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Sample records for progressive cicatrising conjunctivitis

  1. Allergic Conjunctivitis-induced Retinal Inflammation Promotes Myopia Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ching Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myopia is a highly prevalent eye disease. There is limited information suggesting a relationship between myopia and inflammation. We found children with allergic conjunctivitis (AC had the highest adjusted odds ratio (1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72–1.77 for myopia among the four allergic diseases. A cohort study was conducted and confirmed that children with AC had a higher incidence and subsequent risk of myopia (hazard ratio 2.35, 95%CI 2.29–2.40 compared to those without AC. Lower refractive error and longer axial length were observed in an AC animal model. Myopia progression was enhanced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α or interleukin (IL-6 administration, two cytokines secreted by mast cell degranulation. The TNF-α or IL-6 weakened the tight junction formed by corneal epithelial (CEP cells and inflammatory cytokines across the layer of CEP cells, which increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 secreted by retinal pigment epithelial cells. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor kappa B were up-regulated in eyes with AC, whereas IL-10 and the inhibitor of kappa B were down-regulated. In conclusion, the experimental findings in mice corroborate the epidemiological data showing that allergic inflammation influences the development of myopia.

  2. Un nouveau béton auto-cicatrisant grâce à l’incorporation de bactéries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiktor, V.; Jonkers, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    La formation d’un réseau continu de fissures contribue à l’augmentation de la perméabilité du béton, réduisant ainsi de manière importante sa résistance à l’attaque d’agents agressifs dissous dans l’eau. Afin d’augmenter la capacité de cicatrisation autogène du béton, certains agents cicatrisants

  3. Interpreting conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Frisson, Steven; Murphy, Gregory L

    2009-04-01

    The interpretation generated from a sentence of the form P and Q can often be different to that generated by Q and P, despite the fact that and has a symmetric truth-conditional meaning. We experimentally investigated to what extent this difference in meaning is due to the connective and and to what extent it is due to order of mention of the events in the sentence. In three experiments, we collected interpretations of sentences in which we varied the presence of the conjunction, the order of mention of the events, and the type of relation holding between the events (temporally vs. causally related events). The results indicated that the effect of using a conjunction was dependent on the discourse relation between the events. Our findings contradict a narrative marker theory of and, but provide partial support for a single-unit theory derived from Carston (2002). The results are discussed in terms of conjunction processing and implicatures of temporal order.

  4. The Conjunction Fallacy: A Misunderstanding about Conjunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Katya; Bonini, Nicolao; Osherson, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    It is easy to construct pairs of sentences X, Y that lead many people to ascribe higher probability to the conjunction X-and-Y than to the conjuncts X, Y. Whether an error is thereby committed depends on reasoners' interpretation of the expressions "probability" and "and." We report two experiments designed to clarify the normative status of…

  5. Overextension in Verb Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Hampton (1988) discovered that people are subject to "overextension"--they categorize some things as falling under a conjunction (e.g., they categorize chess as a "sport which is also a game") but not as falling under both of the corresponding conjuncts (e.g., they do not categorize chess as a "sport"). Although…

  6. Categorization influences illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Michael; Prinzmetal, William; Robertson, Lynn

    2004-08-01

    Illusory conjunctions (ICs) provide evidence for a binding problem that must be resolved in vision. Objects that are perceptually grouped are more likely to have their features erroneously conjoined. We examined whether semantic grouping, determined by category membership (letter vs. number), also influences illusory conjunction rates. Participants were instructed to detect an "L" or a "7" among briefly presented character strings and to report its color. Despite high shape discrimination accuracy, participants often made color conjunction errors, reporting instead the color of a distractor character, "O". This distractor could be ambiguously interpreted as a letter or a number. The status of the "O" was determined by other noncolored flanker characters, which were either letters or numbers. When both the target and flankers were of the same category, participants made more ICs than when the target and flankers were of different categories. This finding demonstrates that alphanumeric categorization can precede and subsequently influence binding.

  7. The Concessive Conjunct However

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    But is a conjunction, and it cannot be placed except at the beginning of a sentence. But however, the concessive conjunct similar in meaning to but, is an adverb, and it can be placed anywhere: at the beginning, in the midst, or at the end, of a sentence. Although the placement of however largely depends upon contrast or emphasis, it would not be so troublesome for non-native speakers of English to place it at the beginning, or at the end, of a sentence. The most difficult part for them will ...

  8. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  9. NASA Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment: Recent Conjunctions of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browns, Ansley C.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses a brief history of NASA Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment (CA) activities, an overview of NASA CA process for ISS and Shuttle, and recent examples from Human Spaceflight conjunctions.

  10. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as the sexually transmitted infection called gonorrhea. Women with untreated gonorrhea can pass the bacteria to her baby during ... conjunctivitis is less common than conjunctivitis caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia. Symptoms usually include red eye(s) and ...

  11. Deriving the Distribution of Conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerner, Ed

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes an explanation for the limited possibilities of realized conjunctions in multitermed coordinations. It argues that conjunction "&" heads a fully articulated phrase (&P), which can iterate &P shells, similar to "V" in Larson's (1988) VP-shell hypothesis. This structure enables a single & to unify any number of conjuncts, and…

  12. Allergic conjunctivitis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Bernard Yu-Hor

    2017-04-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC), which may be acute or chronic, is associated with rhinitis in 30%-70% of affected individuals, hence the term allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C). Seasonal and perennial AC is generally milder than the more chronic and persistent atopic and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Natural allergens like house dust mites (HDM), temperate and subtropical grass and tree pollen are important triggers that drive allergic inflammation in AC in the Asia-Pacific region. Climate change, environmental tobacco smoke, pollutants derived from fuel combustion, Asian dust storms originating from central/north Asia and phthalates may also exacerbate AR/C. The Allergies in Asia Pacific study and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood provide epidemiological data on regional differences in AR/C within the region. AC significantly impacts the quality of life of both children and adults, and these can be measured by validated quality of life questionnaires on AR/C. Management guidelines for AC involve a stepped approach depending on the severity of disease, similar to that for allergic rhinitis and asthma. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are effective in certain types of persistent AC, and sublingual immunotherapy is emerging as an effective treatment option in AR/C to grass pollen and HDM. Translational research predominantly from Japan and Korea involving animal models are important for the potential development of targeted pharmacotherapies for AC.

  13. Conjunction Illusions and Conjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, Robyn E.; Nakamura, Koyuki; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the overdistribution principle implies that episodic memory is infected by conjunction illusions. These are instances in which an item that was presented in a single context (e.g., List 1) is falsely remembered as having been presented in multiple contexts (e.g., List 1 and List 2). Robust conjunction illusions were detected in…

  14. TREATMENT OF CHILDREN'S ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS

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    L.D. Ksenzova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic conjunctivitis is a widely spread disease, which is often accompanied with an allergic rhinitis. According to the up to date recommendations, the treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis is based on 3 key principles: elimination of the allergen, conducting an allergen targeted immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy. The medication treatment of the allergic rhino conjunctivitis should include antihistamines of the 2nd generation and/or intranasal corticosteroids. Their effectiveness was proven with the findings of numerous place controlled surveys; in most cases they are safe. The usage experience of the intranasal formulation of mometasone furoate (Nasonex shows that with a minimal biological availability of the medication and the absence of its influence upon the «hypothalamus–hypophysis–adrenal glands» system and growth of children, mometasone can be a medication of choice to treat children's rhino conjunctivitis.Key words: children, allergic conjunctivitis, treatment.

  15. A typology of split conjunction

    OpenAIRE

    Palancar , Enrique L.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, I study instances of noun phrase conjunction where the conjoined noun phrase is subject and the referents of the conjuncts are human, of the type ‘John and Mary are having lunch’. More specifically, I study different, possible splits that occur in such structures, which involve the disruption of the phrasal continuity of the conjuncts, resulting in structures roughly equivalent to ‘they are having lunch with Mary’ and ‘John are having lunch with Mary’. I...

  16. Guided Search for Triple Conjunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Nordfang, Maria; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2014-01-01

    A key tenet of Feature Integration Theory and related theories such as Guided Search (GS) is that the binding of basic features requires attention. This would seem to predict that conjunctions of features of objects that have not been attended should not influence search. However, Found (1998) reported that an irrelevant feature (size) improved the efficiency of search for a color × orientation conjunction if it was correlated with the other two features across the display compared to the cas...

  17. Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Despite Successful Treatment of Male Urethritis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Remco P H; Verweij, Stephan P; McIntyre, James A; Schaftenaar, Erik

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of progressive, cephalosporin-susceptible, Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis despite successful treatment of male urethritis syndrome. We hypothesize that conjunctival infection progressed due to insufficient penetration of cefixime and azithromycin and point out that extragenital infection and male urethritis may not be cured simultaneously in settings where the syndromic approach is used.

  18. Guided search for triple conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfang, Maria; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2014-08-01

    A key tenet of feature integration theory and of related theories such as guided search (GS) is that the binding of basic features requires attention. This would seem to predict that conjunctions of features of objects that have not been attended should not influence search. However, Found (1998) reported that an irrelevant feature (size) improved the efficiency of search for a Color × Orientation conjunction if it was correlated with the other two features across the display, as compared to the case in which size was not correlated with color and orientation features. We examined this issue with somewhat different stimuli. We used triple conjunctions of color, orientation, and shape (e.g., search for a red, vertical, oval-shaped item). This allowed us to manipulate the number of features that each distractor shared with the target (sharing) and it allowed us to vary the total number of distractor types (and, thus, the number of groups of identical items: grouping). We found that these triple conjunction searches were generally very efficient--producing very shallow Reaction Time × Set Size slopes, consistent with strong guidance by basic features. Nevertheless, both of the variables, sharing and grouping, modulated performance. These influences were not predicted by previous accounts of GS; however, both can be accommodated in a GS framework. Alternatively, it is possible, though not necessary, to see these effects as evidence for "preattentive binding" of conjunctions.

  19. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  20. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  1. Conjunct rotation: Codman's paradox revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian I; Fradet, Laetitia; Rettig, Oliver

    2009-05-01

    This contribution mathematically formalizes Codman's idea of conjunct rotation, a term he used in 1934 to describe a paradoxical phenomenon arising from a closed-loop arm movement. Real (axial) rotation is distinguished from conjunct rotation. For characterizing the latter, the idea of reference vector fields is developed to define the neutral axial position of the humerus for any given orientation of its long axis. This concept largely avoids typical coordinate singularities arising from decomposition of 3D joint motion and therefore can be used for postural (axial) assessment of the shoulder joint both clinically and in sports science in almost the complete accessible range of motion. The concept, even though algebraic rather complex, might help to get an easier and more intuitive understanding of axial rotation of the shoulder in complex movements present in daily life and in sports.

  2. Covariance Manipulation for Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of space object covariances to try to provide additional or improved information to conjunction risk assessment is not an uncommon practice. Types of manipulation include fabricating a covariance when it is missing or unreliable to force the probability of collision (Pc) to a maximum value ('PcMax'), scaling a covariance to try to improve its realism or see the effect of covariance volatility on the calculated Pc, and constructing the equivalent of an epoch covariance at a convenient future point in the event ('covariance forecasting'). In bringing these methods to bear for Conjunction Assessment (CA) operations, however, some do not remain fully consistent with best practices for conducting risk management, some seem to be of relatively low utility, and some require additional information before they can contribute fully to risk analysis. This study describes some basic principles of modern risk management (following the Kaplan construct) and then examines the PcMax and covariance forecasting paradigms for alignment with these principles; it then further examines the expected utility of these methods in the modern CA framework. Both paradigms are found to be not without utility, but only in situations that are somewhat carefully circumscribed.

  3. On the reality of the conjunction fallacy.

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    Sides, Ashley; Osherson, Daniel; Bonini, Nicolao; Viale, Riccardo

    2002-03-01

    Attributing higher "probability" to a sentence of form p-and-q, relative to p, is a reasoning fallacy only if (1) the word probability carries its modern, technical meaning and (2) the sentence p is interpreted as a conjunct of the conjunction p-and-q. Legitimate doubts arise about both conditions in classic demonstrations of the conjunction fallacy. We used betting paradigms and unambiguously conjunctive statements to reduce these sources of ambiguity about conjunctive reasoning. Despite the precautions, conjunction fallacies were as frequent under betting instructions as under standard probability instructions.

  4. Topical treatment options for allergic conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of allergic conjunctivitis. Classification and pathogenesis ... Table 1: The classification of allergic conjunctivitis1,2,5. Acute allergic ..... molecular structure which may be associated with a more rapid ... Resolvin E1, a proresolving lipid mediator.

  5. Quantum probability and conceptual combination in conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, James A

    2013-06-01

    I consider the general problem of category conjunctions in the light of Pothos & Busemeyer (P&B)'s quantum probability (QP) account of the conjunction fallacy. I argue that their account as presented cannot capture the "guppy effect" - the case in which a class is a better member of a conjunction A^B than it is of either A or B alone.

  6. Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the process of a human space flight conjunction assessment and lessons learned from the more than twelve years of International Space Station (ISS) operations. Also, the application of these lessons learned to a recent ISS conjunction assessment with object 84180 on July 16, 2009 is also presented.

  7. Reasoning about conjunctive probabilistic concepts in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, John E; Slattery, Rachel

    2005-09-01

    While adults are known to exhibit biases when making conjunctive probability judgments, little is known about childhood competencies in this area. Participants (aged between four and five years, eight and ten years, and a group of young adults) attempted to select the more likely of two events, a single event, and a conjunctive event containing, as one of its components, the single event. The problems were such that the objective probabilities of the component events were potentially available. Children in both age groups were generally successful when the single event was likely. However, when it was unlikely, a majority of children rejected it, choosing the conjunctive event instead, thereby committing the conjunction fallacy. A substantial minority of adults also committed the fallacy under equivalent conditions. It is concluded that under certain conditions children are capable of normative conjunctive judgments but that the mechanisms underpinning this capacity remain to be fully understood.

  8. The role of attention in illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsal, Y; Meiran, N; Lavie, N

    1994-03-01

    In five experiments, we investigated the effects of attention on illusory conjunctions formed between features of unrelated objects. The first three experiments used a weak manipulation of attention and found that illusory conjunctions formed either among features receiving high attentional priority or among features receiving low attentional priority were not more frequent than were conjunctions formed between mixed features of different attentional priority. The last two experiments used a strong manipulation of attention and failed to reveal any evidence of true illusory conjunctions. The results are inconsistent with the feature-integration theory, which predicts that when attention is focused on a subset of items, illusory conjunctions ought to occur within and outside of the attended subset, but not between the attended and unattended items.

  9. Taking Conjunction Search to a Higher Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M. Wolfe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In visual search for conjunctions, targets are defined by combinations of features. Thus, targets might be RED VERTICAL items among RED horizontal and green VERTICAL distractors. Guided Search and similar models argue that features are conjoined only once an object is attended. However, efficient conjunction search is possible because observers can guide attention toward red and toward vertical. Real-world objects may be defined by the conjunction of many features, with no one feature defining the target. Can attention be guided to higher order conjunctions? We created 6D conjunction stimuli and varied the number of features shared between targets and distractors and the number of distractor types. RT x set size slopes range from 1.4 msec/item when two distractor types each share three features with the target to 66 msec/item when six distractor types each share five features with the target. Using different 3D conjunctions, we held distributions of features constant (1/3 of each of three colors, shapes, and orientations. We varied the grouping of distractors in order to look for evidence of simultaneous guidance by multiple attributes versus sequential grouping of subsets (Find the odd orientation in this color subset. We find that guidance and grouping may both contribute to efficient conjunction search.

  10. On the Reality of Illusory Conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Juan; Suero, Manuel; Durán, Juan I

    2017-01-01

    The reality of illusory conjunctions in perception has been sometimes questioned, arguing that they can be explained by other mechanisms. Most relevant experiments are based on migrations along the space dimension. But the low rate of illusory conjunctions along space can easily hide them among other types of errors. As migrations over time are a more frequent phenomenon, illusory conjunctions can be disentangled from other errors. We report an experiment in which series of colored letters were presented in several spatial locations, allowing for migrations over both space and time. The distribution of frequencies were fit by several multinomial tree models based on alternative hypothesis about illusory conjunctions and the potential sources of free-floating features. The best-fit model acknowledges that most illusory conjunctions are migrations in the time domain. Migrations in space are probably present, but the rate is very low. Other conjunction errors, as those produced by guessing or miscategorizations of the to-be-reported feature, are also present in the experiment. The main conclusion is that illusory conjunctions do exist.

  11. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  12. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies in episodic memory.

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    Nakamura, K; Brainerd, C J

    2017-09-01

    It has recently been found that episodic memory displays analogues of the well-known disjunction and conjunction fallacies of probability judgement. The aim of the present research was, for the first time, to study these memory fallacies together under the same conditions, and test theoretical predictions about the reasons for each. The focus was on predictions about the influence of semantic gist, target versus context recollection, and proactive versus retroactive interference. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies increased in conditions in which subjects were able to form semantic connections among list words. In addition, disjunction fallacies were increased by manipulations that minimised proactive interference, whereas conjunction fallacies were increased by manipulations that minimised retroactive interference. That pattern suggests that disjunction fallacies are more dependent on target recollection, whereas conjunction fallacies are more dependent on context recollection.

  13. The students’ coordinating conjunction acquisition order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deby Irawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at uncovering the students’ acquisition order of coordinating conjunction for then to seek the possible causes of such phenomenon. Quantitative approach with implicational scaling and qualitative approach with case study were employed with test, focused-group interview, and document analysis of some related textbooks as the instruments. A test consist of 70 questions about the usage of seven coordinating conjunctions in which each word is represented by 10 questions was given to the 13 students of eleventh grade of senior high school for the data collection related to the students’ acquisition order. The documents were then analyzed through several steps as suggested by the expert. The results show that the students acquire “and”, “so”, “for”, “but”, “or”, “yet”, and “nor” as in order. The external factors which influence the order are the formal complexity of each conjunction and the lack of exposure of coordinating conjunction both in the teaching activity and textbooks. Thus, teachers are suggested to provide more explicit teaching on coordinating conjunction and necessary knowledge about the usage of each word. Also, book writers should provide ample exposure to give students more knowledge about the usage of those conjunctions in a meaningful context.

  14. Component-resolved diagnostics in vernal conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, Alicia; Sanchís, Eugenia; Montero, Javier A

    2016-10-01

    Conventional diagnostic tests in allergy are insufficient to clarify the cause of vernal conjunctivitis. Component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) by microarray allergen assay may be useful in detecting allergens that might be involved in the inflammatory process. In a recent trial in patients suffered from eosinophilic esophagitis, after 2 years of the CRD-guided exclusion diet and specific immunotherapy, significant clinical improvement was observed, and 68% of patients were discharged (cure based on negative biopsy, no symptoms, and no medication intake). Our new objective was to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity by CRD in tears and serum from patients with vernal conjunctivitis and treat patients with identified triggering allergens by specific immunotherapy. Twenty-five patients with vernal conjunctivitis were evaluated. The identified triggering allergens were n Lol p 1 (11 cases), n Cyn d 1 (eight cases), group 4 and 6 grasses (six cases) and group 5 of grasses (five cases). Prick test and pollen IgE were positive in one case. Clinical improvement was observed in 13/25 vernal conjunctivitis patients after 1-year specific immunotherapy. CRD seems to be a more sensitive diagnostic tool compared with prick test and IgE detection. Specific CRD-led immunotherapy may achieve clinical improvements in vernal conjunctivitis patients.

  15. Evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, D.; Sancho, A. Tirado, J.; Agueda, A.; Martin, L.; Luque, F.; Fletcher, E.; Navarro, V.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the recent evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service (CPS) as a result of an on-going activity in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The CPS is one of a number of precursor services being developed as part of the SST segment. It has been implemented as a service to provide external users with web-based access to conjunction information and designed with a service-oriented architecture. The paper encompasses the following topics: service functionality enhancements, integration with a live objects catalogue, all vs. all analyses supporting an operational concept based on low and high fidelity screenings, and finally conjunction detection and probability algorithms.

  16. Gestalt Reasoning with Conjunctions and Disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Magda L; Joergensen, Gitte H

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning, solving mathematical equations, or planning written and spoken sentences all must factor in stimuli perceptual properties. Indeed, thinking processes are inspired by and subsequently fitted to concrete objects and situations. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the mental representations evoked when people solve these seemingly abstract tasks should interact with the properties of the manipulated stimuli. Here, we investigated the mental representations evoked by conjunction and disjunction expressions in language-picture matching tasks. We hypothesised that, if these representations have been derived using key Gestalt principles, reasoners should use perceptual compatibility to gauge the goodness of fit between conjunction/disjunction descriptions (e.g., the purple and/ or the green) and corresponding binary visual displays. Indeed, the results of three experimental studies demonstrate that reasoners associate conjunction descriptions with perceptually-dependent stimuli and disjunction descriptions with perceptually-independent stimuli, where visual dependency status follows the key Gestalt principles of common fate, proximity, and similarity.

