific settings, it is well known that nonclassicality (e.g., squeezing, spin squeezing, coherence) can be converted into entanglement. In this work, we present a general framework, based on superposition, for structurally connecting and converting nonclassicality to entanglement. In addition to capturing the previously known results, this framework also allows us to uncover new entanglement convertibility theorems in two broad scenarios, one which is discrete and one which is continuous. In the discrete setting, the classical states can be any finite linearly independent set. For the continuous setting, the pertinent classical states are "symmetric coherent states," connected with symmetric representations of the group S U (K ). These results generalize and link convertibility properties from the resource theory of coherence, spin coherent states, and optical coherent states, while also revealing important connections between local and nonlocal pictures of nonclassicality.
Converting Nonclassicality into Entanglement.
Killoran, N; Steinhoff, F E S; Plenio, M B
2016-02-26
Quantum mechanics exhibits a wide range of nonclassical features, of which entanglement in multipartite systems takes a central place. In several specific settings, it is well known that nonclassicality (e.g., squeezing, spin squeezing, coherence) can be converted into entanglement. In this work, we present a general framework, based on superposition, for structurally connecting and converting nonclassicality to entanglement. In addition to capturing the previously known results, this framework also allows us to uncover new entanglement convertibility theorems in two broad scenarios, one which is discrete and one which is continuous. In the discrete setting, the classical states can be any finite linearly independent set. For the continuous setting, the pertinent classical states are "symmetric coherent states," connected with symmetric representations of the group SU(K). These results generalize and link convertibility properties from the resource theory of coherence, spin coherent states, and optical coherent states, while also revealing important connections between local and nonlocal pictures of nonclassicality.
Covariant holographic entanglement negativity
Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam
2016-01-01
We conjecture a holographic prescription for the covariant entanglement negativity of $d$-dimensional conformal field theories dual to non static bulk $AdS_{d+1}$ gravitational configurations in the framework of the $AdS/CFT$ correspondence. Application of our conjecture to a $AdS_3/CFT_2$ scenario involving bulk rotating BTZ black holes exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theories and precisely captures the distillable quantum entanglement. Interestingly our conjecture for the scenario involving dual bulk extremal rotating BTZ black holes also accurately leads to the entanglement negativity for the chiral half of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theory at zero temperature.
Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre
2012-01-01
Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...
Facets of tripartite entanglement
Dipankar Home
2001-02-01
Tripartite entangled states of systems 1, 2 and 3 involving nonorthogonal states are used to reveal two hitherto unexplored quantum effects. The ﬁrst shows that kinematic entanglement between the states of 1 and 2 can affect the result of dynamical interaction between 2 and 3, though 1 and 2 may be spatially separated so that they no longer interact. The second shows that if a residual interaction persists between 1 and 2 while 2 interacts with 3 to form an entangled state, the measurement of observables of 1 can be used to determine whether 2 has interacted with 3. This effect occurs even when the measurement on 1 is made long after the residual interaction between 1 and 2 has ceased to act. Such effects resulting from interplay between unitary dynamics and kinematic entanglement have interesting implications. In particular, we discuss the signiﬁcance as regards what we call the dynamic version of Einstein locality
Multipartite Entanglement and Firewalls
Luo, Shengqiao; Albrecht, Andreas
2016-01-01
Black holes offer an exciting area to explore the nature of quantum gravity. The classic work on Hawking radiation indicates that black holes should decay via quantum effects, but our ideas about how this might work at a technical level are incomplete. Recently Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully (AMPS) have noted an apparent paradox in reconciling fundamental properties of quantum mechanics with standard beliefs about black holes. One way to resolve the paradox is to postulate the existence of a "firewall" inside the black hole horizon which prevents objects from falling smoothly toward the singularity. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as "monogamy" plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and black holes. Using the multipartite entanglement measure called negativity, we identify an example which could change the AMPS accounting of quantum entan...
Preparation of entangled squeezed states and quantification of their entanglement
蔡新华; 匡乐满
2002-01-01
We propose a scheme for generating bipartite and multipartite entangled squeezed states via the Jaynes-Cummingsmodel with large detuning. Bipartite entanglement of these entangled states is quantified by the concurrence. We alsouse the N-tangle to compute multipartite entanglement of these multipartite entangled squeezed states. Finally wediscuss two limiting cases which arise from r → oo and r → 0, in which the multipartite entangled squeezed statereduces correspondingly into an N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and an N-qubit W state.
Entanglement is Sometimes Enough
Qian, X -F
2013-01-01
For many decades the word "entanglement" has been firmly attached to the world of quantum mechanics. So is the phrase "Bell violation". Here we show, without contradicting quantum mechanics, that classical non-deterministic fields also provide a natural basis for entanglement and Bell analyses. Surprisingly, such fields are not eliminated by the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell violation test as viable alternatives to quantum theory. An experimental setup for verification is proposed.
Entanglement Renormalization and Wavelets.
Evenbly, Glen; White, Steven R
2016-04-08
We establish a precise connection between discrete wavelet transforms and entanglement renormalization, a real-space renormalization group transformation for quantum systems on the lattice, in the context of free particle systems. Specifically, we employ Daubechies wavelets to build approximations to the ground state of the critical Ising model, then demonstrate that these states correspond to instances of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), producing the first known analytic MERA for critical systems.
Shun-long Luo; You-feng Luo
2003-01-01
In quantum mechanics, it is long recognized that there exist correlations between observables which are much stronger than the classical ones. These correlations are usually called entanglement, and cannot be accounted for by classical theory. In this paper, we will study correlations between observables in terms of covariance and the Wigner-Yanase correlation, and compare their merits in characterizing entanglement. We will show that the Wigner-Yanase correlation has some advantages over the conventional covariance.
Pair-eigenstates and mutual alignment of coupled molecular rotors in a magnetic field
Sharma, Ketan
2016-01-01
We examine the rotational states of a pair of polar $^2\\Sigma$ molecules subject to a uniform magnetic field. The electric dipole-dipole interaction between the molecules creates entangled pair-eigenstates of two types. In one type, the Zeeman interaction between the inherently paramagnetic molecules and the magnetic field destroys the entanglement of the pair-eigenstates, whereas in the other type it does not. The pair-eigenstates exhibit numerous intersections, which become avoided for pair-eigenstates comprised of individual states that meet the selection rules $\\Delta J_{i}=0,\\pm 1$, $\\Delta N_{i}=0,\\pm 2$, and $\\Delta M_{i}=0,\\pm 1$ imposed by the electric dipole-dipole operator. Here $J_{i}$, $N_{i}$ and $M_{i}$ are the total, rotational and projection angular momentum quantum numbers of molecules $i=1,2$ in the absence of the electric dipole-dipole interaction. We evaluate the mutual alignment of the pair-eigenstates and find it to be independent of the magnetic field, except for states that undergo av...
Quantum entanglement swapping of two arbitrary biqubit pure states
Xie, ChuanMei; Liu, YiMin; Chen, JianLan; Yin, XiaoFeng; Zhang, ZhanJun
2016-10-01
In this paper, the issue of swapping quantum entanglements in two arbitrary biqubit pure states via a local bipartite entangledstate projective measure in the middle node is studied in depth, especially with regard to quantitative aspects. Attention is mainly focused on the relation between the measure and the final entanglement obtained via swapping. During the study, the entanglement of formation (EoF) is employed as a quantifier to characterize and quantify the entanglements present in all involved states. All concerned EoFs are expressed analytically; thus, the relation between the final entanglement and the measuring state is established. Through concrete analyses, the measure demands for getting a certain amount of a final entanglement are revealed. It is found that a maximally entangled final state can be obtained from any two given initial entangled states via swapping with a certain probability; however, a peculiar measure should be performed. Moreover, some distinct properties are revealed and analyzed. Such a study will be useful in quantum information processes.
Multipartite entanglement and firewalls
Luo, Shengqiao; Stoltenberg, Henry; Albrecht, Andreas
2017-03-01
Black holes offer an exciting area to explore the nature of quantum gravity. The classic work on Hawking radiation indicates that black holes should decay via quantum effects, but our ideas about how this might work at a technical level are incomplete. Recently Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully (AMPS) have noted an apparent paradox in reconciling fundamental properties of quantum mechanics with standard beliefs about black holes. One way to resolve the paradox is to postulate the existence of a "firewall" inside the black hole horizon which prevents objects from falling smoothly toward the singularity. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as "monogamy" plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and black holes. Using the multipartite entanglement measure called negativity, we identify an example which could change the AMPS accounting of quantum entanglement and perhaps eliminate the need for a firewall. Specifically, we constructed a toy model for black hole decay which has different entanglement behavior than that assumed by AMPS. We discuss the additional steps that would be needed to bring lessons from our toy model to our understanding of realistic black holes.
Quantum control and entanglement in a chemical compass
Cai, Jianming; Briegel, Hans J
2009-01-01
The radical pair mechanism is one of the two main hypotheses to explain the navigability of animals in weak magnetic fields, enabling e.g. birds to see the Earth's magnetic field. We show how quantum control can be used to either enhance or reduce the performance of such a chemical compass, providing a route to further test this hypothesis experimentally. We investigate the dynamics of quantum entanglement in this model, and demonstrate intriguing connections between radical-pair entanglement and the magnetic field sensitivity of the compass. The nature of the nuclear-spin environment plays an essential role for the observed effects.
Disrupting Entanglement of Black Holes
Leichenauer, Stefan
2014-01-01
We study entanglement in thermofield double states of strongly coupled CFTs by analyzing two-sided Reissner-Nordstrom solutions in AdS. The central object of study is the mutual information between a pair of regions, one on each asymptotic boundary of the black hole. For large regions the mutual information is positive and for small ones it vanishes; we compute the critical length scale, which goes to infinity for extremal black holes, of the transition. We also generalize the butterfly effect of Shenker and Stanford to a wide class of charged black holes, showing that mutual information is disrupted upon perturbing the system and waiting for a time of order $\\log E/\\delta E$ in units of the temperature. We conjecture that the parametric form of this timescale is universal.
Dalton, B. J.; Goold, J.; Garraway, B. M.; Reid, M. D.
2017-02-01
These two accompanying papers are concerned with entanglement for systems of identical massive bosons and the relationship to spin squeezing and other quantum correlation effects. The main focus is on two mode entanglement, but multi-mode entanglement is also considered. The bosons may be atoms or molecules as in cold quantum gases. The previous paper I dealt with the general features of quantum entanglement and its specific definition in the case of systems of identical bosons. Entanglement is a property shared between two (or more) quantum sub-systems. In defining entanglement for systems of identical massive particles, it was concluded that the single particle states or modes are the most appropriate choice for sub-systems that are distinguishable, that the general quantum states must comply both with the symmetrization principle and the super-selection rules (SSR) that forbid quantum superpositions of states with differing total particle number (global SSR compliance). Further, it was concluded that (in the separable states) quantum superpositions of sub-system states with differing sub-system particle number (local SSR compliance) also do not occur. The present paper II determines possible tests for entanglement based on the treatment of entanglement set out in paper I. Several inequalities involving variances and mean values of operators have been previously proposed as tests for entanglement between two sub-systems. These inequalities generally involve mode annihilation and creation operators and include the inequalities that define spin squeezing. In this paper, spin squeezing criteria for two mode systems are examined, and spin squeezing is also considered for principle spin operator components where the covariance matrix is diagonal. The proof, which is based on our SSR compliant approach shows that the presence of spin squeezing in any one of the spin components requires entanglement of the relevant pair of modes. A simple Bloch vector test for
Entanglement Swapping: Entangling Atoms That Never Interacted
Guerra, E S
2005-01-01
In this paper we discuss four different proposals of entangling atomic states of particles which have never interacted. The experimental realization proposed makes use of the interaction of Rydberg atoms with a micromaser cavity prepared in either a coherent state or in a superposition of the zero and one field Fock states. We consider atoms in either a three-level cascade or lambda configuration
Entanglement in the supermolecular dimer [Mn4]2
Xu Chang-Tan; Chen Gang; He Ming-Ming; Liang Jiu-Qing
2006-01-01
This paper investigates the entanglement in the supermolecular dimer [Mn4]2 consisting of a pair of single molecular magnets with antiferromagnetic exchange-coupling J. The conventional von Neumann entropy as a function of the exchange-coupling is calculated explicitly for all eigenstates with the quantum number range from M = M1 + M2 = -9to 0. It is shown that the yon Neumann entropy is not a monotonic function of the coupling strength. However, it is significant that the entropy of entanglement has the maximum values and the minimum values for most eigenstates,which is extremely useful in the quantum computing. It also presents the time-evolution of entanglement from various initial states. The results are useful in the design of devices based on the entanglement of two molecular magnets.
Efficient Generation of Frequency-Multiplexed Entangled Single Photons
Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min
2016-12-01
We present two schemes to generate frequency-multiplexed entangled (FME) single photons by coherently mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory based on Raman interactions. By splitting a single photon and performing subsequent state transfer, we separate the generation of entanglement and its frequency conversion, and find that the both progresses have the characteristic of inherent determinacy. Our theory can reproduce the prominent features of observed results including pulse shapes and the condition for deterministically generating the FME single photons. The schemes are suitable for the entangled photon pairs with a wider frequency range, and could be immune to the photon loss originating from cavity-mode damping, spontaneous emission, and the dephasing due to atomic thermal motion. The sources might have significant applications in wavelength-division-multiplexing quantum key distribution.
Guided-wave photonics for narrowband polarization entanglement
Kaiser, F; Alibart, O; Martin, A; Tanzilli, S
2013-01-01
We report on a general entangling scheme, based on a birefringent delay line, capable of creating any pure polarization entangled state. We apply this scheme to a two-photon source built around a high efficiency type-0 non-linear integrated waveguide producing telecom photon pairs. The use of a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating filter having a bandwidth as narrow as 540 MHz, and additional standard telecommunications components permits achieving a near-perfect entanglement quality associated with a very high brightness, comparable to that of time-bin sources. Such a scheme and source could be used in quantum information applications requiring narrowband photons, especially those involving the manipulation of entanglement via quantum memories and repeaters.
Coherent dynamics of a telecom-wavelength entangled photon source
Ward, M. B.; Dean, M. C.; Stevenson, R. M.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Cooper, K.; Farrer, I.; Nicoll, C. A.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.
2014-02-01
Quantum networks can interconnect remote quantum information processors, allowing interaction between different architectures and increasing net computational power. Fibre-optic telecommunications technology offers a practical platform for routing weakly interacting photonic qubits, allowing quantum correlations and entanglement to be established between distant nodes. Although entangled photons have been produced at telecommunications wavelengths using spontaneous parametric downconversion in nonlinear media, as system complexity increases their inherent excess photon generation will become limiting. Here we demonstrate entangled photon pair generation from a semiconductor quantum dot at a telecommunications wavelength. Emitted photons are intrinsically anti-bunched and violate Bell’s inequality by 17 standard deviations High-visibility oscillations of the biphoton polarization reveal the time evolution of the emitted state with exceptional clarity, exposing long coherence times. Furthermore, we introduce a method to evaluate the fidelity to a time-evolving Bell state, revealing entanglement between photons emitted up to 5 ns apart, exceeding the exciton lifetime.
Entanglement Transfer via XXZ Heisenberg chain with DM Interaction
Rafiee, Morteza; Mohammadi, Hamidreza; Mokhtari, Hossein
2010-01-01
The role of spin-orbit interaction, arises from the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya anisotropic antisymmetric interaction, on the entanglement transfer via an antiferromagnetic XXZ Heisenberg chain is investigated. From symmetrical point of view, the XXZ Hamiltonian with Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction can be replaced by a modified XXZ Hamiltonian which is defined by a new exchange coupling constant and rotated Pauli operators. The modified coupling constant and the angle of rotations are depend on the strength of Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction. In this paper we study the dynamical behavior of the entanglement propagation through a system which is consist of a pair of maximally entangled spins coupled to one end of the chain. The calculations are performed for the ground state and the thermal state of the chain, separately. In both cases the presence of this anisotropic interaction make our channel more efficient, such that the speed of transmission and the amount of the entanglement are improved as this interaction ...
