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Sample records for progressive radiation myelopathy

  1. Two children with chronic progressive radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Hideaki; Takai, Kenji; Hosoi, Gaku; Okamura, Takayuki; Osugi, Yuko; Ishihara, Shigehiko; Hara, Junichi; Tawa, Akio; Okada, Shintaro

    1995-01-01

    We report two patients who developed chronic progressive radiation myelopathy (CPRM). Patient 1 was a 16-year-old boy with group IV rhabdomyosarcoma of cervical soft tissue. He underwent partial excision of the tumor and received systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and 44 Gy of local radiotherapy (C4 through Th3). These therapies were followed by high-dose chemotherapy including thio-TEPA and busulfan with autologous bone marrow rescue. One year after the completion of the therapies, he developed CPRM. Patient 2 was a 15-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia on the 3rd complete remission. She received 18 Gy of irradiation to whole brain during the 1st remission and another 18 Gy to whole brain and 9 Gy to spinal cord after her 1st CNS relapse. After successful reinduction therapy for the 2nd relapse in CNS and bone marrow, she underwent an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The preconditioning regimen consisted of 12 Gy total body irradiation, thio-TEPA and cyclophosphamide. Seven months after BMT, she developed CPRM at C0-C1 level, which was included in the area of whole-brain irradiation. In both patients, MR images showed a swelling of the cervical cord and ring-like images by gadolinium enhancement. Their neurological disability transiently responded to the administration of corticosteroid, but they developed progressive quadriplegia. Although it is reported that a dose of 45-50 Gy may be safe, these cases suggest that administration of high-dose chemotherapy combined with intrathecal chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the cord might increase the rink of developing CPRM. (author)

  2. Two children with chronic progressive radiation myelopathy

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    Ohta, Hideaki; Takai, Kenji; Hosoi, Gaku; Okamura, Takayuki; Osugi, Yuko; Ishihara, Shigehiko; Hara, Junichi; Tawa, Akio; Okada, Shintaro [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    We report two patients who developed chronic progressive radiation myelopathy (CPRM). Patient 1 was a 16-year-old boy with group IV rhabdomyosarcoma of cervical soft tissue. He underwent partial excision of the tumor and received systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and 44 Gy of local radiotherapy (C4 through Th3). These therapies were followed by high-dose chemotherapy including thio-TEPA and busulfan with autologous bone marrow rescue. One year after the completion of the therapies, he developed CPRM. Patient 2 was a 15-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia on the 3rd complete remission. She received 18 Gy of irradiation to whole brain during the 1st remission and another 18 Gy to whole brain and 9 Gy to spinal cord after her 1st CNS relapse. After successful reinduction therapy for the 2nd relapse in CNS and bone marrow, she underwent an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The preconditioning regimen consisted of 12 Gy total body irradiation, thio-TEPA and cyclophosphamide. Seven months after BMT, she developed CPRM at C0-C1 level, which was included in the area of whole-brain irradiation. In both patients, MR images showed a swelling of the cervical cord and ring-like images by gadolinium enhancement. Their neurological disability transiently responded to the administration of corticosteroid, but they developed progressive quadriplegia. Although it is reported that a dose of 45-50 Gy may be safe, these cases suggest that administration of high-dose chemotherapy combined with intrathecal chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the cord might increase the rink of developing CPRM. (author).

  3. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlit, P.

    1987-01-01

    After a review of the world literature, the case histories of 43 patients with radiation myelopathy are analyzed. In 1 patient there was a radiation injury of the medulla oblongata, in 2, cervical, in 28, thoracic, and in 12, lumbosacral. In the medulla oblongata lesion an alternans syndrome resulted. The patients with cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies presented with a Brown-Sequard syndrome, a spinalis anterior syndrome or a transversal syndrome with pyramidal and spinothalamic tract involvement as the most prominent signs. For this group the term 'pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy' is proposed. In lumbosacral radiation lesions a pure anterior horn syndrome may lead to spinothalamic tract involvement and the development of a cauda conus syndrome. The clinical presentation of these cases suggests that the location of the radiation lesion is most likely the region of the conus medullaris. The most frequent initial symptom was dysesthesia; the patients complained of burning pain or a feeling of coldness. Usually the neurological deficits were progressive, in pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy over 12 months in average, in lumbosacral radiation lesions up to 10 years. The latent period between the finish of radiation therapy and the first neurological signs was 8 months (median) in cervical and thoracic myelopathy and 33 months in lumbosacral lesions. For the entire group of 43 patients there was an inverse relationship between the radiation dose (ret) and the latent period. A positive relation could be demonstrated between the age of patients at the time of radiation therapy and the latent period. Patients simultaneously receiving cytostatic drugs presented after a longer latent period than the remaining group. (orig./MG)

  4. Clinical utility of MR imaging in chronic progressive radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melki, P.S.; Halimi, P.; Wibault, P.; Doyon, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines the diagnostic and prognostic value of MR imaging in chronic progressive radiation myelopathy 9CPRM). In this series, MR imaging showed excellent sensitivity (199%) for the demonstration of radiation-induced lesions of the spinal cord. Fifty percent of the cases showed spinal cord hypertrophy (pseudotumoral, 33%; cystic, 17%) occurring within 8 months of the clinical onset of myelopathy. The remaining 50% showed spinal cord atrophy, which occurred more than 8 months following the onset of myelopathy. These medullary lesions were located at least partially in the radiation field but extended beyond its boundaries in 73% of the cases. MR imaging helped to establish disease prognosis: spinal cord hypertrophy was usually associated with neurologic deterioration and fatal outcome within a mean of 11.5 months; in spinal atrophy, neurologic deficit was often static and survival rates were better

  5. Radiation myelopathy; Myelopathie postradique

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    Rafai, M.A.; Boulaajaj, F.Z.; Amriss, O.; El Moutawakil, B.; Slassi, I. [Explorations Fonctionnelles, CHU Ibn Rochd, Service de Neurologie, Quartier des Hopitaux (Morocco); Rafai, M.A. [Faculte de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Lab. des Neurosciences Cliniques, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2009-12-15

    The post radiation induced myelopathy is a very serious complication, developing months or years after the irradiation of tumors localized near the marrow. It is rare if the radiation dose is inferior to 50 Gy. We report the case of a patients treated for a cavum cancer occurring one year after the radiotherapy with a stable evolution. (N.C.)

  6. Radiation myelopathy

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    Howell, D A [Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, Derby (UK)

    1979-10-01

    Following high-dose radiotherapy treatment of tumours, there is a risk of destructive radiation myelopathy developing a few months later as a result of spinal cord irradiation. The emphasis of the present article is on the mechanism of the development of radiation myelopathy. It is suggested that, in the irradiated segments, the normal endothelial cells lining the penetrating arteries and capillaries are replaced by abnormal cells during the latent period. Radiation-induced mutations or chromosomal aberrations are contained in these cells, thus provoking an immunological response. During the attempted rejection of these cells, protein-rich plasma filtrate is leaked into the artery walls and nervous tissue, causing the destructive myelopathy. The signs of paralysis of spinal cord function may be caused either by infarcts or by oedema of the white matter. Since both diagnosis and treatment are difficult, it is necessary to concentrate on prevention by, whenever possible, reducing radiation doses to below tolerance limits during radiotherapy. As regards radiotherapy in children, it is currently believed that there is little or no difference in radiation tolerance between the child and the adult nervous system. Some early benign forms of radiation myelopathy are also briefly discussed.

  7. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Following high-dose radiotherapy treatment of tumours, there is a risk of destructive radiation myelopathy developing a few months later as a result of spinal cord irradiation. The emphasis of the present article is on the mechanism of the development of radiation myelopathy. It is suggested that, in the irradiated segments, the normal endothelial cells lining the penetrating arteries and capillaries are replaced by abnormal cells during the latent period. Radiation-induced mutations or chromosomal aberrations are contained in these cells, thus provoking an immunological response. During the attempted rejection of these cells, protein-rich plasma filtrate is leaked into the artery walls and nervous tissue, causing the destructive myelopathy. The signs of paralysis of spinal cord function may be caused either by infarcts or by oedema of the white matter. Since both diagnosis and treatment are difficult, it is necessary to concentrate on prevention by, whenever possible, reducing radiation doses to below tolerance limits during radiotherapy. As regards radiotherapy in children, it is currently believed that there is little or no difference in radiation tolerance between the child and the adult nervous system. Some early benign forms of radiation myelopathy are also briefly discussed. (UK)

  8. A case of chronic progressive radiation myelopathy with a CT myelogram simulating intramedullary tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Kamo, Hisaki; Yamao, Satoshi; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni

    1985-01-01

    A 58-year-old man underwent a right middle lobectomy in June, 1975, for poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung. Postoperative irradiation was given to the hilus (6100 rads), and to the right supraclavicular area (6000 rads). In 1980, 60 months after completion of irradiation, the patient noticed weakness of his legs particularly on the left side. In 1982, he noticed the girdle sensation in the upper thoracic region, and paresthesia in the lateral side of the right thigh. In Dec 1983, micturition disturbance appeared, and gait disturbance progressed, he was admitted to the Kyoto University Hospital. Neurological examination revealed an incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome with diminution of pain and thermal sensation on the right lower limb, and weakness and spasticity particularly on the left lower limb. Conventional myelogram with CT myelogram showed spinal cord swelling from T-2 through T-5. No extramedullary lesion was found. Laminectomy was performed through T-1 to T-6. When the dura was opened, the cord was swollen and necrotic with a cyst formation. Microscopic examination of the thickened part of the cord showed necrosis and gliosis. The lesion was correspond to the cord segments exposed to the radiation, and a diagnosis of radiation myelopathy was made. Several cases of radiation myelopathy with definite swelling of the cord at myelography were reported, but myelography in these cases was performed at most within 11 months after the onset. In this case, myelography was performed three years after the onset, and revealed difinite swelling of the cord due to a cyst formation. (author)

  9. Case of chronic progressive radiation myelopathy with a CT myelogram simulating intramedullary tumor

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    Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Kamo, Hisaki; Yamao, Satoshi; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni

    1985-05-01

    A 58-year-old man underwent a right middle lobectomy in June, 1975, for poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung. Postoperative irradiation was given to the hilus (6100 rads), and to the right supraclavicular area (6000 rads). In 1980, 60 months after completion of irradiation, the patient noticed weakness of his legs particularly on the left side. In 1982, he noticed the girdle sensation in the upper thoracic region, and paresthesia in the lateral side of the right thigh. In Dec 1983, micturition disturbance appeared, and gait disturbance progressed, he was admitted to the Kyoto University Hospital. Neurological examination revealed an incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome with diminution of pain and thermal sensation on the right lower limb, and weakness and spasticity particularly on the left lower limb. Conventional myelogram with CT myelogram showed spinal cord swelling from T-2 through T-5. No extramedullary lesion was found. Laminectomy was performed through T-1 to T-6. When the dura was opened, the cord was swollen and necrotic with a cyst formation. Microscopic examination of the thickened part of the cord showed necrosis and gliosis. The lesion was correspond to the cord segments exposed to the radiation, and a diagnosis of radiation myelopathy was made. Several cases of radiation myelopathy with definite swelling of the cord at myelography were reported, but myelography in these cases was performed at most within 11 months after the onset. In this case, myelography was performed three years after the onset, and revealed difinite swelling of the cord due to a cyst formation. (author).

  10. Radiation-induced myelopathy

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    Gaenshirt, H [Heidelberg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Neurologische Klinik

    1975-10-01

    12 cases of radiation-induced myelopathy after /sup 60/Co teletherapy are reported on. Among these were 10 thoracal lesions, one cerviothoracal lesion, and one lesion of the medulla oblongata. In 9 cases, Hodgkin's disease had been the primary disease, tow patients had been irradiated because of suspected vertebral metastases of cancer of the breast, and one patient had suffered from a glomus tumour of the petrous bone. The spinal doses had exceeded the tolerance doses recommended in the relevant literature. There was no close correlation between the radiation dose and the course of the disease. The latency periods between the end of the radiotherapy and the onset of the neurological symptons varied from 6 to 16 mouths and were very constant in 7 cases with 6 to 9 months. The segmental height of the lesion corresponded to the level of irradiation. The presenting symptons of radiation-induced myelopathy are buruing dysaesthesias and Brown-Sequard's paralysis which may develop into transverse lesion of the cord with paraplegia still accompanied by dissociated perception disorders. The disease developed intermittently. Disturbances of the bladder function are frequent. The fluid is normal in most cases. Myelographic examinations were made in 8 cases. 3 cases developed into stationary cases exhibiting. Brown-Sequard syndrome, while 9 patients developed transverse lesion of the cord with paraplegia. 3 patients have died; antopsy findings are given for two of these. In the pathogenesis of radiation-induced myelopathy, the vascular factor is assumed to be of decisive importance.

  11. Radiation myelopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kono, Hidehiro; Omata, Toshiyuki; Mochimachi, Izumi; Hasegawa, Osamu

    1995-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed radiation myelopathy. She was treated with radiotherapy, a total dose of about 120 Gy to the cervical spinal cord at the C1 level, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Nine months after the final radiation therapy, she complained of a paresthesia in the distal area of the right leg. Neurological examination revealed incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome below the level of C5. Neurological symptoms had been progressive. The spinal MRI showed an abnormal intramedullary high intensity area enhanced by Gd-DTPA. (author)

  12. Radiation myelopathy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

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    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kono, Hidehiro; Omata, Toshiyuki; Mochimachi, Izumi; Hasegawa, Osamu [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-08-01

    A 36-year-old woman with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed radiation myelopathy. She was treated with radiotherapy, a total dose of about 120 Gy to the cervical spinal cord at the C1 level, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Nine months after the final radiation therapy, she complained of a paresthesia in the distal area of the right leg. Neurological examination revealed incomplete left Brown-Sequard syndrome below the level of C5. Neurological symptoms had been progressive. The spinal MRI showed an abnormal intramedullary high intensity area enhanced by Gd-DTPA. (author).

  13. Radiation myelopathy (case presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangheli, M.; Lisnic, V.; Plesca, S.; Odainic, O.; Chetrari, L.

    2009-01-01

    The radiotherapy is one of the most widely spread and commonly used method in treating tumors of different localization. A detailed analysis of benefits and possible side effects along with evaluation of the risk factors allows preventing one of the most difficult complication, and namely the radiation myelopathy. The delayed form of such a disease is distinguished by a pronounced unfavorable prognosis. The presented case provoked the discussion of difficulties in performing differential diagnosis, as well as the importance of determining the localization of vulnerable tissues as regards the target organ exposed to radiotherapy. (authors)

  14. A case of radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Noriyoshi; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Sato, Yoshihito; Shimizu, Nobuya; Takagi, Yasushi

    1988-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with right hemiparesthesia and left hemiparalysis. At the age of 63, the patient was treated with pre- and post-operative radiation with a total dose of 100 Gy for maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. Five years later, a dose of 50 Gy was delivered again to the head and neck because of the suspicion of recurrence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed flat and thinned cervical spine on the transverse section and markedly atrophied cervical spine at the C1 to C3 levels on the sagittal section. She was diangosed as having chronic progressive radiation myelopathy in view of a history of large doses of radiation to the head and neck. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Experimental Study on radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Itsuo; Matsushima, Hideno; Yamada, Teruyo

    1979-01-01

    Experimental radiation myelopathy was carried out useing rats. This studies were done refering the effect to skin, the body weight, the status of the paralysis and the capillary densities of the cervical cords. The quadriplegia was seen on the animals which were irradiated over 4000 rad. The vacuoal degeneration was observed on the cervical cords which were irradiated over 4000 rad. The capillary densities of gray matter and white matter decreased finally in proportions to the irradiation dose. The vacuoal degeneration was recognized on the cervical cord in which the capillary density decreased to under 70 per cent of normal density. Decrease of the capillary density is seemed to be the one of the cause of the paralysis. (author)

  16. Research progress of HIV-associated myelopathy

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    Kun HONG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wide usage of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART leads to reduction of the occurence rate of focal or diffuse neurological damage caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, which prominently improves the living quality of HIV-infected patients. Despite this progress, about 70% of HIV-infected patients develop neurological complications. Although neurological disease typically occurs in the advanced stage of the disease or after severe damage of immune functions, it may also occur during early stage of the infection. HIV-associated myelopathy is a common complication of immunodeficiency syndrome and its typical pathological appearence is vacuolar degeneration. In many patients the clinical manifestations of vacuolar myelopathy are in fact limited to non-specific sphincter or sexual dysfunction, and may remain completely asymptomatic. Even when motor and sensory symptoms become evident, the diagnosis is often complicated by a concomitant peripheral neuropathy. The purpose of this study is to summarize pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, pathological features, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated myelopathy. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.004

  17. Acute progressive paraplegia in heroin-associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kyle W; Romba, Meghan; Gailloud, Philippe; Izbudak, Izlem; Saylor, Deanna

    2018-05-01

    As the opioid epidemic continues, understanding manifestations of abuse, including heroin-associated myelopathy remains essential. Here we describe a young man with a past medical history significant for polysubstance abuse who developed acute-onset, rapidly progressive myelopathy after resumption of intravenous heroin use. He had significant spinal cord involvement with findings suggestive of heroin-associated myelopathy. The salient features of this case include diffusion imaging of the spine and spinal angiography supporting a possible vasculopathy as the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying heroin-associated myelopathy. Additionally, CSF studies showed the transition from a neutrophilic pleocytosis to a lymphocytic pleocytosis suggesting an inflammatory component. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dose effect relationships in cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdorff, B.

    1980-01-01

    The course and prognosis of radiation myelopathies are determined by 3 factors: the segmental (vertical) location of the lesion, the extent of the transverse syndrome (complete or incomplete) and the radiation dose. The median spinal dose in cervical radiation myelopathies with fatal outcome was higher than in survivals with an incomplete transverse syndrome. In thoracic radiation myelopathies a dose difference between complete and incomplete transverse syndromes could be found as well. Incomplete transverse syndromes as submaximum radiation injuries are more suitable for the determination of the spinal tolerance dose than complete transverse syndromes. The lowest threshold could be stated for cases following high-volume irradiation of the lymphatic system. (Auth.)

  19. Radiation myelopathy after irradiation of a larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, A.; Daehn, I.

    1980-01-01

    The morphological characteristics and clinical phenomena of radiation myelopathy after X-irradiation of larynx carcinoma are demonstrated. In spite of constant improvement of radiotherapy the occurrence of a radiation damage of the central nervous system must be expected and included into considerations concerning differential diagnosis

  20. Radiation myelopathy. Analysis of the clinical picture. Die Strahlenmyelopathie. Klinische Analyse des Krankheitsbildes

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    Berlit, P

    1987-01-01

    After a review of the world literature, the case histories of 43 patients with radiation myelopathy are analyzed. In 1 patient there was a radiation injury of the medulla oblongata, in 2, cervical, in 28, thoracic, and in 12, lumbosacral. In the medulla oblongata lesion an alternans syndrome resulted. The patients with cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies presented with a Brown-Sequard syndrome, a spinalis anterior syndrome or a transversal syndrome with pyramidal and spinothalamic tract involvement as the most prominent signs. For this group the term 'pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy' is proposed. In lumbosacral radiation lesions a pure anterior horn syndrome may lead to spinothalamic tract involvement and the development of a cauda conus syndrome. The clinical presentation of these cases suggests that the location of the radiation lesion is most likely the region of the conus medullaris. The most frequent initial symptom was dysesthesia; the patients complained of burning pain or a feeling of coldness. Usually the neurological deficits were progressive, in pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy over 12 months in average, in lumbosacral radiation lesions up to 10 years. The latent period between the finish of radiation therapy and the first neurological signs was 8 months (median) in cervical and thoracic myelopathy and 33 months in lumbosacral lesions. For the entire group of 43 patients there was an inverse relationship between the radiation dose (ret) and the latent period. A positive relation could be demonstrated between the age of patients at the time of radiation therapy and the latent period. Patients simultaneously receiving cytostatic drugs presented after a longer latent period than the remaining group. With 17 figs.

  1. Intracranial dural arterio-venous fistula presenting with progressive myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbonnaya, Ebere Sunny

    2011-01-01

    Spinal dural arterio-venous fistula (DAVF) is rare and usually involves the thoracic segments. The classical presentation is a slowly progressive ataxia. Clinical presentation of intracranial DAVF depends on the site of the DAVF, as well as the vessels involved. Patients may present with pulsatile tinnitus, occipital bruit, headache, dementia, visual impairment as well as neurological deterioration distant from the DAVF as a result of venous hypertension and cortical haemorrhage. The authors present a rare case of progressive myelopathy secondary to an intracranial DAVF.

  2. Two cases of radiation myelopathy with best visualization in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toribatake, Yasumitsu; Yamada, Yoshio; Chujo, Masahiro; Kadoya, Masumi.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation myelopathy is considered difficult to diagnose. Two patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinically suspected radiation myelopathy. Both of them had previously received intraoperative irradiation of 30 Gy for Borrmann IV type gastric cancer to the lymph nodes surrounding the celiac artery. Several years later, they presented with neurologic symptoms associated with disturbance of the bladder and rectum. T1-weighted imaging revealed high signal intensities in verbetrae at the levels of Th 10 -L 1 for one patient and at the levels of Th 11 -L 1 for the other patient, respectively, which corresponded to the irradiation field. These MRI signs were considered to be fatty degeneration of the bone marrow resulting from irradiation. In one patient, there are ellipsoid areas with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the spinal cord, which seemed to be edematous degeneration of the spinal cord attributable to irradiation. MRI appeared promising for the diagnosis of radiation myelopathy. (N.K.)

  3. Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso, E.R.; Gregorio, M.A. de; Mateo, P.; Esco, R.; Bascon, N.; Morales, F.; Bellosta, R.; Lopez, P.; Gimeno, M.; Roca, M.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the ''open-neck'' (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase (< 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings

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    Alfonso, E.R. [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Gregorio, M.A. de [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Mateo, P. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Esco, R. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Bascon, N. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, F. [Neurology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Bellosta, R. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez, P. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Gimeno, M. [Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain); Roca, M. [Radiology Service, Hospital Miguel Servet, E-50 009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villavieja, J.L. [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the ``open-neck`` (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase (< 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Biological prevention and/or treatment strategies for radiation myelopathy. Discussion of a new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, C.; Ataman, F.; Price, R.E.; Kian Ang, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Radiosensitivity of the spinal cord makes both curative first-line treatment of numerous malignancies and re-irradiation of recurrent or second tumors more difficult. This review discusses recent advances in basic research that alter the view on the pathogenesis of radiation myelopathy, possibly offering strategies for prevention and/or therapy. Results: Available data of developmental neurobiology and preclinical studies of demyelinating diseases revealed interesting insights into oligodendrocyte development, intercellular signaling pathways, and myelination processes. Current findings suggest that administration of cytokines could increase proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, enhance their differentiation, upregulate synthesis of myelin constituents, and promote myelin regeneration in the adult central nervous system. Other compounds might also be able to modulate progression of pathogenic processes that eventually lead to radiation myelopathy. This offers several possible biological prevention and/or treatment strategies, which currently are being investigated in animal studies. Conclusions: Technical options as well as optimization of fractionation parameters should be given priority in the attempt to reduce iatrogenic neurotoxicity. However, rational biological strategies could offer a new perspective for many patients. (orig.) [de

  6. Radiation myelopathy following transplantation and radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Michael W.T.; Wirth, Andrew; Ryan, Gail; MacManus, Michael; Liew, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Combined modality therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy has become increasingly popular in the management of solid malignancies. However, unexpected toxicities may arise from their interactions. Methods and Materials: We report the case of a young woman with a large mediastinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation and involved field radiotherapy, and who developed radiation myelopathy after a latent period of only 3 months. The spinal cord dose did not exceed 40.3 Gy in 22 fractions over 4.5 weeks, which is well within accepted tolerance limits. She had no other identifiable risk factors for radiation myelopathy, suggesting an adverse drug-radiation interaction as the most likely cause of her injury. Results and Conclusions: This represents the first report of radiation myelopathy at accepted safe radiation doses following high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, and we recommend caution in the choice of radiotherapeutic dose in this setting

  7. A case of acutely developed delayed radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Shintaro; Amari, Masakuni; Fukuda, Toshio; Okamoto, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of hypertension received radiation therapy on his neck at age 61 because of laryngeal cancer (T1bN0M0). Five years after the radiation, he acutely developed dysuria, tetraparesis and dissociated sensory disturbances below bilateral Th4 level. T2 weighted MRI showed a high signal lesion affecting the central area of the spinal cord extending from C1 to C7. On the second clinical day, he developed respiratory arrest and was ventilated. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 20/mm 3 (monocyte 15, neutorophil 5) white cells; protein was 52.5 mg/dl; IgG index 0.54; Q albumin was 9.6; tests for oligoclonal band and myelin basic protein were negative; a culture yielded no microorganism. He was treated with steroids and supportive measures without improvement, and died of a sudden cardiac arrest on the 8th clinical day. postmortem examination confirmed conspicuous focal spongy changes with many axonal swellings, especially in the posterior and lateral columns at cervical and Th1 levels. The pathological findings were considered to be compatible with those of delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM). In the anterior horn of the cervical cord there were lesions of diffuse racification and the proliferation of small vessels. There were no findings of hyaline vascular changes, infarction or metastasis of laryngeal cancer at the spinal cord. It is considered that hyperintensity of signals on T2-weighted may originate from racification and proliferation of small vessels in the gray matter, and these pathological changes would be intimately associated with the severe neurologic morbidity of this patient. Acute development of neurological findings and the pathological changes in the gray matter of the spinal cord are rare manifestations of DRM. (author)

  8. Severity score system for progressive myelopathy: development and validation of a new clinical scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Castilhos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive myelopathies can be secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM such as mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The available scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score, was validated only for degenerative vertebral diseases. Our objective is to propose and validate a new scale addressing progressive myelopathies and to present validating data for JOA in these diseases. A new scale, Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM, covering motor disability, sphincter dysfunction, spasticity, and sensory losses. Inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were measured. External validation was tested by applying JOA, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, the Barthel index, and the Osame Motor Disability Score. Thirty-eight patients, 17 with adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis IV, 2 with mucopolysaccharidosis VI, 2 with mucolipidosis, and 11 with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy participated in the study. The mean ± SD SSPROM and JOA scores were 74.6 ± 11.4 and 12.4 ± 2.3, respectively. Construct validity for SSPROM (JOA: r = 0.84, P < 0.0001; EDSS: r = -0.83, P < 0.0001; Barthel: r = 0.56, P < 0.002; Osame: r = -0.94, P < 0.0001 and reliability (intra-rater: r = 0.83, P < 0.0001; inter-rater: r = 0.94, P < 0.0001 were demonstrated. The metric properties of JOA were similar to those found in SSPROM. Several clinimetric requirements were met for both SSPROM and JOA scales. Since SSPROM has a wider range, it should be useful for follow-up studies on IEM myelopathies.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with progressive myelopathy following spinal surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Avrahami, E; Tadmor, R; Cohn, D F

    1989-01-01

    Thirty one patients with insidious progressive myelopathy 2 to 8 years following surgery of the cervical spine were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 15 patients operated on for vascular malformations or intramedullary tumours, syringomyelia and cystic lesions of the spinal cord were shown. Seven of these patients also showed a combination of a recurrent tumour and spinal atrophy. Out of 16 patients who had surgery for herniated disc or spinal stenosis of the cervical spine, f...

  10. A case of lymphosarcoma complicated with radiation-induced myelopathy and pericarditis, who died of leukoencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuno, Yoshiko; Okamura, Jun; Tasaka, Hideko; Kotoo, Yasunori

    1978-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl was diagnosed to have lymphosarcoma (Stage I) after needle biopsy of the huge mediastinal mass. By radiation therapy to the mediastinum (5,400 rads) and combination chemotherapy (according to St. Jude protocol by Aur), complete remission was obtained. During the maintenance therapy, she started to complain of weakness and decreased sensation on her lower extremities 8 months after the diagnosis. Central nervous system (CNS) relapse was diagnosed one week later, which was successfully treated with intrathecally administered methotrexate (MTX) and hydrocortisone (HDC) and then, she received cranial radiation (2,000 rads). However, neurological symptoms progressed gradually and she developed loss of pain sensation, absence of deep tendon reflex of the lower extremities, and neulogenic bladder symptoms, which were finally diagnosed as radiation-induced myelopathy. She also developed asymptomatic radiation pericarditis 18 months after diagnosis. She experienced 3 more episodes of CNS relapse which were successfully treated with MTX and HDC. At 26 months after diagnosis, she developed headache, loss of taste and bilateral facial palsy. She had generalized convulsion one hour after intrathecal medication with MTX, HDC and cytosine arabinoside, then became comatous and died 3 days later. Autopsy revealed performation of duodenal ulcers and demyelinisation of the pons, medulla and thoracic spine (leukoencephalopathy). No tumor cell was seen at any place examined. The possible relations between complications, cause of death and treatment were discussed. (author)

  11. Pathological investigation of radiation necrosis. A case report and histo-pathological analysis of radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N; Yoshimura, N; Ikuta, F [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-05-01

    The brain and spinal cord of an 18-year-old male, who suffered from cerebellar medulloblastoma with subarachnoid spread, had been irradiated by a large amount of Linac X-ray: 14,450 rads to the lower thoracic segments and 7,400 rads to the lumbar segments. The tumor at the roof of the 4th ventricle had disseminated along the ventricular system but was limited to the subarachnoid space of the cervical spinal cord. No remarkable changes were found in the volume or consistency of the thoracic and lumbar cord. Elasticity of the lower thoracic segment was greatly diminished and the cut surfaces were yellowish white and fragile. Microscopically extensive coagulation necrosis was observed with complete disintegration of myelin and axon. Vascular changes were most prominent in the smaller vessels, eg. hyalinous thickening, concentric cleavage, adventitial fibrosis and edema of small artery perivascular spaces, fibrin thrombi occulusion of arterioles and capillaries, and telangiectasia. In the lumbar spinal cord, moderate neuronal degeneration and protoplasmic astrocytosis were observed. Changes in the lumbar posterior white column were considered to be not only secondary degeneration but also a primary lesion caused by irradiation. Liquefactive necrosis in the gray matter of the cervical cord was thought to be a nonspecific circulatory disturbance because of the absence of vascular changes. Vascular changes were thought to be very important in the histological diagnosis of radiation myelopathy and it was supposed that increased permeability of the vessel walls was a factor in coagulation necrosis. They considered this case to have typical histology of radiation myelopathy.

  12. Quality control in radiotherapy treatment: Radiation induced myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Vicioso, E.; Ruiz-Cruces, R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct injury of the spinal cord has been reported many times, particularly in cases of overexposures with radiotherapy of neoplasm that occurred outside the Central Nervous System. Permanent damage to the spinal cord is the most feared complication of radiation therapy treatments and one of the relatively common causes of litigation for medical malpractice in the context of cancer treatment. We have learned from clinical experience, data from randomized trials and animal experimentation, the dose tolerance as well as the interfraction interval for hyperfractionation regimes. We are still lacking precious clinical information, in particular the dose tolerance in combined modality treatments that represent the vast majority of modern treatments. (author)

  13. A case of radiation myelopathy responded to ACTH therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Toshiyuki; Kawanami, Sachiko; Nishimaru, Katsuya

    1981-01-01

    A patient with nasal reticulum-cell sarcoma received 60 Co irradiation in a total dose of 10,000 rad in 25 fractions and intracarotid arterial transfusion of 5-Fu 4,000 mg. The prognosis was favorable without subjective symptoms for about one year before disturbance in walking and abnormal sensation in legs occurred. Metastasis of tumor was ruled out, and diagnosis of acute radiculoneuritis was made for the reason that the region which exposed to irradiation coincided the level of neurological disturbances which rapidly advanced. This patient received ACTH therapy. Administration of dexamethasone in a dose of 4 mg per day relieved subjective pain and lowered the level of impaired sensation, and arrested progress of motor paralysis. However, the symptoms was exacerbated again after 2 weeks and the decrease of the dose caused an highered the level of impaired and resulted in motor paralysis. Total dose was 171 mg. (Ueda, J.)

  14. Motor conduction velocity in the human spinal cord: slowed conduction in multiple sclerosis and radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snooks, S.J.; Swash, M.

    1985-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the central nervous system was used to measure motor conduction velocity in the human spinal cord in 21 subjects aged 22 to 75 years (mean 55 years), none of whom had neurological disease. The motor conduction velocity between the sixth cervical (C6) and first lumbar (L1) vertebral levels was 67.4+-9.1 m/s. This probably represents conduction velocity in the corticospinal tracts. In these subjects the motor conduction velocity in the cauda equina, between the first lumbar (L1) and fourth lumbar (L4) vertebral levels, was 57.9+-10.3 m/s. In four of five patients with multiple sclerosis, all with corticospinal signs in the legs, motor conduction velocity between C6 and L1 was slowed (41.8+-16.8 m/s), but cauda equina conduction was normal (55.8+-7.8 m/s). Similar slowing of spinal cord motor conduction was found in a patient with radiation myelopathy. This method should provide a relevant, simple clinical test in patients with spinal cord disease. (author)

  15. A case of recurrent delayed radiation myelopathy with 5-year remission interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukagoshi, Setsuki; Ikeda, Masaki; Tano, Shinobu; Obayashi, Kai; Fujita, Yukio; Okamoto, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    We report a 47-year-old woman with relapsed delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM), occurring 5 years and 10 years after radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma at 37 years old. Sensations of pain and temperature had been disturbed in the right leg since 42 years old. MRI showed Gadolinium-enhanced lesion as a ring-like-enhancement of the spinal cord at C1-2 on T 1 -weighted image (T 1 WI), with high signal area and swelling of the spinal cord at the upper C1 to C6 areas on T 2 -weighted image. We diagnosed her as having DRM after considering the differential diagnosis, e.g., multiple sclerosis, spinal tumor and other neurological diseases. Her sensory symptoms quickly improved following therapy with prednisolone and warfarin. Although she remained healthy for a few years, dysesthesia of the neck on the right side appeared 5 years later after the first clinical occurrence. At this time, MRI demonstrated Gadolinium-enhanced lesion as a ring-like enhancement of the spinal cord at C2 on T 1 WI, but the area also differed from that of previous lesion; a high signal area and swelling of the spinal cord was also seen on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image of the medulla and upper C1 to C6. For recurrence of DRM, we administered prednisolone and warfarin. Thereafter, the patient recovered and the spinal cord lesion on MRI decreased markedly. The clinical course demonstrated that administration of prednisolone and warfarin might be effective for relapsed DRM. (author)

  16. Myelopathy hand in cervical radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Takenaka, Shota; Fuji, Takeshi; Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Makino, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The so-called 'myelopathy hand', or characteristic finger paralysis, often recognized in cervical compression myelopathy, has been considered a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy. We used our original grip and release test, a 15-second test in which finger motion is captured with a digital camera, to investigate whether cervical radiculopathy has the same characteristics as myelopathy hand. Thirty patients with pure radiculopathy, id est (i.e.), who had radiating arm pain and evidence of corresponding nerve root impingement on X-ray images or MRI scans, but did not have spinal cord compression, served as the subjects. In contrast to other radiculopathies, C7 radiculopathy was manifested by a significant reduction in the number of finger motion cycles on the affected side in comparison with the unaffected side, the same as in myelopathy hand. Uncoordinated finger motion was significantly more frequent on the affected side in C6 radiculopathy than on the unaffected side. These findings contradict the conventional notion that myelopathy hand is a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy, but some radiculopathies manifested the same kinds of finger paralysis observed in myelopathy hand. (author)

  17. Imaging spinal cord atrophy in progressive myelopathies: HTLV-I-associated neurological disease (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Shila; Nair, Govind; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Charlip, Emily; Vellucci, Ashley; Cortese, Irene; Dwyer, Jenifer; Billioux, B Jeanne; Thomas, Chevaz; Ohayon, Joan; Reich, Daniel S; Jacobson, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Previous work measures spinal cord thinning in chronic progressive myelopathies, including human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative measurements of spinal cord atrophy are important in fully characterizing these and other spinal cord diseases. We aimed to investigate patterns of spinal cord atrophy and correlations with clinical markers. Spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured in individuals (24 healthy controls [HCs], 17 asymptomatic carriers of HTLV-1 (AC), 47 HAM/TSP, 74 relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], 17 secondary progressive MS [SPMS], and 40 primary progressive MS [PPMS]) from C1 to T10. Clinical disability scores, viral markers, and immunological parameters were obtained for patients and correlated with representative spinal cord cross-sectional area regions at the C2 to C3, C4 to C5, and T4 to T9 levels. In 2 HAM/TSP patients, spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured over 3 years. All spinal cord regions are thinner in HAM/TSP (56 mm 2 [standard deviation, 10], 59 [10], 23 [5]) than in HC (76 [7], 83 [8], 38 [4]) and AC (71 [7], 78 [9], 36 [7]). SPMS (62 [9], 66 [9], 32 [6]) and PPMS (65 [11], 68 [10], 35 [7]) have thinner cervical cords than HC and RRMS (73 [9], 77 [10], 37 [6]). Clinical disability scores (Expanded Disability Status Scale [p = 0.009] and Instituto de Pesquisas de Cananeia [p = 0.03]) and CD8 + T-cell frequency (p = 0.04) correlate with T4 to T9 spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP. Higher cerebrospinal fluid HTLV-1 proviral load (p = 0.01) was associated with thinner spinal cord cross-sectional area. Both HAM/TSP patients followed longitudinally showed thoracic thinning followed by cervical thinning. Group average spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP and progressive MS show spinal cord atrophy. We further hypothesize in HAM/TSP that is possible that neuroglial loss from a thoracic inflammatory

  18. Myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy after X-ray therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstad, J.

    1986-03-01

    Three patients with injury to the spinal cord after X-ray therapy are reported. One patient suffered from a chronic progressive myelopathy, whereas two others were considered to have a peripheral motor neuropathy due to selective damage to the motoneurons. The prognosis of patients with peripheral motor neuropathy is good, in contrast to chronic progressive myelopathy which most often leads to severe disability and death. Characteristically there is a latent interval from months to years between completed radiation therapy and the appearance of neurological symptoms. The mechanism for delayed radiation injury to the cord is at present unknown, but the possibilities of fibrosis, injury to the microcirculation, or direct injury to the nervous tissue are discussed. The importance of a correct diagnosis before further treatment is decided upon is stressed. The most difficult differential diagnosis is intraspinal metastases.

  19. Myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy after X-ray therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berstad, J.

    1986-01-01

    Three patients with injury to the spinal cord after X-ray therapy are reported. One patient suffered from a chronic progressive myelopathy, whereas two others were considered to have a peripheral motor neuropathy due to selective damage to the motoneurons. The prognosis of patients with peripheral motor neuropathy is good, in contrast to chronic progressive myelopathy which most often leads to severe disability and death. Characteristically there is a latent interval from months to years between completed radiation therapy and the appearance of neurological symptoms. The mechanism for delayed radiation injury to the cord is at present unknown, but the possibilities of fibrosis, injury to the microcirculation, or direct injury to the nervous tissue are discussed. The importance of a correct diagnosis before further treatment is decided upon is stressed. The most difficult differential diagnosis is intraspinal metastases

  20. Diffuse arachnoid ossification and multiple arachnoid cysts presenting with progressive thoracic myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Kashima, Masahiro; Kosaka, Hirofumi; Katoh, Shinsuke; Yasui, Natsuo [The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    An ossified arachnoid membrane combined with cystic formation is rarely reported as a cause of spinal cord compression. We report the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with diffuse ossification of the arachnoid membrane (arachnoid ossification) and multiple cystic changes (arachnoid cyst) at the thoracic and lumbar spine. The lesions were surgically removed and progressive deterioration was prevented, although no marked improvement of neurological symptoms was attained. (orig.)

  1. Chronological observation in early radiation myelopathy of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Saeko; Yoshida, Shoji; Soejima, Toshinori

    1993-01-01

    Gd-enhanced MR images of two patients with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed chronic progressive radiation myelitis (CPRM) were observed chronologically. One of them had had nasopharyngeal cancer and received radiotherapy at a dose of 100 Gy to the C1-2 level of the spinal cord. She developed CPRM 25 months after the termination of radiotherapy. The other had had malignant lymphoma originating from the tonsil and received chemoradiotherapy. The dose delivered to her cervical spinal cord was 40 Gy, and she developed CPRM 30 months later. Gd-enhanced MRI in the early phase revealed a small crescent-shaped nidus with or without a very small central nonenhanced area in both cases. Enhancement was not great. At that time, patients noticed only the inability to perceive pain and temperature or paresthesia in the opposite side. In a few months, MRI revealed a much more strongly enhanced and larger nidus with enlargement of a central nonenhanced area accompanied by long segmental cord enlargement. The patients' neurological symptoms had also progressed, with hemiparesis developing, for example. (author)

  2. Progress in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Koji; Zingu, Kenichi; Matsuura, Keiichi; Aramaki, Ryoji; Yoshinaga, Haruma

    1980-01-01

    Possible mechanism of differences in radiosensitivity of malignant tumors in vivo was reviewed. The magnitude of repair of potentially lethal damage after X- or gamma-ray was relatively large for melanoma, osteosarcoma and glioblastoma multiform cultured in vitro. The proportion of hypoxic cells in malignant melanoma was relatively high and the Dq value of the dose response curves was relatively large, implying that these two factors also play important role for making malignant melanoma radioresistant. Recurrent tumor cells in vitro has relatively high amount of non-protein SH, which can protect cells from radiation. Except for these limited data, no experimental results has been reported which can explain the radiobiological mechanism of each radioresistant tumor. It was stressed that assessment of the radiobiological mechanism of the relatively radioresistant malignant tumors in vivo and new treatment protocol based on this assessment will improve the local control rate of malignant tumors in vivo as well as doing best in treating relatively radiosensitive tumors. (author)

  3. Mise au point myelopathie cervicarthrosique revelee par un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy is a progressive spinal cord disease caused by mecanical compression from different structure of a spinal stenosis in pathologics conditions which brings histological damade. In addition acut myelopathy is frequently revealed by cervical spine injury with dynamic injury mechanism.

  4. Arginase-1 expressing microglia in close proximity to motor neurons were increased early in disease progression in canine degenerative myelopathy, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedebusch, Christine M; Snyder, John C; Jones, Maria R; Garcia, Virginia B; Johnson, Gayle C; Villalón, Eric L; Coates, Joan R; Garcia, Michael L

    2018-04-01

    Toxicity within superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1)-associated familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is non-cell autonomous with direct contribution from microglia. Microglia exhibit variable expression of neuroprotective and neurotoxic molecules throughout disease progression. The mechanisms regulating microglial phenotype within ALS are not well understood. This work presents a first study to examine the specific microglial phenotypic response in close association to motor neurons in a naturally occurring disease model of ALS, canine degenerative myelopathy (DM). Microglia closely associated with motor neurons were increased in all stages of DM progression, although only DM Late reached statistical significance. Furthermore, the number of arginase-1 expressing microglia per motor neuron were significantly increased in early stages of DM, whereas the number of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-expressing microglia per motor neuron was indistinguishable from aged controls at all stages of disease. Fractalkine, a chemotactic molecule for microglia, was expressed in motor neurons, and the fractalkine receptor was specifically localized to microglia. However, we found no correlation between microglial response and lumbar spinal cord fractalkine levels. Taken together, these data suggest that arginase-1-expressing microglia are recruited to the motor neuron early in DM disease through a fractalkine-independent mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thoracic myelopathy with alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Koji; Kasai, Yuichi; Kawakita, Eiji; Matsumura, Yoshihiro; Kono, Toshibumi; Murata, Tetsuya; Uchida, Atsumasa

    2008-01-15

    A case of thoracic myelopathy with alkaptonuria (ochronotic spondyloarthropathy) is presented. To present and review the first reported case of an alkaptonuric patient with concomitant thoracic myelopathy. Alkaptonuria, a rare hereditary metabolic disease, is characterized by accumulation of homogentistic acid, ochronosis, and destruction of connective tissue resulting in degenerative spondylosis and arthritis. Despite the high incidence of intervertebral disc diseases among patients with alkaptonuria, neurologic symptoms caused by spinal disease are rare. Thoracic myelopathy in a patient with alkaptonuria has not been previously reported. The clinical course, radiologic features, pathology, and treatment outcome of an alkaptonuria patient with thoracic myelopathy was documented. Myelopathy of the patient was caused by rupture of a thoracic intervertebral disc. The neurologic symptoms of the patient were markedly improved after surgery. We have reported for the first time, that an alkaptonuria patient showed thoracic myelopathy caused by rupture of a thoracic intervertebral disc. Decompression followed by the instrumented fusion of the thoracic spine was effective for improving the neurologic symptoms.

  6. Increased expression of OX40 is associated with progressive disease in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mineki; Tanaka, Reiko; Arishima, Shiho; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Ishihara, Satoshi; Tokashiki, Takashi; Ohya, Yusuke; Takashima, Hiroshi; Umehara, Fujio; Izumo, Shuji; Tanaka, Yuetsu

    2013-05-07

    OX40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family that is expressed primarily on activated CD4+ T cells and promotes the development of effector and memory T cells. Although OX40 has been reported to be a target gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) viral transactivator Tax and is overexpressed in vivo in adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells, an association between OX40 and HTLV-1-associated inflammatory disorders, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), has not yet been established. Moreover, because abrogation of OX40 signals ameliorates chronic inflammation in animal models of autoimmune disease, novel monoclonal antibodies against OX40 may offer a potential treatment for HTLV-1-associated diseases such as ATL and HAM/TSP. In this study, we showed that OX40 was specifically expressed in CD4+ T cells naturally infected with HTLV-1 that have the potential to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines along with Tax expression. We also showed that OX40 was overexpressed in spinal cord infiltrating mononuclear cells in a clinically progressive HAM/TSP patient with a short duration of illness. The levels of the soluble form of OX40 (sOX40) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from chronic progressive HAM/TSP patients or from patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases (OINDs) were not different. In contrast, sOX40 levels in the CSF of rapidly progressing HAM/TSP patients were higher than those in the CSF from patients with OINDs, and these patients showed higher sOX40 levels in the CSF than in the plasma. When our newly produced monoclonal antibody against OX40 was added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells in culture, HTLV-1-infected T cells were specifically removed by a mechanism that depends on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Our study identified OX40 as a key molecule and biomarker for rapid progression of HAM/TSP. Furthermore, blocking OX40 may have potential in therapeutic intervention for

  7. CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY WITH FUNCTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY WITH FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY. LONG TERM RESULTS CONCERNING 18 PATIENTS OPERATED ON BY ANTERIOR APPROACH IN GABON MYELOPATHIES CERVICARTHROSIQUES INVALIDANTES. RESULTATS A LONG TERME DE 18 PATIENTS OPERES PAR VOIE ...

  8. Pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Darryl C; Fehlings, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy is a group of closely related disorders usually caused by spondylosis or by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and is characterized by compression of the cervical spinal cord or nerve roots by varying degrees and number of levels. The decrease in diameter of the vertebral canal secondary to disc degeneration and osteophytic spurs compresses the spinal cord and nerve roots at one or several levels, producing direct damage and often secondary ischemic changes. Clinicians who treat cervical myelopathy cord injuries should have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology and the processes that are initiated after the spinal cord has been injured. Literature review. Literature review of human cervical myelopathy and clinically relevant animal models to further our understanding of the pathological mechanisms involved. The pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy involves static factors, which result in acquired or developmental stenosis of the cervical canal and dynamic factors, which involve repetitive injury to the cervical cord. These mechanical factors in turn result in direct injury to neurons and glia as well as a secondary cascade of events including ischemia, excitotoxicity, and apoptosis; a pathobiology similar to that occurring in traumatic spinal cord injury. This review summarizes some of the significant pathophysiological processes involved in cervical myelopathy.

  9. Chronological observation in early radiation myelopathy of the cervical spinal cord; Gadolinium-enhanced MRI findings in two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Saeko; Yoshida, Shoji; Soejima, Toshinori (Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan)) (and others)

    Gd-enhanced MR images of two patients with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed chronic progressive radiation myelitis (CPRM) were observed chronologically. One of them had had nasopharyngeal cancer and received radiotherapy at a dose of 100 Gy to the C1-2 level of the spinal cord. She developed CPRM 25 months after the termination of radiotherapy. The other had had malignant lymphoma originating from the tonsil and received chemoradiotherapy. The dose delivered to her cervical spinal cord was 40 Gy, and she developed CPRM 30 months later. Gd-enhanced MRI in the early phase revealed a small crescent-shaped nidus with or without a very small central nonenhanced area in both cases. Enhancement was not great. At that time, patients noticed only the inability to perceive pain and temperature or paresthesia in the opposite side. In a few months, MRI revealed a much more strongly enhanced and larger nidus with enlargement of a central nonenhanced area accompanied by long segmental cord enlargement. The patients' neurological symptoms had also progressed, with hemiparesis developing, for example. (author).

  10. Radiation-induced myelopathy in long-term surviving metastatic spinal cord compression patients after hypofractionated radiotherapy: a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maranzano, Ernesto; Bellavita, Rita; Floridi, Piero; Celani, Grazia; Righetti, Enrico; Lupattelli, Marco; Panizza, Bianca Moira; Frattegiani, Alessandro; Pelliccioli, Gian Piero; Latini, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hypofractionated radiotherapy is often administered in metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC), but no studies have been published on the incidence of radiation-induced myelopathy (RIM) in long-term surviving patients. Our report addresses this topic. Patients and methods: Of 465 consecutive MSCC patients submitted to radiotherapy between 1988 and 1997, 13 live patients (seven females, six males, median age 69 years, median follow-up 69 months) surviving for 2 years or more were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate RIM. All patients underwent radiotherapy. Eight patients underwent a short-course regimen of 8 Gy, with 7 days rest, and then another 8 Gy. Five patients underwent a split-course regimen of 5 Gy x3, 4 days rest, and then 3 Gy x5. Only one patient also underwent laminectomy. Full neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. Results: Of 12 patients submitted to radiotherapy alone, 11 were ambulant (eight without support and three with support) with good bladder function. In nine of these 11 patients, MRI was negative; in one case MRI evidenced an in-field relapse 30 months after the end of radiotherapy, and in the other, two new MSCC foci outside the irradiated spine. In the remaining patient RIM was suspected at 18 months after radiotherapy when the patient became paraplegic and cystoplegic, and magnetic resonance images evidenced an ischemic injury in the irradiated area. The only patient treated with surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy worsened and remained paraparetic. Magnetic resonance images showed cord atrophy at the surgical level, explained as an ischemic necrosis due to surgery injury. Conclusions: On the grounds of our data regarding RIM in long-term surviving MSCC patients, we believe that a hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen can be used for the majority of patients. For a minority of patients, more protracted radiation regimens could be considered

  11. Radiation protection programme progress report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The progress report of the radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out in 1988 under contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. Results of more than 350 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: Radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; Behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; Nonstochastic effects of ionizing radiation; Radiation carcinogenesis; Genetic effects of ionizing radiation; Evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure a safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

  12. Operative Outcomes for Cervical Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Galbraith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are common disorders which can lead to significant clinical morbidity. Conservative management, such as physical therapy, cervical immobilisation, or anti-inflammatory medications, is the preferred and often only required intervention. Surgical intervention is reserved for those patients who have intractable pain or progressive neurological symptoms. The goals of surgical treatment are decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots and deformity prevention by maintaining or supplementing spinal stability and alleviating pain. Numerous surgical techniques exist to alleviate symptoms, which are achieved through anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Under most circumstances, one approach will produce optimal results. It is important that the surgical plan is tailored to address each individual's unique clinical circumstance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the major surgical treatment options for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy focusing on outcomes and complications.

  13. Asymptomatic HIV positive patient presenting with myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of disorders of diverse pathogenic mechanisms can trigger spinal cord dysfunction in HIV-1-infected patients. The most common such condition is HIV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM which characteristically seen during advanced HIV infection in patients with low CD4 cell counts and previous AIDS-defining diagnoses. Histologically seen in approximately 30% of AIDS patients, but only 10% have clinical symptoms related to the disease. We describe an unusual case of HAM in previously asymptomatic patient with relatively low CD4 cell count (78 cells/mm3. The patient unaware of her seropositive status presented with a clinically slowly progressive myelopathy with difficulty in walking without assistance. We discharged a patient on antiretroviral therapy. We also review the disorders reported to derange spinal cord function in previously asymptomatic HIV-1 infected patients with preserved counts.

  14. Progress in Medical Radiation Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    In-depth reviews of the advances and concepts in the application of radiation to medicine are presented in six comprehensive review articles which help to bridge the communications gap between the international research community and the medical physicists and physicians whose responsibility it is to put these advances into clinical use. Topics include techniques used both for the diagnosis of disease, such as computerized tomography, digital radiography, ultrasonography, computerized nuclear medicine scanning, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and for its treatment, such as the radiotherapeutic utilization of high-LET radiations, and the widespread application of computers to perform dosimetry calculations from 3-D treatment planning and imaging. Each chapter has extensive references and the collection is indexed

  15. Diagnostic Approach to Myelopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados Sanchez, Ana Maria; Garcia Posada, Lina Maria; Ortega Toscano, Cesar Andres; Lopez Lopez, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Myelopathy is a broad term that refers to spinal cord involvement of multiple etiologies. Spinal cord diseases often have devastating consequences, ranging from quadriplegia and paraplegia to severe sensory deficits due to its confinement in a very small area. Many of these diseases are potentially reversible if they are recognized on time, hence the importance of recognizing the significance of magnetic resonance imaging when approaching a multifactorial disease considered as one of the most critical neurological emergencies, where prognosis depends on an early and accurate diagnosis.

  16. Radiative Cooling: Principles, Progress, and Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Muntasir

    2016-01-01

    The recent progress on radiative cooling reveals its potential for applications in highly efficient passive cooling. This approach utilizes the maximized emission of infrared thermal radiation through the atmospheric window for releasing heat and minimized absorption of incoming atmospheric radiation. These simultaneous processes can lead to a device temperature substantially below the ambient temperature. Although the application of radiative cooling for nighttime cooling was demonstrated a few decades ago, significant cooling under direct sunlight has been achieved only recently, indicating its potential as a practical passive cooler during the day. In this article, the basic principles of radiative cooling and its performance characteristics for nonradiative contributions, solar radiation, and atmospheric conditions are discussed. The recent advancements over the traditional approaches and their material and structural characteristics are outlined. The key characteristics of the thermal radiators and solar reflectors of the current state‐of‐the‐art radiative coolers are evaluated and their benchmarks are remarked for the peak cooling ability. The scopes for further improvements on radiative cooling efficiency for optimized device characteristics are also theoretically estimated. PMID:27812478

  17. Ionizing radiation in tumor promotion and progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1990-08-01

    Chronic exposure to beta radiation has been tested as a tumor promoting or progressing agent. The dorsal skins of groups of 25 female SENCAR mice were chemically initiated with a single exposure to DMBA, and chronic exposure to strontium-90/yttrium-90 beta radiation was tested as a stage 1, stage 2 or complete skin tumor promoter. Exposure of initiated mice to 0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks produced no papillomas, indicating no action as a complete promoter. Another similar group of animals was chemically promoted through stage 1 (with TPA) followed by 0.5 gray of beta radiation twice a week for 13 weeks. Again no papillomas developed indicating no action of chronic radiation as a stage 2 tumor promoter. The same radiation exposure protocol in another DMBA initiated group receiving both stage 1 and 2 chemical promotion resulted in a decrease in papilloma frequency, compared to the control group receiving no beta irradiation, indicating a tumor preventing effect of radiation at stage 2 promotion, probably by killing initiated cells. Chronic beta radiation was tested three different ways as a stage 1 tumor promoter. When compared to the appropriate control, beta radiation given after initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks), after initiation and along with a known stage 1 chemical promoter (1.0 gray twice a week for 2 weeks), or prior to initiation as a stage 1 promoter (0.5 gray twice a week for 4 weeks), each time showed a weak (∼ 15% stimulation) but statistically significant (p<0.01) ability to act as a stage 1 promoter. When tested as a tumor progressing agent delivered to pre-existing papillomas, beta radiation (0.5 gray twice a week for 13 weeks) increased carcinoma frequency from 0.52 to 0.68 carcinoma/animal, but this increase was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. We conclude that in the addition to the known initiating, progressing and complete carcinogenic action of acute exposures to ionizing

  18. A review of progress towards radiative divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Roman

    1997-07-01

    A solution of the problem of the power and particle exhaust from the next step tokamaks, will require new techniques which redistribute the power entering the SOL onto much larger surface area than conventional divertor design permits, while maintaining good impurity retention in divertor volume and allowing for efficient helium pumping. Progress made in developing such techniques is discussed. Status of the modelling studies of dynamic gas target divertor and impurity seeded radiating divertors is presented. Recent results of experiments on radiative and gas target divertors are reviewed

  19. Cervical Myelopathy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mukerji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the cervical spine is common in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical presentation can be variable, and symptoms may be due to neck pain or compressive myeloradiculopathy. We discuss the pathology, grading systems, clinical presentation, indications for surgery and surgical management of cervical myelopathy related to rheumatoid arthritis in this paper. We describe our surgical technique and results. We recommend early consultation for surgical management when involvement of the cervical spine is suspected in rheumatoid arthritis. Even patients with advanced cervical myelopathy should be discussed for surgical treatment, since in our experience improvement in function after surgery is common.