  17. Parallel coding of conjunctions in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Found, A

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the conjunctive nature of nontarget items influenced search for a conjunction target. Each experiment consisted of two conditions. In both conditions, the target item was a red bar tilted to the right, among white tilted bars and vertical red bars. As well as color and orientation, display items also differed in terms of size. Size was irrelevant to search in that the size of the target varied randomly from trial to trial. In one condition, the size of items correlated with the other attributes of display items (e.g., all red items were big and all white items were small). In the other condition, the size of items varied randomly (i.e., some red items were small and some were big, and some white items were big and some were small). Search was more efficient in the size-correlated condition, consistent with the parallel coding of conjunctions in visual search.

  18. Conjunctive Coding of Complex Object Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Jonathan; Cusack, Rhodri; Kendall, William; Barense, Morgan D.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to perceiving an object is the ability to bind its constituent features into a cohesive representation, yet the manner by which the visual system integrates object features to yield a unified percept remains unknown. Here, we present a novel application of multivoxel pattern analysis of neuroimaging data that allows a direct investigation of whether neural representations integrate object features into a whole that is different from the sum of its parts. We found that patterns of activity throughout the ventral visual stream (VVS), extending anteriorly into the perirhinal cortex (PRC), discriminated between the same features combined into different objects. Despite this sensitivity to the unique conjunctions of features comprising objects, activity in regions of the VVS, again extending into the PRC, was invariant to the viewpoints from which the conjunctions were presented. These results suggest that the manner in which our visual system processes complex objects depends on the explicit coding of the conjunctions of features comprising them. PMID:25921583

  19. NEONATAL CONJUNCTIVITIS AND ITS DRUG SENSITIVITY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Thulukkanam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neonatal conjunctivitis is eye discharge in neonates and it is a common infection in neonates in the first month of life. Worldwide, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis varies from 1% to 33% depending on the socioeconomic status of the people in the region. In India, the incidence varies from region to region from 0.9 to 35%. MATERIALS AND METHODS Single center prospective study. All neonates of age 0-30 days delivered and referred from neonatal ward of Chengalpattu Medical College and Hospital with complaints of eye swelling, redness, conjunctival discharge to the eye department for treatment are included in the study. RESULTS In this study, age group from 0-7 days were most commonly affected by neonatal conjunctivitis. Both eyes were commonly affected together. Neonates born by both LSCS and normal vaginal delivery were almost equally affected. The most common organism found in culture and Gram staining was staphylococci. CONCLUSION Neonatal conjunctivitis is more likely to be acquired postnatally. It acquires during the 1 st week and responds well to local application of antibiotics, which covers common causative bacteria.

  20. The negations of conjunctions, conditionals, and disjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemlani, Sangeet; Orenes, Isabel; Johnson-Laird, P N

    2014-09-01

    How do reasoners understand and formulate denials of compound assertions, such as conjunctions and disjunctions? A theory based on mental models postulates that individuals enumerate models of the various possibilities consistent with the assertions. It therefore predicts a novel interaction: in affirmations, conjunctions, A and B, which refer to one possibility, should be easier to understand than disjunctions, A or B, which refer to more than one possibility; in denials, conjunctions, not(A and B), which refer to more than one possibility, should be harder to understand than disjunctions, not(A or B), which do not. Conditionals are ambiguous and they should be of intermediate difficulty. Experiment 1 corroborated this trend with a task in which the participants selected which possibilities were consistent with assertions, such as: Bob denied that he wore a yellow shirt and he wore blue pants on Tuesday. Experiment 2 likewise showed that participants' own formulations of verbal denials yielded the same trend in which denials of conjunctions were harder than denials of conditionals, which in turn were harder than denials of disjunctions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Primary conjunctival follicular lymphoma mimicking chronic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Velandia, S; García Lagarto, E; Saornil, M A; García Álvarez, C; Cuello, R; Diezhandino, P

    2016-02-01

    The case is presented of a 43 year-old male patient with chronic follicular conjunctivitis, negative bacterial serology, and refractory to local treatment. The incisional biopsy performed showed to be consistent with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. A year later, a new incisional biopsy showed follicular lymphoma, with no systemic involvement, and he was treated with local radiotherapy. When a chronic follicular conjunctivitis is refractory to treatment, it is essential to perform an incisional biopsy to establish the histopathological diagnosis that can range from chronic inflammation, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to lymphoma. Follicular lymphoma is rare among conjunctival lymphomas, and the staging is indispensable for the correct therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The Functions of Danish Causal Conjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Therkelsen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article I propose an analysis of the Danish causal conjunctions fordi, siden and for based on the framework of Danish Functional Grammar. As conjunctions they relate two clauses, and their semantics have in common that it indicates a causal relationship between the clauses. The causal conjunctions are different as far as their distribution is concerned; siden conjoins a subordinate clause and a main clause, for conjoins two main clauses, and fordi is able to do both. Methodologically I have based my analysis on these distributional properties comparing siden and fordi conjoining a subordinate and a main clause, and comparing for and fordi conjoining two main clauses, following the thesis that they would establish a causal relationship between different kinds of content. My main findings are that fordi establishes a causal relationship between the events referred to by the two clauses, and the whole utterance functions as a statement of this causal relationship. Siden presupposes such a general causal relationship between the two events and puts forward the causing event as a reason for assuming or wishing or ordering the caused event, siden thus establishes a causal relationship between an event and a speech act. For equally presupposes a general causal relationship between two events and it establishes a causal relationship between speech acts, and fordi conjoining two main clauses is able to do this too, but in this position it also maintains its event-relating ability, the interpretation depending on contextual factors.

  3. Is meaning implicated in illusory conjunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virzi, R A; Egeth, H E

    1984-08-01

    According to feature-integration theory, when attention is diverted from a display, features from different objects in that display may be wrongly recombined, giving rise to "illusory conjunctions" (Treisman & Schmidt, 1982). Two experiments are reported that examine the nature of these illusory conjunctions. In displays that contain color names and adjectives printed in colored ink, subjects made two kinds of interesting and previously unreported errors. Consider, for example, a display that included the word BROWN in red ink and the word HEAVY in green ink. Subjects would sometimes incorrectly report that the word RED or the ink color brown had appeared in the display (e.g., RED in green ink or HEAVY in brown ink). It appears that subjects extract semantic representations from input and are sometimes confused about whether a particular representation has been extracted from a word or a color patch. Contrary to feature-integration theory, these findings suggest that illusory conjunctions may occur with high-level codes as well as with perceptual features.

  4. Human Spaceflight Recent Conjunctions of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browns, Ansley C.

    2010-01-01

    I. During each nine-hour shift (or upon request), the Orbital Safety Analyst (OSA) at JSpOC updates the entire tracked catalog with the latest tracking data from the SSN and screens this catalog against NASA s assets. a) For ISS operations, a 72-hour advance screening is performed. b) For Shuttle orbit operations, a 36-hour advance screening is performed. c) If a vehicle is performing a maneuver during the screening period, OSA uses post-reboost-trajectory data supplied by Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H) for screening. II. An automated process is used to detect any conjunctions within 10 x 40 x 40 km box (centered on the vehicle) using Special Perturbation (SP) processing: a) Box dimensions are Radial x Downtrack x Crosstrack. b) Any object found within this box has the tracking tasking level increased to improve (hopefully) its uncertainty in its current and predicted orbital trajectory. c) OSA informs NASA if any object is found inside a 2 x 25 x 25 km box then creates and sends an Orbital Conjunction Message (OCM) to NASA which contains detailed information about the conjunction. d) For Shuttle, the box size used for screening and reporting is altered for special operations (day of rendezvous, launch screening, etc.).

  5. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  6. Feature conjunctions and auditory sensory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, E; Gomes, H; Nousak, J M; Ritter, W; Vaughan, H G

    1998-05-18

    This study sought to obtain additional evidence that transient auditory memory stores information about conjunctions of features on an automatic basis. The mismatch negativity of event-related potentials was employed because its operations are based on information that is stored in transient auditory memory. The mismatch negativity was found to be elicited by a tone that differed from standard tones in a combination of its perceived location and frequency. The result lends further support to the hypothesis that the system upon which the mismatch negativity relies processes stimuli in an holistic manner. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. [Enteroviruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, N; Huguet, P; Norder, H; Chomel, J-J

    2010-04-01

    Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is an epidemic form of highly contagious conjunctivitis, characterized by conjunctival hemorrhages. The first AHC outbreak was described in 1969 in Ghana, West Africa, and was called Apollo disease, from the Apollo landing on the moon. This outbreak was caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV70) together with a Coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24v) variant, which are the major etiological agents involved in AHC outbreaks worldwide. AHC is known to be directly transmitted by close person-to-person contact or indirectly through soiled ophthalmological materials or unsafe recreational water. Recently, a possible airborne virus spread was suggested which could explain the high transmission rate of the disease. In the absence of a specific antiviral therapy, a rapid diagnosis of the causative agent is required to distinguish AHC due to enteroviruses from other ocular infectious diseases, for there are active drugs, or to quickly implement proper public health measures to limit the extension of the outbreak. However, virus identification remains difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, virological diagnosis is difficult to implement in developing countries where AHC has recently become a major problem for public health. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Prelude to THEMIS tail conjunction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A close conjunction of several satellites (LANL, GOES, Polar, Geotail, and Cluster distributed from the geostationary altitude to about 16 RE downstream in the tail occurred during substorm activity as indicated by global auroral imaging and ground-based magnetometer data. This constellation of satellites resembles what is planned for the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscopic Interactions during Substorms mission to resolve the substorm controversy on the location of the substorm expansion onset region. In this article, we show in detail the dipolarization and dynamic changes seen by these satellites associated with two onsets of substorm intensification activity. In particular, we find that dipolarization at ~16 RE downstream in the tail can occur with dawnward electric field and without plasma flow, just like some near-Earth dipolarization events reported previously. The spreading of substorm disturbances in the tail coupled with complementary ground observations indicates that the observed time sequence on the onsets of substorm disturbances favors initiation in the near-Earth region for this THEMIS-like conjunction.

  9. Effects of Increasing Drag on Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan Clayton; McKinley, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis relies heavily on the computation of the Probability of Collision (Pc) and the understanding of the sensitivity of this calculation to the position errors as defined by the covariance. In Low Earth Orbit (LEO), covariance is predominantly driven by perturbations due to atmospheric drag. This paper describes the effects of increasing atmospheric drag through Solar Cycle 24 on Pc calculations. The process of determining these effects is found through analyzing solar flux predictions on Energy Dissipation Rate (EDR), historical relationship between EDR and covariance, and the sensitivity of Pc to covariance. It is discovered that while all LEO satellites will be affected by the increase in solar activity, the relative effect is more significant in the LEO regime around 700 kilometers in altitude compared to 400 kilometers. Furthermore, it is shown that higher Pc values can be expected at larger close approach miss distances. Understanding these counter-intuitive results is important to setting Owner/Operator expectations concerning conjunctions as solar maximum approaches.

  10. Conjunctions in Malaysian Secondary School English Language Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Philip

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to investigate the distribution pattern of conjunctions and their ranking in two different corpora, namely the Malaysian school English language Textbook Corpus (Textbook Corpus and the British National Corpus (BNC. An additional objective of the study was to find out how conjunctions had been presented in the Malaysian school English language textbooks (Forms 1-5. The method applied was qualitative content analysis. The findings indicated that coordinating conjunctions were the most frequent conjunctions that occurred in the five textbooks followed by subordinating and correlative conjunctions. The ranking of the different types of conjunctions in the Textbook Corpus was similar to that of the reference corpus, BNC. The results also indicated that the textbooks failed to present conjunctions effectively. The findings are expected to help textbook developers or language teachers in developing or adapting learning materials. Keywords: Conjunctions, Textbook evaluation, Distribution patterns

  11. A measurement theory of illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzmetal, William; Ivry, Richard B; Beck, Diane; Shimizu, Naomi

    2002-04-01

    Illusory conjunctions refer to the incorrect perceptual combination of correctly perceived features, such as color and shape. Research on the phenomenon has been hampered by the lack of a measurement theory that accounts for guessing features, as well as the incorrect combination of correctly perceived features. Recently, several investigators have suggested using multinomial models as a tool for measuring feature integration. The authors examined the adequacy of these models in 2 experiments by testing whether model parameters reflect changes in stimulus factors. In a third experiment, confidence ratings were used as a tool for testing the model. Multinomial models accurately reflected both variations in stimulus factors and observers' trial-by-trial confidence ratings.

  12. Extensional versus Intuitive Reasoning: The Conjunction Fallacy in Probability Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Amos; Kahneman, Daniel

    1983-01-01

    Judgments under uncertainty are often mediated by intuitive heuristics that are not bound by the conjunction rule of probability. Representativeness and availability heuristics can make a conjunction appear more probable than one of its constituents. Alternative interpretations of this conjunction fallacy are discussed and attempts to combat it…

  13. The use of conjunctions by children with typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glória, Yasmin Alves Leão; Hanauer, Letícia Pessota; Wiethan, Fernanda Marafiga; Nóro, Letícia Arruda; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2016-07-04

    To investigate the use of conjunctions in the spontaneous speech of three years old children with typical language development, who live in Santa Maria - RS. 45 children, aged 3:0;0 - 3:11;29 (years:months;days) from the database of the Center for the Study of Language and Speech (CELF) participated of this study. The spontaneous speech of each child was transcribed and followed by analysis of the samples to identify the types of conjunctions for each age group. The samples were statistically analyzed using the R software that allowed the evaluation of the number and type of conjunctions used in each age group by comparing them with each other. The data indicated that the higher the age of the child, the greater the number of types of conjunctions used by them. The comparison between age groups showed significant differences when comparing the average number of conjunctions per age group, as well as for additive conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. At age of three the children begin to develop the grammatical use of conjunctions, early appearing additive, adversative and explanatory coordinating conjunctions, and at 3:6 they are able to use the most complex conjunctions, as subordinating conjunctions.

  14. Graves’ Ophthalmopathy Misdiagnosed as Relapsing Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini P. Chatziralli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female patient presented at the outpatients’ Department of Ophthalmology with epiphora, eyelid swelling, and a foreign body feeling in the right eye. The symptoms were present for 4 months, and the patient was treated as suffering from relapsing conjunctivitis. The slit lamp examination revealed keratitis due to exposure, related with the deficient closure of the eyelids. There was a 2 mm difference in the readings with the Hertel exophthalmometry examination between the eyes. Her medical history was clear, and she was referred for computed tomography of the orbits and brain and biochemical examinations (FT3, FT4, and TSH to investigate the presence of an intraorbital mass. FT3 was significantly increased and TSH was accordingly low, indicating the diagnosis of Graves’ disease, which presented without other signs and symptoms apart from ophthalmopathy. Computed tomography scan excluded the diagnosis of an intraorbital mass. Therefore, it is important not to underestimate the ocular manifestations of systemic diseases.

  15. Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)

  16. Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi, E-mail: ascedio@gmail.com [Servico de Endoscopia Respiratoria, Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)

  17. Allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Milton M; Nguyen, Andrew L; Bielory, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and dry eye syndrome (DES) are 2 of the most common anterior inflammatory disorders of the ocular surface and one does not preclude the coexistence of the other. To examine the potential overlap between AC and DES as comorbidities. Using the validated questionnaire known as Subjective Evaluation of Symptom of Dryness, we studied self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness. In an outpatient optometric setting, 689 patients treated from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2011, were surveyed for their ocular history and categorized according to their reported level of discomfort of itchiness, dryness, and redness. Patients ranged in age from 5 to 90 years (median age, 25 years; 39.5% male; 60.5% female). In the studied 689 patients, clinically significant itchiness was found in 194 (28.2%), dry eyes in 247 (35.8%), and redness in 194 (28.2%). Symptom overlap was demonstrated in many of the patients. Of the 194 patients with itchiness, 112 (57.7%) had clinically significant dryness. In the 247 patients with dry eyes, 112 (45.3%) had clinically significant itch. Redness was apparent in 120 of the 194 patients with itch (61.9%) and 122 of the 247 patients with dryness (49.4%). Statistical analysis demonstrated that self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness were not independent of each other (Peyes" also experiencing dry eyes were 2.11 times and the odds of these patients also experiencing redness were 7.34 times that of patients with nonitchy eyes. Most patients with "itchy eyes" consistent with AC also have dry eyes and redness. These results suggest that some symptomatic patients concomitantly have features of AC and DES. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Children's Comprehension of Plural Predicate Conjunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Lyn; Romoli, Jacopo; Poortman, Eva; Winter, Yoad; Crain, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Previous developmental studies of conjunction have focused on the syntax of phrasal and sentential coordination (Lust, 1977; de Villiers, Tager-Flusberg & Hakuta, 1977; Bloom, Lahey, Hood, Lifter & Fiess, 1980, among others). The present study examined the flexibility of children's interpretation of conjunction. Specifically, when two…

  19. A Single Conjunction Risk Assessment Metric: the F-Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan Clayton; Newman, Lauri K.

    2009-01-01

    The Conjunction Assessment Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center provides conjunction risk assessment for many NASA robotic missions. These risk assessments are based on several figures of merit, such as miss distance, probability of collision, and orbit determination solution quality. However, these individual metrics do not singly capture the overall risk associated with a conjunction, making it difficult for someone without this complete understanding to take action, such as an avoidance maneuver. The goal of this analysis is to introduce a single risk index metric that can easily convey the level of risk without all of the technical details. The proposed index is called the conjunction "F-value." This paper presents the concept of the F-value and the tuning of the metric for use in routine Conjunction Assessment operations.

  20. Short-term perceptual learning in visual conjunction search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuling; Lai, Yunpeng; Huang, Wanyi; Tan, Wei; Qu, Zhe; Ding, Yulong

    2014-08-01

    Although some studies showed that training can improve the ability of cross-dimension conjunction search, less is known about the underlying mechanism. Specifically, it remains unclear whether training of visual conjunction search can successfully bind different features of separated dimensions into a new function unit at early stages of visual processing. In the present study, we utilized stimulus specificity and generalization to provide a new approach to investigate the mechanisms underlying perceptual learning (PL) in visual conjunction search. Five experiments consistently showed that after 40 to 50 min of training of color-shape/orientation conjunction search, the ability to search for a certain conjunction target improved significantly and the learning effects did not transfer to a new target that differed from the trained target in both color and shape/orientation features. However, the learning effects were not strictly specific. In color-shape conjunction search, although the learning effect could not transfer to a same-shape different-color target, it almost completely transferred to a same-color different-shape target. In color-orientation conjunction search, the learning effect partly transferred to a new target that shared same color or same orientation with the trained target. Moreover, the sum of transfer effects for the same color target and the same orientation target in color-orientation conjunction search was algebraically equivalent to the learning effect for trained target, showing an additive transfer effect. The different transfer patterns in color-shape and color-orientation conjunction search learning might reflect the different complexity and discriminability between feature dimensions. These results suggested a feature-based attention enhancement mechanism rather than a unitization mechanism underlying the short-term PL of color-shape/orientation conjunction search.

  1. [Characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis with positive skin prick test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Jiang, Y; Jin, Y M; Zhang, J Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Methods: A retrospective study. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed accordingly. Results: Among 40 patients, 18(45.0%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 14(35.0%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 5(12.5%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 2(5.0%) had atopic keratoconjunctivits, and 1(2.5%) had giant papillary conjunctivitis. There was no significant difference in the number of symptoms and signs score among different types of allergic conjunctivitis, the score of itching and hyperemia had a positive relationship with the number of positive allergens ( r =0.74, Ptest of the allergen, the more symptoms and signs encountered in terms of severity. Conclusion: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 689-693) .

  2. Automated Spacecraft Conjunction Assessment at Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David; Guinn, Joseph; Tarzi, Zahi; Demcak, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Conjunction assessment and collision avoidance are areas of current high interest in space operations. Most current conjunction assessment activity focuses on the Earth orbital environment. Several of the world's space agencies have satellites in orbit at Mars and the Moon, and avoiding collisions there is important too. Smaller number of assets than Earth, and smaller number of organizations involved, but consequences similar to Earth scenarios.This presentation will examine conjunction assessment processes implemented at JPL for spacecraft in orbit at Mars and the Moon.

  3. Storage of feature conjunctions in transient auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, H; Bernstein, R; Ritter, W; Vaughan, H G; Miller, J

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether feature conjunctions are stored in transient auditory memory. The mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential that is elicited by stimuli that differ from a series of preceding stimuli, was used in this endeavour. A tone that differed from the preceding series of stimuli in the conjunction of two of its features, both present in preceding stimuli but in different combinations, was found to elicit the MMN. The data are interpreted to indicate that information about the conjunction of features is stored in the memory.