Entanglement swapping of two arbitrarily degraded entangled states
Kirby, Brian T.; Santra, Siddhartha; Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Brodsky, Michael
2016-07-01
We consider entanglement swapping, a key component of quantum network operations and entanglement distribution. Pure entangled states, which are the desired input to the swapping protocol, are typically mixed by environmental interactions, causing a reduction in their degree of entanglement. Thus an understanding of entanglement swapping with partially mixed states is of importance. Here we present a general analytical solution for entanglement swapping of arbitrary two-qubit states. Our result provides a comprehensive method for analyzing entanglement swapping in quantum networks. First, we show that the concurrence of a partially mixed state is conserved when this state is swapped with a Bell state. Then, we find upper and lower bounds on the concurrence of the state resulting from entanglement swapping for various classes of input states. Finally, we determine a general relationship between the ranks of the initial states and the rank of the final state after swapping.
Entanglement properties in a system of a pairwise entangled state
Liu Tang-Kun; Cheng Wei-Wen; Shan Chuan-Jia; Gao Yun-Feng; Wang Ji-Suo
2007-01-01
Based on the quantum information theory, this paper has investigated the entanglement properties of a system which is composed of the two entangled two-level atoms interacting with the two-mode entangled coherent fields. The influences of the strength of light field and the two parameters of entanglement between the two-mode fields on the field entropy and on the negative eigenvalues of partial transposition of density matrix are discussed by using numerical calculations. The result shows that the entanglement properties in a system of a pairwise entangled states can be controlled by appropriately choosing the two parameters of entanglement between the two-mode entangled coherent fields and the strength of two light fields respectively.
Entanglement entropy and entanglement spectrum of the Kitaev model.
Yao, Hong; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2010-08-20
In this letter, we obtain an exact formula for the entanglement entropy of the ground state and all excited states of the Kitaev model. Remarkably, the entanglement entropy can be expressed in a simple separable form S = SG+SF, with SF the entanglement entropy of a free Majorana fermion system and SG that of a Z2 gauge field. The Z2 gauge field part contributes to the universal "topological entanglement entropy" of the ground state while the fermion part is responsible for the nonlocal entanglement carried by the Z2 vortices (visons) in the non-Abelian phase. Our result also enables the calculation of the entire entanglement spectrum and the more general Renyi entropy of the Kitaev model. Based on our results we propose a new quantity to characterize topologically ordered states--the capacity of entanglement, which can distinguish the st ates with and without topologically protected gapless entanglement spectrum.
Entanglement required in achieving entanglement-assisted channel capacities
Bowen, G
2002-01-01
Entanglement shared between the two ends of a quantum communication channel has been shown to be a useful resource in increasing both the quantum and classical capacities for these channels. The entanglement-assisted capacities were derived assuming an unlimited amount of shared entanglement per channel use. In this paper, bounds are derived on the minimum amount of entanglement required per use of a channel, in order to asymptotically achieve the capacity. This is achieved by introducing a class of entanglement-assisted quantum codes. Codes for classes of qubit channels are shown to achieve the quantum entanglement-assisted channel capacity when an amount of shared entanglement per channel given by, E = 1 - Q_E, is provided. It is also shown that for very noisy channels, as the capacities become small, the amount of required entanglement converges for the classical and quantum capacities.
A new method for quantifying entanglement of multipartite entangled states
Su, Pei-Yuan; Li, Wen-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Kai; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Gu, Yong-Jian
2017-08-01
We propose a new way for quantifying entanglement of multipartite entangled states which have a symmetrical structure and can be expressed as valence-bond-solid states. We put forward a new concept `unit.' The entangled state can be decomposed into a series of units or be reconstructed by multiplying the units successively, which simplifies the analyses of multipartite entanglement greatly. We compute and add up the generalized concurrence of each unit to quantify the entanglement of the whole state. We verify that the new method coincides with concurrence for two-partite pure states. We prove that the new method is a good entanglement measure obeying the three necessary conditions for all good entanglement quantification methods. Based on the method, we compute the entanglement of multipartite GHZ, cluster and AKLT states.
Entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states
Cai Xin-Hua; Guo Jie-Rong; Nie Jian-Jun; Jia Jin-Ping
2006-01-01
The proposals on entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states are presented.In these proposals,the entanglement between two coherent states,|α〉and |-α〉,with the same amplitude but a phase difference of π is utilized as a quantum channel.The processes of the entanglement diversion and the teleportation are achieved by using the 5050 symmetric beam splitters,the phase shifters and the photodetectors with the help of classical information.
Fast entanglement detection for unknown states of two spatial qutrits
Lima, G; Vargas, A; Vianna, R O; Saavedra, C
2010-01-01
We investigate the practicality of the method proposed by Maciel et al. [Phys. Rev. A. 80, 032325(2009)] for detecting the entanglement of two spatial qutrits (3-dimensional quantum systems), which are encoded in the discrete transverse momentum of single photons transmitted through a multi-slit aperture. The method is based on the acquisition of partial information of the quantum state through projective measurements, and a data processing analysis done with semi-definite programs. This analysis relies on generating gradually an optimal entanglement witness operator, and numerical investigations have shown that it allows for the entanglement detection of unknown states with a cost much lower than full state tomography.
Entanglement of Superpositions of Orthogonal Maximally Entangled States
ZHANG Dao-Hua; ZHOU Duan-Lu; FAN Heng
2010-01-01
@@ We study the entanglement properties of the superposed state of orthogonal maximally entangled states.It is shown that the superposed state is maximally entangled and the superposed state is separable.The relation between the superposed state and the mutually unbiased state is discussed.
Fudano, Hiroko
A project work in which learners of a foreign language engage in a task with the native speakers is one of the effective ways to bring in ample real communication opportunities to a classroom. This scheme also gives both parties meaningful experiences for intercultural understanding. This paper reports a “Pythagoras” machine production project in which international students were paired up with Japanese students as a part of a Japanese for science and technology course in a summer intensive program. Based on the participants‧ course evaluation data, the paper also discusses the effectiveness of the project for Japanese language learning and for promoting intercultural understanding.
Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement quantum key distribution scheme
ZHANG ChengXian; GUO BangHong; CHENG GuangMing; GUO JianJun; FAN RongHua
2014-01-01
We propose a novel quantum key distribution scheme by using the SAM-OAM hybrid entangled state as the physical resource.To obtain this state,the polarization entangled photon pairs are created by the spontaneous parametric down conversion process,and then,the q-plate acts as a SAM-to-OAM transverter to transform the polarization entangled pairs into the hybrid entangled pattern,which opens the possibility to exploit the features of the higher-dimensional space of OAM state to encode information.In the manipulation and encoding process,Alice performs the SAM measurement by modulating the polarization state |θ＞π on one photon,whereas Bob modulates the OAM sector state |x＞1 on the other photon to encode his key elements using the designed holograms which is implemented by the computer-controlled SLM.With coincidence measurement,Alice could extract the key information.It is showed that N-based keys can be encoded with each pair of entangled photon,and this scheme is robust against Eve's individual attack.Also,the MUBs are not used.Alice and Bob do not need the classical communication for the key recovery.
A Peculiar Tripartite Entangled State
黄燕霞; 於亚飞; 詹明生
2003-01-01
We present a scheme to prepare two-atom Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states and three-atom entangled states via cavity quantum electrodynamics, and it can be realized experimentally. Importantly, we find that in the set of tripartite entangled states prepared by our scheme there is a peculiar tripartite entangled state except the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state. The peculiar tripartite entangled states have double feature of the GHZ state (i.e. T123 ＞ 0) and W state (i.e. the remaining reduce density matrices ρij retain entanglement according to the positive partial transformation (PPT) criterion) simultaneously. However, its entanglement properties are not completely identical either to the GHZ state or to the W state. It is interesting that for peculiar entanglement properties, the remaining reduced density matrices ρij can retain entanglement or disentanglement independently, which can be chosen freely according to our need.
Hessian geometry and entanglement thermodynamics
Matsueda, Hiroaki
2015-01-01
We reconstruct entanglement thermodynamics by means of Hessian geometry, since this method exactly generalizes thermodynamics into much wider exponential family cases including quantum entanglement. Starting with the correct first law of entanglement thermodynamics, we derive that a proper choice of the Hessian potential leads to both of the entanglement entropy scaling for quantum critical systems and hyperbolic metric (or AdS space with imaginary time). We also derive geometric representation of the entanglement entropy in which the entropy is described as integration of local conserved current of information flowing across an entangling surface. We find that the entangling surface is equivalent to the domain boundary of the Hessian potential. This feature originates in a special property of critical systems in which we can identify the entanglement entropy with the Hessian potential after the second derivative by the canonical parameters, and this identification guarantees violation of extensive nature of ...
Concentrating entanglement by local actions: Beyond mean values
Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Popescu, Sandu
2001-02-01
Suppose two distant observers Alice and Bob share a pure bipartite quantum state. By applying local operations and communicating with each other using a classical channel, Alice and Bob can manipulate it into some other states. Previous investigations of entanglement manipulations have been largely limited to a small number of strategies and their average outcomes. Here we consider a general entanglement manipulation strategy, and go beyond the average property. For a pure entangled state shared between two separated persons Alice and Bob, we show that the mathematical interchange symmetry of the Schmidt decomposition can be promoted into a physical symmetry between the actions of Alice and Bob. Consequently, the most general (multistep two-way-communications) strategy of entanglement manipulation of a pure state is, in fact, equivalent to a strategy involving only a single (generalized) measurement by Alice followed by one-way communications of its result to Bob. We also prove that strategies with one-way communications are generally more powerful than those without communications. In summary, one-way communications is necessary and sufficient for entanglement manipulations of a pure bipartite state. The supremum probability of obtaining a maximally entangled state (of any dimension) from an arbitrary state is determined, and a strategy for achieving this probability is constructed explicitly. One important question is whether collective manipulations in quantum mechanics can greatly enhance the probability of large deviations from the average behavior. We answer this question in the negative by showing that, given n pairs of identical partly entangled pure states (\\|Ψ>) with entropy of entanglement E(\\|Ψ>), the probability of getting nK [K>E(\\|Ψ>)] singlets out of entanglement concentration tends to zero as n tends to infinity.
Secured Optical Communications Using Quantum Entangled Two-Photon Transparency Modulation
Kojima, Jun (Inventor); Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Lekki, John (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A system and method is disclosed wherein optical signals are coded in a transmitter by tuning or modulating the interbeam delay time (which modulates the fourth-order coherence) between pairs of entangled photons. The photon pairs are either absorbed or not absorbed (transparent) by an atomic or molecular fluorescer in a receiver, depending on the inter-beam delay that is introduced in the entangled photon pairs. Upon the absorption, corresponding fluorescent optical emissions follow at a certain wavelength, which are then detected by a photon detector. The advantage of the disclosed system is that it eliminates a need of a coincidence counter to realize the entanglement-based secure optical communications because the absorber acts as a coincidence counter for entangled photon pairs.
无
2007-01-01
We present two schemes for preparing remotely a three-particle entangled state by two different quantum channels. In the first scheme, two partial three-particle entangled states are used as the quantum channels, while in the second scheme, three two-particle non-maximally entangled states are employed as the quantum channels. It is shown that the remote state preparation can be successfully realized with certain probability, for both two schemes, if a sender performs some projective measurements and a receiver adopts some appropriate unitary transformations. It is shown also that the successful probabilities of these two schemes are different.
Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement.
Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min
2015-08-28
Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing.
Holographic entanglement entropy
Rangamani, Mukund
2017-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the field of holographic entanglement entropy. Within the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, it is shown how quantum entanglement is computed by the area of certain extremal surfaces. The general lessons one can learn from this connection are drawn out for quantum field theories, many-body physics, and quantum gravity. An overview of the necessary background material is provided together with a flavor of the exciting open questions that are currently being discussed. The book is divided into four main parts. In the first part, the concept of entanglement, and methods for computing it, in quantum field theories is reviewed. In the second part, an overview of the AdS/CFT correspondence is given and the holographic entanglement entropy prescription is explained. In the third part, the time-dependence of entanglement entropy in out-of-equilibrium systems, and applications to many body physics are explored using holographic methods. The last part f...
Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations
Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2009-06-01
Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.
Generic entangling through quantum indistinguishability
Sougato Bose; Dipankar Home
2002-08-01
We present a general scheme for entangling any degree of freedom of two uncorrelated identical particles from independent sources by a combination of two-particle interferometry and which-way detection. We show that this entanglement generation procedure works for completely random initial states of the variable to be entangled. We also demonstrate a curious complementarity exhibited by our scheme and its applications in estimating the generated entanglement as a function of wave packet overlap at the beamsplitter.
Lithography using quantum entangled particles
Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)
2003-01-01
A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.
Heralded entanglement between solid-state qubits separated by three metres.
Bernien, H; Hensen, B; Pfaff, W; Koolstra, G; Blok, M S; Robledo, L; Taminiau, T H; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Childress, L; Hanson, R
2013-05-01
Quantum entanglement between spatially separated objects is one of the most intriguing phenomena in physics. The outcomes of independent measurements on entangled objects show correlations that cannot be explained by classical physics. As well as being of fundamental interest, entanglement is a unique resource for quantum information processing and communication. Entangled quantum bits (qubits) can be used to share private information or implement quantum logical gates. Such capabilities are particularly useful when the entangled qubits are spatially separated, providing the opportunity to create highly connected quantum networks or extend quantum cryptography to long distances. Here we report entanglement of two electron spin qubits in diamond with a spatial separation of three metres. We establish this entanglement using a robust protocol based on creation of spin-photon entanglement at each location and a subsequent joint measurement of the photons. Detection of the photons heralds the projection of the spin qubits onto an entangled state. We verify the resulting non-local quantum correlations by performing single-shot readout on the qubits in different bases. The long-distance entanglement reported here can be combined with recently achieved initialization, readout and entanglement operations on local long-lived nuclear spin registers, paving the way for deterministic long-distance teleportation, quantum repeaters and extended quantum networks.
Simulating Entangling Unitary Operator Using Non-maximally Entangled States
LI Chun-Xian; WANG Cheng-Zhi; NIE Liu-Ying; LI Jiang-Fan
2009-01-01
We use non-maximally entangled states (NMESs) to simulate an entangling unitary operator (EUO) w/th a certain probability. Given entanglement resources, the probability of the success we achieve is a decreasing function of the parameters of the EUO. Given an EUO, for certain entanglement resources the result is optimal, i.e., the probability obtains a maximal value, and for optimal result higher parameters of the EUO match more amount of entanglement resources. The probability of the success we achieve is higher than the known results under some condition.
PURE STATE ENTANGLEMENT ENTROPY IN NONCOMMUTATIVE 2D DE SITTER SPACE TIME
M.F Ghiti
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Using the general modified field equation, a general noncommutative Klein-Gordon equation up to the second order of the noncommutativity parameter is derived in the context of noncommutative 2D De Sitter space-time. Using Bogoliubov coefficients and a special technics called conformal time; the boson-antiboson pair creation density is determined. The Von Neumann boson-antiboson pair creation quantum entanglement entropy is presented to compute the entanglement between the modes created presented.
Probabilistic teleportation scheme of two-mode entangled photon states by using linear optic element
XIANG Shao-hua
2003-01-01
A scheme for teleporting two-mode entangled photon states with the successful probability 33.3% is proposed. In the scheme, the teleporte d qubit is two-mode photon entangled states, and two pairs of EPR pair are used as quantum channel between a sender and a receiver. This procedure is achieved by using two 50/50 symmetric beam splitters and four photon number detectors wit h the help of classical information.