  20. Quadriplegia secondary to cervical spondylotic myelopathy-a rare complication of head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Fan; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lee, Sai-Cheung; Tsao, Chung-Kan

    2013-02-01

    Free tissue reconstruction after ablation of head and neck malignancy often requires extensive cervical manipulation, which may exacerbate preexisting cervical spondylosis and result in progression to cervical myelopathy. We present a rare case of postoperative quadriplegia caused by cervical spondylotic myelopathy after head and neck reconstruction. A 63-year-old man without a history of cervical spondylosis underwent resection of a gingivo-buccal squamous cell carcinoma with immediate reconstruction with free fibula osteocutaneous flap. On postoperative day 4, the patient was found to have quadriplegia. MRI demonstrated severe cervical myelopathy. Decompressive laminectomy was performed. The patient underwent an extensive rehabilitation program but only realized moderate improvement. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a rare but disastrous complication of head and neck surgery. We hypothesize that it is potentially avoidable with heightened awareness of this disease entity, preoperative identification of patients at risk, and prophylactic interventions Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Venous hypertensive myelopathy associated with cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Seiji; Chang, Charles; Chang, Geraldine; Yue, James J

    2016-11-01

    Venous hypertensive myelopathy (VHM) results from spinal vascular malformations of arteriovenous shunting that increases spinal venous pressure, leading to congestive edema and neurologic dysfunction. There has been no report of VHM associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The aim of this study was to report an extremely rare case of VHM likely due to CSM. This study is a case report and review of the literature. The patient was a 51-year-old man with CSM exhibiting relatively rapid neurologic deterioration with an abnormal expansion of a centromedullary hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the absence of traumatic injury. Neurologic examination and radiologic imaging were taken by various means. The patient developed a cervical radiculopathy, followed by gait disturbance and motor weakness. The MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated spinal canal stenosis due to disc bulging and flavum hypertrophy at the C5/C6 and C6/C7 levels as well as hyperintense area over the C5-C7 levels on T2-weighted images. Although decompression surgery was planned, an acute inflammatory process such as transverse myelitis or demyelinating disease other than cord compression was also considered, and the patient received intravenous steroids. His walking improved for several days. However, his symptoms then became significantly worse, and he had difficulty walking. Subsequent MRI demonstrated marked progression of the T2 hyperintense lesion over the C4-T1 vertebral levels. Flow voids were also noted on the dorsal surface of the upper cervical cord on T2-weighted MRI. His lab work, medical history, and the local enhancement on contrast-enhanced MRI indicated low probability of spinal inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the decision was made to perform anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgery on two levels. Following surgery, his symptoms improved promptly. Our case indicates that VHM could be caused by spondylotic cord compression in the

  2. Cervical myelopathy: magnetic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholin, A.V.; Makarov, A.Yu.; Gurevich, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    69 patients with clinical signs of cervical myelopathy were examined using magnetic imaging (T1- and T2-suspended tomograms of the sagittal and transverse section using a device with 0.04 T field intensity). Vertebral disk hernias were revealed in 35 patients, compression of the spinal cord with metastases into vertebral body in 2, extramedullary tumor in 11, intramedullary tumor in 9, and syringomyelia in 12 patients. T2-suspended tomograms proved to be more informative due to their higher sensitivity to aqueous content. T1-suspended tomograms help assess the degree of spinal cord compression and the direction of the disk protrusion. Magnetic imaging is an informative method used for objective identification of the cases of myelopathy of cervical localization [ru

  3. The human dorsal spinocerebellar tract: myelinated fiber spectrum and fiber density in controls, autosomal dominant spinocerebellar atrophy, Huntington's chorea, radiation myelopathy, and diseases with peripheral sensory nerve involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringelstein, E.B.; Schroeder, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The human dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT) was evaluated morphometrically in 14 control cases of different age and sex using semithin sections of epon-embedded cross sections from the C3, T5, and T10 segments of the spinal cord. A bimodal fiber spectrum was revealed with one peak at 2-3 microns, and a second, broader peak at about 6-8 microns. Fiber density at C3 was 11,188 fibers/mm2 and at T5, 11,156 fibers/mm2. Regression analysis relating fiber density to age disclosed a highly significant loss of myelinated fibers at T5 amounting to about 2.5% per decade. A severe reduction of fiber density and a distinct change in the fiber spectrum with predominant loss of large myelinated fibers were noted in a case of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar atrophy with late onset, and, to a lesser degree, in a case of Huntington's chorea. A subtotal loss of fibers with a persistent normal distribution of fiber sizes was observed rostral to a focus of severe radiation myelopathy, indicating Wallerian degeneration of large numbers of fibers, and a reduction of fiber diameters caudal to the lesion, suggesting retrograde fiber change. By contrast, no primary or transneural changes in the DSCT were detected in six cases of long-term alcoholism, carcinomatous sensory neuropathy, and neurofibromatosis in spite of the involvement of numerous nerve roots.

  4. [Cervical myelopathy from an aspect of a neurological surgeon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T

    1994-12-01

    More than 65 per cent of intramedurally tumors and intradural extramedurally tumors were located in cervical region. They enact a cause of cervical myelopathy. A special attention should be paid to solitaly intramedurally vascular malformations, when the patients show an acute progressive myelopathy. In very rare cases of syringomyelia, intramedurally tumors such as hemangioblastoma or ependymoma could be found, so that enhanced MRI or angiography should be done if necessary. In cases of a herniated disc, cervical spondylosis and OPLL, the distance between articulo-pillar line and spinolaminal line must be measured. If the distance of both lines is near or the same, that means narrow cervical canal. In rare cases the form of the vertebral body is round. This is a rare cause of a type of narrow canal.

  5. Radiation transport: Progress report, July 1, 1987-September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, R.D.; Nagy, A.

    1988-05-01

    Research and development progress in radiation transport for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Group S-6 for the fourth quarter of FY 87 is reported. Included are unclassified tasks in the areas of Deterministic Radiation Transport, Monte Carlo Radiation Transport, and Cross Sections and Physics. 23 refs., 9 figs

  6. Studies of radiation and chemical toxicity. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Annual report for the Studies of Radiation and Chemical Toxicity Program at the University of Rochester is presented. Progress is reported on four projects: Neurobehavorial Toxicity of Organometallic Fuel Additives, Mechanisms of Permanent and Delayed Pathologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Solid State Radiation Chemistry of the DNA Backbone, and Pulmonary Biochemistry

  7. The treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Wangyang; Liu Yulong

    2009-01-01

    Radiation dermatitis is often seen and is often a complication of radiation therapy of tumors. It is characterized by poor healing, stubborn relapse, and carcinogenesis.. The treatment include drug, physical therapy and surgery. This article describes the treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure. (authors)

  8. Research progress on space radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjian; Dang Bingrong; Wang Zhuanzi; Wei Wei; Jing Xigang; Wang Biqian; Zhang Bintuan

    2010-01-01

    Space radiation, particularly induced by the high-energy charged particles, may cause serious injury on living organisms. So it is one critical restriction factor in Manned Spaceflight. Studies have shown that the biological effects of charged particles were associated with their quality, the dose and the different biological end points. In addition, the microgravity conditions may affect the biological effects of space radiation. In this paper we give a review on the biological damage effects of space radiation and the combined biological effects of the space radiation coupled with the microgravity from the results of space flight and ground simulation experiments. (authors)

  9. Progress in radiation processing of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Ahmed, Shamshad

    2005-07-01

    Modification in polymeric structure of plastic material can be brought either by conventional chemical means or by exposure to ionization radiation from ether radioactive sources or highly accelerated electrons. The prominent drawbacks of chemical cross-linking typically involve the generation of noxious fumes and by products of peroxide degradation. Both the irradiation sources have their merits and limitations. Increased utilization of electron beams for modification and enhancement of polymer materials has been in particular witnessed over the past 40 years. The paper highlights several recent cases of EB utilization to improve key properties of selected plastic products. In paper is provided a survey of radiation processing methods of industrial interest, encompassing technologies which are already commercially well established, through developments in the active R&D stage which show pronounced promise for future commercial use. Radiation cross-linking technologies discussed include: application in cable and wire, application in rubber tyres, radiation vulcanization of rubber latex, development of radiation crosslinked SiC fiber, polymer recycling, development of gamma compatible pp, hydrogels etc. Over the years, remarkable advancement has been achieved in radiation processing of natural polymers. Role of radiation in improving the processing of temperature of PCL for use as biodegradable polymer, in accelerated breakdown of cellulose into viscose and enhancement in yields of chitin/chitosan from sea-food waste, is described.

  10. Progress in radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Ahmed, Shamshad

    2005-01-01

    Modification in polymeric structure of plastic material can be brought either by conventional chemical means or by exposure to ionization radiation from ether radioactive sources or highly accelerated electrons. The prominent drawbacks of chemical cross-linking typically involve the generation of noxious fumes and by products of peroxide degradation. Both the irradiation sources have their merits and limitations. Increased utilization of electron beams for modification and enhancement of polymer materials has been in particular witnessed over the past 40 years. The paper highlights several recent cases of EB utilization to improve key properties of selected plastic products. In paper is provided a survey of radiation processing methods of industrial interest, encompassing technologies which are already commercially well established, through developments in the active R and D stage which show pronounced promise for future commercial use. Radiation cross-linking technologies discussed include: application in cable and wire, application in rubber tyres, radiation vulcanization of rubber latex, development of radiation crosslinked SiC fiber, polymer recycling, development of gamma compatible pp, hydrogels etc. Over the years, remarkable advancement has been achieved in radiation processing of natural polymers. Role of radiation in improving the processing of temperature of PCL for use as biodegradable polymer, in accelerated breakdown of cellulose into viscose and enhancement in yields of chitin/chitosan from sea-food waste, is described

  11. Progress in radiation processing of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Wagramer Street 5, Vienna 1400 (Austria) and Department of Process and Chemical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: a-g.chmielewski@iaea.org; Haji-Saeid, Mohammad [International Atomic Energy Agency, Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Wagramer Street 5, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Ahmed, Shamshad [Applied Chemistry Laboratories, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Box Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2005-07-01

    Modification in polymeric structure of plastic material can be brought either by conventional chemical means or by exposure to ionization radiation from ether radioactive sources or highly accelerated electrons. The prominent drawbacks of chemical cross-linking typically involve the generation of noxious fumes and by products of peroxide degradation. Both the irradiation sources have their merits and limitations. Increased utilization of electron beams for modification and enhancement of polymer materials has been in particular witnessed over the past 40 years. The paper highlights several recent cases of EB utilization to improve key properties of selected plastic products. In paper is provided a survey of radiation processing methods of industrial interest, encompassing technologies which are already commercially well established, through developments in the active R and D stage which show pronounced promise for future commercial use. Radiation cross-linking technologies discussed include: application in cable and wire, application in rubber tyres, radiation vulcanization of rubber latex, development of radiation crosslinked SiC fiber, polymer recycling, development of gamma compatible pp, hydrogels etc. Over the years, remarkable advancement has been achieved in radiation processing of natural polymers. Role of radiation in improving the processing of temperature of PCL for use as biodegradable polymer, in accelerated breakdown of cellulose into viscose and enhancement in yields of chitin/chitosan from sea-food waste, is described.

  12. Year of progress for radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesrobian, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    New developments in ultraviolet and electron beam curing of inks and coatings are reviewed. Current installations of radiation systems are noted. An assessment is presented on raw and intermediate materials availability. Current outlook on such problems as toxicity (FDA and OSHA), residual volatiles, materials cost, adhesion and flow-out of coatings is discussed. The future potential for radiation curing systems is contrasted with that of other systems, in view of EPA requirements

  13. Radiation transport. Progress report, April 1-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, R.D.

    1984-10-01

    Research and development progress in radiation transport by the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Group X-6 for the last nine months of CY 83 is reported. Included are unclassified tasks in the areas of Fission Reactor Neutronics, Deterministic Transport Methods, Monte Carlo Radiation Transport, and Cross Sections and Physics

  14. The progress of molecular biology in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Kang

    1989-01-01

    The recent progress in application of molecular biology techniques in the study of radiation biology is reviewed. The three sections are as follows: (1) the study of DNA damage on molecular level, (2) the molecular mechanism of radiation cell genetics, including chromosome abberation and cell mutation, (3) the study on DNA repair gene with DNA mediated gene transfer techniques

  15. Progresses in studies on radiation treatment of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Min; Shen Zhongqun; Yang Ruiyuan; Ma Hongjuan; Zhao Jun; Wang Wenfeng

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives a review on recent progresses in E-beam purification of flue gases, radiation degra- dation of volatile organic compounds, and radiation treatment of sewerage and industrial wastewater. And research activities in this area at Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics are given in particular details. (authors)

  16. Etiological profile of noncompressive myelopathies in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Kayal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discovery of antibodies against aquaporin-4 and evolving concepts of noncompressive myelopathies in the 21st century have made a major impact on the etiological profile of these diseases, with few cases turning out to be idiopathic. Objective: To find causes of noncompressive myelopathy in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India. Materials and Methods: An observational study was carried out in the Neurology Department of Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, from September 2013 to February 2016. Patients of noncompressive myelopathies who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the spine were segregated into two categories: acute-to-subacute myelopathy (ASM and chronic myelopathy (CM. In addition to routine blood tests, chest X-ray, urinalysis, and visual evoked potentials, investigations included MRI of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and immunological, infectious, and metabolic profile based on the pattern of involvement. Results: The study had 151 patients (96 ASM and 55 CM with a median age of 35 years and male: female ratio 1.4:1. The causes of ASM were neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (23, multiple sclerosis (MS (8, systemic lupus erythematosus (1, Hashimoto's disease (1, postinfectious acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (6, postinfectious myelitis (8, infections (9, spinal cord infarct (5, and electrocution (1. The causes of CM were MS (1, probable or possible sarcoidosis (7, mixed connective tissue disease (1, Hashimoto's disease (2, infections (9, Vitamin B12deficiency (4, folate deficiency (2, hepatic myelopathy (2, radiation (11, and paraneoplastic (1. No etiology could be found in 48 (31.8% patients (34 ASM and 14 CM. In 21/96 (21.9% patients of ASM, acute transverse myelitis was idiopathic based on current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion: Underlying etiology (demyelinating, autoimmune, infectious, vascular, metabolic disorder, or physical agent was found in 68% patients of noncompressive

  17. Progress and prospects in labour radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, G.M.; Tarasenko, N.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Stages of the development of radiation hygiene as a branch of hygienic science from 1940-1950 till now are being analyzed. The results and major research trends are presented. During the period under consideration the sanitary legislation was developed and important activity on setting up safety standards for ionizing raiation carried out

  18. Progress in identification of radiation embrittlement mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This report outlines recent advances in the isolation and understanding of mechanisms behind known composition influences on he radiation embrittlement sensitivity of reactor pressure vessel steels at 288 deg. C. The advances are largely the product of joint investigations by Materials Engineering Associates (MEA) and other laboratories in the U.S. and overseas under cooperative and subcontract arrangements. Specific objectives were: confirmation of the suspect Cu mechanism, identification of the process for the Cu:Ni synergism, and isolation of the P mechanism in radiation sensitivity development. The investigations proceeded with MEA-supplied steels and iron alloys from 4-way split laboratory melts; research tools included Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Ion Microscopy (FIM), Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), Positron Annihilation (PA) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Experimental results show that P and Cu enhance the radiation elevation of yield strength and that the associated mechanisms are a radiation-induced precipitation of P or Cu-rich clusters which impede dislocation motion. With high Cu alloys, a Cu phosphide is formed in preference to P precipitates and the P contribution is greatly reduced. Effects of postirradiation annealing and reirradiation are also reported. (author)

  19. Progress report: 1996 Radiation Safety Systems Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.; Mehta, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The activities of Radiation Safety Systems Division include (i) development of specialised monitoring systems and radiation safety information network, (ii) radiation hazards control at the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the radioisotope programmes at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and for the accelerators programme at BARC and Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore. The systems on which development and upgradation work was carried out during the year included aerial gamma spectrometer, automated environment monitor using railway network, radioisotope package monitor and air monitors for tritium and alpha active aerosols. Other R and D efforts at the division included assessment of risk for radiation exposures and evaluation of ICRP 60 recommendations in the Indian context, shielding evaluation and dosimetry for the new upcoming accelerator facilities and solid state nuclear track detector techniques for neutron measurements. The expertise of the divisional members was provided for 36 safety committees of BARC and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Twenty three publications were brought out during the year 1996. (author)

  20. Progress in medical radiation physics. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    This book is the first of a series that will provide in-depth reviews of new developments in medical radiation physics. This volume is directed toward application scientists who are involved with research in this field. Six chapters review current topics in medical radiation physics. The first chapter reviews neutron dosimetry for biomedical applications. The second chapter briefly surveys current tissue inhomogeneity corrections in proton-beam treatment planning. Chapter three deals with anthropomorphic phantom materials. It includes a useful table of recommended tissue substitutes and information on manufacturing. The fourth chapter reviews applications of computed tomography (CT) in radiotherapy treatment planning. Chapter five is a short introduction to positron imaging. The last chapter describes optical methods for radiograph storage

  1. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expanded applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Reference systems also include a number of chemical dose meters: ferrous sulphate, ferrous-cupric sulphate, and ceric sulphate acidic aqueous solutions. Requirements for stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: amino acids and saccharides analysed by ESR or lyoluminescence, thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes and plastics, ceric-cerous solutions analysed by potentiometry, and ethanol-chlorobenzene solutions analysed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dose meters are also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA programme of high-dose standardization and intercomparison for industrial radiation processing is described. (author)

  2. Remission of HIV-associated myelopathy after highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Fernandez F

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-associated myelopathy is the leading cause of spinal cord disease in HIV-infected patients. Typically, it affects individuals with low CD4 T cell counts, presenting with slowly progressive spastic paraparesis associated with dorsal column sensory loss as well as urinary disturbances. Other aetiologies must be first ruled out before establishing the diagnosis. We report here the case of a 37-year-old woman with advanced HIV disease, who developed HIV-associated myelopathy. The patient showed a gradual improvement after beginning with highly active antiretroviral therapy and, finally, she achieved a complete functional recovery. In addition, neuroimaging and neurophysiological tests normalized.

  3. Experimental data for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in prevention of radiation myelopathy; Experimentelle Daten zum Einsatz von Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) und Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) zur Praevention einer Strahlenmyelopathie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Price, R.E.; Rivera, B. [The Univ. of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery; Andratschke, N.; Kian Ang, K. [The Univ. of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Experimental Radiation Oncology

    2002-03-01

    Background: Current models of radiation myelopathy provide a rationale for growth factor-based prevention strategies. Thus, we tested whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) alone or in combination modulate radiation tolerance of the rat cervical spinal cord. Materials and Methods: The cervical spinal cord of 68 adult Fisher F344 rats received a total dose of 30-36 Gy, given as a single fraction of 16 Gy followed by a second radiation dose of 14-20 Gy. Continuous intrathecal infusion of bFGF (44 rats) or saline (24 rats) into the cisterna magna was given concomitantly. A further experiment included 14 additional rats which were treated with subcutaneous injection of IGF-1 parallel to irradiation with a total dose of 34 Gy or 36 Gy. 20 rats received combined treatment, i.e. intrathecal infusion of bFGF plus subcutaneous injection of IGF-1, starting 24 hours before irradiation (total dose 33 Gy or 36 Gy) for a total of 4 days. Animals were followed until myelopathy developed or for a maximum of 12 months. Histopathologic examinations were performed post mortem. Results: Treatment with bFGF alone or IGF-1 alone increased the median time to myelopathy significantly. In the 36-Gy group, after combination treatment a comparable prolongation of latency was seen. Moreover, rats treated with 33 Gy and combined bFGF plus IGF-1 showed a significantly reduced risk of myelopathy, too (p = 0.0015). (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Aktuelle Modelle zur Pathogenese der Strahlenmyelopathie lassen den praeventiven Einsatz von Wachstumsfaktoren sinnvoll erscheinen. Daher sollte ueberprueft werden, ob Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) und Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) als Einzelsubstanzen oder in Kombination die Strahlentoleranz des zervikalen Rueckenmarks von Ratten beeinflussen. Material und Methoden: Das Zervikalmark von 68 erwachsenen Fisher-F344-Ratten wurde mit zwei Einzelfraktionen bis insgesamt 30-36 Gy bestrahlt (16 Gy

  4. Vertebral Arteriovenous Fistula Presenting as Cervical Myelopathy: A Rapid Recovery with Balloon Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Manish; Bapuraj, J. Rajiv; Lal, Anupam; Prabhakar, S.; Khandelwal, N.

    2010-01-01

    A 24-year-old male presented with progressive cervical myelopathy of 2 months' duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and angiography revealed a large arteriovenous fistula arising from the left vertebral artery. The present case highlights the clinical features and dramatic recovery following endovascular balloon occlusion of a giant cervical arteriovenous fistula.

  5. Progress in radiation immune thermionic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of a program directed at evaluating the thermionic integrated circuit (TIC) technology for applicability to military systems. Previous programs under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, have developed an initial TIC technology base and demonstrated operation in high-temperature and high-radiation environments. The program described in this report has two parts: (1) a technical portion in which experiments and analyses were conducted to refine perceptions of near-term as well as ultimate performance levels of the TIC technology and (2) an applications portion in which the technical conclusions were to be evaluated against potential military applications. This report draws several conclusions that strongly suggest that (1) useful radiation-hard/high-temperature operable integrated circuits can be developed using the TIC technology; (2) because of their ability to survive and operate in hostile environments, a variety of potential military applications have been projected for this technology; and (3) based on the above two conclusions, an aggressive TIC development program should be initiated to provide the designers of future systems with integrated circuits and devices with the unique features of the TICs

  6. Progress in radiation immune thermionic integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B. (comps.)

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of a program directed at evaluating the thermionic integrated circuit (TIC) technology for applicability to military systems. Previous programs under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, have developed an initial TIC technology base and demonstrated operation in high-temperature and high-radiation environments. The program described in this report has two parts: (1) a technical portion in which experiments and analyses were conducted to refine perceptions of near-term as well as ultimate performance levels of the TIC technology and (2) an applications portion in which the technical conclusions were to be evaluated against potential military applications. This report draws several conclusions that strongly suggest that (1) useful radiation-hard/high-temperature operable integrated circuits can be developed using the TIC technology; (2) because of their ability to survive and operate in hostile environments, a variety of potential military applications have been projected for this technology; and (3) based on the above two conclusions, an aggressive TIC development program should be initiated to provide the designers of future systems with integrated circuits and devices with the unique features of the TICs.

  7. Chemical and radiation carcinogenesis. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Gamma radiation, as a quantitative perturbation reference, has been related to oxygen toxicity as the unavoidable background risk due to living in an oxygen atmosphere. The basic mechanisms shared by gamma irradiation and oxygen toxicity have been studied. The response to these two perturbations has been characterized at the molecular level through DNA chemistry and monoclonal antibodies, and by cellular biological responses. The investigation of cellular responses is being extended to the molecular level through a study of alteration of gene arrangement and gene expression. Concentration has been on the study of the involvement of the evolutionally conserved repetitive DNA sequences shared by hamster and man. Such sequences were found and some have been isolated in plasmids. Two cellular systems were chosen for investigation, the embryonic/adult mesenchymal system and the hematopoietic tissues system. Concentration has been on the isolation, properties, and response to perturbation of the progenitor cells and the stem cell populations

  8. MR findings of subacute necrotizing myelopathy: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Jip; Kim, Chong Jai; Chi, Je G.

    1994-01-01

    Subacute necrotizing myelopathy(SNM) is a rare non-tumorous disease of spinal cord characterized by subacute clinical course of progressive neurological deterioration. We report MR findings of a patient with pathologically proved SNM. 1 case of pathologically proved subacute necrotizing myelopathy. The patients was a 56-year-old man with progressive motor weakness and sensory loss of the lower extremities, and urinary and fecal incontinence for 11 months. Spine MRI revealed diffuse enlargement of the thoracic spinal cord from T2 to T7 level. Signal intensity of the expanded spinal cord was isointense relative to normal cord on T1-weighted image and hyperintense on proton-density and T2-weighted images. On contrast enhanced T1-weighted image, there was diffuse homogeneous enhancement in the expanded cord lesion. MR demonstration of stable persistence of spinal cord lesion or atrophy over months or years with clinical findings of gradual progressive neurologic deterioration may be helpful in the diagnosis of SNM

  9. Subacute copper-deficiency myelopathy in a patient with occult celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallieri, Francesco; Fini, Nicola; Contardi, Sara; Fiorini, Massimo; Corradini, Elena; Valzania, Franco

    2017-07-01

    Acquired copper deficiency represents a rare cause of progressive myelopathy presenting with sensory ataxia and spastic gait. The time interval from neurological symptoms onset to diagnosis of myelopathy ranges from 2 months to several years in almost all cases, mimicking the clinical course of subacute combined degeneration due to vitamin B12 deficiency. A 60-year-old man, without any gastrointestinal symptoms, developed over the course of one week rapidly progressive gait imbalance, tingling and numbness in his feet and ascending lower limb weakness. Spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintensity involving cervical and dorsal posterior columns of spinal cord. Blood analysis revealed undetectable serum copper levels, low serum ceruloplasmin and positive serum Immunoglobulin A anti-tissue transglutaminase. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed revealing duodenal villous atrophy consistent with a malabsorption pattern. A gluten-free diet in association with intravenous then oral copper supplementation prompted sustained normalization of serum copper levels and progressive clinical improvement. We report a rare case of myelopathy induced by copper deficiency secondary to undiagnosed celiac disease, peculiarly presenting with a subacute onset. This case expands the neurological presentation and clinical course of myelopathy due to acquired copper deficiency. We suggest investigation of copper deficiency in patients presenting with subacute or even acute sensory ataxia and spastic gait. Detection of hypocupremia in patients without a previous history of gastric surgery should lead to diagnostic testing for celiac disease even in the absence of any obvious gastrointestinal symptoms.

  10. Recent progress with the Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Froidevaux, D

    Start-up of end-cap assembly in Russia On July 2nd at PNPI (first photo) and on August 1st at JINR Dubna (second photo), the first straws were inserted into the first 4-plane end-cap wheels, each containing 3072 straws. The straws were glued, the radiator stacks were installed and the PNPI wheel was tested for gas leaks. An initial large leak rate was observed and fixed by increasing somewhat the amount of glue around each straw end-piece and improving the leak-tightness of the testing equipment itself. PNPI will assemble a total of 48 4-plane wheels of type A using two assembly lines. JINR Dubna will assemble a total of 32 4-plane wheels of type B using a single assembly line. The next steps are the gluing of the so-called active webs (printed circuit boards connecting high voltage and signal lines from straw/wire to HV supply and front-end boards), followed by wiring, and will take place in November. PNPI and JINR Dubna should start mass production in February-March next year. Barrel module produc...

  11. Dosimetric analysis of varying cord planning organ at risk volume in spine stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Owen, MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Current guidelines may overestimate the risk of myelopathy from spine SBRT. The current study's population included both radiation-naïve and retreatment cases, but no myelopathy was observed despite exceeding recommended spine limits.

  12. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 29 papers in this progress report which deal with radiobiological physics, the biological effects of ionizing radiations, and the modification of these effects by chemical and pharmacological agents

  13. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1984-November 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, H.H.

    1985-07-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Radiological Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Columbia University. The report consists of 17 individual reports plus an overall summary. Reports survey research results in neutron dosimetry, microdosimetry of electron beams and x-radiation, development of theoretical models for biological radiation effects and induction of oncogenic transformations. Individual abstracts were also prepared for each paper

  14. Hepatic Myelopathy in a Patient with Decompensated Alcoholic Cirrhosis and Portal Colopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrhotic or hepatic myelopathy is a rare neurological complication of chronic liver disease usually seen in adults and presents as a progressive pure motor spastic paraparesis which is usually associated with overt liver failure and a surgical or spontaneous systemic portocaval shunt. We describe the development of progressive spastic paraparesis, in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis with portal hypertension and portal colopathy who presented with the first episode of hepatic encephalopathy. The patient had not undergone any shunt procedure.

  15. Forecasting of Radiation Belts: Results From the PROGRESS Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Arber, T. D.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Walker, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting of Radiation Belts: Results from the PROGRESS Project. The overall goal of the PROGRESS project, funded in frame of EU Horizon2020 programme, is to combine first principles based models with the systems science methodologies to achieve reliable forecasts of the geo-space particle radiation environment.The PROGRESS incorporates three themes : The propagation of the solar wind to L1, Forecast of geomagnetic indices, and forecast of fluxes of energetic electrons within the magnetosphere. One of the important aspects of the PROGRESS project is the development of statistical wave models for magnetospheric waves that affect the dynamics of energetic electrons such as lower band chorus, hiss and equatorial noise. The error reduction ratio (ERR) concept has been used to optimise the set of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters for organisation of statistical wave models for these emissions. The resulting sets of parameters and statistical wave models will be presented and discussed. However the ERR analysis also indicates that the combination of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters accounts for only part of the variance of the emissions under investigation (lower band chorus, hiss and equatorial noise). In addition, advances in the forecast of fluxes of energetic electrons, exploiting empirical models and the first principles IMPTAM model achieved by the PROGRESS project is presented.

  16. Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy: demographics, clinical presentation, and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brittany J; Batterson, Anna M; Luetmer, Marianne T; Reeves, Ronald K

    2018-05-25

    Retrospective cohort study. To describe the demographics, clinical presentation, and functional outcomes of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCEM). Academic inpatient rehabilitation unit in the midwestern United States. We retrospectively searched our database to identify patients admitted between January 1, 1995 and March 31, 2016, with a high probability of FCEM. Demographic, clinical, and functional outcome measures, including Functional Independence Measure (FIM) information was obtained by chart review. We identified 31 patients with findings suggestive of FCEM (52% male), which was 2% of the nontraumatic spinal cord injury population admitted to inpatient rehabilitation. The age distribution was bimodal, with peaks in the second and sixth-to-seventh decades. The most common clinical presentation was acute pain and rapid progression of neurologic deficits consistent with a vascular myelopathy. Only three patients (10%) had FCEM documented as a diagnostic possibility. Most patients had paraplegia and neurologically incomplete injuries and were discharged to home. Nearly half of the patients required no assistive device for bladder management at discharge, but most were discharged with medications for bowel management. Median FIM walking locomotion score for all patients was 5, but most patients were discharged using a wheelchair for primary mobility. Median motor FIM subscale score was 36 at admission and 69 at discharge, with a median motor efficiency of 1.41. FCEM may be underdiagnosed and should be considered in those with the appropriate clinical presentation, because their functional outcomes may be more favorable than those with other causes of spinal cord infarction.

  17. Cervical Fusion for Absent Pedicle Syndrome Manifesting with Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C Rory; Desai, Atman; Khattab, Mohamed H; Elder, Benjamin D; Bydon, Ali; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul

    2016-02-01

    Absent congenital pedicle syndrome is a posterior arch defect characterized by numerous congenital and mechanical abnormalities that result from disconnection of the anterior and posterior columns of the spinal canal. Absent congenital pedicle syndrome is a rare anomaly that is most commonly diagnosed incidentally, after evaluation of minor trauma, or after complaints of chronic neck pain. We report a case of absent congenital pedicle syndrome in a patient who presented with myelopathy and lower extremity weakness and review the literature on the surgical management of this entity. A 32-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus presented to the Neurosurgery Service with progressive weakness in her upper and lower extremities, clonus, and hyperreflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed congenital absence of the pedicles of C2, C3, C4, C5, and C6 with a congenitally narrow canal at C4-5. The patient underwent a staged anterior and posterior cervical decompression and fusion. She was placed in a halo after surgery; at the 1-year follow-up, she was ambulatory with demonstrated improvement in weakness and fusion of her cervical spine. Absent congenital pedicle syndrome is rare, and most reported cases were treated conservatively. Surgical management is reserved for patients with myelopathy or instability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Progress in reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Studies for reassessment of A-bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are underway in both Japan and the US. The progress made in various reassessment studies has been reported at several US-Japan joint workshops. The medical follow-up studies by the RERF provide data on dose-related parameters such as the location of the survivors and their shielding by surrounding structures at the times of the bombings. To make accurate estimates of the radiation dose for individual survivors in the two cities, they need reliable information concerning (a) the hypocenters and burst heights of the bombs, (b) the energy yields of the bombs and the source terms for the initial radiations from the bombs, (c) the atmospheric radiation transport to determine the initial radiation fields at the location of the survivors, (d) the attenuation factors for shielding afforded by structures and terrain, and (e) the shielding of specific organs by overlying tissues of the body. A computer code combining the above elements has been installed at the RERF and used in a preliminary reassessment of radiation doses to survivors who were indoors, shielded by houses at the times of the bombings. These results will be presented and discussed. The discussions will be focused, however, on specific areas where binational agreement has been reached and on specific areas where additional work is needed before the reassessment can be considered final

  19. Research progress in airborne surveys of terrestrial gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Z.G.

    1974-01-01

    Progress during the last few years in airborne surveys of terrestrial gamma radiation, i.e. in the measuring, recording, and interpreting of gamma ray signals in NaI(Tl) crystals, is discussed. Non-terrestrial background contributions have been accurately characterized. The feasibility of determining the water equivalent of snow cover by aerial survey techniques has been demonstrated. Repeat surveys over areas surrounding reactor sites can now be used to detect average differences of less than 1.0 μR/hr in terrestrial gamma radiation levels. New data acquisition and recording systems allow isotope concentrations and total inventories to be measured in spatial resolutions of a few hundred feet. Aerial survey data have been combined with population distribution data to obtain population exposure values from natural terrestrial gamma radiation around reactor sites

  20. Technological progress in radiation therapy for brain tumors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vernimmen, Frederik Jozef

    2014-01-01

    To achieve a good therapeutic ratio the radiation dose to the tumor should be as high as possible with the lowest possible dose to the surrounding normal tissue. This is especially the case for brain tumors. Technological ad- vancements in diagnostic imaging, dose calculations, and radiation delivery systems, combined with a better un- derstanding of the pathophysiology of brain tumors have led to improvements in the therapeutic results. The widely used technology of delivering 3-D conformal therapy with photon beams (gamma rays) produced by Li-near Accelerators has progressed into the use of Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Particle beams have been used for several decades for radiotherapy because of their favorable depth dose characteristics. The introduction of clinically dedicated proton beam therapy facilities has improved the access for cancer patients to this treatment. Proton therapy is of particular interest for pediatric malignancies. These technical improvements are further enhanced by the evolution in tumor physiology imaging which allows for improved delineation of the tumor. This in turn opens the potential to adjust the radiation dose to maximize the radiobiological effects. The advances in both imaging and radiation therapy delivery will be discussed.

  1. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  2. Progress on clustered DNA damage in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Li'na; Zhang Hong; Di Cuixia; Zhang Qiuning; Wang Xiaohu

    2012-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage which caused by high LET heavy ion radiation can lead to mutation, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. Promoting apoptosis of cancer cells is always the basis of cancer treatment. Clustered DNA damage has been the hot topic in radiobiology. The detect method is diversity, but there is not a detail and complete protocol to analyze clustered DNA damage. In order to provide reference for clustered DNA damage in the radiotherapy study, the clustered DNA damage characteristics, the latest progresses on clustered DNA damage and the detecting methods are reviewed and discussed in detail in this paper. (authors)

  3. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Locally Progressive and Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer after Prior Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Sutera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy that has consistently demonstrated poor outcomes despite aggressive treatments. Despite multimodal treatment, local disease progression and local recurrence are common. Management of recurrent or progressive pancreatic carcinomas proves a further challenge. In patients previously treated with radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT is a promising modality capable of delivering high dose to the tumor while limiting dose to critical structures. We aimed to determine the feasibility and tolerability of SBRT for recurrent or local pancreatic cancer in patients previously treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT.Materials and methodsPatients treated with EBRT who developed recurrent or local pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treated with SBRT reirradiation at our institution, from 2004 to 2014 were reviewed. Our primary endpoints included overall survival (OS, local control, regional control, and late grade 3+ radiation toxicity. Endpoints were analyzed with the Kaplan–Meier method. The association of these survival endpoints with risk factors was studied with univariate Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsWe identified 38 patients with recurrent/progressive pancreatic cancer treated with SBRT following prior radiation therapy. Prior radiation was delivered to a median dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. SBRT was delivered to a median dose of 24.5 Gy in 1–3 fractions. Surgical resection was performed on 55.3% of all patients. Within a median follow-up of 24.4 months (inter-quartile range, 14.9–32.7 months, the median OS from diagnosis for the entire cohort was 26.6 months (95% CI: 20.3–29.8 with 2-year OS of 53.0%. Median survival from SBRT was 9.7 months (95% CI, 5.5–13.8. The 2-year freedom from local progression and regional progression was 58 and 82%, respectively. For the entire cohort, 18.4 and 10.5% experienced late grade 2

  4. CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY WITH FUNCTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen of them complained about neck pain-8, brachialgia-3 or paresthesia-2. All patients presented various progressive spinal cord lesions (tetraparesis: 13, paraparesis: 4, tetraplegia: 1). They had also spasticity. Anterior approach were performed in the 18 cases. The average follow-up was 6.9 years. Results: All ...

  5. Imaging Modalities for Cervical Spondylotic Stenosis and Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Green

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylosis is a spectrum of pathology presenting as neck pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy or all in combination. Diagnostic imaging is essential to diagnosis and preoperative planning. We discuss the modalities of imaging in common practice. We examine the use of imaging to differentiate among central, subarticular, and lateral stenosis and in the assessment of myelopathy.

  6. Progress in the development of a tracking transition radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.S.; Beatty, J.; Shank, J.T.; Wilson, R.J.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Radeka, V.; Stephani, D.; Beker, H.; Bock, R.K.; Botlo, M.; Fabjan, C.W.; Pfennig, J.; Price, M.J.; Willis, W.J.; Akesson, T.; Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Nevsky, P.; Potekhin, M.; Romanjuk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Gavrilenko, I.; Maiburov, S.; Muravjev, S.; Shmeleva, A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the TRD/Tracker is to provide charged particle tracking in the r-z plane and to provide particle identification capabilities that are independent of and complementary to calorimetric methods. The tracking goals include observation of the charged particle multiplicity and topology, reconstruction of the primary vertex or vertices, and assignment of charged particles to the correct vertex. Particle identification goals include the independent validation of electron candidates selected by calorimetric signatures, the rejection of false electron candidates that rise from accidental overlaps of low momentum charged particles with photon-induced electromagnetic showers in the calorimeter, and the identification of electrons arising from Dalitz decays or from photon conversions. The authors report on progress towards the development of an integrated transition radiation detector and charged particle tracker. Mechanical design and simulation of a detector has been pursued; a prototype device with 240 channels has been constructed and tested. Innovative construction techniques have been developed

  7. Recent Progress of the Synchrotron Radiation Calculation Code SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, H.

    2007-01-01

    SPECTRA is a computer software to calculate optical properties of synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted by electrons passing through magnetic devices such as bending magnets, wigglers and undulators. It has been used to design various devices in the SR beamline, such as high heat-load components in the front-end section and optical elements in the optics hutch. In addition, the electron beam quality can be estimated by comparison between the measured and calculated properties of SR. Since the first announcement, numerous improvements have been made to SPECTRA to achieve less computation time with higher numerical accuracy. In addition, a number of functions have been added to follow the user's demand. In this paper, recent progress of SPECTRA is presented and details of the new functions are explained together with several examples

  8. Progress in radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    Vulcanization dose defined as the radiation dose at which cross-linked natural rubber in latex has the maximum tensile strength can be reduced by adding carbon tetrachloride as a reaction accelerator. The radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex was selected as one of regional projects of IAEA in 1989 and a pilot plant was built in Jakarta. The products from it were evaluated during 1983-1985, followed by IAEA decision to support the continued R and D study at Takasaki, JAERI. Various factors to improve the properties of the products have been studied. Several advantages of the process over conventional method, such as absence of N-nitrosoamines, low cytotoxicity, decomposability in the environment, transparency and softness, were confirmed. The technology has been transferred toward commercial application in Thailand, and pilot plants being set up in Indonesia, India, Malaysia and Thailand. Moreover, the process was found to be effective in reducing protein remaining in natural rubber latex products and the initial investment and irradiation cost was found to be greatly reduced by employing low energy electron accelerator. This paper reviews such progress. (S. Ohno)

  9. Inadvertent destruction of the spinal cord by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhavilai, D.

    1974-01-01

    A case of radiation myelopathy following cobalt therapy of a carcinoma of the esophagus is presented. A permanent quadriplegia resulted. Radiation myelopathy can result from treatment with x-rays or radioactive cobalt regardless of whether the condition being treated involves the spinal cord. No effective treatment is known. Prevention requires keeping the radiation at low level

  10. Exploiting Novel Radiation-Induced Electromagnetic Material Changes for Remote Detection and Monitoring: Final Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Exploiting Novel Radiation -Induced Electromagnetic Material Changes for Remote Detection and Monitoring: Final Progress Report Distribution...assess the effects of ionizing radiation on at least three classes of electromagnetic materials. The proposed approach for radiation detection was...that was desired to be monitored remotely. Microwave or low millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation would be used to interrogate the device

  11. Surfer's myelopathy: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegovic, Amna; Strachan-Jackman, Shirley; Carr, David

    2011-09-01

    Nontraumatic spinal cord injury from surfing is a new entity first described in 2004 and likely of ischemic etiology. We report the case of a 25-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of lower extremity weakness after surfing in Indonesia. The patient reported developing low back pain, lower extremity weakness, sensory changes, and urinary retention shortly after his first surfing lesson. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with surfer's myelopathy. The purpose of this report is to review the clinical presentation, etiology, risk factors, and management of this increasingly described entity.

  12. Evaluation of idiopathic transverse myelitis revealing specific myelopathy diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Nicholas L; Flanagan, Eoin P; Keegan, B Mark

    2018-01-09

    To evaluate specific myelopathy diagnoses made in patients with suspected idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM). A total of 226 patients 18 years and older were referred to Mayo Clinic Neurology for suspected ITM from December 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015. Electronic medical records were reviewed for detailed clinical presentation and course, laboratory and electrophysiologic investigations, and neuroimaging to determine the etiology. Current diagnostic criteria for ITM and alternative myelopathy diagnoses were applied. All cases where any discrepancy was suspected from the final reported clinical diagnosis were reviewed by each author and a consensus final diagnosis was made. The diagnostic criteria for ITM were met in 41 of 226 patients (18.1%). In 158 patients (69.9%), an alternative specific myelopathy diagnosis was made: multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome, 75; vascular myelopathy, 41; neurosarcoidosis, 12; neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, 12; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein myelopathy, 5; neoplastic, 4; compressive, 3; nutritional, 3; infectious, 2; and other, 2. A myelopathy was not confirmed in 27 patients. Time from symptom onset to final clinical diagnosis in patients without ITM was a median of 9 months (range 0-288). Fifty-five patients (24%) required treatment changes according to their final clinical diagnosis. The majority of patients with suspected ITM have an alternative specific myelopathy diagnosis. A presumptive diagnosis of ITM can lead to premature diagnostic conclusions affecting patient treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Progress report: nuclear safety and radiation protection in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    For the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Asn), the year 2006 was marked by two important nuclear laws being passed, one of which brought about a major change in its status. The year was a relatively satisfactory one with regard to nuclear safety, although the picture was more contrasted concerning radiation protection: in this area, more particularly in the medical field, the overall impression of good progress is offset by the declaration of a number of radiotherapy accidents. Given the benefits expected from radiotherapy treatment by the patient suffering from cancer, the conditions in which this activity is carried out are a subject of major concern for Asn, in the light of the serious risks linked to patient over-exposure. ( some important points as follows: the law on transparency and security in the nuclear field, the law on sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste, Asn: an independent administrative authority, EPR reactor project safety, I.R.R.S.: an international audit of Asn in 2006, harmonization of nuclear safety, cancer radiotherapy, improved information of the public after the T.S.N. law, taking account of organisational and human factors). (N.C.)

  14. Canine degenerative myelopathy: a model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Taylor, Alexandra C; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-02-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (CDM) represents a unique naturally occurring animal model for human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of similar clinical signs, neuropathologic findings, and involvement of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation. A definitive diagnosis can only be made postmortem through microscopic detection of axonal degeneration, demyelination and astroglial proliferation, which is more severe in the dorsal columns of the thoracic spinal cord and in the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus. Interestingly, the muscle acetylcholine receptor complexes are intact in CDM prior to functional impairment, thus suggesting that muscle atrophy in CDM does not result from physical denervation. Moreover, since sensory involvement seems to play an important role in CDM progression, a more careful investigation of the sensory pathology in ALS is also warranted. The importance of SOD1 expression remains unclear, while oxidative stress and denatured ubiquinated proteins appear to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CDM. In this updated narrative review we performed a systematic search of the published studies on CDM that may shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms of human ALS. A better understanding of the factors that determine the disease progression in CDM may be beneficial for the development of effective treatments for ALS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Laminoplasty and laminectomy for cervical sponydylotic myelopathy: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, R.H.M.A.; van Tulder, M.W.; Moojen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is frequently encountered in neurosurgical practice. The posterior surgical approach includes laminectomy and laminoplasty.OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review evaluating the effectiveness of posterior laminectomy compared with posterior laminoplasty...

  16. Radiation curing technology progress and its industrial applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukachi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Optics, electronics and display industries are now the driving forces for the Japanese radiation curing technology. The purpose of this paper is to overview the newly developed radiation curing technology in Japan, in particular, its industrial applications, and to present the market figures in radiation curing applications, which were surveyed by RadTech Japan in 2002 afresh. (author)

  17. Operative techniques for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, C

    2012-02-01

    The surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis and resulting cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy has evolved over the past century. Surgical options for dorsal decompression of the cervical spine includes the traditional laminectomy and laminoplasty, first described in Asia in the 1970\\'s. More recently the dorsal approch has been explored in terms of minimally invasive options including foraminotomies for nerve root descompression. Ventral decompression and fusion techniques are also described in the article, including traditional anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, strut grafting and cervical disc arthroplasty. Overall, the outcome from surgery is determined by choosing the correct surgery for the correct patient and pathology and this is what we hope to explain in this brief review.

  18. Cervical spine abnormalities and instability with myelopathy in warfarin-related chondrodysplasia: 17-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hideyuki; Smith, W.L.; Sato, Yutaka; Kao, S.C.S.

    1998-01-01

    A patient with warfarin embryopathy developed progressive cervical spinal myelopathy owing to bony cervical spinal damage. While there are several descriptions of warfarin embryopathy, the long-term complication of cervical spinal instability has not been reported. This cervical instability may, as in our patient, cause severe neurological dysfunction or even sudden death; therefore, it is important that pediatric radiologists should be alert to this condition. (orig.)

  19. Cervical spine abnormalities and instability with myelopathy in warfarin-related chondrodysplasia: 17-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hideyuki; Smith, W.L.; Sato, Yutaka; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa Clinics and Hospitals, 200 Hawkins Dr., F3966 JPP, Iowa City, IA 52242-1077 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A patient with warfarin embryopathy developed progressive cervical spinal myelopathy owing to bony cervical spinal damage. While there are several descriptions of warfarin embryopathy, the long-term complication of cervical spinal instability has not been reported. This cervical instability may, as in our patient, cause severe neurological dysfunction or even sudden death; therefore, it is important that pediatric radiologists should be alert to this condition. (orig.) With 5 figs., 9 refs.

  20. Radiation Protection Services Division: progress report for 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massand, O.P.; Murthy, B.K.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Radiation Protection Services Division during 1993, for implementation of radiation safety in all institutions in India using radiation sources in medical, industrial and research applications. It gives information about personnel monitoring using photographic film and TLD badges, neutron monitoring badges, advisory and licensing services, regulation, transport of radioactive materials and periodic protection survey. About 33 publications by the staff of the Division are also listed. (author). 4 tabs

  1. Progress of radiation chemistry engineering in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breger, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review of works in the field of radiation chemistry engineering (RCE) in the recent 20 years is given. Main results of development of theoretic, engineering and economic bases for creating plants for realization of RCE processes using radionuclide (long- and short-living) γ radiation sources and electron accelerators, are considered. The current state in this field meets the requirements placed in connection with forthcoming wide introduction of radiation technology to the soviet industry

  2. Recent status and progress of radiation processing in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Byoung Hun; Im, Don Sun; Kim, Jae Ho; Nho, Young Chang

    2008-01-01

    Radiation technology is currently used in a number of industrial processes such as sterilization, cross linking of polymer, food irradiation, rubber vulcanization in the tire manufacturing, contaminated medical waste, etc. Gamma ray and electron beam are the key examples of well-established economical applications of radiation processes. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent technological trends and activities for radiation processes in order for the industrial end users to better understand, and obtain useful information about the technology. It is clear that the radiation processing technology has potential for a variety of the industrial applications

  3. Radiation protection programme progress report 1985-89. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The final report of the 1985-89 radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out during the whole contractual period under all contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. More than 700 scientists collaborated on this programme. Results of more than 440 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; non-stochastic effects of ionizing radiation; radiation carcinogenesis; genetic effects of ionizing radiation; evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

  4. Radiation protection programme progress report 1985-89. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The final report of the 1985-89 radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out during the whole contractual period under all contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. More than 700 scientists collaborated on this programme. Results of more than 440 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; non-stochastic effects of ionizing radiation; radiation carcinogenesis; genetic effects of ionizing radiation; evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

  5. Recent status and progress of radiation processing in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Byoung Hun; Im, Don Sun; Kim, Jae Ho; Nho, Young Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Radiation technology is currently used in a number of industrial processes such as sterilization, cross linking of polymer, food irradiation, rubber vulcanization in the tire manufacturing, contaminated medical waste, etc. Gamma ray and electron beam are the key examples of well-established economical applications of radiation processes. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent technological trends and activities for radiation processes in order for the industrial end users to better understand, and obtain useful information about the technology. It is clear that the radiation processing technology has potential for a variety of the industrial applications.

  6. Radiation protection programme progress report 1985-89. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The final report of the 1985-89 radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out during the whole contractual period under all contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. More than 700 scientists collaborated on this programme. Results of more than 440 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; non-stochastic effects of ionizing radiation; radiation carcinogenesis; genetic effects of ionizing radiation; evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

  7. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Progress report: third new contract year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.; Pollard, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Research progress for 1979-1980 is reported. Projects discussed include the process of radiation-induced repair, Weigle-reactivation, induced radioresistance, the induction of the recA gene product, uv mutagenesis, and the induction of lambda

  8. Radiation physics and biology: Progress report for period December 1, 1986-November 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, J.S.

    1987-04-01

    This annual report describes progress made on 14 individual research projects. These projects fall naturally into theoretical biophysics, experimental microdosimetry and radiation biology. Each project has been separately abstracted for the Energy Data Base

  9. Progress in radiation application to industry and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2006-01-01

    Utilization of radiation in Japan has been actively promoted by various agencies including the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of JAERI (presently Japan Atomic Energy Agency: JAEA). The JAEA-Takasaki was established in April 1963 for the purpose of promoting research and development (R and D) activities with gamma rays and electron beams. The JAEA-Takasaki's activities were addressed principally to industry and agriculture. In Japan, purpose of utilization of radiation is aiming at increasing welfare and quality of life of our peoples. (author)

  10. Earth as a radio source: terrestrial kilometric radiation. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.

    1974-02-01

    Radio wave experiments on the IMP-6 and 8 satellites have shown that the earth emits very intense electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from about 50 kHz to 500 kHz. A peak intensity the total power emitted in this frequency range is about 1 billion watts. The earth is, therefore, a very intense planetary radio source, with a total power output comparable to the decametric radio emission from Jupiter. This radio emission from the earth is referred to as terrestrial kilometric radiation. Terrestrial kilometric radiation appears to originate from low altitudes (less than 3.0 Re) in the auroral region. Possible mechanisms which can explain the generation and propagation of the terrestrial kilometric radiation are discussed. (U.S.)

  11. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements semiannual technical progress report, March 1989--August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    This semiannual technical progress report is for the period 1 March 1989 through 31 August 1989. This National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) program is designed to provide recommendations for radiation protection based on scientific principles. During this period several reports were published covering the topics of occupational radiation exposure, medical exposure, radon control, dosimetry, and radiation protection standards. Accomplishments of various committees are also reported; including the committees on dental x-ray protection, radiation safety in uranium mining and milling, ALARA, instrumentation, records maintenance, occupational exposures of medical personnel, emergency planning, and others. (SM)

  12. Radiation carcinogenesis. Comprehensive three-year progress report, 1 May 1972--15 March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Gates, O.

    1976-03-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the pathological effects of various doses of x radiation on rats and mice, with emphasis on radioinduced carcinogenesis in parabiont rats with one of the pair exposed to 1000 R of whole body x radiation and the other shielded. Results are included from studies on alterations in metabolic parameters and life span induced by irradiation

  13. Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Spectrum of Related Disorders Affecting the Aging Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Goldstein, Christina L; Arnold, Paul; Harrop, James; Hilibrand, Alan; Nouri, Aria; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Cervical spinal cord dysfunction can result from either traumatic or nontraumatic causes, including tumors, infections, and degenerative changes. In this article, we review the range of degenerative spinal disorders resulting in progressive cervical spinal cord compression and propose the adoption of a new term, degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). DCM comprises both osteoarthritic changes to the spine, including spondylosis, disk herniation, and facet arthropathy (collectively referred to as cervical spondylotic myelopathy), and ligamentous aberrations such as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. This review summarizes current knowledge of the pathophysiology of DCM and describes the cascade of events that occur after compression of the spinal cord, including ischemia, destruction of the blood-spinal cord barrier, demyelination, and neuronal apoptosis. Important features of the diagnosis of DCM are discussed in detail, and relevant clinical and imaging findings are highlighted. Furthermore, this review outlines valuable assessment tools for evaluating functional status and quality of life in these patients and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each. Other topics of this review include epidemiology, the prevalence of degenerative changes in the asymptomatic population, the natural history and rates of progression, risk factors of diagnosis (clinical, imaging and genetic), and management strategies.