  4. If it's not there, where is it? Locating illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, R E; Prinzmetal, W; Elliott, W

    1997-02-01

    There is evidence that complex objects are decomposed by the visual system into features, such as shape and color. Consistent with this theory is the phenomenon of illusory conjunctions, which occur when features are incorrectly combined to form an illusory object. We analyzed the perceived location of illusory conjunctions to study the roles of color and shape in the location of visual objects. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants located illusory conjunctions about halfway between the veridical locations of the component features. Experiment 3 showed that the distribution of perceived locations was not the mixture of two distributions centered at the 2 feature locations. Experiment 4 replicated these results with an identification task rather than a detection task. We concluded that the locations of illusory conjunctions were not arbitrary but were determined by both constituent shape and color.

  5. Visual search for features and conjunctions in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaugh, N J; Cole, S; Rovet, J F

    1998-12-01

    Visual search performance was examined in three groups of children 7 to 12 years of age and in young adults. Colour and orientation feature searches and a conjunction search were conducted. Reaction time (RT) showed expected improvements in processing speed with age. Comparisons of RT's on target-present and target-absent trials were consistent with parallel search on the two feature conditions and with serial search in the conjunction condition. The RT results indicated searches for feature and conjunctions were treated similarly for children and adults. However, the youngest children missed more targets at the largest array sizes, most strikingly in conjunction search. Based on an analysis of speed/accuracy trade-offs, we suggest that low target-distractor discriminability leads to an undersampling of array elements, and is responsible for the high number of misses in the youngest children.

  6. An Analysis Of Conjunctions In The Jakarta Post Editorials

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Ika Sari

    2010-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul An Analysis of Conjunctions in the Jakarta Post Editorials, yang membahas tentang penggunaan conjunctions dalam kalimat yang terdapat pada harian Jakarta Post. Penelitian ini mengambil 6 editorial sebagai bahan penelitiannya. Skripsi ini ditulis berdasarkan keingintahuan penulis tentang sejauh mana para editor menggunakan kata sambung dalam tulisan-tulisan yang mereka hasilkan. Dalam mengerjakan skripsi ini, penulis menerapkan studi kepustakaan yakni dengan mengumpulka...

  7. OD Covariance in Conjunction Assessment: Introduction and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Duncan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary covariances combined and projected into conjunction plane (plane perpendicular to relative velocity vector at TCA) Primary placed on x-axis at (miss distance, 0) and represented by circle of radius equal to sum of both spacecraft circumscribing radiiZ-axis perpendicular to x-axis in conjunction plane Pc is portion of combined error ellipsoid that falls within the hard-body radius circle

  8. Spatially parallel processing of within-dimension conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, K J; Humphreys, G W

    2001-01-01

    Within-dimension conjunction search for red-green targets amongst red-blue, and blue-green, nontargets is extremely inefficient (Wolfe et al, 1990 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16 879-892). We tested whether pairs of red-green conjunction targets can nevertheless be processed spatially in parallel. Participants made speeded detection responses whenever a red-green target was present. Across trials where a second identical target was present, the distribution of detection times was compatible with the assumption that targets were processed in parallel (Miller, 1982 Cognitive Psychology 14 247-279). We show that this was not an artifact of response-competition or feature-based processing. We suggest that within-dimension conjunctions can be processed spatially in parallel. Visual search for such items may be inefficient owing to within-dimension grouping between items.

  9. A Tuned Single Parameter for Representing Conjunction Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakaloic, D.; Hejduk, M. D.; Frigm, R. C.; Newman, L. K.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite conjunction assessment risk analysis is a subjective enterprise that can benefit from quantitative aids and, to this end, NASA/GSFC has developed a fuzzy logic construct - called the F-value - to attempt to provide a statement of conjunction risk that amalgamates multiple indices and yields a more stable intra-event assessment. This construct has now sustained an extended tuning procedure against heuristic analyst assessment of event risk. The tuning effort has resulted in modifications to the calculation procedure and the adjustment of tuning coefficients, producing a construct with both more predictive force and a better statement of its error.

  10. Temporal resolution for the perception of features and conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodelón, Clara; Fallah, Mazyar; Reynolds, John H

    2007-01-24

    The visual system decomposes stimuli into their constituent features, represented by neurons with different feature selectivities. How the signals carried by these feature-selective neurons are integrated into coherent object representations is unknown. To constrain the set of possible integrative mechanisms, we quantified the temporal resolution of perception for color, orientation, and conjunctions of these two features. We find that temporal resolution is measurably higher for each feature than for their conjunction, indicating that time is required to integrate features into a perceptual whole. This finding places temporal limits on the mechanisms that could mediate this form of perceptual integration.

  11. The Description of Conjunction Found in the Novel The Man in The Iron Mask

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Florencia M

    2015-01-01

    This paper entiled ”The Description of Conjunction Found in the Novel The Man in The Iron Mask” is about the conjunctions used in the sentences of novel. This paper give information about how to used conjunctions when someone make a paper in writing. The writer uses the library research to collecting books and papers related to the topic also discussed and find out the types of conjunctions and the structure transformation of conjunction .They are Coordinating conjunction and Subordinating co...

  12. Distribution of conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    approach, and the information packaging approach. ... information structure. = morphology. Examples of conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga, isiZulu, Siswati, and Setswana are shown in (2). Descriptively speaking, the ... Updating the focus-based approach, Creissels (2014) argues for an information packaging.

  13. Bottom-up guidance in visual search for conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Understanding the relative role of top-down and bottom-up guidance is crucial for models of visual search. Previous studies have addressed the role of top-down and bottom-up processes in search for a conjunction of features but with inconsistent results. Here, the author used an attentional capture method to address the role of top-down and bottom-up processes in conjunction search. The role of bottom-up processing was assayed by inclusion of an irrelevant-size singleton in a search for a conjunction of color and orientation. One object was uniquely larger on each trial, with chance probability of coinciding with the target; thus, the irrelevant feature of size was not predictive of the target's location. Participants searched more efficiently for the target when it was also the size singleton, and they searched less efficiently for the target when a nontarget was the size singleton. Although a conjunction target cannot be detected on the basis of bottom-up processing alone, participants used search strategies that relied significantly on bottom-up guidance in finding the target, resulting in interference from the irrelevant-size singleton.

  14. Presentation of words to separate hemispheres prevents interword illusory conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liederman, J; Sohn, Y S

    1999-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that division of inputs between the hemispheres could prevent interword letter migrations in the form of illusory conjunctions. The task was to decide whether a centrally-presented consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) target word matched one of four CVC words presented to a single hemisphere or divided between the hemispheres in a subsequent test display. During half of the target-absent trials, known as conjunction trials, letters from two separate words (e.g., "tag" and "cop") in the test display could be mistaken for a target word (e.g., "top"). For the other half of the target-absent trails, the test display did not match any target consonants (Experiment 1, N = 16) or it matched one target consonant (Experiment 2, N = 29), the latter constituting true "feature" trials. Bi- as compared to unihemispheric presentation significantly reduced the number of conjunction, but not feature, errors. Illusory conjunctions did not occur when the words were presented to separate hemispheres.

  15. Working memory for conjunctions relies on the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Page, Katie; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Chatterjee, Anjan; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2006-04-26

    A prominent theory of hippocampal function proposes that the hippocampus is importantly involved in relating or binding together separate pieces of information to form an episodic representation. This hypothesis has only been applied to studies of long-term memory because the paradigmatic view of the hippocampus is that it is not critical for short-term forms of memory. However, relational processing is important in many working memory tasks, especially tasks using visual stimuli. Here, we test the hypothesis that the medial temporal lobes are important for relational memory even over short delays. The task required patients with medial temporal lobe amnesia and controls to remember three objects, locations, or object-location conjunctions over 1 or 8 s delays. The results show that working memory for objects and locations was at normal levels, but that memory for conjunctions was severely impaired at 8 s delays. Additional analyses suggest that the hippocampus per se is critical for accurate conjunction working memory. We propose that the hippocampus is critically involved in memory for conjunctions at both short and long delays.

  16. The Development of Conjunction Use in Advanced L2 Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszek, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the results of a longitudinal study of how the use of conjunctions, as an aspect of spoken discourse competence of 13 selected advanced students of English, developed throughout their 3-year English as a foreign language (EFL) tertiary education. The analysis was carried out in relation to a number of variables, including 2…

  17. Illusory conjunctions reflect the time course of the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Juan; Privado, Jesús; de Liaño, Beatriz Gil-Gómez; Suero, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Illusory conjunctions in the time domain are binding errors for features from stimuli presented sequentially but in the same spatial position. A similar experimental paradigm is employed for the attentional blink (AB), an impairment of performance for the second of two targets when it is presented 200-500 msec after the first target. The analysis of errors along the time course of the AB allows the testing of models of illusory conjunctions. In an experiment, observers identified one (control condition) or two (experimental condition) letters in a specified color, so that illusory conjunctions in each response could be linked to specific positions in the series. Two items in the target colors (red and white, embedded in distractors of different colors) were employed in four conditions defined according to whether both targets were in the same or different colors. Besides the U-shaped function for hits, the errors were analyzed by calculating several response parameters reflecting characteristics such as the average position of the responses or the attentional suppression during the blink. The several error parameters cluster in two time courses, as would be expected from prevailing models of the AB. Furthermore, the results match the predictions from Botella, Barriopedro, and Suero's (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27, 1452-1467, 2001) model for illusory conjunctions.

  18. Conjunction Errors in Recognition: Emergent Structure and Metacognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Pictures consisted of component halves from either the same photographic scene (SS) or different scenes (DS). SS pictures possessed the emergent property of forming a continuous scene. In Experiment 1, conjunction lures were created by rearranging halves from studied DS pictures into new DS or SS lures. Despite equally familiar components,…

  19. Conjunctions in Argumentative Writing of Libyan Tertiary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Muftah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was an attempt to investigate the use of conjunctions in argumentative essays written by English as a Foreign Language fourth-year undergraduate Libyan students majoring in English at Omar Al-Mukhtar University in Libya. A corpus of 32 argumentative essays was collected from a sample of 16 students in order to be investigated…

  20. The Conjunction Fallacy and the Many Meanings of "And"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Ralph; Benz, Bjorn; Krauss, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    According to the conjunction rule, the probability of A "and" B cannot exceed the probability of either single event. This rule reads "and" in terms of the logical operator [inverted v], interpreting A and B as an intersection of two events. As linguists have long argued, in natural language "and" can convey a wide range of relationships between…

  1. Discrimination of single features and conjunctions by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Chevalier, H; Lobaugh, N J

    2003-12-01

    Stimuli that are discriminated by a conjunction of features can show more rapid early processing in adults. To determine how this facilitation effect develops, the processing of visual features and their conjunction was examined in 7-12-year-old children. The children completed a series of tasks in which they made a target-non-target judgement as a function of shape only, colour only or shape and colour features, while event-related potentials were recorded. To assess early stages of feature processing the posteriorly distributed P1 and N1 were analysed. Attentional effects were seen for both components. P1 had a shorter latency and P1 and N1 had larger amplitudes to targets than non-targets. Task effects were driven by the conjunction task. P1 amplitude was largest, while N1 amplitude was smallest for the conjunction targets. In contrast to larger left-sided N1 in adults, N1 had a symmetrical distribution in the children. N1 latency was shortest for the conjunction targets in the 9-10-year olds and 11-12-year olds, demonstrating facilitation in children, but which continued to develop over the pre-teen years. These data underline the sensitivity of early stages of processing to both top-down modulations and the parallel binding of non-spatial features in young children. Furthermore, facilitation effects, increased speed of processing when features need to be conjoined, mature in mid-childhood, arguing against a hierarchical model of visual processing, and supporting a rapid, integrated facilitative model.

  2. Time Dependence of Collision Probabilities During Satellite Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Doyle T.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team has recently implemented updated software to calculate the probability of collision (P (sub c)) for Earth-orbiting satellites. The algorithm can employ complex dynamical models for orbital motion, and account for the effects of non-linear trajectories as well as both position and velocity uncertainties. This “3D P (sub c)” method entails computing a 3-dimensional numerical integral for each estimated probability. Our analysis indicates that the 3D method provides several new insights over the traditional “2D P (sub c)” method, even when approximating the orbital motion using the relatively simple Keplerian two-body dynamical model. First, the formulation provides the means to estimate variations in the time derivative of the collision probability, or the probability rate, R (sub c). For close-proximity satellites, such as those orbiting in formations or clusters, R (sub c) variations can show multiple peaks that repeat or blend with one another, providing insight into the ongoing temporal distribution of risk. For single, isolated conjunctions, R (sub c) analysis provides the means to identify and bound the times of peak collision risk. Additionally, analysis of multiple actual archived conjunctions demonstrates that the commonly used “2D P (sub c)” approximation can occasionally provide inaccurate estimates. These include cases in which the 2D method yields negligibly small probabilities (e.g., P (sub c)) is greater than 10 (sup -10)), but the 3D estimates are sufficiently large to prompt increased monitoring or collision mitigation (e.g., P (sub c) is greater than or equal to 10 (sup -5)). Finally, the archive analysis indicates that a relatively efficient calculation can be used to identify which conjunctions will have negligibly small probabilities. This small-P (sub c) screening test can significantly speed the overall risk analysis computation for large numbers of conjunctions.

  3. Storage of features, conjunctions and objects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, E K; Woodman, G F; Luck, S J

    2001-02-01

    Working memory can be divided into separate subsystems for verbal and visual information. Although the verbal system has been well characterized, the storage capacity of visual working memory has not yet been established for simple features or for conjunctions of features. The authors demonstrate that it is possible to retain information about only 3-4 colors or orientations in visual working memory at one time. Observers are also able to retain both the color and the orientation of 3-4 objects, indicating that visual working memory stores integrated objects rather than individual features. Indeed, objects defined by a conjunction of four features can be retained in working memory just as well as single-feature objects, allowing many individual features to be retained when distributed across a small number of objects. Thus, the capacity of visual working memory must be understood in terms of integrated objects rather than individual features.

  4. Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Hall, M D; Pressing, J

    2001-02-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined short-term memory for pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Participants were presented a target sequence consisting of 2 tones (Experiment 1) or 7 tones (Experiments 2 and 3) and then a probe tone. Participants indicated whether the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones in both pitch and duration. Error rates were relatively low if the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones or if it differed from target tones in pitch, duration, or both. Error rates were remarkably high, however, if the probe tone combined the pitch of 1 target tone with the duration of a different target tone. The results suggest that illusory conjunctions of these dimensions frequently occur. A mathematical model is presented that accounts for the relative contribution of pitch errors, duration errors, and illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration.

  5. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Space Object Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F Landis

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how satellite owner/operators may use sequential estimates of collision probability, along with a prior assessment of the base risk of collision, in a compound hypothesis ratio test to inform decisions concerning collision risk mitigation maneuvers. The compound hypothesis test reduces to a simple probability ratio test, which appears to be a novel result. The test satisfies tolerances related to targeted false alarm and missed detection rates. This result is independent of the method one uses to compute the probability density that one integrates to compute collision probability. A well-established test case from the literature shows that this test yields acceptable results within the constraints of a typical operational conjunction assessment decision timeline. Another example illustrates the use of the test in a practical conjunction assessment scenario based on operations of the International Space Station.

  6. Magnetotherapy in the treatment of viral conjunctivitis and keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Jarosław; Pasek, Tomasz; Herba, Ewa; Misiak, Anna; Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    Ocular infections are one of the most frequent causes of ailments among the patients coming to ophthalmologic offices. This article presents one of the physical medicine's methods--magnetotherapy--which uses the alternating low frequency magnetic fields in the therapy of viral conjunctivitis and keratitis in a 49-year-old female patient. Basing on the obtained results it was stated that this method broadens the treatment possibilities becoming a precious supplement and support treatment method in ophthalmology.

  7. Is There a Conjunction Fallacy in Legal Probabilistic Decision Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz W. Wojciechowski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Classical probability theory (CPT has represented the rational standard for decision making in human cognition. Even though CPT has provided many descriptively excellent decision models, there have also been some empirical results persistently problematic for CPT accounts. The tension between the normative prescription of CPT and human behavior is particularly acute in cases where we have higher expectations for rational decisions. One such case concerns legal decision making from legal experts, such as attorneys and prosecutors and, more so, judges. In the present research we explore one of the most influential CPT decision fallacies, the conjunction fallacy (CF, in a legal decision making task, involving assessing evidence that the same suspect had committed two separate crimes. The information for the two crimes was presented consecutively. Each participant was asked to provide individual ratings for the two crimes in some cases and conjunctive probability rating for both crimes in other cases, after all information had been presented. Overall, 360 probability ratings for guilt were collected from 120 participants, comprised of 40 judges, 40 attorneys and prosecutors, and 40 individuals without legal education. Our results provide evidence for a double conjunction fallacy (in this case, a higher probability of committing both crimes than the probability of committing either crime individually, in the group of individuals without legal education. These results are discussed in terms of their applied implications and in relation to a recent framework for understanding such results, quantum probability theory (QPT.

  8. Quantum Structure of Negation and Conjunction in Human Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik eAerts

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze in this paper the data collected in a set of experiments investigating how people combine natural concepts. We study the mutual influence of conceptual conjunction and negation by measuring the membership weights of a list of exemplars with respect to two concepts, e.g., {it Fruits} and {it Vegetables}, and their conjunction {it Fruits And Vegetables}, but also their conjunction when one or both concepts are negated, namely, {it Fruits And Not Vegetables}, {it Not Fruits And Vegetables} and {it Not Fruits And Not Vegetables}. Our findings sharpen and advance existing analysis on conceptual combinations, revealing systematic deviations from classical (fuzzy set logic and probability theory. And, more important, our results give further considerable evidence to the validity of our quantum-theoretic framework for the combination of two concepts. Indeed, the representation of conceptual negation naturally arises from the general assumptions of our two-sector Fock space model, and this representation faithfully agrees with the collected data. In addition, we find a new significant and a priori unexpected deviation from classicality, which can exactly be explained by assuming that human reasoning is the superposition of an `emergent reasoning' and a `logical reasoning', and that these two processes are represented in a Fock space algebraic structure.

  9. Quantum structure of negation and conjunction in human thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyze in this paper the data collected in a set of experiments investigating how people combine natural concepts. We study the mutual influence of conceptual conjunction and negation by measuring the membership weights of a list of exemplars with respect to two concepts, e.g., Fruits and Vegetables, and their conjunction Fruits And Vegetables, but also their conjunction when one or both concepts are negated, namely, Fruits And Not Vegetables, Not Fruits And Vegetables, and Not Fruits And Not Vegetables. Our findings sharpen and advance existing analysis on conceptual combinations, revealing systematic deviations from classical (fuzzy set) logic and probability theory. And, more important, our results give further considerable evidence to the validity of our quantum-theoretic framework for the combination of two concepts. Indeed, the representation of conceptual negation naturally arises from the general assumptions of our two-sector Fock space model, and this representation faithfully agrees with the collected data. In addition, we find a new significant and a priori unexpected deviation from classicality, which can exactly be explained by assuming that human reasoning is the superposition of an “emergent reasoning” and a “logical reasoning,” and that these two processes are represented in a Fock space algebraic structure. PMID:26483715

  10. Is There a Conjunction Fallacy in Legal Probabilistic Decision Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Bartosz W; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2018-01-01

    Classical probability theory (CPT) has represented the rational standard for decision making in human cognition. Even though CPT has provided many descriptively excellent decision models, there have also been some empirical results persistently problematic for CPT accounts. The tension between the normative prescription of CPT and human behavior is particularly acute in cases where we have higher expectations for rational decisions. One such case concerns legal decision making from legal experts, such as attorneys and prosecutors and, more so, judges. In the present research we explore one of the most influential CPT decision fallacies, the conjunction fallacy (CF), in a legal decision making task, involving assessing evidence that the same suspect had committed two separate crimes. The information for the two crimes was presented consecutively. Each participant was asked to provide individual ratings for the two crimes in some cases and conjunctive probability rating for both crimes in other cases, after all information had been presented. Overall, 360 probability ratings for guilt were collected from 120 participants, comprised of 40 judges, 40 attorneys and prosecutors, and 40 individuals without legal education. Our results provide evidence for a double conjunction fallacy (in this case, a higher probability of committing both crimes than the probability of committing either crime individually), in the group of individuals without legal education. These results are discussed in terms of their applied implications and in relation to a recent framework for understanding such results, quantum probability theory (QPT).