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Chimczak, Grzegorz; Lemr, Karel
2017-02-01
We describe a direct method for experimental determination of the negativity of an arbitrary two-qubit state with 11 measurements performed on multiple copies of the two-qubit system. Our method is based on the experimentally accessible sequences of singlet projections performed on up to four qubit pairs. In particular, our method permits the application of the Peres-Horodecki separability criterion to an arbitrary two-qubit state. We explicitly demonstrate that measuring entanglement in terms of negativity requires three measurements more than detecting two-qubit entanglement. The reported minimal set of interferometric measurements provides a complete description of bipartite quantum entanglement in terms of two-photon interference. This set is smaller than the set of 15 measurements needed to perform a complete quantum state tomography of an arbitrary two-qubit system. Finally, we demonstrate that the set of nine Makhlin's invariants needed to express the negativity can be measured by performing 13 multicopy projections. We demonstrate both that these invariants are a useful theoretical concept for designing specialized quantum interferometers and that their direct measurement within the framework of linear optics does not require performing complete quantum state tomography.
Electron entanglement near a superconductor and Bell inequalities
Thierry Martin; Chantal Lovarco
2002-08-01
Near the interface between a normal metal and a superconductor, Cooper pairs penetrate into the normal side, giving rise to the proximity effect. The two electrons of these pairs have entangled spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Nonlocal features of quantum mechanics can be probed by separating these two electrons. This is achieved with a fork geometry with two normal leads containing either spin- or energy-selective ﬁlters. A signature of entanglement can be detected by measuring the positive noise cross-correlations in this fork. In the case of energy ﬁlters, Bell-inequality checks constitute a deﬁnite probe of entanglement. We formulate Bell-type inequalities in terms of current–current cross-correlations associated with contacts with varying magnetization orientations. We ﬁnd maximal violation (as in photons) when a superconductor is the particle source.
Quantum coordinated multi-point communication based on entanglement swapping
Du, Gang; Shang, Tao; Liu, Jian-wei
2017-05-01
In a quantum network, adjacent nodes can communicate with each other point to point by using pre-shared Einsten-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, and furthermore remote nodes can establish entanglement channels by using quantum routing among intermediate nodes. However, with the rapid development of quantum networks, the demand of various message transmission among nodes inevitably emerges. In order to realize this goal and extend quantum networks, we propose a quantum coordinated multi-point communication scheme based on entanglement swapping. The scheme takes full advantage of EPR pairs between adjacent nodes and performs multi-party entanglement swapping to transmit messages. Considering various demands of communication, all nodes work cooperatively to realize different message transmission modes, including one to many, many to one and one to some. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme can flexibly organize a coordinated group and efficiently use EPR resources, while it meets basic security requirement under the condition of coordinated communication.
Effects of decoherence on entanglement in a correlated emission laser
Tesfa, Sintayehu [Physics Department, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)
2007-06-28
We present the analysis of the effects of decoherence on quantum features of the cavity radiation of the two-photon-correlated emission laser, employing the stochastic differential equations associated with the normal ordering. We study how a thermal noise entering the cavity affects the squeezing, entanglement amplification, mean number of photon pairs and intensity difference in the cavity radiation. It turns out that the generated light exhibits a two-mode squeezing and entanglement when initially there are more atoms at the lower level, even when the cavity is coupled to a thermal reservoir. It is also found that though the thermal noise entering the cavity degrades the squeezing and entanglement, it significantly increases the mean number of photon pairs of the superimposed radiation.
Teleportation of a multiqubit state by an entangled qudit channel
郑亦庄; 顾永建; 吴桂初; 郭光灿
2003-01-01
We investigate the problem of teleportation of an M-qubit state by using an entangled qudit pair as a quantum channe; and show that the teleportation of a multiparticle state can correspond to the teleportation of a multidimensional state.We also introduce a quantum-state converter composed of beamspliter arrays,on /off -detectors and coross-Kerr couplers and demonstrate that the stte concersion from an M-qubit to an N-dimensional qudit and vice versa can be implemented with this converter,where N=2M,Based on this ,an experimentallu feasible for the teleportation of an M-qubit via an entangl;ed N-level qudit pair channel is proposed.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement of Narrow-Band Photons from Cold Atoms
Lee, Jong-Chan; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2016-12-01
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement introduced in 1935 deals with two particles that are entangled in their positions and momenta. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of EPR position-momentum entanglement of narrow-band photon pairs generated from cold atoms. By using two-photon quantum ghost imaging and ghost interference, we demonstrate explicitly that the narrow-band photon pairs violate the separability criterion, confirming EPR entanglement. We further demonstrate continuous variable EPR steering for positions and momenta of the two photons. Our new source of EPR-entangled narrow-band photons is expected to play an essential role in spatially multiplexed quantum information processing, such as, storage of quantum correlated images, quantum interface involving hyperentangled photons, etc.
Deriving covariant holographic entanglement
Dong, Xi; Lewkowycz, Aitor; Rangamani, Mukund
2016-11-01
We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.
Deriving covariant holographic entanglement
Dong, Xi; Rangamani, Mukund
2016-01-01
We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Renyi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.
Entanglement in Classical Optics
Ghose, Partha
2013-01-01
The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate between separable and nonseparable states in classical wave optics where no discreteness is involved. The influence of the Pancharatnam phase on a classical Bell-like state is deived. Finally, to what extent classical polarization optics can be used to simulate quantum information processing tasks is also discussed. This should be of great practical importance because coherence and entanglement are robust in classical optics but not in quantum systems.
Temperature from quantum entanglement
Kumar, S Santhosh
2015-01-01
It is still unclear how thermal states dynamically emerge from a microscopic quantum description. A complete understanding of the long time evolution of closed quantum systems may resolve the tension between a microscopic description and the one offered by equilibrium statistical mechanics. In an attempt in this direction, we consider a simple bipartite system (a quantum scalar field propagating in black-hole background) and study the evolution of the entanglement entropy --- by tracing over the degrees of freedom inside the event-horizon --- at different times. We define entanglement temperature which is similar to the one used in the microcanonical ensemble picture in statistical mechanics and show that (i) this temperature is a finite quantity while the entanglement entropy diverges and (ii) matches with the Hawking temperature for all several black-hole space-times. We also discuss the implications of our result for the laws of black-hole mechanics and eigen-state thermalization.
Entanglement without hidden nonlocality
Hirsch, Flavien; Túlio Quintino, Marco; Bowles, Joseph; Vértesi, Tamás; Brunner, Nicolas
2016-11-01
We consider Bell tests in which the distant observers can perform local filtering before testing a Bell inequality. Notably, in this setup, certain entangled states admitting a local hidden variable model in the standard Bell scenario can nevertheless violate a Bell inequality after filtering, displaying so-called hidden nonlocality. Here we ask whether all entangled states can violate a Bell inequality after well-chosen local filtering. We answer this question in the negative by showing that there exist entangled states without hidden nonlocality. Specifically, we prove that some two-qubit Werner states still admit a local hidden variable model after any possible local filtering on a single copy of the state.
Quantum Phase Imaging using Spatial Entanglement
Lu, Chien-Hung; Sun, Xiaohang; Fleischer, Jason W
2015-01-01
Entangled photons have the remarkable ability to be more sensitive to signal and less sensitive to noise than classical light. Joint photons can sample an object collectively, resulting in faster phase accumulation and higher spatial resolution, while common components of noise can be subtracted. Even more, they can accomplish this while physically separate, due to the nonlocal properties of quantum mechanics. Indeed, nearly all quantum optics experiments rely on this separation, using individual point detectors that are scanned to measure coincidence counts and correlations. Scanning, however, is tedious, time consuming, and ill-suited for imaging. Moreover, the separation of beam paths adds complexity to the system while reducing the number of photons available for sampling, and the multiplicity of detectors does not scale well for greater numbers of photons and higher orders of entanglement. We bypass all of these problems here by directly imaging collinear photon pairs with an electron-multiplying CCD cam...
Correlation Plenoptic Imaging With Entangled Photons
Pepe, Francesco V; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano; D'Angelo, Milena
2016-01-01
Plenoptic imaging is a novel optical technique for three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. It is enabled by the simultaneous measurement of both the location and the propagation direction of light in a given scene. In the standard approach, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are inversely proportional, and so are the resolution and the maximum achievable depth of focus of the 3D image. We have recently proposed a method to overcome such fundamental limits by combining plenoptic imaging with an intriguing correlation remote-imaging technique: ghost imaging. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that correlation plenoptic imaging can be effectively achieved by exploiting the position-momentum entanglement characterizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) photon pairs. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we shall show that correlation plenoptic imaging with entangled photons may enable the refocusing of an out-of-focus image at the same depth of focus of a standard plenoptic device, but w...
Entanglement and coherence in quantum state merging
Streltsov, A; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M
2016-01-01
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging where two parties aim to merge their parts of a tripartite quantum state. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered as an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process, and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to ...
Hot multiboundary wormholes from bipartite entanglement
Marolf, Donald; Peach, Alex; Ross, Simon F
2015-01-01
We analyze the 1+1 CFT states dual to hot (time-symmetric) 2+1 multiboundary AdS wormholes. These are black hole geometries with high local temperature, $n \\ge 1$ asymptotically-AdS$_3$ regions, and arbitrary internal topology. The dual state at $t=0$ is defined on $n$ circles. We show these to be well-described by sewing together tensor networks corresponding to thermofield double states. As a result, the entanglement is spatially localized and bipartite: away from particular boundary points ("vertices") any small connected region $A$ of the boundary CFT is entangled only with another small connected region $B$, where $B$ may lie on a different circle or may be a different part of the same circle. We focus on the pair-of-pants case, from which more general cases may be constructed. We also discuss finite-temperature corrections, where we note that the states involve a code subspace in each circle.
Entanglement and topological interfaces
Brehm, Enrico M; Jaud, Daniel; Schmidt-Colinet, Cornelius
2015-01-01
In this paper we consider entanglement entropies in two-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of topological interfaces. Tracing over one side of the interface, the leading term of the entropy remains unchanged. The interface however adds a subleading contribution, which can be interpreted as a relative (Kullback-Leibler) entropy with respect to the situation with no defect inserted. Reinterpreting boundaries as topological interfaces of a chiral half of the full theory, we rederive the left/right entanglement entropy in analogy with the interface case. We discuss WZW models and toroidal bosonic theories as examples.
Samblowski, Aiko; Grosse, Nicolai; Lam, Ping Koy; Schnabel, Roman
2010-01-01
We report on the generation of entangled states of light between the wavelengths 810 and 1550 nm in the continuous variable regime. The fields were produced by type I optical parametric oscillation in a standing-wave cavity build around a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, operated above threshold. Balanced homodyne detection was used to detect the non-classical noise properties, while filter cavities provided the local oscillators by separating carrier fields from the entangled sidebands. We were able to obtain an inseparability of I=0.82, corresponding to about -0.86 dB of non-classical quadrature correlation.
Holographic entanglement chemistry
Caceres, Elena; Pedraza, Juan F
2016-01-01
We use the Iyer-Wald formalism to derive an extended first law of entanglement that includes variations in the cosmological constant, Newton's constant and --in the case of higher derivative theories-- all the additional couplings of the theory. In Einstein gravity, where the number of degrees of freedom $N^2$ of the dual field theory is a function of $\\Lambda$ and $G$, our approach allows us to vary $N$ keeping the field theory scale fixed or to vary the field theory scale keeping $N$ fixed. We also derive an extended first law of entanglement for Gauss-Bonnet and Lovelock gravity.
Yu, Ting
2009-01-01
A new development in the dynamical behavior of elementary quantum systems is the surprising discovery that correlation between two quantum units of information called qubits can be degraded by environmental noise in a way not seen previously in studies of dissipation. This new route for dissipation attacks quantum entanglement, the essential resource for quantum information as well as the central feature in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen so-called paradox and in discussions of the fate of Schr\\"{o}inger's cat. The effect has been labeled ESD, which stands for early-stage disentanglement or, more frequently, entanglement sudden death. We review recent progress in studies focused on this phenomenon.
Bright source of spectrally pure polarization-entangled photons with nearly single-mode emission
Evans, P G; Bennink, R S; Grice, W P; Humble, T S
2010-01-01
We present results of a bright entangled photon source operating at 1552 nm via type-II collinear degenerate spontaneous parametric down-conversion in periodically poled KTP crystal. We report a conservative inferred pair generation rate of 44,000/s/mW into collection modes. Minimization of spectral and spatial entanglement was achieved by group velocity matching the pump, signal and idler modes and through properly focusing the pump beam. By utilizing a pair of calcite beam displacers, we are able to overlap photons from adjacent collinear sources to obtain polarization-entanglement visibility of 94.7 +/- 1.1% with accidentals subtracted.
On Relativistic Quantum Information Properties of Entangled Wave Vectors of Massive Fermions
Cafaro, C; Mancini, S
2011-01-01
We study special relativistic effects on the entanglement between either spins or momenta of composite quantum systems of two spin-1/2 massive particles, either indistinguishable or distinguishable, in inertial reference frames in relative motion. For the case of indistinguishable particles, we consider a balanced scenario where the momenta of the pair are well-defined but not maximally entangled in the rest frame while the spins of the pair are described by a one-parameter ($\\eta$) family of entangled bipartite states. For the case of distinguishable particles, we consider an unbalanced scenario where the momenta of the pair are well-defined and maximally entangled in the rest frame while the spins of the pair are described by a one-parameter ($\\xi$) family of non-maximally entangled bipartite states. In both cases, we show that neither the spin-spin ($ss$) nor the momentum-momentum ($mm$) entanglements quantified by means of Wootters' concurrence are Lorentz invariant quantities: the total amount of entangl...
Entanglement manifestation in spin resolved electron–electron scattering
Artamonov, O.M., E-mail: artaoleg@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Samarin, S.N., E-mail: sergey.samarin@uwa.edu.au [Institute of Physics, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); School of Physics, the University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, WA (Australia); Vetlugin, A.N.; Sokolov, I.V. [Institute of Physics, St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Williams, J.F. [School of Physics, the University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth 6009, WA (Australia)
2015-11-15
Highlights: • Spin entangled pairs is created by the Coulomb scattering of polarized electrons. • Polarization and separability of scattered electrons is investigated. • The model comparison with the experimental results shows qualitative agreement. • Analytical correlation between polarization and separability of pairs is found. - Abstract: The polarization vector P of scattered electrons interacting with a polarized target electrons is compared with the entanglement (or non-separability) of the electron states of the interacting electron pair. The separability S is defined as a linear function of the von Neumann entropy. The shapes of the functions P (θ,Ω,φ) and S (θ,Ω,φ) are similar and simultaneously achieve their maximum value at the scattering angle θ values close to 0 and π and simultaneously tend to zero in the case of symmetric scattering at θ ≈ π/2. In the latter case the scattered electrons are described by an asymmetric spin part of the wave function, which by definition corresponds to the spin entangled (S ≈ 0) electron states of the interacting electron pair. Comparison of the model calculation results with experimental results of the spin polarized electron spectroscopy of the ferromagnetic solid shows qualitative agreement. The analytical expression relating polarization and separability of the two interacting particles enables use the measured polarization of scattered electrons for estimation of the spin-entanglement or separability of the two particle systems.
Accessible quantification of multiparticle entanglement
Cianciaruso, Marco; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-01-01
Entanglement is a key ingredient for quantum technologies and a fundamental signature of quantumness in a broad range of phenomena encompassing many-body physics, thermodynamics, cosmology, and life sciences. For arbitrary multiparticle systems, the quantification of entanglement typically involves hard optimisation problems, and requires demanding tomographical techniques. In this paper we show that such difficulties can be overcome by developing an experimentally friendly method to evaluate measures of multiparticle entanglement via a geometric approach. The method provides exact analytical results for a relevant class of mixed states of $N$ qubits, and computable lower bounds to entanglement for any general state. For practical purposes, the entanglement determination requires local measurements in just three settings for any $N$. We demonstrate the power of our approach to quantify multiparticle entanglement in $N$-qubit bound entangled states and other states recently engineered in laboratory using quant...