  14. Molecular mechanisms in radiation damage to DNA. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, R.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for radiation-induced DNA damage. The overall goal is to understand the relationship between the chemical and structural changes produced by ionizing radiation in DNA and the resulting impairment of biological function expressed as carcinogenesis or cell death. The studies are based on theoretical explorations of possible mechanisms that link initial radiation damage in the form of base and sugar damage to conformational changes in DNA. These mechanistic explorations should lead to the formulation of testable hypotheses regarding the processes of impairment of regulation of gene expression, alteration in DNA repair, and damage to DNA structure involved in cell death or cancer

  15. Problems and progress in radiation physics of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinetskij, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the current status of radiation physics of semiconductors comprises the analysis of some new problems and poses the statement of concern. The essential difference between the probability of interstitial-vacancy pair occurrence W(T) in elastic collisions and the generally accepted step distribution with a typical ''threshold'' energy Tsub(d) is indicated. The role of diffusion and reaction evolution of primary defects leading to specific properties of the cluster formation process is shown. Special features of defect formation in spatially inhomogeneous semiconductors, in particular for elastic stresses present, are described. Among most important advances in the radiation physics of semiconductors there are the discovery of non-activation motion of the ''extra'' atom in silicon, the observation of a low activation energy value for the vacancy diffusion, the understanding of subthreshold mechanism of defect formation and radiation-induced diffusion, the effects of laser annealing of defects and oriented crystallization

  16. Progressive myelopathy, a consequence of intra‑thecal chemotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-09

    splenomegally ... Protocol consisting of intravenous cyclophosphamide, vincristine (oncovin) ... to the National guideline for cancer chemotherapy.[6]. The pathology ... Vitamin B12 in our patient because of lack of this facility, although our ...

  17. Progressive myelopathy, a consequence of intra‑thecal chemotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra‑thecal chemotherapy is a recognized therapy for hematological malignancies such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Despite the advantage of these drugs in treating or preventing central nervous system disease, they are not without complications. The authors describe a 12‑year‑old girl with ALL, who ...

  18. Progress report on the neutral beam radiation hardening study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Condit, R.H.; Hoenig, C.L.; Wilcox, T.P.; Erickson, J.

    1978-01-01

    A neutral beam injector as presently conceived directly views the plasma it is sustaining. In turn the injector is exposed to the primary fusion neutrons plus secondary neutrons and gammas streaming back up the neutral beam duct. The intent of this work is to examine representative beam lines to see how performance and lifetimes could be affected by this radiation environment and to determine how unacceptable effects could be alleviated. Potential radiation induced problems addressed in this report have been limited to: (1) overheating of cryopanels and insulators, (2) gamma flux induced electrical conductivity increase of insulators, and (3) neutron and gamma fluence induced damage to insulator materials

  19. Cine MRI of patients with cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukita, Yasutaka

    1993-01-01

    Forty-six patients with cervical myelopathy were examined before and after surgery by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). According to the occurrence site and degree of flow void, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow void was classified into five: anterior type (flow void mainly in the anterior part of subarachnoid space), posterior type (mainly in the posteiror part), anteroposterior type (in the anterior and posterior parts), incomplete block type (flow void limited to the upper and lower parts of the block), and complete block type (no flow void). None of the 46 patients had normal CSF flow void on cine MRI before surgery. CSF flow void was seen in systolic phase on ECG (from 150 to 300 msec from R's wave) in all patients after spinal cord decompression. Postoperative CBF flow void types correlated well with surgical method, disease, and postoperative vertebral alignment. Postoperative outcome was the most excellent in the group of posterior type and the poorest in the group of anteroposterior type, showing a significant difference between the groups. Cine MRI is a useful noninvasive, dynamic method for assessing postoperative decompression effect. (N.K.)

  20. Attenuation of radiological consequences from CDA's by radiation. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    This technical progress report summarizes the research work accomplished during the first six months of the investigation on the significance of radiation heat transfer in attenuating the radiological consequences from LMFBR core disruptive accidents. Considerable progress has been made in modeling and computing the effects of radiative cooling on a rising HCDA bubble buoyant through a sodium pool. Our results reveal that most of the fuel vapor within the bubble can be effectively condensed out by radiating cooling. The finding has a profound implication as it could lead to a substantial reduction in subsequent aerosal releases

  1. Institute for Radiation Research and Nuclear Physics. Progress report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmaier, B.

    1990-01-01

    In this progress report all of the abstracts - except two - are of INIS interest. The topics of the branch sessions are (1) theoretical particle physics (2) nuclear reactions (3) evaluation of nuclear data (4) radionuclide metrology (5) applications of nuclear methods and (6) nuclear information processing. (botek)

  2. Institute for Radiation Research and Nuclear Physics. Progress report 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, B [comp.

    1991-12-31

    In this progress report all of the abstracts - except two - are of INIS interest. The topics of the branch sessions are (1) theoretical particle physics (2) nuclear reactions (3) evaluation of nuclear data (4) radionuclide metrology (5) applications of nuclear methods and (6) nuclear information processing. (botek).

  3. Institute for Radiation Research and Nuclear Physics. Progress report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmaier, B.

    1991-01-01

    In this progress report all of the abstracts are of INIS interest. The topics of the branch sessions are (1) theoretical particle physics (2) nuclear reactions (3) evaluation of nuclear data (4) applications of nuclear methods and (5) environmental investigations. (botek)

  4. Institute for Radiation Research and Nuclear Physics. Progress report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmaier, B [comp.

    1992-12-31

    In this progress report all of the abstracts are of INIS interest. The topics of the branch sessions are (1) theoretical particle physics (2) nuclear reactions (3) evaluation of nuclear data (4) applications of nuclear methods and (5) environmental investigations. (botek).

  5. Present status and expected progress in radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Miller, A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the present status of radiation processing dosimetry including the methods used most widely in gamma- and electron processing as well as the new methods under development or introduction. The recent trends with respect to calibrationof routine dosimetry systems as well...

  6. Surgical Management in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Due to Alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ali; Sandal, Evren; Middlebrooks, Erik H; Senoglu, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    Ochronotic arthropathy related to alkaptonuria is a rare condition. Cervical spine involvement with myelopathic features has been even more rarely described, particularly related to atlantoaxial instability. As such, little is known about the optimal surgical management in these patients. We described the first case, to our knowledge, of a patient with alkaptonuria and related cervical spondylotic myelopathy from pannus formation at the atlantoaxial joint. We describe our choices in surgical management of this rare condition in a patient with an excellent outcome. Ochronotic cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a rare condition and may require additional considerations in surgical treatment compared to more common causes of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. In our case, we elected for decompression with posterior occipitocervical screw fixation and were able to achieve neurologic recovery with no complications, currently at 2-year follow-up. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on regulation of gene expression included research projects on turnover of ribosomal RNA, ribonuclease-resistant oligonucleotides, and reutilization of oligonucleotides. Studies on radiation effects on RNA included research projects on radioinduced strand breaks in RNA and radioinduced alterations in RNA nucleotides. Effects of vasopression on radiosensitivity were studied. Studies on amino acid-nucleic acid interactions included research projects on synthesis and spectroscopic analysis of nucleotide-amino acid covalently bonded model compound and intermolecular interactions between tryptophan and dinucleoside phosphates

  8. Reduction of the dose of ionizing radiation: progressions in TC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlacchio, A.; Costanzo, E.; Chegai, F.; Simonetti, G.

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of the dose of ionizing radiation in CT, it is a very important matter that can be reach avoiding unnecessary examinations, using un appropriate report KV / mAs reducing the rotation time, determining the field of study, using a high pitch using equipment that provide systems with dose reduction, through proper education of the staff that interacts with machinery and using radioprotective compounds.

  9. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1974-01-01

    Work during the past year has been focused on three areas related to the cellular effects of radiation. Radiation effects on RNA and the regulation of gene expression and amino acid-nucleic acid interactions were studied. Studies on the radiation response of RNA in growing and confluent cells were continued. We have derived radiation survival curves and demonstrated repair of potentially lethal damage in 3T3 cells. Studies of giant cell formation and turnover of ribosomal RNA in irradiated cells has demonstrated differences in growing and confluent cells. We have sought evidence consistent with our hypothesis for regulation of eukaryotic gene expression with segments of RNA reutilized to prime new RNA synthesis. Data derived from the turnover of ribosomal RNA and the methylation pattern of ribosomal RNA during turnover are consistent with the possibility that a segment of 18s ribosomal RNA is being conserved during new RNA synthesis. We were unable to show reutilization of the 5' trinucleotide of 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA but did find a ribonuclease resistant oligonucleotide in 18s RNA which appeared to be reutilized. In studies of amino acid nucleic-acid interactions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we have been able to successfully synthesize an amidate and begin an examination of the intramolecular interactions. We have also studied intermolecular interactions betweentryptophan and nucleoside monophosphates and found upfield shifts which provide evidence for preferential stacking of the 6-membered ring of tryptophan with adenine and evidence for specific geometry of interactions of tryptophan with cytosine. (U.S.)

  10. Heterotopic ossification associated with myelopathy following cervical disc prosthesis implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Markus; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

    2016-04-01

    This case report presents a 37-year-old man with clinical signs of myelopathy almost 9 years after implantation of a Bryan disc prosthesis (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) for C5/C6 soft disc herniation. As demonstrated on MRI and CT scan, spinal cord compression was caused by bony spurs due to heterotopic ossification posterior to the still moving prosthesis. The device, as well as the ectopic bone deposits, had to be removed because of myelopathy and its imminent aggravation. Conversion to anterior spondylodesis was performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation biophysicl study of biological molecules. Progress report, February 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: direct action target investigation of molecular weights of enzymes exposed to fast electrons; direct action gamma radiation dosimetry with T 1 bacteriophage; uv radiation sensitivity of T 1 bacteriophage on various host strains of E. coli; temperature dependence of uv radiation direct action on dry T 1 bacteriophage; investigation of light and temperature effects during incubation of T 1 bacteriophage exposed to fast electrons; test of superoxide anion as a radiation intermediate in cellular radiobiology; uv action spectra related to error-prone repair; uv-reactivation experiments with T 1 and lambda bacteriophages; and split-dose uv mutagenesis in E. coli

  12. Some progress on radiation chemistry of substances of biological interests and biological applications of radiation technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Fang Xingwang

    1995-01-01

    Studies in China on the detection method of irradiated food, mechanism of DNA damage induced by peroxidation, radiolysis of natural products and herbs are reviewed on the update open literature, and some progress on applications of radiation technology is summarized. (author)

  13. Restoration of Upper Limb Function in an Individual with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy using Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milos R; Zivanovic, Vera; Valiante, Taufik A

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic spinal cord pathology is responsible for 25-52% of all spinal cord lesions. Studies have revealed that spinal stenosis accounts for 16-21% of spinal cord injury (SCI) admissions. Impaired grips as well as slow unskilled hand and finger movements are the most common complaints in patients with spinal cord disorders, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. In the past, our team carried out couple of successful clinical trials, including two randomized control trials, showing that functional electrical stimulation therapy (FEST) can restore voluntary reaching and/or grasping function, in people with stroke and traumatic SCI. Motivated by this success, we decided to examine changes in the upper limb function following FEST in a patient who suffered loss of hand function due to myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. The participant was a 61-year-old male who had C3-C7 posterior laminectomy and instrumented fusion for cervical myelopathy. The participant presented with progressive right hand weakness that resulted in his inability to voluntarily open and close the hand and to manipulate objects unilaterally with his right hand. The participant was enrolled in the study ~22 months following initial surgical intervention. Participant was assessed using Toronto Rehabilitation Institute's Hand Function Test (TRI-HFT), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM). The pre-post differences in scores on all measures clearly demonstrated improvement in voluntary hand function following 15 1-h FEST sessions. The changes observed were meaningful and have resulted in substantial improvement in performance of activities of daily living. These results provide preliminary evidence that FEST has a potential to improve upper limb function in patients with non-traumatic SCI, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis.

  14. Progress in basic principles of limitation in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzaev, P.V.; Tarasov, S.I.; Troitskaya, M.N.; Ermolaeva, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    For purposes of limitation of harmful factors, e.g. radiation, it is proposed to divide all countless numbers of biological effects into three groups: 1) social important effects (ultimate and effects); 2) intermediate effects (different diseases etc.), which are connected with and controlled by the first group; 3) pure biological effects, importance of which is not known. To determine the first group effects there are identified four indices describing all significant sides of human life: time of life, life-time integral of mental and physical capacity for work, aesthetical satisfaction from organism itself, reproduction of descendants. They reflect the main social and individual interests related to functioning of organism. On the base of weighing these indices it is suggested the united general index of health in form of time of a full life. The united index can be used for different principles of limitation (based on threshold, acceptable risk, maximum benefit). To realize the principle of maximum public benefit as ideal principle in the future limitation all benefit and detriment from utilization of harmful sources must be expressed in the united index of health (instead of money), which is the greatest value of individual and society. Authors suggest to standartize ionizing radiation on the general methodological approaches that were acceptable to non-ionizing factors too

  15. Sudden onset of cervical spondylotic myelopathy during sleep: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Irene A; Burns, Stephen P; Little, James W

    2002-03-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a common cause of compressive spinal cord dysfunction. The typical course involves either a gradual or an episodic increase in symptoms and neurologic deficits, with impairment evolving over a period of months to years. Acute neurologic deterioration in conjunction with cervical spondylosis has been described almost exclusively in traumatic situations such as disk herniation. We report a case of an acute, nontraumatic onset of tetraplegia in association with cervical spondylosis. A 56-year-old man developed tetraplegia during a 1-hour nap, with loss of volitional control of his extremities, impaired sensation below the C3 dermatome, and increased muscle tone. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed canal stenosis and increased T2 signal within the cord. This case report describes the rehabilitation course for this patient and reviews the clinical spectrum of onset and progression of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  16. Myelopathy: Retrospective Evaluation of Twenty-Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Erdal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Myelopathy is used to describe any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. Determining the etiology is important for detecting emergency situations and treating the cause. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 28 patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for myelopathy between January 2014 and January 2015 in our hospital. The clinical and laboratory findings of the patients and their response to treatment were assessed. Results: Of the 28 patients, 16 were male and 12 were female, the mean age was 48 years (range, 22-77 years. The most common initial symptoms were sensorial deficits and motor weakness. Demyelinating diseases were the most common diseases and multiple sclerosis was the most frequent etiology among demiyelinating diseases. Cervical spinal cord was the most frequent region involved in myelopathy episodes which was detected by magnetic resonance imaging on T2W images. We observed clinical improvement in 15 of the 20 patients who were treated with corticosteroids. In addition, vitamin B12 treatment led to clinical improvement in two patients who were diagnosed as having subacute combined degeneration. Conclusion: The diagnosis and etiology of myelopathy and identification of rare conditions that require emergency surgery or interventional treatments are of utmost importance

  17. Basic aspects of radiation action on microorganisms. Progress report, April 1, 1974--March 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, E.C.

    1975-04-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: effects of blocking DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea on induction of lambda phage; dose response curves for uv and ionizing radiation with radiosensitive and radioresistant strains of phage; effects of oxygen, rifampin, and hydrogen peroxide on induction of radioresistance; radioinduced degradation of DNA; and induction of repair system of mutagenesis with uv and ionizing radiation. (U.S.)

  18. Progress in research on ionizing radiation-induced microRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zheng; Tie Yi; Sun Zhixian; Zheng Xiaofei

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded noncoding RNAs consisting of 21-23 nucleotides that play important gene-regulatory roles in eukaryotes by pairing to the mRNAs of protein-coding genes to direct their posttranscriptional repression. A growing body of evidence indicates that alterations in miRNA expression may occur following exposure to several oxidative stress including ionizing radiation. So miRNAs may serve as potential new targets for co-therapies aiming to improve the effects of radiation disease therapy in cancer patients. The progress in research on ionizing radiation-induced miRNAs is reviewed in this paper. (authors)

  19. Progress in research on combination treatment of cancer with radiation therapy and immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Jia Rui; Yan Jinqi; Yu Jiyun

    2007-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an important local treatment for tumors, and immunotherapy is a systematic treatment. Combination of RT with immunotherapy may bring about an obvious synergistic anti-tumor effort. Here the research progress in this aspect is reviewed. (authors)

  20. The progress and issues of national nuclear and radiation safety supervision and MIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Kefei; Sun Guochen; Jiang Guang; Li Jingxi; Zhang Lin

    2009-01-01

    The article briefly describes the pre-planning construction of 'National Nuclear and Radiation Safety Supervision and Management Information System', Including the overall frame of the system and the main issues found in the work which affect and confine the progress of the program. Some recommendations are put forward. (authors)

  1. Progress in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and application in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhidong; Chen Xiaohua

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is the key separation technique in proteomics research, which is designed by protein character: molecular weight and PI. Some progress has been made in disease mechanism detection, tumor indicator research and drug development. This technique also has some potential application in radiation research

  2. Progress in radiation protection techniques for workers in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.; Rouyer, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The increasingly stringent safety requirements of workers and the general public in the face of occupational and in particular nuclear risks call for continual improvements in radiation protection techniques. The Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN), especially the Technical Protection Services belonging to the Protection Department, and also the various radiation protection services of the French Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear centres and Electricite de France (EDF) are carrying out substantial research and development programmes on the subject. For this reason, IPSN organized a specialists' meeting to take stock of the efforts being made and to try to identify what steps seem most promising or should have priority at the national level. The authors summarize the presentations and discussions on three topics: (1) Progress in the analysis of the mechanism of exposure of workers; (2) Progress achieved from the radiation protection standpoint in the field of facility design and instrumentation; and (3) Application of the optimization principle

  3. Distinction between glioma progression and post-radiation change by combined physiologic MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsusue, Eiji [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago, Tottori (Japan); Fink, James R.; Maravilla, Kenneth R. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Rockhill, Jason K. [University of Washington, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seattle, WA (United States); Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago, Tottori (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging (DSC), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) techniques provide specific physiologic information that may distinguish malignant glioma progression from post-radiation change, yet no single technique is completely reliable. We propose a simple, multiparametric scoring system to improve diagnostic accuracy beyond that of each technique alone. Fifteen subjects with lesions suspicious for glioma progression following radiation therapy who had also undergone 3-tesla DWI, DSC, and MRS studies of the lesion were retrospectively reviewed. Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratio, maximum regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) ratio, and maximum MRS choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) and choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA) metabolic peak-height ratios were quantified within each lesion. Each parameter (ADC ratio, rCBV ratio, and combined Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratios) was scored as either glioma progression (one point) or radiation change (zero point) based upon thresholds derived from our own data. For each lesion, the combined parameters yielded a multiparametric score (0 to 3) for prediction of tumor progression or post-radiation change. Optimum thresholds for ADC ratio (1.30), rCBV ratio (2.10), and either combined Cho/Cr (1.29) and Cho/NAA (1.06) yielded diagnostic accuracies of 86.7%, 86.7%, and 84.6%, respectively (p < 0.05). A combined multiparametric score threshold of 2 improved diagnostic accuracy to 93.3% (p < 0.05). In this small series combining 3-T DWI, DSC, and MRS diagnostic results using a simple, multiparametric scoring system has potential to improve overall diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing glioma progression from post-radiation change beyond that of each technique alone. (orig.)

  4. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report for October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, H.H.; Hall, E.J.

    1980-07-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 31 of the 32 papers presented in this progress report. The other paper is represented by an abstract only and deals with field shaping and recalibration of x-ray facilities

  5. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1994-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described

  6. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1994-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described.

  7. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy caused by violent motor tics in a child with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Da-Young; Kim, Seung-Ki; Chae, Jong-Hee; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2013-02-01

    We report a case of a 9-year-old boy with Tourette syndrome (TS) who developed progressive quadriparesis that was more severe in the upper extremities. He had experienced frequent and violent motor tics consisting of hyperflexion and hyperextension for years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a focal high-signal intensity cord lesion and adjacent cervical spondylotic changes. Initially, the patient was observed for several months because of diagnostic uncertainty; his neurological status had improved and later worsened again. Anterior cervical discectomy of C3-4 and fusion immediately followed by posterior fixation were performed. After surgery, the neck collar was applied for 6 months. His neurological signs and symptoms improved dramatically. TS with violent neck motion may cause cervical spondylotic myelopathy at an early age. The optimal management is still unclear and attempts to control tics should be paramount. Circumferential fusion with neck bracing represents a viable treatment option.

  8. Treatment of Portosystemic Shunt Myelopathy with a Stent Graft Deployed through a Transjugular Intrahepatic Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Deepak; Arora, Ankur; Deka, Pranjal; Mukund, Amar; Bhatnagar, Shorav; Jindal, Deepti; Kumar, Niteen; Pamecha, Viniyendra

    2013-01-01

    A case of surgically created splenorenal shunt complicated with shunt myelopathy was successfully managed by placement of a stent graft within the splenic vein to close the portosystemic shunt and alleviate myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of shunt myelopathy in a patient with noncirrhotic portal fibrosis without cirrhosis treated by a novel technique wherein a transjugular intrahepatic route was adopted to deploy the stent graft

  9. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Ang, K.K.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathognomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gy in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales

  10. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathoGyomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gn in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales. 140 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Solitary Osteochondroma of the Thoracic Spine with Compressive Myelopathy; A Rare Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrian, Payam; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Kahkuee, Shahram; Bakhshayeshkaram, Mehrdad; Ghasemikhah, Reza

    2013-01-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of back pain radiating to the lower extremities and paresthesis of the toes during the last year. Plain X-ray revealed a large cauliflower shaped exophytic mass at the level of T8, T9 and T10 vertebrae. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an abnormal bony mass arising from the posterior arch of T9 with protrusion to the spinal canal and marked cord compression. The cortex and medulla of the lesion had continuity with those of the T9 vertebra. Surgical en bloc resection was performed and the patient’s symptoms resolved. The histopathologic diagnosis was osteochondroma. In patients with symptoms of myelopathy, in addition to more common etiologies, one should also be aware of rare entities such as osteochondroma

  12. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  13. Analysis of spastic gait in cervical myelopathy: Linking compression ratio to spatiotemporal and pedobarographic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taro; Takahashi, Yasuhito; Endo, Kenji; Ikegami, Ryo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2018-01-01

    Gait dysfunction associated with spasticity and hyperreflexia is a primary symptom in patients with compression of cervical spinal cord. The objective of this study was to link maximum compression ratio (CR) to spatiotemporal/pedobarographic parameters. Quantitative gait analysis was performed by using a pedobarograph in 75 elderly males with a wide range of cervical compression severity. CR values were characterized on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Statistical significances in gait analysis parameters (speed, cadence, stride length, step with, and toe-out angle) were evaluated among different CR groups by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney U test using Bonferroni correction. The Spearman test was performed to verify correlations between CR and gait parameters. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant decline in gait speed and stride length and significant increase in toe-out angle with progression of cervical compression myelopathy. The post-hoc Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in these parameters between the control group (0.45test revealed that CR was significantly correlated with speed, cadence, stride length, and toe-out angle. Gait speed, stride length, and toe-out angle can serve as useful indexes for evaluating progressive gait abnormality in cervical myelopathy. Our findings suggest that CR≤0.25 is associated with significantly poorer gait performance. Nevertheless, future prospective studies are needed to determine a potential benefit from decompressive surgery in such severe compression patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report, July 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of x irradiation at the cellular level that lead ultimately to either malignant transformation or cell death. Experimental results consistent with the primer hypothesis for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes are reported. It was found that oligonucleotides can be inserted en bloc into newly synthesized RNA. Studies on amino acid-nucleic acid interactions were continued by successfully synthesizing an amidate and beginning NMR studies on the interactions between its nucleic acid and amino acid moieties. In studies on radiation induced giant cells in 3T3 cells growing in culture, it was demonstrated that conditions which potentiate potential lethal damage repair and those which prevent radiation induced giant cell formation exist. In an examination of the in vitro effects of vasopressin, no direct effect was found of vasopressin on radiation sensitivity and significant effects of radiation on lysosomal enzyme activity in cultured cells were found

  15. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report, July 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of x irradiation at the cellular level that lead ultimately to either malignant transformation or cell death. Experimental results consistent with the primer hypothesis for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes are reported. It was found that oligonucleotides can be inserted en bloc into newly synthesized RNA. Studies on amino acid-nucleic acid interactions were continued by successfully synthesizing an amidate and beginning NMR studies on the interactions between its nucleic acid and amino acid moieties. In studies on radiation induced giant cells in 3T3 cells growing in culture, it was demonstrated that conditions which potentiate potential lethal damage repair and those which prevent radiation induced giant cell formation exist. In an examination of the in vitro effects of vasopressin, no direct effect was found of vasopressin on radiation sensitivity and significant effects of radiation on lysosomal enzyme activity in cultured cells were found.

  16. Recent progress of the RD50 Collaboration – Development of radiation tolerant tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, M

    2014-01-01

    The CERN RD50 Collaboration "Radiation hard semiconductor devices for high luminosity col- liders" is undertaking a massive R&D; programme across High Energy Physics (HEP) Experi- ments boundaries to develop silicon sensors with increased radiation tolerance. Highest priority is to provide concepts and prototypes of high performance silicon sensors for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) Experiments at CERN and other future HEP Experiments op- erating in severe radiation environments. This paper gives an overview of the RD50 collaboration activities and describes some examples of recent developments. Emphasis is put on the charac- terization of microscopic radiation induced defects and their impact on the sensor performance, the evaluation and parametrization of electric fields inside irradiated sensors, progress in device modeling using TCAD tools, the use of p-type silicon as strip and pixel sensor material and finally the first steps towards the exploitation of impact ionization ( charge...

  17. Vascular myelopathy: causes and mechanisms, possibilities of diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ponomarev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular myelopathy is a rare severe disease caused by a broad spectrum of causes, among which pathology of the aorta and its branches, aortic surgery, spinal diseases, and spinal trauma occupy the main place. The processes of neuroinflammation and glutamate neurotoxicity play a leading role in the pathogenesis of myeloischemia. The clinical picture of the disease is nonspecific and depends on the location and volume of an ischemic focus. Magnetic resonance imaging is a gold standard for diagnosis. However, this method remains insensitive in the acute period and fails to detect spinal cord ischemia at preclinical stages. The investigation and introduction of specific biochemical markers (glutamate receptors and their antibodies for neurotoxicity, which can identify ischemia in the advanced stage and predetermine its development, are promising. The treatment of vascular myelopathy has not currently been standardized and it is mainly pathogenetic and symptomatic.

  18. MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Albuquerque-Jonathan, Glenda; Hewlett, Richard; Wilmshurst, Jo

    2003-01-01

    To describe the clinical and MRI findings in three children with acute idiopathic myelopathy (AIM). Retrospective review of the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome of three patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic transverse myelitis. Of note was the swift onset of symptoms in all patients, without any preceding illness or history of vaccination in two of the patients, and the rapid resolution of symptoms on steroid therapy in all the patients. MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensity and patchy enhancement with gadolinium, but the extensive cord involvement did not correlate with the severity of presentation or outcome. Our findings do not support that MRI evidence alone of diffuse myelopathy is a predictor of poor outcome in childhood AIM. (orig.)

  19. Recurrent acute transverse myelopathy: association with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharao, Vijaya; Bartakke, Sandip; Muranjan, Mamta N; Bavdekar, Manisha S; Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Udani, Vrajesh P

    2004-06-01

    A seven-year-old boy presented with a second episode of acute transverse myelopathy. The first episode had responded dramatically to methylprednisolone. The manifestations of the second episode did not respond to methylprednisolone or IVIG. He showed persistently raised levels of antiphospholipid antibodies in the serum. Primary conditions like collagen vascular diseases, malignancy, exposure to drugs and HIV infection, which are known to be associated with the raised titers of these antibodies were ruled out clinically and by investigations. Recurrent transverse myelopathy is a rare event in childhood and reports of its association with Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APLAS) are scanty. The etiological role for these antibodies remains to be established. However, once the diagnosis is established, it may be prudent to treat the condition with agents and procedures to bring about a decrease in their titers. Long-term therapy to prevent thromboembolic complications of APLAS may also be instituted.

  20. Case of sensory ataxic ganglionopathy-myelopathy in copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Gabriella; Grassivaro, Francesca; Brocadello, Filippo; Manara, Renzo; Pesenti, Francesco Francini

    2009-02-15

    Spinal cord involvement associated with severe copper deficiency has been reported in the last 8 years. Copper deficiency may produce an ataxic myelopathy. Clinical and neuroimaging findings are similar to the subacute combined degeneration seen in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. Macrocytic, normocytic and microcytic anemia, leukopenia and, in severe cases, pancytopenia are well known hematologic manifestations. The most patients with copper deficiency myelopathy had unrecognized carency. Some authors suggested that early recognition and copper supplementation may prevent neurologic deterioration but clinical findings do not improve. We present a patient with copper deficiency, dorsal root ganglions and cervical dorsal columns involvement. Clinical status and neuroimaging improved after copper replacement therapy. Sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia may be the most sensitive nervous pathway. In this case the early copper treatment allowed to improve neurologic lesions and to prevent further involvements.

  1. Reevaluation of the Pavlov ratio in patients with cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Ki-Tack; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin-Young

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to reevaluate the effectiveness of the Pavlov ratio in patients with cervical myelopathy. We studied 107 patients who underwent open door laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical myelopathy between the C3 to C7 levels. We determined the Pavlov ratio on preoperative and postoperative cervical spine lateral radiographs, the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on sagittal reconstruction CT scans, and the vertebral body-to-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) column ratio on T2-weighted sagittal MR images from C3 to C6. The severity of myelopathy was determined using the JOA score on both preoperative and postoperative images. The recovery rate was also calculated. The Pavlov ratio in plain radiographs from patients with myelopathy was compared with the ratio of the vertebral body to the spinal canal on CT and MRI. The average Pavlov ratio between C3 and C6 ranged from 0.71 to 0.76. On CT scan, the average vertebral body-to-canal ratio between C3 and C6 ranged from 0.62 to 0.66. On MRI, the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio between C3 and C6 ranged between 0.53 and 0.57. A positive correlation was noted between the Pavlov ratio and the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on sagittal-reconstruction CT (correlation coefficient = 0.497-0.627, p = 0.000) and between the Pavlov ratio and the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio on MRI (correlation coefficient = 0.511-0.649, p = 0.000). We demonstrated a good correlation between the Pavlov ratio and both the vertebral body-to-canal ratio on CT and the vertebral body-to-CSF column ratio on MRI. Therefore, the Pavlov ratio can be relied upon to predict narrowing of the cervical spinal canal in the sagittal plane.

  2. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology: Progress report, December 1, 1987-November 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.; Delegianis, M.J.

    1988-07-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiation therapy. At the current level of funding, approximately one quarter of the research of the Laboratory could be regarded as in support of radiotherapy, with the remainder addressing more basic issues. The new initiatives have been in two directions. First, there has been an increased emphasis on research in radiation chemistry, inasmuch as this subject which involves the study of free radicals and fast radiation chemistry processes starts to bridge the gap between physics and biology, between the initial deposition of radiant energy and its final expression in terms of biological consequences. Second, the emphasis in the biological research has moved towards studies at the molecular level, with the appointment of new members of staff with expertise in this area. Individual chapters were processed separately for the data base

  3. Progress in coating and radiation curing of metal and plastic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayenknecht, H.

    1983-01-01

    The manyfold problems with one or multi-layered coatings on metal and plastic surfaces as adhesion and coat compound are the reasons for a rather slow progress of industrial applications of both radiation curing technologies (UV and EBC). Important reasons for this seemed to result from the fact that the manyfold offers of radiation sources were not optimum adapted to the chemistry of the coating materials. It was pointed out that tensions due to film contraction during polymerization process are the main reasons for insufficient adhesion. This presentation is an attempt to clarify both points of view

  4. ROLE OF MRI IN EVALUATION OF COMPRESSIVE MYELOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raseshkumar Rasiklal Vyas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aim of the study was to find out various causes of compressive myelopathy and to characterise them. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total of 48 cases were analysed over a period of January 2016 to January 2017 and were evaluated using MRI spine studies. RESULTS MRI, because of its exemplary tissue characterisation and high contrast resolution, excellently demonstrates the anatomical details and pathological process. Thus, is a superior modality in diagnosing Spinal cord lesions as well as associated soft tissue injuries, inter-vertebral discs and ligaments. In our study, traumatic injuries (43% were found to be the most common cause of Compressive myelopathy, other were Infections (23%, primary malignancies (17%, and Metastasis (17%. Thoracic spine was found to be the most frequent site in cases of Traumatic injuries. 40 out of total 48 cases had extradural, and the rest 8 had intra-dural compressive lesions. CONCLUSION The study concludes that patients with suspected Compressive myelopathies benefit from evaluation with MRI, which is highly accurate for characterising and identifying the underlying aetiology, as well as associated features. Thus, explicitly helps in stating the long-term prognosis of the patient.

  5. Cytokine expression of macrophages in HIV-1-associated vacuolar myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyor, W R; Glass, J D; Baumrind, N; McArthur, J C; Griffin, J W; Becker, P S; Griffin, D E

    1993-05-01

    Macrophages are frequently present within the periaxonal and intramyelinic vacuoles that are located primarily in the posterior and lateral funiculi of the thoracic spinal cord in HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy. But the role of these macrophages in the formation of the vacuoles is unclear. One hypothesis is that cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, are produced locally by macrophages and have toxic effects on myelin or oligodendrocytes. The resulting myelin damage eventually culminates in the removal of myelin by macrophages and vacuole formation. We studied thoracic spinal cord specimens taken at autopsy from HIV-positive (+) and HIV-negative individuals. The predominant mononuclear cells present in HIV+ spinal cords are macrophages. They are located primarily in the posterior and lateral funiculi regardless of the presence or absence of vacuolar myelopathy. Macrophages and microglia are more frequent in HIV+ than HIV-negative individuals and these cells frequently stain for class I and class II antigens, IL-1, and TNF-alpha. Activated macrophages positive for IL-1 and TNF-alpha are great increased in the posterior and lateral funiculi of HIV+ individuals with and without vacuolar myelopathy, suggesting they are present prior to the development of vacuoles. Cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, may be toxic for myelin or oligodendrocytes, leading to myelin damage and removal by macrophages and vacuole formation.

  6. Association of myelopathy scores with cervical sagittal balance and normalized spinal cord volume: analysis of 56 preoperative cases from the AOSpine North America Myelopathy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin S; Lafage, Virginie; Ryan, Devon J; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank J; Patel, Alpesh A; Brodke, Darrel S; Arnold, Paul M; Riew, K Daniel; Traynelis, Vincent C; Radcliff, Kris; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Fehlings, Michael G; Ames, Christopher P

    2013-10-15

    Post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data. Development of methods to determine in vivo spinal cord dimensions and application to correlate preoperative alignment, myelopathy, and health-related quality-of-life scores in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). CSM is the leading cause of spinal cord dysfunction. The association between cervical alignment, sagittal balance, and myelopathy has not been well characterized. This was a post hoc analysis of the prospective, multicenter AOSpine North America CSM study. Inclusion criteria for this study required preoperative cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neutral sagittal cervical radiography. Techniques for MRI assessment of spinal cord dimensions were developed. Correlations between imaging and health-related quality-of-life scores were assessed. Fifty-six patients met inclusion criteria (mean age = 55.4 yr). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scores correlated with C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (r = -0.282, P = 0.035). Spinal cord volume correlated with cord length (r = 0.472, P balance (C2-C7 SVA) to myelopathy severity. We found a moderate negative correlation in kyphotic patients of cord volume and cross-sectional area to mJOA scores. The opposite (positive correlation) was found for lordotic patients, suggesting a relationship of cord volume to myelopathy that differs on the basis of sagittal alignment. It is interesting to note that sagittal balance but not kyphosis is tied to myelopathy score. Future work will correlate alignment changes to cord morphology changes and myelopathy outcomes. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: This is the first study to correlate sagittal balance (C2-C7 SVA) to myelopathy severity. We found a moderate negative correlation in kyphotic patients of cord volume and cross-sectional area to mJOA scores. The opposite (positive correlation) was found for lordotic patients, suggesting a relationship of cord volume to myelopathy that differs on the

  7. Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Yasufumi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, β-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a

  8. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1985-November 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.

    1986-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Radiological Research Laboratory of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University. The bulk of the research of the Laboratory involves basic and fundamental aims, not confined to radiotherapy. Research carried out in the Laboratory covers the determination of microdosimetry quantities, computer simulation of particle tracks, determination of oncogenic transformation, and the transfection of DNA into cells. The Hallmark of the Laboratory is the interaction between physics and biology

  9. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report, October 1, 1982-November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    A wide range of research is carried out at the Radiological Research Laboratory, from computer simulation of particle tracks to the determination of oncogenic transformation in mammalian cells. Mechanistic studies remain the central mission in an attempt to understand the biological action of ionizing radiations. Collaborative research is carried out on the use of radiosensitizers on chemosensitizers on the effect of hormones on oncogenic transformation and on cataractogenesis

  10. Progress report: nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Asn (Nuclear safety authority) considers that 2005 was a satisfactory year in terms of nuclear safety and radiation protection. However, further progress can and must be made. 2005 was a year of great progress for the Asn as it consolidated its organisation and working methods, in accordance with the 2005-2007 strategic plan it set for itself. The Asn continued progress in the field of radiation protection has given rise to various new regulations to improve the legislative and regulatory framework in this area. 2005 was marked by significant progress in the process of harmonizing national nuclear safety policies Against a backdrop of the preparation of a bill on management of radioactive materials and waste, to be presented to Parliament in March 2006, 2005 was a year of important milestones. The Asn control activities encompass the following seven areas: development of general regulations for nuclear safety and radiation protection; management of individual authorization requests and receipt of declarations; inspection of nuclear activities; organisation of radiological surveillance of individuals and of the environment; preparation for management of emergency situations and implementation if necessary; contribution to public information on nuclear safety and radiation protection; determination of the French position within international community. Main topics in 2005: government bill on transparency and security in the nuclear field; the challenges and ambitions of the Asn; controlling exposure to radon; EPR Reactor Project Safety; working towards a law on radioactive waste in 2006; I.R.R.T.: an international audit of Asn in 2006; harmonization of nuclear safety in Europe; Chernobyl: what has been achieved over the past 20 years; informing the Public; internal authorizations. (N.C.)

  11. Radiation biophysical study of biological molecules. Progress report, July 1, 1976--August 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: x-ray induction of uv mutagenesis enhancement in lambda-phage; action spectrum for uv mutagenesis in Escherichia coli; survival of E. coli colonies after uv damage; repair of radiation damage to lambda-phage by the W-reactivation system; experiments on the Weigle-reactivation of irradiated lambda-phage; and studies on the wavelength dependence of uv mutagenesis

  12. Radiation cleanup of vacuum systems (radiation-induced outgassing). Progress report, September 15, 1976--September 14, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.N.

    1977-06-01

    A stainless steel-304 vacuum system has been designed and constructed to study radiation-induced outgassing when this material is exposed to cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The system is pumped with an ion pump and sorption roughing pump. No foreign materials have been introduced except for copper seals at the flanges. An analytical model has been developed which predicts the outgassing from SS-304 to be 8.27 x 10 -12 torr-liters/(cm 2 )(sec) per megarad/hr. Extrapolation of existing data for aluminum suggests a lower value of 1.0 x 10 -12 torr-liters/(cm 2 )(sec) per megarad/hr. Experiments to determine the value are currently in progress

  13. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates with Short-Term Myelopathy Outcome in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantam, Aditya; Rao, Avinash; Kurpad, Shekar N; Jirjis, Michael B; Eckardt, Gerald; Schmit, Brian D; Wang, Marjorie C

    2017-01-01

    To determine if spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging indexes correlate with short-term clinical outcome in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). A prospective consecutive cohort study was performed in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery for CSM. After obtaining informed consent, patients with CSM underwent preoperative T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of the cervical spine. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values at the level of maximum cord compression and at the noncompressed C1-2 level were calculated on axial images. We recorded the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale scores for all patients preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed to identify correlations between FA and clinical outcome scores. The study included 27 patients (mean age 54.5 years ± 1.9, 12 men). The mean postoperative changes in mJOA scale, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale scores were 0.9 ± 0.3, -6.0 ± 1.9, and 3.4 ± 1.9. The mean FA at the level of maximum compression was significantly lower than the mean FA at the C1-2 level (0.5 vs. 0.55, P = 0.01). FA was significantly correlated with change in mJOA scale score (Pearson r = -0.42, P = 0.02). FA was significantly correlated with the preoperative mJOA scale score (Pearson r = 0.65, P < 0.001). Preoperative FA at the level of maximum cord compression significantly correlates with the 3-month change in mJOA scale score among patients with CSM. FA was also significantly associated with preoperative mJOA scale score and is a potential biomarker for spinal cord dysfunction in CSM. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Progressive tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesion of the infratemporal fossa treated by radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian O’Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesion (TFIL is a rare benign tumor in the head and neck region. We present a case of a 40-year-old female with a benign but progressive lesion of the infratemporal fossa, which was diagnosed as TFIL. Patient responded briefly to a course of steroid treatment but eventually showed progression and was unresponsive to further steroids. She was then treated with external beam radiation to a dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. After radiation a slow, gradual decrease in tumor size was noted over the course of years and she is free of disease after more than 11 years of follow-up. The major longterm side effect this patient developed was an expected unilateral radiation-induced retinopathy, due to the close proximity of the lesion to the orbit. The dilemma of treatment of benign disease with radiation with potential long-term complications is discussed and a review of the literature on TFIL is presented.

  15. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver oligo-recurrence and oligo-progression from various tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yu Jin; Kim, Mi Sook; Jang, Won Il; Seo, Young Seok; Cho, Chul Koo; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Paik, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for patients with liver oligo-recurrence and oligo-progression from various primary tumors. Between 2002 and 2013, 72 patients with liver oligo-recurrence (oligo-metastasis with a controlled primary tumor) and oligo-progression (contradictory progression of a few sites of disease despite an overall tumor burden response to therapy) underwent SBRT. Of these, 9 and 8 patients with uncontrollable distant metastases and patients immediate loss to follow-up, respectively, were excluded. The total planning target volume was used to select the SBRT dose (median, 48 Gy; range, 30 to 60 Gy, 3–4 fractions). Toxicity was evaluated using the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. We evaluated 55 patients (77 lesions) treated with SBRT for liver metastases. All patients had controlled primary lesions, and 28 patients had stable lesions at another site (oligo-progression). The most common primary site was the colon (36 patients), followed by the stomach (6 patients) and other sites (13 patients). The 2-year local control and progression-free survival rates were 68% and 22%, respectively. The 2- and 5-year overall survival rates were 56% and 20%, respectively. The most common adverse events were grade 1–2 fatigue, nausea, and vomiting; no grade ≥3 toxicities were observed. Univariate analysis revealed that oligo-progression associated with poor survival. SBRT for liver oligo-recurrence and oligo-progression appears safe, with similar local control rates. For liver oligo-progression, criteria are needed to select patients in whom improved overall survival can be expected through SBRT.

  16. Toxic agent and radiation control: progress toward objectives for the nation for the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rall, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    In 1980, the Department of Health and Human Services set national prevention objectives for 1990 in 15 health priority areas, 1 of which is the control of toxic agents and radiation. Ten objectives related to this area are priorities for the national control effort. Progress is reviewed on those priorities within the responsibilities of the Public Health Service. Six key program elements, or types of support activities, are deemed essential to preventing, identifying, and controlling toxic agent and radiation threats. Significant progress has been made toward achieving objectives for which all key program elements have been successfully implemented to provide the requisite know-how, manpower, and tools. Important advances have been made in reducing the blood lead levels of the population, reducing unnecessary exposure to medical X-rays, evaluating the toxicities of chemicals in toxic waste dumps, and improving the scientific and technical information base and its availability for prevention and control efforts. The most important priority for the forseeable future will be to expand our knowledge of potential health risks posed by toxic agents and radiation. Expanded surveillance systems and data bases are essential to determining the extent of the problems in terms of human health effects and for measuring the impact of prevention programs. Emphasis on the activities embodied in the key elements will encourage the expansion of the knowledge base and its effective application to prevention and control problems

  17. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Progress report, November 1, 1977--October 31, 1978. [Uv and x radiation, bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluke, D.J.; Pollard, E.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: coordinate induction of mutagenesis, radioresistance, and inhibition of post-radiation DNA degradation; radioinduced filamentation; action spectrum for induction of K12 lambda phage; effects of uv radiation on cells in the frozen state; dependence of mutagenesis on wavelength of uv; and w-reactivation of x-irradiated phage lambda. (HLW)

  18. Mechanisms for radiation damage in DNA. Progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.

    1980-09-01

    In this project several mechanisms are proposed for radiation damage to DNA constituents and DNA, and a series of experiments detailed utilizing electron spin resonance spectrometry to test the proposed mechanisms. Under current investigation are irradiated systems of DNA constituents which may shed light on indirect effects. In addition, studies of radiation effects on lipids have been undertaken which will shed light on the only other proposed site for cell kill, the membrane. Studies completed during the past year are: (1) π cations produced in DNA bases by attack of oxidizing radicals; (2) INDO studies of radicals produced in peptides and carboxylic acid model compounds; (3) electron reactions with carboxylic acids, ketones and aldehydes; and (4) γ-irradiation of esters and triglycerides. Progress has been made this year in a study of radicals generated in model compounds for the sugar-phosphate backbone

  19. Radiation and biophysical studies on cells and viruses. Progress report, February 29, 1974--March 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: sedimentation analysis of chromosome components from interphase and mitotic chromosomes; electron microscopy of mitotic chromosomes; radiosensitive site analysis using short range particle beams; studies on nucleoproteins and DNA; RBE and OER for double strand breaks and single strand breaks of DNA irradiated with 241 Am alpha particles; use of 241 Am alpha particle track-ends to study the location of radiosensitive sites; gamma irradiation of nucleoprotein model systems; assembly of new equipment for the analysis of DNA size distributions; cell rejoining of DNA breaks induced by various radiations; studies on cell transformation induced by gamma radiation; localization of cellular sites for DNA breakage using labeled specific antibodies; and semiconductor properties of melanins related to preferential killing of melanoma cells. (U.S.)

  20. The role of cell progression in potentiation of radiation lethality by hyperthermia and by chemical means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, B.; Lange, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Aerobic stationary dense cultures of HeLa cells show very little potentiation of radiation lethality when irradiated cells are incubated with procaine HCl for two hours at 37 0 C, but if cells are diluted in fresh medium after irradiation and incubated for two hours with procaine, a high degree of radiopotentiation is obtained. This effect is not cell density dependent, since the addition of heavily irradiated cells to achieve comparable densities did not diminish lethality in the diluted culture. Procaine radiopotentiation at 37 0 C could be prevented by simultaneous administration with procaine of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Since cycloheximide inhibits cell cycle progression (with block points in G1 and G2) progression is strongly implicated in the phenomenon of radiopotentiation. Cell progression may be also involved in hyperthermic radiopotentiation: adding cycloheximide during heating of irradiated cells at 41 0 C for two hours increased survival. This effect of cycloheximide is even more pronounced in cells also treated with procaine during heating, thus diminishing the interaction of heat and procaine in radiopotentiation. Data pertaining to cell progression in synchronous cultures of HeLa cells under various treatment conditions are presented and discussed

  1. Comparison of the cytological effects produced by ionizing radiations of different LET. Progress report, March 1974--April 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, E.F. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: RBE of neutrons and x radiation for effects on rat lens epithelium; effects of x radiation on tumor cell transplants in mice; effects of fast neutrons on ascites tumors; the sparing effect of dose fractionation in the wounded rat lens; and DNA synthesis in wounded rat lens at various times after irradiation. (U.S.)

  2. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Progress report, November 1, 1977--October 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.; Pollard, E.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: coordinate induction of mutagenesis, radioresistance, and inhibition of post-radiation DNA degradation; radioinduced filamentation; action spectrum for induction of K12 lambda phage; effects of uv radiation on cells in the frozen state; dependence of mutagenesis on wavelength of uv; and w-reactivation of x-irradiated phage lambda

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging for Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1- associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Zemorshidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis is a chronic progressive neurologic disease which might be associated by brain and spinal cord atrophy and lesions. Here we systematically reviewed the brain and spinal cord abnormalities reported by using magnetic resonance imaging modality on HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients. Methods: PubMed was searched for all the relevant articles which used magnetic resonance imaging for patients with human HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis disease. Included criteria were all the cohort and case series on with at least 10 patients. We had no time limitation for searched articles, but only English language articles were included in our systematic review. Exclusion criteria were none-English articles, case reports, articles with less than 10 patients, spastic paraparesis patients with unknown etiology, and patients with HTLVII. Results: Total of 14 relevant articles were extracted after studying title, abstracts, and full text of the irrelevant articles. Only 2/14 articles, reported brain atrophy incidence. 5/14 articles studied the brain lesions prevalence. Spinal cord atrophy and lesions, each were studied in 6/14 articles.Discussion: According to the extracted data, brain atrophy does not seem to happen frequently in patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. None-specific brain lesions identified in articles are indicative of low specificity of magnetic resonance imaging technique despite its high sensitivity. Conclusion: Prevalence of spinal cord lesions and atrophy in these patients might be due to the degenerative processes associated with aging phenomenon. Further larger studies in endemic areas can more accurately reveal the specificity of magnetic resonance imaging for these patients.

  4. A research program on radiative, chemical, and dynamical feedback progresses influencing the carbon dioxide and trace gases climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This report summarizes the up-to-date progress. The program includes two tasks: atmospheric radiation and climatic effects and their objective is to link quantitatively the radiation forcing changes and the climate responses caused by increasing greenhouse gases. Here, the objective and approach are described. We investigate the combined atmospheric radiation characteristics of the greenhouse gases (H 2 O, CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, CFCs, and O 3 ), aerosols and clouds. Since the climatic effect of increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases is initiated by perturabtion to the longwave thermal radiation, it is critical to understand better the radiation characteristics of the greenhouse gases and their relationship to radiatively-important aerosols and clouds; the latter reflect solar radiation (a cooling of the surface) and provide a greenhouse effect (a warming to the surface). Therefore, aerosol and cloud particles are an integral part of the radiation field in the atmosphere. 9 refs

  5. Atlantoaxial subluxation. Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging correlated to myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kojima, R.

    Twenty-nine patients with atlantoaxial subluxation (18 with rheumatoid arthritis, 2 due to trauma, 4 with os odontoideum, and one each with polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatic fever, Klippel-Feil syndrome, achondroplasia, and cause unknown) were evaluated using a 0.22 tesla resistive MRI unit. Cord compression was classified into four grades according to the degree on magnetic resonance imaging. There were 7 patients with no thecal sac compression (grade 0), 10 with a minimal degree of subarachnoid space compression without cord compression (grade 1), 7 with mild cord compression (grade 2), and 5 with severe cord compression or cord atrophy (grade 3). Although the severity of myelopathy showed poor correlation with the atlantodental interval on conventional radiography, high correlation was observed between MR grading and the degree of myelopathy. The high signal intensity foci were observed in 7 or 12 patients with cord compression (grades 2 and 3) on T2 weighted images. Other frequently observed findings in rheumatoid arthritis included soft tissue masses of low to intermediate signal intensity in the paraodontoid space, erosions of the odontoid processes, and atlanto-axial impaction on T1 and T2 weighted images.

  6. Preoperative and postoperative evaluation of clinical symptoms of cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tomokazu; Oshima, Yoshihiko; Ota, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of signal changes on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images in myelopathy, the relationship between characteristics of clinical symptoms and postoperative recovery was examined. The subjects were a total of 52 patients (37 men and 15 women) with cervical myelopathy (n=44) or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (n=8), who underwent extended surgery of Yamagata University's style. They ranged in age from 33 to 81 years (mean, 60.8). The degree of spinal compression and signal changes in the spinal cord were classified on T1-weighted and T2-weighted sagittal images, respecstively. Hyperintense on T2-weighted images tended to be associated with lower preoperative JOA's scores especially for exercise, legs and bladder or rectum function, as compared with isointense. T2-weighted images seemed to reflect, to some degree, the severity of preoperative clinical symptoms. For the rate of postoperative improvement, however, there was no significant difference between the hyperintense and isointense groups on T2-weighted images. (N.K.)

  7. Acoustic backscattering and radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane progressive waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a formal analytical theory using the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates, to calculate the acoustic backscattering form function as well as the radiation force-per-length on an infinitely long elliptical (non-circular) cylinder in plane progressive waves. The major (or minor) semi-axis of the ellipse coincides with the direction of the incident waves. The scattering coefficients for the rigid elliptical cylinder are determined by imposing the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface and solving a resulting system of linear equations by matrix inversion. The present method, which utilizes standard cylindrical (Bessel and Hankel) wave functions, presents an advantage over the solution for the scattering that is ordinarily expressed in a basis of elliptical Mathieu functions (which are generally non-orthogonal). Furthermore, an integral equation showing the direct connection of the radiation force function with the square of the scattering form function in the far-field from the scatterer (applicable for plane waves only), is noted and discussed. An important application of this integral equation is the adequate evaluation of the radiation force function from a bistatic measurement (i.e., in the polar plane) of the far-field scattering from any 2D object of arbitrary shape. Numerical predictions are evaluated for the acoustic backscattering form function and the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density, and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb, without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation, acousto-fluidics and particle dynamics applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Progressive behavioral changes in rats after exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.; Kimler, B.F.; Mullenix, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on the developing brain may be not only prolonged but progressive. Fetuses were exposed to 0.75 Gy of ionizing radiation on gestational day 15 through whole body exposure of the pregnant rat. Three behavioral tests (gait analysis, continuous corridor activity and photographic analysis of sequences of behavioral acts) were performed at 1 and 3 months, postnatally. Body weight and thickness of the cerebral cortex of irradiated rats were 10-15 percent below controls throughout the period of study. Behavior in all tests was more affected at 3 months than at 1 month of age. Gait of control rats, as measured by the angle of advanced of hind feet, widened about 20 percent for males and 40 percent for females from 1 to 3 months, as expected, while, in irradiated rats, the angle widened only about 10 percent. Continuous corridor activity increased less than 10 percent in controls and about 35 percent in irradiated rats over the same period. In photographic analysis of behavior, controls increased their time spent standing by about 50 percent in males and 20 percent in females from 1 to 3 months of age. Irradiated males increased time standing only about 10 percent and irradiated females decreased about 30 percent over the same period. The data obtained in these experiments support other evidence that some behavioral alterations from perinatal exposure to radiation become more marked with maturation

  9. Human genetic marker for resistance to radiations and chemicals. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    'The broad objective of the project is to understand the molecular basis for the response of cells to radiations and chemicals, with the pragmatic goal of being able to identify human subpopulations that are exceptionally sensitive to DNA damaging agents. The project focuses on HRAD9, a human orthologue of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene rad9. S. pombe rad9::ura4+ mutant cells are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation, UV and many chemicals, such as the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea. They also lack the ability to delay cycling transiently in S phase or in G2 following a block in DNA replication or after incurring DNA damage, respectively -i.e., they lack checkpoint controls. The attempt by mutant cells to progress through mitosis in the absence of fully intact DNA accounts at least in part for their sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Cells bearing rad9::ura4+ also aberrantly regulate UVDE, an enzyme that participates in a secondary DNA excision repair pathway. The key role played by S. pombe rad9 in promoting resistance to chemicals and radiations suggests that the evolutionarily conserved human cognate also has important functions in mammals. The first set of aims in this proposal centers on characterizing the structure and expression of HRAD9, to assess structure/function relationships and potentially link protein activity to a specific tissue. The next set of aims focuses on determining the role of HRAD9 in radio/chemoresponsiveness and cancer.'