  11. Conjunctions in ELF academic discourse: a corpus-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Centonze

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Conjunctions as fundamental elements in the construction of discourse cohesion represent a relatively neglected research area, due to their complexity and the bewildering number of “conjunctive relations” (Halliday and Hasan 1976: 226 that they may express in context, as also highlighted in Christiansen (2011. In addition to this, there does not seem to be a shared view as far as the classification and denomination of the different kinds of conjunctions are concerned (cf. Halliday and Hasan 1976; Vande Kopple 1985; Martin and Rose 2003; Hyland 2005b. The selection of a specific type of conjunction acquires more importance because they are typically open to so many different interpretations, especially when the participants in the speech event come from diverse lingua-cultural backgrounds (cf. Guido 2007; Guido 2008; Cogo et al. 2011.Following the taxonomy provided by Halliday and Hasan (1976 for conjunctions, our study attempts to shed light on the usage of conjunctions by ELF speakers in specific contexts. We shall consider ten transcripts taken from the VOICE Corpus (Seidlhofer et. al 2013, namely five interviews and five conversations in multicultural academic contexts (approximately 4,000 words each, and analyze the number of instances for each type of conjunction (additive, adversative, clausal, temporal as well as continuatives in depth, by adopting a quantitative as well as a qualitative method and by using TextSTAT 2.9 (Huning 2012. We shall then move on to the analysis of conjunctions with respect to their internal properties/collocates and eventually see the occurrence of conjunctions by comparing them with the two different speech events which are chosen as the subject of our study, i.e. interviews and conversations. We shall see the extent to which certain conjunctions are more restricted than others in terms of usage (cf. Leung 2005 in both types of speech events, despite the great number of options available to the

  12. Conjunctive Management of Multi-Aquifer System for Saltwater Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, F. T. C.; Pham, H. V.

    2015-12-01

    Due to excessive groundwater withdrawals, many water wells in Baton Rouge, Louisiana experience undesirable chloride concentration because of saltwater intrusion. The study goal is to develop a conjunctive management framework that takes advantage of the Baton Rouge multi-aquifer system to mitigate saltwater intrusion. The conjunctive management framework utilizes several hydraulic control techniques to mitigate saltwater encroachment. These hydraulic control approaches include pumping well relocation, freshwater injection, saltwater scavenging, and their combinations. Specific objectives of the study are: (1) constructing scientific geologic architectures of the "800-foot" sand, the "1,000-foot" sand, the "1,200-foot" sand, the "1,500-foot" sand, the "1,700-foot" sand, and the "2,000-foot" sand, (2) developing scientific saltwater intrusion models for these sands. (3) using connector wells to draw native groundwater from one sand and inject to another sand to create hydraulic barriers to halt saltwater intrusion, (4) using scavenger wells or well couples to impede saltwater intrusion progress and reduce chloride concentration in pumping wells, and (5) reducing cones of depression by relocating and dispersing pumping wells to different sands. The study utilizes optimization techniques and newest LSU high performance computing (HPC) facilities to derive solutions. The conjunctive management framework serves as a scientific tool to assist policy makers to solve the urgent saltwater encroachment issue in the Baton Rouge area. The research results will help water companies as well as industries in East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring parishes by reducing their saltwater intrusion threats, which in turn would sustain Capital Area economic development.

  13. Evaluating the efficacy of epinastine ophthalmic solution using a conjunctivitis allergen challenge model in patients with birch pollen allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Yoshiaki; Namba, Kenichi; Nakazono, Yumi; Iwata, Daiju; Ishida, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    The efficacy of epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution for pollen allergic conjunctivitis has already been shown in a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) test using cedar pollen as a challenge. The present study investigated the efficacy of this solution against birch pollen conjunctivitis in a CAC test. Ten adult subjects (eight males and two females) with asymptomatic birch pollen conjunctivitis were enrolled in this study. The average age of the subjects was 41.1 years. This study was conducted during a period without birch pollen dispersion. In each subject, the epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution was instilled in one eye, and an artificial tear fluid was instilled in the fellow eye in a double-blind manner. Five minutes or 4 h after the drug instillation, both eyes were challenged with an optimal concentration of birch pollen, and ocular itching and conjunctival hyperemia were then graded. Tears were collected before the drug instillation and 20 min after the pollen challenge, and the histamine level was measured. The ocular itching scores and palpebral conjunctival hyperemia scores of the epinastine-treated eyes were significantly lower than those of the contralateral control eyes when the eyes were pretreated with the drug 4 h before the CAC. There was a significant correlation between the tear histamine level and mean ocular itching score of three time points (3, 5 and 10 min) following the CAC in the control eyes but not the epinastine-treated eyes. Epinastine is effective in suppressing ocular itching and conjunctival hyperemia in birch pollen conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diabetic foot ulcers in conjunction with lower limb lymphedema: pathophysiology and treatment procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanapathy M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Muholan Kanapathy,1 Mark J Portou,1,2 Janice Tsui,1,2 Toby Richards1,21Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, 2Department of Vascular Surgery, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs are complex, chronic, and progressive wounds, and have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. A particular aspect of DFU that has not been reviewed extensively thus far is its management in conjunction with peripheral limb edema. Peripheral limb edema is a feature of diabetes that has been identified as a significant risk factor for amputation in patients with DFU. Three major etiological factors in development of lymphedema with concurrent DFU are diabetic microangiopathy, failure of autonomic regulation, and recurrent infection. This review outlines the pathophysiology of lymphedema formation in patients with DFU and highlights the cellular and immune components of impaired wound healing in lymphedematous DFU. We then discuss the principles of management of DFU in conjunction with lymphedema.Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, lymphedema, chronic wound, wound management

  15. Conjunctive use Management under Uncertainty in Aquifer Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammad Rezapour Tabari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctive use operation policies play a vital role in the sustainability of water resources and their optimal allocation. To be realistic conditions of real water resource system should be considered in simulation and derivation of operating rules of real-world water resource system. In this research, the combined fuzzy logic and direct search optimization technique is used to account for the uncertainty associated with parameters affecting groundwater table level fluctuations. These parameters include specific yields and inflow recharge and outflow discharge from the aquifer, which are typically uncertain. A membership function is determined for each parameter using hydrogeologic and piezometric data. For each membership value ( level cut, the corresponding intervals are determined. These intervals are considered as constraints on the membership value of the groundwater table level fluctuations in the optimization model. The process is repeated for other  level cuts to obtain the fuzzy number. For the uncertainty influencing the water demands, a conjunctive use model with water resources constraints is developed. Using this model, the priorities for the different zones and their optimal allocations are determined. The results show that the better the real conditions are reflected in the conjunctive use model, the better will the system be reliably capable of handling the water demands. The results of the proposed model also indicate that it present reliable allocations compared to the static conventional models and that it performs more desirably and practically in allocating supplies to water demands as it duly includes the opinions of the decision-makers involved.

  16. Parietal lesions produce illusory conjunction errors in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond PIERRE Kesner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When several different objects are presented, visual objects are perceived correctly only if their features are identified and then bound together. Illusory-conjunction errors result when an object is correctly identified but is combined incorrectly. The parietal cortex (PPC has been shown repeatedly to play an important role in feature binding. The present study builds on a series of recent studies that have made use of visual search paradigms to elucidate the neural system involved in feature binding. This experiment attempts to define the role the PPC plays in binding the properties of a visual object that varies on the features of color and size in rats. Rats with PPC lesions or control surgery were exposed to three blocks of 20 trials administered over a 1-week period, with each block containing ten-one feature and ten-two feature trials. The target object consisted of one color object (e.g. black and white and one size object (e.g. short and tall. Of the ten one feature trials, five of the trials were tailored specifically for size discrimination and five for color discrimination. In the two-feature condition, the animal was required to locate the targeted object among four objects with two objects differing in size and two objects differing in color. The results showed a significant decrease in learning the task for the PPC lesioned rats compared to controls, especially for the two-feature condition. Based on a subsequent error analysis for color and size, the results showed a significant increase in illusory conjunction errors for the PPC lesioned rats relative to controls for color and relative to color discrimination, suggesting that the PPC may support feature binding as it relates to color. There was an increase in illusory conjunctions errors for both the PPC lesioned and control animals for size, but this appeared to be due to a difficulty with size discrimination.

  17. Parallel search for conjunctions with stimuli in apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, C; Ganis, G

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine whether apparent motion tends to follow the similarity rule (i.e. is attribute-specific) and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Stimulus duration thresholds were measured during a two-alternative forced-choice task in which observers detected either the location or the motion direction of target groups defined by the conjunction of size and orientation. Target element positions were randomly chosen within a nominally defined rectangular subregion of the display (target region). The target region was presented either statically (followed by a 250 ms duration mask) or dynamically, displaced by a small distance (18 min of arc) from frame to frame. In the motion display, the position of both target and background elements was changed randomly from frame to frame within the respective areas to abolish spatial correspondence over time. Stimulus duration thresholds were lower in the motion than in the static task, indicating that target detection in the dynamic condition does not rely on the explicit identification of target elements in each static frame. Increasing the distractor-to-target ratio was found to reduce detectability in the static, but not in the motion task. This indicates that the perceptual segregation of the target is effortless and parallel with motion but not with static displays. The pattern of results holds regardless of the task or search paradigm employed. The detectability in the motion condition can be improved by increasing the number of frames and/or by reducing the width of the target area. Furthermore, parallel search in the dynamic condition can be conducted with both short-range and long-range motion stimuli. Finally, apparent motion of conjunctions is insufficient on its own to support location decision and is disrupted by random visual noise. Overall, these findings show that (i) the mechanism underlying apparent motion is attribute-specific; (ii) the motion system mediates temporal

  18. Trades Between Opposition and Conjunction Class Trajectories for Early Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Shyface, Hilary; Komar, David R.; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2014-01-01

    Candidate human missions to Mars, including NASA's Design Reference Architecture 5.0, have focused on conjunction-class missions with long crewed durations and minimum energy trajectories to reduce total propellant requirements and total launch mass. However, in order to progressively reduce risk and gain experience in interplanetary mission operations, it may be desirable that initial human missions to Mars, whether to the surface or to Mars orbit, have shorter total crewed durations and minimal stay times at the destination. Opposition-class missions require larger total energy requirements relative to conjunction-class missions but offer the potential for much shorter mission durations, potentially reducing risk and overall systems performance requirements. This paper will present a detailed comparison of conjunction-class and opposition-class human missions to Mars vicinity with a focus on how such missions could be integrated into the initial phases of a Mars exploration campaign. The paper will present the results of a trade study that integrates trajectory/propellant analysis, element design, logistics and sparing analysis, and risk assessment to produce a comprehensive comparison of opposition and conjunction exploration mission constructs. Included in the trade study is an assessment of the risk to the crew and the trade offs between the mission duration and element, logistics, and spares mass. The analysis of the mission trade space was conducted using four simulation and analysis tools developed by NASA. Trajectory analyses for Mars destination missions were conducted using VISITOR (Versatile ImpulSive Interplanetary Trajectory OptimizeR), an in-house tool developed by NASA Langley Research Center. Architecture elements were evaluated using EXploration Architecture Model for IN-space and Earth-to-orbit (EXAMINE), a parametric modeling tool that generates exploration architectures through an integrated systems model. Logistics analysis was conducted using

  19. Cognitive Mapping Based on Conjunctive Representations of Space and Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenge to build robust simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM system in dynamical large-scale environments. Inspired by recent findings in the entorhinal–hippocampal neuronal circuits, we propose a cognitive mapping model that includes continuous attractor networks of head-direction cells and conjunctive grid cells to integrate velocity information by conjunctive encodings of space and movement. Visual inputs from the local view cells in the model provide feedback cues to correct drifting errors of the attractors caused by the noisy velocity inputs. We demonstrate the mapping performance of the proposed cognitive mapping model on an open-source dataset of 66 km car journey in a 3 km × 1.6 km urban area. Experimental results show that the proposed model is robust in building a coherent semi-metric topological map of the entire urban area using a monocular camera, even though the image inputs contain various changes caused by different light conditions and terrains. The results in this study could inspire both neuroscience and robotic research to better understand the neural computational mechanisms of spatial cognition and to build robust robotic navigation systems in large-scale environments.

  20. Optic Nerve Injury in a Patient with Chronic Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribhi Hazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the optic nerve can lead to irreversible vision changes. We present a patient with a past medical history of skin allergy and allergic conjunctivitis (AC who presented with insidious unexplained unilateral vision loss. Physical exam revealed significant blepharospasm, mild lid edema, bulbar conjunctival hyperemia, afferent pupillary defect, and slight papillary hypertrophy. Slit lamp examination demonstrated superior and inferior conjunctival scarring as well as superior corneal scarring but no signs of external trauma or neurological damage were noted. Conjunctival cultures and cytologic evaluation demonstrated significant eosinophilic infiltration. Subsequent ophthalmoscopic examination revealed optic nerve atrophy. Upon further questioning, the patient admitted to vigorous itching of the affected eye for many months. Given the presenting symptoms, history, and negative ophthalmological workup, it was determined that the optic nerve atrophy was likely secondary to digital pressure from vigorous itching. Although AC can be a significant source of decreased vision via corneal ulceration, no reported cases have ever described AC-induced vision loss of this degree from vigorous itching and chronic pressure leading to optic nerve damage. Despite being self-limiting in nature, allergic conjunctivitis should be properly managed as extreme cases can result in mechanical compression of the optic nerve and compromise vision.

  1. Effect of rasanjana madhu ashchyotana in netra abhishyanda (mucopurulent conjunctivitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Atul; Tanwar, Manoj

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the comparative efficacy of Ayurvedic formulation a Rasanjana Madhu (RM) eye drops and Honey Rose (HR) water eye drops in Netra Abhishyanda in mucopurulent conjunctivitis, the current study is planned. Total of 35 patients attending the outpatient department of Shalakya Tantra at R. G. G. Postgraduate Ayurvedic College, Paprola, Distt. Kangra, Himachal Pradesh with characteristic features of Netra Abhishyanda were selected for the present study. Twenty patients were given trial drug, i.e., RM eye drops, while 15 patients were given HR eye drops. Random sampling technique was adopted for the present study. The duration of the treatment was 7 days with 1 week follow-up. Patients receiving the trial group demonstrated reduction of redness, burning sensation, lacrimation, photophobia, foreign body sensation, discharge, and congestion, which were statistically significant with 93% patients cured or markedly improved category. Signs and symptoms stated above were also statistically reduced with HR eye drops, probably because of well-documented hygroscopic and bacteriocidal properties of honey. Based on the study, it can be concluded that, RM eye drops are very effective in the management of Netra Abhishyanda viz. Infective conjunctivitis.

  2. Effects of vernal and allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Cinar, Yasin; Turkcu, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Yuksel, Harun; Sahin, Muhammed; Caca, Ihsan

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the effects of two different types of allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus (KC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 171 KC patients referred between June 2010 and June 2011. The KC patients were divided into 3 groups as KC (group A), KC with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) (group B) and KC with allergic conjunctivitis (AC) (group C). Main outcome measures were demographic and ocular clinical features including age at presentation, gender, spherical equivalent (SE), best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA), mean keratometric measurement (Km), central corneal thickness (CCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP). Groups were compared in term of study variables. The median age at presentation was significantly lower in group B (P<0.001). According to the median SE (P=0.003), BCVA (P=0.022), Km (P<0.001), CCT (P=0.015) and Amsler-Krumeich classification (P<0.001), KC was more severe in group B. There was no significant difference in terms of IOP and corrected IOP among the groups (P=0.44), however there were 4 patients who had increased corrected IOP developed after topical corticosteroid use in group B. The differences among the groups persisted even after controlling for age and gender. Our findings demonstrated a more severe KC in VKC patients despite their younger age which suggests evaluation of VKC patients as a separate group in keratoconus disease.

  3. Effects of vernal and allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Sahin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To demonstrate the effects of two different types of allergic conjunctivitis on severity of keratoconus (KC.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 171 KC patients referred between June 2010 and June 2011. The KC patients were divided into 3 groups as KC (group A, KC with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC (group B and KC with allergic conjunctivitis (AC (group C. Main outcome measures were demographic and ocular clinical features including age at presentation, gender, spherical equivalent (SE, best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BCVA, mean keratometric measurement (Km, central corneal thickness (CCT, and intraocular pressure (IOP. Groups were compared in term of study variables. RESULTS: The median age at presentation was significantly lower in group B (P<0.001. According to the median SE (P=0.003, BCVA (P=0.022, Km (P<0.001, CCT (P=0.015 and Amsler–Krumeich classification (P<0.001, KC was more severe in group B. There was no significant difference in terms of IOP and corrected IOP among the groups (P=0.44, however there were 4 patients who had increased corrected IOP developed after topical corticosteroid use in group B. The differences among the groups persisted even after controlling for age and gender.CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated a more severe KC in VKC patients despite their younger age which suggests evaluation of VKC patients as a separate group in keratoconus disease.

  4. Unconscious analyses of visual scenes based on feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2015-06-01

    To efficiently process a cluttered scene, the visual system analyzes statistical properties or regularities of visual elements embedded in the scene. It is controversial, however, whether those scene analyses could also work for stimuli unconsciously perceived. Here we show that our brain performs the unconscious scene analyses not only using a single featural cue (e.g., orientation) but also based on conjunctions of multiple visual features (e.g., combinations of color and orientation information). Subjects foveally viewed a stimulus array (duration: 50 ms) where 4 types of bars (red-horizontal, red-vertical, green-horizontal, and green-vertical) were intermixed. Although a conscious perception of those bars was inhibited by a subsequent mask stimulus, the brain correctly analyzed the information about color, orientation, and color-orientation conjunctions of those invisible bars. The information of those features was then used for the unconscious configuration analysis (statistical processing) of the central bars, which induced a perceptual bias and illusory feature binding in visible stimuli at peripheral locations. While statistical analyses and feature binding are normally 2 key functions of the visual system to construct coherent percepts of visual scenes, our results show that a high-level analysis combining those 2 functions is correctly performed by unconscious computations in the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Development of an Allergic Conjunctivitis Model in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kocatürk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To develop an animal model that simulates human allergic conjunctivitis to understand the physiopathogenesis of allergic diseases and for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Ma te ri al and Met hod: BALB/c mice (12 males were divided into two groups each comprised of six mice. For sensitization, on the 1st and 8th days, a 0.2 ml mixed solution, adjusted to a concentration to 5mg/ml of ovalbumin (OVA and 15mg/ml of aluminium hydroxide, was administered intraperitoneally to the mice in Group 1 and 0.2 ml saline solution to the mice in Group 2. To induce experimental allergic conjunctivitis, an antigen challenge was made on days 15 and 18, using an OVA solution (5mg/ml instilled into both eyes of the mice in Group 1; while the mice in Group 2 received Human Balanced Salt Solution instead of OVA. For the clinical evaluation, the occurrence of conjunctival and palpebral oedema, conjunctival hyperaemia, and lacrimation were observed. For the histological examination, eyeballs, eyelids, and lacrimal glands were removed and prepared according to the routine processing method of the tissue laboratory. Immunohistochemical examination was made with mast cell tryptase using the labeled streptavidin–biotin amplification method and 3.3´-diaminobenzidine, in addition to hematoxylin-eosin (HE, and toluidine blue (TB staining. Re sults: Evident conjunctival oedema, palpebral oedema, conjunctival hyperaemia, and lacrimation were observed in Group 1. Mean mast cell density in cells/mm2, infiltrating the subconjunctival tissue was significantly high in Group 1 (allergy group, 23.17±7.46, p<0.0001 when compared to Group 2 (5.58±3.12. There was no increase in eosinophil and lymphocyte counts as well as vascular intensity in the subconjunctival tissue in any group. Dis cus si on: The murine model developed is similar to the human allergic conjunctivitis both clinically and histopathologically and can be used as a template for future studies

  6. Conjunctive irrigation through groundwater for crop production in Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.S.; Singh, J.P.; Singh, S.R.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-05-01

    Ground water is the most reliable source for irrigation, quantum of which varies from place to place, rainfall, infiltration, geographical strata and surface ecology. The development of ground water in conjunction with surface within canal commands not only assures a reliable source of irrigation, it also helps in alleviation of water logging in the command due to excess seepage and unscientific water use by facilitating vertical drainage mechanism. The ground water resource needs to be developed in order to enhance area and timeliness of irrigation supply and overall agricultural productivity of land. In the high potential - low productivity areas in Assam, Bihar and West Bengal, A.P. and NE states, there is an immense potential to improve agricultural productivity through systematic groundwater exploitation. (author)

  7. Working memory for visual features and conjunctions in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, James M; Wilk, Christopher M; McMahon, Robert P; Buchanan, Robert W; Luck, Steven J

    2003-02-01

    The visual working memory (WM) storage capacity of patients with schizophrenia was investigated using a change detection paradigm. Participants were presented with 2, 3, 4, or 6 colored bars with testing of both single feature (color, orientation) and feature conjunction conditions. Patients performed significantly worse than controls at all set sizes but demonstrated normal feature binding. Unlike controls, patient WM capacity declined at set size 6 relative to set size 4. Impairments with subcapacity arrays suggest a deficit in task set maintenance: Greater impairment for supercapacity set sizes suggests a deficit in the ability to selectively encode information for WM storage. Thus, the WM impairment in schizophrenia appears to be a consequence of attentional deficits rather than a reduction in storage capacity.

  8. On the acquisition of temporal conjunctions in Finnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M

    2001-03-01

    This study concerns the acquisition of complex sentence structures in Finnish. Specifically, three simultaneous and sequential events were acted out with toys in an elicitation task, and the production of "and," "and then," "when," and "after" were observed. There were 48 children in a cross-sectional design at the age levels 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Immediately after the complex event was presented, the child was asked the initial request "What happened?" If the child did not produce the whole event spontaneously, she or he was prompted by "What else happened?" Finally, the prompted request "When did X?" was asked (X referring to the second action component of the event). The results showed that prompting better revealed the ability of the children, especially that of the younger ones, to use temporal conjunctions in complex sentences, as well as the delicate interplay of language skills and their flexible use.