Recovering entanglement by local operations
D’Arrigo, A., E-mail: antonio.darrigo@dmfci.unict.it [CNR-IMM UOS Università (MATIS), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia (CSFNSM), Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Franco, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia (CSFNSM), Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Benenti, G. [CNISM and Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Paladino, E.; Falci, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IMM UOS Università (MATIS), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia (CSFNSM), Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Catania, Viale S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)
2014-11-15
We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.
Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue
Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J.; Alfano, Robert R.
2016-12-01
Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness.
CP^n, or, entanglement illustrated
Bengtsson, I; Zyczkowski, K
2002-01-01
We show that many topological and geometrical properties of complex projective space can be understood just by looking at a suitably constructed picture. The idea is to view CP^n as a set of flat tori parametrized by the positive octant of a round sphere. We pay particular attention to submanifolds of constant entanglement in CP^3 and give a few new results concerning them.
Quantum entanglement and symmetry
Chruscinski, D; Kossakowski, A [Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5/7, 87-100 Torun (Poland)
2007-11-15
One of the main problem in Quantum Information Theory is to test whether a given state of a composite quantum system is entangled or separable. It turns out that within a class of states invariant under the action of the symmetry group this problem considerably simplifies. We analyze multipartite invariant states and the corresponding symmetric quantum channels.
Quantum entanglement and symmetry
Chruściński, D.; Kossakowski, A.
2007-11-01
One of the main problem in Quantum Information Theory is to test whether a given state of a composite quantum system is entangled or separable. It turns out that within a class of states invariant under the action of the symmetry group this problem considerably simplifies. We analyze multipartite invariant states and the corresponding symmetric quantum channels.
Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2013-04-15
Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.
Postcolonial Entanglements: Unruling Stories
Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica
2012-01-01
In this article, I use Donna Haraway's philosophy to think about postcolonial encounters between different species. I follow entangled stories of the deer/settler-child figure to trouble colonialisms and untangle the histories and trajectories that we inhabit with other species through colonial histories. I shy away from generalizations and…
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.
2005-10-01
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
Quantum frequency doubling based on tripartite entanglement with cavities
Juan, Guo; Zhi-Feng, Wei; Su-Ying, Zhang
2016-02-01
We analyze the entanglement characteristics of three harmonic modes, which are the output fields from three cavities with an input tripartite entangled state at fundamental frequency. The entanglement properties of the input beams can be maintained after their frequencies have been up-converted by the process of second harmonic generation. We have calculated the parametric dependences of the correlation spectrum on the initial squeezing factor, the pump power, the transmission coefficient, and the normalized analysis frequency of cavity. The numerical results provide references to choose proper experimental parameters for designing the experiment. The frequency conversion of the multipartite entangled state can also be applied to a quantum communication network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91430109), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20111401110004), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014011005-3).
Ye, Tian-Yu
2016-09-01
Recently, Liu et al. proposed a two-party quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol using entanglement swapping of Bell entangled state (Commun. Theor. Phys. 57 (2012) 583). Subsequently Liu et al. pointed out that in Liu et al.'s protocol, the TP can extract the two users' secret inputs without being detected by launching the Bell-basis measurement attack, and suggested the corresponding improvement to mend this loophole (Commun. Theor. Phys. 62 (2014) 210). In this paper, we first point out the information leakage problem toward TP existing in both of the above two protocols, and then suggest the corresponding improvement by using the one-way hash function to encrypt the two users' secret inputs. We further put forward the three-party QPC protocol also based on entanglement swapping of Bell entangled state, and then validate its output correctness and its security in detail. Finally, we generalize the three-party QPC protocol into the multi-party case, which can accomplish arbitrary pair's comparison of equality among K users within one execution. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61402407
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D; Terra-Cunha, M O
2005-01-01
In this Letter we study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. Our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of monogamy of entanglement. Then we propose a polygamy of entanglement, which express that if a general multipartite state is maximally entangled it is necessarily factorized by any other system.
General polygamy inequality of multiparty quantum entanglement
Kim, Jeong San
2012-06-01
Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multiparty entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems. For multiparty closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement, and clarify that the entropy of entanglement bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multiparty quantum entanglement.
Bound entangled states invariant under Ux
Wang Zhen; Wang Zhi-Xi
2008-01-01
This paper obtains an entangled condition for isotropic-like states by using an atomic map. It constructs a class of bound entangled states from the entangled condition and shows that the partial transposition of the state from the constructed bound entangled class is an edge bound entangled state by using range criterion.
Creation of Entanglement with Nonlocal Operations
ZHANG Yong; CAO Wan-Cang; LONG Gui-Lu
2005-01-01
We discuss how to create more entanglement with nonlocal operations acting on two-particle states. For a given nonlocal operation, we find that some input states cannot produce entanglement and some produce the maximal entanglement, and find that any initial entangled states can produce more entanglement than initial product states.
Probabilistic Teleportation of the Three-Particle Entangled State viaEntanglement Swapping
路洪
2001-01-01
A scheme of teleportation of a three-particle entangled state via entanglement swapping is proposed. It is shown that if a two-particle entangled state and a three-particle entangled state (both are not maximum entangled states) are used as quantum channels, probabilistic teleportation of the three-particle entangled state can be realized.
Entanglement polytopes: multiparticle entanglement from single-particle information.
Walter, Michael; Doran, Brent; Gross, David; Christandl, Matthias
2013-06-01
Entangled many-body states are an essential resource for quantum computing and interferometry. Determining the type of entanglement present in a system usually requires access to an exponential number of parameters. We show that in the case of pure, multiparticle quantum states, features of the global entanglement can already be extracted from local information alone. This is achieved by associating any given class of entanglement with an entanglement polytope-a geometric object that characterizes the single-particle states compatible with that class. Our results, applicable to systems of arbitrary size and statistics, give rise to local witnesses for global pure-state entanglement and can be generalized to states affected by low levels of noise.
Erol, Volkan; Ozaydin, Fatih; Altintas, Azmi Ali
2014-06-24
Entanglement has been studied extensively for unveiling the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known measures for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. It was found that for sets of non-maximally entangled states of two qubits, comparing these entanglement measures may lead to different entanglement orderings of the states. On the other hand, although it is not an entanglement measure and not monotonic under local operations, due to its ability of detecting multipartite entanglement, quantum Fisher information (QFI) has recently received an intense attraction generally with entanglement in the focus. In this work, we revisit the state ordering problem of general two qubit states. Generating a thousand random quantum states and performing an optimization based on local general rotations of each qubit, we calculate the maximal QFI for each state. We analyze the maximized QFI in comparison with concurrence, REE and negativity and obtain new state orderings. We show that there are pairs of states having equal maximized QFI but different values for concurrence, REE and negativity and vice versa.
Entangled Fractional Fourier Transform for the Multipartite Entangled State Representation
QIAN Xiao-Qing; SONG Tong-Qiang
2006-01-01
We deduce entangled fractional Fourier transformation (EFFT) for the multipartite entangled state representation, which was newly constructed with two mutually conjugate n-mode entangled states of continuum variables in n-mode Fock space. We establish a formalism of EFFT for quantum mechanical wave functions, which provides us a convenient way to derive some wave functions. We find that the eigenmode of EFFT is different from the usual Hermite Polynomials. We also derive the EFFT of the n-mode squeezed state.
Degree of Entanglement for Some Bipartite Entangled Bosonic Systems
LIANG Xian-Ting
2004-01-01
We calculate the degree of entanglement for some bipartite entangled states of continuous variables.These states include common two-mode squeezed vacuum state, thermal vacuum state of a free single particle (where the fictitious tilde system is regarded as another particle), and the squeezed vacuum state of two coupling harmonic oscillators.The degree of entanglement for these quantum systems are shown clearly by using the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators.
The entanglement purification for entangled multi-particle states
Ye, Liu; Guo Guang Can
2002-01-01
We present two purification schemes for nonmaximally entangled states. We first show that two parties, Alice and Bob, start with shared less-entangled three-particle states to probabilistically produce a three-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state by Bell state measurements and positive operator valued measure (POVM) or a unitary transformation. Then, by a straightforward generalization of the schemes, the purification of a multi-particle entangled state can be realized. 25 Refs. --- 35 --- AN
Multi-copy entanglement purification with practical spontaneous parametric down conversion sources
Zhang, Shuai-Shuai; Shu, Qi; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2017-06-01
Entanglement purification is to distill the high quality entanglement from the low quality entanglement with local operations and classical communications. It is one of the key technologies in long-distance quantum communication. We discuss an entanglement purification protocol (EPP) with spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) sources, in contrast to previous EPP with multi-copy mixed states, which requires ideal entanglement sources. We show that the SPDC source is not an obstacle for purification, but can benefit the fidelity of the purified mixed state. This EPP works for linear optics and is feasible in current experiment technology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474168 and 61401222), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20151502), the Qing Lan Project in Jiangsu Province, China, and a Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.
Schneider, Matthias; Wiegele, Andreas; Barthlott, Sabine; González, Yenny; Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; García, Omaira E.; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Takele Kenea, Samuel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Andrey, Javier
2016-07-01
In the lower/middle troposphere, {H2O,δD} pairs are good proxies for moisture pathways; however, their observation, in particular when using remote sensing techniques, is challenging. The project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) addresses this challenge by integrating the remote sensing with in situ measurement techniques. The aim is to retrieve calibrated tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs from the middle infrared spectra measured from ground by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and the thermal nadir spectra measured by IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) aboard the MetOp satellites. In this paper, we present the final MUSICA products, and discuss the characteristics and potential of the NDACC/FTIR and MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} data pairs. First, we briefly resume the particularities of an {H2O,δD} pair retrieval. Second, we show that the remote sensing data of the final product version are absolutely calibrated with respect to H2O and δD in situ profile references measured in the subtropics, between 0 and 7 km. Third, we reveal that the {H2O,δD} pair distributions obtained from the different remote sensors are consistent and allow distinct lower/middle tropospheric moisture pathways to be identified in agreement with multi-year in situ references. Fourth, we document the possibilities of the NDACC/FTIR instruments for climatological studies (due to long-term monitoring) and of the MetOp/IASI sensors for observing diurnal signals on a quasi-global scale and with high horizontal resolution. Fifth, we discuss the risk of misinterpreting {H2O,δD} pair distributions due to incomplete processing of the remote sensing products.
Entanglement Equivalence of $N$-qubit Symmetric States
Mathonet, P; Godefroid, M; Lamata, L; Solano, E; Bastin, T
2009-01-01
We study the interconversion of multipartite symmetric $N$-qubit states under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). We demonstrate that if two symmetric states can be connected with a nonsymmetric invertible local operation (ILO), then they belong necessarily to the separable, W, or GHZ entanglement class, establishing a practical method of discriminating subsets of entanglement classes. Furthermore, we prove that there always exists a symmetric ILO connecting any pair of symmetric $N$-qubit states equivalent under SLOCC, simplifying the requirements for experimental implementations of local interconversion of those states.
Resolving the EPR Paradox for the Case of entangled Photons
Muchowski, Eugen
2016-01-01
A system of two polarized photons in singlet state appears as being in one of two product states independent of any measurement. These states depend on the selected polarization angles. With the polarizers on either side perpendicular to each other, both photons pass the polarizers without any disturbance. Action at a distance is therefore not needed to explain the results of the measurements. In general, the elements of physical reality demanded by EPR are the polarization states of the two photons of the entangled pair. As these are local elements in the regions of space of the polarizers the EPR paradox for the case of entangled photons can be regarded as resolved.
Experimental realization of entanglement concentration and a quantum repeater.
Zhao, Zhi; Yang, Tao; Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhang, An-Ning; Pan, Jian-Wei
2003-05-23
We report an experimental realization of entanglement concentration using two polarization-entangled photon pairs produced by pulsed parametric down-conversion. In the meantime, our setup also provides a proof-in-principle demonstration of a quantum repeater. The quality of our procedure is verified by observing a violation of Bell's inequality by more than 5 standard deviations. The high experimental accuracy achieved in the experiment implies that the requirement of tolerable error rate in multistage realization of quantum repeaters can be fulfilled, hence providing a useful toolbox for quantum communication over large distances.
Correlations of decay times of entangled composite unstable systems
Durt, Thomas
2012-01-01
The role played by Time in the quantum theory is still mysterious by many aspects. In particular it is not clear today whether the distribution of decay times of unstable particles could be described by a Time Operator. As we shall discuss, different approaches to this problem (one could say interpretations) can be found in the literature on the subject. As we shall show, it is possible to conceive crucial experiments aimed at distinguishing the different approaches, by measuring with accuracy the statistical distribution of decay times of entangled particles. Such experiments can be realized in principle with entangled kaon pairs.
Correlations of Decay Times of Entangled Composite Unstable Systems
Durt, Thomas
2013-01-01
The role played by time in the quantum theory is still mysterious by many aspects. In particular it is not clear today whether the distribution of decay times of unstable particles could be described by a time operator (TO). As we shall discuss, different approaches to this problem (one could say interpretations) can be found in the literature on the subject. As we shall show, it is possible to conceive crucial experiments aimed at distinguishing the different approaches, by measuring with accuracy the statistical distribution of decay times of entangled particles. Such experiments can be realized in principle with entangled kaon pairs.
Teleportation for an Ionic Entangled Internal State by Entanglement Swapping
ZHENG Xiao-Juan; FANG Mao-Fa; LIAO Xiang-Ping; CAI Jian-Wu
2006-01-01
@@ We present an effective scheme to teleport an unknown ionic entangled internal state via trapped ions without joint Bell-state measurement. In the constructed quantum channel process, we adopt entanglement swapping to avoid decrease of entanglement during the distribution of particles. Thus our scheme provides new prospects for quantum teleportation over longer distance. The distinct advantages of our scheme are that our scheme is insensitive to heating of vibrational mode and can be generalized to teleport an N-ion electronic entangled GHZ class state. Furthermore, in our scheme the success probability can reach 1.
Entanglement between Two Interacting CFTs and Generalized Holographic Entanglement Entropy
Mollabashi, Ali; Takayanagi, Tadashi
2014-01-01
In this paper we discuss behaviors of entanglement entropy between two interacting CFTs and its holographic interpretation using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We explicitly perform analytical calculations of entanglement entropy between two free scalar field theories which are interacting with each other in both static and time-dependent ways. We also conjecture a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy between two interacting $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theories by introducing a minimal surface in the S$^5$ direction, instead of the AdS$_5$ direction. This offers a possible generalization of holographic entanglement entropy.
Entanglement between two interacting CFTs and generalized holographic entanglement entropy
Mollabashi, Ali; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi
2014-04-01
In this paper we discuss behaviors of entanglement entropy between two interacting CFTs and its holographic interpretation using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We explicitly perform analytical calculations of entanglement entropy between two free scalar field theories which are interacting with each other in both static and time-dependent ways. We also conjecture a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy between two interacting = 4 super Yang-Mills theories by introducing a minimal surface in the S5 direction, instead of the AdS5 direction. This offers a possible generalization of holographic entanglement entropy.
Entanglement between two interacting CFTs and generalized holographic entanglement entropy
Mollabashi, Ali [School of physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP),Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Shiba, Noburo [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP),Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takayanagi, Tadashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP),Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU),University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)
2014-04-30
In this paper we discuss behaviors of entanglement entropy between two interacting CFTs and its holographic interpretation using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We explicitly perform analytical calculations of entanglement entropy between two free scalar field theories which are interacting with each other in both static and time-dependent ways. We also conjecture a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy between two interacting N=4 super Yang-Mills theories by introducing a minimal surface in the S{sup 5} direction, instead of the AdS{sub 5} direction. This offers a possible generalization of holographic entanglement entropy.