  10. Neurorestoratology evidence in an animal model with cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Li,1,2 Guangsheng Li,1,3 Keith Dip-Kei Luk,1 Yong Hu1–3 1Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, 2Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Innovative Technology in Orthopaedic Trauma, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, 3Spinal Division, Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM is a chronic compression injury of the spinal cord, with potentially reversible conditions after surgical decompression, and a unique model of incomplete spinal cord injury. Several animal studies showed pathological changes of demyelination, axon loss and neuron apoptosis in rats with chronic spinal cord compression. However, there is a limited understanding of the neurological change in the spinal cord after surgical decompression. The aim of this study was to validate the neurorestoratology of myelopathic lesions in the spinal cord in a rat model. Materials and methods: A total of 16 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control (group 1; CSM model with 4-week chronic compression (group 2, 2 weeks (group 3 and 4 weeks (group 4 after surgical decompression of CSM model. The compression and decompression were verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI test. Neurological function was evaluated by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale, ladder rung walking test and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs. Neuropathological change was evaluated by histological examinations. Results: MRI confirmed the compression of the cervical spinal cord as well as the reshaping of cord morphology after decompression. After decompression, significant changes of neurological function were observed in BBB scores (p < 0.01, F = 10.52, ladder rung walking test (p < 0.05, F = 14.21 and latencies (p < 0.05, F = 5.76 and amplitudes (p < 0.05, F = 3.8 of

  11. Surgical results and MRI findings of cervical myelopathy treated with anterior decompression and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazato, Takenari; Teruya, Yoshimitsu; Kinjo, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed 19 patients with cervical myelopathy treated with anterior decompression and fusion. Etiology of cervical myelopathy was cervical disc herniation (CDH) in 13 patients and cervical spondylosis (CSM) in 6. Clinical recovery rate (%) was calculated from preoperative cervical myelopathy score (JOA) and the score at follow-up. Correlation between the clinical recovery rate and MRI findings (area and flatness at the narrowest part of the spinal cord), age at surgery, duration of myelopathy and pre-operative clinical score were analyzed separately in the CDH and CSM groups. Clinical recovery rate averaged 69% in the CDH group and 75% in the CSM group. In the CDH group, average clinical recovery rate in patients younger than 60 years was 80 and in patients over 60 years was 60. There was a significant negative correlation between the clinical recovery rate and age at surgery (p<0.05). No significant correlation was found between the clinical recovery rate and other factors investigated. (author)

  12. Morphology of the cervical spinal cord with myelopathy on computed myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Hiroaki; Asano, Masafumi; Yokota, Hidemaro

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between morphological changes in the spinal cord shown on computer-assisted myelography and symptoms was investigated in 73 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Flatness of the spinal cord was seen in many of the patients. Symptoms were likely to be severer with increasing the degree of flatness of the spinal cord. The length of the flat spinal cord will help to select the operative method for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Recent progress and tests of radiation resistant impregnation materials for Nb3Sn coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, R.; Krave, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Fermilab is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. An important component of this work is the development of materials that are sufficiently radiation resistant for use in critical areas of the upgrade. This paper describes recent progress in characterization of materials, including the baseline CTD101K epoxy, cyanate ester blends, and Matrimid 5292, a bismaleimide-based system. Structural properties of "ten stacks" of cable impregnated with these materials are tested at room and cryogenic temperatures and compared to the baseline CT-101K. Experience with potting 1 and 2 meter long coils with Matrimid 5292 are described. Test results of a single 1-m coil impregnated with Matrimid 5292 are reported and compared to similar coils impregnated with the traditional epoxy.

  14. Recent progress and tests of radiation resistant impregnation materials for Nb3Sn coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.; Krave, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Fermilab is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb 3 Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. An important component of this work is the development of materials that are sufficiently radiation resistant for use in critical areas of the upgrade. This paper describes recent progress in characterization of materials, including the baseline CTD101K epoxy, cyanate ester blends, and Matrimid 5292, a bismaleimide-based system. Structural properties of “ten stacks” of cable impregnated with these materials are tested at room and cryogenic temperatures and compared to the baseline CT-101K. Experience with potting 1 and 2 meter long coils with Matrimid 5292 are described. Test results of a single 1-m coil impregnated with Matrimid 5292 are reported and compared to similar coils impregnated with the traditional epoxy

  15. Locoregional Tumor Progression After Radiation Therapy Influences Overall Survival in Pediatric Patients With Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai Panandiker, Atmaram S.; McGregor, Lisa; Krasin, Matthew J.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There is renewed attention to primary site irradiation and local control for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma (NB). We conducted a retrospective review to identify factors that might predict for locoregional tumor control and its impact on overall survival. Methods and Materials: Between July 2000 through August 2006, a total of 44 pediatric patients with NB received radiation therapy (RT) with curative intent using computed tomography (CT)-based treatment planning. The median age was 3.4 years and the median cumulative dose was 23.4 Gy. Overall survival and locoregional tumor control were measured from the start of RT to the date of death or event as determined by CT/magnetic resonance imaging/meta-iodobenzylguanidine. The influence of age at irradiation, gender, race, cumulative radiation dose, International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage, treatment protocol and resection status was determined with respect to locoregional tumor control. Results: With a median follow-up of 34 months ± 21 months, locoregional tumor progression was observed in 11 (25%) and was evenly divided between primary site and adjacent nodal/visceral site failure. The influence of locoregional control reached borderline statistical significance (p = 0.06). Age (p = 0.5), dose (p = 0.6), resection status (p = 0.7), and International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage (p = 0.08) did not influence overall survival. Conclusions: Overall survival in high-risk neuroblastoma is influenced by locoregional tumor control. Despite CT-based planning, progression in adjacent nodal/visceral sites appears to be common; this requires further investigation regarding target volume definitions, dose, and the effects of systemic therapy.

  16. Health Economics and the Management of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witiw, Christopher D; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Fehlings, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is the leading cause of spinal cord impairment worldwide. Surgical intervention has been demonstrated to be effective and is becoming standard of care. Spine surgery, however, is costly and value needs to be demonstrated. This review serves to summarize the key health economic concepts as they relate to the assessment of the value of surgery for DCM. This is followed by a discussion of current health economic research on DCM, which suggests that surgery is likely to be cost effective. The review concludes with a summary of future questions that remain unanswered, such as which patient subgroups derive the most value from surgery and which surgical approaches are the most cost effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Finger-tapping motion analysis in cervical myelopathy by magnetic-sensor tapping device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Toshitada; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Makino, Takahiro; Kandori, Akihiko; Fuji, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    Case-control study. The purpose of this study is to determine finger motion of patients with cervical myelopathy during finger-tapping cycles. A major symptom of patients with compressive cervical myelopathy is finger clumsiness. Therefore, understanding finger motion is prerequisite in assessing the severity of myelopathy. The popular grip-and-release test evaluates only the number of motion cycles, which is insufficient to fully describe complex finger motion. Forty-three patients with cervical myelopathy and 41 healthy controls tapped their index fingers against their thumbs as rapidly as possible for 30 seconds and the motion was recorded by a magnetic-sensor coil attached to the nail surface. Output signals were stored in a computer, which automatically calculated tapping frequency, distance moved, ratio of opening/closing velocity and the SD of the tapping interval. The SD of the tapping interval was significantly greater and all other measures were significantly smaller in patients with cervical myelopathy, than in healthy controls. All indices significantly improved after surgical decompression of the cervical spine. Distance moved (Pearson correlation coefficient: r=0.590, Ptapping interval (r=-0.451; P=0.002) were significantly correlated with the Japanese Orthopedic Association score (neurological scale). The quantitative evaluation of finger paralysis was performed by this tapping device. Speed and regularity in repetitive motion of fingers were correlated with the severity of cervical myelopathy.

  18. The efficacy of dynamic MRI in assessing a cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Tetsuya; Yamada, Tomonori; Okumura, Yoshiya; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Hiramatsu, Kenichiro; Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Iwasaki, Satoru

    1994-01-01

    There are problems that are unresolved with regard to the treatment of cases presenting a post-taumatic cervical myelopathy, such as when the surgical indications are not clearly evidence and the proper timing of this surgery. In this regard, the authors have used dynamic MRI to retrospectively analyze the cervical spine of 24 previously treated dynamic MRI cases presenting a subacute myelopathy to determine the efficacy of dynamic MRI as a method of treatment. Dynamic MRI analysis protocol was as follows. For the MR imagings, each patient was placed supine with the neck in the neutral position, after which the neck was set in the extended position. Dynamic changes between the neutral position and extended position images were analyzed by focusing on the following two point: (1) the narrowing of the subarachnoid space in the T2-weighted images and (2) evidence of cord compression in the T1-weighted images. Twelve cases out of 24 were treated conservatively because of a gradual improvement in their myelopathic symptoms. The other 12 cases were treated surgically, because of no improvement in their residual myelopathic symptoms at the time when the dynamic MRI had been performed. In the majority of cases in the surgical group, the narrowing of the subarachnoid space and spinal cord compression were hightened on neck extension, whereas in the conservative group, such findings were minimal. Dynamic MRI also more clearly visualized multiple lesions and the direction of the cord compression. These findings thus provided more detailed information to plan the surgical approach and to estimate the amount of surgical decompression needed. Based on the results of this retrospective study, we thus concluded that surgical treatment appears to benefit subacute cases who show no improvement in their residual myelopathic symptoms and whose dynamic MRI results also demonstrate an increased narrowing of subarachnoid space and a heightened spinal cord compression. (author)

  19. Radiation-induced osteochondroma of the T4 vertebra causing spinal cord compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorospe, Luis; Madrid-Muniz, Carmen; Royo, Aranzazu; Garcia-Raya, Pilar [Department of Radiology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Ruiz, Fernando [Department of Neurosurgery, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Barea, Fernando [Department of Pathology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain)

    2002-04-01

    A case of a radiation-induced osteochondroma arising from the vertebral body of T4 in an 18-year-old man is reported. The patient presented with a history of progressive left lower extremity weakness. At 7 years of age, he had undergone resection of a cerebellar medulloblastoma and received adjunctive craniospinal irradiation and systemic chemotherapy. Both CT and MR imaging revealed an extradural mass contiguous with the posteroinferior endplate of the T4 vertebral body. This case indicates that radiation-induced osteochondroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with symptoms of myelopathy or nerve root compression and a history of radiation therapy involving the spine in childhood. (orig.)

  20. Progressive glomerulosclerosis and renal failure following perinatal gamma radiation in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenke, R.S.; Phemister, R.D.; Norrdin, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The renal effects of whole body irradiation in the perinatal period were studied in the dog. Ninety-three dogs received a single sublethal exposure in the range of 270 to 435 R in either late gestation (55 days postcoitus) or early postnatal life (2 days postpartum) and were sacrificed at 70 days, 2, or 4 years of age. Early renal lesions in 70-day-old irradiated dogs were characterized by arrested glomerular maturation and degeneration resulting in reduced functional renal mass. Mature glomeruli exhibited mesangial proliferation. At 2 and 4 years of age, surviving irradiated dogs exhibited sever renal disease associated with progressive glomerular damage which was characterized by mesangial proliferation and compression of capillary lumina, epithelial degeneration and focal capsular adhesions, and ultimately obliterative glomerulosclerosis. Twenty-one of the 93 irradiated dogs died in renal failure before 4 years of age with advanced glomerulosclerosis. The phatogenesis of this progressive renal lesion may be related to the interaction of three specific factors. These include (1) the effect of direct radiation damage to mature kidney components; (2) the loss of outer cortical nephrons resulting in increased work load of the surviving nephrons; and (3) the effect of compensatory hypertrophy related to the loss of renal parenchyma as the rapid growth rates associated with kidney maturation

  1. Effect of hyperthermia and radiation on the cell cycle progression of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Nobuo

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hyperthermia and irradiation on cytokinetics was studied using exponentially growing HeLa cells. To determine the effect of heat and/or radiation on the cell cycle progression, the changes in the DNA distribution of the cell population after time intervals after treatment were studied. The cellular DNA content of the cell population was measured by flow cytometry. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Compared with the control, the cellular DNA content distribution of HeLa cells treated with 43 0 C for 20 min and 60 min showed cell accumulation in S and G 2 M phases 8 hours after treatment. 2. Hyperthermic treatment at 45 0 C for 20 min caused cells to accumulate in S phase in the first 4 hours and G 2 M phase after 8 to 14.5 hours, whereas heat treatment at 45 0 C for 60 min caused cells to accumulate in G 2 M phase after 24 hours. 3. Irradiation of exponentially growing cells induced a block in the progress from G 2 M to G 1 phase. 4. Dose survival curves of HeLa cells with and without postirradiation thermal treatment (43 0 C, 60 min) showed significant enhancement of radiosensitivity by hyperthermia. 5. The sequential treatment, i.e. 5 Gy irradiation followed immediately by heat treatment at 43 0 C for 60 min, caused more cells to accumulate in G 2 M phase after 24 and 48 hours, as compared with 5 Gy irradiation alone. (author)

  2. Biotinidase deficiency presenting as recurrent myelopathy in a 7-year-old boy and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2011-10-01

    Biotinidase deficiency may produce variable neurologic manifestations. Brainstem and spinal cord disease comprises an uncommon presentation of biotinidase deficiency. We describe a 7-year old boy with subacute progressive quadriplegia and "sighing" respirations. Severe biotinidase deficiency was established, and the patient demonstrated complete recovery with biotin supplementation. Genetic studies revealed presence of homozygous mutation in the BTD gene [c.133C>T (p.H447Y)]. Biotinidase deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis for subacute, long segment myelopathy, particularly with brainstem involvement. This entity is treatable; a high index of suspicion can be life-saving. We also review the literature on biotinidase deficiency presenting as spinal cord demyelinating disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms for radiation damage in DNA. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.

    1979-07-01

    Several mechanisms for radiation damage to DNA constituents and DNA are proposed, and a series of experiments utilizing electron spin resonance spectrometry to test the proposed mechanisms are detailed. In the past we have concentrated chiefly on the direct affect of radiation on DNA. We are currently investigating systems of DNA constituents and peptides which may shed light on indirect effects. Studies which have been completed during the past year include: (1) studies of γ-irradiated N-acetyl amino acids and peptide solutions at 77 0 K; and (2) studies of barriers to hindered rotation in peptide radicals. Studies in which progress has been made in this past year include: (1) π cations produced in DNA bases by hydroxyl radical attack; and (2) studies of spin transfer in γ-Irradiated nucleoside-peptide solutions. These studies have shown that: (1) frozen aqueous solutions provide a suitable matrix for γ irradiation studies; (2) γ-irradiated peptides in frozen aqueous solutions follow chemistry expected from previous studies; and (3) π cations of DNA base can be produced by hydroxyl radical attack

  4. The effectiveness of electromagnetic terahertz radiation use in the treatment of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenova A.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to increase the efficiency of treatment of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP using electromagnetic radiation at terahertz frequencies of molecular spectrum of radiation and absorption of nitric oxide 150,176-150,664 GHz. Material and methods. The study involved 50 patients with RPP, which according to the method of therapy were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients receiving conventional therapy, group 2 consisted of patients who, along with traditional therapy received EHF-therapy device "Orbit" YAKUL.941526.001. The control group consisted of 20 healthy subjects with intact periodontium. For the non-invasive study of tissue blood flow in the periodontal tissue Doppler ultrasound was used MiniMax-Doppler-Phono. The study of the microvasculature of periodontitis has been conducted. To determine the reactivity of microvascular periodontal tissue reflex functional tests on the indirect effect of the cold were performed. Results. Reductions achieved values of periodontal indices, especially important index PMA, a significant increase in the linear blood flow indices, decreased pulse pressure gradient and the index followed appropriate reduction to their cold test. Conclusion. The proposed complex therapy can accelerate the relief of inflammation in the periodontal tissues of the complex, to improve the elastic properties of blood vessels, reduce their tone and restore microcirculation in periodontal tissues.

  5. Tumor progression: analysis of the instability of the metastatic phenotype, sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The major complications for tumor therapy are 1) tumor spread (metastasis); 2) the mixed nature of tumors (heterogeneity); and 3) the capacity of tumors to evolve (progress). To study these tumor characteristics, the rat 13762NF mammary adenocarcinoma was cloned and studied for metastatic properties and sensitivities to therapy (chemotherapy, radiation and hyperthermia). The cell clones were heterogeneous and no correlation between metastatic potential and therapeutic sensitivities was observed. Further, these phenotypes were unstable during pasage in vitro; yet, the changes were clone dependent and reproducible using different cryoprotected cell stocks. To understand the phenotypic instability, subclones were isolated from low and high passage cell clones. The results demonstrated that 1) tumor cells are heterogeneous for multiple phenotypes; 2) tumor cells are unstable for multiple phenotypes; 3) the magnitude, direction and time of occurrence of phenotypic drift is clone dependent; 4) the sensitivity of cell clones to ionizing radiation (γ or heat) and chemotherapy agents is independent of their metastatic potential; 5) shifts in metastatic potential and sensitivity to therapy may occur simultaneously but are not linked; and 6) tumor cells independently diverge to form several subpopulations with unique phenotypic profiles

  6. Progress in z-pinch driven dynamic-hohlraums for high-temperature radiation-flow and ICF experiments at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T W L; Nash, T J; Olson, R E; Bliss, D E; Lemke, R W; Olson, C L; Ruiz, C L; Mock, R C; Bailey, J E; Chandler, G A; Cuneo, M E; Leeper, R J; Matzen, M K; Mehlhorn, T A; Slutz, S A; Stygar, W A; Peterson, D L; Chrien, R E; Watt, R G; Roderick, N F; Cooper, G W; Apruzese, J P; Sarkisov, G S; Chittenden, J P; Haines, M G

    2004-01-01

    Progress in understanding the physics of dynamic-hohlraums is reviewed for a system capable of generating 13 TW of axial radiation for high temperature (>200 eV) radiation-flow experiments and ICF capsule implosions

  7. Preoperative cervical sagittal alignment parameters and their impacts on myelopathy in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical sagittal alignment plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM, but there are limited studies on the cervical sagittal parameters in CSM patients and their correlations with myelopathy. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlations among the preoperative cervical sagittal alignment parameters and their correlations with the development of myelopathy in patients with CSM. Methods We retrospectively collected 212 patients with CSM who underwent surgical interventions. Gender, age, modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score (mJOA, cervical lordosis (CL, C2–C7 sagittal vertical axis (C2–C7 SVA, T1 slope (T1S, neck tilt (NT and thoracic inlet angle (TIA were collected before operation. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated for all measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC. Data were analyzed with Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and multiple linear regression analysis. Results A total of 212 patients with CSM were included in this study (male: 136, female: 76 with an average age of 54.5 ± 10.1 years old. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability for all included radiographic parameters presented good to excellent agreement (ICC > 0.7. No significant differences in demographic and radiological parameters have been observed between males and females (P > 0.05. We found statistically significant correlations among the following parameters: age with CL (r = 0.135, P = 0.049, age with T1S (r = 0.222, P = 0.001, CL with T1S (r = 0.291, P < 0.001, CL with C2-C7 SVA (r =  − 0.395, P < 0.001, mJOA with age (r =  − 0.274, P < 0.001, mJOA with C2–C7 SVA (r =  − 0.219, P < 0.001 and mJOA with T1S(r =  − 0.171, p = 0.013. Linear regression analysis showed that C2–C7 SVA was the predictor of CL (adjusted R2 = 0.152, P < 0.001 and multiple linear regression showed that age combined with C

  8. Canine degenerative myelopathy: biochemical characterization of superoxide dismutase 1 in the first naturally occurring non-human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Matthew J; Beckett, Jeffrey; Coates, Joan R; Miller, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Mutations in canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have recently been shown to cause canine degenerative myelopathy, a disabling neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific breeds of dogs characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and paralysis until death, or more common, euthanasia. This discovery makes canine degenerative myelopathy the first and only naturally occurring non-human model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), closely paralleling the clinical, pathological, and genetic presentation of its human counterpart, SOD1-mediated familial ALS. To further understand the biochemical role that canine SOD1 plays in this disease and how it may be similar to human SOD1, we characterized the only two SOD1 mutations described in affected dogs to date, E40K and T18S. We show that a detergent-insoluble species of mutant SOD1 is present in spinal cords of affected dogs that increases with disease progression. Our in vitro results indicate that both canine SOD1 mutants form enzymatically active dimers, arguing against a loss of function in affected homozygous animals. Further studies show that these mutants, like most human SOD1 mutants, have an increased propensity to form aggregates in cell culture, with 10-20% of cells possessing visible aggregates. Creation of the E40K mutation in human SOD1 recapitulates the normal enzymatic activity but not the aggregation propensity seen with the canine mutant. Our findings lend strong biochemical support to the toxic role of SOD1 in canine degenerative myelopathy and establish close parallels for the role mutant SOD1 plays in both canine and human disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of C1 Laminectomy Without Fusion in Patients With Cervical Myelopathy That Is Associated With a Retro-odontoid Pseudotumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Mitsuru; Neo, Masashi; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Ota, Masato; Otsuki, Bungo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Umebayashi, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    A retro-odontoid pseudotumor that is not associated with rheumatoid arthritis or hemodialysis is clinically rare. The majority of surgeons select transoral resection as the surgical treatment, often followed by posterior fusion or posterior decompression and fusion. In contrast, some authors have reported success with simple decompression without posterior stabilization in cases where atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is either absent or minor. In this study, we have evaluated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of C1 laminectomy without fusion as the surgical treatment for patients with cervical myelopathy that is associated with a retro-odontoid pseudotumor. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 10 patients who underwent C1 laminectomy without fusion for cervical myelopathy associated with a retro-odontoid pseudotumor. The average follow-up time was 29 months. All cases were graded as Ranawat grade 3a or 3b. After surgery, myelopathy improved in all of the patients. In 2 patients, the atlas-dens interval increased in the flexed position; however, this did not result in any clinical problems. The size of the retro-odontoid mass (measured on magnetic resonance images at least 12 mo after surgery) decreased in 4 of the 10 cases. AAI progression and mass enlargement were our primary concerns for this surgical option; however, C1 laminectomy did not cause severe AAI progression, no patients showed serious mass enlargement, and all patients demonstrated neurological improvement. This surgical strategy is beneficial especially for elderly patients given the risks of other surgical options that use an anterior transoral approach or posterior fusion.

  10. Studies in chemical dynamics and radiation chemistry. Technical progress report, 1 July 1974--30 June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppermann, A.

    1975-01-01

    Research progress in the following areas is reported: low energy electron scattering; photoelectron spectrometry; elementary reactions by photolysis at variable wavelengths; collisions in crossed molecular beams; and, diffusion kinetics in the radiation chemistry of water. Publications related to the work are included. (JGB)

  11. Physico-chemical studies of radiation effects in cells. Progress report, February 15, 1982-February 14, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in studies investigating the chemical mechanisms involved in radiation-induced cellular damage is reported. Three organisms currently being tested are Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli, silver and mercury have been used as radiosensitizers, and their interaction with DNA studied

  12. Role of p53 status in radiation sensitivity and cell cycle progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellars, Richard C.; Loney, Tania; Schott, Ann F.; Davis, Mary A.; Maybaum, Jonathan; Clarke, Michael F.; Lawrence, Theodore S.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Although p53 function plays a major role in G1 arrest after radiation, the influence of p53 status on progress through other phases of the cell cycle and on radiation sensitivity of human tumors is less clear. We investigated these issues using cells with a conditional expression system for wild type p53. Methods: A temperature sensitive murine wild type p53 plasmid was used (Ginsberg D, et al: Mol. Cell.Biol . 11:582, 1991). At the permissive temperature (32 deg. C), this plasmid produces a protein which assumes a conformation that exhibits wild type p53 function. However, when cells are cultured at 38 deg. C, this protein assumes an inactive conformation. HT29 human colon cancer cells (which are p53 mutant) were transduced with this plasmid (designated PEP A and PEP G cells) or a control vector (designated CCH1 cells) using electroporation and Geneticin selection. The presence of murine p53 transcript in the PEP cells was confirmed by Northern analysis. Results: Cells were cultured under 3 conditions: 1) 38 deg. C at all times; 2) 32 deg. C for 24 hours prior to irradiation and 3) 32 deg. C for 24 hours after irradiation. We found that culturing under permissive temperatures produced a small decrease in surviving fraction in the PEP clones (0.61 ± 0.10 and 0.64 ± 0.07, for PEP A and G, respectively) but not the CCH1 controls (1.14 ± 0.15). PEP cells tended to be more radiosensitive than CCH1 cells (even under non-permissive conditions) and demonstrated a trend towards increased radiosensitivity under both Conditions 2 and 3. In addition, flow cytometry revealed that a 24 hour exposure to permissive conditions increased the fraction of cells in G1 slightly and in G2/M substantially. S phase was almost absent. Conclusion: Restoration of p53 function in HT29 human colon cancer cells using this temperature sensitive system produced increased cytotoxicity and radiation sensitivity as well as cell cycle redistribution. It will be important to assess the

  13. Mechanisms for radiation damage in DNA. Progress report, August 1, 1975--July 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    In this project we have proposed a mechanism for radiation damage to DNA and detailed a series of experiments utilizing electron spin resonance spectrometry to test the proposed mechanisms. In this past year several investigations have been completed or are nearing completion. These investigations are an ESR study of the N 1 -substituted thymine π-cation radicals; studies of electron reactions with amino acid anhydrides; and ESR and pulse radiolytic studies of electron transfer in dinucleoside phosphate anions. Studies which we have made significant progress on in this past year are positive ion radicals of the dinucleoside phosphates, and reactions of the π-cations of thymine derivatives. In the first study the spin density distribution in the cation radicals of thymidine and thymidine-5 1 -monophosphate have been elucidated. Couplings are found to the ribose group in these radicals. It is believed that these results will aid the identification of cation radicals in DNA. In study 2, the results indicate that these cyclic anhydrides can undergo reductive deamination. In study 3, the results show the order of electron affinities of the DNA bases to be thymine approximately equal to cytosine greater than adenine approximately equal to guanine

  14. [Reports from Scientific Review Committees on Recommendations for Radiation Protection]. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A brief annual report is presented for work on recommendations dealing with management of radionuclides produced in nuclear power generation, radiation associated with medical examinations, radiation received by radiation employees, experimental verification of internal dosimetry calculations, internal emitter standards, radionuclides in the environment, biological effects of magnetic fields, and radiation exposure and potentially related injury

  15. Analysis of the value of post-radiation prostate biopsy in predicting subsequent disease progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, R.; Shamsa, F.; Meetze, K.; Bolton, S.; Littrup, P.; Grignon, D.; Washington, T.; Forman, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the value of Transrectal ultrasound(TRUS), Color flow doppler(CFD) and Prostate specific antigen(PSA) in identifying residual disease in the prostate status post external beam radiation therapy and to determine the value of this pathologic information in predicting subsequent disease progression. Materials and Methods: As part of four prospective protocols, 146 patients had scheduled TRUS guided prostate biopsies 6-25 months status post radiation therapy. The stage distribution was: 13% T1, 51% T2, and 36% T3/T4. Fifty six percent had neo-adjuvant hormones. Conformal photon or mixed neutron/photon irradiation was given to a median 2 Gy/fraction equivalent dose of 77 Gy(range 74 to 84 Gy). Following treatment, patients were assessed by digital rectal exam (DRE), PSA and TRUS guided biopsies at 6, 12 and/or 18 months. The ultrasound and CFD results were scored as normal, suspicious or abnormal. Sextant biopsies were obtained as well as ultrasound guided biopsies from any abnormal ultrasound or doppler area. The biopsies, all read by one pathologist (DG), were graded as negative, marked, moderate, minimal therapeutic effect or positive. The median followup post radiation therapy was 33.6 months and post biopsy was 25.3 months. Comparisons were done by Kappa index with corresponding 95% CI, chi square and Fisher's exact tests. Results: Twenty-eight patients had biopsies at both six and 12-18 months. Overall 35% of patients had all negative cores, 30% had at least one core showing a marked therapeutic effect, and 35% had at least one core showing moderate or minimal therapeutic effect or were positive. Although CFD correlated with a positive biopsy in 9% and a suspicious doppler identified cancer in 15% of cases, an abnormal TRUS identified cancer in 29.5% biopsies ((49(166))). However, a serum PSA >1.5ng/ml at the time of biopsy predicted 61% of positive biopsies ((23(38))). A negative biopsy was associated with low stage (≤T2c, p=0.001), low pre

  16. Reinforcing the protection against ionizing radiation in medical uses through following the progress in modern medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junzheng; Li Junli

    2008-01-01

    The medical application of ionizing radiation has the longest history, the most extensive uses and the strongest effect among the multiple applications of ionizing radiation technology. With the development of diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, for instances, the radiology, the interventional radiology, the nuclear medicine, and the radiation oncology; the infrastructures and teambuilding of medical physics in China has been becoming more and more important and urgent. Fortunately, people in relevant fields have already recognized this situation and made lots of progresses in the recent years, for example, the 221 st Xiangshan Science Conference took 'The Development of Medical Physics' as its main topic in 2004; in recent years, a series of regulations and national standards regarding to the quality assurance and radiological protection of medical exposure and the teambuilding of the relevant departments in hospital have been successively issued; the subject of Medical Physics was opened as both undergraduate and graduated courses in more and more universities (Tsinghua University, Peking University etc); the Committee on Medical Physics was enrolled as a new member of the Chinese Physical Society. Modern medical physics should include 4 parts, medical imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, radiation oncology physics, and health physics. Protection against ionizing radiation needs to fully cover the development of medical physics, which includes the protection against ianizing radiation in medical uses. This article emphasizes the improvement of the ionizing radiation protection in medical uses, for marking of 30th anniversary of the Journal of Radiation Protection. (authors)

  17. Research progress and application prospect of radiation-resistant prokaryotic microbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Zhu Jing; Zhang Zhidong; Tang Qiyong; Chen Ming

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-resistant microbe is becoming the research hotspot because of its special life phenomenon and physiological mechanism. Radiation-resistant bacteria are one kind of the most studied radiation-resistant microbe. This article summarized some aspects of the research on radiation-resistant bacteria, including the radiation resistant bacteria resources, and discussed its potential application prospects in the environmental engineering, biotechnology, human health, military and space et al. (authors)

  18. Maple Syrup Urine Disease Complicated with Kyphoscoliosis and Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Woei Hou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy secondary to an enzyme defect in the catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Accumulation of their corresponding keto-acids leads to encephalopathy if not treated in time. A newborn male patient was suspected to have MSUD after tandem mass study when he presented symptoms and signs suggestive neonatal sepsis, anemia, and diarrhea. Food restriction of BCAAs was started; however, acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin eruptions occurred at age 2 months. The skin rashes resolved after adding BCAAs and adjusting the infant formula. At age 7 months, he suffered from recurrent skin lesions, zinc deficiency, osteoporosis, and kyphosis of the thoracic spine with acute angulation over the T11-T12 level associated with spinal compression and myelopathy. After supplementation of zinc products and pamidronate, skin lesions and osteopenia improved gradually. Direct sequencing of the DBT gene showed a compound heterozygous mutation [4.7 kb deletion and c.650-651insT (L217F or L217fsX223]. It is unusual that neurodegeneration still developed in this patient despite diet restriction. Additionally, brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging, bone mineral density study, and monitoring of zinc status are suggested in MSUD patients.

  19. Study of the radiation effects on nucleic acids and related compounds. Progress report, August 15, 1976--November 14, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1977-08-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on nucleic acids and components were studied in vitro. Our approach involves four levels of operation and progress is being made at each stage. First, procedures were established to separate and purify three reactive radiation products from thymidine. Second, improved methods of synthesizing trans-glycols of pyrimidines were developed, and a new method for the stereospecific synthesis of cis-glycol of pyrimidines was realized. Thirdly, the Ames Salmonella test was used to determine the mutagenicity of the radiation products and the reactive ones from thymine and thymidine were found to be highly mutagenic. Therefore, all radiation products should be considered potential human health hazards and should be screened when they can be purified and synthesized. In the fourth stage, the reaction of each nucleic-acid base with Cu ++ and cis-5,6-dihydro-6-hydroperoxy-5-hydroxythymine (6-TOOH) was studied in order to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation mutagenesis. The presence of Cu ++ was shown to be necessary for the effective mutagenic activity of 6-TOOH in the H. influenzae transformation assay. These findings provide fundamental information about the possible health hazards of ionizing radiation and will be useful in designing methods to protect against and repair radiation damage, which may be mutagenic and carcinogenic

  20. Surfer's myelopathy: a rare presentation in a non-surfing setting and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Monish M; Phan, Kevin; Hariswamy, Soumya; Rao, Prashanth J

    2016-09-01

    Surfers myelopathy can be a rapidly devastating disease and little is known surrounding the pathophysiology of the condition. Although the classical pattern of illness has been well reported, it has never been observed in a non-surfing setting. A 51-year-old demolition worker presented with acute non-traumatic myelopathy. Clinical examination revealed sensory loss to the level of L2. T2-MRI and MRI-DWI revealed a hyperintense signal suggestive of an ischaemic event. A diagnosis of surfer's myelopathy was made and he was commenced on steroid therapy. Following steroid therapy and fluid management the patient was discharged after 6 days with minor anaethesia but significant overall neurological improvement. Diagnosis of SM requires a thorough history, clinical examination and imaging (MRI, MRI-DWI). The patient should be admitted early and investigated. The use of rehabilitation services may be useful if available.

  1. Trends analysis of surgical procedures for cervical degenerative disc disease and myelopathy in patients with tobacco use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisdela, Phillip; Buser, Zorica; D'Oro, Anthony; Paholpak, Permsak; Liu, John C; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2017-09-01

    This study defined the incidence and trends of surgeries performed for patients with cervical disc degeneration with and without tobacco use disorder (TUD). This study utilized the Humana Inc. database between 2007 and 2013 to identify patients with cervical disc degeneration with or without myelopathy. International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes determined the initial diagnosis of disc degeneration, myelopathy status and TUD, whether patients received surgery, and TUD status at surgery. The prevalence of disc degeneration with myelopathy increased by 32.8% between 2007 and 2013, while disc disease with myelopathy and TUD increased by 91.6%. For patients without myelopathy, the prevalence of disc degeneration alone increased by 65.4%, and disc degeneration with myelopathy increased by 148.7%. Of myelopathy patients, 1717 (6.4%) had TUD and 1024 (59.6%) received surgery, compared to 6508 patients without TUD (26.1%). For patients without myelopathy, 11,337 (3.5%) had TUD and 787 (6.9%) underwent surgery, compared to 9716 patients (3%) without TUD. Of surgical patients, 781 (76.3%) with myelopathy and TUD still had a TUD diagnosis at surgery, and 542 (68.9%) of patients without myelopathy still had a TUD diagnosis at surgery. The prevalence of degenerative disc disease and TUD has increased more than disc disease alone. Patients with TUD were more likely to get surgery, and to have surgeries earlier than patients without TUD. Patients with TUD at the time of the diagnosis of their disc degeneration likely still had a TUD diagnosis at the time of surgery.

  2. Radiation therapy and late reactions in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Kuroda, Yasumasa

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in cancer therapy have made us increasingly aware that the quality of life of a patient is as valuable as other benefits received from therapy. This awareness leads to an emphasis on organ and/or function preservation in the course of therapy. In line with this new thinking, greater consideration is placed on radiation therapy as an appropriate modality of cancer therapy. Possible complications in normal tissues, especially those of late reaction type after the therapy must be overcome. This review, therefore, focuses on recent progress of studies on mechanisms of the complications of the late reaction type. An observation of a clinical case concerning a late reaction of spinal cord (radiation myelopathy) and surveys of experimental studies on the mechanisms of late reactions (including radiation pneumonitis and lung fibrosis, and radiation response of vascular endothelial cells) provide a hypothesis that apoptosis through the pathway starting with radiation-induced sphingomyelin hydrolysis may play an important role in causing a variety of late reactions. This insight is based on the fact that radiation also activates protein kinase C which appears to block apoptosis. The mechanisms of late reactions, therefore, may involve a balance between radiation-induced apoptotic death and its down regulation by suppressor mechanisms through protein kinase C. (author)

  3. Realization of radiation-chemical processes in national economy-important stage of scientific and technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breger, A.Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Realization of energy resourses of the atomic power engineering will greatly contribute to the scientific and technological progress. The dominat role play the radiochemical methods of properties modification applied for the well-known materials and for the production of materials with modern operating characteristics necessary for their application in different branches of industry and agriculture. Radiation modeling of products from polyolefine, wood-plastic and concrete-polymer materials are considered as well as the processes in ''thin'' units of agitating systems. The future developments and present state of the art of radiation sources are presented

  4. NRC TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network: Progress report, January-March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facility sites throughout the country for the first quarter of 1988

  5. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1988-09-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facility sites throughout the country for the second quarter of 1988

  6. Tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy: clinical, epidemiological, virological and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessain, A; Mahieux, R

    2012-03-01

    In 1980, Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus to be discovered. HTLV-1 belongs to the Retroviridae family, the Orthoretrovirinae subfamily and to the deltaretrovirus genus. HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4(+) lymphoid cells in vivo. Three molecules have been identified for binding and/or entry of HTLV-1: heparan sulfate proteoglycans, neuropilin-1, and glucose transporter 1. An efficient transfer of the virus from an infected cell to a target cell can occur through the formation of a viral synapse and/or by virofilm structure. As for all retroviruses, HTLV-1 genome possesses three major ORFs (gag, pol and env) encoding the structural and enzymatic proteins. HTLV-1 encodes also some regulatory and auxillary proteins including the tax protein with transforming activities and the HBZ protein which plays a role in the proliferation and maintenance of the leukemic cells. HTLV-1 is present throughout the world with clusters of high endemicity including mainly Southern Japan, the Caribbean region, areas in South America and in intertropical Africa. The worldwide HTLV-1 infected population is estimated to be around 10-20 million. HTLV-1 has three modes of transmission: (1): mother to child, mainly linked to prolonged breast-feeding; (2): sexual, mainly occurring from male to female and (3): contaminated blood products. HTLV-1 possesses a remarkable genetic stability. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of mainly two severe diseases: a malignant T CD4(+) cell lymphoproliferation, of very poor prognosis, named Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), and a chronic neuro-myelopathy named Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The lifetime risk among HTLV-1 carriers is estimated to be around 0.25 to 3%. TSP/HAM mainly occurs in adults, with a mean age at onset of 40-50 years and it is more common in women than in men. Blood transfusion is a major risk factor for TSP/HAM development. Clinically

  7. Radiation physics, biophysics and radiation biology. Progress report for October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, H.H.; Hall, E.J.

    1980-07-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 31 of the 32 papers presented in this progress report. The other paper is represented by an abstract only and deals with field shaping and recalibration of x-ray facilities.

  8. Treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome: outcomes and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ruth E.; Shade-Zeldow, Yvonne; Kostas, Konstantinos; Morrissey, Mary; Elias, Dean A.; Shepard, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Some patients with fibromyalgia also exhibit the neurological signs of cervical myelopathy. We sought to determine if treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia and the patients’ quality of life. A non-randomized, prospective, case control study comparing the outcome of surgical (n = 40) versus non-surgical (n = 31) treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia was conducted. Outcomes were compared using SF-36, screening test for somatization, HADS, MMPI-2 scale 1 (Hypochondriasis), and self reported severity of symptoms 1 year after treatment. There was no significant difference in initial clinical presentation or demographic characteristics between the patients treated by surgical decompression and those treated by non-surgical means. There was a striking and statistically significant improvement in all symptoms attributed to the fibromyalgia syndrome in the surgical patients but not in the non-surgical patients at 1 year following the treatment of cervical myelopathy (P ≤ 0.018–0.001, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test). At the 1 year follow-up, there was a statistically significant improvement in both physical and mental quality of life as measured by the SF-36 score for the surgical group as compared to the non-surgical group (Repeated Measures ANOVA P somatization disorder, and the anxiety and depression scores exclusively in the surgical patients (Wilcoxon signed rank, P < 0.001). The surgical treatment of cervical myelopathy due to spinal cord or caudal brainstem compression in patients carrying the diagnosis of fibromyalgia can result in a significant improvement in a wide array of symptoms usually attributed to fibromyalgia with attendant measurable improvements in the quality of life. We recommend detailed neurological and neuroradiological evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia in order to exclude compressive cervical myelopathy, a potentially treatable

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography in cervical compressive myelopathy: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Park, Jong Bin; Lee, Guen Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Park, Kun Woo; Yeom, Jin S.

    2011-01-01

    To assess diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM) patients compared to normal volunteers, to relate them with myelopathy severity, and to relate tractography patterns with postoperative neurologic improvement. Twenty patients suffering from CCM were prospectively enrolled (M:F = 13:7, mean age, 49.6 years; range 22-67 years) from September 2009 to March 2010. Sensitivity encoding (SENSE) single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) was used for the sagittal DTI. Twenty sex- and age-matched normal volunteers underwent the same scanning procedure. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the spinal cord were compared between the patients and normal volunteers and were related to myelopathy severity based on Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores. Tractography patterns were related to myelopathy severity and postoperative improvement. There were significant differences between patients and normal volunteers in terms of FA (0.498 ± 0.114 vs. 0.604 ± 0.057; p = 0.001) and ADC (1.442 ± 0.389 vs. 1.169 ± 0.098; p = 0.001). DTI parameters and tractography patterns were not related to myelopathy severity. In ten patients in the neurologically worse group, postoperative neurologic improvement was seen in four of five patients with intact fiber tracts, but only one of five patients with interrupted fiber tracts exhibited neurologic improvement. DTI parameters in CCM patients were significantly different from those in normal volunteers but were not significantly related to myelopathy severity. The patterns of tractography appear to correlate with postoperative neurologic improvement. (orig.)

  10. Clinical pathophysiology of human T-lymphotropic virus-type1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eYamano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, a human retrovirus, is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disease termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. HAM/TSP is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is characterized by unremitting myelopathic symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, lower limb sensory disturbance, and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Approximately 0.25%–3.8% of HTLV-1-infected individuals develop HAM/TSP, which is more common in women than in men. Since the discovery of HAM/TSP, significant advances have been made with respect to elucidating the virological, molecular, and immunopathological mechanisms underlying this disease. These findings suggest that spinal cord invasion by HTLV-1-infected T cells triggers a strong virus-specific immune response and increases proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, leading to chronic lymphocytic inflammation and tissue damage in spinal cord lesions. However, little progress has been made in the development of an optimal treatment for HAM/TSP, more specifically in the identification of biomarkers for predicting disease progression and of molecular targets for novel therapeutic strategies targeting the underlying pathological mechanisms. This review summarizes current clinical and pathophysiological knowledge on HAM/TSP and discusses future focus areas for research on this disease.

  11. Cardiovascular risk profile in patients with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Fabio Luís Silva do; Prado, Renata; Ladeia, Ana Marice Teixeira

    HAM/TSP (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) is a slowly progressive disease, characterized by a chronic spastic paraparesis. It is not known if the disease carries an independent risk for cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk profile related to HAM/TSP and compare it with the general population. This was a cross-sectional study, with a control group. HAM/TSP patients were evaluated using cardiovascular risk scores (ASCVD RISK, SCORE and Framingham) and inflammatory markers (ultrasensitive CRP and IL-6), and compared with a control group of healthy individuals. We also evaluated the correlation between cardiovascular risk and the functional status of patients with HAM/TSP evaluated by the FIM scale. Eighty percent of patients in this study were females, mean age of 51 years (11.3). The control group showed an increased cardiovascular event risk in 10 years when ASCVD was analyzed (cardiovascular risk ≥7.5% in 10 years seen in 43% of patients in the control group vs. 23% of patients with HAM/TSP; p=0.037). There was no difference in ultrasensitive CRP or IL-6 values between the groups, even when groups were stratified into low and high risk. There was no correlation between the functional status of HAM/TSP patients and the cardiovascular risk. In this study, the cardiovascular risk profile of patients with HAM/TSP was better than the risk of the control group. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic testing of canine degenerative myelopathy in the South African Boxer dog population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM is a progressive disease process that is diagnosed late in life and mainly affects the pelvic limbs. Factors that make an ante-mortem definitive diagnosis of DM include: an insidious onset and clinical manifestation that mimics other disease processes of the pelvic limbs (hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament rupture, etc. or there may even be concurrent disease processes, old-age onset and lack of reliable diagnostic methods. Until recently, South African dog owners had to submit samples to laboratories overseas for genetic testing in order to confirm an affected dog (homozygous A/A and to aid in the ante-mortem diagnosis of DM. Only affected dogs have been confirmed to manifest the clinical signs of DM. This study aimed to verify whether genetic testing by a local genetic laboratory was possible in order to detect a missense mutation of the superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1 that is implicated in causing the clinical signs of DM. The study also aimed to detect and map the inheritance of this disease process in a local Boxer dog population where the pedigree of the sampled population was known. Venous blood collected from Boxer dogs using a simple random sampling technique. The samples were genotyped for the SOD1:c.118G>A polymorphism. Carrier and affected Boxer dogs were detected. A pedigree that demonstrated the significance of inheriting a carrier or affected state in the population was mapped. The present study concludes that genotyping of the missense mutation in Boxer dogs is possible in South Africa. There are carrier and affected Boxer dogs in the local population, making DM a plausible diagnosis in aged dogs presenting with pelvic limb pathology.

  13. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 5, No. 2. Progress report, April-June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, J.; Kramaric, M.; Cohen, L.

    1985-09-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network provides continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the second quarter of 1985. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included

  14. Direct analysis of viral-specific CD8+ T cells with soluble HLA-A2/Tax11-19 tetramer complexes in patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus-associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieganowska, K; Höllsberg, P; Buckle, G J; Lim, D G; Greten, T F; Schneck, J; Altman, J D; Jacobson, S; Ledis, S L; Hanchard, B; Chin, J; Morgan, O; Roth, P A; Hafler, D A

    1999-02-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy is a slowly progressive neurologic disease characterized by inflammatory infiltrates in the central nervous system accompanied by clonal expansion of HTLV-I-reactive CD8+ T-cells. In patients carrying the HLA-A2 allele, the immune response is primarily directed to the Tax11-19 peptide. The frequency, activation state, and TCR usage of HLA-A2/Tax11-19 binding T cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy was determined using MHC class I tetramers loaded with the Tax11-19 peptide. Circulating Tax11-19-reactive T cells were found at very high frequencies, approaching 1:10 circulating CD8+ T cells. T cells binding HLA-A2/Tax11-19 consisted of heterogeneous populations expressing different chemokine receptors and the IL-2R beta-chain but not the IL-2R alpha-chain. Additionally, Tax11-19-reactive CD8+ T cells used one predominant TCR Vbeta-chain for the recognition of the HLA-A2/Tax11-19 complex. These data provide direct evidence for high frequencies of circulating Tax11-19-reactive CD8+ T cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Yoshitaka; Une, Humiho; Osame, Mitsuhiro

    1989-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was evaluated in 12 HAM (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy) patients (4 males and 8 females, mean age of 54 yrs) and compaired with 36 non-HAM controls (16 males and 20 females mean age of 52yrs). MRI of the brain was performed using a 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit. Imaging in all patients was done with the long spin echo (TR=2,000msec, TE=100msec) sequences, and 10mm contiguous axial slices of the entire brain were obtained in all cases. Except for two cases, MRI of the brain was abnormal in 10 (83%) HAM patients, while in controls, 18 (50%) cases were abnormal. The abnormalities were high intensity lesions through SE 2000/100 sequences (T/sub 2/ weighted image), and consisted of small isolated hemisphere lesions in 9 patients, periventricular changes in 9 patients, bilateral thalamic lesions in 2 patients and pontine lesions in 3 patients. We found that the factor of age was very important. In patients with ages below 59 yrs, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 6 of 23 (23%) had abnormalities in periventricular area. And in isolated hemisphere, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 3 of 23 (13%) had abnormalities. On the other hand, in patients with ages over 60 yrs, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities in periventricular area, while in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities, and in isolated hemisphere, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities, and in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities. Our data suggest that HAM patients with ages below 59 years will show a greater percentage of abnormalities than controls. (author).

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Yoshitaka; Une, Humiho; Osame, Mitsuhiro

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was evaluated in 12 HAM (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy) patients (4 males and 8 females, mean age of 54 yrs) and compaired with 36 non-HAM controls (16 males and 20 females mean age of 52yrs). MRI of the brain was performed using a 0.5 Tesla superconducting unit. Imaging in all patients was done with the long spin echo (TR=2,000msec, TE=100msec) sequences, and 10mm contiguous axial slices of the entire brain were obtained in all cases. Except for two cases, MRI of the brain was abnormal in 10 (83%) HAM patients, while in controls, 18 (50%) cases were abnormal. The abnormalities were high intensity lesions through SE 2000/100 sequences (T 2 weighted image), and consisted of small isolated hemisphere lesions in 9 patients, periventricular changes in 9 patients, bilateral thalamic lesions in 2 patients and pontine lesions in 3 patients. We found that the factor of age was very important. In patients with ages below 59 yrs, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 6 of 23 (23%) had abnormalities in periventricular area. And in isolated hemisphere, 6 of 8 HAM patients (75%) had abnormalities, while in control cases, 3 of 23 (13%) had abnormalities. On the other hand, in patients with ages over 60 yrs, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities in periventricular area, while in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities, and in isolated hemisphere, 3 of 4 (75%) HAM patients had abnormalities, and in controls, 10 of 13 cases (77%) had abnormalities. Our data suggest that HAM patients with ages below 59 years will show a greater percentage of abnormalities than controls. (author)

  17. Securing safe and informative thoracic CT examinations—Progress of radiation dose reduction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takeshi, E-mail: tkubo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Yamashiro, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishinara, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Kalender, Willi A. [Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Henkestr. 91, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Lee, Chang Hyun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28 Yeongeon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David A. [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson St, A330 Denver, Colorado 80206 (United States); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatabu, Hiroto, E-mail: hhatabu@partners.org [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Various techniques have led to substantial radiation dose reduction of chest CT. • Automatic modulation of tube current has been shown to reduce radiation dose. • Iterative reconstruction makes significant radiation dose reduction possible. • Processing time is a limitation for full iterative reconstruction, currently. • Validation of diagnostic accuracy is desirable for routine use of low dose protocols. - Abstract: The increase in the radiation exposure from CT examinations prompted the investigation on the various dose-reduction techniques. Significant dose reduction has been achieved and the level of radiation exposure of thoracic CT is expected to reach the level equivalent to several chest X-ray examinations. With more scanners with advanced dose reduction capability deployed, knowledge on the radiation dose reduction methods has become essential to clinical practice as well as academic research. This article reviews the history of dose reduction techniques, ongoing changes brought by newer technologies and areas of further investigation.

  18. Common γ-chain blocking peptide reduces in vitro immune activation markers in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Raya; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Tagaya, Yutaka; Azimi, Nazli; Basheer, Asjad; Jacobson, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a progressive inflammatory myelopathy occurring in a subset of HTLV-1-infected individuals. Despite advances in understanding its immunopathogenesis, an effective treatment remains to be found. IL-2 and IL-15, members of the gamma chain (γc) family of cytokines, are prominently deregulated in HAM/TSP and underlie many of the characteristic immune abnormalities, such as spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (SP), increased STAT5 phosphorylation in the lymphocytes, and increased frequency and cytotoxicity of virus-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs). In this study, we describe a novel immunomodulatory strategy consisting of selective blockade of certain γc family cytokines, including IL-2 and IL-15, with a γc antagonistic peptide. In vitro, a PEGylated form of the peptide, named BNZ132-1-40, reduced multiple immune activation markers such as SP, STAT5 phosphorylation, spontaneous degranulation of CD8(+) T cells, and the frequency of transactivator protein (Tax)-specific CD8(+) CTLs, thought to be major players in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. This strategy is thus a promising therapeutic approach to HAM/TSP with the potential of being more effective than single monoclonal antibodies targeting either IL-2 or IL-15 receptors and safer than inhibitors of downstream signaling molecules such as JAK1 inhibitors. Finally, selective cytokine blockade with antagonistic peptides might be applicable to multiple other conditions in which cytokines are pathogenic.

  19. The relationship between cervical lordosis and Nurick scores in patients undergoing circumferential vs. posterior alone cervical decompression, instrumentation and fusion for treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shalin; Glivar, Phillip; Asgarzadie, Farbod; Cheng, David Juma Wayne; Danisa, Olumide

    2017-11-01

    The loss of regional cervical sagittal alignment and the progressive development of cervical kyphosis is a factor in the advancement of myelopathy. Adequate decompression of the spinal canal along with reestablishment of cervical lordosis are desired objective with regard to the surgical treatment of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A retrospective chart review was conducted in which patients who underwent either a combined anterior/posterior instrumentation and decompression or a posterior alone instrumentation and decompression for the treatment of CSM at our institution were identified. Any patient undergoing operative intervention for trauma, infection or tumors were excluded. Similarly, patients undergoing posterior instrumentation with constructs extending beyond the level of C2-C7 were similarly excluded from this study. A total of 67 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. A total of 32 patients underwent posterior alone surgery and the remaining 35 underwent combined anterior/posterior procedure. Radiographic evaluation of patient's preoperative and postoperative cervical lordosis as measured by the C2-C7 Cobb angle was performed. Each patient's preoperative and postoperative functional disability as enumerated by the Nurick score was also recorded. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine if there was a significant relationship between improvement in cervical lordosis and improvement in patient's clinical outcomes as enumerated by the Nurick Score in patients undergoing posterior alone versus combined anterior/posterior decompression, instrumentation and fusion of the cervical spine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spinal cord edema with contrast enhancement mimicking intramedullary tumor in patient with cervical myelopathy: A case report and a brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Chourmouzi, Danai; Karagiannidis, Apostolos; Kapetanakis, Stylianos

    2017-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy (CM) is a clinical diagnosis that may be associated with hyperintense areas on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The use of contrast enhancement in such areas to differentiate between neoplastic and degenerative disease has rarely been described. We present a 41-year-old female with a 5-month course of progressive CM. The cervical MRI revealed spinal cord swelling, stenosis, and a hyperintense signal at the C5-C6 and C5-C7 levels. Both the neurologic and radiologic examinations were consistent with an intramedullary cervical cord tumor. To decompress the spinal canal, an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion was performed from C5 to C7 level. This resulted in immediate and significant improvement of the myelopathy. Postoperatively, over 1.5 years, the hyperintense, enhancing intramedullary lesion gradually regressed on multiple postoperative MRI scans. Spinal cord edema is occasionally seen on MR studies of the cervical spine in patients with degenerative CM. Contrast-enhanced MR studies may help differentiate hyperintense cord signals due to edema vs. atypical intramedullary tumors. Routine successive postoperative MRI evaluations are crucial to confirm the diagnosis of degenerative vs. neoplastic disease.