  9. Cross-modal illusory conjunctions between vision and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinel, Caterina; Humphreys, Glyn W; Poli, Riccardo

    2002-10-01

    Cross-modal illusory conjunctions (ICs) happen when, under conditions of divided attention, felt textures are reported as being seen or vice versa. Experiments provided evidence for these errors, demonstrated that ICs are more frequent if tactile and visual stimuli are in the same hemispace, and showed that ICs still occur under forced-choice conditions but do not occur when attention to the felt texture is increased. Cross-modal ICs were also found in a patient with parietal damage even with relatively long presentations of visual stimuli. The data are consistent with there being cross-modal integration of sensory information, with the modality of origin sometimes being misattributed when attention is constrained. The empirical conclusions from the experiments are supported by formal models.

  10. On the Determinants of the Conjunction Fallacy: Probability versus Inductive Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Katya; Crupi, Vincenzo; Russo, Selena

    2013-01-01

    Major recent interpretations of the conjunction fallacy postulate that people assess the probability of a conjunction according to (non-normative) averaging rules as applied to the constituents' probabilities or represent the conjunction fallacy as an effect of random error in the judgment process. In the present contribution, we contrast such…

  11. The complexity of narrative interferes in the use of conjunctions in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Deborah Oliveira; Cáceres, Ana Manhani; Bento-Gaz, Ana Carolina Paiva; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2012-01-01

    To verify the use of conjunctions in narratives, and to investigate the influence of stimuli's complexity over the type of conjunctions used by children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language development. Participants were 40 children (20 with typical language development and 20 with SLI) with ages between 7 and 10 years, paired by age range. Fifteen stories with increasing of complexity were used to obtain the narratives; stories were classified into mechanical, behavioral and intentional, and each of them was represented by four scenes. Narratives were analyzed according to occurrence and classification of conjunctions. Both groups used more coordinative than subordinate conjunctions, with significant decrease in the use of conjunctions in the discourse of SLI children. The use of conjunctions varied according to the type of narrative: for coordinative conjunctions, both groups differed only between intentional and behavioral narratives, with higher occurrence in behavioral ones; for subordinate conjunctions, typically developing children's performance did not show differences between narratives, while SLI children presented fewer occurrences in intentional narratives, which was different from other narratives. Both groups used more coordinative than subordinate conjunctions; however, typically developing children presented more conjunctions than SLI children. The production of children with SLI was influenced by stimulus, since more complex narratives has less use of subordinate conjunctions.

  12. Clinical implications of mast cell involvement in allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elieh Ali Komi, D; Rambasek, T; Bielory, L

    2018-03-01

    The conjunctiva is a common site for the allergic inflammatory response due to it being highly vascularized, having constant exposure to environmental pollutants and allergenic pollens and having a unique conjunctival associated lymphoid tissue. The primary morbidity of anterior surface conjunctival disorders that include allergic conjunctivitis and tear film disorders is associated with its high frequency of involvement rather than its severity, although the more chronic forms can involve the cornea and lead to sight-threatening conditions. Ocular allergy is associated with IgE-mediated mast cell activation in conjunctival tissue leading to the release of preformed mediators including histamine and proteases and subsequent de novo formation of lipid-derived mediators and cytokines that trigger a cascade of cellular and molecular events leading to extensive migration and infiltration of inflammatory cells to the ocular surface. The trafficking of neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes to the ocular surface is due to establishing various chemokine gradients (mainly CCL11, CCL24, CCL5, MCP-3, and MCP-4), cell surface expression of adhesion molecules (such as VCAM-1 the ligand for VLA-4), and leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. The release of preformed mediators underlies the acute ocular surface response while the secondary influx of inflammatory cells leading to the recruitment and activation of eosinophils and the subsequent activation of Th2 and Th1 lymphocytes at the level of the conjunctiva reflects the late-phase reaction. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  13. Illusory conjunctions in simultanagnosia: coarse coding of visual feature location?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Simon M; Buxbaum, Laurel J; Coslett, H Branch

    2006-01-01

    Simultanagnosia is a disorder characterized by an inability to see more than one object at a time. We report a simultanagnosic patient (ED) with bilateral posterior infarctions who produced frequent illusory conjunctions on tasks involving form and surface features (e.g., a red T) and form alone. ED also produced "blend" errors in which features of one familiar perceptual unit appeared to migrate to another familiar perceptual unit (e.g., "RO" read as "PQ"). ED often misread scrambled letter strings as a familiar word (e.g., "hmoe" read as "home"). Finally, ED's success in reporting two letters in an array was inversely related to the distance between the letters. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ED's illusory reflect coarse coding of visual feature location that is ameliorated in part by top-down information from object and word recognition systems; the findings are also consistent, however, with Treisman's Feature Integration Theory. Finally, the data provide additional support for the claim that the dorsal parieto-occipital cortex is implicated in the binding of visual feature information.

  14. Illusory conjunctions are alive and well: a reply to Donk (1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzmetal, W; Diedrichsen, J; Ivry, R B

    2001-06-01

    When presented with a red T and a green O, observers occasionally make conjunction responses and indicate that they saw a green T. These errors have been interpreted as reflecting separable processing stages of feature detection and integration with the illusory conjunctions arising from a failure at the integration stage. Recently, M. Donk (1999) asserted that the phenomenon of illusory conjunctions is an artifact. Conjunction reports are actually the result of confusing a nontarget item (O in the example above) for a target item (the letter T) and (correctly) reporting the color associated with the (incorrectly) selected target. The authors demonstrate that although target-nontarget confusion errors are a potential source of conjunction reports, there is a plethora of findings that cannot be accounted for by this confusion model. A review of the literature indicates that in many studies, illusory conjunctions do result from a failure to properly integrate features.

  15. Attribute conjunctions and the part configuration advantage in object category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, J; Hummel, J E

    1996-07-01

    Five experiments demonstrated that in object category learning people are particularly sensitive to conjunctions of part shapes and relative locations. Participants learned categories defined by a part's shape and color (part-color conjunctions) or by a part's shape and its location relative to another part (part-location conjunctions). The statistical properties of the categories were identical across these conditions, as were the salience of color and relative location. Participants were better at classifying objects defined by part-location conjunctions than objects defined by part-color conjunctions. Subsequent experiments revealed that this effect was not due to the specific color manipulation or the role of location per se. These results suggest that the shape bias in object categorization is at least partly due to sensitivity to part-location conjunctions and suggest a new processing constraint on category learning.

  16. Genetic Relatedness among Nontypeable Pneumococci Implicated in Sporadic Cases of Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Jason H.; Musher, Daniel M.; Silberman, Ronald; Phan, Hoang M.; Watson, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of epidemic conjunctivitis. A previous molecular fingerprinting study identified a clone of nontypeable pneumococcus that was responsible for a recent outbreak of conjunctivitis. In the present study, we examined the extent to which pneumococci that cause sporadic cases of conjunctivitis are related to this epidemic strain. Using arbitrarily primed BOX-PCR, we have determined that, of 10 nontypeable pneumococci causing sporadic conjunctiv...

  17. A Preliminary Study of the Use of Conjunctions and the Quality of Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Taeko, Fujisaku

    1999-01-01

    This is a preliminary study that investigates the correlation between the use of conjunctions and the evaluation of writing by examining density and frequency of conjunctions used in student essay writing. Essays written by first-year university students are examined as the end product of high school English teaching in Japan. The results with the current data indicate that the quality of the written texts does not relate to mere density of the use of conjunctions or the use of complex conjun...

  18. Nonlinear Uncertainty Propagation of Satellite State Error for Tracking and Conjunction Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-18

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0177 TR-2017-0177 NONLINEAR UNCERTAINTY PROPAGATION OF SATELLITE STATE ERROR FOR TRACKING AND CONJUNCTION RISK...Uncertainty Propagation of Satellite State Error for Tracking and Conjunction Risk Assessment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-16-1-0084 5b. GRANT NUMBER...prediction and satellite conjunction analysis. Statistical approach utilizes novel methods to build better uncertainty state characterization in the context

  19. The Analysis of Conjunction Used in the Articles of Time Magazine.

    OpenAIRE

    Trisnawati, Nila

    2011-01-01

    Kertas karya yang berjudul “The Analysis of Conjunction Used in the Articles of Time Magazine” ini membahas tentang penggunaan conjunction dalam kalimat yang terdapat pada majalah Time. Penelitian ini mengambil 6 artikel sebagai bahan penelitiannya. Tujuan dari pemilihan topik kertas karya ini adalah untuk mengetahui tentang sejauh mana para jurnalis dari majalah tersebut menggunakan conjunction dalam tulisan-tulisan yang mereka hasilkan. Dalam mengerjakan kertas karya ini, ...

  20. CLIC Project Overview (In Conjunction with the Muon Collider Workshop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latina, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV in order to make the multi-TeV range accessible for physics. The current goal of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology by the year 2010. Recently, important progress has been made concerning the high-gradient accelerating structure tests and the experiments with beam in the CLIC test facility, CTF3. On the organizational side, the CLIC international collaborations have significantly gained momentum, boosting the CLIC study.

  1. Genetic Relatedness among Nontypeable Pneumococci Implicated in Sporadic Cases of Conjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jason H.; Musher, Daniel M.; Silberman, Ronald; Phan, Hoang M.; Watson, David A.

    1999-01-01

    Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of epidemic conjunctivitis. A previous molecular fingerprinting study identified a clone of nontypeable pneumococcus that was responsible for a recent outbreak of conjunctivitis. In the present study, we examined the extent to which pneumococci that cause sporadic cases of conjunctivitis are related to this epidemic strain. Using arbitrarily primed BOX-PCR, we have determined that, of 10 nontypeable pneumococci causing sporadic conjunctivitis, 5 were clonal and closely related to a previous outbreak strain, whereas 5 others were genetically diverse. PMID:10565927

  2. Recent trends in chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis among neonates and adults in an Irish hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, Michael

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are two important and frequently overlooked causes of neonatal and adult conjunctivitis. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In order to improve primary treatment, prevention, and control of infection caused by these organisms, an analysis of all cases presenting from July 2002 to December 2006 at a major Irish regional teaching hospital was performed. RESULTS: There were 51 cases of conjunctivitis in total. Among neonates and adults, C. trachomatis was the most common cause of conjunctivitis. Of the adult patients, 75% were men. The annual incidence of adult chlamydial conjunctivitis increased yearly from 2002 and correlated with an overall increase in genital chlamydia infection in the region. Neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis has an overall incidence of 0.65\\/1000 live births and is continuing to rise annually. In 2006, gonococcal conjunctivitis accounted for 20% of all cases of conjunctivitis caused by sexually transmitted bacteria presenting to our hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in the incidence of gonococcal keratitis serves to remind us that this important infection should be borne in mind when treating cases of purulent conjunctivitis. The diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment with systemic antibiotics.

  3. Illusory conjunctions die hard: a reply to Prinzmetal, Diedrichsen, and Ivry (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donk, M

    2001-06-01

    M. Donk (1999) showed that various data patterns that have been considered as evidence for the existence of illusory conjunctions may be due to errors of target-nontarget confusion, an account that challenges the mere existence of illusory conjunction. In a reply, W. Prinzmetal, J. Diedrichsen, and R. B. Ivry (2001) argued against this conclusion, claiming that some earlier findings can be explained only when one assumes that illusory conjunctions exist. The current article shows that Prinzmetal et al.'s claims cannot refute any of Donk's earlier conclusions, suggesting indeed that one can only conclude that "illusory conjunctions are an illusion."

  4. Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah. Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Holt, Rebecca [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Unconventional fuel development will require scarce water resources. In an environment characterized by scarcity, and where most water resources are fully allocated, prospective development will require minimizing water use and seeking to use water resources in the most efficient manner. Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater provides just such an opportunity. Conjunctive use includes two main practices: First, integrating surface water diversions and groundwater withdrawals to maximize efficiency and minimize impacts on other resource users and ecological processes. Second, conjunctive use includes capturing surplus or unused surface water and injecting or infiltrating that water into groundwater aquifers in order to increase recharge rates. Conjunctive management holds promise as a means of addressing some of the West's most intractable problems. Conjunctive management can firm up water supplies by more effectively capturing spring runoff and surplus water, and by integrating its use with groundwater withdrawals; surface and groundwater use can be further integrated with managed aquifer recharge projects. Such integration can maximize water storage and availability, while simultaneously minimizing evaporative loss, reservoir sedimentation, and surface use impacts. Any of these impacts, if left unresolved, could derail commercial-scale unconventional fuel development. Unconventional fuel developers could therefore benefit from incorporating conjunctive use into their development plans. Despite its advantages, conjunctive use is not a panacea. Conjunctive use means using resources in harmony to maximize and stabilize long-term supplies it does not mean maximizing the use of two separate but interrelated resources for unsustainable short-term gains and it cannot resolve all problems or provide water where no unappropriated water exists. Moreover, conjunctive use may pose risks to ecological values forgone when water that would otherwise remain in a stream

  5. The Early Efficacy of Topical Levocabastine in Patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fujishima

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: Although artificial tears had a positive effect in reducing symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, by the washing out of allergens, levocabastine was more effective than artificial tears in controlling acute symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, demonstrating that the selective H1 histamine-receptor antagonist action of levocabastine is rapidly effective in a clinical setting.

  6. The Students' Error in Using Conjunction (Because, Since, As, in Case) in the Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, Tagor; Haddina, Elisa; Manik, Sondang

    2018-01-01

    This research deals with the students' error in using conjunction (because, since, as, in case) in the sentences. Conjunction is very important for the learners to develop a skill in grammar. And grammar is the most important part of language for anyone. Should be first understood before being able to construct sentences, rules based on the…

  7. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. 172.510 Section 172.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. Natural...

  8. Mental Ability and Mismatch Negativity: Pre-Attentive Discrimination of Abstract Feature Conjunctions in Auditory Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Michael; Stelmack, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between mental ability and the ability to detect violations of an abstract, third-order conjunction rule was examined using event-related potential measures, specifically mismatch negativity (MMN). The primary objective was to determine whether the extraction of invariant relations based on abstract conjunctions between two…

  9. A Study on the Developmental Characteristics of Adverbial Conjuncts by Chinese Non-English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junmei, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Chinese Learner English Corpus, the present study seeks to investigate the developmental characteristics of the use of adverbial conjuncts. And the results show that at different learning stages Non-English majors use all kinds of adverbial conjuncts, but their occurrence frequencies are quite different, the enumerative adverbials are…

  10. Conjunct Use in Business News Stories and Academic Journal Articles: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Phillip R.

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of the use of conjuncts in two genres of written English, business news stories and academic journal articles, revealed a much higher frequency of conjunct use in the journal articles. A brief discussion focuses on the pedagogical implications of this study, and suggestions for further research are presented. (26…

  11. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  12. Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-16

    This report summarizes the annual progress of EPA’s Clean Air Markets Programs such as the Acid Rain Program (ARP) and the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR). EPA systematically collects data on emissions, compliance, and environmental effects, these data are highlighted in our Progress Reports.

  13. Prevention of ligneous conjunctivitis by topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2004-08-01

    To present a case of ligneous conjunctivitis where the recurrence of membranous conjunctivitis was prevented by subconjunctival and topical instillation of fresh frozen plasma. Interventional case report. A case of ligneous conjunctivitis with multiple recurrences since the age of 3 years developed recurrent membranous conjunctivitis after transconjunctival levator recession. Blood plasminogen activity was determined. The membrane was excised, and the membrane reappeared 4 days later. The patient was treated with excision of the membrane and subconjunctival injection of fresh frozen plasma and topical fresh frozen plasma. Plasminogen activity of the fresh frozen plasma was normal. Plasminogen blood functional activity was 52% (normal is 80%-120%). The patient had complete remission with no recurrences of membranous conjunctivitis after topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma. Prophylactic use of topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma may help in the prevention of membranes in susceptible patients with plasminogen deficiency.

  14. Analyzing the impact of conjunctive labeling as part of a regional wine branding strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Atkin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have proven that place-based/regional branding methods have a positive effect on brand equity and economic benefits for companies. However, very small or specific regions may be confusing to consumers, so conjunctive labeling – or the process of advertising both a larger region and the sub-region of origin for a product – is suggested as a remedy for this situation. This study analyzes the impact of conjunctive labeling by comparing two national samples of consumers, before and two years after, conjunctive wine labeling was introduced in Sonoma County. The results show a higher awareness for both Sonoma County and its sub appellations (AVAs after conjunctive labeling was introduced than before. This demonstrates the potential benefit of associating sub-regional appellations with larger wine regions. Keywords: Regional branding, Appellations, Wine marketing, Conjunctive labeling, Place-based marketing

  15. Are Chinese Correlative Conjunctions Psychologically Real? An Investigation of the Combination Frequency Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyue; Zhang, John X; Zhang, Yongwei

    2016-08-01

    The present study used an online grammaticality judgment task to examine whether Chinese discontinuous correlative conjunctions are psychologically real in mental lexicon. High- and low-frequency discontinuous correlative conjunctions were compared with random combinations differing in combination frequencies but matched for constituent word frequency. Forty graduate students participated in the study. Results showed that responses were faster and more accurate for high-frequency correlative conjunctions than low-frequency ones, but the effects were absent for random combinations. The results indicate that Chinese discontinuous correlative conjunctions have psychological reality in mental lexicon in addition to the representation of their constituent words, and that grammatical functions of correlative conjunctions may be a critical factor for the formation of such holistic representations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Collision Avoidance Short Course: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis - NASA Robotic CARA. Part I: ; Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Frigm, Ryan C.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction assessment is perhaps the fastest growing area in space situational awareness and protection with military, civil and commercial satellite owner-operators embracing more and more sophisticated processes to avoid the avoidable - namely collisions between high value space assets and orbital debris. NASA and Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) have collaborated to offer an introductory short course on all the major aspects of the conjunctions assessment problem. This half-day course will cover satellite conjunction dynamics and theory. Joint Space Operations Center (JsPOC) conjunction data products, major risk assessment parameters and plots, conjunction remediation decision support, and present and future challenges. This briefing represents the NASA portion of the course.

  17. Coating material innovation in conjunction with optimized deposition technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolze, M.; Leitner, K.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrating on physical vapour deposition methods several examples of recently developed coating materials for optical applications were studied for film deposition with optimized coating technologies: mixed evaporation materials for ion assisted deposition with modern plasma ion sources, planar metal and oxide sputter targets for Direct Current (DC) and Mid-Frequency (MF) pulsed sputter deposition and planar and rotatable sputter targets of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) for large-area sputter deposition. Films from specially designed titania based mixed evaporation materials deposited with new plasma ion sources and possible operation with pure oxygen showed extended ranges of the ratio between refractive index and structural film stress, hence there is an increased potential for the reduction of the total coating stress in High-Low alternating stacks and for coating plastics. DC and MF-pulsed sputtering of niobium metal and suboxide targets for optical coatings yielded essential benefits of the suboxide targets in a range of practical coating conditions (for absent in-situ post-oxidation ability): higher refractive index and deposition rate, better reproducibility and easier process control, and the potential for co-deposition of several targets. Technological progress in the manufacture of rotatable indium tin oxide (ITO) targets with regard to higher wall-thickness and density was shown to be reflected in higher material stock and coater up-time, economical deposition rates and stable process behaviour. Both for the rotatable ITO targets and higher-dense aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) planar targets values of film transmittance and resistivity were in the range of the best values industrially achieved for films from the respective planar targets. The results for the rotatable ITO and planar AZO targets point to equally optimized process and film properties for the optimized rotatable AZO targets currently in testing

  18. Modulation of neuronal responses during covert search for visual feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buracas, Giedrius T; Albright, Thomas D

    2009-09-29

    While searching for an object in a visual scene, an observer's attentional focus and eye movements are often guided by information about object features and spatial locations. Both spatial and feature-specific attention are known to modulate neuronal responses in visual cortex, but little is known of the dynamics and interplay of these mechanisms as visual search progresses. To address this issue, we recorded from directionally selective cells in visual area MT of monkeys trained to covertly search for targets defined by a unique conjunction of color and motion features and to signal target detection with an eye movement to the putative target. Two patterns of response modulation were observed. One pattern consisted of enhanced responses to targets presented in the receptive field (RF). These modulations occurred at the end-stage of search and were more potent during correct target identification than during erroneous saccades to a distractor in RF, thus suggesting that this modulation is not a mere presaccadic enhancement. A second pattern of modulation was observed when RF stimuli were nontargets that shared a feature with the target. The latter effect was observed during early stages of search and is consistent with a global feature-specific mechanism. This effect often terminated before target identification, thus suggesting that it interacts with spatial attention. This modulation was exhibited not only for motion but also for color cue, although MT neurons are known to be insensitive to color. Such cue-invariant attentional effects may contribute to a feature binding mechanism acting across visual dimensions.