Entanglement-assisted state discrimination and entanglement preservation
Güngör, Özenç; Turgut, Sadi
2016-09-01
In this paper, the following scenario is considered: there are two qubits possessed by two parties at different locations. Qubits have been prepared in one of a maximum of four, mutually-orthogonal, entangled states and the parties wish to distinguish between the states by using local operations and classical communication. Although in general it is not possible to distinguish between four arbitrary states, the parties can spend some preshared entanglement to achieve perfect discrimination between four qubit states and can also preserve the entanglement of the states after discrimination. This is shown by employing the theory of majorization and the connections between entanglement transformations and state discrimination protocols.
Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states
Metwally, N., E-mail: nmohamed31@gmail.com
2014-12-15
The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.
Boundary effects in entanglement entropy
Berthiere, Clement
2016-01-01
We present a number of explicit calculations of Renyi and entanglement entropies in situations where the entangling surface intersects the boundary in $d$-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. When the boundary is a single plane we compute the contribution to the entropy due to this intersection, first in the case of the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, and then in the case of a generic Robin type boundary condition. The flow in the boundary coupling between the Neumann and Dirichlet phases is analyzed in arbitrary dimension $d$ and is shown to be monotonic, the peculiarity of $d=3$ case is noted. We argue that the translational symmetry along the entangling surface is broken due the presence of the boundary which reveals that the entanglement is not homogeneous. In order to characterize this quantitatively, we introduce a density of entanglement entropy and compute it explicitly. This quantity clearly indicates that the entanglement is maximal near the boundary. We then consider the situation where the ...
Quantum entanglement from random measurements
Tran, Minh Cong; Dakić, Borivoje; Arnault, François; Laskowski, Wiesław; Paterek, Tomasz
2015-11-01
We show that the expectation value of squared correlations measured along random local directions is an identifier of quantum entanglement in pure states, which can be directly experimentally assessed if two copies of the state are available. Entanglement can therefore be detected by parties who do not share a common reference frame and whose local reference frames, such as polarizers or Stern-Gerlach magnets, remain unknown. Furthermore, we also show that in every experimental run, access to only one qubit from the macroscopic reference is sufficient to identify entanglement, violate a Bell inequality, and, in fact, observe all phenomena observable with macroscopic references. Finally, we provide a state-independent entanglement witness solely in terms of random correlations and emphasize how data gathered for a single random measurement setting per party reliably detects entanglement. This is only possible due to utilized randomness and should find practical applications in experimental confirmation of multiphoton entanglement or space experiments.
Entanglement quantification by local unitaries
Monras, A; Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Davies, G B; Illuminati, F
2011-01-01
Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitaries play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as "shield entanglement". They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert- Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary. To the action of each different local unitary there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitaries with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these shield entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary f...
Entanglement structures in qubit systems
Rangamani, Mukund; Rota, Massimiliano
2015-09-01
Using measures of entanglement such as negativity and tangles we provide a detailed analysis of entanglement structures in pure states of non-interacting qubits. The motivation for this exercise primarily comes from holographic considerations, where entanglement is inextricably linked with the emergence of geometry. We use the qubit systems as toy models to probe the internal structure, and introduce some useful measures involving entanglement negativity to quantify general features of entanglement. In particular, our analysis focuses on various constraints on the pattern of entanglement which are known to be satisfied by holographic sates, such as the saturation of Araki-Lieb inequality (in certain circumstances), and the monogamy of mutual information. We argue that even systems as simple as few non-interacting qubits can be useful laboratories to explore how the emergence of the bulk geometry may be related to quantum information principles.
Entanglement structures in qubit systems
Rangamani, Mukund
2015-01-01
Using measures of entanglement such as negativity and tangles we provide a detailed analysis of entanglement structures in pure states of non-interacting qubits. The motivation for this exercise primarily comes from holographic considerations, where entanglement is inextricably linked with the emergence of geometry. We use the qubit systems as toy models to probe the internal structure, and introduce some useful measures involving entanglement negativity to quantify general features of entanglement. In particular, our analysis focuses on various constraints on the pattern of entanglement which are known to be satisfied by holographic sates, such as the saturation of Araki-Lieb inequality (in certain circumstances), and the monogamy of mutual information. We argue that even systems as simple as few non-interacting qubits can be useful laboratories to explore how the emergence of the bulk geometry may be related to quantum information principles.
Entangled network and quantum communication
Metwally, Nasser, E-mail: Nmetwally@gmail.com [Math. Dept., Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Math. Dept., College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)
2011-11-21
A theoretical scheme is introduced to generate entangled network via Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction. The dynamics of entanglement between different nodes, which is generated by direct or indirect interaction, is investigated. It is shown that, the direction of (DM) interaction and the locations of the nodes have a sensational effect on the degree of entanglement. The minimum entanglement generated between all the nodes is quantified. The upper and lower bounds of the entanglement depend on the direction of DM interaction, and the repetition of the behavior depends on the strength of DM. The generated entangled nodes are used as quantum channel to perform quantum teleportation, where it is shown that the fidelity of teleporting unknown information between the network members depends on the locations of the members.
Entanglement and topological interfaces
Brehm, E.; Brunner, I.; Jaud, D.; Schmidt-Colinet, C. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333, Muenchen (Germany)
2016-06-15
In this paper we consider entanglement entropies in two-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of topological interfaces. Tracing over one side of the interface, the leading term of the entropy remains unchanged. The interface however adds a subleading contribution, which can be interpreted as a relative (Kullback-Leibler) entropy with respect to the situation with no defect inserted. Reinterpreting boundaries as topological interfaces of a chiral half of the full theory, we rederive the left/right entanglement entropy in analogy with the interface case. We discuss WZW models and toroidal bosonic theories as examples. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Gaussian maximally multipartite entangled states
Facchi, Paolo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio
2009-01-01
We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states (MMES) in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. These are bosonic multipartite states that are maximally entangled over all possible bipartitions of the system. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect MMESs, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of MMESs and their frustration for n <= 7.
All maximally entangling unitary operators
Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)
2011-11-15
We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems A and B of arbitrary finite dimensions d{sub A}{<=}d{sub B}, when ancillary systems are available to both parties. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when d{sub A}=d{sub B}.
Review of Entangled Coherent States
Sanders, Barry C
2011-01-01
We review entangled coherent state research since its first implicit use in 1967 to the present. Entangled coherent states are important to quantum superselection principles, quantum information processing, quantum optics, and mathematical physics. Despite their inherent fragility they have produced in a conditional propagating-wave quantum optics realization. Fundamentally the states are intriguing because they are entanglements of the coherent states, which are in a sense the most classical of all states of a dynamical system.
Stabilizing entanglement against local dissipation
Sauer, Simeon; Gneiting, Clemens; Buchleitner, Andreas [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg (Germany)
2013-07-01
Natural dissipative processes in multipartite quantum systems are mostly of local nature and therefore affect entanglement adversely. In their presence, initially highly entangled states generically evolve into at most weakly entangled states. We investigate by what means this detrimental process can be counteracted. It is shown that a suitable, dissipator-adapted static system Hamiltonian can preserve entanglement in the stationary state to a significant but limited extend. We then extend our analysis to the general class of periodically driven Hamiltonians and show that they are subject to similar limitations. Finally, we develop incoherent but local control strategies which overcome these limits.
Multipartite Entanglement in Heisenberg Model
WU Hao; REN Jie; FAN Hong-Yi; ZHU Shi-Qun
2008-01-01
The effects of anisotropy and magnetic field on multipaxtite entanglement of ground state in Heisenberg XY model axe investigated. The multipaxtite entanglement increases as a function of the inverse strength of the external field when the degree of anisotropy is finite. There axe two peaks when the degree of anisotropy is γ =± 1. When the degree of anisotropy increases further, the multipartite entanglement will decrease and tend to a constant. The threshold of the inverse strength of the external field for generating multipaxtite entanglement generally decreases with the increasing of qubits.
A Logical Approach to Entanglement
Das, Abhishek
2016-10-01
In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.
Extracting entanglement from identical particles.
Killoran, N; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B
2014-04-18
Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.
Perfect Entanglement Teleportation via Two Parallel W State Channels
WANG Mei-Yu; YAN Feng-Li
2011-01-01
We present a scheme for perfectly teleporting a two-qubit entangled state via two parallel W state channels. The scheme consists of a positive operator valued measurement (POVM), classical communication and the corresponding local unitary operation. How to realize the POVM using unitary operation and projective measurement is explicitly designed.%@@ We present a scheme for perfectly teleporting a two-qubit entangled state via two parallel W state channels.The scheme consists of a positive operator valued measurement (POVM), classical communication and the corre- sponding local unitary operation.How to realize the POVM using unitary operation and projective measurement is explicitly designed.
Entanglement Continuous Unitary Transformations
Sahin, S; Orus, R
2016-01-01
Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called "entanglement-CUT" or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators, and we present proof-of-principle results for the spin-1/2 1d quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermo...
Entanglement continuous unitary transformations
Sahin, Serkan; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Orús, Román
2017-01-01
Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called “entanglement-CUT” or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators. We also present proof-of-principle results for the spin-(1/2) 1d quantum Ising model and the 3-state quantum Potts model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermodynamic limit.
Irreversibility for all bound entangled states
Yang, D; Horodecki, R; Synak-Radtke, B; Yang, Dong; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Synak-Radtke, Barbara
2005-01-01
We derive a new inequality for entanglement for a mixed four-partite state. Employing this inequality, we present a one-shot lower bound for entanglement cost and prove that entanglement cost is strictly larger than zero for any entangled state. We demonstrate that irreversibility occurs in the process of formation for all non-distillable entangled states. In this way we solve a long standing problem, of how "real" is entanglement of bound entangled states. Using the new inequality we also prove impossibility of local-cloning and local-deleting of a known entangled state.
Performing Cosmopolitan Entanglement in the Philippine Pista: Sariaya Agawan Festival
Shirley V. Guevarra
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This essay proposes cosmopolitan entanglement as a conceptual framework for the understanding of the Philippine pista (fiesta. The pista is a cosmopolitan phenomenon because communities engage in a disposition of cultural openness with the strange and the stranger. It is a performance of entanglement because it is a complex cultural phenomenon projected to be solemn yet secular, a festivity that neither the State nor the Church is in an ultimate position of authority, a parade of divinity, and a procession of spectacle. In arguing for cosmopolitan entanglement in the pista, the essay explores the 2007 Agawan festivity in Sariaya, Quezon, some 120 km south of Manila, as a case study. The first part is a conceptualization of cosmopolitanism as related to the pista using the Catholic dogma as lens. The analysis of Catholic dogma is necessary because in the Philippines the pista has its origin in Catholicism, its celebrations often coinciding with the feast day of a community’s patron saint. The second part examines the pista as a performance of entanglement. The final section describes the Sariaya pista via the Agawan festival as a case of cosmopolitan entanglement. The pista in Sariaya is an exemplar of cosmopolitan entanglement because community members perform cultural openness, which is also a mixing and matching of different performance activities, a strategy of combining the secular and the sacred, and a welcoming gesture to both the familiar and the stranger.
The geometry of entanglement: metrics, connections and the geometric phase
Lévai, Peter
2004-01-01
Using the natural connection equivalent to the SU(2) Yang-Mills instanton on the quaternionic Hopf fibration of $S^7$ over the quaternionic projective space ${bf HP}^1simeq S^4$ with an $SU(2)simeq S^3$ fiber the geometry of entanglement for two qubits is investigated. The relationship between base and fiber i.e. the twisting of the bundle corresponds to the entanglement of the qubits. The measure of entanglement can be related to the length of the shortest geodesic with respect to the Mannoury-Fubini-Study metric on ${bf HP}^1$ between an arbitrary entangled state, and the separable state nearest to it. Using this result an interpretation of the standard Schmidt decomposition in geometric terms is given. Schmidt states are the nearest and furthest separable ones lying on, or the ones obtained by parallel transport along the geodesic passing through the entangled state. Some examples showing the correspondence between the anolonomy of the connection and entanglement via the geometric phase is shown. Connectio...
The geometry of entanglement: metrics, connections and the geometric phase
Levay, Peter [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Technical University of Budapest, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)
2004-02-06
Using the natural connection equivalent to the SU(2) Yang-Mills instanton on the quaternionic Hopf fibration of S{sup 7}over the quaternionic projective space HP{sup 1} {approx_equal} S{sup 4} with an SU(2) {approx_equal} S{sup 3} fibre, the geometry of entanglement for two qubits is investigated. The relationship between base and fibre i.e. the twisting of the bundle corresponds to the entanglement of the qubits. The measure of entanglement can be related to the length of the shortest geodesic with respect to the Mannoury-Fubini-Study metric on HP{sup 1} between an arbitrary entangled state, and the separable state nearest to it. Using this result, an interpretation of the standard Schmidt decomposition in geometric terms is given. Schmidt states are the nearest and furthest separable ones obtained by parallel transport along the geodesic passing through the entangled state. Some examples showing the correspondence between the anholonomy of the connection and entanglement via the geometric phase are shown. Connections with important notions such as the Bures metric and Uhlmann's connection, the hyperbolic structure for density matrices and anholonomic quantum computation are also pointed out.
Entanglement entropy in quantum many-particle systems and their simulation via ansatz states
Barthel, Thomas
2009-12-10
for T > 0. For the simulation of higher-dimensional systems, projected-entangled pair-states (PEPS) and the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) turn out to be appropriate wavefunction classes. Within this thesis, variants of those state classes are being suggested for the fermionic case. It is shown how the known algorithms for spin systems can be translated into corresponding algorithms for the fermionic systems. The occurring computation costs increase only by a marginal overhead. First numerical benchmarking tests proceeded successfully. (orig.)
Entangled-state cycles from conditional quantum evolution
Gu, M; Parkins, S
2006-01-01
A system of cascaded qubits interacting via the oneway exchange of photons is studied. While for general operating conditions the system evolves to a superposition of Bell states (a dark state) in the long-time limit, under a particular resonance condition no steady state is reached within a finite time. We analyze the conditional quantum evolution (quantum trajectories) to characterize the asymptotic behavior under this resonance condition. A distinct bimodality is observed: for perfect qubit coupling, the system either evolves to a maximally entangled Bell state without emitting photons (the dark state), or executes a sustained entangled-state cycle - random switching between a pair of Bell states while emitting a continuous photon stream; for imperfect coupling, two entangled-state cycles coexist, between which a random selection is made from one quantum trajectory to another.
Long-distance practical quantum key distribution by entanglement swapping
Scherer, Artur; Tittel, Wolfgang
2010-01-01
We develop a model for practical, entanglement-based long-distance quantum key distribution employing entanglement swapping as a key building block. Relying only on existing off-the-shelf technology, we show how to optimize resources so as to maximize secret key distribution rates. The tools comprise lossy transmission links, such as telecom optical fibers or free space, parametric down-conversion sources of entangled photon pairs, and threshold detectors that are inefficient and have dark counts. Our analysis provides the optimal trade-off between detector efficiency and dark counts, which are usually competing, as well as the optimal source brightness that maximizes the secret key rate for specified distances (i.e. loss) between sender and receiver.