  1. Radiation chemistry of hydrocarbon and alkyl halide systems. Progress report, August 30, 1979-July 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    This progress report covers experiments on pulse radiolysis of methyl iodide, radiation induced reactions in H 2 -CO mixtures and photochemistry and mass spectrometry of CF 3 I-CH 3 I systems. In the pulse radiolysis of alkyl iodide, it was possible to follow rate processes involving atomic iodine in the 2 P/sub 1/2/ excited state and 2 P/sub 3/2/ ground state resulting from irradiation of these compounds. The excited state proved easy to follow, since it can be observed in a strong transition at 206.2 nm. Observation of atomic iodine in the 2 P/sub 3/2/ ground state proved difficult, since it must be observed at 178.3 nm, well into the vacuum ultraviolet. Several design improvements in the pulse radiolysis apparatus were made to achieve a reliable measurement of the I*/I production ratio. The physical arrangement of the apparatus which was adopted is illustrated. A remaining problem which stands in the way of measuring I*/I ratios is the lack of information on extinction coefficients of 2 P/sub 1/2/ and 2 P/sub 3/2/ atomic iodine at 206 and 178 nm. It is expected that indirect calculations and/or computer modelling will be employed. In the H 2 -CO system, investigation of the effect of total pressure in the homogeneous gas phase was made, concentrating on the 3:1 H 2 -CO mixtures. Measurements were made as a function of pressure in the range of 250 to 3300 torr for saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbon in the C 1 to C 6 range. Two trends were exhibited; yields of all products dropped markedly as system pressure was increased; and yields in the nickel vessels were generally in excess of yields in the stainless vessels. Photolysis of CF 3 I-CH 3 I gas phase showed a substantial yield of the product CH 2 I 2 . High pressure mass spectrometry of CF 3 -CH 3 I mixtures revealed (CH 3 ICH 3 ) + , I 2 + , CF 3 I 2 + , (CF 3 I) 2 + , and unique species such as CF 3 ICH 3 and CF 2 ICH 2 +

  2. Progress in R and D radiation processing of natural polymers in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.; Abad, L.; Relleve, L.; Aranilla, C.; Cabalfin, E.; Bisnar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation technology has emerged as an environment-friendly, commercially viable technology with broad applications that can essentially contribute to achieve the goal of sustainable development. Natural polymers are good raw materials since they are biodegradable, readily available in large quantity and at low cost. Radiation processing of natural polymers is a potential area to widen the prospect of industrial scale application of radiation technology in the Philippines. (author)

  3. Pathophysiological effects of radiation on atherosclerosis development and progression, and the incidence of cardiovascular complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavaraju, Sekhara Rao; Easterly, Clay E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation therapy while important in the management of several diseases, is implicated in the causation of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular complications. Cancer and atherosclerosis go through the same stages of initiation, promotion, and complication, beginning with a mutation in a single cell. Clinical observations before the 1960s lead to the belief that the heart is relatively resistant to the doses of radiation used in radiotherapy. Subsequently, it was discovered that the heart is sensitive to radiation and many cardiac structures may be damaged by radiation exposure. A significantly higher risk of death due to ischemic heart disease has been reported for patients treated with radiation for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Certain cytokines and growth factors, such as TGF-β1 and IL-1 β, may stimulate radiation-induced endothelial proliferation, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, and fibrosis leading to advanced lesions of atherosclerosis. The treatment for radiation-induced ischemic heart disease includes conventional pharmacological therapy, balloon angioplasty, and bypass surgery. Endovascular irradiation has been shown to be effective in reducing restenosis-like response to balloon-catheter injury in animal models. Caution must be exercised when radiation therapy is combined with doxorubicin because there appears to be a synergistic toxic effect on the myocardium. Damage to endothelial cells is a central event in the pathogenesis of damage to the coronary arteries. Certain growth factors that interfere with the apoptotic pathway may provide new therapeutic strategies for reducing the risk of radiation-induced damage to the heart. Exposure to low level occupational or environmental radiation appears to pose no undue risk of atherosclerosis development or cardiovascular mortality. But, other radiation-induced processes such as the bystander effects, abscopal effects, hormesis, and individual variations in radiosensitivity may be

  4. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, January-June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 55 NRC-licensed facility sites throughout the country for the first half of 1981. The program objectives, scope, and methodology are given. The TLD system, dosimeter location, data processing scheme, and quality assurance program are outlined

  5. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October-December 1985. Volume 5, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, J.; Rabatin, K.; Cohen, L.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1985. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  6. NRC TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network: Progress report, October--December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.; NcNamara, N.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1988. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 4 tabs

  7. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  8. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Study on intraoperative radiotherapy applying hyperthermia together with radiation sensitizers for progressive local carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M; Takahashi, M; Ono, K; Hiraoka, M [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-08-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy for gastric cancer, colonic cancer, pancreatic cancer, cancer of the biliary tract, prostatic carcinoma, cerebral tumor, tumor of soft tissues, and osteosarcoma and its clinical results were described. Basic and clinical studies on effects of both hyperthermia and radiation sensitizers to elevate radiation sensitivity were also described, because effects of intraoperative radiotherapy were raised by applying hyperthermia and hypoxic cell sensitizers.

  10. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  11. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: the clinical phenomenon and the current pathobiology of an increasingly prevalent and devastating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common disorder involving chronic progressive compression of the cervical spinal cord due to degenerative disc disease, spondylosis, or other degenerative pathology. CSM is the most common form of spinal cord impairment and causes functional decline leading to reduced independence and quality of life. Despite a sound understanding of the disease process, clinical presentation and management, a universal definition of CSM and a standardized index of severity are not currently used universally. Work is required to develop a definition and establish clinical predictors of progression to improve management of CSM. Despite advances in decompressive and reconstructive surgery, patients are often left with residual disability. Gaps in knowledge of the pathobiology of CSM have limited therapeutic advances to complement surgery. Although the histopathologic and pathophysiologic similarities between CSM and traumatic spinal cord injury have long been acknowledged, the unique pathomechanisms of CSM remain unexplored. Increased efforts to elucidate CSM pathobiology could lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for human CSM and other spinal cord diseases. Here, the natural history of CSM, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and current methods of clinical management are reported, along with the current state of basic scientific research in the field.

  13. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  14. Reliability of three-dimensional gait analysis in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Ailish

    2010-10-01

    Gait impairment is one of the primary symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Detailed assessment is possible using three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA), however the reliability of 3DGA for this population has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of temporal-spatial, kinematic and kinetic parameters in a CSM population.

  15. Radiation damage in natural and synthetic halite. Progress report January 1992 - February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Celma, A.

    1993-12-01

    This report complements the information presented in the report of December 1992 regarding the research performed at the ECN on radiation damage in salt. It consists of two parts. The first part regards the amount of stored energy which can be developed by gamma-irradiation on different types of halite and considers both the effect of low dose rates in developing radiation damage, and the possible saturation level of radiation damage in natural halite. The second part presents a model to simulate radiation damage development which incorporates some extensions in the Jain-Lidiard model. Due to malfunction of the Small Angle Neutron Scattering installation, neither the previously reported results nor the newly obtained can be trusted and therefore are not reported here. These results regard the shape, size and size distribution of radiation damage defects. (orig.)

  16. Feasibility of a novel approach for fast, economical determination of radiation damage in nuclear reactor cores. Progress report, [November 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Progress has been made in several areas in the second year of grant activity. This includes radiation induced segregation (modeling and experiment), deformation of the irradiated microstructure and stress corrosion cracking of irradiated microstructures

  17. Study of the radiation effects on nucleic acids and related compounds. Annual progress report, November 15, 1977--November 14, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1978-07-01

    Acquisition of information on molecular biology involves four stages: establishment of procedures for the separation, isolation, and characterization of radiation products of nucleic acid bases, nucleosides, etc.; development of methods for the synthesis of these products once they are identified so that a constant supply in milligram to gram quantities is available for the studies in stages 3 and 4; examination of the apparent biological effects of each product in vitro and in vivo; and study of the molecular mechanism related to an observed biological phenomenon. In view of the difficulties experienced in this area of research and this deliberate and careful investigative approach, it was generally believed that progress toward our final goal would be rather prolonged. Yet the elucidation of a molecular mechanism by which ionizing radiation induces mutation in vivo is very near at hand. Further progress has been made in the separation and isolation of three hydroperoxy derivatives of thymidine. One communication has appeared and another has been submitted for publication. The former reports the efficient stereospecific synthesis of cis-pyrimidine glycols and the latter describes the study of mutagenicity and toxicity of seven radiation products of thymine and thymidine using Ames Salmonella test. Also, a quantitative study of the reversion of cytosine N(3)-oxide, a hydroperoxidation product induced by 6-TOOH, to cytosine has been carried out

  18. Recent progress of applying mesenchymal stem cells in therapy of urgent radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiangong; Guo Wanlong; Zhang Shuxian; Duan Zhikai

    2010-01-01

    At present, Cytokine therapy is the main strategy capable of preventing and reducing the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). With the problem of difficult match and severe graft versus host disease, haemopoietic stem cells can be used to find some effective approaches to treat acute radiation damage. Mesenchymal stem cells are of great therapeutic potential due to their particular characteristics including secretion of hematopoietic cytokine, reconstruction hemopoietic microenvironment, poor-immunogenicity, ease of reception ectogenic gene transfection and expression. This paper is to summarize the studies of biological characteristics of MSC and its application prospects in urgent radiation damage. (authors)

  19. Radiation chemistry of hydrocarbon and alkyl halide systems. Progress report, August 1, 1982-July 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental work was in progress during the past year on three systems: investigation of gas phase OH radical reactions using the pulse radiolysis method; studies of the radiolytic oxidation of propane; and an investigation of photochemistry and mass spectrometry of CF 3 I-CH 3 I mixtures. In addition, data analysis and interpretation of previously obtained results on H 2 /CO systems was under way. Progress made in these areas is described

  20. The third RAdiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise: Documenting progress in canopy reflectance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widlowski, J.L.; Taberner, M.; Pinty, B.; Bruniquel-Pinel, V.; Disney, M.I.; Fernandes, R.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Gobron, N.; Kuusk, A.; Lavergne, T.; LeBlanc, S.; Lewis, P.E.; Martin, E.; Mõttus, M.; North, P.R.J.; Qin, W.; Robustelli, M.; Rochdi, N.; Ruiloba, R.; Thompson, R.; Verhoef, W.; Verstraete, M.M.; Xie, D.

    2007-01-01

    [1] The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison ( RAMI) initiative benchmarks canopy reflectance models under well-controlled experimental conditions. Launched for the first time in 1999, this triennial community exercise encourages the systematic evaluation of canopy reflectance models on a

  1. Third Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise : Documenting progress in canopy reflectance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widlowski, J.-L.; Taberner, M.; Pinty, B.; Bruniquel-Pinel, V.; Disney, M.; Fernandes, R.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Gobron, N.; Kuusk, A.; Lavergne, T.; Leblanc, S.; Lewis, P.E.; Martin, E.; Mottus, M.; North, P.R.J.; Qin, W.; Robustelli, M.; Rochdi, N.; Ruiloba, R.; Soler, C.; Thompson, R.; Verhoef, W.; Xie, D.; Thompson, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) initiative benchmarks canopy reflectance models under well‐controlled experimental conditions. Launched for the first time in 1999, this triennial community exercise encourages the systematic evaluation of canopy reflectance models on a voluntary

  2. SERI Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Fiscal Year 1990 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, C; Maxwell, E; Stoffel, T; Rymes, M; Wilcox, S

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the Solar Radiation Resource Project is to help meet the needs of the public, government, industry, and utilities for solar radiation data, models, and assessments as required to develop, design, deploy, and operate solar energy conversion systems. The project scientists produce information on the spatial (geographic), temporal (hourly, daily, and seasonal), and spectral (wavelength distribution) variability of solar radiation at different locations in the United States. Resources committed to the project in FY 1990 supported about four staff members, including part-time administrative support. With these resources, the staff must concentrate on solar radiation resource assessment in the United States; funds do not allow for significant efforts to respond to a common need for improved worldwide data. 34 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Molecular bases for radiation mutagenesis. Three year progress report, November 15, 1975--November 14, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1978-07-01

    Studies on isolation and characterization of radiation products included: isolation and identification of cis- and trans-Thy glycols from the mixture of gamma irradiation products of Thy; identification of two isomers as radiation products from radiolysis of cytosine in aerated aqueous solutions and radiolysis of Thd in aerated aqueous solutions. Studies on synthesis of radiation products included: Stereospecific synthesis of cis- and trans-pyrimidine glycols; preparation of pyrimidine hydroperoxide; and synthesis of cis- and trans-1-carbamylimidazolidone-4, 5-diols. Studies on biological effects were conducted using human lymphocyte cultures, Chinese hamster cells, and root tip cells of Vicia faba. Effects of 6-TOOH on chromosomal aberrations, colony-forming ability, and unscheduled DNA synthesis were studied. Mutagenic effects of radiation products of Thy derivatives were investigated. Methods and procedures are described for UV-spectroscopic study, isolation of products, characterization of products, kinetic studies, mechanistic studies, and tracer studies

  4. Progress report and preliminary 1981-83 agenda of the United States Radiation Policy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The U.S. Radiation Policy Council is responsible for coordinating the formulation and implementation of Federal Policy relating to radiation protection. In carrying out this very broad and basic mandate, the RPC has been directed to: Advise on the formulation of broad radiation protection policies; monitor the implementation of Federal policies; Help resolve conflicts in jurisdiction among Federal agencies; Recommend corrective legislation, if needed; ensure effective liaison with the States and the Congress; and Serve as a forum for public participation and comment. The RPC was established by Executive Order Number 12194 in February 1980. The Council was created to coordinate the formulation and implementation of Federal policies relating to radiation protection. This report summarizes the first 7 months the Council has been in operation, its activities, and decisions through September 1980

  5. Recent progress and future perspectives regarding mutation breeding at the Institute of Radiation Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Number of mutation species in the world is stated by some literature. 202 species are bread in Japan, which consists of 151 (by radiation), 20 (chemicals) and 31 (culture). The mutation indirect use species obtained 176 of rice, 3 wheat, 6 barleys, 8 soybeans, 3 tomatoes and 4 others. Low allergen rice, low glutelin rice, globulin deletion rice, disease resistant pear and apple, chrysanthemum and rose by radiation were studied. Control of mutation, genetics analysis, molecular scientific determination of mutation such as scale of mutation and RNA interference are reported. Advanced Radiation Application Research Center was build in Korea, 2005. Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) is being built in Malaysia. Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) is promoting radiation breeding in Japan. (S.Y.)

  6. Radiation and biophysical studies on cells and viruses. Progress report, April 1, 1976--June 30, 1977. [Gamma radiation, alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic structure of DNA, chromosomes, and nucleoproteins; particle beam studies of radiosensitive sites; division delay in CHO cells induced by partly penetrating alpha particles; location of cellular sites for mutation induction; sites for radioinduced cell transformation using partly penetrating particle beams; gamma-ray and particle irradiation of nucleoproteins and other model systems; quantitation of surface antigens on normal and neoplastic cells by x-ray fluorescence; hyperthermic effects on cell survival and DNA repair mechanisms; and studies on radioinduced cell transformation. (HLW)

  7. Radiation carcinogenesis. Progress report III, 15 March 1975--15 March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Gates, O.

    1976-03-01

    The attention of forensic pathologists has been drawn to the criteria essential for the recognition of radiation death or injury in the hope that such cases will be better recognized and that some false claims of radiation damage might be prevented at the local level. The results of experiments on parabiont rats, one of which had been irradiated with 1000 R of 250 kVp x-ray, the other shielded, are reviewed. With controls and related special studies the total is over 3000 pairs equally divided as to sex. Much information on the relative sensitivity of different tissues and organs to tumor induction is available and is being statistically analyzed. These experiments have provided further evidence of the effectiveness of parabiosis in assuring survival after 1000 R x-radiation and have enabled us to learn of the types of problems that might be expected in the way of late effects in heavily irradiated individuals should they be enabled by effective therapy to survive the acute phases of the radiation syndrome. Additional evidence has been brought out that carcinogenesis in some hormonally dependent tissues and organs is not so much a direct effect of radiation as it is a summation of this effect and of alterations caused by changes in hormonal balance brought about by the radiation

  8. Radiation and biophysical studies on cells and viruses. Progress report, July 1, 1978-August 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.

    1979-01-01

    Ionizing radiation beams of low linear energy transfer (LET) and high LET (alpha particles) which penetrated part way into or completely through cell monolayers were used to study a variety of molecular and cellular responses including: DNA damage, chromosome aberrations, division delay, lethality, mutation, and transformation. Modifiers of radiation response such as oxygen tension, cell temperature, cell growth cycle stage, dose fractionation and/or post irradiation repair incubation were studied. The following properties were evaluated: cellular location of radiation susceptible sites, optimum action cross-sections, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for high LET radiation, effect of radiation modifiers, and the kinetics of cell repair of the initial damage. Correlations among these properties suggested that similar genetic damage was involved in most responses. These and other data suggest that an important mode of genetic damage involves nuclear membrane associated DNA which suffers multiple proximate lesions induced by the high LET component of any form of ionizing radiation. Such damage may be assayed as a single or double strand DNA break but includes other DNA lesions in close proximity. Failure of the cell to properly repair such complex lesions may contribute to a variety of biological responses

  9. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults; Deficiencia progressiva dos hormonios adeno-hipofisarios apos radioterapia em adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: rafaela_loureiro@hotmail.com

    2004-10-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  10. Unusual progression and subsequent improvement in cystic lung disease in a child with radiation-induced lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Michael S. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Chadha, Ashley D. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Carroll, Clinton M.; Borinstein, Scott C. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Young, Lisa R. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Radiation-induced lung disease is a known complication of therapeutic lung irradiation, but the features have not been well described in children. We report the clinical, radiologic and histologic features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in a 4-year-old child who had previously received lung irradiation as part of successful treatment for metastatic Wilms tumor. Her radiologic abnormalities and clinical symptoms developed in an indolent manner. Clinical improvement gradually occurred with corticosteroid therapy. However, the observed radiologic progression from interstitial and reticulonodular opacities to diffuse cystic lung disease, with subsequent improvement, is striking and has not been previously described in children. (orig.)

  11. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin: Progress report, February 1, 1988-January 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Progress is described in 3 general areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal, including DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration; oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers; and carcinogenesis in rat skin induced by the neon ion beam. Numerous experiments have established that DNA strand breaks per unit dose in the rat epidermis are reduced by about 60% when the radiation penetration is reduced from 1.0 mm to 0.2 mm. The activation of oncogenes in the radiation-induced rat skin cancers followed a pattern. Four highly malignant cancers exhibited activation of K-ras and c-myc oncogenes, while the remaining 8 cancers exhibited only one or the other of these 2 oncogenes. Of 5 squamous carcinomas, 4 showed K-ras activation and 1 showed c-myc activation. Approximately 200 rats were exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA. The carcinogenicity of energetic electrons (2.0 MeV) was determined in conjunction with the neon ion experiment. It is too early to evaluate tumor incidence in the neon ion experiment, but for electrons an unusually large excess of connective tissue tumors, fibromas and sarcomas, have been observed so far. 59 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Radiation carcinogenesis. Progress report VI, 16 May 1978--15 May 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Gates, O.

    1979-01-01

    Asbestos fibers, Canadian and Rhodesian chrysotile, have induced mesotheliomas and pleural plaques in mice and rats. The pathogenesis of the lesions is being studied. Proliferation of the adrenal cortical A cells is accelerated in time and enhanced in extent by ionizing radiation in female RAP mice. The development of cortical tumors was significantly correlated with extensive A cell proliferation. Whole-body protracted doses, above 500 rads, were followed by a 9% tumor incidence. Endocrine neoplasia in mice appears related to functional ties between several endocrines particularly adrenal, ovary, and pituitary. A study of the spontaneous benign and malignant tumors ocurring in control NEDH rats has provided background for the tumorigenic effects of radiation and also of altered hormonal internal milieu. Begin tumors have been produced by radiation in a wide variety of tissues for the first time, providing data as to the relative responsiveness in benign tumor production of various tissues to a dose of 1000 rads. The hormonal changes secondary to parabiosis and hemi-irradiation of the pair are important. A radiation-induced functioning pheochromocytoma causing hypertension and death has been found widely useful by investigators. A radiation-induced malignant insulinoma has also been widely used, and insulin-producing DNA from it has served in the hands of others through genetic engineering to provide an insulin-producing strain of the bacillus E. coli

  13. Chinese reference human voxel phantoms for radiation protection: development, application and recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yuxi; Qiu Rui; Ren Li; Zhu Huanjun; Li Junli; Liu Liye

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the work of constructing Chinese reference human voxel phantoms, taking Chinese reference adult female voxel model for example. In this study, a site-specific skeleton structure was built, some radiation sensitive organs were supplemented. Organ sub-segmentation was taken into account. The constructed phantoms include almost all radiation sensitive organs required by ICRP new recommendation. Masses of the organs are almost consistent with the Chinese reference data within 5%. The Chinese reference human phantoms have been applied both in internal dosimetry and external dosimetry. The results provide fundamental data for Chinese radiation dosimetry. In addition, the newly established detailed breast model and micro-bone model were introduced. (authors)

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on lichens. Progress report, July 1, 1975--March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbisch, F.H.

    1976-03-01

    This past year (1975) was spent in the completion of a Parmelia sulcata study of the Enterprise Radiation Forest. An extended study (December through June) of irradiated Cladonia sylvatica podetia was also carried out during this period. The Cladonia study indicated that lichens responds to gamma radiation, basically only after passing through a prolonged growth period. Lichens kept in summer conditions (in a growth chamber) during the seven month study period did not exhibit radiation damage as did irradiated field lichens. This was conclusively shown in photosynthesis experiments and light microscopy studies. Evidence from oxygen uptake and usnic acid content studies was much to variable and must be repeated. A means to measure podetial tensile strength was perfected and this test will be used in the final test of this study

  15. Radiation effects on transport and bubble formation in silicate glasses. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    'To study the fundamental chemistry of radiation damage in silicate/borosilicate glasses and simulated high-level nuclear waste (HLW) forms. Special emphasis is on delineating molecular processes crucial for understanding the aggregation of defects and formation of oxygen bubbles. The knowledge obtained will provide the needed scientific basis for extrapolating long-term behavior of stored radiative waste glass forms. This report summarizes the first 6 months of a 3-year project. The following issues have been addressed: (i) the production of radiolytic oxygen, (ii) the chemistry of hydrogenous species, and (iii) the effect of glass composition and microstructure on the formation and accumulation of metastable point defects.'

  16. Using a progress computer for the direct acquisition and processing of radiation protection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barz, H.G.; Borchardt, K.D.; Hacke, J.; Kirschfeld, K.E.; Kluppak, B.

    1976-01-01

    A process computer will be used in the Hahn-Meitner-Institute to rationalize radiation protection measures. Appr. 150 transmitters are to be connected with this computer. Especially the radiation measuring devices of a nuclear reactor, of hot cells, and of a heavy ion accelerator, as well as the emission- and environment monitoring systems will be connected. The advantages of this method are described: central data acquisition, central alarm and stoppage information, data processing of certain measurement values, possibility of quick disturbance analysis. Furthermore the authors report about the preparations already finished, particularly about data transmission of digital and analog values to the computer. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Progress of research on cytoskeleton and neural cell migration obstacle induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Jun; Wu Cuiping; Wang Mingming

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic changes of the microtubules and microfilaments provide the main force that drives the normal migration. Biological effects in tissues and cells induced by ionizing radiation are closely correlated with the changes happening to the cytoskeleton. It is that the ionizing radiation can induce the depolymeration of microfilaments and the assembly obstacles of microtubules, and make neural cell incapable of entering the model of migration or abnormally migrate. The effects of relevant changes of the cytoskeleton induced by irradiation on neural cell migration were discussed in this paper. (authors)

  18. The characteristics of chronic pain after non-traumatic, non-compressive myelopathy: Focus on neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young In; Kim, Min; Joo, In Soo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of neuropathic pain after non-traumatic, non-compressive (NTNC) myelopathy and find potential predictors for neuropathic pain. We analyzed 54 patients with NTNC myelopathy. The Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) were used to assess pain. Health-related QOL was evaluated by the Short Form 36-item (SF-36) health survey. Out of 48 patients with pain, 16 (33.3%) patients experienced neuropathic pain. Mean age was significantly lower in patients with neuropathic pain than in patients with non-neuropathic pain (39.1 ± 12.5 vs. 49.8 ± 9.3, P = 0.002). There were no statistically significant differences in the other variables including sex, etiology of myelopathy, pain and QOL scores between the two groups. A binary logistic regression revealed that onset age under 40, and non-idiopathic etiology were independent predictors of the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Both SF-MPQ and LANSS scores were significantly correlated with SF-36 scores, adjusted by age, sex, presence of diabetes mellitus, and current EDSS scores (r = -0.624, P Neuropathic pain must be one of serious complications in patients with NTNC myelopathy and also affects their quality of life. Onset age and etiology of myelopathy are important factors in the development of neuropathic pain in NTNC myelopathy.

  19. Comparative study of radiation, chemical, and aging effects on viral transformation. Annual progress report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: evaluation of isotopic antiglobulin test (IAT) to detect tumor associated antigens using antisera induced by x-irradiated tumor cells; development of cytotoxic antibody for embryonic antigens (EA); acrylamide gel cell culture assay for transformation; and evaluation of 3-MCA induced sarcomas for TSTA and cross-reacting antigens

  20. Radiation chemistry of hydrocarbon and alkyl halide systems. Progress report, August 1, 1977--August 1, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Progress of experimental work is reported on pulse radiolysis of simple alkyl halides in the gas phase, gas phase radiolysis of CHF 3 -CH 3 I mixtures, gamma radiolysis of the system CO/H 2 , and improvements in equipment and facilities

  1. Comparative study of radiation, chemical, and aging effects on viral transformation. Annual progress report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1976-03-31

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: evaluation of isotopic antiglobulin test (IAT) to detect tumor associated antigens using antisera induced by x-irradiated tumor cells; development of cytotoxic antibody for embryonic antigens (EA); acrylamide gel cell culture assay for transformation; and evaluation of 3-MCA induced sarcomas for TSTA and cross-reacting antigens. (HLW)

  2. Cetuximab, bevacizumab, and irinotecan for patients with primary glioblastoma and progression after radiation therapy and temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Benedikte; Lassen, Ulrik; Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate safety and efficacy when combining cetuximab with bevacizumab and irinotecan in patients with recurrent primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Patients were included with recurrent primary GBM and progression within 6 months of ending standard tre...

  3. ESR study of radiation damage in pyrimidines. Progress report, August 1, 1975--April 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.W.

    1976-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to develop general mechanisms for radiation damage to biomolecules using substituted pyrimidines as a model system. Results this year include a single crystal ESR study of 5-ethyl-5-isopropylbarbituric acid, development of the k-band microwave bridge, dose response measurements on methylated barbituric acid derivatives, and synthesis of several specifically deuterated uracil derivatives

  4. Radiation carcinogenesis. Progress report V, 16 May 1977--15 May 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Gates, O.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments are underway on the cocarcinogenic effects of asbestos and carcinogenic hydrocarbons using rats and mice as test objects. None of the protocols of these experiments have as yet been completed. The study of tumorigenesis in irradiated parabiont rats has been completed. Study of the benign tumors indicates that radiation is an effective neoplastic stimulus for only a limited number of organs and tissues, chiefly ovary, adrenal, mammary tissue, islands of Langerhans, and liver. In general the benign tumors did not seriously affect health, and in only a very few animals did they become malignant. The incidence of malignant tumors in the parabiont series has been tabulated and analyzed. Parabiosis alone appears to increase the incidence of leukemia and solid lymphoid tumors in NEDH rats. Our study of radiation tumorigenesis in the adrenal cortest in the mouse has been completed. The cortex is highly resistant to tumor induction by irradiation. Cortical tumorigenesis is strongly influenced by changes in pituitary and ovarian hormones. Proliferation of capsular ''A'' cells appears to be an important early factor in carcinogenesis. Hormonal imbalance continues to be an important factor in tumorigenesis in the parabiont pairs. If each of a pair of parabiont rats is irradiated sequentially at intervals, 30 days after a lethal dose of radiation is enough to permit the irradiated rat to support its partner through a like dose as effectively as would an unirradiated animal. The transplantable radiation-induced functioning pheochromocytoma and insulinoma of rats continue to be valuable research tools

  5. HTLV-I associated myelopathy with multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuo; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Shirou; Tarui, Seiichiro

    1988-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of urinary incontinence and gait disturbance, both of which had progressed slowly without any sign of remission. Family history was not contributory. Neurologically, extreme spasticity was recoginized in the lower limbs. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally. Flower-like atypical lymphocytes were seen in blood. Positive anti-HTLV-I antibody was confirmed in serum and spinal fluid by western blot. She was diagnosed as having HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). CT reveald calcification in bilateral globus pallidus, and MRI revealed multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem, but no spinal cord lesion was detectable. Electrophysiologically, brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) suggested the presence of bilateral brain stem lesions. Neither median nor posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked, a finding suggesting the existence of spinal cord lesion. In this case, the lesion was not confined to spinal cord, it was also observed in brain stem and cerebral white matter. Such distinct lesions in cerebral white matter and brain stem have not been reported in patients with HAM. It is suggested that HTLV-I is probably associated with cerebral white matter and brain stem.

  6. Response of a forest ecotone to ionizing radiation. Progress report, October 15, 1980-October 14, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.G.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1981-06-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on the tree species composition of the ecotone between two forest types in northern Wisconsin and to compare the postirradiation recovery of the tree flora in the ecotone with that in the bordering forest types. Relatively distinct ecotones constitute a spatially significant portion of many second-growth forest ecosystems. Belt transects concentric to the radiation source ( 137 Cs) are being used to measure compositional changes in the ecotone from aspen to maple-birch forest types. Information available includes population densities by size class, importance values, and diversity values. Estimates of leaf area index and leaf litter production, by species, have also been obtained. Succession in the radiation areas is presently under study. To date, redevelopment of forest vegetation at up to 20 m from the radiation source has been slowed significantly by the vigorous colonization of heliophytes. Sampling for 1980-81 is on schedule. In all three areas competition from successional ground vegetation has continued to delay re-establishment of tree seedlings under the opened canopy at 10 m. In this regard, only the aspen area has shown any signs of recovering, having experienced an influx of red maple seedlings in 1978. Even that area, however, is still less than half preirradiation levels with respect to seedling densities. As unusually high ratio of shrub leaf litter to tree leaf litter in the 10 to 20 m area reflects the displacement of canopy species by successional shrubs. As the overall impact of the radiation stress depends on the rate of forest re-establishment, observations will continue for several more years

  7. Mechanisms for radiation damage in DNA. Progress report, June 1, 1994--May 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    In this project we have proposed several mechanisms for radiation damage to DNA and its constituents, and have detailed a series of experiments utilizing electron spin resonance spectroscopy, HPLC, GC-mass spectroscopy and ab initio molecular orbital calculations to test the proposed mechanisms. The results from these various techniques have resulted in an understanding of consequences of radiation damage to DNA from the early ionization event to the production of non-radical lesions (discussed in detail in Comprehensive Report). In this year's work we have found the hydroxyl radical in DNA's hydration layer. This is an important result which impacts the hole transfer hypothesis and the understanding of the direct vs. indirect effect in DNA. Further we have found the first ESR evidence for sugar radicals as a result of direct radiation damage to DNA nucleotides in an aqueous environment. This is significant as it impacts the biological endpoint of radiation damage to DNA and suggests future work in DNA. Work with DNA-polypeptides show clear evidence for electron transfer to DNA from the polypeptide which we believe is a radioprotective mechanism. Our work with ab initio molecular orbital theory has gain insight into the initial events of radiation damage to DNA. Ab initio calculations have provided an understanding of the energetics involved in anion and cation formation, ion radical transfer in DNA as well as proton transfer with DNA base pair radical ions. This has been extended in this year's work to new, more accurate values for the electron affinities of the DNA bases, understanding of the relative stability of all possible sugar radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction on the deoxyribose group, hydration effects on, thiol radioprotectors, and an ongoing study of radical intermediates formed from initial DNA ion radicals. During this fiscal year five articles have been published, three are in press, two are submitted and several more are in preparation

  8. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.8--radiation research and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture

  9. Mechanisms for radiation damage in DNA, Progress report, November 1, 1977--October 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.

    1978-06-01

    In this project we have proposed several mechanisms for radiation damage to DNA constituents and DNA, and have detailed a series of experiments utilizing electron spin resonance spectrometry to test the proposed mechanisms. In the past we have concentrated chiefly on the direct affect of radiation on DNA. We are currently investigating systems of DNA constituents and peptides which may shed light on indirect effects. Studies which we have completed during the past year are: π-cation radicals in DNA and dinucleoside phosphates, and conformational effects on the ESR Spectra of amino acids and peptides. Studies of γ-Irradiated Peptide Solutions at 77 0 K, and studies of spin transfer in γ-irradiated nucleoside--peptide solutions were also conducted

  10. Radiation chemistry of plastic crystals. Annual progress report, November 1, 1976--October 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingen, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The overall purpose of this investigation is the understanding of the role that mesomorphism plays in the radiation chemistry of plastic crystals. In approaching this problem, the first step is to obtain data on the basic radiation chemistry of the most ordered solid state--the crystalline state. Thus, the results reported here are concerned with determination of the radiolysis of three plastic crystals in their highest ordered state. In addition to these studies, investigation of the optical properties and the positron life time properties of these materials in their plastic crystalline state was undertaken. The primary purpose of these studies during the current reporting period was the determination of the feasibility of these techniques to provide useful information to the overall project goal

  11. Response of a forest ecotone to ionizing radiation. Progress report, October 15, 1979-October 14, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.G.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1980-07-01

    Compositional and structural characteristics of three forest types, including aspen dominated, maple-birch dominated, and an intervening ecotone, were studied before and after irradiation in northern Wisconsin. Irradiation occurred during the summer of 1972. By the summer of 1973 the density of viable tree seedlings at 10 m from the radiation source was substantially reduced in all three areas relative to the preirradiation densities of 1971. As of the summer of 1979, establishment of tree seedlings continued to be inhibited by the vigorous development of ground vegetation. In most respects, the ecotone has shown properties and responses to radiation intermediate to those observed in the aspen and maple-birch areas. The rate and compositional characteristics of succession in the ecotone relative to aspen and maple-birch forest types is presently under study

  12. Health effects of low level radiation in shipyard workers. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    In order to determine the effects of low-level doses of radiation it was necessary to define an adequate population, to gather and collate data relating to this population and to organize this data in such a manner as to render it suitable for analysis. We have completed much of the groundwork, including the development of data collection systems and the establishment of liaisons with public and private data resources for ascertaining vital status and current address. The major tasks which we now face are two fold: (1) to determine the cause of death for deceased members of the population, and (2) to locate and secure information (occupational, medical and smoking histories) from living members of the population. Once these tasks have been completed we can undertake an analysis of this information to assess the risks of low-level doses of radiation and establish mechanisms through which this population can be followed prospectively

  13. Effects of radiation on model plant rice - OMICS: Recent progress and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakwal, Randeep; Shibato, Junko; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Fukutani, Satoshi; Tamogami, Shigeru; Endo, Satoru; Sahoo, Sarat Kumar; Kimura, Shinzo

    2011-01-01

    This is the age of functional genomics, where genomes to high-throughput technologies and to the phenotype are making inroads into various biological questions and problems. In this report, I along with my co-workers will present an outline into the omics approaches, focusing on the global gene expression profiling (DNA microarray technique), plants and the environment, and culminating in the use of genomics to analyze the effects of radiation on plant life. For this, rice (Oryza sativa L.) geonome model and monocot cereal crop plant will be used as an example. It is our hope that use of both model and non-model plants in conjunction with high-throughput transcriptomics approaches will lead the way for unraveling radiation responses in plants, setting the stage for further research on this important aspect of our environment with direct and indirect impact on human life and civilization. (author)

  14. Delayed immunologic effects of low dose radiation in Japanese A-bomb survivors. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makinodan, Takashi.

    1985-01-01

    Samples collected from 832 A-bomb survivors were analyzed for natural killer activity, interleukin production, interferon production, serum interferon levels, and circulating immune complex levels. The most striking finding was a significant radiation-sex interaction for NK activity. The NK of females exposed to 100+ rads was decreased compared to those exposed to 0 to 99 rads. A significant increase in NK activity with age ATB was observed, as well as an increase with age in circulating immune complex

  15. Studies of the repair of radiation-induced genetic damage in drosophila. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic characteristics of mutagen-sensitive mutants linked to the X chromosome were studied. These mutants increase loss and nondisjunction of chromosomes in female meiosis and are sensitive to radiation and mutagens. A study of chemical characteristics of the mutant suggested the existence of two separate forms of postreplication repair. One pathway is not caffeine sensitive and does not require recombination related functions; the second pathway appears to be caffeine sensitive and probably shares functions involved in meiotic recombination

  16. Progress in hprt mutation assay and its application in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jing; Li Qiang

    2008-01-01

    hprt gene is an X-linked locus that has been well studied and widely used as a bio-marker in mutation detection, hprt mutation assay is a gene mutation test system in mammalian cells in vitro which has been used as a biological dosimeter. In this paper, the biological characteristics of hprt gene, hprt mutation detection methodology and the application of hprt mutation assay in radiation biology are comprehensively reviewed. (authors)

  17. Basic aspects of radiation action on microorganisms. Progress report, April 1, 1975--March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, E.C.

    1976-04-01

    Results of studies on the effects of irradiation on Escherichia coli showed that error-prone repair mutagenesis can be induced by ionizing radiation and uv light; induced single-strand DNA break repair has been confirmed and its characterization is in process; and there is clearly a separation between the induction of lambda and other phenomena. The dose-effect relationship differs and the phenomenon of radioresistance is removed. The action spectra for uv induced mutagenesis was plotted

  18. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  19. Recent progress of the study of p53 control mechanism by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Hidehiko

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed are the recent findings on the control mechanism of function and activity of p53 as a response factor to stress of ionizing radiation. The p53 protein is controlled to be essentially inactive in cells under normal conditions and is activated by various stresses. The role of p53 as a stress-responding and tumor-suppressing factor in cells with damaged DNA is discussed in relation with its participation in G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, DNA repair, and apoptosis. The stress like radiation affects the control mechanisms of stability and function of p53 through modification of its N-terminal region (the activation domain of transcription), DNA binding region (core domain) and C-terminal region (domains of the nuclear export signaling, tetramer formation and its own regulation). MDM2 (mouse double minute 2) family, the most important regulatory factor of p53, forms a negative feedback cycle since the family is the target factor of p53 transcription and also suppressor of p53. MDM2 is regulated by phosphorylation and by interaction with itself or other factors like p300/CBP. Further studies on p53 are thus important in various fields as well as in radiation biology. (N.I.)

  20. Stepwise Progress in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Radiation Studies for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of four new epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors for cancer therapy (cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, and erlotinib) over the last 3 years is a remarkable milestone in oncology. Indeed, molecular inhibition of EGFR signaling represents one of the most promising current arenas for the development of molecular-targeted cancer therapies. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors from both the monoclonal antibody and tyrosine kinase inhibitor class have demonstrated clinical activity in the treatment of a broad spectrum of common human malignancies. For the discipline of radiation oncology, the 2006 report of a phase III trial demonstrating a survival advantage for advanced head and neck cancer patients with the addition of weekly cetuximab during a 7-week course of radiation is particularly gratifying. Indeed, this is the first phase III trial to confirm a survival advantage with the addition of a molecular-targeted agent to radiation. Furthermore, this result seems to have been achieved with only a modest increment in overall treatment toxicity and with very high compliance to the prescribed treatment regimen. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned regarding the rational integration of EGFR inhibitors into cancer treatment regimens, as well as methods to optimize the selection of patients most likely to benefit from EGFR inhibitor strategies

  1. Characterization of ionizing radiation damage in DNA. Progress report, May 1, 1975--April 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this research is the characterization and quantitative assay of ionizing radiation-induced damage in DNA and nucleoprotein. Two lines of investigation have been pursued. The first is aimed at detection and assay of DNA to protein covalent cross linkage in coliphage T7. Protein and DNA are labeled with 14 C and 32 P, respectively. Cross linkage is assessed from the amount of labeled protein distributing like DNA and labeled DNA distributing like protein on a phenol-water countercurrent distribution system. It has been found that damage involving cross linkage occurs by two modes of radiation action in phage irradiated with 60 Co γ rays in .001M histidine medium. Indirect effects play a large role in one mode and direct effects play a large role in the other. In the second line of investigation, the hydrodynamic and viscoelastic properties of DNA from irradiated phage and cells will be examined to determine the extent to which DNA to DNA cross linkage and points of altered flexibility are introduced by radiation. An instrument for viscoelastic measurements has been constructed in preparation for these studies

  2. Radiation carcinogenesis. Progress report IV, 15 March 1976--15 May 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Gates, O.

    1977-01-01

    The series of parabiont and irradiated rats has been completed, the lesions diagnosed and the data pertinent to tumors computerized and partly analyzed. The same series yielded 74 percent incidence of cataract in the irradiated partner following a whole-body dose of 1000 R with 0.2 percent in the shielded partner and also in controls. There was no abscopal effect. Other structures of the eye beside the lens, particularly the retina, showed extensive radiation damage. Parabiosis increased the incidence rate of leukemia from one percent in control single rats to five percent. Irradiation of one partner decreased the rate to 2.5 percent. Similar effects were noted for solid lymphoid tumors. A pilot study of prostatic cancer in irradiated parabiont rats demonstrated a tenfold increase in incidence. Experimental protocols bearing on cocarcinogenesis have been initiated in mice and rats, using radiation, asbestos and chemical carcinogens, but no results have been as yet obtained. We have obtained additional evidence suggesting the importance of prolactin as a cocarcinogen with radiation for induction of mammary tumors in the rat and are continuing our collaborative study of hormonal aasays in the blood of parabiont rats

  3. Schistosomiasis of the spinal cord presenting as progressive myelopathy. Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Mahmoud Hamdy

    2012-02-03

    The authors report on a case of schistosomiasis of the spinal cord in an individual returning to Ireland after a 25-year residence in Africa, where the infection affects approximately 200 million people.

  4. Myelopathy and sciatica induced by an extradural S1 root haemangioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermier, M.; Cotton, F.; Froment, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France); Saint-Pierre, G.; Jouvet, A. [Department of Neuropathology, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France); Ongolo-Zogo, P. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France); Department of Radiology, Hopital Central, Yaounde (Cameroon); Fischer, G. [Department of Neurosurgery, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France)

    2002-06-01

    Haemangioblastomas are vascular tumours which mainly involve the central nervous system and retina, often in the setting of von Hippel-Lindau disease. Haemangioblastomas occurring outside the central nervous system are uncommon. Wherever it is, recognising this tumour prior to surgery is desirable, as preoperative embolisation may be considered. We report the clinical, imaging and pathological features of a sporadic sacral root haemangioblastoma in a 58-year-old man with chronic sciatica and myelopathy. The diagnosis was questioned preoperatively because an enlarged sacral foramen, seen to be filled by a highly vascular, enhancing mass and dilated vessels. Myelopathy was attributed to the presumed high venous pressure resulting from increased flow in veins draining the vascular tumour. Microneurosurgical excision was performed after endovascular embolisation and led to persistent clinical improvement. (orig.)

  5. Myelopathy and sciatica induced by an extradural S1 root haemangioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermier, M.; Cotton, F.; Froment, J.C.; Saint-Pierre, G.; Jouvet, A.; Ongolo-Zogo, P.; Fischer, G.

    2002-01-01

    Haemangioblastomas are vascular tumours which mainly involve the central nervous system and retina, often in the setting of von Hippel-Lindau disease. Haemangioblastomas occurring outside the central nervous system are uncommon. Wherever it is, recognising this tumour prior to surgery is desirable, as preoperative embolisation may be considered. We report the clinical, imaging and pathological features of a sporadic sacral root haemangioblastoma in a 58-year-old man with chronic sciatica and myelopathy. The diagnosis was questioned preoperatively because an enlarged sacral foramen, seen to be filled by a highly vascular, enhancing mass and dilated vessels. Myelopathy was attributed to the presumed high venous pressure resulting from increased flow in veins draining the vascular tumour. Microneurosurgical excision was performed after endovascular embolisation and led to persistent clinical improvement. (orig.)

  6. EFFICACY OF CAGE PLACEMENT WITHOUT PLATE IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL MYELOPATHY WITH SINGLE-LEVEL AFFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO ZUÑIGA-MAZÓN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the efficacy of PEEK (Poly-ether-ether-ketone cage without plate for the treatment of single-level cervical spondylosis. Methods: Ten patients with cervical myelopathy data, with a single-level root condition, seen at the outpatient clinic of the Neurosurgery Service, operated in 2016, mean age 53 years, 6 (60% female, 4 (40% obese, 3 (30% smokers. The Cloward technique was used by anterior approach, discectomy, and PEEK cage placement. Results: At six months of surgery, 100% of the patients had increased intervertebral space, with a 100% reduction in osteophytes; only one patient had dysphagia, no patient had lesion of the adjacent segment and 10% had persistent root pathology. Cervical lordosis was observed in 90% of the patients and arthrodesis in 100% of the cases. Conclusions: Anterior approach arthrodesis using PEEK cage without cervical plate is effective as a treatment of cervical myelopathy in a single level.

  7. Relationship between magnetic resonance imaging and clinical results of decompression surgery for cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    MR imaging was investigated before and after surgery in 60 cases of cervical myelopathy. A preoperative high-signal-intensity area in the spinal cord was thought to be an important indicator of poor prognosis, because the recovery ratio of the preoperative high-signal group was 32±24%, while that of the normal-signal group was 86±15%. But, a high-signal-intensity area had no significant correlation with the morbidity period, preoperative clinical severity and degree of cord compression. There was a significant correlation between postoperative MR imaging and the neurological prognosis. And, atrophy and high-signal-intensity area in the spinal cord were frequently seen in cases of poor neurological postoperative recovery, corresponding to the morbidity period, preoperative clinical severity and degree of cord compression. MR imaging can serve as a useful tool to assess cervical myelopathy and to forecast the postoperative prognosis. (author)

  8. Predicting surgical outcome in cases of cervical myelopathy with magnetic resonance imaging. Critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    In this study, the author attempted to correlate clinical factors significant in cases of cervical myelopathy with postoperative recovery. It is hoped that the results will aid in the preoperative prediction of surgical outcomes. The factors considered were the transverse area of the spinal cord, the cord compression rate, the presence of a high intensity area in T2-weighted MRI, the duration of symptoms before surgery, and age at surgery. Because there are variations in the transverse area of the spinal cord, 100 normal individuals were selected and the standard transverse area was calculated. The transverse area of the spinal cord and the cord constriction rate in the myelopathy cases was then measured and compared to the standard. The data indicated that the constriction rate was most relevant to recovery rate. Clinical thresholds found to correlate with a better than average rate of recovery in cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were: a cord constriction rate; under 28.7%, cord compression rate; over 0.38, duration of symptoms before surgery; less than 9.2 months, and age at surgery; under 59.2 yrs. In patients with ossification of the longitudinal ligament (OPLL), cord constriction rate; under 36.2%, cord compression rate; over 0.30, duration of symptoms before surgery; less than 14.2 months, and age at surgery; under 57.6 yrs., all correlated with superior recovery, as did cord constriction rate; under 22.3%, and duration of symptoms before surgery; less than 3.7 months with patients suffering from cervical disc herniation (CDH). Furthermore, the absence of a T2-weighted high intensity area in CSM and OPLL patients also correlated with improved recovery. These results suggest that a favorable postoperative recovery rate can be expected in cases of cervical myelopathy that conform to the above criteria. (author)

  9. Imaging of Spinal Cord Injury: Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury, Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy, and Cord Herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talekar, Kiran; Poplawski, Michael; Hegde, Rahul; Cox, Mougnyan; Flanders, Adam

    2016-10-01

    We review the pathophysiology and imaging findings of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and briefly review the much less common cord herniation as a unique cause of myelopathy. Acute traumatic SCI is devastating to the patient and the costs to society are staggering. There are currently no "cures" for SCI and the only accepted pharmacologic treatment regimen for traumatic SCI is currently being questioned. Evaluation and prognostication of SCI is a demanding area with significant deficiencies, including lack of biomarkers. Accurate classification of SCI is heavily dependent on a good clinical examination, the results of which can vary substantially based upon the patient׳s condition or comorbidities and the skills of the examiner. Moreover, the full extent of a patients׳ neurologic injury may not become apparent for days after injury; by then, therapeutic response may be limited. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best imaging modality for the evaluation of spinal cord parenchyma, conventional MR techniques do not appear to differentiate edema from axonal injury. Recently, it is proposed that in addition to characterizing the anatomic extent of injury, metrics derived from conventional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, in conjunction with the neurological examination, can serve as a reliable objective biomarker for determination of the extent of neurologic injury and early identification of patients who would benefit from treatment. Cervical spondylosis is a common disorder affecting predominantly the elderly with a potential to narrow the spinal canal and thereby impinge or compress upon the neural elements leading to cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy. It is the commonest nontraumatic cause of spinal cord disorder in adults. Imaging plays an important role in grading the severity of spondylosis and detecting cord abnormalities suggesting myelopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Myelopathy due to Spinal Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shuhei; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hosogane, Naobumi; Nagoshi, Narihito; Yagi, Mitsuru; Iwanami, Akio; Watanabe, Kota; Tsuji, Takashi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Ishii, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occasionally occurs in patients exhibiting hematological disorders with decreased hematopoietic efficacy. EMH is rarely observed in the spinal epidural space and patients are usually asymptomatic. In particular, in the patients with polycythemia vera, spinal cord compression due to EMH is extremely rare. We report a case of polycythemia vera, in which operative therapy proved to be an effective treatment for myelopathy caused by spinal EMH.

  11. Myelopathy due to Spinal Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Shuhei; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hosogane, Naobumi; Nagoshi, Narihito; Yagi, Mitsuru; Iwanami, Akio; Watanabe, Kota; Tsuji, Takashi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Ishii, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occasionally occurs in patients exhibiting hematological disorders with decreased hematopoietic efficacy. EMH is rarely observed in the spinal epidural space and patients are usually asymptomatic. In particular, in the patients with polycythemia vera, spinal cord compression due to EMH is extremely rare. We report a case of polycythemia vera, in which operative therapy proved to be an effective treatment for myelopathy caused by spinal EMH.

  12. Prediction of surgical outcome in compressive cervical myelopathy: A novel clinicoradiological prognostic score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Anil Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Preoperative severity of myelopathy, age, and duration of symptoms have been shown to be highly predictive of the outcome in compressive cervical myelopathy (CCM. The role of radiological parameters is still controversial. Aims: Define the prognostic factors in CCM and formulate a prognostic score to predict the outcome following surgery in CCM. Settings and Design: Retrospective. Materials and Methods: This study included 78 consecutive patients with CCM treated surgically. The modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA scale was used to quantify severity of myelopathy at admission and at 12-month follow-up. The outcome was defined as "good" if the patient had mJOA score ≥16 and "poor" if the score was <16. Age, sex, duration of symptoms, comorbidities, intrinsic hand muscle wasting (IHMW, diagnosis, surgical technique, Torg ratio, instability on dynamic radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI signal intensity changes were assessed. Statistics: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS (version 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. The association was assessed amongst variables using logistic regression analysis. Parameters having a statistically significant correlation with the outcome were included in formulating a prognostic score. Results: Severity of myelopathy, IHMW, age, duration, diabetes, and instability on radiographs were predictive of the outcome with a P value <0.01. Genders, diagnosis, surgical procedure, Torg ratio, and intensity changes on MRI were not significantly related to the outcome. A 8-point scoring system was devised incorporating the significant clinicoradiological parameters, and it was found that nearly all patients (97.82% with a score below 5 had good outcome and all patients (100% with a score above 5 had poor outcome. The outcome is difficult to predict with a score of 5. Conclusions: Clinical parameters are better predictors of the outcome as compared to radiological findings

  13. Myelopathy due to Spinal Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Ito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH occasionally occurs in patients exhibiting hematological disorders with decreased hematopoietic efficacy. EMH is rarely observed in the spinal epidural space and patients are usually asymptomatic. In particular, in the patients with polycythemia vera, spinal cord compression due to EMH is extremely rare. We report a case of polycythemia vera, in which operative therapy proved to be an effective treatment for myelopathy caused by spinal EMH.

  14. Negative MRI findings in a case of degenerative myelopathy in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okada

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old male Rough collie was submitted with paraparesis, but did not respond to medical treatment. Clinical signs worsened and the dog displayed paralysis, inability to stand and loss of voluntary bladder control, whereupon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed. No significant abnormalities were identified from MRI, blood tests, cerebrospinal fluid tests or radiography. After MRI, the dog developed dyspnoea and died. Autopsy and subsequent histopathological examination led to a diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy.

  15. Recent Progress in Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopy of Solids : Applications of VUV, Soft and Hard X-Ray Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center is a common facility for both research and education in the field of synchrotron radiation science. The operation of the light source was started from March 1998. The storage ring can be operated at 700 MeV with a critical energy of 873 eV. The machine has a racetrack shape with a circumference of 22 m, and has 14 photon beam ports. The maximum operational current is 300 mA, and the beam lifetime is longer than 6 h at 200 mA. Of total 13 beamlines introduced so far, three beamlines are dedicated to photoemission spectroscopy (PES). An available photon-energy range is hν=26-300 eV. A hemispherical photoelectron analyzer is equipped at the end station. Total energy resolution has been achieved to ∼ 15 meV at hν=100 eV. The photon-energy range is hν=4-40 eV and total energy resolution is ∼ 4.5 meV at hν=7 eV. Although total energy resolution has been achieved to ∼25 meV at hν=80 eV, we usually carry out the PES experiments. The PES spectra taken at hν∼7 eV provide information on the conduction band electrons. In order to investigate the bulk-originated electronic structure we started the hard x-ray PES experiments with a total energy resolution of ∼ 270 meV. Thus, we promote the research project with use of light in a wide energy-range (7 eV-6 keV). 1) Unusual energy gap formation in the Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs has attracted much interest for its unusual energy gap formation or metal-to-insulator transition as temperature decreases. The energy gap is assumed to be formed by the temperature dependence of the c-f hybridization. By means of resonant PES, we could observe a energy-gap structure in the Ce 4f states. In order to observe As 4p state and Rh 4d state, we have measured the PES spectra at hν=7.9 eV, 40 eV and 6 keV, respectively, due to the photon-energy dependence of photoionization cross-section. From the spectra at hν=7.9 eV, we could see that the density of states (DOS) near E F decreases with

  16. Progression of renal cell carcinoma is inhibited by genistein and radiation in an orthotopic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, Gilda G; Wang, Yu; Che, Mingxin; Raffoul, Julian J; Yudelev, Mark; Kucuk, Omer; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2007-01-01

    We have previously reported the potentiation of radiotherapy by the soy isoflavone genistein for prostate cancer using prostate tumor cells in vitro and orthotopic prostate tumor models in vivo. However, when genistein was used as single therapy in animal models, it promoted metastasis to regional para-aortic lymph nodes. To clarify whether these intriguing adverse effects of genistein are intrinsic to the orthotopic prostate tumor model, or these results could also be recapitulated in another model, we used the orthotopic metastatic KCI-18 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) model established in our laboratory. The KCI-18 RCC cell line was generated from a patient with papillary renal cell carcinoma. Following orthotopic renal implantation of KCI-18 RCC cells and serial in vivo kidney passages in nude mice, we have established a reliable and predictable metastatic RCC tumor model. Mice bearing established kidney tumors were treated with genistein combined with kidney tumor irradiation. The effect of the therapy was assessed on the primary tumor and metastases to various organs. In this experimental model, the karyotype and histological characteristics of the human primary tumor are preserved. Tumor cells metastasize from the primary renal tumor to the lungs, liver and mesentery mimicking the progression of RCC in humans. Treatment of established kidney tumors with genistein demonstrated a tendency to stimulate the growth of the primary kidney tumor and increase the incidence of metastasis to the mesentery lining the bowel. In contrast, when given in conjunction with kidney tumor irradiation, genistein significantly inhibited the growth and progression of established kidney tumors. These findings confirm the potentiation of radiotherapy by genistein in the orthotopic RCC model as previously shown in orthotopic models of prostate cancer. Our studies in both RCC and prostate tumor models demonstrate that the combination of genistein with primary tumor irradiation is a more

  17. Progress of radiation curing technology and its industrial applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashi Ukachi

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese industry has grown with annual growth rate 108%. Electric parts and devices industry strongly promoted Japanese economy. UV/EB curing market in Japan enjoyed its steady growth with an annual growth rate 107%. By realizing the advantages of good performance and high functionality, the UV/EB curing technology has expanded its application field especially in leading edge industries, such as electric parts and devices, FPDs, Optical fibers and cables, optical recording media, and their fabrication and manufacturing. This paper summarizes the Japanese UV/EB market situation and overviews the latest progress of UV/EB technology. (Author)

  18. Radiation and biophysical studies on cells and viruses. Progress report, April 1, 1976--June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic structure of DNA, chromosomes, and nucleoproteins; particle beam studies of radiosensitive sites; division delay in CHO cells induced by partly penetrating alpha particles; location of cellular sites for mutation induction; sites for radioinduced cell transformation using partly penetrating particle beams; gamma-ray and particle irradiation of nucleoproteins and other model systems; quantitation of surface antigens on normal and neoplastic cells by x-ray fluorescence; hyperthermic effects on cell survival and DNA repair mechanisms; and studies on radioinduced cell transformation

  19. Radiation promotes colorectal cancer initiation and progression by inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Bozeman, R G; Kaisani, A; Kim, W; Zhang, L; Richardson, J A; Wright, W E; Shay, J W

    2016-06-30

    Proton radiotherapy is becoming more common as protons induce more precise DNA damage at the tumor site with reduced side effects to adjacent normal tissues. However, the long-term biological effects of proton irradiation in cancer initiation compared with conventional photon irradiation are poorly characterized. In this study, using a human familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome susceptible mouse model, we show that whole-body irradiation with protons are more effective in inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses (SIRs), which are involved in colon cancer initiation and progression. After proton irradiation, a subset of SIR genes (Troy, Sox17, Opg, Faim2, Lpo, Tlr2 and Ptges) and a gene known to be involved in invasiveness (Plat), along with the senescence-associated gene (P19Arf), are markedly increased. Following these changes, loss of Casein kinase Iα and induction of chronic DNA damage and TP53 mutations are increased compared with X-ray irradiation. Proton irradiation also increases the number of colonic polyps, carcinomas and invasive adenocarcinomas. Pretreatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid-ethyl amide (CDDO-EA), reduces proton irradiation-associated SIR and tumorigenesis. Thus exposure to proton irradiation elicits significant changes in colorectal cancer initiation and progression that can be mitigated using CDDO-EA.