  19. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  20. A Case Study of Inter-sentence Conjunctions in Chinese_English Legal Parallel Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a contrastive study of inter-sentence conjunctions in Chinese/English legal parallel texts. Conjunction is one of the five cohesive devices put forward by Halliday and Hasan (1976. Many scholars have applied their model of cohesion to the study of English and Chinese languages. As for the use of conjunction in Chinese and English, most scholars believe that there are more cases of conjunction in the English legal texts than in the Chinese ones because it is generally considered that Chinese is predominantly paratactic and English mainly hypotactic. Besides, up to now little detailed contrastive study has been done on conjunctions in Chinese/English non-literary texts. Legal language is a specialized language whose distinctive feature is the pursuit of precision. As a result of the importance attached to the letter of law and the pursuit of precision in legal texts, most studies on legal language are devoted to the characteristic features of legal language at the word and sentence level, to the exclusion of textual and pragmatic considerations. The present study will mainly look at the features of legal texts from the perspective of conjunction at the textual level and find out whether Chinese uses fewer cases of conjunction than English in legal texts. The Chinese and English legal parallel texts about arbitration rules will be used for this contrastive analysis. It is hoped that the findings of this research will test the explanatory force of hypotaxis and parataxis in the use of conjunction in legal texts and give a clearer picture of conjunction at the textual level in Chinese and English legal parallel texts, and therefore reconstruct the discourse on the Chinese language.

  1. Extracellular vesicles in gastrointestinal cancer in conjunction with microbiota: On the border of Kingdoms

    KAUST Repository

    Barteneva, Natasha S.; Baiken, Yeldar; Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Alibek, Kenneth; Wang, Sheng; Maltsev, Natalia; Ponomarev, Eugeny D.; Sautbayeva, Zarina; Kauanova, Sholpan; Moore, Anna; Beglinger, Christoph; Vorobjev, Ivan A.

    2017-01-01

    that was not previously possible due to technical limitations.This review focuses on research evaluating the role of EV production in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer development in conjunction with GI microbiota and inflammatory diseases. We also discuss recent studies

  2. Analysis of the correlation between tear film changes of allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the correlation between tear film changes of allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye, then provide clinical references for better treatment. METHODS: Fifty patients with allergic conjunctivitis were taken as the observation group, the control group was selected based on 1:1 case control theory, and we chose 50 health volunteers without ocular surface diseases, xerophthalmia and systematic diseases randomly, then fluorescein(FLstaining, break-up time(BUT, Schirner I test(SⅠt, tear meniscus high(TMHand slit-lamp examinations were performed in the two groups. RESULTS: In the observation group, FL, BUT, SIt, TMH of right eyes and left eyes were statistically significant correlated(PPPCONCLUSION: Due to inflammatory mediators participation, allergic conjunctivitis could lead to the stability changes of tear film which cause in dry eye. The stability changes of allergic conjunctivitis correlate to the damage degree of epithelium.

  3. Assessment, Planning, and Execution Considerations for Conjunction Risk Assessment and Mitigation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Levi, Joshua A.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.

    2010-01-01

    An operational Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) concept is the real-time process of assessing risk posed by close approaches and reacting to those risks if necessary. The most effective way to completely mitigate conjunction risk is to perform an avoidance maneuver. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented a routine CARA process since 2005. Over this period, considerable experience has been gained and many lessons have been learned. This paper identifies and presents these experiences as general concepts in the description of the Conjunction Assessment, Flight Dynamics, and Flight Operations methodologies and processes. These general concepts will be tied together and will be exemplified through a case study of an actual high risk conjunction event for the Aura mission.

  4. Coordination and interpretation of vocal and visible resources: 'trail-off' conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gareth

    2012-03-01

    The empirical focus of this paper is a conversational turn-taking phenomenon in which conjunctions produced immediately after a point of possible syntactic and pragmatic completion are treated by co-participants as points of possible completion and transition relevance. The data for this study are audio-video recordings of 5 unscripted face-to-face interactions involving native speakers of US English, yielding 28 'trail-off' conjunctions. Detailed sequential analysis of talk is combined with analysis of visible features (including gaze, posture, gesture and involvement with material objects) and technical phonetic analysis. A range of phonetic and visible features are shown to regularly co-occur in the production of 'trail-off' conjunctions. These features distinguish them from other conjunctions followed by the cessation of talk.

  5. The Temporal Dynamics of Visual Search: Evidence for Parallel Processing in Feature and Conjunction Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElree, Brian; Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Feature and conjunction searches have been argued to delineate parallel and serial operations in visual processing. The authors evaluated this claim by examining the temporal dynamics of the detection of features and conjunctions. The 1st experiment used a reaction time (RT) task to replicate standard mean RT patterns and to examine the shapes of the RT distributions. The 2nd experiment used the response-signal speed–accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure to measure discrimination (asymptotic detection accuracy) and detection speed (processing dynamics). Set size affected discrimination in both feature and conjunction searches but affected detection speed only in the latter. Fits of models to the SAT data that included a serial component overpredicted the magnitude of the observed dynamics differences. The authors concluded that both features and conjunctions are detected in parallel. Implications for the role of attention in visual processing are discussed. PMID:10641310

  6. Caudate nucleus reactivity predicts perceptual learning rate for visual feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Tse, Peter U

    2015-04-15

    Useful information in the visual environment is often contained in specific conjunctions of visual features (e.g., color and shape). The ability to quickly and accurately process such conjunctions can be learned. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for such learning remain largely unknown. It has been suggested that some forms of visual learning might involve the dopaminergic neuromodulatory system (Roelfsema et al., 2010; Seitz and Watanabe, 2005), but this hypothesis has not yet been directly tested. Here we test the hypothesis that learning visual feature conjunctions involves the dopaminergic system, using functional neuroimaging, genetic assays, and behavioral testing techniques. We use a correlative approach to evaluate potential associations between individual differences in visual feature conjunction learning rate and individual differences in dopaminergic function as indexed by neuroimaging and genetic markers. We find a significant correlation between activity in the caudate nucleus (a component of the dopaminergic system connected to visual areas of the brain) and visual feature conjunction learning rate. Specifically, individuals who showed a larger difference in activity between positive and negative feedback on an unrelated cognitive task, indicative of a more reactive dopaminergic system, learned visual feature conjunctions more quickly than those who showed a smaller activity difference. This finding supports the hypothesis that the dopaminergic system is involved in visual learning, and suggests that visual feature conjunction learning could be closely related to associative learning. However, no significant, reliable correlations were found between feature conjunction learning and genotype or dopaminergic activity in any other regions of interest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical correlations of dry eye syndrome and allergic conjunctivitis in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Moon, Nam Ju

    2013-01-01

    Clinical patterns in pediatric patients with dry eye syndrome and allergic conjunctivitis were investigated. Children aged 6 to 15 years with dry eye symptoms were included. Slit-lamp examinations including tear film break-up time, Schirmer's test, and fluorescent staining were performed, and subjective symptoms were investigated. Patients with allergic conjunctivitis were subjected to skin prick tests. Tear film break-up time was shorter and the number of symptoms related to dry eyes was higher in pediatric patients with allergic conjunctivitis than in those without allergic conjunctivitis. Patients with allergic conjunctivitis who had higher numbers of positive allergens on the skin prick test also had shorter tear film break-up time. Because pediatric patients with dry eye syndrome tend to complain less about their symptoms than adult patients, dry eye syndrome is commonly overlooked. This study showed that dry eyes tended to be more severe with the presence of allergic conjunctivitis; the more allergens present, the more severe the dry eyes. More attention should be paid to the treatment of pediatric patients with dry eyes accompanied by allergies. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Relational and conjunctive binding functions dissociate in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Fabi, Katia; Luzzi, Simona; Cubelli, Roberto; Hernandez Valdez, Maria; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    Remembering complex events requires binding features within unified objects (conjunctions) and holding associations between objects (relations). Recent studies suggest that the two functions dissociate in long-term memory (LTM). Less is known about their functional organization in short-term memory (STM). The present study investigated this issue in patient AE affected by a stroke which caused damage to brain regions known to be relevant for relational functions both in LTM and in STM (i.e., the hippocampus). The assessment involved a battery of standard neuropsychological tasks and STM binding tasks. One STM binding task (Experiment 1) presented common objects and common colors forming either pairs (relations) or integrated objects (conjunctions). Free recall of relations or conjunctions was assessed. A second STM binding task used random polygons and non-primary colors instead (Experiment 2). Memory was assessed by selecting the features that made up the relations or the conjunctions from a set of single polygons and a set of single colors. The neuropsychological assessment revealed impaired delayed memory in AE. AE's pronounced relational STM binding deficits contrasted with his completely preserved conjunctive binding functions in both Experiments 1 and 2. Only 2.35% and 1.14% of the population were expected to have a discrepancy more extreme than that presented by AE in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Processing relations and conjunctions of very elementary nonspatial features in STM led to dissociating performances in AE. These findings may inform current theories of memory decline such as those linked to cognitive aging.

  9. Assessment of Uncertainty-Based Screening Volumes for NASA Robotic LEO and GEO Conjunction Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvet, Steven W.; Frigm, Ryan C.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Conjunction Assessment operations require screening assets against the space object catalog by placing a pre-determined spatial volume around each asset and predicting when another object will violate that volume. The selection of the screening volume used for each spacecraft is a trade-off between observing all conjunction events that may pose a potential risk to the primary spacecraft and the ability to analyze those predicted events. If the screening volumes are larger, then more conjunctions can be observed and therefore the probability of a missed detection of a high risk conjunction event is small; however, the amount of data which needs to be analyzed increases. This paper characterizes the sensitivity of screening volume size to capturing typical orbit uncertainties and the expected number of conjunction events observed. These sensitivities are quantified in the form of a trade space that allows for selection of appropriate screen-ing volumes to fit the desired concept of operations, system limitations, and tolerable analyst workloads. This analysis will specifically highlight the screening volume determination and selection process for use in the NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis process but will also provide a general framework for other Owner / Operators faced with similar decisions.

  10. Age- and ability-related differences in young readers' use of conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Patson, Nikole; Andrews, Leanne

    2005-11-01

    Two studies investigating young readers' use of conjunctions are reported. In Study One, 145 eight- to ten-year-olds completed one of two narrative cloze tasks in which different types of conjunction were deleted. Performance for additive conjunctions was not affected by age in this study, but older children were more likely to select the target conjunction than were younger children for temporal, causal, and adversative terms. Performance was superior in the cloze task in which they were given a restricted choice of responses (three vs. seven). In Study Two, 35 eight- and nine-year-old good and poor comprehenders completed the three-choice cloze task. The poor comprehenders were less likely to select the target terms in general. Sentence-level comprehension skills did not account for their poor performance. The results indicate that understanding of the semantic relations expressed by conjunctions is still developing long after these terms are used correctly in children's speech. The findings are discussed in relation to the role of conjunctions in text comprehension.

  11. 21 CFR 182.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 182.40 Section 182.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their intended...

  12. 21 CFR 582.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. 582.40 Section 582.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings. Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their intended...

  13. Risk of allergic conjunctivitis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Huei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Bau, Da-Tian; Hung, Yi-Chih

    2017-06-19

    In accordance with the dichotomy between T helper type 1(Th1) and T helper type 2 (Th2) responses, the occurrence of allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is, in theory, inversely related in the individual. However, recent studies investigating the association between the two diseases are controversial. Population-based cohort study. We used claims data of the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. We identified 4160 patients aged 1-30 years with newly diagnosed T1DM and no history of AC at baseline. For each patient with T1DM, four non-T1DM controls (n=16,640) were matched by sex. The mean follow-up time was 6 years. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of AC. We additionally evaluated the association between risk of AC and T1DM progression by examining Diabetes Complications Severity Index (aDCSI) changes from the date of diagnosis until the end of follow-up. The overall incidence of allergic conjunctivitis (AC) was higher in the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) cohort than in the control cohort (23.0 vs 13.5 per 1000 person-years, adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR): 1.59, 95% CI 1.47 to 1.71). Relative to that in patients with mildly progressive T1DM, the risk of AC increased as the adapted Diabetes Complications Severity Index (aDCSI) increased (aIRR: 1.68, 3.78 and 18.8, with yearly changes in aDCSI score: 0.51 to 1.00, 1.01 to 2.00, and >2.00 vs 1, respectively; for trend 1). Patients with T1DM are at an elevated risk of developing AC; this risk increases with T1DM progression. The T helper type 1/T helper type 2 hypothesis is an overly simplistic explanation for this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    condition include itching, excessive lacrimation, ophthalmic ... allergens with the surface of the eye in a person who is allergic .... Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: more severe disorder, which usually affects boys living in warm, dry climates.

  15. Space Weather Impacts to Conjunction Assessment: A NASA Robotic Orbital Safety Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrist, Richard; Ghrist, Richard; DeHart, Russel; Newman, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the risk of on-orbit collisions from other satellites and debris objects and has instituted a process to identify and react to close approaches. The charter of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) task is to protect NASA robotic (unmanned) assets from threats posed by other space objects. Monitoring for potential collisions requires formulating close-approach predictions a week or more in the future to determine analyze, and respond to orbital conjunction events of interest. These predictions require propagation of the latest state vector and covariance assuming a predicted atmospheric density and ballistic coefficient. Any differences between the predicted drag used for propagation and the actual drag experienced by the space objects can potentially affect the conjunction event. Therefore, the space environment itself, in particular how space weather impacts atmospheric drag, is an essential element to understand in order effectively to assess the risk of conjunction events. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of the impact of space weather on conjunction assessment activities: both accurately determining the current risk and assessing how that risk may change under dynamic space weather conditions. We are engaged in a data-- ]mining exercise to corroborate whether or not observed changes in a conjunction event's dynamics appear consistent with space weather changes and are interested in developing a framework to respond appropriately to uncertainty in predicted space weather. In particular, we use historical conjunction event data products to search for dynamical effects on satellite orbits from changing atmospheric drag. Increased drag is expected to lower the satellite specific energy and will result in the satellite's being 'later' than expected, which can affect satellite conjunctions in a number of ways depending on the two satellites' orbits

  16. Clinical use of gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution for treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes LJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lorenzo J Cervantes, Francis S MahDepartment of Ophthalmology, Cornea and External Disease, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Bacterial conjunctivitis is a common infectious disease of the eye, characterized by conjunctival hyperemia, eyelid edema, and purulent discharge. Although the prevalence and incidence are not well reported, bacterial conjunctivitis represents one of the most frequent causes of patient visits to both primary care physicians and ophthalmologists. Most cases of nongonococcal and nonchlamydial bacterial conjunctivitis are self-limiting and may resolve without intervention. There is a place for treatment, however, which allows for a shorter time to clinical and microbiological resolution which may decrease the mild morbidity, decrease health care costs of visits and potential complications, return patients back to school or the work force, and limit the potential spread of this communicable infection. Gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution is a broad spectrum 8-methoxyfluroroquinolone bactericidal antibiotic, with good activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, and Gram-negative pathogens. It also has a relatively good resistance profile, making it a more than adequate choice in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis when therapy is warranted.Keywords: gatifloxacin, Zymar®, Zymaxid®, bacterial conjunctivitis

  17. Differential age-related effects on conjunctive and relational visual short-term memory binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Christine

    2017-12-28

    An age-related associative deficit has been described in visual short-term binding memory tasks. However, separate studies have suggested that ageing disrupts relational binding (to associate distinct items or item and context) more than conjunctive binding (to integrate features within an object). The current study directly compared relational and conjunctive binding with a short-term memory task for object-colour associations in 30 young and 30 older adults. Participants studied a number of object-colour associations corresponding to their individual object span level in a relational task in which objects were associated to colour patches and a conjunctive task where colour was integrated into the object. Memory for individual items and for associations was tested with a recognition memory test. Evidence for an age-related associative deficit was observed in the relational binding task, but not in the conjunctive binding task. This differential impact of ageing on relational and conjunctive short-term binding is discussed by reference to two underlying age-related cognitive difficulties: diminished hippocampally dependent binding and attentional resources.

  18. Microbiological study of neonatal conjunctivitis with special reference to chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohile Mukula

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the microbial agents, chiefly Chlamydia trachomatis and other bacteria, in neonatal conjunctivitis. METHODS: Conjunctival specimens from 70 newborns with conjunctivitis were subjected to bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, monoclonal antibody based C. trachomatis antigen detection test and species-specific Chlamydia antibody detection in the sera of babies and their mothers, by micro-immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated from 35 (50% babies; the majority (20, 57.14% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. C. trachomatis antigen was detected in conjunctival smears of 17 (24% babies, and 6 (35.29% of them were positive for other bacteria. Six babies and their mothers tested positive for C. trachomatis Ig G antibodies. At follow-up after 14 weeks, 6 (35.29% of the Chlamydia antigen-positive babies were found to have developed recurrent conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: C. trachomatis is responsible for almost a quarter of all cases of neonatal conjunctivitis, with recurrences in 35% of cases. Bacteria could be isolated from 50% of the patients though the exact role of Staphylococcus epidermidis, isolated from 28.65% of the neonatal conjunctivitis cases, remains unclear.

  19. Communications with Mars During Periods of Solar Conjunction: Initial Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Hastrup, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the initial phase of the human exploration of Mars, a reliable communications link to and from Earth will be required. The direct link can easily be maintained during most of the 780-day Earth-Mars synodic period. However, during periods in which the direct Earth-Mars link encounters increased intervening charged particles during superior solar conjunctions of Mars, the resultant effects are expected to corrupt the data signals to varying degrees. The purpose of this article is to explore possible strategies, provide recommendations, and identify options for communicating over this link during periods of solar conjunctions. A significant improvement in telemetry data return can be realized by using the higher frequency 32 GHz (Ka-band), which is less susceptible to solar effects. During the era of the onset of probable human exploration of Mars, six superior conjunctions were identified from 2015 to 2026. For five of these six conjunctions, where the signal source is not occulted by the disk of the Sun, continuous communications with Mars should be achievable. Only during the superior conjunction of 2023 is the signal source at Mars expected to lie behind the disk of the Sun for about one day and within two solar radii (0. 5 deg) for about three days.

  20. Illusory conjunctions and perceptual grouping in a visual search task in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, V J; Dewis, S A; Lewin, T J

    1998-07-27

    This report describes part of a series of experiments, conducted within the framework of feature integration theory, to determine whether patients with schizophrenia show deficits in preattentive processing. Thirty subjects with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia and 30 age-, gender-, and education-matched normal control subjects completed two computerized experimental tasks, a visual search task assessing the frequency of illusory conjunctions (i.e. false perceptions) under conditions of divided attention (Experiment 3) and a task which examined the effects of perceptual grouping on illusory conjunctions (Experiment 4). We also assessed current symptomatology and its relationship to task performance. Contrary to our hypotheses, schizophrenia subjects did not show higher rates of illusory conjunctions, and the influence of perceptual grouping on the frequency of illusory conjunctions was similar for schizophrenia and control subjects. Nonetheless, specific predictions from feature integration theory about the impact of different target types (Experiment 3) and perceptual groups (Experiment 4) on the likelihood of forming an illusory conjunction were strongly supported, thereby confirming the integrity of the experimental procedures. Overall, these studies revealed no firm evidence that schizophrenia is associated with a preattentive abnormality in visual search using stimuli that differ on the basis of physical characteristics.

  1. Inhibitory guidance in visual search: the case of movement-form conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Kevin; Allen, Harriet A; Braithwaite, Jason J; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2012-02-01

    We used a probe-dot procedure to examine the roles of excitatory attentional guidance and distractor suppression in search for movement-form conjunctions. Participants in Experiment 1 completed a conjunction (moving X amongst moving Os and static Xs) and two single-feature (moving X amongst moving Os, and static X amongst static Os) conditions. "Active" participants searched for the target, whereas "passive" participants viewed the displays without responding. Subsequently, both groups located (left or right) a probe dot appearing in either an occupied or an unoccupied location. In the conjunction condition, the active group located probes presented on static distractors more slowly than probes presented on moving distractors, reversing the direction of the difference found within the passive group. This disadvantage for probes on static items was much stronger in conjunction than in single-feature search. The same pattern of results was replicated in Experiment 2, which used a go/no-go procedure. Experiment 3 extended the go/no-go procedure to the case of search for a static target and revealed increased probe localisation times as a consequence of active search, primarily for probes on moving distractor items. The results demonstrated attentional guidance by inhibition of distractors in conjunction search.

  2. A New Caching Technique to Support Conjunctive Queries in P2P DHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobatake, Koji; Tagashira, Shigeaki; Fujita, Satoshi

    P2P DHT (Peer-to-Peer Distributed Hash Table) is one of typical techniques for realizing an efficient management of shared resources distributed over a network and a keyword search over such networks in a fully distributed manner. In this paper, we propose a new method for supporting conjunctive queries in P2P DHT. The basic idea of the proposed technique is to share a global information on past trials by conducting a local caching of search results for conjunctive queries and by registering the fact to the global DHT. Such a result caching is expected to significantly reduce the amount of transmitted data compared with conventional schemes. The effect of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated by simulation. The result of experiments indicates that by using the proposed method, the amount of returned data is reduced by 60% compared with conventional P2P DHT which does not support conjunctive queries.