The "Quantum Mousetrap": Entangled States and Gravitational Waves
Tamburini, Fabrizio; Ungarelli, Carlo
2008-01-01
We propose a "thought technique" for detecting Gravitational Waves using Einstein-Podolski-Rosen photon Entangled States. GWs decohere the entangled photon pairs, introduce a relative rotation and de-synchronize Alice and Bob's reference frames thus reducing the measured non-locality of correlated quanta described by Bell's inequalities. Gravitational Waves, distorting quantum encryption key statistics away from a pure white noise, act then as shadow eavesdroppers. The deviation from the intrinsic white-noise randomness of a Quantum Key Distribution process can reveal the presence of a gravitational wave by analyzing the emerging color distortions in the key. Photon entangled states provide the key advantage of revealing the polarization rotation introduced by GWs without the need of previously fixed reference frames
Long-range entanglement in the Dirac vacuum
Silman, J
2006-01-01
Recently, there have been a number of works investigating the entanglement properties of distinct noncomplementary parts of discrete and continuous Bosonic systems in ground and thermal states. The Fermionic case, however, has yet to be expressly addressed. In this paper we investigate the entanglement between a pair of far-apart regions of the 3+1 dimensional massless Dirac vacuum via a previously introduced distillation protocol [B. Reznik et al., Phys. Rev. A 71, 042104 (2005)]. We show that entanglement persists over arbitrary distances, and that as a function of L/R, where L is the distance between the regions and R is their typical scale, it decays no faster than exp(-(L/R)^2). We discuss the similarities and differences with analogous results obtained for the massless Klein-Gordon vacuum.
Why it is hard to see Schroedinger's cat: micro-macro entanglement and coarse-graining
Raeisi, Sadegh; Simon, Christoph
2011-01-01
Observing quantum effects such as superpositions and entanglement in macroscopic systems requires not only a system that is well protected against environmental decoherence, but also sufficient measurement precision. Motivated by recent experiments, we study the effects of coarse-graining in photon number measurements on the observability of micro-macro entanglement that is created by greatly amplifying one photon from an entangled pair. We compare the results obtained for a unitary quantum cloner, which generates micro-macro entanglement, and for a measure-and-prepare cloner, which produces a separable micro-macro state. We show that the distance between the probability distributions of results for the two cloners approaches zero for a fixed moderate amount of coarse-graining. Proving the presence of micro-macro entanglement therefore becomes progressively harder as the system size increases.
Generation and application of a controllable multi-atom entangled state
Huang Yan-Xia; Zhan Ming-Sheng
2004-01-01
In this paper, we present a scheme to prepare a set of the multi-atom entangled states by the cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) technology. The multi-atom entangled states have some particular entanglement properties.For example, the remaining reduced density matrices Pij still retain entanglement or disentanglement when any N-2atoms of the N atoms are traced out, which can be chosen freely according to our need, and the relative entanglement strength of any pair of atoms (measured by the concurrence) can be arbitrarily adjusted. In addition, they may be completely symmetric under the exchange of any two atoms, and perform certain quantum information tasks, such as telecloning, teleportation, secret sharing and so on.
Wormhole and Entanglement (Non-)Detection in the ER=EPR Correspondence
Bao, Ning; Remmen, Grant N
2015-01-01
The recently proposed ER=EPR correspondence postulates the existence of wormholes (Einstein-Rosen bridges) between entangled states (such as EPR pairs). Entanglement is famously known to be unobservable in quantum mechanics, in that there exists no observable (or, equivalently, projector) that can accurately pick out whether a generic state is entangled. Many features of the geometry of spacetime, however, are observables, so one might worry that the presence or absence of a wormhole could identify an entangled state in ER=EPR, violating quantum mechanics, specifically, the property of state-independence of observables. In this note, we establish that this cannot occur: there is no measurement in general relativity that unambiguously detects the presence of a generic wormhole geometry. This statement is the ER=EPR dual of the undetectability of entanglement.
Wormhole and entanglement (non-)detection in the ER=EPR correspondence
Bao, Ning [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pollack, Jason; Remmen, Grant N. [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2015-11-19
The recently proposed ER=EPR correspondence postulates the existence of wormholes (Einstein-Rosen bridges) between entangled states (such as EPR pairs). Entanglement is famously known to be unobservable in quantum mechanics, in that there exists no observable (or, equivalently, projector) that can accurately pick out whether a generic state is entangled. Many features of the geometry of spacetime, however, are observables, so one might worry that the presence or absence of a wormhole could identify an entangled state in ER=EPR, violating quantum mechanics, specifically, the property of state-independence of observables. In this note, we establish that this cannot occur: there is no measurement in general relativity that unambiguously detects the presence of a generic wormhole geometry. This statement is the ER=EPR dual of the undetectability of entanglement.
Generation and application of a controllable multi-atom entangled state
Huang, Yan-Xia; Zhan, Ming-Sheng
2004-12-01
In this paper, we present a scheme to prepare a set of the multi-atom entangled states by the cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) technology. The multi-atom entangled states have some particular entanglement properties. For example, the remaining reduced density matrices ρij still retain entanglement or disentanglement when any N-2 atoms of the N atoms are traced out, which can be chosen freely according to our need and the relative entanglement strength of any pair of atoms (measured by the concurrence) can be arbitrarily adjusted. In addition, they may be completely symmetric under the exchange of any two atoms and perform certain quantum information tasks, such as telecloning, teleportation, secret sharing and so on.
Holographic dual of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair has a wormhole.
Jensen, Kristan; Karch, Andreas
2013-11-22
We construct the holographic dual of two colored quasiparticles in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory entangled in a color singlet Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair. In the holographic dual, the entanglement is encoded in a geometry of a nontraversable wormhole on the world sheet of the flux tube connecting the pair. This gives a simple example supporting the recent claim by Maldacena and Susskind that EPR pairs and nontraversable wormholes are equivalent descriptions of the same physics.
Universal corner contributions to entanglement negativity
Kim, Keun-Young; Pang, Da-Wei
2016-01-01
It has been realised that corners in entangling surfaces can induce new universal contributions to the entanglement entropy and R\\'enyi entropy. In this paper we study universal corner contributions to entanglement negativity in three- and four-dimensional CFTs using both field theory and holographic techniques. We focus on the quantity $\\chi$ defined by the ratio of the universal part of the entanglement negativity over that of the entanglement entropy, which may characterise the amount of distillable entanglement. We find that for most of the examples $\\chi$ takes bigger values for singular entangling regions, which may suggest increase in distillable entanglement. However, there also exist counterexamples where distillable entanglement decreases for singular surfaces. We also explore the behaviour of $\\chi$ as the coupling varies and observe that for singular entangling surfaces, the amount of distillable entanglement is mostly largest for free theories, while counterexample exists for free Dirac fermion i...
Holographic Schwinger effect and the geometry of entanglement.
Sonner, Julian
2013-11-22
We show that the recently proposed bulk dual of an entangled pair of a quark and an antiquark corresponds to the Lorentzian continuation of the tunneling instanton describing Schwinger pair creation in the dual field theory. This observation supports and further explains the claim by Jensen and Karch that the bulk dual of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair is a string with a wormhole on its world sheet. We suggest that this constitutes a holographically dual realization of the creation of a Wheeler wormhole.
Externally induced continuous variable entanglement in a correlated emission laser
Tesfa, Sintayehu [Physics Department, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)], E-mail: sint_tesfa@yahoo.com
2008-07-28
Analysis of the externally induced quantum features of the cavity radiation of the two-photon correlated emission laser is presented. It turns out that the pumping process induces atomic coherence accountable for observing entanglement in the cavity radiation as well as the nonclassical photon number correlation despite the arising vacuum fluctuations. Even though a significant continuous variable entanglement is obtained near threshold in the strong driving limit, increasing the amplitude of the driving radiation more than required for a fixed value of the linear gain coefficient is found to degrade the degree of entanglement. The two-mode squeezing of the superimposed radiation, entanglement of the cavity radiation and mean number of photon pairs increase with the rate at which the atoms are injected into the cavity, but the nonclassical photon number correlation decreases. Moreover, the mean photon number corresponding to the transition from the upper energy level to the intermediate is found to be greater than the transition from the intermediate to the lower. With conceivable practical challenges, it is in principle possible to generate an intense continuous variable entanglement and quantify it via photon count measurements.
Bubanja, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.bubanja@callaghaninnovation.govt.nz
2015-06-15
We present schemes for quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping of electronic spin states in hybrid superconductor–normal-metal systems. The proposed schemes employ subgap transport whereby the lowest order processes involve Cooper pair-electron and double Cooper-pair cotunneling in quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping protocols, respectively. The competition between elastic cotunneling and Cooper-pair splitting results in the success probability of 25% in both cases. Described implementations of these protocols are within reach of present-day experimental techniques.
Cavity-QED entangled photon source based on two truncated Rabi oscillations
Garcia-Maraver, R; Corbalán, R; Mompart, J
2006-01-01
We discuss a cavity-QED scheme to deterministically generate entangled photons pairs by using a three-level atom successively coupled to two single longitudinal mode high-Q cavities presenting polarization degeneracy. The first cavity is prepared in a well defined Fock state with two photons with opposite circular polarizations while the second cavity remains in the vacuum state. A half-of-a-resonant Rabi oscillation in each cavity transfers one photon from the first to the second cavity, leaving the photons entangled in their polarization degree of freedom. The feasibility of this implementation and some practical considerations are discussed for both, microwave and optical regimes. In particular, Monte Carlo wave function simulations have been performed with state-of-the-art parameter values to evaluate the success probability of the cavity-QED source in producing entangled photon pairs as well as its entanglement capability.
On partially entanglement breaking channels
Chruscinski, D; Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2005-01-01
Using well known duality between quantum maps and states of composite systems we introduce the notion of Schmidt number of a quantum channel. It enables one to define classes of quantum channels which partially break quantum entanglement. These classes generalize the well known class of entanglement breaking channels.
Quantum entanglement purification in cavities
Romero, J L; Saavedra, C; Retamal, J C
2002-01-01
A physical implementation of an entanglement purification protocol is studied using a cavity quantum electrodynamic based proposal, where, the quantum information is stored in quantum field sates inside cavities. Also a procedure is given for quantifying the degree of entanglement between quantum fields. (Author)
Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses. II
Chruscinski, Dariusz
2010-01-01
We provide a class of optimal nondecomposable entanglement witnesses for 4N x 4N composite quantum systems or, equivalently, a new construction of nondecomposable positive maps in the algebra of 4N x 4N complex matrices. This construction provides natural generalization of the Robertson map. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels.
Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes
Solodukhin, Sergey N.
2011-10-01
The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as 't Hooft's brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the blackhole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.
Entangled Bessel-Gaussian beams
McLaren, M
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Orbital angular momentum (OAM) entanglement is investigated in the Bessel-Gaussian (BG) basis. Having a readily adjustable radial scale, BG modes provide an alternative basis for OAM entanglement over Laguerre-Gaussian modes. We show that the OAM...
Decoherence, Entanglement and Cosmic Evolution
Capozziello, Salvatore
2013-01-01
The possible imprint of quantum decoherence, in the framework of cosmology, is here investigated. Particular attention is paid to the observational fact that entanglement could lead to the interaction of different eras of cosmic evolution. The role played by decoherence provides the existence of "quantum entanglement" between cosmological eras giving, as observational results, dynamical constraints on the corresponding cosmological models.
Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes
Sergey N. Solodukhin
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the black-hole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.
Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum
Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-01-01
We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work in one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of sites as a function...
Multipartite entanglement in XOR games
J. Briët (Jop); H. Buhrman (Harry); T. J. Lee (Troy); T. Vidick
2013-01-01
htmlabstractWe study multipartite entanglement in the context of XOR games. In particular, we study the ratio of the entangled and classical biases, which measure the maximum advantage of a quantum or classical strategy over a uniformly random strategy. For the case of two-player XOR games,
Entanglement for All Quantum States
de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.
2010-01-01
It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical…
Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.;
2007-01-01
We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control of t...
Spread of entanglement and causality
Casini, Horacio; Liu, Hong; Mezei, Márk
2016-07-01
We investigate causality constraints on the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in relativistic theories. We first provide a general proof that the so-called tsunami velocity is bounded by the speed of light. We then generalize the free particle streaming model of [1] to general dimensions and to an arbitrary entanglement pattern of the initial state. In more than two spacetime dimensions the spread of entanglement in these models is highly sensitive to the initial entanglement pattern, but we are able to prove an upper bound on the normalized rate of growth of entanglement entropy, and hence the tsunami velocity. The bound is smaller than what one gets for quenches in holographic theories, which highlights the importance of interactions in the spread of entanglement in many-body systems. We propose an interacting model which we believe provides an upper bound on the spread of entanglement for interacting relativistic theories. In two spacetime dimensions with multiple intervals, this model and its variations are able to reproduce intricate results exhibited by holographic theories for a significant part of the parameter space. For higher dimensions, the model bounds the tsunami velocity at the speed of light. Finally, we construct a geometric model for entanglement propagation based on a tensor network construction for global quenches.
Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.
Nonlocal entanglement and noise between spin qubits induced by Majorana bound states
Ke, Sha-Sha [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices and School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Lü, Hai-Feng, E-mail: lvhf81@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices and School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Yang, Hua-Jun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices and School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Guo, Yong [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Zhang, Huai-Wu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices and School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)
2015-01-23
We propose a scheme to create nonlocal entanglement between two spatially separated electron spin qubits by coupling them with a pair of Majorana bound states (MBSs). The spin qubits are based on the spins of electrons confined in quantum dots. It is shown that spin entanglement between two dots could be generated by the nonlocality of MBSs. We also demonstrate that in the transport regime, the current noise cross correlation can serve as a good indicator of spin entanglement. The Majorana-dot coupling not only induces an indirect interaction between qubits, but also produces spin localization in the strong coupling limit. These two competing effects lead to a nonmonotonic dependence of current cross-correlation and entanglement on the Majorana-qubit coupling strength. - Highlights: • We propose a scheme to create nonlocal entanglement between two spatially separated electron spin qubits by coupling them with a pair of Majorana bound states. • Spin entanglement between two dots could be generated by the nonlocality of MBSs. • The current noise cross correlation can serve as a good indicator of spin entanglement.
Evaluating convex roof entanglement measures.
Tóth, Géza; Moroder, Tobias; Gühne, Otfried
2015-04-24
We show a powerful method to compute entanglement measures based on convex roof constructions. In particular, our method is applicable to measures that, for pure states, can be written as low order polynomials of operator expectation values. We show how to compute the linear entropy of entanglement, the linear entanglement of assistance, and a bound on the dimension of the entanglement for bipartite systems. We discuss how to obtain the convex roof of the three-tangle for three-qubit states. We also show how to calculate the linear entropy of entanglement and the quantum Fisher information based on partial information or device independent information. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method by concrete examples.
Efficient Generation of Generic Entanglement
Oliveira, R; Plenio, M B
2006-01-01
We find that generic entanglement is physical, in the sense that it can be generated in polynomial time from two-qubit gates picked at random. We prove as the main result that such a process generates the average entanglement of the uniform (Haar) measure in at most $O(N^3)$ steps for $N$ qubits. This is despite an exponentially growing number of such gates being necessary for generating that measure fully on the state space. Numerics furthermore show a variation cut-off allowing one to associate a specific time with the achievement of the uniform measure entanglement distribution. Various extensions of this work are discussed. The results are relevant to entanglement theory and to protocols that assume generic entanglement can be achieved efficiently.
Atom-atom entanglement generated at early times by two-photon emission
Leon, Juan; Sabin, Carlos [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: leon@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: csl@imaff.cfmac.csic.es
2009-07-15
We analyze entanglement generation between a pair of neutral two-level atoms that are initially excited in a common electromagnetic vacuum. The nonlocal correlations that appear due to the interaction with the field can become entanglement when the field state is known. We distinguish two different situations: in the first, the field remains in the vacuum state and in the second, two photons are present in the final state. In both cases, we study the dependence of the entanglement on time and interatomic distance, at ranges related with locality issues.
Teleportation of an arbitrary unknown N-qubit entangled state under the controlling of M controllers
LIU Yu-ling; MAN Zhong-xiao; XIA Yun-jie
2008-01-01
A new quantum protocol to teleport an arbitrary unknown N-qubit entangled state from a sender to a fixed receiver under M controllers(M < N) is proposed. The quantum resources required are M non-maximally entangled Greenberger-Home-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and N-M non-maximally entangled Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. The sender performs N generalized Bell-state measurements on the 2N particles. Controllers take M single-particle measurement along x-axis, and the receiver needs to introduce one auxiliary two-level particle to extract quantum information probabilistically with the fidelity unit if controllers cooperate with it.
Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno (Italy); CNISM and CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy); and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno (Italy); Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy)
2006-01-15
For continuous-variable (CV) systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the CV tangle (contangle), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex-roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three-mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric N-mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary N. For three-mode pure states, we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three-mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous CV analogues of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits: in CV systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed.
On an entanglement measure in quantum physics: geometric aspects of density matrices
Franco, D.H.T.; Cima, O.M.D.; Silva, S.L.L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa - UFV, MG (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: The study of entanglement would be justified simply by its theoretical interest, given that this phenomenon since its inception, casts important questions on the basis of a fundamental character of the building that is quantum mechanics. Moreover,the entanglement has been an indispensable ingredient in the field of quantum computing (processing and transmission of information) and also in condensed matter physics (in the understanding of quantum phase transitions). In this work we present and discuss some ways to characterize both quantitatively and qualitatively entanglement. In particular, we aim to introduce and apply the method developed by Dahl et al. [1]. This method determines the distance from the nearest separable state of the state of interest, since this distance may be used to measure the degree of entanglement of the system of interest. We consider a separable state by state with only classical correlations, i.e a non-entangled, non-separable states which are said entangled. Quantum entanglement has been shown, also, a very useful tool in the study of superconductivity. We aim to study the relationship between the phase transition of superconductivity and the spin entanglement of the Cooper pairs. [1] G. Dahl, J. M. Leinaas, J. Myrheim, and E. Ovrum. Linear Algebra and its application, 420:711-725, 2007 (author)
Electronic entanglement via quantum Hall interferometry in analogy to an optical method
Frustaglia, Diego; Cabello, Adán
2009-11-01
We present an interferometric scheme producing orbital entanglement in a quantum Hall system upon electron-hole pair emission via tunneling. The proposed setup is an electronic version of the optical interferometer proposed by Cabello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040401 (2009)] and is feasible with the present technology. It requires single-channel propagation and a single primary source. We discuss the creation of entanglement and its detection by the violation of a Bell inequality.
Brøgger, Katja; Staunæs, Dorthe
that the human existence is ‘always already being thrown into the world’, it is there (the ‘Da’ in Da-sein). While “intra-action” is Barad’s concept for the entanglement, the mood or affectivity is the way we are attuned to the world. As humans we are ‘situated and affected there-ness’, always already thrown......, positioning and situatedness. Instead of being stuck with traditional dichotomies, this conceptual language teaches us to think in connectivity and the qualities of this connectivity as the basic premise....
Islam, SK Firoz; Saha, Arijit
2017-09-01
Motivated by the recent experiments [Scientific Reports 6, 23051 (2016), 10.1038/srep23051; Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 096602 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.096602], we theoretically investigate Cooper pair splitting current in a graphene-based Cooper pair beam splitter geometry. By considering the graphene-based superconductor as an entangler device, instead of normal [two-dimensional (2D)] BCS superconductor, we show that the Cooper pair splitting current mediated by the crossed Andreev process is amplified compared to its normal superconductor counterpart. This amplification is attributed to the strong suppression of the local normal Andreev reflection process (arising from the Cooper pair splitting) from the graphene-based superconductor to lead via the same quantum dot, in comparison to the usual 2D superconductor. Due to the vanishing density of states at the Dirac point of undoped graphene, a doped graphene-based superconductor is considered here and it is observed that Cooper pair splitting current is very insensitive to the doping level in comparison to the usual 2D superconductor. The transport process of nonlocal spin-entangled electrons also depends on the type of pairing, i.e., whether the electron-hole pairing is onsite, intersublattice or the combination of both. The intersublattice pairing of graphene causes the maximum nonlocal Cooper pair splitting current, whereas the presence of both pairings reduces the Cooper pair splitting current.
Holographic EPR Pairs, Wormholes and Radiation
Chernicoff, Mariano; Pedraza, Juan F
2013-01-01
As evidence for the ER=EPR conjecture, it has recently been observed that the string that is holographically dual to an entangled quark-antiquark pair separating with (asymptotically) uniform acceleration has a wormhole on its worldsheet. We point out that a two-sided horizon and a wormhole actually appear for much more generic quark-antiquark trajectories, which is consistent with the fact that the members of an EPR pair need not be permanently out of causal contact. The feature that determines whether the causal structure of the string worldsheet is trivial or not turns out to be the emission of gluonic radiation by the dual quark and antiquark. In the strongly-coupled gauge theory, it is only when radiation is emitted that one obtains an unambiguous separation of the pair into entangled subsystems, and this is what is reflected on the gravity side by the existence of the worldsheet horizon.
Universal quantum computation with little entanglement.
Van den Nest, Maarten
2013-02-01
We show that universal quantum computation can be achieved in the standard pure-state circuit model while the entanglement entropy of every bipartition is small in each step of the computation. The entanglement entropy required for large-scale quantum computation even tends to zero. Moreover we show that the same conclusion applies to many entanglement measures commonly used in the literature. This includes e.g., the geometric measure, localizable entanglement, multipartite concurrence, squashed entanglement, witness-based measures, and more generally any entanglement measure which is continuous in a certain natural sense. These results demonstrate that many entanglement measures are unsuitable tools to assess the power of quantum computers.
A Multipli-entangled Photon Source for Cluster State Generation
2012-04-01
AFRL), Timothy Genda (AFRL), A. Matthew Smith (NRC), Reinhard Erdmann (AAC) and Enrique Galvez ( Colgate University) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER T2QC 5e...Corporation, Rome, NY (USA) Enrique J. Galvez Colgate University, Hamilton, NY (USA) 1. ABSTRACT This paper expands upon prior work on an entangled
Classical Maxwellian polarization entanglement
Carroll, John E
2015-01-01
An explanation of polarization entanglement is presented using Maxwells classical electromagnetic theory.Two key features are required to understand these classical origins.The first is that all waves diffract and weakly diffracting waves,with a principal direction of propagation in the laboratory frame, travel along that direction at speeds ever so slightly less than c.This allows nontrivial Lorentz transformations that can act on selected forward F waves or selected waves R traveling in the opposite direction to show that both can arise from a single zero momentum frame where all the waves are transverse to the original principal direction.Such F and R waves then both belong to a single relativistic entity where correlations between the two are unremarkable.The second feature requires the avoidance of using the Coulomb gauge.Waves, tending to plane waves in the limit of zero diffraction,can then be shown to be composed of two coupled sets of E and B fields that demonstrate the classical entanglement of F an...
Lethal entanglement in baleen whales.
Cassoff, Rachel M; Moore, Kathleen M; McLellan, William A; Barco, Susan G; Rotsteins, David S; Moore, Michael J
2011-10-06
Understanding the scenarios whereby fishing gear entanglement of large whales induces mortality is important for the development of mitigation strategies. Here we present a series of 21 cases involving 4 species of baleen whales in the NW Atlantic, describing the available sighting history, necropsy observations, and subsequent data analyses that enabled the compilation of the manners in which entanglement can be lethal. The single acute cause of entanglement mortality identified was drowning from entanglement involving multiple body parts, with the animal's inability to surface. More protracted causes of death included impaired foraging during entanglement, resulting in starvation after many months; systemic infection arising from open, unresolved entanglement wounds; and hemorrhage or debilitation due to severe gear-related damage to tissues. Serious gear-induced injury can include laceration of large vessels, occlusion of the nares, embedding of line in growing bone, and massive periosteal proliferation of new bone in an attempt to wall off constricting, encircling lines. These data show that baleen whale entanglement is not only a major issue for the conservation of some baleen whale populations, but is also a major concern for the welfare of each affected individual.
Spread of entanglement and causality
Casini, Horacio; Mezei, Márk
2015-01-01
We investigate causality constraints on the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in relativistic theories. We first provide a general proof that the so-called tsunami velocity is bounded by the speed of light. We then generalize the free particle streaming model of arXiv:cond-mat/0503393 to general dimensions and to an arbitrary entanglement pattern of the initial state. In more than two spacetime dimensions the spread of entanglement in these models is highly sensitive to the initial entanglement pattern, but we are able to prove an upper bound on the normalized rate of growth of entanglement entropy, and hence the tsunami velocity. The bound is smaller than what one gets for quenches in holographic theories, which highlights the importance of interactions in the spread of entanglement in many-body systems. We propose an interacting model which we believe provides an upper bound on the spread of entanglement for interacting relativistic theories. In two spacetime dimensions with multi...
Graphical Classification of Entangled Qutrits
Kentaro Honda
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A multipartite quantum state is entangled if it is not separable. Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in many applications of quantum information theory, such as quantum teleportation. Stochastic local quantum operations and classical communication (SLOCC cannot essentially change quantum entanglement without destroying it. Therefore, entanglement can be classified by dividing quantum states into equivalence classes, where two states are equivalent if each can be converted into the other by SLOCC. Properties of this classification, especially in the case of non two-dimensional quantum systems, have not been well studied. Graphical representation is sometimes used to clarify the nature and structural features of entangled states. SLOCC equivalence of quantum bits (qubits has been described graphically via a connection between tripartite entangled qubit states and commutative Frobenius algebras (CFAs in monoidal categories. In this paper, we extend this method to qutrits, i.e., systems that have three basis states. We examine the correspondence between CFAs and tripartite entangled qutrits. Using the symmetry property, which is required by the definition of a CFA, we find that there are only three equivalence classes that correspond to CFAs. We represent qutrits graphically, using the connection to CFAs. We derive equations that characterize the three equivalence classes. Moreover, we show that any qutrit can be represented as a composite of three graphs that correspond to the three classes.
Spectrally engineering photonic entanglement with a time lens
Donohue, John M; Resch, Kevin J
2016-01-01
In the same manner that free-space propagation and curved glass lenses are used to shape the spatial properties of light, a combination of chromatic dispersion and devices known as time lenses may be used to reshape its temporal properties. These techniques have found extensive application in classical optical signal processing based on nonlinear optics. A new set of challenges presents itself when processing quantum signals, including noise suppression and high fidelity requirements. In this work, we construct a single-photon time lens based on dispersion and nonlinear sum-frequency generation to image the spectral waveform of half of an entangled photon pair. We find that the joint spectrum of the photon pair has strongly negative frequency correlations before the time lens and strongly positive correlations afterwards, verifying that the process has an overall negative spectro-temporal magnification. The temporal imaging of energy-time entangled systems opens up a host of new possible techniques for distin...
Entanglement entropy of α-vacua in de Sitter space
Kanno, Sugumi; Murugan, Jeff; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro
2014-07-01
We consider the entanglement entropy of a free massive scalar field in the one parameter family of α-vacua in de Sitter space by using a method developed by Maldacena and Pimentel. An α-vacuum can be thought of as a state filled with particles from the point of view of the Bunch-Davies vacuum. Of all the α-vacua we find that the entanglement entropy takes the minimal value in the Bunch-Davies solution. We also calculate the asymptotic value of the Rényi entropy and find that it increases as α increases. We argue these features stem from pair condensation within the non-trivial α-vacua where the pairs have an intrinsic quantum correlation.
Entanglement entropy of $\\alpha$-vacua in de Sitter space
Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P; Soda, Jiro
2014-01-01
We consider the entanglement entropy of a free massive scalar field in the one parameter family of $\\alpha$-vacua in de Sitter space by using a method developed by Maldacena and Pimentel. An $\\alpha$-vacuum can be thought of as a state filled with particles from the point of view of the Bunch-Davies vacuum. Of all the $\\alpha$-vacua we find that the entanglement entropy takes the minimal value in the Bunch-Davies solution. We also calculate the asymptotic value of the R\\'enyi entropy and find that it increases as $\\alpha$ increases. We argue these feature stem from pair condensation within the non-trivial $\\alpha$-vacua where the pairs have an intrinsic quantum correlation.
Why did we elaborate an entangled photons experiment in our engineering school?
Jacubowiez, Lionel; Avignon, Thierry
2005-10-01
We will describe a simple setup experiment that allows students to create polarization-entangled photons pairs. These photon pairs are in an entangled state first described in the famous 1935 article in Phys.Rev by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen, often called E.P.R. state. Photons pairs at 810 nm are produced in two nonlinear crystals by spontaneous parametric downconversion of photons at 405 nm emitted by a violet laser diode. The polarization state of the photons pairs is easily tunable with a half-wave plate and a Babinet compensator on the laser diode beam. After having adjusted the polarization-entangled state of the photon pairs, our students can perform a test of Bell's inequalities. They will find the amazing value for the Bell parameter between 2.3 and 2.6, depending on the quality of the adjustments of the state of polarization. The experiments described can be done in 4 or 5 hours. What is the importance of creating an entangled photons experiment for our engineering students? First of all, entanglement concept is clearly one of the most strikingly nonclassical features of quantum theory and it is playing an increasing role in present-day physics. But in this paper, we will emphasise the experimental point of view. We will try to explain why we believe that for our students this lab experiment is a unique opportunity to deal with established concepts and experimental techniques on polarization, non linear effects, phase matching, photon counting avalanche photodiodes, counting statistics, coincidences detectors. Let us recall that the first convincing experimental violations of Bell's inequalities were performed by Alain Aspect and Philippe Grangier with pairs of entangled photons at the Institut d'Optique between 1976 and 1982. Twenty five years later, due to recent advances in laser diode technology, new techniques for generation of photon pairs and avalanche photodiodes, this experiment is now part of the experimental lab courses for our students.
Boundary effects in entanglement entropy
Berthiere, Clément; Solodukhin, Sergey N.
2016-09-01
We present a number of explicit calculations of Renyi and entanglement entropies in situations where the entangling surface intersects the boundary of d-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. When the boundary is a single plane we compute the contribution to the entropy due to this intersection, first in the case of the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, and then in the case of a generic Robin type boundary condition. The flow in the boundary coupling between the Neumann and Dirichlet phases is analyzed in arbitrary dimension d and is shown to be monotonic, the peculiarity of d = 3 case is noted. We argue that the translational symmetry along the entangling surface is broken due the presence of the boundary which reveals that the entanglement is not homogeneous. In order to characterize this quantitatively, we introduce a density of entanglement entropy and compute it explicitly. This quantity clearly indicates that the entanglement is maximal near the boundary. We then consider the situation where the boundary is composed of two parallel planes at a finite separation and compute the entanglement entropy as well as its density in this case. The complete contribution to entanglement entropy due to the boundaries is shown not to depend on the distance between the planes and is simply twice the entropy in the case of single plane boundary. Additionally, we find how the area law, the part in the entropy proportional to the area of entire entangling surface, depends on the size of the separation between the two boundaries. The latter is shown to appear in the UV finite part of the entropy.