  20. Hydrogen and methane syntheses through radiation catalysis. Progress report, June 1, 1977--August 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, J.G.

    1978-09-01

    Preliminary testing was performed of the concept of an electronic theory of catalysis to relate electrical properties of the catalysts to increased rates in radiation-induced reactions. The first system selected for study was the radiolysis of water as stimulated by absorption of gamma radiation, a system that has been thoroughly tested by numerous workers all in excellent agreement. Early results indicate a significant correspondence between hydrogen gas yield and the forbidden band gap (Eg) of the catalyst substrate, when Eg approximates the energy of the hydrogen-oxygen bond in the water molecule. Catalysts tested were TiO 2 , SrTiO 3 , Sb 2 O 3 , MoO 3 , Nb 2 O 5 , SnO 2 , CaO, HfO 2 , In 2 O 3 , and V 2 O 5 . Equipment to measure dielectric properties of solids has been built and calibrated, and will now be applied to pre- and post-irradiation testing of the catalysts used. Separate abstracts were prepared for the appendices: one a review of existing analytical models of photoelectrochemical cells and the other a theoretical modeling of semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces

  1. Effect of radiation sickness on the progress and treatment of mechanical and thermal injuries. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K

    1964-04-01

    It has been estimated that 70 or 75% of persons exposed to atomic weapons would suffer mechanical and thermal injuries, and that 30% receive radiation injuries. Of the total persons injured, 75% would suffer combinations of these injuries. As a result the various injurious agents, complexes of injury conditions, would be observed. These include leukopenia and impaired resistance to infection, shortened delay in appearance o irradiation symptoms, intensified evidence of shock, and an increased tendency toward hemorrhage, with increased sensitivity to blood loss. The author discusses a wide range of general and specific medical procedures and drugs that can be used to treat and support recovery of persons with combined radiation and mechanical or thermal injuries. Some general treatment procedures include absolute isolation and rest, special dietetic supplementation, strict medical supervision to prevent acute hemorrhage or circulatory failure, and parenteral administration of fluids. Other special measures include treatment of the primary reactions to injury by antihistamines, sedatives, antibiotics, hormones, support of circulation, blood transfusions, etc.

  2. Response of a forest ecotone to ionizing radiation. Progress report, October 15, 1981-April 14, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.G.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1982-11-01

    Compositional and structural characteristics of three forest types, including aspen dominated, maple-birch dominated, and an intervening ecotone (midecotone), were studied before and after irradiation in northern Wisconsin. In all three areas, the density of seedlings at 10 m was greatly reduced within a year following the 1972 radiation event. Woody plants of tree stature were eliminated at 10 m in all three areas within two years of irradiation but by 1982 only the aspen area lacked plants in this size class. The low densities of young trees in the other two areas at 10 m were of successional species rather than the original species killed by radiation. In 1981 total leaf litter production was 42 and 61% below 1971 preirradiation levels at 10 m in the aspen and maple-birch areas, respectively. But at 10 m in the midecotone, it had increased, relative to 1971, by 23%. The ratio of shrub to tree leaf litter continues to decline as the heavily irradiated zone of all three areas continues to be recolonized by tree species and the canopy at 20 m continues to fill out. Our present studies emphasize the rate at which the three areas continue to be recolonized and the composition of the recolonizing flora, relative to the preirradiation forest. Influences of the successional shrub species within 10 m are of particular interest and are also under study

  3. Response of a forest ecotone to ionizing radiation. Progress report, October 15, 1978-October 14, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.G.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Compositional and structural characteristics of three forest types, including aspen dominated, maple-birch dominated, and an intervening ecotone, were studied before and after irradiation in northern Wisconsin. Irradiation occurred during the summer of 1972. As of the summer of 1978, establishment of tree seedlings at 10 m from the radiation source continued to be inhibited by the vigorous development of ground vegetation except, in part, in the aspen area where seedling density increased sharply relative to 1977 because of an influx of Acer rubrum. By 1974 many of the seedlings at 20 m had reached the sapling size-class. At the present time it appears that recolonization of the 10 m irradiated zone by the original tree flora will be a very slow process, largely because of a dense growth of Rubus sp. and other heliophytes. As of 1978 the recovery of leaf litter production appeared to be continuing in all three areas although the ratios of tree to shrub litter were still well below preirradiation levels at 10 m and slightly below at 20 m. In most respects, the ecotone has shown properties and responses to radiation intermediate to those observed in the aspen and maple-birch areas. The rate and compositional characteristics of succession in the ecotone relative to aspen and maple-birch forest types is presently under study

  4. Characterization of ionizing radiation damage in DNA. Progress report, May 1, 1974--April 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of this research is the characterization and quantitative assay of ionizing radiation induced damage in DNA and nucleoprotein. Two lines of investigation have been pursued. The first is aimed at detection and assay of the amount of DNA to protein covalent cross linkage in coliphage T7. Protein and DNA are labeled with 14 C and 32 P, respectively. Cross linkage is assessed from the amount of labeled protein remaining with DNA after efforts to separate the two components by countercurrent distribution in a phenol-water system. It has been found that cross linkage occurs in phage irradiated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation while in dilute neutral aqueous solutions of phosphate buffer and phosphate buffer plus 1-histidine. Cross linkage is largely due to indirect effects and accompanied by protein and DNA fragmentation. The second line of investigation is a study of the hydrodynamic and viscoelastic properties of dilute solution of DNA from irradiated bacteriophage and cells. A device for this purpose, which will measure the elastic retardation time of DNA solutions, is being constructed. (U.S.)

  5. Ionizing radiation induced catalysis on metal oxide particles. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, S.A.; Daschbach, J.L.; Fryberger, T.; Henderson, M.A.; Peden, C.H.F.; Su, Y.; Wang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    'High-level radioactive waste storage tanks within DOE sites contain significant amounts of organic components (solid and liquid phases) in the form of solvents, extractants, complexing agents, process chemicals, cleaning agents and a variety of miscellaneous compounds. These organics pose several safety and pretreatment concerns, particularly for the Hanford tank waste. Remediation technologies are needed that significantly reduce the amounts of problem organics without resulting in toxic or flammable gas emissions, and without requiring thermal treatments. These restrictions pose serious technological barriers for current organic destruction methods which utilize oxidation achieved by thermal or chemical activation. This project focuses on using ionizing radiation (a,b,g) to catalytically destroy organics over oxide materials through reduction/oxidation (redox) chemistry resulting from electron-hole (e - /h + ) pair generation. Conceptually this process is an extension of visible and near-UV photocatalytic processes known to occur at the interfaces of narrow bandgap semiconductors in both solution and gas phases. In these processes, an electron is excited across the energy gap between the filled and empty states in the semiconductor. The excited electron does reductive chemistry and the hole (where the electron was excited from) does oxidative chemistry. The energy separation between the hole and the excited electron reflects the redox capability of the e - /h + pair, and is dictated by the energy of the absorbed photon and the bandgap of the material. The use of ionizing radiation overcomes optical transparency limitations associated with visible and near-UV illumination (g-rays penetrate much farther into a solution than UV/Vis light), and permits the use of wider bandgap materials (such as ZrO 2 ) which possess potentially greater redox capabilities than those with narrow bandgap materials. Experiments have been aimed at understanding the mechanism(s) of g

  6. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident. Progress report to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1997-09-01

    The level of 137 CS in freely grazing reindeer, and thus in reindeer pasture, continue to decrease, with an average T ef at 3.9 years from 1986/87 (the first year after the Chernobyl fallout) to 1996/97. The decline was more rapid during the first five years after the fallout than during the following five years. This, together with a tendency to a relatively slow decline in areas with mainly old fallout (from the nuclear weapon tests) indicate that radiocesium become more fixed in reindeer pasture with time. As a combined effect of the general decline and of different countermeasures, the transfer of radiocaesium via reindeer meat and the corresponding radiation dose to humans has been reduced with time. By different countermeasures, the total collective dose to the Swedish population, over a 10-year period following the Chernobyl accident, has been reduced with 676 manSv at a cost of 489 million SEK

  7. Progress on a Vlasov Treatment of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Arbitrary Planar Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bassi, Gabriele; Warnock, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    We study the influence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on particle bunches traveling on arbitrary planar orbits between parallel conducting plates (shielding). The time evolution of the phase space distribution is determined by solving the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the time domain. This provides lower numerical noise than the macroparticle method, and allows the study of emittance degradation and microbunching in bunch compressors. We calculate the fields excited by the bunch in the lab frame using a formula simpler than that based on retarded potentials.* We have developed an algorithm for solving the Vlasov equation in the beam frame using arc length as the independent variable and our method of local characteristics (discretized Perron-Frobenius operator).We integrate in the interaction picture in the hope that we can adopt a fixed grid. The distribution function will be represented by B-splines, in a scheme preserving positivity and normalization of the distribution. The transformation between l...

  8. Effects of radiation and chemicals on SV40 oncogenesis. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    This project is directed toward developing rapid, quantitative methods and immunologic markers which will permit the early detection of newly forming tumors induced or enhanced by x-irradiation, chemical carcinogens, viruses or combinations of the three. The projects under study in our ongoing collaborative program seek to develop the detailed understanding and precise methodology required for the early detection of embryonic antigens in transformed cells induced by the co-carcinogenic effects of viruses and low-level radiation. A new technique for assaying the earliest transformed cells appearing in a carcinogen treated population affords a unique tool for this study. Present plans involve efforts to purify embryonic determinants from fetal and transformed cells of hamsters and mice in order to define their role in the transformation process and in tumor development

  9. Response of a forest ecotone to ionizing radiation. Progress report, October 15, 1976--October 14, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.G.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1977-07-01

    Compositional and structural characteristics of three forest types, including aspen dominated, maple-birch dominated, and an intervening ecotone, were studied before and after irradiation in northern Wisconsin. Irradiation occurred during the summer of 1972. By the summer of 1973 the density of viable tree seedlings at 10 m from the radiation source was substantially reduced in all three areas relative to the preirradiation densities of 1971. As of the summer of 1976, establishment of tree seedlings continued to be inhibited by the vigorous development of ground vegetation. At 20 m, the density of seedlings in the three areas increased during the period from 1971 to 1973 in response to the partially opened canopy. The overall density of seedlings of Populus tremuloides and Acer rubrum increased markedly in the three areas and P. tremuloides invaded some areas in which it had not been found prior to irradiation. By 1974 many of the seedlings at 20 m had reached the sapling size-class. Viable trees greater than 2.5 cm in dbh were eliminated at 10 m in all three areas by June of 1974 and were reduced in density at 20 m. At the present time it appears that recolonization of the 10 m irradiated zone by the original tree flora will be a very slow process. Leaf litter production was reduced by up to 92 percent at 10 m and 62 percent at 20 m during the period from 1971 to 1973 in the irradiated areas. In most respects the ecotone has shown properties and responses to radiation intermediate to those observed in the aspen and maple-birch areas. The rate and compositional characteristics of succession in the ecotone relative to aspen and maple-birch forest types is presently under study

  10. Progressive alterations of central nervous system structure and function are caused by charged particle radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G. A.; Cns Nscor Team

    A new NASA-sponsored program project (NSCOR) has been organized to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of the response of a mammalian brain structure (mouse hippocampus) to charged-particle radiation. The NSCOR collaboration has three main goals. The first goal is to quantify the time- and dose-dependent changes in cellular composition and architecture. By using stereology on preserved brains, subsets of cells (neurons, glia, endothelia and stem cells) will be quantified out to 2 years after irradiation with accelerated protons and iron ions. To further characterize changes in vasculature architecture a polymer infusion technique will be used to produce a three-dimensional vasculature cast that then will be mapped by x-ray tomography to determine topological changes, and microscopic infarcts associated with amyloid protein deposits. The 2nd goal is to quantify hippocampal function(s). The primary measurement of function will be extracellular electrical recordings from hippocampal ``brain slices'' that reflect underlying functions such as connectivity, action potential generation & conduction, and neurotransmitter formation, secretion, and uptake. Individual nerve membrane properties will be assessed by ``patch clamp'' recordings. Two non-invasive methods will evaluate brain function and the evolution of changes with time. Electroencephalograms will map macroscopic spontaneous electrical activity while two state-of-the-art MRI magnetization sequences will visualize and quantify local oxygen utilization and white matter fiber tracts structural integrity. To quantify the brains' overall performance under stress, animals will receive a systemic shock mediated by the immune system in the form of a reaction to lipopolysaccharide. A second strategy will employ the APP23 transgenic mouse that develops the pathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Measurements of irradiated mice will determine whether radiation exposure affects the latency and

  11. Peculiarities of occurrence and progress of border-line conditions under low radiation dose rate impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezina, M.V.; Kenzhina, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    In past years more and more attention is drawn to condition of psychic health of population groups working under unhealthy labor conditions. In relation to this there were studied peculiarities of occurrence and progress of affective disorder at Institute of Atomic Energy of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan employees. The study conducted showed high level of affective disorder occurrence and intensity of asthenia manifestations in a number of cases prevailing, in essence, affective disorders. Where at asthenia disorders do not correlate with the intensity of somatic background. It is necessary to note that environment factors played considerable role in formation of depression in the examined persons. Investigation results indicate the necessity to elaborate large prophylactic, therapeutic and rehabilitation actions for persons, that are deemed mentally healthy and not needing psychiatric help, for the purpose of detection and elimination of erased affective disorders. In the field of mental disease prophylaxis the group of disorders determined as 'pre-disease' or 'border-line variants of psychic health' are of interest. (author)

  12. Interaction of radiation with matter. Research progress report, November 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The mechanisms of dissipation of energy in organic and inorganic materials, and the application of the technique developed to a study of selected problems of environmental concern in the production of energy from fossil fuels were studied. In the Inorganic Phase of the work the research involves (1) measurements of cross-sections for K and L-shell ionization processes for heavy projectiles in the low velocity region, (2) experimental tests of target dependence of the effective-charge theory for light projectiles, (3) theoretical studies on the energy loss of swift particles in plasmas over a broad density and temperature range. The organic phase of the work falls into a series of closely related areas, all derived from a study of the interaction of radiation with matter. (1) New techniques for the study of small particulates (approx. 1μ); composition, mass (to +-1 pg) and charge (+-1 electron) can be determined. (2) External photoelectric effects as a tool in arriving at the electronic structure of organic crystals. (3) The interaction of water with charge carriers in organic crystals, producing reactive chemical species, such as Oh and HSO 3 radicals. (4) Mechanisms of interaction of air-pollutant polycyclic aromatic carcinogens with DNA and the study of the conformation of the adducts

  13. Progress on the physics of ignition for radiation driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.; Marinak, M.M.

    1996-09-01

    Extensive modeling of proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets has resulted in a variety of targets using different materials in the fuel shell, using driving temperatures which range from 250-300 eV, and requiring energies from 15 W/cm 2 for this type of hohlraum. The symmetry in Nova gas- filled hohlraums is affected by the gas fill. A large body of evidence now exists which indicates that this effect is due to laser beam filamentation which can be largely controlled by beam smoothing. We present here the firs 3-D simulations of hydrodynamic instability for the NIF point design capsule. These simulations, with the HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code, indicate that spikes can penetrate up to 10 μm into the 30μm radius hot spot before ignition is quenched. Using capsules whose surface is modified by laser ablation, Nova experiments have been used to quantify the degradation of implosions subject to near NIF levels of hydrodynamic instability

  14. Mechanisms for radiation damage in DNA. Progress report, August 1, 1974--July 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed for radiation damage to DNA and a series of experiments utilizing electron spin resonance spectrometry to test the proposed mechanism is described. Investigations completed or nearing completion are: studies of electron transfer reactions in dinucleoside phosphates; studies of the anions of 5-nitropyrimidines and their reactions; and studies of protonation reactions at carbon sites in anion radicals of certain model compounds and aromatic amino acids. In the first study, the relative electron affinities of the DNA bases were determined in a model system of the DNA strand. In addition, study of the reactions of these anions showed that the thymine anion is the most reactive of the DNA bases in this model system. In the second study anisotropic and isotropic spectra of the anion radicals of 5-nitropyrimidines were characterized by newly developed computer simulation programs. Several of the anions were found to react to form iminoxy radicals. The third study showed that protonation reactions at carbon sites in anions are reactions which are general for molecules with unsaturated linkages. Thus, this mechanism is of significance to the radiolysis of many biological molecules, including DNA. (U.S.)

  15. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Progress report, 1980-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One aim has been to see whether, in E.coli, the various phenomena which were ascribed to the induction of the recA gene produce (p-recA) are really manifestations of one process. It was concluded that this is true for septum inhibition, Weigle-reactivation, induced inhibition of post radiation DNA degradation, and with the additional concept of a premutational lesion, for uv mutagenesis. lambda prophage induction may perhaps be brought into line with p-recA induction with the consideration of the additional secondary aspects of (a) activation of p-recA to make it enzymatically active and (b) the need to have the concentration of activated p-recA high enough to keep up with the rate of production of lambda-repressors. Revertants seem to be in more than one class and two of these can not easily be explained by the idea that p-recA contains an error-prone repair enzyme that makes errors at mutagenic lesions

  16. Response of a forest ecotone to ionizing radiation. Progress report, April 15, 1983-April 14, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.G.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1983-11-01

    Compositional and structural characteristics of three forest types, including aspen dominated, maple-birch dominated, and an intervening ecotone (midecotone), were studied before and after irradiation in northern Wisconsin. In all three areas, the density of seedlings at 10 m was greatly reduced within a year following the 1972 radiation event. In the maple-birch area seedlings were virtually absent at 10 m until 1982 and 1983 when their numbers were comparable to preirradiation levels. In the aspen and midecotone areas 1983 seedling densities at 10 m were only 50 and 17%, respectively, of the preirradiation levels. Woody plants of tree stature were eliminated at 10 m in all three areas within two years of irradiation but by 1982 only the aspen area lacked plants in this size class. In 1982 total leaf litter production was 26 and 63% below 1971 preirradiation levels at 10 m in the aspen and maple-birch areas, respectively. But at 10 m in the midecotone, it had increased, relative to 1971, by 27%. The ratio of shrub to tree leaf litter continues to decline as the heavily irradiated zone of all three areas continues to be recolonized by tree species and the canopy at 20 m continues to fill out. Present studeis emphasize the rate at which the three areas continue to be recolonized, and the composition of the recolonizing flora, relative to the preirradiation forest

  17. Interaction of radiation with matter. Research progress report, November 1, 1980-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The project is concerned with the mechanism of dissipation of energy in organic and inorganic materials, and with the application of the techniques developed to a study of selected problems of environmental concern in the production of energy from fossil fuels. In the inorganic phase of this work the research involves: (1) measurements of cross-section for K and L-shell ionization processes for heavy projectiles in the low velocity region; (2) experimental tests of target dependence of the effective-stopping-power charge theory for light projectiles; and (3) theoretical studies on the energy loss of swift particles in plasmas over a broad density and temperature range. The organic phase of this work falls into a series of closely related areas, all derived from a study of the interaction of radiation with matter: (1) new techniques for the study of small particulates (1 μ); composition, mass (to +- 1 pg) and charge (+- 1 electron) can be determined; (2) external photoelectric effects as a tool in arriving at the electronic structure of organic crystals; (3) the interaction of water with charge carriers in organic crystals, producing reactive chemical species, such as OH and HSO 3 radicals; and (4) mechanisms of interaction of air-pollutant polycyclic aromatic carcinogens with DNA and the study of the conformation of the adducts

  18. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  19. Interaction of radiation with matter. Research progress report, January 1, 1982-December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The project is concerned with the mechanisms of dissipation of energy in organic and inorganic materials, and with the application of the technique developed to a study of selected problems of environmental concern in the production of energy from fossil fuels. The organic phase of this work falls into a series of closely related areas, all derived from a study of the interaction of radiation with matter. These are: (1) New techniques for the study of small particulates (approx. 1μ); composition, mass (to +- 1 pg) and charge (+- 1 electron) can be determined. (2) External photoelectric effects as a tool in arriving at the electronic structure of organic crystals. (3) The interaction of water with radical cations in organic crystals, producing reactive chemical species, such as OH and HSO 3 , NH 2 , and NO 3 radicals. (4) Mechanisms of interaction of air-pollutant polycyclic aromatic carcinogens with DNA and the study of the conformation of the adducts. (5) High excitation densities in organic systems and other photophysical phenomena, such as triplet exciton dynamics, and exoemission. (6) The interaction of #betta#-rays with protein solutions. In the inorganic phase of this work the research involves (1) measurements of cross-sections for K and L-shell ionization processes for heavy projectiles in the low velocity region, (2) experimental tests of target dependence of the effective-charge theory for light projectiles, (3) theoretical studies on the energy loss of swift particles in plasmas over a broad density and temperature range, and (4) studies of geminate recombination in alkane liquids as a function of alkane chain length

  20. Surfer’s myelopathy: a rare presentation in a non-surfing setting and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Hariswamy, Soumya; Rao, Prashanth J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Surfers myelopathy can be a rapidly devastating disease and little is known surrounding the pathophysiology of the condition. Although the classical pattern of illness has been well reported, it has never been observed in a non-surfing setting. Methods A 51-year-old demolition worker presented with acute non-traumatic myelopathy. Clinical examination revealed sensory loss to the level of L2. T2-MRI and MRI-DWI revealed a hyperintense signal suggestive of an ischaemic event. A diagnosis of surfer’s myelopathy was made and he was commenced on steroid therapy. Results Following steroid therapy and fluid management the patient was discharged after 6 days with minor anaethesia but significant overall neurological improvement. Conclusions Diagnosis of SM requires a thorough history, clinical examination and imaging (MRI, MRI-DWI). The patient should be admitted early and investigated. The use of rehabilitation services may be useful if available. PMID:27757436

  1. PROMIS Physical Function Correlation With NDI and mJOA in the Surgical Cervical Myelopathy Patient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert J; Zebala, Lukas P; Peters, Colleen; McAnany, Steven

    2018-04-15

    Retrospective review. To determine the correlation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) physical function with Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scores in the surgical cervical myelopathy patient population. Outcome measures such as NDI and mJOA are essential for analyzing treatments for cervical myelopathy. Administrative burdens impose limits on completion of these measures. The PROMIS group developed an outcome measure to improve reporting of patient symptoms and function and to reduce administrative burden. Despite early success, NDI and mJOA have not been compared with PROMIS in patients with cervical myelopathy. This study determines the correlation of NDI and mJOA with PROMIS in surgical patients with cervical myelopathy. A total of 60 patients with cervical myelopathy undergoing surgery were included. PROMIS, NDI, and mJOA were collected preoperatively, and in the first 6 months postoperatively. Correlations between NDI, mJOA, and PROMIS were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficients. Students t tests were used to test significance. All 60 (100%) of patients completed preoperative questionnaires. Fifty-five (92%) of patients completed initial follow-up questionnaires within the first 6 months. PROMIS physical function and NDI demonstrated a strong negative correlation at baseline and in initial follow-up (R = -0.69, -0.76). PROMIS and mJOA demonstrated a strong positive correlation at baseline and in initial follow-up (R = 0.61, 0.72). PROMIS physical function has a strong negative correlation with NDI and a strong positive correlation with mJOA at baseline and in the early postoperative course in patients undergoing surgery for cervical myelopathy. Surgeons may factor these outcomes into the delivery and interpretation of patient-reported outcome measures in this population. Use of PROMIS may improve completion of outcome measures in the office and reduce

  2. Ancillary outcome measures for assessment of individuals with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Singh, Anoushka; Massicotte, Eric M; Arnold, Paul M; Brodke, Darrel S; Norvell, Daniel C; Hermsmeyer, Jeffrey T; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-10-15

    Narrative review. To identify suitable outcome measures that can be used to quantify neurological and functional impairment in the management of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). CSM is the leading cause of acquired spinal cord disability, causing varying degrees of neurological impairment which impact on independence and quality of life. Because this impairment can have a heterogeneous presentation, a single outcome measure cannot define the broad range of deficits seen in this population. Therefore, it is necessary to define outcome measures that characterize the deficits with greater validity and sensitivity. This review was conducted in 3 stages. Stage I: To evaluate the current use of outcome measures in CSM, PubMed was searched using the name of the outcome measure and the common abbreviation combined with "CSM" or "myelopathy." Stage II: Having identified a lack of appropriate outcome measures, we constructed criteria by which measures appropriate for assessing the various aspects of CSM could be identified. Stage III: A second literature search was then conducted looking at specified outcomes that met these criteria. All literature was reviewed to determine specificity and psychometric properties of outcomes for CSM. Nurick grade, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36), and Neck Disability Index were the most commonly cited measures. The Short-Form 36 Health Survey and Myelopathy Disability Index have been validated in the CSM population with multiple studies, whereas the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale score, Nurick grade, and European Myelopathy Scale each had only one study assessing psychometric characteristics. No validity, reliability, or responsiveness studies were found for the VAS or Neck Disability Index in the CSM population. We recommend that the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale, Nurick grade, Myelopathy Disability Index

  3. Studies of radiation-produced radicals and radical ions. Progress report, June 1, 1981-August 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    The discovery and characterization of novel radical ions produced by the γ irradiation of solids continues to be a fertile field for investigation. This Progress Report describes the generation and ESR identification of several new paramagnetic species, some of which have long been sought as important intermediates in radiation chemistry. We have also contributed to a general theoretical problem in ESR spectroscopy. Solid-state studies of electron attachment reactions, both non-dissociative and dissociative, reveal interesting structural and chemical information about the molecular nature of these processes for simple compounds. In particular, ESR measurements of the spin distribution in the products allow a fairly sharp distinction to be drawn between radical anions and radical-anion pairs or adducts. Dimer radical anion formation can also take place but the crystal structure plays a role in this process, as expected. Some radical anions undergo photolysis to give radical-anion pairs which may then revert back to the original radical anion by a thermal reaction. The chemistry of these reversible processes is made more intricate by a competing reaction in which the radical abstracts a hydrogen atom from a neighboring molecule. However, the unraveling of this complication has also served to extend our knowledge of the role of quantum tunneling in chemical reactions. The results of this investigation testify to the potential of solid-state techniques for the study of novel and frangible radical ions. Progress in this field shows no sign of abating, as witness the recent discovery of perfluorocycloalkane radical anions and alkane radical cations

  4. The pathogenesis of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia type I-associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casseb J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia type I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM is caused by a human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I after a long incubation period. TSP/HAM is characterized by a chronic progressive paraparesis with sphincter disturbances, no/mild sensory loss, the absence of spinal cord compression and seropositivity for HTLV-I antibodies. The pathogenesis of this entity is not completely known and involves a multivariable phenomenon of immune system activation against the presence of HTLV-I antigens, leading to an inflammatory process and demyelination, mainly in the thoracic spinal cord. The current hypothesis about the pathogenesis of TSP/HAM is: 1 presence of HTLV-I antigens in the lumbar spinal cord, noted by an increased DNA HTLV-I load; 2 CTL either with their lytic functions or release/production of soluble factors, such as CC-chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules; 3 the presence of Tax gene expression that activates T-cell proliferation or induces an inflammatory process in the spinal cord; 4 the presence of B cells with neutralizing antibody production, or complement activation by an immune complex phenomenon, and 5 lower IL-2 and IFN-gamma production and increased IL-10, indicating drive to a cytokine type 2 pattern in the TSP/HAM subjects and the existence of a genetic background such as some HLA haplotypes. All of these factors should be implicated in TSP/HAM and further studies are necessary to investigate their role in the development of TSP/HAM.

  5. A treatable cause of myelopathy and vision loss mimicking neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: late-onset biotinidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sanem; Serin, Mine; Canda, Ebru; Eraslan, Cenk; Tekin, Hande; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Gokben, Sarenur; Tekgul, Hasan; Serdaroglu, Gul

    2017-06-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is characterized by severe neurological manifestations as hypotonia, lethargy, ataxia, hearing loss, seizures and developmental retardation in its classical form. Late-onset biotinidase deficiency presents distinctly from the classical form such as limb weakness and vision problems. A 14-year-old boy presented with progressive vision loss and upper limb weakness. The patient was initiated steroid therapy with a preliminary diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder due to the craniospinal imaging findings demonstrating optic nerve, brainstem and longitudinally extensive spinal cord involvement. Although the patient exhibited partial clinical improvement after pulse steroid therapy, craniocervical imaging performed one month after the initiation of steroid therapy did not show any regression. The CSF IgG index was <0.8 (normal: <0.8), oligoclonal band and aquaporin-4 antibodies were negative. Metabolic investigations revealed a low biotinidase enzyme activity 8% (0.58 nmoL/min/mL; normal range: 4.4 to 12). Genetic testing showed c.98-104delinsTCC and p.V457 M mutations in biotinidase (BTD) gene. At the third month of biotin replacement therapy, control craniospinal MRI demonstrated a complete regression of the lesions. The muscle strength of the case returned to normal. His visual acuity was 7/10 in the left eye and 9/10 in the right. The late-onset form of the biotinidase deficiency should be kept in mind in all patients with myelopathy with or without vision loss, particularly in those with inadequate response to steroid therapy. The family screening is important to identify asymptomatic individuals and timely treatment.

  6. Quality of life in symptomatic cervical myelopathy after open-door laminoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Yuiti Nakao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results obtained by open-door laminoplasty using the Newbridge(r/Blackstone plate, in cases of myelopathy associated with cervical lordosis.METHODS: From December 2010 to October 2012, eight patients between the ages of 49 and 68 underwent open-door laminoplasty with the use of the Newbridge(r fixation system for maintenance and stabilization of the cervical laminoplasty. Minimum follow-up was four months. For the evaluation of quality of life the questionnaire SF-36 was applied at the following times: preoperative, one month and three months after surgery associated with the subjective assessment of the patient regarding satisfaction with the procedure and with the Nurick neurological scale applied prior to surgery and three months later.RESULTS: According to the SF-36, there was significant improvement in the domains functional ability, general health perceptions and emotional aspects over time; regarding physical limitations and social aspects there was no improvement in the first postoperative month, only in the third month. There were no statistically significant changes observed during the period covered by this study related to pain, vitality and mental health. According to Nurick scale, there was evidence of improvement in symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Based on the subjective evaluation of the patients, surprisingly, all patients were satisfied with the surgical procedure and the results.CONCLUSION: The open-door laminoplasty technique with rigid fixation to maintain the opening is useful in improving the symptoms of cervical myelopathy associated with lordosis, leading to improved quality of life and with a high degree of patient satisfaction and fewer complications.

  7. 3 T magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging and fibre tracking in cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiangshui, M.; Xiangjun, C.; Xiaoming, Z.; Qingshi, Z.; Yi, C.; Chuanqiang, Q.; Xiangxing, M.; Chuanfu, L.; Jinwen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the characterization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cervical myelopathy. Methods: A total of 21 healthy controls and 84 patients with cervical myelopathy underwent T2-weighted imaging and DTI. The patients were divided into four groups based on the degree of cord compression and MRI signal intensity of the compressed cord as seen on T2-weighted images. The values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), and eigenvalues (λ i ) were analysed, and fibre tracking (FT) was performed. Results: For healthy controls, the mean values from the DTI of the cervical spinal cord were ADC = 0.784 ± 0.083 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, FA = 0.721 ± 0.027, λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 = 1.509 ± 0.145 x 10 -3 , 0.416 ± 0.094 x 10 -3 , and 0.411 ± 0.102 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. Only values for λ 2 and λ 3 differed significantly between the control and A groups (p 2 and λ 3 of group A were 0.516 ± 0.105 x 10 -3 and 0.525 ± 0.129 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, respectively. ADC, FA, λ 1 , λ 2 and λ 3 differed significantly between the control and B, C, D groups (p i obtained with DTI could assess subtle structural damage and changes of anisotropy in the cord of cervical myelopathy. Fibre tracking was useful in verifying changes in the compressed cord.

  8. MRI in the investigation of patients with myelopathy thought to be due to multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Trakadas, S.; Kalovidouris, A.; Sgouropoulos, P.; Gatzonis, S.; Vlahos, L.

    1995-01-01

    The role of cerebral and spinal cord MRI was investigated in 65 patients with myelopathy suspected of having demyelinating disease. Cerebral MRI demonstrated lesions compatible with demyelination in 80% and spinal cord MRI in 68.6%. In 28.5% of our patients brain lesions were present with normal spinal cord images, but in 17% spinal cord lesions were depicted with a normal brain MRI. The combination of the two examinations demonstrated lesions in 97% of the patients. The frequency of coexistent cerebral lesions in patients with spinal cord lesions was over 85% in patients with chronic disease but only 28.5% in patients with acute myelitis. (orig.)

  9. MRI in the investigation of patients with myelopathy thought to be due to multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Gouliamos, A. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Trakadas, S. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Kalovidouris, A. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Sgouropoulos, P. [Neurology Dept., `Eginition` Hospital, Univ. Athens Medical School (Greece); Gatzonis, S. [Neurology Dept., `Eginition` Hospital, Univ. Athens Medical School (Greece); Vlahos, L. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece)

    1995-07-01

    The role of cerebral and spinal cord MRI was investigated in 65 patients with myelopathy suspected of having demyelinating disease. Cerebral MRI demonstrated lesions compatible with demyelination in 80% and spinal cord MRI in 68.6%. In 28.5% of our patients brain lesions were present with normal spinal cord images, but in 17% spinal cord lesions were depicted with a normal brain MRI. The combination of the two examinations demonstrated lesions in 97% of the patients. The frequency of coexistent cerebral lesions in patients with spinal cord lesions was over 85% in patients with chronic disease but only 28.5% in patients with acute myelitis. (orig.)

  10. Thoracic Synovial Cyst at the Th2-3 Level Causing Myelopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundskarð, Martin M; Gaini, Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Intraspinal synovial cyst is a rare cause of myelopathy. These cysts present most often in the lumbar and cervical parts of the spine but are more infrequent in the thoracic spine. We present a case of a 73-year-old man with an intraspinal, extradural synovial cyst at the Th2-3 level causing...... paraesthesia and weakness in the legs. A laminectomy and excision of the cyst were performed and the patient recovered fully. In the thoracic spine, synovial cysts are almost exclusively found in the lower part. Laminectomy, with excision, is the treatment of choice, although steroid injections have been...

  11. A novel parameter, cell-cycle progression index, for radiation dose absorbed estimation in the premature chromosome condensation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Tomisato; Kasai, Kosuke; Nakano, Manabu; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A.; Abe, Yu; Tsushima, Eiki; Ossetrova, Natalia I.; Blakely, William F.

    2014-01-01

    The calyculin A-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay is a simple and useful method for assessing the cell-cycle distribution in cells, since calyculin A induces chromosome condensation in various phases of the cell cycle. In this study, a novel parameter, the cell-cycle progression index (CPI), in the PCC assay was validated as a novel bio-marker for bio-dosimetry. Peripheral blood was drawn from healthy donors after informed consent was obtained. CPI was investigated using a human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) ex vivo irradiation ( 60 Co-gamma rays: ∼0.6 Gy min -1 , or X ray: 1.0 Gy min -1 ; 0-10 Gy) model. The calyculin A-induced PCC assay was performed for chromosome preparation. PCC cells were divided into the following five categories according to cell-cycle stage: non-PCC, G1-PCC, S-PCC, G2/M-PCC and M/A-PCC cells. CPI was calculated as the ratio of G2/M-PCC cells to G1-PCC cells. The PCC-stage distribution varied markedly with irradiation doses. The G1-PCC cell fraction was significantly reduced, and the G2/M-PCC cell fraction increased, in 10-Gy-irradiated PBL after 48 h of culture. CPI levels were fitted to an exponential dose-response curve with gamma-ray irradiation [y = 0.6729 + 0.3934 exp(0.5685D), r = 1.0000, p < 0.0001] and X-ray irradiation [y = -0.3743 + 0.9744 exp(0.3321D), r = 0.9999, p < 0.0001]. There were no significant individual (p = 0.853) or gender effects (p = 0.951) on the CPI in the human peripheral blood ex vivo irradiation model. Furthermore, CPI measurements are rapid (< 15 min per case). These results suggest that the CPI is a useful screening tool for the assessment of radiation doses received ranging from 0 to 10 Gy in radiation exposure early after a radiation event, especially after a mass-casualty radiological incident. (authors)

  12. HTGR accident initiation and progression analysis status report. Volume VII. Occupational radiation exposures from gas-borne and plateout activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    As a part of the Accident Initiation and Progression Analysis (AIPA) program, calculations were performed of the occupational dose rates and man-rem exposures from gas-borne and plateout activities in a reference 3000-MW(t) HTGR plant. The study included a preliminary survey to determine the most important contributors by operation or radiation source to the man-rem exposures. This survey was followed by detailed calculations for the most important cases. Median and 95 percent-confidence-level man-rem exposures per year were obtained for the gaseous activity in the containment building, moisture monitor system, analytic instrumentation, helium regeneration system, gas waste system, and reflector-block shipping. Median and 95 percent-confidence-level man-rem exposures per operation were obtained for the main-circulator removal, steam-generator tube plugging, and steam-generator removal and replacement. For each of these cases, the contributions to the man-rem exposures were calculated for the important isotopes

  13. Qualitative Assessment of Academic Radiation Oncology Department Chairs' Insights on Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion: Progress, Challenges, and Future Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rochelle D; Chapman, Christina H; Holliday, Emma B; Lalani, Nafisha; Wilson, Emily; Bonner, James A; Movsas, Benjamin; Kalnicki, Shalom; Formenti, Silvia C; Thomas, Charles R; Hahn, Stephen M; Liu, Fei-Fei; Jagsi, Reshma

    2018-05-01

    A lack of diversity has been observed in radiation oncology (RO), with women and certain racial/ethnic groups underrepresented as trainees, faculty, and practicing physicians. We sought to gain a nuanced understanding of how to best promote diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) based on the insights of RO department chairs, with particular attention given to the experiences of the few women and underrepresented minorities (URMs) in these influential positions. From March to June 2016, we conducted telephone interviews with 24 RO department chairs (of 27 invited). Purposive sampling was used to invite all chairs who were women (n = 13) or URMs (n = 3) and 11 male chairs who were not URMs. Multiple analysts coded the verbatim transcripts. Five themes were identified: (1) commitment to DEI promotes quality health care and innovation; (2) gaps remain despite some progress with promoting diversity in RO; (3) women and URM faculty continue to experience challenges in various career domains; (4) solutions to DEI issues would be facilitated by acknowledging realities of gender and race; and (5) expansion of the career pipeline is needed. The chairs' insights had policy-relevant implications. Bias training should broach tokenism, blindness, and intersectionality. Efforts to recruit and support diverse talent should be deliberate and proactive. Bridge programs could engage students before their application to medical school. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuropsychological improvement in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy after posterior decompression surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshimaru, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy sometimes complain of cognitive dysfunction, which may be coincidence. However, cognitive dysfunction may be related to disorders of the cervical spine and/or spinal cord. This study investigated cognitive dysfunction in patients with cervical spinal disorders. A total of 79 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (40 women and 39 men, mean age 61.2 years) underwent cervical laminoplasty between January 2006 and July 2007. Ten of these 79 patients (7 women and 3 men, mean age 65.2 years) complained of moderate to severe memory disturbances. These 10 patients underwent neuroimaging studies and a battery of neuropsychological tests consisting of the mini-mental state examination, Kohs Block Design Test, Miyake Memory Test, Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and 'kana-hiroi' test before and 3 months after surgery. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no organic brain lesions in the 10 patients, but single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated reduced regional cerebral blood flow in the posterior cortical areas in eight patients before surgery. Neuropsychological test scores showed statistically significant improvement after surgery in the Kohs Block Design Test and the BVRT, which measure visuospatial perception and reflect the function of the parietal and/or occipital lobes (p<0.05). The practice effect may have contributed to the neuropsychological improvements, but this study suggests that cervical spinal disorders may affect cognitive functions and that surgical treatment can ameliorate such effects. (author)

  15. The reporting of study and population characteristics in degenerative cervical myelopathy: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Davies

    Full Text Available Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent condition. Variable reporting in interventional trials of study design and sample characteristics limits the interpretation of pooled outcomes. This is pertinent in DCM where baseline characteristics are known to influence outcome. The present study aims to assess the reporting of the study design and baseline characteristics in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set.A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015025497 was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Full text articles in English, with >50 patients (prospective or >200 patients (retrospective, reporting outcomes of DCM were deemed to be eligible.A total of 108 studies involving 23,876 patients, conducted world-wide, were identified. 33 (31% specified a clear primary objective. Study populations often included radiculopathy (51, 47% but excluded patients who had undergone previous surgery (42, 39%. Diagnositic criteria for myelopathy were often uncertain; MRI assessment was specified in only 67 (62% of studies. Patient comorbidities were referenced by 37 (34% studies. Symptom duration was reported by 46 (43% studies. Multivariate analysis was used to control for baseline characteristics in 33 (31% of studies.The reporting of study design and sample characteristics is variable. The development of a consensus minimum dataset for (CODE-DCM will facilitate future research synthesis in the future.

  16. Surgical Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Associated Hypertension--A Retrospective Study of 309 Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-qun Li

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease, and various risk factors are known to be involved in it. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM is the most common non-traumatic cause of myelopathy, which displays neurological symptoms and may induce systemic symptoms. To date, it is still unknown whether CSM is associated with hypertension, and if so, whether the decompression operations can attenuate CSM associated hypertension. Here, a total of 309 patients with CSM who received anterior or posterior decompression surgery were enrolled as subjects. Blood pressure measurements were performed before and within one week after the surgery. Among the 309 subjects, 144 (46.6% of them exhibited hypertension before surgery, a significantly higher ratio than that of the whole population. One week after surgery, blood pressure of 106 (73.6% patients turned back to normal. Blood pressure of another 37(25.7% patients decreased with different degrees, although still higher than normal. Moreover, it appears that both approaches were effective in improving blood pressure, while the posterior approach was more effective in decreasing systolic blood pressure. We speculate this type of hypertension might result from hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system as the heart rate of these patients decreased after surgery as well. Collectively, compression of spinal cord in CSM patients might be associated with hypertension, and decompression surgery largely attenuated this type of hypertension. These findings prove CSM to be a potential associated factor of high blood pressure and may shed light on therapies of hypertension in clinics.

  17. Defective human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus in seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, E; Fernandez, J; Cartier, L; Villota, C; Rios, M

    2003-02-01

    Infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) have been associated with the development of the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We studied the presence of HTLV-I provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 72 Chilean patients with progressive spastic paraparesis by polymerase chain reaction: 32 seropositive and 40 seronegative cases. We amplified different genomic regions of HTLV-I using primers of 5' ltr, tax, env/tax, pX, pol and env genes. These genes were detected from all seropositive patients. The seronegative patients were negative with 5' ltr, pol, env, and pX primers. However, amplified product of tax and env/tax genes was detected from 16 and four seronegative patients, respectively. Three of them were positive with both genetic regions. The results of this study show that the complete HTLV-I provirus is found in 100% of seropositive cases. In seronegative cases, clinically very similar of seropositive cases, was found only tax gene in 42.5% (17/40) of patients. These results suggest the presence of a defective HTLV-I provirus in some seronegative patients with progressive spastic paraparesis, and suggest a pathogenic role of this truncate provirus for a group of TSP/HAM.

  18. Prognostic Utility of Cell Cycle Progression Score in Men With Prostate Cancer After Primary External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedland, Stephen J., E-mail: steve.freedland@duke.edu [Department of Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery (Urology), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Gerber, Leah [Department of Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery (Urology), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Reid, Julia; Welbourn, William; Tikishvili, Eliso; Park, Jimmy; Younus, Adib; Gutin, Alexander; Sangale, Zaina; Lanchbury, Jerry S. [Myriad Genetics, Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Salama, Joseph K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Stone, Steven [Myriad Genetics, Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic utility of the cell cycle progression (CCP) score, a RNA signature based on the average expression level of 31 CCP genes, for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) in men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as their primary curative therapy. Methods and Materials: The CCP score was derived retrospectively from diagnostic biopsy specimens of men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1991 to 2006 (n=141). All patients were treated with definitive EBRT; approximately half of the cohort was African American. Outcome was time from EBRT to BCR using the Phoenix definition. Median follow-up for patients without BCR was 4.8 years. Association with outcome was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards survival analysis and likelihood ratio tests. Results: Of 141 patients, 19 (13%) had BCR. The median CCP score for patient samples was 0.12. In univariable analysis, CCP score significantly predicted BCR (P=.0017). The hazard ratio for BCR was 2.55 for 1-unit increase in CCP score (equivalent to a doubling of gene expression). In a multivariable analysis that included Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, percent positive cores, and androgen deprivation therapy, the hazard ratio for CCP changed only marginally and remained significant (P=.034), indicating that CCP provides prognostic information that is not provided by standard clinical parameters. With 10-year censoring, the CCP score was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (P=.013). There was no evidence for interaction between CCP and any clinical variable, including ethnicity. Conclusions: Among men treated with EBRT, the CCP score significantly predicted outcome and provided greater prognostic information than was available with clinical parameters. If validated in a larger cohort, CCP score could identify high-risk men undergoing EBRT who may need more aggressive therapy.

  19. Prognostic Utility of Cell Cycle Progression Score in Men With Prostate Cancer After Primary External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedland, Stephen J.; Gerber, Leah; Reid, Julia; Welbourn, William; Tikishvili, Eliso; Park, Jimmy; Younus, Adib; Gutin, Alexander; Sangale, Zaina; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Salama, Joseph K.; Stone, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic utility of the cell cycle progression (CCP) score, a RNA signature based on the average expression level of 31 CCP genes, for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) in men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as their primary curative therapy. Methods and Materials: The CCP score was derived retrospectively from diagnostic biopsy specimens of men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1991 to 2006 (n=141). All patients were treated with definitive EBRT; approximately half of the cohort was African American. Outcome was time from EBRT to BCR using the Phoenix definition. Median follow-up for patients without BCR was 4.8 years. Association with outcome was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards survival analysis and likelihood ratio tests. Results: Of 141 patients, 19 (13%) had BCR. The median CCP score for patient samples was 0.12. In univariable analysis, CCP score significantly predicted BCR (P=.0017). The hazard ratio for BCR was 2.55 for 1-unit increase in CCP score (equivalent to a doubling of gene expression). In a multivariable analysis that included Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, percent positive cores, and androgen deprivation therapy, the hazard ratio for CCP changed only marginally and remained significant (P=.034), indicating that CCP provides prognostic information that is not provided by standard clinical parameters. With 10-year censoring, the CCP score was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (P=.013). There was no evidence for interaction between CCP and any clinical variable, including ethnicity. Conclusions: Among men treated with EBRT, the CCP score significantly predicted outcome and provided greater prognostic information than was available with clinical parameters. If validated in a larger cohort, CCP score could identify high-risk men undergoing EBRT who may need more aggressive therapy

  20. Progress report: nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2005; Rapport annuel: la surete nucleaire et la radioprotection en France en 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Asn (Nuclear safety authority) considers that 2005 was a satisfactory year in terms of nuclear safety and radiation protection. However, further progress can and must be made. 2005 was a year of great progress for the Asn as it consolidated its organisation and working methods, in accordance with the 2005-2007 strategic plan it set for itself. The Asn continued progress in the field of radiation protection has given rise to various new regulations to improve the legislative and regulatory framework in this area. 2005 was marked by significant progress in the process of harmonizing national nuclear safety policies Against a backdrop of the preparation of a bill on management of radioactive materials and waste, to be presented to Parliament in March 2006, 2005 was a year of important milestones. The Asn control activities encompass the following seven areas: development of general regulations for nuclear safety and radiation protection; management of individual authorization requests and receipt of declarations; inspection of nuclear activities; organisation of radiological surveillance of individuals and of the environment; preparation for management of emergency situations and implementation if necessary; contribution to public information on nuclear safety and radiation protection; determination of the French position within international community. Main topics in 2005: government bill on transparency and security in the nuclear field; the challenges and ambitions of the Asn; controlling exposure to radon; EPR Reactor Project Safety; working towards a law on radioactive waste in 2006; I.R.R.T.: an international audit of Asn in 2006; harmonization of nuclear safety in Europe; Chernobyl: what has been achieved over the past 20 years; informing the Public; internal authorizations. (N.C.)

  1. Outcomes of conservative treatment for cervical myelopathy caused by soft disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Ken; Ogawa, Yuto; Takaishi, Hironari; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to delineate the clinical course and MRI findings of patients with disc hernias which regressed spontaneously and to determine who is eligible for conservative treatment. Twenty-three patients with mild cervical myelopathy (initial Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores >10) caused by soft disc herniation were treated conservatively for more than two years (13 males, 10 females, mean age 50, mean follow-up 3.6 years). The investigated items included JOA scores and MRI findings (morphology of disc herniation). Morphology of disc herniation was classified into focal type (herniated mass persisting at the intervertebral level) and diffuse type (herniated mass migrating rostrally or caudally) in the sagittal plane and median type or paramedian type in the axial plane. The mean JOA scores were 13.4±1.5 before treatment, and 16.0±1.0 at follow-up. Regression of herniation was observed in 14 patients (Group A), while no regression was seen in 9 patients (Group B). The JOA scores were 13.7±1.5 (Group A) and 14.0±1.6 (Group B) before treatment, and 16.3±1.6 and 15.7±1.2 at follow-up, respectively. On sagittal MR images, diffuse-type herniation was observed in 9 patients (64%) and focal-type in 5 (36%) in Group A, and 3 (33%) and 6 (67%) in Group B, respectively. On axial images, median-type herniation was observed in 10 patients (71%), and paramedian-type in 4 (29%) in Group A, and 6 (67%) and 3 (33%) in Group B, respectively. Spontaneous soft disc regression in patients with cervical myelopathy was observed in more than half of those treated conservatively for longer than 2 years. Conservative treatment can be recommended for patients with mild cervical myelopathy, especially when caused by median-and/or diffuse-type disc hernia, although close observation is mandatory. (author)

  2. Study of the radiation effects on nucleic acids and related compounds. Three year progress report, 15 August 1972--14 August 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1975-01-01

    Research in this project has proceeded with the chemical objective of isolating and characterizing radiation products and with the biological objective of determining the action of reactive radiation products on and in biological systems. Study has also been made on the simulation of γ radiation by various photochemical reaction conditions. Progress is reported in the chemical studies on the isolation and characterization of thymine glycols, isolation and characterization of glycols of 1-carbamylimidazolidone as products of cytosine, identification of the major hydroperoxy thymine (T 6 OOH), attempted synthesis of the nucleoside and nucleotide of T 6 OOH, and synthesis and characterization of 5-hydroperoxy-methyluracil. Progress is reported in the biological studies on the effects of T 6 OOH on nucleic acid components, on C--N glycosidic bonds, as a chemical mutagen, on the chromosomes of cells, and as a potential synergist of ionizing radiation. The photoproducts of uracil, cytosine, thymine, and thymidine that have been isolated and characterized are tabulated. (U.S.)

  3. TU-D-207B-01: A Prediction Model for Distinguishing Radiation Necrosis From Tumor Progression After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Based On Radiomics Features From MR Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z [Central South University Xiangya Hospital, Changsha, Hunan (China); MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ho, A [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, X; Brown, P; Guha-Thakurta, N; Ferguson, S; Fave, X; Zhang, L; Mackin, D; Court, L; Li, J; Yang, J [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a prediction model using radiomics features extracted from MR images to distinguish radiation necrosis from tumor progression for brain metastases treated with Gamma knife radiosurgery. Methods: The images used to develop the model were T1 post-contrast MR scans from 71 patients who had had pathologic confirmation of necrosis or progression; 1 lesion was identified per patient (17 necrosis and 54 progression). Radiomics features were extracted from 2 images at 2 time points per patient, both obtained prior to resection. Each lesion was manually contoured on each image, and 282 radiomics features were calculated for each lesion. The correlation for each radiomics feature between two time points was calculated within each group to identify a subset of features with distinct values between two groups. The delta of this subset of radiomics features, characterizing changes from the earlier time to the later one, was included as a covariate to build a prediction model using support vector machines with a cubic polynomial kernel function. The model was evaluated with a 10-fold cross-validation. Results: Forty radiomics features were selected based on consistent correlation values of approximately 0 for the necrosis group and >0.2 for the progression group. In performing the 10-fold cross-validation, we narrowed this number down to 11 delta radiomics features for the model. This 11-delta-feature model showed an overall prediction accuracy of 83.1%, with a true positive rate of 58.8% in predicting necrosis and 90.7% for predicting tumor progression. The area under the curve for the prediction model was 0.79. Conclusion: These delta radiomics features extracted from MR scans showed potential for distinguishing radiation necrosis from tumor progression. This tool may be a useful, noninvasive means of determining the status of an enlarging lesion after radiosurgery, aiding decision-making regarding surgical resection versus conservative medical

  4. TU-D-207B-01: A Prediction Model for Distinguishing Radiation Necrosis From Tumor Progression After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Based On Radiomics Features From MR Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z; Ho, A; Wang, X; Brown, P; Guha-Thakurta, N; Ferguson, S; Fave, X; Zhang, L; Mackin, D; Court, L; Li, J; Yang, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a prediction model using radiomics features extracted from MR images to distinguish radiation necrosis from tumor progression for brain metastases treated with Gamma knife radiosurgery. Methods: The images used to develop the model were T1 post-contrast MR scans from 71 patients who had had pathologic confirmation of necrosis or progression; 1 lesion was identified per patient (17 necrosis and 54 progression). Radiomics features were extracted from 2 images at 2 time points per patient, both obtained prior to resection. Each lesion was manually contoured on each image, and 282 radiomics features were calculated for each lesion. The correlation for each radiomics feature between two time points was calculated within each group to identify a subset of features with distinct values between two groups. The delta of this subset of radiomics features, characterizing changes from the earlier time to the later one, was included as a covariate to build a prediction model using support vector machines with a cubic polynomial kernel function. The model was evaluated with a 10-fold cross-validation. Results: Forty radiomics features were selected based on consistent correlation values of approximately 0 for the necrosis group and >0.2 for the progression group. In performing the 10-fold cross-validation, we narrowed this number down to 11 delta radiomics features for the model. This 11-delta-feature model showed an overall prediction accuracy of 83.1%, with a true positive rate of 58.8% in predicting necrosis and 90.7% for predicting tumor progression. The area under the curve for the prediction model was 0.79. Conclusion: These delta radiomics features extracted from MR scans showed potential for distinguishing radiation necrosis from tumor progression. This tool may be a useful, noninvasive means of determining the status of an enlarging lesion after radiosurgery, aiding decision-making regarding surgical resection versus conservative medical

  5. Mielopatia torácica por calcificação do ligamento amarelo cursando com hiperproteinorraquia e resposta à corticoterapia: relato de caso Thoracic myelopathy due to calcification of the ligamentum flavum with hyperproteinorachia and responsive to steroid therapy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Yuri Shiguematsu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcificação e ossificação do ligamento amarelo ou do ligamento longitudinal posterior são causas de mielopatia compressiva, mais frequentes nos níveis torácicos inferiores e bastante raras em populações ocidentais. A descompressão cirúrgica é a única terapia proposta, mas a doença costuma ser progressiva e sua recorrência após a cirurgia não é incomum. Mediadores inflamatórios podem ter algum papel na progressão da mielopatia compressiva, mas não se tem notícia de qualquer proposta de abordagem terapêutica envolvendo agentes anti-inflamatórios. Neste contexto, relatamos um caso de mielopatia compressiva por calcificação do ligamento amarelo em que se observou hiperproteinorraquia e resposta à corticoterapia. Tais informações são inéditas e podem fornecer novas ideias para a compreensão da doença.Calcification and ossification of the ligamentum flavum or of the posterior longitudinal ligament are causes of compressive myelopathy, more frequent in the lower thoracic levels, and extremely rare in Western populations. Surgical decompression is the only therapy, but the disease is usually progressive, and its recurrence after surgery is common. Inflammatory mediators might play a role in the progression of compressive myelopathy, but, to our knowledge, the therapeutic approach involving anti-inflammatory agents has never been tried before. We report a case of compressive myelopathy due to calcification of the ligamentum flavum, in which hyperproteinorachia and response to steroid therapy have been observed. Those data have not been published before and might provide new ideas for the disease understanding.