  3. Phase fluctuations model for EM wave propagation through solar scintillation at superior solar conjunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guanjun; Song, Zhaohui

    2017-04-01

    Traveling solar wind disturbances have a significant influence on radio wave characteristics during the superior solar conjunction communication. This paper considers the impact of solar scintillation on phase fluctuations of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation during the superior solar conjunction. Based on the Geometric Optics approximation, the close-form approximation model for phase fluctuations is developed. Both effects of anisotropic temporal variations function of plasma irregularities and their power spectrum are presented and analyzed numerically. It is found that phase fluctuations rapidly decrease with increasing Sun-Earth-Probe angle and decrease with increasing frequency at the rate of 1/f2. Moreover, the role of various features of the solar wind irregularities and their influence on the EM wave characteristic parameters is studied and discussed. Finally, we study the phase fluctuations of typical cases in order to better understand the impact of phase fluctuations in future deep space communication scenarios during solar conjunction periods.

  4. Treatment of ligneous conjunctivitis with amniotic membrane transplantation and topical cyclosporine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, Ozlem Yalcin; Kocaoglu, Fatma Akbas; Tok, Levent; Burcu, Ayse; Ornek, Firdevs

    2012-01-01

    Ligneous conjunctivitis (LC) is a rare form of bilateral chronic recurrent disease in which thick membranes form on the palpebral conjunctiva and other mucosal sites. We report the clinical features and describe the management of two cases. Case 1 was an 8-month-old patient with bilateral membranous conjunctivitis. Case 2 was a 5-year-old patient with unilateral membranous conjunctivitis, esotropia, mechanical ptosis and complicated cataract, and had been treated with a number of medications. Histological investigation of the membrane in both cases showed LC. Treatments with amniotic membrane transplantation and institution of topical cyclosporine have shown good response. There has been complete resolution of the membranes with no recurrence at the end of 40- and 28-month follow-ups, respectively. No treatment related side effects were seen. Thus, it appears that amniotic membrane transplantation and topical cyclosporine are effective alternatives for the treatment of LC. PMID:23202401

  5. NASA Conjunction Assessment Organizational Approach and the Associated Determination of Screening Volume Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lauri K.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is committed to safety of flight for all of its operational assets Performed by CARA at NASA GSFC for robotic satellites Focus of this briefing Performed by TOPO at NASA JSC for human spaceflight he Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) was stood up to offer this service to all NASA robotic satellites Currently provides service to 70 operational satellites NASA unmanned operational assets Other USG assets (USGS, USAF, NOAA) International partner assets Conjunction Assessment (CA) is the process of identifying close approaches between two orbiting objects; sometimes called conjunction screening The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) a USAF unit at Vandenberg AFB, maintains the high accuracy catalog of space objects, screens CARA-supported assets against the catalog, performs OD tasking, and generates close approach data.

  6. Neural correlates of context-dependent feature conjunction learning in visual search tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Greenlee, Mark W; Tse, Peter U

    2016-06-01

    Many perceptual learning experiments show that repeated exposure to a basic visual feature such as a specific orientation or spatial frequency can modify perception of that feature, and that those perceptual changes are associated with changes in neural tuning early in visual processing. Such perceptual learning effects thus exert a bottom-up influence on subsequent stimulus processing, independent of task-demands or endogenous influences (e.g., volitional attention). However, it is unclear whether such bottom-up changes in perception can occur as more complex stimuli such as conjunctions of visual features are learned. It is not known whether changes in the efficiency with which people learn to process feature conjunctions in a task (e.g., visual search) reflect true bottom-up perceptual learning versus top-down, task-related learning (e.g., learning better control of endogenous attention). Here we show that feature conjunction learning in visual search leads to bottom-up changes in stimulus processing. First, using fMRI, we demonstrate that conjunction learning in visual search has a distinct neural signature: an increase in target-evoked activity relative to distractor-evoked activity (i.e., a relative increase in target salience). Second, we demonstrate that after learning, this neural signature is still evident even when participants passively view learned stimuli while performing an unrelated, attention-demanding task. This suggests that conjunction learning results in altered bottom-up perceptual processing of the learned conjunction stimuli (i.e., a perceptual change independent of the task). We further show that the acquired change in target-evoked activity is contextually dependent on the presence of distractors, suggesting that search array Gestalts are learned. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2319-2330, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  8. Maneuver Planning for Conjunction Risk Mitigation with Ground-track Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, David

    2008-01-01

    The planning of conjunction Risk Mitigation Maneuvers (RMM) in the presence of ground-track control requirements is analyzed. Past RMM planning efforts on the Aqua, Aura, and Terra spacecraft have demonstrated that only small maneuvers are available when ground-track control requirements are maintained. Assuming small maneuvers, analytical expressions for the effect of a given maneuver on conjunction geometry are derived. The analytical expressions are used to generate a large trade space for initial RMM design. This trade space represents a significant improvement in initial maneuver planning over existing methods that employ high fidelity maneuver models and propagation.

  9. Progressivity Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than a scientific text, the author contributes a concise memorandum from the originator of the idea who has managed the campaign for the conversion of the military barracks into a creative cluster between 1988 and 2002, when he parted ways with Metelkova due to conflicting views on the center’s future. His views shed light on a distant period of time from a perspective of a participant–observer. The information is abundantly supported by primary sources, also available online. However, some of the presented hypotheses are heavily influenced by his personal experiences of xenophobia, elitism, and predatorial behavior, which were already then discernible on the so-called alternative scene as well – so much so that they obstructed the implementation of progressive programs. The author claims that, in spite of the substantially different reality today, the myths and prejudices concerning Metelkova must be done away with in order to enhance its progressive nature. Above all, the paper calls for an objective view on internal antagonisms, mainly originating in deep class divisions between the users. These make a clear distinction between truly marginal ndividuals and the overambitious beau-bourgeois, as the author labels the large part of users of Metelkova of »his« time. On these grounds, he argues for a robust approach to ban all forms of xenophobia and self-ghettoization.

  10. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  11. Uit de Cochrane Library: Marginaal grotere genezingskans door antibioticabehandeling bij acute bacteriële conjunctivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamerlynck, J. V. T. H.; Rietveld, R. P.; Hooft, L.

    2007-01-01

    Acute bacterial conjunctivitis is one of the most frequently encountered ocular disorders in primary care. It is frequently self-limiting, and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has led to concerns regarding antibiotic resistance. Therefore, a Cochrane systematic review of 5 randomised

  12. Featural Guidance in Conjunction Search: The Contrast between Orientation and Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Giles M.; Heinke, Dietmar; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of precues on visual search for targets defined by a color-orientation conjunction. Experiment 1 showed that cueing the identity of targets enhanced the efficiency of search. Cueing effects were stronger with color than with orientation cues, but this advantage was additive across array size. Experiment 2…

  13. Rapid synthesis of polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol analogs via dearomative conjunctive allylic annulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenning, Alexander J; Boyce, Jonathan H; Porco, John A

    2014-08-20

    Polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are structurally complex natural products with promising biological activities. Herein, we present a biosynthesis-inspired, diversity-oriented synthesis approach for rapid construction of PPAP analogs via double decarboxylative allylation (DcA) of acylphloroglucinol scaffolds to access allyl-desoxyhumulones followed by dearomative conjunctive allylic alkylation (DCAA).

  14. Children's experiences of procedural pain management in conjunction with trauma wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan; Hallqvist, Carina; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Enskär, Karin

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a report of the experiences of children (5-10 years) of procedural pain when they underwent a trauma wound care session. Procedural pain in conjunction with trauma wound care often induces anxiety and distress in children. Children need to alleviate pain and avoid the development of fear in conjunction with examinations and treatments. The nurse could help children to reach this goal by using the comfort theory, which describes holistic nursing in four contexts: physical, psychospiritual, environmental and sociocultural. Few studies have focused on children's experiences of comforting activities in conjunction with trauma wound dressings. This study was conducted between May 2008 and January 2010. Thirty-nine participants aged 5-10 were consecutively included in this study. The wound care session was standardized for all the participants, and semi-structured qualitative interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with all the children in conjunction with the procedure. All the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed with qualitative content analysis. Four themes were identified: clinical competence, distraction, participation and security. The children were helped to reach comforting activities to enhance pain management. Children require more than just analgesics in wound care. They also need to experience security and participation in this context. When children feel clinical competence in wound care, they trust the nurse to carry out the wound dressing and instead can focus on the distraction that increases their positive outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. How to Explain Receptivity to Conjunction-Fallacy Inhibition Training: Evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassotti, Mathieu; Moutier, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Intuitive predictions and judgments under conditions of uncertainty are often mediated by judgment heuristics that sometimes lead to biases. Using the classical conjunction bias example, the present study examines the relationship between receptivity to metacognitive executive training and emotion-based learning ability indexed by Iowa Gambling…

  16. 75 FR 24434 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Transportation in Conjunction With Official Travel and Relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...-0010, sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ02 Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Transportation in Conjunction With Official Travel and Relocation AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR), by...

  17. Internal versus external features in triggering the brain waveforms for conjunction and feature faces in recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Aiqing; Jiang, Jingguo; Fu, Qiao

    2014-08-20

    Previous research has found that conjunction faces (whose internal features, e.g. eyes, nose, and mouth, and external features, e.g. hairstyle and ears, are from separate studied faces) and feature faces (partial features of these are studied) can produce higher false alarms than both old and new faces (i.e. those that are exactly the same as the studied faces and those that have not been previously presented) in recognition. The event-related potentials (ERPs) that relate to conjunction and feature faces at recognition, however, have not been described as yet; in addition, the contributions of different facial features toward ERPs have not been differentiated. To address these issues, the present study compared the ERPs elicited by old faces, conjunction faces (the internal and the external features were from two studied faces), old internal feature faces (whose internal features were studied), and old external feature faces (whose external features were studied) with those of new faces separately. The results showed that old faces not only elicited an early familiarity-related FN400, but a more anterior distributed late old/new effect that reflected recollection. Conjunction faces evoked similar late brain waveforms as old internal feature faces, but not to old external feature faces. These results suggest that, at recognition, old faces hold higher familiarity than compound faces in the profiles of ERPs and internal facial features are more crucial than external ones in triggering the brain waveforms that are characterized as reflecting the result of familiarity.

  18. In-beam electron spectrometer used in conjunction with a gas-filled recoil separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Butler, P.A.; Greenlees, P.T.; Bastin, J.E.; Herzberg, R.D.; Humphreys, R.D.; Jones, G.D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Miettinen, L.; Page, T.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Uusitalo, J.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion-electron spectrometer SACRED has been redesigned for use in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator. The system allows in-beam recoil-decay-tagging (RDT) measurements of internal conversion electrons. The performance of the system using standard sources and in-beam is described

  19. Performance of Ductless Personalized Ventilation in Conjunction with Displacement Ventilation: Impact of Workstations Layout and Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvonova, Barbara; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    cleaner for some of the layouts studied. The use of DPV in conjunction with DV substantially decreased the temperature of the inhaled air and increased the body cooling in comparison with use of DV alone, i.e., DPV also had potential for improving occupants' perceived air quality and thermal comfort....

  20. Testing Quantum Models of Conjunction Fallacy on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Diederik; Arguëlles, Jonito Aerts; Beltran, Lester; Beltran, Lyneth; de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas

    2017-12-01

    The `conjunction fallacy' has been extensively debated by scholars in cognitive science and, in recent times, the discussion has been enriched by the proposal of modeling the fallacy using the quantum formalism. Two major quantum approaches have been put forward: the first assumes that respondents use a two-step sequential reasoning and that the fallacy results from the presence of `question order effects'; the second assumes that respondents evaluate the cognitive situation as a whole and that the fallacy results from the `emergence of new meanings', as an `effect of overextension' in the conceptual conjunction. Thus, the question arises as to determine whether and to what extent conjunction fallacies would result from `order effects' or, instead, from `emergence effects'. To help clarify this situation, we propose to use the World Wide Web as an `information space' that can be interrogated both in a sequential and non-sequential way, to test these two quantum approaches. We find that `emergence effects', and not `order effects', should be considered the main cognitive mechanism producing the observed conjunction fallacies.

  1. Total Probability of Collision as a Metric for Finite Conjunction Assessment and Collision Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigm, Ryan C.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.; Plakalovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    On-orbit collision risk is becoming an increasing mission risk to all operational satellites in Earth orbit. Managing this risk can be disruptive to mission and operations, present challenges for decision-makers, and is time-consuming for all parties involved. With the planned capability improvements to detecting and tracking smaller orbital debris and capacity improvements to routinely predict on-orbit conjunctions, this mission risk will continue to grow in terms of likelihood and effort. It is very real possibility that the future space environment will not allow collision risk management and mission operations to be conducted in the same manner as it is today. This paper presents the concept of a finite conjunction assessment-one where each discrete conjunction is not treated separately but, rather, as a continuous event that must be managed concurrently. The paper also introduces the Total Probability of Collision as an analogous metric for finite conjunction assessment operations and provides several options for its usage in a Concept of Operations.

  2. Cognitive and neuropsychological underpinnings of relational and conjunctive working memory binding across age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Parra, Mario A; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven by the spatial nature of the studies so far. Alternatively, relational binding may simply require more attentional resources. We assessed relational and conjunctive binding in three age groups and we included an interfering task (i.e., an articulatory suppression task). Binding was examined in a working memory (WM) task using non-spatial features: shape and colour. Thirty-one young adults (mean age = 22.35), 30 middle-aged adults (mean age = 54.80) and 30 older adults (mean age = 70.27) performed the task. Results show an effect of type of binding and an effect of age but no interaction between type of binding and age. The interaction between type of binding and interference was significant. These results indicate that aging affects relational binding and conjunctive binding similarly. However, relational binding is more susceptible to interference than conjunctive binding, which suggests that relational binding may require more attentional resources. We suggest that a general decline in WM resources associated with frontal dysfunction underlies age-related deficits in WM binding.

  3. Cognitive and neuropsychological underpinnings of relational and conjunctive working memory binding across age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Parra, M.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven

  4. Frontal and parietal theta burst TMS impairs working memory for visual-spatial conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Helen M; Jackson, Margaret C; van Koningsbruggen, Martijn G; Shapiro, Kimron L; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-01

    In tasks that selectively probe visual or spatial working memory (WM) frontal and posterior cortical areas show a segregation, with dorsal areas preferentially involved in spatial (e.g. location) WM and ventral areas in visual (e.g. object identity) WM. In a previous fMRI study [1], we showed that right parietal cortex (PC) was more active during WM for orientation, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was more active during colour WM. During WM for colour-orientation conjunctions, activity in these areas was intermediate to the level of activity for the single task preferred and non-preferred information. To examine whether these specialised areas play a critical role in coordinating visual and spatial WM to perform a conjunction task, we used theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to induce a functional deficit. Compared to sham stimulation, TMS to right PC or left IFG selectively impaired WM for conjunctions but not single features. This is consistent with findings from visual search paradigms, in which frontal and parietal TMS selectively affects search for conjunctions compared to single features, and with combined TMS and functional imaging work suggesting that parietal and frontal regions are functionally coupled in tasks requiring integration of visual and spatial information. Our results thus elucidate mechanisms by which the brain coordinates spatially segregated processing streams and have implications beyond the field of working memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Coordination and Interpretation of Vocal and Visible Resources: "Trail-Off" Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The empirical focus of this paper is a conversational turn-taking phenomenon in which conjunctions produced immediately after a point of possible syntactic and pragmatic completion are treated by co-participants as points of possible completion and transition relevance. The data for this study are audio-video recordings of 5 unscripted…

  6. When false recognition is out of control: the case of facial conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd C; Bartlett, James C

    2009-03-01

    In three experiments, a dual-process approach to face recognition memory is examined, with a specific focus on the idea that a recollection process can be used to retrieve configural information of a studied face. Subjects could avoid, with confidence, a recognition error to conjunction lure faces (each a reconfiguration of features from separate studied faces) or feature lure faces (each based on a set of old features and a set of new features) by recalling a studied configuration. In Experiment 1, study repetition (one vs. eight presentations) was manipulated, and in Experiments 2 and 3, retention interval over a short number of trials (0-20) was manipulated. Different measures converged on the conclusion that subjects were unable to use a recollection process to retrieve configural information in an effort to temper recognition errors for conjunction or feature lure faces. A single process, familiarity, appears to be the sole process underlying recognition of conjunction and feature faces, and familiarity contributes, perhaps in whole, to discrimination of old from conjunction faces.

  7. Decoding conjunctions of direction-of-motion and binocular disparity from human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Kiley J; Clifford, Colin W G

    2012-05-01

    Motion and binocular disparity are two features in our environment that share a common correspondence problem. Decades of psychophysical research dedicated to understanding stereopsis suggest that these features interact early in human visual processing to disambiguate depth. Single-unit recordings in the monkey also provide evidence for the joint encoding of motion and disparity across much of the dorsal visual stream. Here, we used functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis to examine where in the human brain conjunctions of motion and disparity are encoded. Subjects sequentially viewed two stimuli that could be distinguished only by their conjunctions of motion and disparity. Specifically, each stimulus contained the same feature information (leftward and rightward motion and crossed and uncrossed disparity) but differed exclusively in the way these features were paired. Our results revealed that a linear classifier could accurately decode which stimulus a subject was viewing based on voxel activation patterns throughout the dorsal visual areas and as early as V2. This decoding success was conditional on some voxels being individually sensitive to the unique conjunctions comprising each stimulus, thus a classifier could not rely on independent information about motion and binocular disparity to distinguish these conjunctions. This study expands on evidence that disparity and motion interact at many levels of human visual processing, particularly within the dorsal stream. It also lends support to the idea that stereopsis is subserved by early mechanisms also tuned to direction of motion.

  8. Demands on attention and the role of response priming in visual discrimination of feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Lisa R; Herbert, Rhonda J; Farris, Carrie

    2004-10-01

    This study examined how response mapping of features within single- and multiple-feature targets affects decision-based processing and attentional capacity demands. Observers judged the presence or absence of 1 or 2 target features within an object either presented alone or with distractors. Judging the presence of 2 features relative to the less discriminable of these features alone was faster (conjunction benefits) when the task-relevant features differed in discriminability and were consistently mapped to responses. Conjunction benefits were attributed to asynchronous decision priming across attended, task-relevant dimensions. A failure to find conjunction benefits for disjunctive conjunctions was attributed to increased memory demands and variable feature-response mapping for 2- versus single-feature targets. Further, attentional demands were similar between single- and 2-feature targets when response mapping, memory demands, and discriminability of the task-relevant features were equated between targets. Implications of the findings for recent attention models are discussed. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  9. The Use of Conjunctions in Cognitively Simple versus Complex Oral L2 Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Marije C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores the use of conjunctions in simple versus complex argumentative tasks performed by second language (L2) learners as a specific measure for the amount of reasoning involved in task performance. The Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2005) states that an increase in cognitive task complexity promotes improvements in L2…

  10. International Comparisons through Simultaneous and Conjunct Analysis: A Search for General Relationships across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Petra

    1996-01-01

    The six chapters of this theme issue explore data collected by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement to investigate crucial issues in reading comprehension. Simultaneous analysis and conjunct analysis are used to examine models as structured combinations of factors in the search for relationships among…

  11. Besifloxacin: a novel anti-infective for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L Comstock

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Timothy L Comstock1, Paul M Karpecki2, Timothy W Morris3, Jin-Zhong Zhang41Global Medical Affairs, Pharmaceuticals, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 2Koffler Vision Group, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Research and Development Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 4Global Preclinical Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc., Rochester, NY, USAAbstract: Bacterial conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is demographically unbiased in its prevalence and can be caused by a variety of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Timely empiric treatment with a broad-spectrum anti-infective, such as a topical fluoroquinolone, is critical in preventing potentially irreversible ocular damage. However, the rise in ocular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates and the patterns of fluoroquinolone resistance for patients with other ocular bacterial infections mandate the need for new agents targeted for ocular use. Besifloxacin, a novel broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone, is approved for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. It has a uniquely balanced dual-targeting activity that inhibits both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and is associated with a lower incidence of resistance development. Besifloxacin is not marketed in other formulations, ensuring that its exposure is limited to bacterial populations in and around the eye. This specifically precludes any bacterial exposure to besifloxacin resulting from systemic use, which further reduces the likelihood of emergence of bacterial resistance. In vitro, besifloxacin has demonstrated equivalent or superior activity compared with other commonly used topical antibiotics. In clinical trials, besifloxacin has consistently demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis. Besifloxacin is considered safe and is well tolerated with no observed contraindications.Keywords: conjunctivitis, fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin

  12. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma H. Medina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo Health Secretariat (SES-SP in Brazil received reports of conjunctivitis outbreaks from rural areas of the state that subsequently spread statewide. This report describes that AHC epidemic and its etiologic agent. Data from the Ministry of Health Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SinanNet and the SES-SP epidemiologic surveillance system for conjunctivitis, developed to detect outbreaks, confirm the etiologic agent, and carry out control measures, were analyzed. Eye (conjunctival swab samples were taken from patients with clinical presentation of viral conjunctivitis to perform viral laboratory diagnosis. A total of 1 067 981 conjunctivitis cases were reported to the surveillance system for 2011; there was an increase in the number of cases in epidemiologic weeks 6–26 (summer season versus previous years. Most cases occurred in the metropolitan region of Greater São Paulo. Of 93 collected samples, 57 tested positive for coxsackievirus-A24 (CV-A24, based on virus isolation in tissue-culture cell lines, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and enterovirus sequencing of RT-PCR. The data analysis showed that the fast-spreading etiologic agent of the AHC epidemic that occurred in the summer of 2011 was CV-A24. The AHC epidemic was due to an enterovirus that occurred sporadically, spread rapidly and with great magnitude, and had substantial socioeconomic impact due to the high level of absenteeism at work and school.