Local approach to quantum entanglement
Ho-Chih, Lin
Quantum entanglement is the key property that makes quantum information theory different from its classical counterpart and is also a valuable physical resource with massive potential for technological applications. However, our understanding of entanglement is still far from com plete despite intense research activities. Like other physical resources, the first step towards exploiting them fully is to know how to quantify. There are many reasons to focus on the en tanglement of continuous-variable states since the underlying degrees of freedom of physical systems carrying quantum information are frequently continuous, rather than discrete. Much of the effort has been concentrated on Gaussian states, because these are common as the ground or thermal states of optical modes. Within this framework, many interesting topics have been stud ied and some significant progress made. Nevertheless, non-Gaussian states are also extremely important this is especially so in condensed-phase systems, where harmonic behaviour in any degree of freedom is likely to be only an approximation. So far, there is little knowledge about the quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states. This thesis aims to contribute to the active field of research in quantum entanglement by introducing a new approach to the analysis of entanglement, especially in continuous-variable states, and shows that it leads to the first systematic quantification of the (local) entanglement in arbitrary bipartite non-Gaussian states. By applying this local approach, many new insights can be gained. Notably, local entanglements of systems with smooth wavefunctions are fully characterised by the derived simple expressions, provided the wavefunction is known. The local (logarithmic) negativity of any two-mode mixed states can be directly computed from the closed-form formulae given. For multi-mode mixed states, this approach provides a scheme that permits much simpler numerical computation for quantifying
q-Deformed Entangled States Representations and Some Applications
XU Ye-Jun; SONG Jun; YUAN Hong-Chun; LIU Qiu-Yu
2011-01-01
The q-deformed entangled states are introduced by using deformation quantization methods and new normal ordering of the vacuum projection operator for q-deformed boson oscillator.In similar way, by virtue of the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, the new completeness and orthogonality relations composed of the bra and ket, which are not mutually Hermitian conjugates are obtained.Furthermore, the property of squeezing operator represented by the q-deformed entangled states is exhibited.Lastly, the nonclassical properties of the q-deformed two-mode squeezed vacuum state are studied.
Generating and probing entangled states for optical atomic clocks
Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletic, Vladan
2016-05-01
The precision of quantum measurements is inherently limited by projection noise caused by the measurement process itself. Spin squeezing and more complex forms of entanglement have been proposed as ways of surpassing this limitation. In our system, a high-finesse asymmetric micromirror-based optical cavity can mediate the atom-atom interaction necessary for generating entanglement in an 171 Yb optical lattice clock. I will discuss approaches for creating, characterizing, and optimally utilizing these nonclassical states for precision measurement, as well as recent progress toward their realization. This research is supported by DARPA QuASAR, NSF, and NSERC.
Becomings: Narrative Entanglements and Microsociology
Maria Tamboukou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, I look back in an art/research experiment of convening an exhibition of women artists and inviting them to a round-table discussion in the context of a sociological conference. The artists who took part in this event had been previously interviewed for a feminist research project, entitled "In the Fold Between Life and Art, a Genealogy of Women Artists". The conference exhibition gave the artists the opportunity to appear to an academic audience and present their work while the round-table discussion created a forum for a narrative event where all women were invited to recount stories of becoming an artist. In looking at this event I want to explore questions around the possibilities and limitations of narratives in microsociological inquiries. In following trails of ARENDT's theorisation of stories, I explore connections and tensions between social, political and cultural entanglements in narrative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501193
Zero Modes and Entanglement Entropy
Yazdi, Yasaman K
2016-01-01
Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.
Entangled light from white noise
Plenio, M B
2002-01-01
An atom that couples to two distinct leaky optical cavities is driven by an external optical white noise field. We describe how entanglement between the light fields sustained by two optical cavities arises in such a situation. The entanglement is maximized for intermediate values of the cavity damping rates and the intensity of the white noise field, vanishing both for small and for large values of these parameters and thus exhibiting a stochastic-resonance-like behaviour. This example illustrates the possibility of generating entanglement by exclusively incoherent means and sheds new light on the constructive role noise may play in certain tasks of interest for quantum information processing.
Entangled light from white noise.
Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F
2002-05-13
An atom that couples to two distinct leaky optical cavities is driven by an external optical white noise field. We describe how entanglement between the light fields sustained by two optical cavities arises in such a situation. The entanglement is maximized for intermediate values of the cavity damping rates and the intensity of the white noise field, vanishing both for small and for large values of these parameters and thus exhibiting a stochastic-resonancelike behavior. This example illustrates the possibility of generating entanglement by exclusively incoherent means and sheds new light on the constructive role noise may play in certain tasks of interest for quantum information processing.
Constructing new optimal entanglement witnesses
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Sarbicki, Gniewomir
2009-01-01
We provide a new class of indecomposable entanglement witnesses. In 4 x 4 case it reproduces the well know Breuer-Hall witness. We prove that these new witnesses are optimal and atomic, i.e. they are able to detect the "weakest" quantum entanglement encoded into states with positive partial transposition (PPT). Equivalently, we provide a new construction of indecomposable atomic maps in the algebra of 2k x 2k complex matrices. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels. This result supports recent conjecture by Korbicz et. al.
Entanglement routers using macroscopic singlets.
Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato; Sodano, Pasquale
2010-10-29
We propose a mechanism where high entanglement between very distant boundary spins is generated by suddenly connecting two long Kondo spin chains. We show that this procedure provides an efficient way to route entanglement between multiple distant sites. We observe that the key features of the entanglement dynamics of the composite spin chain are well described by a simple model of two singlets, each formed by two spins. The proposed routing mechanism is a footprint of the emergence of a Kondo cloud in a Kondo system and can be engineered and observed in varied physical settings.
Complementary sequential measurements generate entanglement
Coles, Patrick J.; Piani, Marco
2014-01-01
We present a paradigm for capturing the complementarity of two observables. It is based on the entanglement created by the interaction between the system observed and the two measurement devices used to measure the observables sequentially. Our main result is a lower bound on this entanglement and resembles well-known entropic uncertainty relations. Besides its fundamental interest, this result directly bounds the effectiveness of sequential bipartite operations—corresponding to the measurement interactions—for entanglement generation. We further discuss the intimate connection of our result with two primitives of information processing, namely, decoupling and coherent teleportation.
Quantitative two-qutrit entanglement
Eltschka, Christopher [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Siewert, Jens [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)
2013-07-01
We introduce the new concept of axisymmetric bipartite states. For d x d-dimensional systems these states form a two-parameter family of nontrivial mixed states that include the isotropic states. We present exact quantitative results for class-specific entanglement as well as for the negativity and I-concurrence of two-qutrit axisymmetric states. These results have interesting applications such as for quantitative witnesses of class-specific entanglement in arbitrary two-qutrit states and as device-independent witness for the number of entangled dimensions.
Teleportation of Squeezed Entangled State
HU Li-Yun; ZHOU Nan-Run
2007-01-01
Based on the coherent entangled state |α, x＞ we introduce the squeezed entangled state (SES). Then we propose a teleportation protocol for the SES by using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state |η＞as a quantum channel.The calculation is greatly simplified by virtue of the Schmidt decompositions of both |α, x＞and |η＞. Any bipartite states that can be expanded in terms of |α, x＞may be teleported in this way due to the completeness of |α, x＞.
Observation of quantum entanglement using spatial light modulators.
Yao, Eric; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Courtial, Johannes; Padgett, Miles J; Barnett, Stephen M
2006-12-25
We use spatial light modulators to observe the quantum entanglement of down-converted photon pairs. Acting as diffractive optical elements within one of the beams, they can be reconfigured in real time to set the spatial profile of the measured mode. Such configurations are highly applicable to the measurement of orbital angular momentum states or other spatial modes, such as those associated with quantum imaging.
Free-space quantum key distribution with entangled photons
Marcikic, I; Kurtsiefer, C; Marcikic, Ivan; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Kurtsiefer, Christian
2006-01-01
We report on a complete experimental implementation of a quantum key distribution protocol through a free space link using polarization-entangled photon pairs from a compact parametric down-conversion source. Over 10 hours of uninterrupted communication between sites 1.5 km apart, we observe average key generation rates of 630 per second after error correction and privacy amplification. Our scheme requires no specific hardware channel for synchronization apart from a classical wireless link, and no explicit random number generator.
High heralding-efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies
Dixon, P. Ben [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Murphy, Ryan [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Rosenberg, Danna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Grein, Matthew E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Stelmakh, Veronika [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL; Wong, Franco N. C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
2015-01-01
We report on the development and use of a high heralding-efficiency, single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications. The source development efforts consisted of theoretical and experimental efforts and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97% 2%, the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. We then incorporated these beneficial source development techniques in a Sagnac configured telecom-band entangled photon source that generates photon pairs entangled in both time/energy and polarization degrees of freedom. We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies.
Lin, Jun-You; He, Jun-Gang; Gao, Yan-Chun; Li, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Ping
2017-04-01
We present a scheme for controlled remote implementation of an arbitrary single-qubit operation by using partially entangled states as the quantum channel. The sender can remote implement an arbitrary single-qubit operation on the remote receiver's quantum system via partially entangled states under the controller's control. The success probability for controlled remote implementation of quantum operation can achieve 1 if the sender and the controller perform proper projective measurements on their entangled particles. Moreover, we also discuss the scheme for remote sharing the partially unknown operations via partially entangled quantum channel. It is shown that the quantum entanglement cost and classical communication can be reduced if the implemented operation belongs to the restrict sets.
Deterministic entanglement of superconducting qubits by parity measurement and feedback.
Ristè, D; Dukalski, M; Watson, C A; de Lange, G; Tiggelman, M J; Blanter, Ya M; Lehnert, K W; Schouten, R N; DiCarlo, L
2013-10-17
The stochastic evolution of quantum systems during measurement is arguably the most enigmatic feature of quantum mechanics. Measuring a quantum system typically steers it towards a classical state, destroying the coherence of an initial quantum superposition and the entanglement with other quantum systems. Remarkably, the measurement of a shared property between non-interacting quantum systems can generate entanglement, starting from an uncorrelated state. Of special interest in quantum computing is the parity measurement, which projects the state of multiple qubits (quantum bits) to a state with an even or odd number of excited qubits. A parity meter must discern the two qubit-excitation parities with high fidelity while preserving coherence between same-parity states. Despite numerous proposals for atomic, semiconducting and superconducting qubits, realizing a parity meter that creates entanglement for both even and odd measurement results has remained an outstanding challenge. Here we perform a time-resolved, continuous parity measurement of two superconducting qubits using the cavity in a three-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and phase-sensitive parametric amplification. Using postselection, we produce entanglement by parity measurement reaching 88 per cent fidelity to the closest Bell state. Incorporating the parity meter in a feedback-control loop, we transform the entanglement generation from probabilistic to fully deterministic, achieving 66 per cent fidelity to a target Bell state on demand. These realizations of a parity meter and a feedback-enabled deterministic measurement protocol provide key ingredients for active quantum error correction in the solid state.
Entanglement entropy and entanglement spectrum of triplet topological superconductors.
Oliveira, T P; Ribeiro, P; Sacramento, P D
2014-10-22
We analyze the entanglement entropy properties of a 2D p-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which displays a rich phase-space that supports non-trivial topological phases, as the chemical potential and the Zeeman term are varied. We show that the entanglement entropy and its derivatives clearly signal the topological transitions and we find numerical evidence that for this model the derivative with respect to the magnetization provides a sensible signature of each topological phase. Following the area law for the entanglement entropy, we systematically analyze the contributions that are proportional to or independent of the perimeter of the system, as a function of the Hamiltonian coupling constants and the geometry of the finite subsystem. For this model, we show that even though the topological entanglement entropy vanishes, it signals the topological phase transitions in a finite system. We also observe a relationship between a topological contribution to the entanglement entropy in a half-cylinder geometry and the number of edge states, and that the entanglement spectrum has robust modes associated with each edge state, as in other topological systems.
All-order dispersion cancellation and energy-time entangled state.
Ryu, Jinsoo; Cho, Kiyoung; Oh, Cha-Hwan; Kang, Hoonsoo
2017-01-23
Dispersion cancellation with an energy-time entangled photon pair in Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is one phenomenon that reveals the nonclassical nature of the entangled photon pair. This phenomenon has been observed in materials with very weak dispersions. If the higher-order dispersion coefficient is non-negligible, then the experiment must be modified to realize dispersion cancellation. All-order dispersion cancellation using balanced dispersion was suggested by Steinberg. However, the same phenomenon is expected to occur even if a photon pair is not entangled. This behaviour can be explained by path indistinguishability with identical dispersion. To achieve an all-order dispersion experiment that cannot be explained classically, we modified the experiment and performed another all-order dispersion cancellation experiment that cannot be explained by identical dispersion. This is the first demonstration of nonclassical all-order dispersion cancellation.
Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of entangled Hermite-Gauss modes
Zhang, Yingwen; Karimi, Ebrahim; Forbes, Andrew
2016-01-01
Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is demonstrated experimentally for entangled photon pairs in the Hermite-Gauss (HG) basis. We use two Dove prisms in one of the paths of the photons to manipulate the entangled quantum state that enters the HOM interferometer. It is demonstrated that, when entangled photon pairs are in a symmetric Bell state in the Laguerre-Gauss (LG) basis, then they will remain symmetric after decomposing them into the HG basis, thereby resulting in no coincidence events after the HOM interference. On the other hand, if the photon pairs are in an antisymmetric Bell state in the LG basis, then they will also be antisymmetric in the HG basis, thereby producing only coincidence events as a result of the HOM interference.
Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of entangled Hermite-Gauss modes
Zhang, Yingwen; Prabhakar, Shashi; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Roux, Filippus S.; Karimi, Ebrahim; Forbes, Andrew
2016-09-01
Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is demonstrated experimentally for entangled photon pairs in the Hermite-Gauss (HG) basis. We use two Dove prisms in one of the paths of the photons to manipulate the entangled quantum state that enters the HOM interferometer. It is demonstrated that, when entangled photon pairs are in a symmetric Bell state in the Laguerre-Gauss (LG) basis, they will remain symmetric after decomposing them into the HG basis, thereby resulting in no coincidence events after the HOM interference. On the other hand, if the photon pairs are in an antisymmetric Bell state in the LG basis, then they will also be antisymmetric in the HG basis, thereby producing only coincidence events as a result of the HOM interference.
Entanglement Swapping of Pair Coherent States with Phase Decoherence
Taishi Okita; Toshiyuki Takagi
2009-01-01
We study the relation between the magnetic field structure and the induced electric-current distribution based on a cylindrical model composed of a uniform electrically conductive medium. When the time-varying magnetic fields are axisymmetrically applied in the axial direction of the model, the electric fields are induced around the central axis in accordance with Faradays law. We examine the eddy-current distributions generated by loop-coils with various geometries carrying an alternating electric current. It is shown that the radial structure of the induced fields can significantly be controlled by the loop coil geometry, which will be suitable for practical use especially in magnetic nerve stimulation on bioelectromagnetics, if we appropriately place the exciting coil with optimum geometry.
Generating entangled superqubit states
Borsten, L; Duff, M J
2014-01-01
We introduce the global unitary supergroup $\\text{UOSp}((3^n+1)/2 | (3^n-1)/2)$ for an $n$-superqubit system, which contains as a subgroup the local unitary supergroup $[\\text{UOSp}(2|1)]^n$. While for $4>n>1$ the bosonic subgroup in $\\text{UOSp}((3^n+1)/2 | (3^n-1)/2)$ does not contain the standard global unitary group $\\text{SU}(2^n)$, it does have an $\\text{USp}(2^n)\\subset\\text{SU}(2^n)$ subgroup which acts transitively on the $n$-qubit subspace, as required for consistency with the conventional multi-qubit framework. For two superqubits the $\\text{UOSp}(5|4)$ action is used to generate entangled states from the "bosonic" separable state $|00>$.
Philosophical lessons of entanglement
Sudbery, Anthony
2011-01-01
The quantum-mechanical description of the world, including human observers, makes substantial use of entanglement. In order to understand this, we need to adopt concepts of truth, probability and time which are unfamiliar in modern scientific thought. There are two kinds of statements about the world: those made from inside the world, and those from outside. The conflict between contradictory statements which both appear to be true can be resolved by recognising that they are made in different perspectives. Probability, in an objective sense, belongs in the internal perspective, and to statements in the future tense. Such statements obey a many-valued logic, in which the truth values are identified as probabilities.
Genetic algorithm optimization of entanglement
Navarro-Munoz, J C; Rosu, H C; Navarro-Munoz, Jorge C.
2006-01-01
We present an application of a genetic algorithmic computational method to the optimization of the concurrence measure of entanglement for the cases of one dimensional chains, as well as square and triangular lattices in a simple tight-binding approach