  6. Action of radiations on some biological model systems. Technical progress report, 1 October 1975--1 June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, G.

    1976-01-01

    Work during the period 1st October 1975 to 1st June 1976 is reviewed. The topics investigated include: investigation of the action of ionizing radiation on enzyme proteins, using the technique of pulse rdiolysis; the use of fast nanosecond laser pulse techniques in the study of biochemical and biological model systems; and the action of ionizing radiation on mammalian cells, particularly at low doses. Using chromatin as the model substance, radiation biological processes at the nucleoprotein level were investigated

  7. Oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin. Comprehensive progress report, February 1, 1984-January 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes results from a continuing study predicted on the assumption that a thorough understanding of radiation carcinogenesis in a single organ system is the most productive way to approach a general understanding for radiation carcinogenesis. We have found that a useful model to understand radiation carcinogenesis in rat skin is the, so called, dual action hypothesis. In this initial events resulting in heritable molecular changes are postulated as the starting point for several measurable endpoints or biological damage. 55 refs

  8. Variation in radiation sensitivity and repair kinetics in different parts of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamus-Gorka, Magdalena; Brahme, Anders; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Lind, Bengt K.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The spinal cord, known for its strongly serial character and high sensitivity to radiation even when a small segment is irradiated, is one of the most critical organs at risk to be spared during radiation therapy. To compare the sensitivity of different parts of the spinal cord, data for radiation myelopathy have been used. Material and methods. In the present study, the relative seriality model was fitted to two different datasets of clinical radiation myelitis concerning cervical spinal cord after treating 248 patients for head and neck cancer and thoracic spinal cord after treating 43 patients with lung carcinoma. The maximum likelihood method was applied to fit the clinical data. The model parameters and their 68% confidence intervals were calculated for each dataset. The α/β ratio for the thoracic cord was also was also found to be 0.9 (0-3.0) Gy. Results. The dose-response curve for the more sensitive cervical myelopathy is well described by the parameters D 50 =55.9 (54.8-57.1) Gy, γ=6.9 (5.0-9.2), s=0.13 (0.07-0.24), whereas the thoracic myelopathy is described by the parameters D 50 =75.5 (70.5-80.8) Gy, γ=1.1 (0.6-1.6), s=36 (3.3-8). Discussion and conclusions. Large differences in radiation response between the cervical and thoracic region of spinal cord are thus observed: cervical myelopathy seems to be characterized by medium seriality, while thoracic spinal cord is characterized by a highly serial dose-response. The much steeper dose-response curve for cervical spinal cord myelopathy can be interpreted as a higher number of functional subunits consistent with a higher amount of white matter close to the brain

  9. Compressive myelopathy of the cervical spine in Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Douglass, Michael; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Aguilar, Roberto; Schaftenaar, Willem; Shores, Andy

    2009-03-01

    Cervical subluxation and compressive myelopathy appears to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Four cases of cervical subluxation resulting in nerve root compression or spinal cord compression were identified. Three were presumptively induced by trauma, and one had an unknown inciting cause. Two dragons exhibited signs of chronic instability. Cervical vertebrae affected included C1-C4. Clinical signs on presentation included ataxia, ambulatory paraparesis or tetraparesis to tetraplegia, depression to stupor, cervical scoliosis, and anorexia. Antemortem diagnosis of compression was only confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Treatment ranged from supportive care to attempted surgical decompression. All dragons died or were euthanatized, at 4 days to 12 mo postpresentation. Studies to define normal vertebral anatomy in the species are necessary to determine whether the pathology is linked to cervical malformation, resulting in ligament laxity, subsequent instability, and subluxation.

  10. Wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (webino syndrome and myelopathy in pyoderma gangrenosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female with pyoderma gangrenosum developed paraparesis with a sensory level at L1. Three months later she complained of diplopia and was found to have bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with exotropia and no ocular convergence. The term Webino syndrome has been coined to design this set of neuro-opthalmologic findings. Although it was initially attributed to lesions affecting the medial longitudinal fasciculus and the medial rectus subnuclei of the oculomotor complex in the midbrain the exact location of the lesion is still disputed. In the present case both myelopathy and Webino syndrome were probably due to vascular occlusive disease resulting from central nervous system vasculitis occurring in concomitance to pyoderma gangrenosum.

  11. Electrophysiological and MRI study on poor outcome after surgery for cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, Osamu; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Occasionally, the outcome from laminoplasty for cervical spondylosis is disappointing despite an adequate operation. Before surgery, it is difficult to diagnose the pathological extent of the involvement of the spinal cord. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the indication of the surgery and prognosis. Retrospectively, we investigated the MEPs and the MRI of 31 patients in surgery for cervical myelopathy, involving 21 with cervical spondylosis and 10 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligamentum, and compared the findings from those with a poor outcome (n=3l) with the findings from those with a good outcome (n=32). The MEPs from the thenar muscle and the tibialis anterior were evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. In the poor-outcome patients, the spinal canal was narrow and lumbar spinal canal stenosis was seen in 5 cases which required lumbar laminectomy. Before operation, the MEPs from the thenar muscle could not be evoked in 5 cases while there was a remarkably prolonged central motor conduction time in the other 26 cases. MRI revealed the deformed spinal cord in the involved area, and the signal intensity of the involved spinal cord in the T2 weighted image was remarkably high. The signal intensity ratio was significantly higher in the poor-outcome patients than in the good-outcome patients. This study suggested that a high signal intensity in the T2 weighted image and a prolonged conduction time or absence of MEPs largely corresponded to the clinical and other investigative features of myelopathy responsible for a poor outcome. (author).

  12. Electrophysiological and MRI study on poor outcome after surgery for cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Osamu; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei

    1995-01-01

    Occasionally, the outcome from laminoplasty for cervical spondylosis is disappointing despite an adequate operation. Before surgery, it is difficult to diagnose the pathological extent of the involvement of the spinal cord. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the indication of the surgery and prognosis. Retrospectively, we investigated the MEPs and the MRI of 31 patients in surgery for cervical myelopathy, involving 21 with cervical spondylosis and 10 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligamentum, and compared the findings from those with a poor outcome (n=3l) with the findings from those with a good outcome (n=32). The MEPs from the thenar muscle and the tibialis anterior were evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. In the poor-outcome patients, the spinal canal was narrow and lumbar spinal canal stenosis was seen in 5 cases which required lumbar laminectomy. Before operation, the MEPs from the thenar muscle could not be evoked in 5 cases while there was a remarkably prolonged central motor conduction time in the other 26 cases. MRI revealed the deformed spinal cord in the involved area, and the signal intensity of the involved spinal cord in the T2 weighted image was remarkably high. The signal intensity ratio was significantly higher in the poor-outcome patients than in the good-outcome patients. This study suggested that a high signal intensity in the T2 weighted image and a prolonged conduction time or absence of MEPs largely corresponded to the clinical and other investigative features of myelopathy responsible for a poor outcome. (author)

  13. The efficacy of dynamic MRI in assessing a cervical myelopathy; A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Tetsuya; Yamada, Tomonori; Okumura, Yoshiya; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Hiramatsu, Kenichiro; Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Iwasaki, Satoru (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    There are problems that are unresolved with regard to the treatment of cases presenting a post-taumatic cervical myelopathy, such as when the surgical indications are not clearly evidence and the proper timing of this surgery. In this regard, the authors have used dynamic MRI to retrospectively analyze the cervical spine of 24 previously treated dynamic MRI cases presenting a subacute myelopathy to determine the efficacy of dynamic MRI as a method of treatment. Dynamic MRI analysis protocol was as follows. For the MR imagings, each patient was placed supine with the neck in the neutral position, after which the neck was set in the extended position. Dynamic changes between the neutral position and extended position images were analyzed by focusing on the following two point: (1) the narrowing of the subarachnoid space in the T2-weighted images and (2) evidence of cord compression in the T1-weighted images. Twelve cases out of 24 were treated conservatively because of a gradual improvement in their myelopathic symptoms. The other 12 cases were treated surgically, because of no improvement in their residual myelopathic symptoms at the time when the dynamic MRI had been performed. In the majority of cases in the surgical group, the narrowing of the subarachnoid space and spinal cord compression were hightened on neck extension, whereas in the conservative group, such findings were minimal. Dynamic MRI also more clearly visualized multiple lesions and the direction of the cord compression. These findings thus provided more detailed information to plan the surgical approach and to estimate the amount of surgical decompression needed. Based on the results of this retrospective study, we thus concluded that surgical treatment appears to benefit subacute cases who show no improvement in their residual myelopathic symptoms and whose dynamic MRI results also demonstrate an increased narrowing of subarachnoid space and a heightened spinal cord compression. (author).

  14. Progress Toward Electrostatic Radiation Shielding of Interplanetary Spacecraft: Strategies, Concepts and Technical Challenges of Human Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    The radiation problem is a serious obstacle to solar system exploration. Electrostatic shielding was previously dismissed as unworkable. This was based on the false assumption that radial symmetry is needed to provide isotropic protection. KSC recently demonstrated the feasibility of asymmetric, multipole electrostatic shielding. Combined with passive shielding it might solve the radiation problem

  15. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  16. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  17. Bundled payment reimbursement for anterior and posterior approaches for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: an analysis of private payer and Medicare databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Sohrab S; Phillips, Frank M; Khan, Safdar N

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a progressive spinal condition that often requires surgery. Studies have shown the clinical equivalency of anterior versus posterior approaches for CSM surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount and type of resources used for anterior and posterior surgical treatment of CSM by using large national databases of clinical and financial information from patients. METHODS This study consists of 2 large cohorts of patients who underwent either an anterior or posterior approach for treatment of CSM. These patients were selected from the Medicare 5% National Sample Administrative Database (SAF5) and the Humana orthopedic database (HORTHO), which is a database of patients with private payer health insurance. The outcome measures were the cost of a 90-day episode of care, as well as a breakdown of the cost components for each surgical procedure between 2005 and 2014. RESULTS A total of 16,444 patients were included in this analysis. In HORTHO, there were 10,332 and 1556 patients treated with an anterior or posterior approach for CSM, respectively. In SAF5, there were 3851 and 705 patients who were treated by an anterior or posterior approach for CSM, respectively. The mean ± SD reimbursements for anterior and posterior approaches in the HORTHO database were $20,863 ± $2014 and $23,813 ± $4258, respectively (p = 0.048). The mean ± SD reimbursements for anterior and posterior approaches in the SAF5 database were $18,219 ± $1053 and $25,598 ± $1686, respectively (p reimbursements for a rehabilitation/skilled nursing facility and hospital/inpatient care for patients who underwent a posterior approach in both the private payer and Medicare databases. In all cohorts in this study, the hospital-related reimbursement was more than double the surgeon-related reimbursement. CONCLUSIONS This study provides resource utilization information for a 90-day episode of care for both anterior and posterior approaches

  18. Human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncoproteins alter cell cycle progression but not radiosensitivity of carcinoma cells treated with low-dose-rate radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWeese, Theodore L.; Walsh, Jonathan C.; Dillehay, Larry E.; Kessis, Theodore D.; Hedrick, Lora; Cho, Kathleen R.; Nelson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Low-dose-rate radiation therapy has been widely used in the treatment of urogenital malignancies. When continuously exposed to low-dose-rate ionizing radiation, target cancer cells typically exhibit abnormalities in replicative cell-cycle progression. Cancer cells that arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle when irradiated may become exquisitely sensitive to killing by further low-dose-rate radiation treatment. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which play a major role in the pathogenesis of uterine cervix cancers and other urogenital cancers, encode E6 and E7 transforming proteins known to abrogate a p53-dependent G1 cell-cycle checkpoint activated by conventional acute-dose radiation exposure. This study examined whether expression of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins by cancer cells alters the cell-cycle redistribution patterns accompanying low-dose-rate radiation treatment, and whether such alterations in cell-cycle redistribution affect cancer cell killing. Methods and Materials: RKO carcinoma cells, which contain wild-type P53 alleles, and RKO cell sublines genetically engineered to express HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, were treated with low-dose-rate (0.25-Gy/h) radiation and then assessed for p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 polypeptide induction by immunoblot analysis, for cell-cycle redistribution by flow cytometry, and for cytotoxicity by clonogenic survival assay. Results: Low-dose-rate radiation of RKO carcinoma cells triggered p53 polypeptide elevations, p21WAF1/CIP1 induction, and arrest in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. In contrast, RKO cells expressing E6 and E7 transforming proteins from high-risk oncogenic HPVs (HPV 16) arrested in G2, but failed to arrest in G1, when treated with low-dose-rate ionizing radiation. Abrogation of the G1 cell-cycle checkpoint activated by low-dose-rate radiation exposure appeared to be a characteristic feature of transforming proteins from high-risk oncogenic HPVs: RKO cells expressing E6 from a low

  19. INTERFERON BETA-1A TREATMENT IN HTLV-1-ASSOCIATED MYELOPATHY/TROPICAL SPASTIC PARAPARESIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Maria de Castro Viana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Here a young patient (< 21 years of age with a history of infective dermatitis is described. The patient was diagnosed with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis and treated with interferon beta-1a. The disease was clinically established as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, and laboratory tests confirmed the presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Mumps, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, schistosomiasis, herpes virus 1 and 2, rubella, measles, varicella-zoster toxoplasmosis, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis were excluded by serology. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder and presented with nocturia, urinary urgency, paresthesia of the lower left limb, a marked reduction of muscle strength in the lower limbs, and a slight reduction in upper limb strength. During the fourth week of treatment with interferon beta-1a, urinary urgency and paresthesia disappeared and clinical motor skills improved.

  20. Studies on radiation-induced chromosome damage in humans: Semi-annual progress report, October 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes recent research to determine and report the frequency of somatic cell chromosome aberrations in approximately 200 lymphocyte metaphases from each of 200 control patients or persons who received radiation for enlarged thymus, and from an additional 475 irradiated and control subjects selected by NCI from populations exposed to therapeutic ionizing radiation during the period 1930 to 1970. The priority of populations to be studied will be determined by NCI in consultation with the contractor and with advice from NCI consultants. Additional research will determine and report dose response curves among the several populations, to determine how differences with respect to radiation dose, quality of radiation, fractionation, sex and age within and among groups affect the ''dose-response relationship.'' 7 tabs

  1. Progress in radiation chemistry of crown ether extractants used for the solvent extraction of "9"0Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jing; Yu Chuhong; Cui Zhenpeng; Zhai Maolin

    2011-01-01

    The separation of the long-lived fission products from dissolved nuclear fuel could improve the safe disposal of high-level nuclear wastes and reduce their threaten to human being and environment. Since the extractant system will be exposed to high radiation environment during the solvent extraction of long-lived fission products. The understanding of radiation chemistry of extractants is very important for practical design of extractant system. The radiation chemistry of crown ether systems proposed for use in the solvent extraction of one of fission products "9"0Sr were reviewed based on the study on the radiation stability and radiolysis mechanism of crown ether system. Finally some challenges were suggested. (authors)

  2. [Development and recommendations in the area of ionizing and nonionizing radiations]. Progress report, 1 September 1991--30 April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report briefly describes seven publications produced in 1991--1992 under the auspices of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. In addition current status of additional publications in preparation are outlined.

  3. Restoration of Upper Limb Function in an Individual with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy using Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Popovic, Milos R.; Zivanovic, Vera; Valiante, Taufik A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-traumatic spinal cord pathology is responsible for 25–52% of all spinal cord lesions. Studies have revealed that spinal stenosis accounts for 16–21% of spinal cord injury (SCI) admissions. Impaired grips as well as slow unskilled hand and finger movements are the most common complaints in patients with spinal cord disorders, such as myelopathy secondary to cervical spondylosis. In the past, our team carried out couple of successful clinical trials, including two randomized control trials,...

  4. Synovial chondromatosis of the lumbar spine with compressive myelopathy: a case report with review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Contractor, Daniel; Bianchi, Stefano; Hermann, George; Hoch, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis has been rarely reported to occur in the spine with only one case found in the lumbar spine. We describe another case of synovial chondromatosis in the lumbar spine in a 41-year-old man who presented with compressive myelopathy. The tumor was located in the left ventrolateral corner of the epidural space just below the L 4 -L 5 intervertebral space. Besides being extremely rare, our case was unusual in that the juxtaposed facet joint was radiologically normal. (orig.)

  5. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin: Progress report, February 1, 1987-January 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The work outlined in this report includes: epidermal DNA strand breaks and radiation penetration; activation of oncogenes in radiation induced rat skin tumors; and rat skin carcinogenesis by neon ions. The effect of radiation penetration on DNA single strand breaks has been studied extensively in rat and mouse epidermis. The results show clearly that the number of strand breaks per unit dose in the epidermal DNA is reduced by 50% to 65% when the radiation penetration is reduced from 1.0 mm to 0.2 mm. This penetration effect on DNA strand breaks was not seen in mouse epidermal cell lines growing in plastic dishes. The results imply that DNA strand breakage in superficial cells is partially dependent on the radiation dose to underlying tissue. The phenomenon is not mediated by systemic interactions as it was observed in irradiated explanted skin. The oncogene activation pattern in the radiation-induced skin tumors was found to be tumor dependent. Either K-ras activation or c-myc amplification or both was observed in each tumor analyzed so far. Even benign fibromas exhibited c-myc amplification. The carcinogenicity of high penetration electrons (2.0 MeV) was determined in preparation for similar studies with a neon ion beam at the Berkeley Bevelac. The principal finding so far is a large excess of connective tissue tumors, fibromas (benign) and sarcomas (malignant). 59 refs., 1 tab

  6. Axial acoustic radiation force on rigid oblate and prolate spheroids in Bessel vortex beams of progressive, standing and quasi-standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2017-02-01

    The analysis using the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in spherical coordinates is extended to evaluate the acoustic radiation force experienced by rigid oblate and prolate spheroids centered on the axis of wave propagation of high-order Bessel vortex beams composed of progressive, standing and quasi-standing waves, respectively. A coupled system of linear equations is derived after applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface in a non-viscous fluid, and solved numerically by matrix inversion after performing a single numerical integration procedure. The system of linear equations depends on the partial-wave index n and the order of the Bessel vortex beam m using truncated but converging PWSEs in the least-squares sense. Numerical results for the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit energy density and unit cross-sectional surface, are computed with particular emphasis on the amplitude ratio describing the transition from the progressive to the pure standing waves cases, the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid), the half-cone angle and order of the Bessel vortex beam, as well as the dimensionless size parameter. A generalized expression for the radiation force function is derived for cases encompassing the progressive, standing and quasi-standing waves of Bessel vortex beams. This expression can be reduced to other types of beams/waves such as the zeroth-order Bessel non-vortex beam or the infinite plane wave case by appropriate selection of the beam parameters. The results for progressive waves reveal a tractor beam behavior, characterized by the emergence of an attractive pulling force acting in opposite direction of wave propagation. Moreover, the transition to the quasi-standing and pure standing wave cases shows the acoustical tweezers behavior in dual-beam Bessel vortex beams. Applications in acoustic levitation, particle manipulation and acousto

  7. Cytological study of radiation induced alterations in cytoplasmic factors controlling male sterility in corn. Progress report, February 28, 1975--December 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: cytoplasmic constituents of the embryo of various gymnosperms and angiosperms; cytoplasmic male sterility in corn; modification of cytoplasmic sterility factors using gamma radiation, EMS, and ethidium bromide; selection for sterile, blight-resistant corn plants; electron microscopy study of abnormal mitochondria in cytoplasm of corn; cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia; non-Mendelian variegation in Petunia and Nicotiana; graft transmission of cytoplasmic male sterility; cytoplasmic male sterility in Vicia faba; and studies on Blakeslee's I virus in Datura

  8. Study of the radiation effects on nucleic acids and related compounds. Annual progress report, August 15, 1974--August 14, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1975-01-01

    Interest is being centered on the chemical and physical nature of radiation-induced lesions to nucleic acids and their components. These investigations have revealed the enormous complexity of chemical events in these systems and the possible degradation of nucleic acids by strand breakage. Therefore, work in the ionizing radiation of DNA and its components has proceeded along a dual course. For chemical studies, our prime concern is the stepwise isolation and identification of the radiation products of derivatives of pyrimidines and the study of the actual mechanisms of their formation. For biological studies, H. influenzae cells, the Chinese hamster V79B-1 cell line, and the Dunn osteosarcoma lung colony system were used. During the last year, the method of synthesis of 5-hydroperoxymethyluracil (T/sub α/OOH) was greatly improved. Large-scale preparation of 5-hydroxy-6-hydroperoxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (T 6 OOH) were carried out in order to study the action of T 6 OOH on neighboring bases, glycosidic bond-breakage, cell mutagenesis, chromosomal aberrations, and possible synergistic effects on x radiation. These results allow one to relate radiobiological effects with radiation chemical changes in DNA

  9. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  10. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  11. Progress report of the Radiation Technology and Industrial Applications Section, Isotope Group for the period ending August 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, A.D.; Roy, A.N.; Majali, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    The activities of the Radiation Technology and Industrial Applications Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, for the period ending August 1977 are reported. Major highlights are: (1) completion of studies and design engineering for an economic scale cobalt-60 based irradiator for the radiation sterilisation of medical products, (2) taking up the work of setting up the cobalt-60 irradiation facilities for sources up to 300,000 Ci level, (3) development of radiation processed wood-polymer composite and practical demonstration of its superiority for application in industries - a cobalt-60 facility specifically for this purpose is being installed, (4) development of a commercially viable design of a smoke alarm system based on radioisotopes and (5) production and supply of irradiation units such as gamma chambers, radiography cameras, etc. (M.G.B.)

  12. Radiation/turbulence interactions in pulverized-coal flames. Second year technical progress report, September 30, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.; Manickavsagam, S.; Mukerji, S.; Wang, D.; Ghosal, S.; Swabb, S.

    1995-12-31

    Our goal in this project is to investigate the interaction of radiation and turbulence in coalfired laboratory scale flames and attempt to determine the boundaries of the ``uncertainty domain`` in Figure 3 more rigorously. We have three distinct objectives: (1) To determine from experiments the effect of turbulent fluctuations on the devolatilization/pyrolysis of coal particles and soot yield, and to measure the change in the ``effective`` radiative properties of particulates due to turbulence interactions; (2) To perform local small-scale simulations to investigate the radiation-turbulence interactions in coal-fired flames starting from first principles; and (3) To develop a thorough and rigorous, but computationally practical, turbulence model for coal flames, starting from the experimental observations and small scale simulations.

  13. Progress in Space Weather Modeling and Observations Needed to Improve the Operational NAIRAS Model Aircraft Radiation Exposure Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Tobiska, W.; Xu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. Addressing these science questions require improvements in both space weather modeling and observations. The focus of this talk is to present these science questions, the proposed methodologies for addressing these science questions, and the anticipated improvements to the operational predictions of atmospheric radiation exposure. The overarching goal of this work is to provide a decision support tool for the aviation industry that will enable an optimal balance to be achieved between minimizing health risks to passengers and aircrew while simultaneously minimizing costs to the airline companies.

  14. Radiation-induced progressive decreasing in the expression of reverse transcriptase gene of hEST2 and telomerase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hanneng; Chen Wenying; Xiong Sidong

    2000-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that adds heximeric repeats called telomeres to the growing ends of chromosomal DNA. Telomerase activity is present in a vast majority of tumors but is repressed in most normal tissues. Human telomerase catalytic subunit gene (hEST2) reverse transcriptase (RT) segment was cloned by PCR according to the sequence published in GeneBank. PCR was used to investigate the expression of the hEST2 RT segment in diverse tumors as well as in various normal tissues. Results indicated that hEST2 RT segment was detectable in tumor cells lines but not in normal cells and tissues. In order to identify the relationship between telomerase and the biological effect of radiation injury, HeLa cells, KB cells and A431 cells were employed to measure the change in telomerase activity after 60 Co-ray irradiation at RNA level and protein level. Quantitative PCR determined that expression of hEST2 RT segment that encodes seven motifs of the human telomeras decreased with increasing dosage of radiation. In addition, a PCR-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol was used to assay telomerase activity after exposure to radiation. The results strongly support the experiments we had made: Telomerase activity decreases with increasing dosage of radiation. We conclude that detection of the hEST2 RT segment by Northern blotting is a new method for detecting telomerase activity. Furthermore, radiation can cause a dose-dependent decrease in telomerase activity. The effect of radiation on telomerase is one possible reason for the death of cancer cells after irradiation. (author)

  15. Radiation effects on materials in the near-field of nuclear waste repository. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    'Site restoration activities at DOE facilities and the permanent disposal of nuclear waste generated at DOE facilities involve working with and within various types and levels of radiation fields. Once the nuclear waste is incorporated into a final form, radioactive decay will decrease the radiation field over geologic time scales, but the alpha-decay dose for these solids will still reach values as high as 10 18 alpha-decay events/gm in periods as short as 1,000 years. This dose is well within the range for which important chemical (e.g., increased leach rate) and physical (e.g., volume expansion) changes may occur in crystalline ceramics. Release and sorption of long-lived actinides (e.g., 237 Np) can provide a radiation exposure to backfill materials, and changes in important properties (e.g., cation exchange capacity) may occur. The objective of this research program is to evaluate the long term radiation effects in the materials in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository with accelerated experiments in the laboratory using energetic particles (electrons, ions and neutrons). Experiments on the microstructural evolution during irradiation of two important groups of materials, sheet silicates (e.g., clays) and zeolites (analcime), have been conducted; and studies of radiation-induced changes in chemical properties (e.g. cation exchange capacity) are underway. As of the mid-2nd year of the 3-year project, experiments on the microstructural evolution during irradiation of two important group of materials, sheet silicates (mica) and zeolites (analcime), have been conducted; and studies of radiation-induced changes in chemical properties (e.g., cation exchange capacity) are underway.'

  16. Radiation and biophysical studies on cells and viruses. Progress report 1 July 1977--30 June 1978. [Particle beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Arthur; Ansevin, Allen T.; Corry, Peter M.

    1978-08-01

    Studies on genetic structure included arrangement of interphase and mitotic chromosomes, nucleoproteins, and DNA. Studies on analysis of sensitive sites by particle beam irradiation included location of cellular sites for mutation induction and cell transformation. Studies on radiation damage and repair and radiation as an investigative tool included damage to nuclear proteins and other model systems; detection and quantitation of cell surface antigens; interaction of hyperthermia and irradiation; radioinduced cell transformation alkaline elution studies of damage and repair; and low dose, low LET lethality. (HLW)

  17. Radiation and biophysical studies on cells and viruses. Progress report 1 July 1977--30 June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on genetic structure included arrangement of interphase and mitotic chromosomes, nucleoproteins, and DNA. Studies on analysis of sensitive sites by particle beam irradiation included location of cellular sites for mutation induction and cell transformation. Studies on radiation damage and repair and radiation as an investigative tool included damage to nuclear proteins and other model systems; detection and quantitation of cell surface antigens; interaction of hyperthermia and irradiation; radioinduced cell transformation alkaline elution studies of damage and repair; and low dose, low LET lethality

  18. Role of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections with emphasis on HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Taraneh; Farajifard, Hamid; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Bustani, Reza; Valizadeh, Narges; Rajaei, Bahareh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2017-06-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) enhances the survival and cytotoxic properties of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and exhibits essential roles in controlling chronic viral infections. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system. The main determinant of disease progression is efficiency of the CTL response to Human T lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-1). In this study, the expression of host IL-21 and HTLV-I Tax and proviral load (PVL) was evaluated to understand the role and mechanism of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections and the subsequent development of HAM/TSP. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 20 HAM/TSP patients, 20 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) and 20 healthy controls (HCs) to evaluate the expression of IL-21 and Tax and PVL in non-activated and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-ionomycin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The mean mRNA expression of IL-21 in the non-activated and activated PBMCs was higher (by 5-13 times) in the HAM/TSP patients than in ACs and HCs (p Tax and PVL was observed in the HAM/TSP subjects than ACs (p Tax gene expression was positively correlated with PVL (R = 0.595, p = 0.000) and IL-21 gene expression (R = 0.395, p = 0.021) in the HTLV-1-infected subjects. In conclusion, the increase in IL-21 mRNA expression may reflect the attempt of infected T cells to induce an appropriate antiviral response, and the decrease in IL-21 protein expression may reflect the inhibition of IL-21 mRNA translation by viral factors in favour of virus evasion and dissemination.

  19. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  20. Facetal distraction as treatment for single- and multilevel cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha

    2011-06-01

    The authors discuss their successful preliminary experience with 36 cases of cervical spondylotic disease by performing facetal distraction using specially designed Goel cervical facet spacers. The clinical and radiological results of treatment are analyzed. The mechanism of action of the proposed spacers and the rationale for their use are evaluated. Between 2006 and February 2010, 36 patients were treated using the proposed technique. Of these patients, 18 had multilevel and 18 had single-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. The average follow-up period was 17 months with a minimum of 6 months. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association classification system, visual analog scale (neck pain and radiculopathy), and Odom criteria were used to monitor the clinical status of the patient. The patients were prospectively analyzed. The technique of surgery involved wide opening of the facet joints, denuding of articular cartilage, distraction of facets, and forced impaction of Goel cervical facet spacers into the articular cavity. Additionally, the interspinous process ligaments were resected, and corticocancellous bone graft from the iliac crest was placed and was stabilized over the adjoining laminae and facets after adequately preparing the host bone. Eighteen patients underwent single-level, 6 patients underwent 2-level, and 12 patients underwent 3-level treatment. The alterations in the physical architecture of spine and canal dimensions were evaluated before and after the placement of intrafacet joint spacers and after at least 6 months of follow-up. All patients had varying degrees of relief from symptoms of pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy. Analysis of radiological features suggested that the distraction of facets with the spacers resulted in an increase in the intervertebral foraminal dimension (mean 2.2 mm), an increase in the height of the intervertebral disc space (range 0.4-1.2 mm), and an increase in the interspinous distance (mean 2

  1. Effect of radiation-sensitive mutations and mutagens/carcinogens on bacterial recombination and mutagenesis. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matney, T.S.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on effects of temperature sensitive DNA-initiation mutation in E. coli K-12 mutants; the use of Bacillus subtilis transforming system as an in vitro mutagenesis system; characteristics of the E. coli lysogen used to test the permeability to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and the genetic toxicology of gentian violet. (PCS)

  2. Study of the effects of radiation of nucleic acids and related compounds. Progress report, August 15, 1975--August 14, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1976-04-01

    Ionizing radiation produces genetic effects in biological systems. Since genetic effects are usually the result of modifications of DNA or sometimes of RNA, interest is being centered on the chemical and physical nature of radiation-induced lesions to nucleic acids and their components. These investigations have revealed the enormous complexity of chemical events and the possible degradation of nucleic acids by strand breakage. Therefore, work in the ionization radiation of nucleic acids has proceeded along a dual course. On the one hand, molecular changes have been characterized for a number of primary radiation products. On the other hand, strand breakage has been investigated intensively as a direct primary event. Both of these aspects were emphasized in our research last year. We succeeded in improving the synthesis of 5-hydroxy-methyl thymine (α-TOOH). α-TOOH was found to be much more effective than cis-5,6-dihydro-6-hydroperoxy-5-hydroxy thymine (6-TOOH) in the inactivation of transforming DNA of H. influenzae cells although α-TOOH is much less reactive chemically than 6-TOOH. 6-TOOH causes inactivation and acts as an inhibitor of DNA synthesis in mammalian cells. In addition, evidence may indicate that 6-TOOH does not induce strand breaks directly in DNA although we showed that 6-TOOH is a clastogenic compound

  3. Patterns of metastatic progression after definitive radiation therapy for early-stage and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Garrett L; Tang, Chad; Hess, Kenneth R; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel R

    2017-06-01

    Current preclinical models of metastatic disease (particularly oligometastases) suggest that metastases appear in a hierarchical order. We attempted to identify systematic patterns of metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after radiation therapy (XRT). We analyzed 1074 patients treated from 12/21/1998 through 8/20/2012 with ≥60 Gy definitive radiation for initially non-metastatic NSCLC. Location and time of metastases were recorded. Regional nodal failure was noted, as was subsequent distal failure. For further analysis, we considered only the five most common sites of metastasis (bone, brain, liver, adrenal, and lung). Metastatic progression over time was defined and patterns elucidated with Chi square tests. Histologic findings were analyzed with Wilcoxon rank sum tests. A significant multistep linear progression was not apparent. Having a first metastasis in lung or bone was associated with respective 16% (median 2.4 months) and 15% likelihoods (median 7.9 months) of secondary brain metastasis. Initial metastasis in the brain led to metastasis in another organ 29.3% of the time, most often in the lung, bone, and liver (medians 3.6, 7.9, and 3.1 months). Adenocarcinoma was more likely than squamous to metastasize to the brain (18 vs. 9%) and any of the five major sites (41 vs. 27%). We did not appreciate dominant patterns suggesting a multi-step hierarchical order of metastasis. Rather, our findings suggest that certain subgroups may develop different patterns of spread depending on a variety of factors.

  4. Site-Specific Phosphorylation of Ikaros Induced by Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Regulates Cell Cycle Progression of B Lymphoblast Through CK2 and AKT Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Jun; Kang, Hana; Kim, Min Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Sung Jin; Nam, Seon Young; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hee Sun; Pyo, Suhkneung; Yang, Kwang Hee

    2016-04-01

    To determine how low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) regulates B lympho-proliferation and its molecular mechanism related with Ikaros, transcription factor. Splenocytes and IM-9 cells were uniformly irradiated with various doses of a (137)Cs γ-source, and cell proliferation was analyzed. To determine the LDIR-specific phosphorylation of Ikaros, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed. To investigate the physiologic function of LDIR-mediatied Ikaros phosphorylation, Ikaros mutants at phosphorylation sites were generated, and cell cycle analysis was performed. First, we found that LDIR enhances B lymphoblast proliferation in an Ikaros-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that LDIR elevates the phosphorylation level of Ikaros protein. Interestingly, we showed that CK2 and AKT are involved in LDIR-induced Ikaros phosphorylation and capable of regulating DNA binding activity of Ikaros via specific phosphorylation. Finally, we identified LDIR-specific Ikaros phosphorylation sites at S391/S393 and showed that the Ikaros phosphorylations at these sites control Ikaros's ability to regulate G1/S cell cycle progression. Low-dose ionizing radiation specifically phosphorylates Ikaros protein at Ser 391/393 residues to regulate cell cycle progression in B lymphoblast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Site-Specific Phosphorylation of Ikaros Induced by Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Regulates Cell Cycle Progression of B Lymphoblast Through CK2 and AKT Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seong-Jun; Kang, Hana; Kim, Min Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Sung Jin; Nam, Seon Young; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hee Sun; Pyo, Suhkneung; Yang, Kwang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) regulates B lympho-proliferation and its molecular mechanism related with Ikaros, transcription factor. Methods and Materials: Splenocytes and IM-9 cells were uniformly irradiated with various doses of a "1"3"7Cs γ-source, and cell proliferation was analyzed. To determine the LDIR-specific phosphorylation of Ikaros, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed. To investigate the physiologic function of LDIR-mediatied Ikaros phosphorylation, Ikaros mutants at phosphorylation sites were generated, and cell cycle analysis was performed. Results: First, we found that LDIR enhances B lymphoblast proliferation in an Ikaros-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that LDIR elevates the phosphorylation level of Ikaros protein. Interestingly, we showed that CK2 and AKT are involved in LDIR-induced Ikaros phosphorylation and capable of regulating DNA binding activity of Ikaros via specific phosphorylation. Finally, we identified LDIR-specific Ikaros phosphorylation sites at S391/S393 and showed that the Ikaros phosphorylations at these sites control Ikaros's ability to regulate G1/S cell cycle progression. Conclusion: Low-dose ionizing radiation specifically phosphorylates Ikaros protein at Ser 391/393 residues to regulate cell cycle progression in B lymphoblast.

  6. Dose-rate effect of adaptive response of apoptosis and cell cycle progression induced by low-dose ionizing radiation in EL-4 lymphoma cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuchun; Lu Zhe; Li Yanbo; Kang Shunai; Gong Shouliang; Zhao Wenju

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the dose-rate effect of adaptive response of apoptosis and cell cycle progression induced by low-dose ionizing radiation in EL-4 lymphoma cells in vitro in order to reveal the possible mechanism of biological effect and adaptive response induced by low dose radiation. Methods: The experiment was divided into D2 (challenging dose), D1 (inductive dose) + D2 and sham-irradiation groups. EL-4 lymphoma cells were irradiated with D1 (75 mGy, 6.25-200.00 mGy·mm -1 ) and D2(1.5 Gy, 287 mGy·min -1 ), the time interval between D1 and D2 was 6 h. The percentage of apoptosis and each cell cycle phase were measured with flow cytometry. Results: When the dose rates of D1 were 6.25-50.00 mGy·min -1 , the percentages of apoptosis in the D1 + D2 group were significantly lower than those in the D2 group (P 0 /G 1 phase cells decreased significantly (P -1 , D2 is 1.5 Gy (287 mGy·min -1 ), and the time interval between D1 and D2 is 6 h, the adaptive response of apoptosis and cell cycle progression in EL-4 lymphoma cells in vitro could be induced. (authors)

  7. Site-Specific Phosphorylation of Ikaros Induced by Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Regulates Cell Cycle Progression of B Lymphoblast Through CK2 and AKT Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seong-Jun; Kang, Hana [KHNP Radiation Health Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Young [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Sung Jin; Nam, Seon Young; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hee Sun [KHNP Radiation Health Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Suhkneung [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kwang Hee, E-mail: kwangheey@khnp.co.kr [KHNP Radiation Health Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To determine how low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) regulates B lympho-proliferation and its molecular mechanism related with Ikaros, transcription factor. Methods and Materials: Splenocytes and IM-9 cells were uniformly irradiated with various doses of a {sup 137}Cs γ-source, and cell proliferation was analyzed. To determine the LDIR-specific phosphorylation of Ikaros, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed. To investigate the physiologic function of LDIR-mediatied Ikaros phosphorylation, Ikaros mutants at phosphorylation sites were generated, and cell cycle analysis was performed. Results: First, we found that LDIR enhances B lymphoblast proliferation in an Ikaros-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that LDIR elevates the phosphorylation level of Ikaros protein. Interestingly, we showed that CK2 and AKT are involved in LDIR-induced Ikaros phosphorylation and capable of regulating DNA binding activity of Ikaros via specific phosphorylation. Finally, we identified LDIR-specific Ikaros phosphorylation sites at S391/S393 and showed that the Ikaros phosphorylations at these sites control Ikaros's ability to regulate G1/S cell cycle progression. Conclusion: Low-dose ionizing radiation specifically phosphorylates Ikaros protein at Ser 391/393 residues to regulate cell cycle progression in B lymphoblast.

  8. Investigation of microscopic radiation damage in waste forms using ODNMR and AEM techniques. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, G.

    1998-01-01

    'This project seeks to understand the microscopic effects of radiation damage in nuclear waste forms. The authors approach to this challenge encompasses studies of crystals and glass containing short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting actinides with electron microscopy, laser spectroscopy, and computational modeling and simulation. Much of the initial effort has focused on alpha-decay induced microscopic damage in 17-year old samples of crystalline yttrium and lutetium orthophosphates and thorium dioxide that initially contained ∼1% of the alpha-emitting isotope Cm-244 (18.1 y half life) or the beta-emitting isotope Bk-249 (0.88 y half life). Studies will also be conducted on borosilicate glasses that contain Cm-244 or Am-241, respectively. The goal is to gain clear insight into accumulated radiation damage and the influence of aging on such damage, which are critical factors in the long-term performance of high-level nuclear waste forms. Amorphization previously has been thought to be the most important effect of radiation damage in crystalline and ceramic materials. The studies show that for alpha-emitting actinide ions in certain crystalline phosphates, amorphization is not a significant effect of radiation damage. Instead, formation of microscopic cavities (bubbles) is an important consequence of alpha-decay events. This amorphization-resistant property makes orthophosphates a very attractive high level nuclear waste form. However, aggregation and mobilization of cavities (bubbles) might increase the leach rate of radionuclides and influence the long-term stability of the waste forms. Further research is needed before the authors can draw a final conclusion on the long-term effects of radiation damage in high level waste forms.'

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of progressive space-occupying radiation necrosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastasis: value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Sako, K.; Tohyama, Y.; Aizawa, S.; Tanaka, T.; Yoshida, H.; Aburano, T.; Tanaka, K.

    2003-01-01

    There have been some reports that radiation necrosis can be controlled conservatively. There are rare cases showing progressive space-occupying radiation necrosis (PSORN). It is very difficult to control PSORN by conservative treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early diagnosis of these cases and the timing of surgery for patients with PSORN. We have experienced some cases where quality of life was improved by the removal of PSORN after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. Therefore, we evaluated retrospectively the diagnosis and treatment of six cases of symptomatic PSORN at approximately 6-12 months after SRS for metastatic brain tumours. In all six cases, on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Gd contrast material (Gd-MRI), PSORN was revealed as a ring-like enhanced mass with large perifocal oedema coupled with the appearance of neurological deficit. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) enabled us to differentiate PSORN from recurrence of metastases in all six cases. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography with thallium-201 chloride ( 201 TICI-SPECT) enabled us to do this in four cases of the six. In four cases of the six, lesionectomy of the ring-like enhanced mass (PSORN) was performed, und in two of these cases the removal was performed within 4 weeks from the time when conservative treatment became ineffective, and the neurological deficit and perifocal oedema was improved as was the quality of life. However, in the other two patients who were left for more than 16 weeks, the deficit was gradually progressive. The two patients who did not receive lesionectomy were treated by conservative means with steroids and/or heparin and warfarin and they had progressive neurological symptoms. Although, the number of patients is small in this study, and more data will be needed, it is recommended that lesionectomy is performed at an early stage, if possible, when conservative management has failed. (author)

  10. Radiation chemistry of hydrocarbon and alkyl halide systems. Interim progress report, June 1, 1984-July 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental work in progress includes studies of gas phase OH radical reaction using argon sensitized pulse radiolysis and studies of the radiolytic oxidation of butane. Work on interpretation of results, writing, and revision of manuscripts is still in progress on several investigations including studies of the photochemistry and mass spectrometry of CF3I-CH3I mixtures; an investigation of the radiolytic oxidation of propane; and certain parts of the study of radiolytic reactions in the H 2 - CO system. Work on experimental aspects of the radiolytic oxidation of butane nearing completion. It appears that the results do parallel the propane system as we anticipated, with major products being the C 4 alcohols and olefins

  11. Radiation and biophysical studies on cells and viruses. Progress report, 1 April 1975--31 March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.; Ansevin, A.T.; Corry, P.M.; Humphrey, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: studies on organization of chromosomes using sedimentation analysis, electron microscopy, and radiosensitive site analysis; studies on organization of nucleoproteins and DNA using thermal denaturation experiments; distribution of radiosensitive sites in mitotic and intraphase CHO cells using track and alpha particle irradiation; gamma ray and particle irradiation studies of cellular and nucleoprotein damage; and studies of semiconductor properties of biomolecules and applications to melanin-containing cells

  12. Physico-chemical studies of radiation effects in cells. Progress report, November 15, 1980-February 14, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The primary interest is investigating and understanding the chemical mechanisms involved in radiation-induced cellular damage. Most recently the perturbating devices have been metals which increase, in various ways and modes, the radiation sensitivity of several cell types. While the chief cell type has been the bacterial spore, chosen because of its biological inertness and its hardiness, allowing it to survive the unphysiological conditions of the physical chemist and, thus, inquiry into the free radical mechanisms involved very soon after energy absorption, recently vegetative cells have been introduced. A number of metals have been used and practically all of them sensitize - but to varying degrees. Straight biological techniques such as the measurement of cell survival under various conditions in the different cells have been used, as well as parallel experiments in pulse radiolysis to attack the specific leads in a chemical fashion suggested by the biology

  13. Effect of LET and microdistribution of radiation on the transformation in vitro and in vivo. Comprehensive progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Work has involved the following three areas: (1) an investigation of the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis by studying the events involved in the process of malignant transformation of mouse 10 T-1/2 cells; (2) an investigation of the effects of promoting agents on radiation-induced transformation in vitro; and (3) an investigation of the induction of transformation by internally emitting radionuclides incorporated into cellular DNA. The latter area has been extended to include studies of mutagenesis by these radionuclides in human lymphoblasts, and molecular measurements of DNA strand breaks. During the past year, research has focused on the first area, as well as on studies of the mutagenic effects of incorporated radionuclides

  14. Modeling of quench front progression and heat transfer by radiation during reflooding of a tubular test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, P.; Deruaz, R.

    1976-01-01

    Heat transfer modeling is presented in the scope of emergency core cooling. The rewetting of a hot dry wall during reflooding is a conduction-controlled phenomenon described by a model of heat-transfer coefficient. Upstream of the quench front, a two-dimensional approach involving both axial and transverse (or radial) heat conduction is discussed in view of thick walls, high quench front velocities and nucleate boiling. Downstream of the quench-front, high wall temperatures are reached so that a thermal radiation model is required to separate the different mechanisms of heat transfer. An attempt is made to consider radiation between walls, water droplets and vapor, with scattering emission and absorption of the two phases

  15. Effect of LET and microdistribution of radiation on the transformation in vitro and in vivo. Comprehensive progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.

    1983-09-01

    Work has involved the following three areas: (1) an investigation of the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis by studying the events involved in the process of malignant transformation of mouse 10 T-1/2 cells; (2) an investigation of the effects of promoting agents on radiation-induced transformation in vitro; and (3) an investigation of the induction of transformation by internally emitting radionuclides incorporated into cellular DNA. The latter area has been extended to include studies of mutagenesis by these radionuclides in human lymphoblasts, and molecular measurements of DNA strand breaks. During the past year, research has focused on the first area, as well as on studies of the mutagenic effects of incorporated radionuclides.

  16. Prediction of myelopathic level in cervical spondylotic myelopathy using diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Cui, Jiao-Long; Li, Han-Xiong; Luk, Keith D K; Hu, Yong

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the use of a newly designed machine learning-based classifier in the automatic identification of myelopathic levels in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). In all, 58 normal volunteers and 16 subjects with CSM were recruited for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisition. The eigenvalues were extracted as the selected features from DTI images. Three classifiers, naive Bayesian, support vector machine, and support tensor machine, and fractional anisotropy (FA) were employed to identify myelopathic levels. The results were compared with clinical level diagnosis results and accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated to evaluate the performance of the developed classifiers. The accuracy by support tensor machine was the highest (93.62%) among the three classifiers. The support tensor machine also showed excellent capacity to identify true positives (sensitivity: 84.62%) and true negatives (specificity: 97.06%). The accuracy by FA value was the lowest (76%) in all the methods. The classifiers-based method using eigenvalues had a better performance in identifying the levels of CSM than the diagnosis using FA values. The support tensor machine was the best among three classifiers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael R. Pratali

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. METHODS: The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. RESULTS: Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. CONCLUSION: To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  18. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Santos de Britto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP can impact the independence and motricity of patients. The aims of this study were to estimate the effects of physiotherapy on the functionality of patients with HAM/TSP during the stable phase of the disease using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF and to compare two methods of treatment delivery. Methods: Fourteen patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I were randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (seven patients, PNF was applied by the therapist, facilitating the functional activities of rolling, sitting and standing, walking and climbing and descending stairs. In group II (seven patients, PNF was self-administered using an elastic tube, and the same activities were facilitated. Experiments were conducted for 1h twice per week for 12 weeks. Low-back pain, a modified Ashworth scale, the functional independence measure (FIM and the timed up and go test (TUG were assessed before and after the interventions. Results: In the within-group evaluation, low-back pain was significantly reduced in both groups, the FIM improved in group II, and the results of the TUG improved in group I. In the inter-group analysis, only the tone was lower in group II than in group I. Conclusions: Both PNF protocols were effective in treating patients with HAM/TSP.

  19. Reshaping of Gait Coordination by Robotic Intervention in Myelopathy Patients After Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Sandra; Kadone, Hideki; Kubota, Shigeki; Abe, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Marushima, Aiki; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Masashi; Suzuki, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    The Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL) is an idiopathic degenerative spinal disease which may cause motor deficit. For patients presenting myelopathy or severe stenosis, surgical decompression is the treatment of choice; however, despite adequate decompression residual motor impairment is found in some cases. After surgery, there is no therapeutic approach available for this population. The Hybrid Assistive Limb® (HAL) robot suit is a unique powered exoskeleton designed to predict, support, and enhance the lower extremities performance of patients using their own bioelectric signals. This approach has been used for spinal cord injury and stroke patients where the walking performance improved. However, there is no available data about gait kinematics evaluation after HAL therapy. Here we analyze the effect of HAL therapy in OPLL patients in acute and chronic stages after decompression surgery. We found that HAL therapy improved the walking performance for both groups. Interestingly, kinematics evaluation by the analysis of the elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot by using a principal component analysis showed that planar covariation, plane orientation, and movement range evaluation improved for acute patients suggesting an improvement in gait coordination. Being the first study performing kinematics analysis after HAL therapy, our results suggest that HAL improved the gait coordination of acute patients by supporting the relearning process and therefore reshaping their gait pattern. PMID:29551960

  20. Possible etiologies for tropical spastic paraparesis and human T lymphotropic virus I-associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zaninovic'

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM is frequently inconsistent and suggests environmental factors in the etiology of these syndromes. The neuropathology corresponds to a toxometabolic or autoimmune process and possibly not to a viral disease. Some logical hypotheses about the etiology and physiopathology of TSP and HAM are proposed. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, central distal axonopathies, cassava, lathyrism and cycad toxicity may explain most cases of TSP. The damage caused to astrocytes and to the blood-brain barrier by HTLV-I plus xenobiotics may explain most cases of HAM. Analysis of the HTLV-I/xenobiotic ratio clarifies most of the paradoxical epidemiology of TSP and HAM. Modern neurotoxicology, neuroimmunology and molecular biology may explain the neuropathology of TSP and HAM. It is quite possible that there are other xenobiotics implicated in the etiology of some TSP/HAMs. The prevention of these syndromes appears to be possible today.

  1. Predictors of cervical lordosis loss after laminoplasty in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Tao; Li, Jia Qi; Niu, Rui Jie; Liu, Zhao; Tong, Tong; Shen, Yong

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether radiological, clinical, and demographic findings in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were independently associated with loss of cervical lordosis (LCL) after laminoplasty. The prospective study included 41 consecutive patients who underwent laminoplasty for CSM. The difference in C2-7 Cobb angle between the postoperative and preoperative films was used to evaluate change in cervical alignment. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking history, preoperative C2-7 Cobb angle, T1 slope, C2-7 range of motion (C2-7 ROM), C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (C2-7 SVA), and cephalad vertebral level undergoing laminoplasty (CVLL) were assessed. Data were analyzed using Pearson and Spearman correlation test, and univariate and stepwise multivariate linear regression. T1 slope, C2-7 SVA, and CVLL significantly correlated with LCL (P < 0.001), whereas age, BMI, and preoperative C2-7 Cobb angle did not. In multiple linear regression analysis, higher T1 slope (B = 0.351, P = 0.037), greater C2-7 SVA (B = 0.393, P < 0.001), and starting laminoplasty at C4 level (B = - 7.038, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher postoperative LCL. Cervical alignment was compromised after laminoplasty in patients with CSM, and the degree of LCL was associated with preoperative T1 slope, C2-7 SVA, and CVLL.

  2. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratali, Raphael R; Smith, Justin S; Motta, Rodrigo L N; Martins, Samuel M; Motta, Marcel M; Rocha, Ricardo D; Herrero, Carlos Fernando P S

    2017-02-01

    To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese) performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  3. Reliability of surface electromyography timing parameters in gait in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-02-01

    The aims of this study were to validate a computerised method to detect muscle activity from surface electromyography (SEMG) signals in gait in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the activation times designated by this method. SEMG signals were recorded from rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG), during gait in 12 participants with CSM on two separate test days. Four computerised activity detection methods, based on the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator (TKEO), were applied to a subset of signals and compared to visual interpretation of muscle activation. The most accurate method was then applied to all signals for evaluation of test-retest reliability. A detection method based on a combined slope and amplitude threshold showed the highest agreement (87.5%) with visual interpretation. With respect to reliability, the standard error of measurement (SEM) of the timing of RF, TA and MG between test days was 5.5% stride duration or less, while the SEM of BF was 9.4%. The timing parameters of RF, TA and MG designated by this method were considered sufficiently reliable for use in clinical practice, however the reliability of BF was questionable.

  4. Neurological manifestations in individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G A S; Yoshikawa, G T; Koyama, R V L; Fujihara, S; Martins, L C S; Medeiros, R; Quaresma, J A S; Fuzii, H T

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. The aim was to analyze the clinical-functional profile of patients diagnosed with HTLV-1 (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in the Amazon region. Reference center for HTLV in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. Muscle strength, muscle tone, balance and the need for gait assistance among patients with HAM/TSP were evaluated. Among the 82 patients infected with HTLV-1, 27 (10 men and 17 women) were diagnosed with HAM/TSP. No statistically significant difference in muscle tone or strength was found between the lower limbs. Muscle weakness and spasticity were predominant in the proximal lower limbs. Patients with HAM/TSP are at a high risk of falls (P=0.03), and predominantly use either a cane or a crutch on one side as a gait-assistance device (P=0.02). Patients with HAM/TSP exhibit a similar clinical pattern of muscle weakness and spasticity, with a high risk of falls, requiring gait-assistance devices.

  5. Indication for the operative methods in surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Akira; Inoue, Shunichi; Watabe, Tsuneo; Nagase, Joji; Harada, Yoshitada

    1984-01-01

    Indication for the operative methods for cervical spondylotic myelopathy was examined in 16 patients undergoing CT-myelography before and after operation. There was a highly significant correlation between the anteroposterior (A-P) diameter of the spinal cord and clinical symptoms. Patients with shorter A-P diameter of the spinal cord tended to have severer preoperative clinical symptoms. Clinical symptoms improved as the post operative A-P diameter of the spinal cord increased. Fixation with decompression of the anterior spinal cord should be indicated when constriction of 5 mm or less of the spinal cord is seen segmentally at the level of the intervertebral disc. Dilation of the spinal cavity should be indicated when the constriction of the spinal cord is 5 mm or less at all levels of the cervical spinal cord. In performing fixation with anterior decompression, 15 mm is considered to be the most suitable width for complete and safe decompression of the flattened spinal cord with a wide transverse diameter. (Namekawa, K)

  6. MR imaging of spinal factors and compression of the spinal cord in cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Shoichi; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Minoru; Ishii, Sukenobu; Tani, Shotaro; Sato, Tetsuaki.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of surgical 109 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were retrospectively reviewed to examine whether MR imaging would replace conventional radiological procedures in determining spinal factors and spinal cord compression in this disease. MR imaging was useful in determining spondylotic herniation, continuous type of ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, and calcification of yellow ligament, probably replacing CT myelography, discography, and CT discography. When total defect of the subarachnoid space on T2-weighted images and block on myelograms were compared in determining spinal cord compression, the spinal cord was affected more extensively by 1.3 intervertebral distance (IVD) on T2-weighted images. When indentation of one third or more in anterior and posterior diameter of the spinal cord was used as spinal cord compression, the difference in the affected extension between myelography and MR imaging was 0.2 IVD on T1-weighted images and 0.6 IVD on T2-weighted images. However, when block was seen in 3 or more IVD on myelograms, the range of spinal cord compression tended to be larger on T1-weighted images. For a small range of spinal cord compression, T1-weighted imaging seems to be helpful in determining the range of decompression. When using T2-weighted imaging, the range of decompression becomes large, frequently including posterior decompression. (N.K.)

  7. Progress of research on activation function of NK cell exposed to low dose radiation in adoptive cellular immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaosong; Shi Yujia; Yao Yimin; Xu Hong; Liu Fenju

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer cells is an important immunological factor in killing malignant cells. Low dose radiation can enhance proliferation and biological activity of NK cell. The involvement of P38MAPK signal pathway and endogenous glutathione induced by LDR may be the probable mechanism. Natural killer cell, especially adherent natural killer cell, is the preferential choice for adoptive cellular immunotherapy, which has a remarkable foreground in malignancy therapy.(authors)

  8. Iso-effect table for radiation tolerance of the human spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.; Creditor, M.

    1981-01-01

    Available literature on radiation injury to the human spinal cord was collected into a comprehensive data set relating the incidence of myelopathy to dosage, number of fractions and total treatment time. The data was analyzed using a search program (RAD3) to derive best-fitting cell kinetic parameters on the assumption that radiation myelopathy arises from cellular depletion in the irradiated tissues. From these parameters iso-effect tables were constructed for a wide range of treatment schedules, including daily treatment as well as fractionation at longer intervals. The tables provide a set of limiting doses, above which the risk of radiation injury to the spinal cord becomes substantial. General application of NSD tolerance limits could lead to systematic overdosage of the spinal cord, especially with large individual fractions or short treatment times. We conclude that the computed iso-effect tables provide a more reliable clinical guide than conventional time-dose equations

  9. Radiation chemistry and mass spectrometry of volatile silanes and germanes. Progress report, June 1, 1975--August 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following studies: the hydrogen-atom initiated decomposition of monosilane; ion-molecule reactions in SiH 4 --D 2 mixtures; extensive redistribution of fluorine and hydrogen in the reaction of CF 3 + with SiH 4 ; direct detection of energy-rich complexes in the reactions of Si + , SiH + and SiH 3 + with benzene; ion-molecule reactions in SiH 4 --C 6 H 6 mixtures; reaction rate constants for the reactions of hydrogen atoms with some silanes, alkylsilanes, and germanes; and 60 Co radiolysis of SiH 4 --NO mixtures

  10. Research concerning ionic and free radical reactions in radiation chemistry. Progress report, September 15, 1976--September 15, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on ESR studies of fluorocarbon radicals and intermediate radicals. A detailed study was made of the dimethyl, diethyl, and di-n-propyl carbonates. Studies were continued on hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions at low temperatures with view to evaluating the contribution from quantum-mechanical tunneling. Detection of the transient dimer radical anion of acetonitrile in the upper crystalline phase at -50 0 C is reported. Abstracts of current reports are included on electron attachment to fluorocarbons hydrogen atom abstraction by methyl radicals. EPR spectra of the tetrafluoroethylene radical anion, and addition of tetrafluoroethylene to the tetrafluoroethylene radical anion

  11. Progress and results of the project ENETRAP II: European network of education and training in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, M.; Llorente Herranz, C.; Coeck, M.; Livosi, P.; Massiot, P.; Moebius, S.

    2013-01-01

    The CIEMAT has participated in a number of working groups and has led the WP 6 for the creation of a database of events of specific training the RPE and the RPO taking into account aspects developed in schemes of defined training. The database includes providers and job training opportunities. Is a tool that will serve as a mechanism for comparison with established standards of training in the project.The project has made great progress in the implementation of the new directive at European level. (Author)

  12. Measuring radiation damage dynamics by pulsed ion beam irradiation. 2015 Annual Progress Report for DOE/NE/NEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheyev, S. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The major goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a novel experimental approach to access the dynamic regime of radiation damage formation processes in nuclear materials. In particular, the project exploits a pulsed-ion-beam method in order to gain insight into defect interaction dynamics by measuring effective defect interaction time constants and defect diffusion lengths. For Year 2, this project had the following two major milestones: (i) measurement of the temperature dependence of defect dynamics in SiC and (ii) the evaluation of the robustness of the pulsed beam method from studies of the defect generation rate. As we describe below, both of these milestones have been met.

  13. Biological dosimeter for cellular damage and repair by ionizing radiation. Final technical progress report, May 1, 1993 - April 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cress, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have investigated the alteration of chromatin domains in Human T and B cells after ionizing radiation using three DNA specific dyes, Feulgen, Hoechst and 7-amino actinomycin D. Characterization and differentiation of T and B cells was accomplished using only 4 of a possible 32 image features with the CAS and Quaritex QX7 Digital Image Systems. Human B and T cells were irradiated with 1, 5 and 10 Gy and analyzed during a 1.5 hour recovery period. The chosen features detect a dose dependent change in DNA domains which can be observed as early as 1.5 hours after a 1Gv exposure. The results suggest that the ability of DNA specific dyes to stain chromatin can be used as an early sensitive indicator of DNA damage. The observed alteration of chromatin staining suggests that chromatin structure does observably change in a significant manner during a DNA repair interval. Since these alteration can be detected with DNA specific dyes that stain both AT rich, GC rich or total DNA, these data suggest that a global alteration of the chromatin is occurring after exposure to ionizing radiation

  14. Radiation-dose estimates and hazard evaluations for inhaled airborne radionuclides. Annual progress report, July 1981-June 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The objective was to conduct confirmatory research on aerosol characteristics and the resulting radiation dose distribution in animals following inhalation and to provide prediction of health consequences in humans due to airborne radioactivity which might be released in normal operations or under accident conditions during production of nuclear fuel composed of mixed oxides of U and Pu. Four research reports summarize the results of specific areas of research. The first paper details development of a method for determination of specific surface area of small samples of mixed oxide or pure PuO 2 particles. The second paper details the extension of the biomathematical model previously used to describe retention, distribution and excretion of Pu from these mixed oxide aerosols to include a description of Am and U components of these aerosols. The third paper summarizes the biological responses observed in radiation dose pattern studies in which dogs, monkeys and rate received inhalation exposures to either 750 0 C heat treated UO 2 + PuO 2 , 1750 0 C heat-treated (U,Pu)O 2 or 850 0 C heat-treated pure PuO 2 . The fourth paper described dose-response studies in which rats were exposed to (U,Pu)O 2 or pure PuO 2 . This paper updates earlier reports and summarizes the status of animals through approximately 650 days after inhalation

  15. Nature of oxygen containing radicals in radiation chemistry and photochemistry of aqueous solutions. Annual progress report, September 1978--July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czapski, G.

    1979-01-01

    The proposed research is a continuation of the work conducted under this contract and is outlined. During this year, the main emphasis will be given to study further the properties of HO 2 and O 2 - and OH, mainly in their role in biological systems. We will continue to study and elucidate how O 2 - reacts in biological systems. The toxicity of O 2 - is quite well established, but the mechanism is still obscure. The Haber Weiss reaction most probably can not account for the toxicity of O 2 - nor for the formation of singlet oxygen, nor of OH. We will study if reduction of Fe 3+ complexes by O 2 - in biological systems does catalyze the Haber Weiss reaction and if OH is formed in this mechanism. The role of oxygen, radiosensitizers in radiation damage of bacteriophages and cells will be further studied, as well as on E. Coli and Enzymes. We will try to elucidate the formation and role of OH, O 2 - and O 2 in these systems as well as the relative contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage, and the role of direct and indirect radiation damage to cells. We intend also to study if SOD (super oxide dismutase) does react only with O 2 - or also with biological peroxides (RO 2 ) and Hydroperoxides (RO 2 H). Further studies of O 2 - and O 2 with various cytochromes, and hemoglobins is planned

  16. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  17. Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Ferguson, J.L.; Mulvihill, M.A.; Nemeth, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to X-rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. Here we report how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The brains of experimental animals received a fractionated dose of X rays (13 Gy total) over postnatal days 1 to 16 and control animals were sham-irradiated. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. This irradiation effect was significant during all test series. Moreover, in time, spontaneous perseverative turning was significantly potentiated in rats with hippocampal damage but increased only slightly in controls. Early radiation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured

  18. The IRSN's scientific strategy for the progress of nuclear safety, nuclear security and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication defines the new strategy of the IRSN to fulfil its role in nuclear safety, in the protection of mankind and of the environment against ionizing radiations, and in the protection of nuclear materials, installations and transports against malevolent acts. The IRSN is also involved in public information, and as an actor and a partner in the definition of other major public policies such as research and innovation, work health or environmental health. In a first part, the report highlights these missions, the current evolution of the international scientific, technological and economic context, and briefly evokes the major scientific challenges for the next decade. The second part highlights the abilities and capacities of the IRSN to support scientific approaches and works. The main orientations are then formulated and commented: to justify scientific orientation backgrounds and means to assign, to associate final recipients to research works, to implement initiatives to develop national, European and international cooperation in the field of nuclear and radiological risks, to develop academic partnerships and to participate to national research alliances, to develop collaboration with industries, nuclear operators and actors of the medical sector, to possess tools to perform numeric simulation, to guarantee the access for the Institute to research and experimentation infrastructures and data bases, to develop methodologies and tools for aid to decision, to perpetuate knowledge and know-how for a better renewal of risk assessment. The report then presents the main questions of interest regarding radiation protection and nuclear safety

  19. Progress in the development of the DTMROC time measurement chip for the ATLAS transition radiation tracker (TRT)

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, C; Dressnandt, N; Ekenberg, T; Farthouat, Philippe; Keener, P T; Lam, N; La Marra, D; Mann, J; Newcomer, F M; Ryzhov, V; Söderberg, M; Szczygiel, R; Van Berg, R; Williams, H H

    2001-01-01

    A 16-channel digital time-measurement readout chip (DTMROC) has been fabricated in the TEMIC/DM1LL left bracket 1 right bracket BI- CMOS radiation-hard process for the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) Transition Radiation Tracker (ATLAS/TRT) at CERN left bracket 2 right bracket . The chip receives discriminated straw-drift-tube signals from bipolar amplifier-shaper-discriminator chips (ASDBLR). measures the arrival time in 3.125 ns increments ( plus or minus 1 ns), and stores the data in a pipeline for 3.3mus. A trigger signal (L1A) causes the data to be tagged with a time stamp and stored for readout- Up to 13 events may be stored in an on-chip buffer while data is being clocked out in a 40 MHz serial stream. The chip has been designed to function after exposure to 1x10**1**4 protons/cm**2 and 1 Mrad total dose. System beam-tests have demonstrated measurement of track positions with a resolution of 165mum and 85% efficiency at rates up to 18MHz. 6 Refs.

  20. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratella, Marco; Forlani, Greta; Raval, Goutham U; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Tosi, Giovanna; Accolla, Roberto S

    2017-01-01

    HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection.

  1. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Baratella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL, and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection.

  2. Degenerative myelopathy in German Shepherd Dog: comparison of two molecular assays for the identification of the SOD1:c.118G>A mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Spalenza, Veronica; Biasibetti, Elena; Bottero, Maria Teresa; Rasero, Roberto; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Sacchi, Paola

    2014-02-01

    Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a late-onset, slowly progressive degeneration of spinal cord white matter which is reported primarily in large breed dogs. The missense mutation SOD1:c.118G>A is associated with this pathology in several dog breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog (GSD). The aims of the present study were to develop a tool for the rapid screening of the SOD1 mutation site in dogs and to evaluate the association of the polymorphism with DM in the German Shepherd breed. Two different techniques were compared: a minisequencing test and a real-time pcr allelic discrimination assay. Both approaches resulted effective and efficient. A sample of 47 dogs were examined. Ten subjects presented the symptoms of the illness; for one of them the diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem investigations and it resulted to be an A/A homozygote. In another clinically suspected dog, heterozygote A/G, the histopathological examination of the medulla showed moderate axon and myelin degenerative changes. GSD shows a frequency of the mutant allele equal to 0.17, quite high being a high-risk allele. Because canine DM has a late onset in adulthood and homozygous mutant dogs are likely as fertile as other genotypes, the natural selection is mild and the mutant allele may reach high frequencies. A diagnostic test, easy to implement, may contribute to control the gene diffusion in populations. The SOD1:c.118G>A mutation could be a useful marker for breeding strategies intending to reduce the incidence of DM.

  3. Is there a benefit to operating on patients (bedridden or in wheelchairs) with advanced stage cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardino, Fabrizio Borges; Rocha, Leonardo Poubel; Barcelos, Alécio Cristino Evangelista Santos; Rotta, José Marcus; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira

    2010-05-01

    Surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) aims to prevent or delay the progression of the disease. Many patients are diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease, presenting severe functional disability and extensive radiologic changes, which suggests clinical irreversibility. There are doubts about the real benefit of surgery in patients who are seriously ill, bedridden or in a wheelchair. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of surgical treatment in the clinical outcomes of patients severely affected by CSM. We analyzed patients with CSM who received an operation at a single institution between 1996 and 2008. Cases with a preoperative Nurick score equal to 5 were studied. We describe postoperative clinical improvement and compare the demographics and clinical data between the patients who improved and those who had no improvement. Radiological findings were also analyzed. We evaluated 55 patients operated on. Nine presented with preoperative Nurick score of 5 (16.3%). The mean age was 69.77 +/- 6.6 years (95% CI 64.65-79.90). The mean follow-up was 53.44 +/- 35.09 months (CI 26.46-80.42). Six patients (66.6%) achieved functional improvement when assessed by the Nurick scale, regaining the ability to walk. All patients improved on the JOAm scale, except one. The mean preoperative Nurick score was 5, while the mean postoperative Nurick score was 4.11 +/- 0.92 (95% CI 3.39-4.82) (Wilcoxon p = 0.027). The mean preoperative JOAm score was 6.4, and postoperative was 9.88 +/- 2.31 (CI 95% 8.10-11.66) (Wilcoxon p = 0.011). All spinal cords presented high-intensity signal on T2-weighted images. There was no correlation between the number of spinal cord high-intensity signal levels and clinical improvement. Three out of seven patients (whose image was adequate for analysis) had evident spinal cord atrophy, and two of them did not improve clinically. In the whole sample of patients, the mean length of disease for those who improved was 9

  4. A study on the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyooka, Satoshi

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) images of the cervical compressive myelopathy. It was also meant to serve as a review of clinical symptoms and an investigation of the usefulness of MRI. Comparative studies were carried out on 110 cases concerning the shape and signal intensity of the spinal cord, anterior epidural venous plexus MR images and clinical symptoms. The shape of the spinal cord and pre- and post-surgical conditions revealed by MRI correlated with clinical symptoms. As for the signal intensity of the spinal cord, in cases in which both high (T2-weighted image) and low (T1-weighted image) signals detected prior to surgery continued after surgery, as well as cases with high and low signals appearing after surgery, had the lower improvement than average. Low signal intensity on T1-weighted images are assumed to indicate irreversible changes of the spinal cord. High signal intensity on T2-weighted images is assumed to indicate both reversible and irreversible changes of the spinal cord. Epidural venous plexus can also be observed in healthy people and is not directly bound to clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, changes in the shape of the epidural venous plexus and signal intensity can reflect venous plexus compression and circulatory changes caused by compression. In the application of MRI to cervical compressive myelopathies, images of changes in the shape and signal intensity of the spinal cord and anterior epidural venous plexus images were considered important observations linked to clinical symptoms. MRI is an essential non-invasive imaging technique for the diagnosis of cervical compressive myelopathy, estimation of prognosis and postoperative follow-up. More investigations of compressive factors, circulatory dynamics of the spinal cord and high quality image are necessary. (author)

  5. Comment on “Recent progress in thermodynamics of radiation——exergy of radiation,effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Chen et al.proposed the concepts of effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon in a recent paper [Chen Z S,Mo S P,Hu P.Recent progress in thermodynamics of radiation―exergy of radiation,effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon.Sci China Ser E-Tech Sci,2008,51(8):1096―1109] by enduing a single photon with macroscale thermodynamic parameters such as exergy and entropy.This paper argues that applying these concepts and their inferences to macro-scale thermodynamic system will lead to the results which conflict with macroscale thermodynamic laws.This means that the concepts of effective temperature of photon and entropy constant of photon are not correct.

  6. Experimental study of very low frequency radiation of the loop antenna installed aboard the Mir-Progress-28-Soyuz TM-2 orbital complex in the Earth ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armand, N.A.; Semenov, Yu.P.; Chertok, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    The cosmic experiment on studying electromagnetic waves of very low frequency (VLF) (5kHz) in the Earth ionosphere, using two loop antennas, each 20 m in diameter, unfolded aboard the Progress-28 cargoship, and a reception of these waves aboard the Mir orbital station is carried out for the first time from the 26th to 28th of March, 1987. Characteristics of such antennas in the ionosphere are invesigated experimentally; VLF signal recording at distances from 1 to 40 km from the radiation is carried out. The reactance of the electrically small loop antenna in the ionospheric plasma under conditions of the experiment out (the antenna current does not exceed 80A) is established to have practically no difference from the reactance in free space. Analysis of experimental data obtained has shown that they agree satsfactorily with the results of calculations carried out on the basis of the linear theory for a cold plasma model

  7. Cetuximab, bevacizumab, and irinotecan for patients with primary glioblastoma and progression after radiation therapy and temozolomide: a phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Benedikte; Lassen, Ulrik; Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2010-01-01

    complete responses and 9 patients had partial responses. The 6-month progression-free survival probability was 30% and median overall survival was 29 weeks (95% CI: 23-37 weeks). One patient had lacunar infarction, 1 patient had multiple pulmonary embolisms, and 3 patients had grade 3 skin toxicity......, for which 1 patient needed plastic surgery. One patient was excluded due to suspicion of interstitial lung disease. Three patients had deep-vein thrombosis; all continued on study after adequate treatment. Cetuximab in combination with bevacizumab and irinotecan in recurrent GBM is well tolerated except...... for skin toxicity, with an encouraging response rate. However, the efficacy data do not seem to be superior compared with results with bevacizumab and irinotecan alone....

  8. Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Olufemi Adeleye, A; Olusola Akinyemi, R

    2010-01-01

    An otherwise-healthy, active 83-year-old Nigerian man developed reversible central cord myelopathy from a mild fall on a level surface. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed C5, 6, and 7 block vertebrae and marked disc extrusions only at the immediately adjoining upper and lower non-fused segments of the cervical spine. There was no spinal canal stenosis otherwise. We think that the unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression th...

  9. Radiation effects on organic insulators for superconducting magnets. Annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernohan, R.H.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Long, C.J.

    1979-03-01

    Postirradiation tests on specimens irradiated at 4.9 0 K to a dose of 2 x 10 8 rads showed no significant changes. The details of the materials involved, specimen preparation, testing procedures, and the in-situ results of electrical-resistiity measurements were given previously. A similar experiment, but for a ten-times-greater dose (2 x 10 9 rads) at the same irradiation temperature, was performed during fiscal year 1978. Improved specimen-preparation and testing techniques were used, and some significant changes in physical properties were observed. These changes tend to restrict the use of some of these materials. Radiation-induced gaseous-breakdown products were analyzed and found to contain principally H 2 but also other inorganic and organic compounds

  10. Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation: A Thought Experiment Refuting Kirchhoff's Law (Letters to Progress in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission demands that all cavities contain blackbody, or normal, radiation which is dependent solely on the temperature and the frequency of observation, while remaining independent of the nature of t he enclosure. For over 150 years, this law has stood as a great pillar for those who believe that gaseous stars could emit a blackbody spectrum. However, it is well-known that, u nder laboratory condi- tions, gases emit in bands and cannot produce a thermal spectrum. Furthermore, all laboratory blackbodies are constructed from nearly ideal a bsorbers. This fact strongly opposes the validity of Kirchhoff’s formulation. Clearly, if Kirchhoff had been correct, then laboratory blackbodies could be constructed of any arbitrary material. Through the use of two cavities in temperature equilibrium with one another, a thought experiment is presented herein which soundly refutes Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission.

  11. Radiation dose estimates and hazard evaluations for inhaled airborne radionuclides. Annual progress report, July 1980-June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.

    1982-04-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct confirmatory research on aerosol characteristics and the resulting radiation dose distribution in animals following inhalation and to provide prediction of health consequences in humans due to airborne radioactivity which might be released in normal operations or under accident conditions during production of nuclear fuel composed of mixed oxides of U and Pu. Four research reports summarize the results of specific areas of research being conducted. The first presents final results for several types of physical chemical characterization accomplished on samples of aerosols collected at an industrial facility during normal fabrication of mixed oxide fuel. Many of these characterizations were also done on aerosol samples collected during animal inhalation exposure procedures for biological studies using these aerosol materials. The second paper reports on the methods development process used for establishing a capability for measurement of the specific surface area of aerosols, an important determinant in the rate of dissolution of particulates deposited in lung. The third paper provides updated information on the retention, distribution and excretion of Pu after inhalation by Beagles of aerosols of either 750 0 C treated UO 2 + PuO 2 , 1750 0 C treated (U,Pu)O 2 or 850 0 C treated pure PuO 2 . This paper also reports the results of the formulation of a biomathematical model useful in describing the results of these three inhalation studies. The fourth paper describes the early results from two studies in which Fischer-344 rats received inhalation exposure to aerosols of (U,Pu)O 2 or pure PuO 2 to determine the relationship of radiation dose to biological response

  12. Nature of oxygen containing radicals in radiation chemistry and photochemistry of aqueous solutions. Annual progress report, September 1979-July 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czapski, G.

    1980-01-01

    During this year, emphasis will be given on the properties of HO 2 and O 2 - and OH, mainly in their role in biological systems. We will continue to study and elucidate how O 2 - reacts in biological systems. The toxicity of O 2 - is quite well established but the mechanism is still obscure. One way O 2 - is toxic is that OH is formed from O 2 - through reduction of Fe 3+ , and subsequently the reaction of Fe 2+ with H 2 O 2 (Fenton reaction). This mechanism is sometimes called the Haber Weiss Reaction. We will study if reduction of Fe 3+ complexes by O 2 - in biological systems does catalyze the Haber Weiss reaction and if OH is formed in this mechanism. The role of oxygen, radiosensitizers in radiation damage of bacteriophages and cells will be further studied, as well as on E. coli and enzymes. Use of different mutants, such as ones with repair deficiencies, or others which are deficient in glutathione will help to elucidate the role of O 2 - and O 2 toxicity. We will try to elucidate the formation and role of OH, O 2 - and O 2 in these systems as well as the relative contribution of endogenous and exogenous damage, and the role of direct and indirect radiation damage to cells. As there is some doubt how and if SOD protects cells from irradiation as literature results show lots of conflict, we will try to clear this point, in studies with E. coli mutants, and adding SOD endogenously and exogenously. We also intend to study if SOD (super oxide dismutase) does react only with O 2 - or also with biological peroxides (RO 2 ) and hydroperoxides (RO 2 H). Further studies of O 2 - and O 2 with various cytochromes, and hemoglobins is planned

  13. Effects of low dose radiation on tumor apoptosis, cell cycle progression and changes of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Fei Conghe; Shen Fangzhen; Liang Jun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on tumor apoptosis, cell cycle progression and changes of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 in tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Kunming stain male mice were implanted with S180 sarcoma cells in the left inguen subcutaneously as an in situ experimental animal model. Seven days after implantation, the mice were given 75 mGy whole-body γ-irradiation. At 24 and 48 h after irradiation, all mice were sacrificed to measure the tumor volume, and tumor cell apoptosis, cell cycle progression were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 and the apoptotic rate of tumor cells were observed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Results: Tumor growth was significantly slowed down after LDR (P 1 phase and the expression of bcl-2 protein decreased at 24 h. Apoptotic rate of tumor cells increased significantly at 48 h after LDR. Conclusion: LDR could cause a G 1 -phase arrest and increase the apoptosis of tumor cells through the low level of apoptosis-related protein bcl-2 in the tumor-bearing mice. The organized immune function and anti-tumor ability are markedly increased after LDR. The study provides practical evidence of clinical application to cancer treatment

  14. Cell kinetics of hypoxic cells in a murine tumour in vivo: flow cytometric determination of the radiation-induced blockage of cell cycle progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutgers, D.H.; Niessen, D.P.P.; Linden, P.M. van der

    1987-01-01

    Cells from the small cell population of viable cells in the large necrotic centre of murine M8013 tumours were investigated with respect to their cell kinetics. Flow cytometry (FCM) of this part of subcutaneously transplanted tumours revealed the presence of tumour cells with G1,S and G2 + M phase DNA-contents. These severely hypoxic cells could have stopped cell cycle progression due to the nutritional deprivation, irrespective of their position within the cell cycle. Labelling methods, used to disclose the cell kinetics of this cell population, are hampered by the absence of a transport system in these large necrotic areas. Therefore FCM was used to monitor radiation induced changes in the cell cycle distribution. From this investigation it was concluded that hypoxic cells in the necrotic centre of the M8013 tumour progress through the cell cycle. As well as a cell population with a cell cycle time (Tsub(c)) of approximately 84 hr, a subpopulation with a Tsub(c) of approximately 21 hr occurred. (author)

  15. C3-6 laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy maintains satisfactory long-term surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3-6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2-7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2-7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2-7 angle after surgery.

  16. C3–6 Laminoplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Maintains Satisfactory Long-Term Surgical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3–6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3–6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2–7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2–7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3–6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2–7 angle after surgery. PMID:25083358

  17. Clinical report of cervical arthroplasty in management of spondylotic myelopathy in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ning

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate clinical effects and manual operational point of Bryan cervical disc prosthesis in Chinese, to observe the stability and range of movement (ROM post-operatively. Methods and materials From 2003,12 to 2005,12, Bryan disc prosthesis replacement applied in 83 cases (102 levels of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM after anterior decompression in our hospital. Clinical (JOA grade and Odom's scale and radiological (X-ray of flexion, extension; left and right bending position follow-up was performed. Systemic radiographic study about stability and ROM of replaced level post operationally were measured. CT or MRI scans were applied in all cases to evaluate the signs of the prosthesis deflexion and hetero-ossification in the replaced levels. Results At least 12 months follow-up were done in 65/83 of these paients. All of 83 patients were improved according to Odsm's scale. JOA score increased from average 8.7 to 15.5. There was no prosthesis subsidence. Replaced segment achieved stability and restored partial of normal ROM 4.73°(3.7°–5.9° early postoperation and 8.12°(5.8°–13.6° more than 12 months postoperation in flex and extension position. No obvious loss of lordosis was found. CT or MRI follow-up shows position deflexion of the prosthesis metal endplates ( Conclusion Byran cervical disc prosthesis restored motion to the level of the intact segment in flexion-extension and lateral bending in post-operative images. At the same time, it can achieve good anterior decompression treatment effect and immediate stability in replaced 1 or 2 levels, and which is a new choice for the treatment of CSM.

  18. Long term results of anterior corpectomy and fusion for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results showed good clinical outcomes of anterior corpectomy and fusion (ACCF for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM during a short term follow-up; however, studies assessing long term results are relatively scarce. In this study we intended to assess the long term clinical and radiographic outcomes, find out the factors that may affect the long term clinical outcome and evaluate the incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 145 consecutive CSM patients on ACCF treatment with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Clinical data were collected from medical and operative records. Patients were evaluated by using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA scoring system preoperatively and during the follow-up. X-rays results of cervical spine were obtained from all patients. Correlations between the long term clinical outcome and various factors were also analyzed. FINDINGS: Ninety-three males and fifty-two females completed the follow-up. The mean age at operation was 51.0 years, and the mean follow-up period was 102.1 months. Both postoperative sagittal segmental alignment (SSA and the sagittal alignment of the whole cervical spine (SACS increased significantly in terms of cervical lordosis. The mean increase of JOA was 3.8 ± 1.3 postoperatively, and the overall recovery rate was 62.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative duration of symptoms >12 months, high-intensity signal in spinal cord and preoperative JOA score ≤ 9 were important predictors of the fair recovery rate (≤ 50%. Repeated surgery due to ASD was performed in 7 (4.8% cases. CONCLUSIONS: ACCF with anterior plate fixation is a reliable and effective method for treating CSM in terms of JOA score and the recovery rate. The correction of cervical alignment and the repeated surgery rate for ASD are also considered to be satisfactory.

  19. Cortical Reorganization Is Associated with Surgical Decompression of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Green

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM results in sensorimotor limb deficits, bladder, and bowel dysfunction, but mechanisms underlying motor plasticity changes before and after surgery are unclear. Methods. We studied 24 patients who underwent decompression surgery and 15 healthy controls. Patients with mixed upper and lower limb dysfunction (Group A and only lower limb dysfunction (Group B were then analysed separately. Results. The sum amplitude of motor evoked potentials sMEP (p<0.01 and number of focal points where MEPs were elicited (N (p<0.001 were significantly larger in CSM patients compared with controls. For Group A (16 patients, sMEP (p<0.01 and N (p<0.001 showed similar findings. However, for Group B (8 patients, only N (p=0.03 was significantly larger in patients than controls. Group A had significantly increased grip strength (p=0.02 and reduced sMEP (p=0.001 and N (p=0.003 after surgery. Changes in sMEP (cMEP significantly correlated inversely with improved feeding (p=0.03 and stacking (p=0.04 times as was the change in number of focal points (NDiff with improved writing times (p=0.03. Group B did not show significant reduction in sMEP or N after surgery, or significant correlation of cMEP or NDiff with all hand function tests. No significant differences in H reflex parameters obtained from the flexor carpi radialis, or central motor conduction time changes, were noted after surgery. Discussion. Compensatory expansion of motor cortical representation occurs largely at cortical rather than spinal levels, with a tendency to normalization after surgery. These mirrored improvements in relevant tasks requiring utilization of intrinsic hand muscles.

  20. Anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis of the cervical spine in cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Motohiro; Tani, Toshikazu; Ushida, Takahiro; Ishida, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine has received insufficient attention in contrast to that of the lumbar spine. The authors analyzed the functional significance of anterior and posterior degenerative spondylolisthesis (anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis) of the cervical spine to elucidate its role in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in the elderly. A total of 79 patients aged 65 or older who eventually had surgical treatment for CSM were evaluated radiographically. Altogether, 24 patients (30%) had displacement of 3.5 mm or more (severe spondylolisthesis group), 31 had displacement of 2.0-3.4 mm (moderate spondylolisthesis group), and 24 had less than 2.0 mm displacement (mild spondylolisthesis group). The severe spondylolisthesis group consisted of 14 patients with anterolisthesis (anterolisthesis group) and 10 patients with retrolisthesis (retrolisthesis group). Patients with severe spondylolisthesis had a high incidence (93%) of degenerative spondylolisthesis at C3/4 or C4/5 and significantly greater cervical mobility than those with mild spondylolisthesis. The anterolisthesis group, but not the retrolisthesis group, had a significantly wider spinal canal than the mild spondylolisthesis group, although the degree of horizontal displacement and cervical mobility did not differ significantly between the anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis groups. Severe cord compression seen on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and high-intensity spinal cord signals seen on T2-weighted MRI scans corresponded significantly to the levels of the spondylolisthesis. Degenerative spondylolisthesis is not a rare radiographic finding in elderly patients with CSM, which tends to cause intense cord compression that is seen on MRI scans. Greater mobility of the upper cervical segments may be a compensatory reaction for advanced disc degeneration of the lower cervical segments, leading to the development of degenerative

  1. The effect of 2-[(aminopropyl)amino] ethanethiol (WR 1065) on radiation-induced DNA damage and repair and cell progression in V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grdina, D.J.; Nagy, B.

    1986-01-01

    The radioprotector 2-[(aminopropyl)amino] ethanethiol (WR 1065) was investigated with respect to its ability to affect radiation-induced DNA damage and repair in V79 cells. At a concentration of 4mM, WR 1065 protected against the formation of single strand breaks (SSB), when present during irradiation. The protector appeared, however, to inhibit the subsequent postirradiation repair or rejoining of SSB. While repair was complete within 24h, the protector reduced the rate of repair by a factor of 3. This inhibitory effect on the rate of repair did not correlate with either measured differences in cell survival or mutagenesis. WR 1065 present in the growth medium inhibited the progression of cells through S-phase, and cell-doubling time following a 3h exposure to the protector was increased from 11 to 18h. These data are consistent with the property of thiols to inhibit DNA polymerase activity. It was concluded that, while the presence of WR 1065 during irradiation reduced SSB-DNA damage, its effect on the subsequent rejoining of these breaks could not be correlated with its observed effect on protecting against radiation-induced mutagenesis. (author)

  2. Genetic engineering of a radiation-resistant bacterium for biodegradation of mixed wastes. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstrom, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    'Because of their tolerance to very high levels of ionizing radiation, members of the genus Deinococcus have received considerable attention over the past years. The type species of the genus, Deinococcus radiodurans, has been studied extensively in several labs. Although researchers are only beginning to understand the mechanisms by which this Gram-positive bacterium is able to repair massive DNA damage after radiation dosages as high as 5 Mrad, it has become evident that its recombination machinery has several unique characteristics (1--4). The aim of the present studies is to engineer D. radiodurans into a detoxifier for bioremediation of complex waste mixtures, containing heavy metals, halo-organics and radionuclides, making use of its ability to be biologically active in environments where they will be exposed to high levels of radiation. For that purpose, the authors aim to clone and express several broad spectrum oxygenases and heavy metal resistance determinants, and test survival and activities of these strains in artificial mixtures of contaminants, designed to simulate DOE mixed waste streams. This report summarizes work after 0.5 year of a 3-year project. The initial studies have focused on the development of an insertional expression system for D. radiodurans R1. This effort has involved two parts, namely: (1) promoter analysis, and (2) development of insertion systems. Several studies have shown that the expression signals used by D. radiodurans differ considerably from those found in other bacteria. Although D. radiodurans contains a typical eubacterial RNA polymerase core enzyme (based on TBLASTN searches on the genome sequence), Escherichia coli promoters are not recognized in D. radiodurans and vice versa (5). To expand the basic understanding of the requirements for transcription, and to optimize expression of (heterologous) genes, they will follow two strategies. First, a promoter-probe vector is being developed for the selection of promoter

  3. Twenty five years of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine - progress and priorities for future of radiation medicine and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, D

    2017-12-01

    , the addi tional departments of oncology and chemotherapy were equipped and started activities, databases of cancer cases in exposed population and separate groups of exposed were introduced, as well as an international database of radiation injuries. The Clinical and Epidemiological registry of the NRCRM is in function and developed. An adapta tion of research directions with a respect to the pathomorphosis of radiation induced diseases in the remote period after irradiation will continue.Performed complex studies of the effects of incorporation of 131I on the fetus and the next gen eration of experimental animals became important for understanding the mechanisms of formation of radiation effects. Introduction of new foodstuffs and supplements with radiation protective proper ties was of positive effect for population protection during the first years.In the area of dosimetry a substantial progress has been achieved in reconstruction of thyroid doses in the Ukrainian population, dosimetric passportisation of settlements, radiochemistry, the creation of new methods for reconstructive dosimetry for cleanup workers - SEAD, RADRUE, and ROCKVILLE. All developments are implemented to practice, tens of thousands of doses have been restored. International recognition has received for the method of in utero doses reconstruction. As editor in chief, I regard it successful to incorporate our bilingual edition «Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology» into the NCBI MedLine, SCOPUS and other data bases, that creates an unique opportunity to widely disseminate results of the Center's research.Strategies for the future. Ukraine belongs to countries with a priority development of nuclear energy. Even with the increase in the production of clean energy, there is no other way than the further deployment of a complete nuclear fuel cycle and energy industrial complex, the expansion of the nuclear technologies to all sectors of the economy.The main potential threats to radiation

  4. An evaluation of the various aspects of the progress in clinical applications of laser driven ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideghéty, K.; Szabó, E. R.; Polanek, R.; Szabó, Z.; Ughy, B.; Brunner, S.; Tőkés, T.

    2017-03-01

    There has been a vast development of laser-driven particle acceleration (LDPA) using high power lasers. This has initiated by the radiation oncology community to use the dose distribution and biological advantages of proton/heavy ion therapy in cancer treatment with a much greater accessibility than currently possible with cyclotron/synchrotron acceleration. Up to now, preclinical experiments have only been performed at a few LDPA facilities; technical solutions for clinical LDPA have been theoretically developed but there is still a long way to go for the clinical introduction of LDPA. Therefore, to explore the further potential bio-medical advantages of LDPA has pronounced importance. The main characteristics of LDPA are the ultra-high beam intensity, the flexibility in beam size reduction and the potential particle and energy selection whilst conventional accelerators generate single particle, quasi mono-energetic beams. There is a growing number of studies on the potential advantages and applications of Energy Modulated X-ray Radiotherapy, Modulated Electron Radiotherapy and Very High Energy Electron (VHEE) delivery system. Furthermore, the ultra-high space and/or time resolution of super-intense beams are under intensive investigation at synchrotrons (microbeam radiation and very high dose rate (> 40 Gy/s) electron accelerator flash irradiation) with growing evidence of significant improvement of the therapeutic index. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is an advanced cell targeted binary treatment modality. Because of the high linear energy transfer (LET) of the two particles (7Li and 4He) released by 10BNC reaction, all of the energy is deposited inside the tumour cells, killing them with high probability, while the neighbouring cells are not damaged. The limited availability of appropriate neutron sources, prevent the more extensive exploration of clinical benefit of BNCT. Another boron-based novel binary approach is the 11B-Proton Fusion, which result in

  5. Radiation and chemical effects on viral transformation and tumor antigen expression. Annual progress report, August 1, 1978--May 1, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Studies aimed at the biological, biochemical, and immunologic characterization of fetal antigens (EA) in hamsters and mice and locating and determining the distribution of fetal antigens in tumor tissues and in developing fetuses have been underway for several months. Progress has been made in isolating embryonic or fetal antigens from fetuses and from tumor cells. We have developed and reported a reliable lymphocyte transformation assay (LTA) which meets our needs in routinely assaying cell free tumor associated antigen (TAA) preparations from fetal and tumor cells. The assay correlated with transplantation resistance assays and has appropriate specificity. We have also developed the staph-A protein binding assay utilizing anti-serum derived against embryonic antigens present on SV40 tumor cells. In other studies, we have reported increases and perturbations in thymocytes during viral and chemical oncogenesis in hamsters, have developed a simple technique for preserving functional lymphocytes sensitized against TAA by freezing for use in our model system work, have reported the cross-reactivity of tranplantation resistance antigen on a spectrum of chemically induced tumors previously believed to only contain individually specific TSTAs and have recently reported the cross-reactivity of papovavirus induced transplantation resistance antigen in sarcoma cells induced by different viruses. We have concluded our studies of glycosyltransferases in the membranes of developing fetuses and noted no differences in their levels with advancing days of gestation using whold embryo cell populations

  6. Theoretical studies of the heating of toroidal plasmas with radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Progress report, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.; Wersinger, J.M.; Hanson, J.D.

    1986-04-01

    Progress is reported in several areas of interest to rf heating of plasmas. (1) The continuing improvement of the ray-tracing code includes improved speed and accuracy. The development of a complex ray-tracing code is largely implemented. This allows the following of rays through regions where normal ray-tracing methods fail. (2) A major contribution is in the area of parametric instabilities, and a way to minimize their effect on the lower hybrid waves. By following a bundle of rays and evaluating the growth rate for the most rapidly growing waves at each point, the daughter waves have been followed to the point where pump depletion begins to be important. (3) The continuing study of mode conversion problems has taken several directions. It has been shown that ion absorption of lower hybrid rays frequently involves cases where three types of waves are coupled through linear mode conversion in the same region of space, namely the cold lower hybrid wave, the warm lower hybrid wave, and an ion Bernstein mode. This three wave coupling problem is analyzed analytically in terms of a sixth order wave equation which describes coupling between all branches, but the analytical model may not adequately represent the physical problem. Numerical methods have been compared in terms of accuracy, and the comparisons show some touted methods to be useful only in very restricted ranges of parameter space. Finally, a method of reducing the order of the differential equations in mode conversion problems is described which is exact

  7. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--March 31, 1976. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    In experiments with haploid and diploid derivatives from the haploid frog embryo cell line ICR 2A, we have investigated aspects of cell survival, DNA repair and mutant induction after exposure to 254 nm radiation. Survival curves for haploid and diploid cells in random growth or blocked in the Gl phase of the cell cycle were determined; the survival data do not differ sufficiently to permit the use of such comparisons as an index of recessive lethal induction. Studies of the induction of thymine dimers in DNA indicated that the incidence of dimers in DNA from haploid and diploid cells is similar after exposure of the cells to equal doses of ultraviolet. The cells are capable of photoreversing dimers but appear to be deficient in excision repair. In an attempt to examine the effect of the permitted mode of DNA repair on the yield of mutations, we compared the incidence of ouabain-resistant variants among survivors of ultraviolet exposure and of ultraviolet exposure followed by photoreversal. Although the yield of resistant colonies was small, the data suggest that photoreversal lowers the yield of resistant colonies and thus that the induction of this phenotype is related to dimer persistence in DNA. We have also observed by fluorescence microscopy that an acridine mustard mutagen, ICR 191, is preferentially accumulated in cytoplasmic granules having the intracellular distribution pattern of lysosomes. This form of incorporation may be significant in the apparently non-genetic early toxicity of this compound observed in experiments with cultured cells.

  8. Biological effects of ionizing radiation at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Progress report, October 15, 1978-October 14, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, C.S.

    1981-06-01

    Two major accomplishments have been achieved in the past three years with the support of this contract. Firstly, the original Zimm theory of rotor speed dependent DNA sedimentation has been tested quantitatively and found to be correct, i.e., T4c and T4D+ DNAs sedimented with S 0 20 /sub w/ values as predicted by the equation of Zimm and Schumaker. Furthermore, the quantitative validity of the theory means that the size (M/sub r/) of a DNA sedimenting under speed-dependent conditions is not undefinable but rather can be uniquely obtained by the application of that theory to the data. Secondly, the viscoelastic recoil (GAMMA 11 ), or more accurately, the zero shear rate reduced recoil (GAMMA 11 /sub r,O/) has been shown to be a quantitative direct function of the number of intact (T4c) DNA molecules present (per ml) in solution. This demonstration made possible the measurement of a direct survival curve for intact DNA molecules (i.e., without double-strand breaks) after exposure to ionizing radiation. A/sub DNA/D 37 of 47.4 krads was obtained for the DNA of T4c coliphage irradiated in air as a solution of phage particles. It is noteworthy that this survival curve measures the number of intact DNA molecules, not the average number of breaks/molecule

  9. Does oxygen enhance the radiation: induced inactivation of penicillinase. Progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuni, A.; Kalkstein, A.; Czapski, G.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation-induced inactivation of penicillinase in dilute aqueous solutions buffered with phosphate was studied, by examining enzyme radiosensitivity in the presence of various gases (He, O 2 , H 2 , N 2 O, N 2 O + O 2 ). The introduction of either N 2 O or O 2 was found to reduce the radiodamage. On the other hand H 2 or N 2 O + O 2 gas-mixture enhanced the radiosensitivity. In the presence of formate and oxygen, no enzyme inactivation was detected. The results indicated that the specific damaging efficiency of H atoms is almost four-fold higher than that of OH radical; therefore in phosphate buffer, where more than half of the free radicals are H atoms, it is the H radicals that are responsible for the majority of the damage. The superoxide radicals appeared to be completely inactive and did not contribute toward enzyme inactivation. Oxygen was shown to affect the radiosensitivity in two ways. On one side, it protected by converting e - /sub aq/ and H radicals into harmless O 2 - radicals. On the other side it increased the inactivation by enhancing the damage brought about by OH radicals (OER = 2.8). In the present case the oxygen effect of protection exceeded that of sensitization, thus giving rise to a moderate overall protection effect

  10. Radiation effects on materials in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    'Sheet silicates (e.g. micas and clays) are important constituents of a wide variety of geological formations such as granite, basalt, and sandstone. Sheet silicates, particularly clays such as bentonite are common materials in near-field engineered barriers in high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repositories. This is because migration of radionuclides from an underground HLW repository to the geosphere may be significantly reduced by sorption of radionuclides (e.g., Pu, U and Np) onto sheet silicates (e.g., clays and micas) that line the fractures and pores of the rocks along groundwater flowpaths. In addition to surface sorption, it has been suggested that some sheet silicates may also be able to incorporate many radionuclides, such as Cs and Sr, in the inter-layer sites of the sheet structure. However, the ability of the sheet silicates to incorporate radionuclides and retard release and migration of radionuclides may be significantly affected by the near-field radiation due to the decay of fission products and actinides. for example, the unique properties of the sheet structures will be lost completely if the structure becomes amorphous due to irradiation effects. Thus, the study of irradiation effects on sheet-structures, such as structural damage and modification of chemical properties, are critical to the performance assessment of long-term repository behavior.'

  11. Response of a forest ecotone to ionizing radiation. Progress report, 15 October 1974--14 October 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.G.

    1975-01-01

    Compositional and structural characteristics of three forest types, including aspen dominated, maple-birch dominated and an intervening ecotone, were studied before and after chronic γ irradiation in northern Wisconsin. Irradiation occurred during the summer of 1972. By the summer of 1973 the density of viable tree seedlings at 10 m from the radiation source was substantially reduced in all three areas relative to the preirradiation densities of 1971. Re-establishment of tree seedlings has, as of June 1975, been prevented by the vigorous development of ground vegetation. At 20 m, the density of seedlings in the three areas increased during the period between 1971 and 1973 in response to the partially opened canopy. The overall density of seedlings of Populus tremuloides and Acer rubrum increased markedly in the three areas and P. tremuloides invaded some areas in which it had not been found prior to irradiation. By 1974 many of the seedlings at 20 m had reached the sapling size-class. Viable trees greater than 2.5 cm, dbh were eliminated at 10 m in all three areas by June 1974 and were reduced in density of 20 m. Leaf litter production was reduced by up to 94 percent at 10 m and 64 percent at 20 m during the period between 1971 and 1973 in the irradiated areas. (U.S.)

  12. Improved radiation dosimetry/risk estimates to facilitate environmental management of plutonium contaminated sites. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to evaluate distributions of possible alpha radiation doses to the lung, bone, and liver and associated health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation-exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of PuO 2 -contaminated sites. Currently available dosimetry/risk models do not apply to exposure scenarios where, at most, a small number of highly radioactive PuO 2 particles are inhaled (stochastic exposure [SE] paradigm). For the SE paradigm, risk distributions are more relevant than point estimates of risk. The focus of the research is on the SE paradigm and on high specific activity, alpha-emitting (HSA-aE) particles such as 238 PuO 2 . The scientific goal is to develop a stochastic respiratory tract dosimetry/risk computer model for evaluating the desired absorbed dose distributions and associated health-risk distributions, for Department of Energy (DOE) workers and members of the public. This report summarizes results after 1 year of a 2-year project.'

  13. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Mossbauer radiation: Progress report, March 1, 1985-October 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1987-10-01

    A facility for high intensity Moessbauer scattering has been commissioned at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue University using special isotopes produced at MURR. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out, including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 which indicates phason rather than phonon behavior. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have also been carried out using scattering to filter unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape. This method allows complete correction for source resonance self-absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. This analysis is important to both the funadmental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct elastic fractions and lineshape parameters. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron (MICE) spectroscopy, lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  14. Theoretical studies of the heating of toroidal plasmas with radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation: Progress report, July 1, 1986-June 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.; Wersinger, J.M.; Hanson, J.D.

    1987-02-01

    Progress is reported in several areas of interest to rf heating of plasmas. (1) The development of the complex ray-tracing code is largely implemented. The complex focussing terms are nearing completion. This allows the following of rays through regions where normal ray-tracing methods fail. (2) A major contribution is in the area of parametric instabilities, and a way to minimize their effect on the lower hybrid waves. By following a bundle of rays and evaluating the growth rate for the most rapidly growing waves at each point, the daughter waves have been followed to the point where pump depletion begins to be important. It is found that pump depletion is a serious problem for lower hybrid rays in typical plasmas, but its effect can be diminished in some cases by frequency modulation. (3) The continuing study of mode conversion problems has taken several directions. It has been shown that ion absorption of lower hybrid rays frequently involves cases where three types of waves are coupled through linear mode conversion in the same region of space, namely the cold lower hybrid wave, the warm lower hybrid wave, and an ion Bernstein mode. This three wave coupling problem is analyzed analytically in terms of a sixth order wave equation which describes coupling between all branches, and an analytical model may now adequately represent the physical problem. The formal solution of this equation verifies the major expectations of the analysis, and gives analytic coupling coefficients for the case with no damping. Finally, the exact order reduction method has been developed to the extent where numerical methods need to be introduced. The analytic evaluation of the form of the Green function is completed, and numerical implementation will begin before the end of the current contracting period and continue through the extended renewal period

  15. Clinical characteristics of canine fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCE): a systematic review of 393 cases (1973-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, K A; Stover, K E; Olby, N J; Moore, S A

    2016-12-24

    Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy (FCE) is common in dogs; however, there is conflicting information in the veterinary literature regarding clinical characteristics and data on recovery in severe cases is sparse. A systematic review of canine FCE was performed to delineate the natural history of this disease. 322 previously reported cases and 71 previously unreported cases were identified for inclusion. Source publications were identified via PubMed central search and by references from review articles. Previously unreported cases were identified via computerised medical records search at two veterinary institutions. FCE was most common in middle-aged large breed dogs (30 per cent); however, the miniature schnauzer was the most frequently reported individual breed and small breeds comprised 24 per cent of all reported cases. The most common neuroanatomical localisation was a T3-L3 myelopathy (33.1 per cent). Prognosis for recovery of ambulation was good to excellent with 85 per cent of cases regaining the ability to walk unassisted, most within 3 weeks. Persistent neurological deficits were common in patients that recovered ambulation (49.1 per cent). When nociception was absent in the affected limbs at initial presentation, rate of recovery was lower (10 per cent); however, this data is likely biased by limited follow-up in more severe cases. Future prospective studies should evaluate prognosis for more severely affected patients. British Veterinary Association.

  16. The relationship between central motor conduction time and spinal cord compression in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikita, T; Tanaka, N; Nakanishi, K; Kamei, N; Sumiyoshi, N; Kotaka, S; Adachi, N; Ochi, M

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective study. Few studies have reported a relationship between central motor conduction time (CMCT), which evaluates corticospinal function, and degree of spinal cord compression in patients with myelopathy. Thus, there is no consensus on predicting the degree of prolonged CMCT on the basis of the degree of spinal cord compression. If a correlation exists between CMCT and spinal cord compression, then spinal cord compression may be a useful noninvasive clinical indicator of corticospinal function. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationship between CMCT and cervical spinal cord compression measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Hiroshima University Hospital in Japan. We studied 33 patients undergoing laminoplasty. Patients exhibited significant cervical spinal cord compression on both MRI and intraoperative electrophysiological examination. We assessed transcranial magnetic stimulation measurement of CMCT; spinal cord compression parameters such as area, lateral diameter, anteroposterior diameter and flattening of the spinal cord at the lesion site and C2/3 levels on MRI; and pre- versus postoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores. Correlations between CMCT and flattening as well as anteroposterior diameter of the spinal cord at the lesion level were observed. Strong correlations between CMCT and the ratio of the flattening and anteroposterior diameter parameters at the lesion level to that at the C2/3 level were also observed. Measurement of spinal cord compression may be useful for the evaluation of corticospinal function as a proxy for CMCT in patients with CSM.

  17. Prediction of the recovery rate after surgery for cervical myelopathy from the view of CT-myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Takahiro; Satomi, Kazuhiko; Asazuma, Takahito; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Fujimura, Shoichi; Hirabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hamano, Yasuyuki; Shiraishi, Takeshi.

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed to prepare a formula for predicting postoperative recovery in cervical myelopathy. Preoperative CT-myelography (CT-M) was performed in a total of 103 patients, consisting of 44 with cervical spinal myelopathy (CSM), 39 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), and 20 with cervical disk herniation (CDH). Multivariate analyses were used to obtain correlations between CT-M findings (spinal cord area and the rate of spinal cord flatness) and clinical items (age, disease duration, preoperative JOA score, and postoperative recovery rate). There was a strong positive correlation between spinal cord area and postoperative recovery rate. Because both spinal cord area and disease duration for the CSM and OPLL groups had a strong positive correlation with the recovery rate, they were found to predict postoperative recovery. In the CDH group, there was no predictive index. Spinal cord area was more potential index than preoperative severity. Disease duration may also serve as an index complementing spinal cord area in the evaluation of postoperative recovery. (N.K.)

  18. MRI of the spinal cord in myelopathy complicating vitamin B12 deficiency: two additional cases and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, S.S.; Bulundwe, K.K.; Gledhill, R.F.; Labuscagne, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Focal spinal cord lesions have been present in all previously reported cases of MRI appearances in myelopathy complicating vitamin B 12 deficiency. We describe two further cases showing mild atrophy only and review the salient features of the previous 11 publications. MRI findings reflect quite closely the known pathological changes in this condition. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of Patients with Myelopathy due to Benign Intradural Spinal Tumors with Concomitant Lumbar Degenerative Diseases Misdiagnosed and Erroneously Treated with Lumbar Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Liliang, Po-Chou; Yang, Chih-Hui; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Tsai, Yu-Duan; Chen, Po-Yuan; Chye, Cien-Leong; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Chen, Han-Jung

    2017-09-01

    When a cervical or thoracic benign intradural spinal tumor (BIST) coexists with lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD), diagnosis can be difficult. Symptoms of BIST-myelopathy can be mistaken as being related to LDD. Worse, an unnecessary lumbar surgery could be performed. This study was conducted to analyze cases in which an erroneous lumbar surgery was undertaken in the wake of failure to identify BIST-associated myelopathy. Cases were found in a hospital database. Patients who underwent surgery for LDD first and then another surgery for BIST removal within a short interval were studied. Issues investigated included why the BISTs were missed, how they were found later, and how the patients reacted to the unnecessary lumbar procedures. Over 10 years, 167 patients received both surgeries for LDD and a cervical or thoracic BIST. In 7 patients, lumbar surgery preceded tumor removal by a short interval. Mistakes shared by the physicians included failure to detect myelopathy and a BIST, and a hasty decision for lumbar surgery, which soon turned out to be futile. Although the BISTs were subsequently found and removed, 5 patients believed that the lumbar surgery was unnecessary, with 4 patients expressing regrets and 1 patient threatening to take legal action against the initial surgeon. Concomitant symptomatic LDD and BIST-associated myelopathy pose a diagnostic challenge. Spine specialists should refrain from reflexively linking leg symptoms and impaired ability to walk to LDD. Comprehensive patient evaluation is fundamental to avoid misdiagnosis and wrong lumbar surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.8--radiation research and its application sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 12 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation research and its application sub-volume