  13. Visual search in Alzheimer's disease: a deficiency in processing conjunctions of features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tales, A; Butler, S R; Fossey, J; Gilchrist, I D; Jones, R W; Troscianko, T

    2002-01-01

    Human vision often needs to encode multiple characteristics of many elements of the visual field, for example their lightness and orientation. The paradigm of visual search allows a quantitative assessment of the function of the underlying mechanisms. It measures the ability to detect a target element among a set of distractor elements. We asked whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are particularly affected in one type of search, where the target is defined by a conjunction of features (orientation and lightness) and where performance depends on some shifting of attention. Two non-conjunction control conditions were employed. The first was a pre-attentive, single-feature, "pop-out" task, detecting a vertical target among horizontal distractors. The second was a single-feature, partly attentive task in which the target element was slightly larger than the distractors-a "size" task. This was chosen to have a similar level of attentional load as the conjunction task (for the control group), but lacked the conjunction of two features. In an experiment, 15 AD patients were compared to age-matched controls. The results suggested that AD patients have a particular impairment in the conjunction task but not in the single-feature size or pre-attentive tasks. This may imply that AD particularly affects those mechanisms which compare across more than one feature type, and spares the other systems and is not therefore simply an 'attention-related' impairment. Additionally, these findings show a double dissociation with previous data on visual search in Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting a different effect of these diseases on the visual pathway.

  14. Learning efficient visual search for stimuli containing diagnostic spatial configurations and color-shape conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, Eric A; Frank, Sebastian M; Tse, Peter U

    2018-04-12

    Visual search is often slow and difficult for complex stimuli such as feature conjunctions. Search efficiency, however, can improve with training. Search for stimuli that can be identified by the spatial configuration of two elements (e.g., the relative position of two colored shapes) improves dramatically within a few hundred trials of practice. Several recent imaging studies have identified neural correlates of this learning, but it remains unclear what stimulus properties participants learn to use to search efficiently. Influential models, such as reverse hierarchy theory, propose two major possibilities: learning to use information contained in low-level image statistics (e.g., single features at particular retinotopic locations) or in high-level characteristics (e.g., feature conjunctions) of the task-relevant stimuli. In a series of experiments, we tested these two hypotheses, which make different predictions about the effect of various stimulus manipulations after training. We find relatively small effects of manipulating low-level properties of the stimuli (e.g., changing their retinotopic location) and some conjunctive properties (e.g., color-position), whereas the effects of manipulating other conjunctive properties (e.g., color-shape) are larger. Overall, the findings suggest conjunction learning involving such stimuli might be an emergent phenomenon that reflects multiple different learning processes, each of which capitalizes on different types of information contained in the stimuli. We also show that both targets and distractors are learned, and that reversing learned target and distractor identities impairs performance. This suggests that participants do not merely learn to discriminate target and distractor stimuli, they also learn stimulus identity mappings that contribute to performance improvements.

  15. A Novel MAPT Mutation Causing Corticobasal Syndrome Led by Progressive Apraxia of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Charles R; Guerreiro, Rita; Thust, Steffi; Fletcher, Phillip; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Fox, Nick C

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a case of corticobasal syndrome led by progressive apraxia of speech, associated with a novel mutation in exon 10 of the MAPT gene. Genetic bases for progressive apraxia of speech and corticobasal syndrome are only rarely described, and have not been described in conjunction.

  16. Clinical Age-Specific Seasonal Conjunctivitis Patterns and Their Online Detection in Twitter, Blog, Forum, and Comment Social Media Posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Michael S.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Chodosh, James; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Fathy, Cherie A.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Porco, Travis C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine whether big data from social media might reveal seasonal trends of conjunctivitis, most forms of which are nonreportable. Methods Social media posts (from Twitter, and from online forums and blogs) were classified by age and by conjunctivitis type (allergic or infectious) using Boolean and machine learning methods. Based on spline smoothing, we estimated the circular mean occurrence time (a measure of central tendency for occurrence) and the circular variance (a measure of uniformity of occurrence throughout the year, providing an index of seasonality). Clinical records from a large tertiary care provider were analyzed in a similar way for comparison. Results Social media posts machine-coded as being related to infectious conjunctivitis showed similar times of occurrence and degree of seasonality to clinical infectious cases, and likewise for machine-coded allergic conjunctivitis posts compared to clinical allergic cases. Allergic conjunctivitis showed a distinctively different seasonal pattern than infectious conjunctivitis, with a mean occurrence time later in the spring. Infectious conjunctivitis for children showed markedly greater seasonality than for adults, though the occurrence times were similar; no such difference for allergic conjunctivitis was seen. Conclusions Social media posts broadly track the seasonal occurrence of allergic and infectious conjunctivitis, and may be a useful supplement for epidemiologic monitoring. PMID:29450538

  17. Optimizing Reservoir-Stream-Aquifer Interactions for Conjunctive Use and Hydropower Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Fayad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctive management of water resources involves coordinating use of surface water and groundwater resources. Very few simulation/optimization (S-O models for stream-aquifer system management have included detailed interactions between groundwater, streams, and reservoir storage. This paper presents an S-O model doing that via artificial neural network simulators and genetic algorithm optimizer for multiobjective conjunctive water use problems. The model simultaneously addresses all significant flows including reservoir-stream-diversion-aquifer interactions in a more detailed manner than previous models. The model simultaneously maximizes total water provided and hydropower production. A penalty function implicitly poses constraints on state variables. The model effectively finds feasible optimal solutions and the Pareto optimum. Illustrated is application for planning water resource and minihydropower system development.

  18. Evaluation of the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test for the laboratory diagnosis of adult inclusion conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantisira, J G; Kowalski, R P; Gordon, Y J

    1995-07-01

    The Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test, a rapid enzyme immunoassay, has been reported to be highly sensitive (93%) and specific (96%) for detecting chlamydial lipopolysaccharide antigen in conjunctival specimens from infants, but has not been evaluated previously in adult conjunctival specimens. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test for the laboratory diagnosis of adult inclusion conjunctivitis. Twenty Chlamydia culture-positive conjunctival specimens from adults (true-positives) and 20 true-negative specimens were tested with the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test. The Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test was 40% (8/20) sensitive, 100% (20/20) specific, and 70% (28/40) efficient. This study indicates that the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test, though highly specific, is less sensitive in its ability to diagnose chlamydial conjunctivitis in adults than has been reported previously in infants.

  19. A comparative study of Bilvadi Yoga Ashchyotana and eye drops in Vataja Abhishyanda (Simple Allergic Conjunctivitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jayshree; Vaghela, D B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Matalia, P D

    2012-01-01

    Simple allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy (prevalence 5 - 22 %). It is a hypersensitivity reaction to specific airborne antigens. The disease Vataja Abhishyanda, which is due to vitiation of Vata Pradhana Tridosha is comparable with this condition. The management of simple allergic conjunctivitis in modern ophthalmology is very expensive and it should be followed lifelong and Ayurveda can provide better relief in such manifestation. This is the first research study on Vataja Abhishyanda. Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department (OPD), Inpatient Department (IPD), of the Shalakya Tantra Department and were randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A Bilvadi Ashchyotana and in Group-B Bilvadi eye drops were instilled for three months. Total 32 patients were registered and 27 patients completed the course of treatment. Bilvadi Ashchyotana gave better results in Toda, Sangharsha, Parushya, Kandu and Ragata as compared with Bilvadi Eye Drops in Vataja Abhishyanda.

  20. Synthesis and high catalytic properties of mesoporous Pt nanowire array by novel conjunct template method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Xu, Cai-Ling; Kong, Ling-Bin; Li, Hu-Lin

    2008-12-01

    A novel conjunct template method for fabricating mesoporous Pt nanowire array through direct current (DC) electrodeposition of Pt into the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template on Ti/Si substrate from hexagonal structured lyotropic liquid crystalline phase is demonstrated in this paper. The morphology and structure of as-prepared Pt nanowire array are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrocatalytic properties of Pt nanowire array for methanol are also investigated in detail. The results indicate that Pt nanowire array has the unique mesoporous structure of approximate 40-50 nm in diameter, which resulted in the high surface area and greatly improved electrocatalytic activity for methanol. The mesoporous Pt nanowire array synthesized by the new conjunct template method has a very promising application in portable fuel cell power sources.

  1. The control of attentional target selection in a colour/colour conjunction task

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the time course of attentional object selection processes in visual search tasks where targets are defined by a combination of features from the same dimension, we measured the N2pc component as an electrophysiological marker of attentional object selection during colour/colour conjunction search. In Experiment 1, participants searched for targets defined by a combination of two colours, while ignoring distractor objects that matched only one of these colours. Reliable N2pc com...

  2. Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in an Infant with Adenoviral Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP has been a major problematic disorder during childhood. Laser photocoagulation (LPC has been proven to be effective in most of the ROP cases. Adenoviral conjunctivitis (AVC is responsible for epidemics among adult and pediatric population. It has also been reported to be a cause of outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICU several times. We herein demonstrate a case with AVC who underwent LPC for ROP. And we discuss the treatment methodology in such cases.

  3. Linear Look-ahead in Conjunctive Cells: An Entorhinal Mechanism for Vector-Based Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Kubie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisp organization of the firing bumps of entorhinal grid cells and conjunctive cells leads to the notion that the entorhinal cortex may compute linear navigation routes. Specifically, we propose a process, termed linear look-ahead, by which a stationary animal could compute a series of locations in the direction it is facing. We speculate that this computation could be achieved through learned patterns of connection strengths among entorhinal neurons. This paper has three sections. First, we describe the minimal grid cell properties that will be built into our network. Specifically, the network relies of rigid modules of neurons, where all members have identical grid scale and orientation, but differ in spatial phase. Additionally, these neurons must be densely interconnected with synapses that are modifiable early in the animal’s life. Second, we investigate whether plasticity during short bouts of locomotion could induce patterns of connections amongst grid cells or conjunctive cells. Finally, we run a simulation to test whether the learned connection patterns can exhibit linear look-ahead. Our results are straightforward. A simulated 30-minute walk produces weak strengthening of synapses between grid cells that do not support linear look-ahead. Similar training in a conjunctive-cell module produces a small subset of very strong connections between cells. These strong pairs have three properties: The pre- and post-synaptic cells have similar heading direction. The cell pairs have neighboring grid bumps. Finally, the spatial offset of firing bumps of the cell pair is in the direction of the common heading preference. Such a module can produce strong and accurate linear look ahead starting in any location and extending in any direction. We speculate that this process may: 1. compute linear paths to goals; 2. update grid cell firing during navigation; and 3. stabilize the rigid modules of grid cells and conjunctive cells.

  4. Noisy probability judgment, the conjunction fallacy, and rationality: Comment on Costello and Watts (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Vincenzo; Tentori, Katya

    2016-01-01

    According to Costello and Watts (2014), probability theory can account for key findings in human judgment research provided that random noise is embedded in the model. We concur with a number of Costello and Watts's remarks, but challenge the empirical adequacy of their model in one of their key illustrations (the conjunction fallacy) on the basis of recent experimental findings. We also discuss how our argument bears on heuristic and rational thinking. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Harry Potter and the Upcoming Venus-Jupiter Conjunction: A Unique Outreach Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.

    2008-09-01

    As we prepare for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), we should be on the lookout for celestial events which we can use not only to popularise the IYA2009 and practise our outreach skills, but which also have natural connections to popular culture. The Venus-Jupiter conjunction this autumn is such an opportunity, given several direct connections to the use of astronomy in J. K. Rowling's famous Harry Potter universe.

  6. Many reasons or just one : How response mode affects reasoning in the conjunction problem

    OpenAIRE

    Hertwig, R.; Chase, V.

    1998-01-01

    Forty years of experimentation on class inclusion and its probabilistic relatives have led to inconsistent results and conclusions about human reasoning. Recent research on the conjunction "fallacy" recapitulates this history. In contrast to previous results, we found that a majority of participants adhere to class inclusion in the classic Linda problem. We outline a theoretical framework that attributes the contradictory results to differences in statistical sophistication and to differences...

  7. Visual Search for Feature and Conjunction Targets with an Attention Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Arguin, Martin; Joanette, Yves; Cavanagh, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    Brain-damaged subjects who had previously been identified as suffering from a visual attention deficit for contralesional stimulation were tested on a series of visual search tasks. The experiments examined the hypothesis that the processing of single features is preattentive but that feature integration, necessary for the correct perception of conjunctions of features, requires attention (Treisman & Gelade, 1980 Treisman & Sato, 1990). Subjects searched for a feature target (orientation or c...

  8. Response effects in the perception of conjunctions of colour and form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, N

    1989-01-01

    Two experiments addressed the question whether visual search for a target defined by a conjunction of colour and form requires a central, serial, attentional process, but detection of a single feature, such as colour, is preattentive, as proposed by the feature-integration theory of attention. Experiment 1 investigated conjunction and feature search using small array sizes of up to five elements, under conditions which precluded eye-movements, in contrast to previous studies. The results were consistent with the theory. Conjunction search showed the effect of adding distractors to the display, the slopes of the curves relating RT to array size were in the approximate ratio of 2:1, consistent with a central, serial search process, exhaustive for absence responses and self-terminating for presence responses. Feature search showed no significant effect of distractors for presence responses. Experiment 2 manipulated the response requirements in conjunction search, using vocal response in a GO-NO GO procedure, in contrast to Experiment 1, which used key-press responses in a YES-NO procedure. Strikingly, presence-response RT was not affected significantly by the number of distractors in the array. The slope relating RT to array size was 3.92. The absence RT slope was 30.56, producing a slope ratio of approximately 8:1. There was no interaction of errors with array size and the presence and absence conditions, implying that RT-error trade-offs did not produce this slope ratio. This result suggests that feature-integration theory is at least incomplete.

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of the AdenoPlus test for diagnosing adenoviral conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambursky, Robert; Trattler, William; Tauber, Shachar; Starr, Christopher; Friedberg, Murray; Boland, Thomas; McDonald, Marguerite; DellaVecchia, Michael; Luchs, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the AdenoPlus test with those of both viral cell culture (CC) with confirmatory immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at detecting the presence of adenovirus in tear fluid. A prospective, sequential, masked, multicenter clinical trial enrolled 128 patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis of acute viral conjunctivitis from a combination of 8 private ophthalmology practices and academic centers. Patients were tested with AdenoPlus, CC-IFA, and PCR to detect the presence of adenovirus. The sensitivity and specificity of AdenoPlus were assessed for identifying cases of adenoviral conjunctivitis. Of the 128 patients enrolled, 36 patients' results were found to be positive by either CC-IFA or PCR and 29 patients' results were found to be positive by both CC-IFA and PCR. When compared only with CC-IFA, AdenoPlus showed a sensitivity of 90% (28/31) and specificity of 96% (93/97). When compared only with PCR, AdenoPlus showed a sensitivity of 85% (29/34) and specificity of 98% (89/91). When compared with both CC-IFA and PCR, AdenoPlus showed a sensitivity of 93% (27/29) and specificity of 98% (88/90). When compared with PCR, CC-IFA showed a sensitivity of 85% (29/34) and specificity of 99% (90/91). AdenoPlus is sensitive and specific at detecting adenoviral conjunctivitis. An accurate and rapid in-office test can prevent the misdiagnosis of adenoviral conjunctivitis that leads to the spread of disease, unnecessary antibiotic use, and increased health care costs. Additionally, AdenoPlus may help a clinician make a more informed treatment decision regarding the use of novel therapeutics. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00921895.

  10. Acute infective conjunctivitis in primary care: who needs antibiotics? An individual patient data meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Joanna; Perera, Rafael; Everitt, Hazel; van Weert, Henk; Rietveld, Remco; Glasziou, Paul; Rose, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute infective conjunctivitis is a common problem in primary care, traditionally managed with topical antibiotics. A number of clinical trials have questioned the benefit of topical antibiotics for patients with acute infective conjunctivitis Aim To determine the benefit of antibiotics for the treatment of acute infective conjunctivitis in primary care and which subgroups benefit most Design An individual patient data meta-analysis Method Relevant trials were identified and individual patient data gathered for meta-analysis and subgroup analysis Results Three eligible trials were identified. Individual patient data were available from all primary care trials and data were available for analysis in 622 patients. Eighty per cent (246/308) of patients who received antibiotics and 74% (233/314) of controls were cured at day 7. There was a significant benefit of antibiotics versus control for cure at seven days in all cases combined (risk difference 0.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.01 to 0.14). Subgroups that showed a significant benefit from antibiotics were patients with purulent discharge (risk difference 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.17) and patients with mild severity of red eye (risk difference 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.18), while the type of control used (placebo drops versus nothing) showed a statistically significant interaction (P=0.03) Conclusion Acute conjunctivitis seen in primary care can be thought of as a self-limiting condition, with most patients getting better regardless of antibiotic therapy. Patients with purulent discharge or a mild severity of red eye may have a small benefit from antibiotics. Prescribing practices need to be updated, taking into account these results PMID:22152728

  11. A method for physically based model analysis of conjunctive use in response to potential climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Faunt, C.C.; Cayan, D.; Schmid, W.

    2012-01-01

    Potential climate change effects on aspects of conjunctive management of water resources can be evaluated by linking climate models with fully integrated groundwater-surface water models. The objective of this study is to develop a modeling system that links global climate models with regional hydrologic models, using the California Central Valley as a case study. The new method is a supply and demand modeling framework that can be used to simulate and analyze potential climate change and conjunctive use. Supply-constrained and demand-driven linkages in the water system in the Central Valley are represented with the linked climate models, precipitation-runoff models, agricultural and native vegetation water use, and hydrologic flow models to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Simulated precipitation and temperature were used from the GFDL-A2 climate change scenario through the 21st century to drive a regional water balance mountain hydrologic watershed model (MHWM) for the surrounding watersheds in combination with a regional integrated hydrologic model of the Central Valley (CVHM). Application of this method demonstrates the potential transition from predominantly surface water to groundwater supply for agriculture with secondary effects that may limit this transition of conjunctive use. The particular scenario considered includes intermittent climatic droughts in the first half of the 21st century followed by severe persistent droughts in the second half of the 21st century. These climatic droughts do not yield a valley-wide operational drought but do cause reduced surface water deliveries and increased groundwater abstractions that may cause additional land subsidence, reduced water for riparian habitat, or changes in flows at the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The method developed here can be used to explore conjunctive use adaptation options and hydrologic risk assessments in regional hydrologic systems throughout the world.

  12. Listeria monocytogenes associated kerato-conjunctivitis in four horses in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revold, Tobias; Abayneh, Takele; Brun-Hansen, Hege; Kleppe, Signe L; Ropstad, Ernst-Otto; Hellings, Robert A; Sørum, Henning

    2015-11-09

    Listeria monocytogenes has been reported to cause various infectious diseases in both humans and animals. More rarely, ocular infections have been reported. To our knowledge, only two cases of Listeria keratitis have been described in horses. We report kerato-conjunctivitis in four Norwegian horses associated with L. monocytogenes. Clinically, all cases were presented with recurrent unilateral kerato-conjunctivitis. L. monocytogenes bacteria were isolated from swab samples from all cases, and cytology carried out in 3 cases was indicative of L. monocytogenes infection. The present report describes the first known cases in which L. monocytogenes has been isolated from keratitic lesions in horses in Norway. A potential risk factor may be feeding of silage or haylage, but other sources of infection cannot be ruled out. The phenotypic features including antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype of the isolates are described. Laboratory detection of L. monocytogenes demands extra caution since only low numbers of bacteria were detected in the eye-swabs, probably due to the low volume of sample material and the intracellular niche of the bacterium. A general poor response to treatment in all these cases indicates that clinicians should pay extra attention to intensity and duration of treatment if L. monocytogenes is identified in connection with equine kerato-conjunctivitis.

  13. Conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water for irrigated agriculture: Risk aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.; Young, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    In examining the South Platte system in Colorado where surface water and groundwater are used conjunctively for irrigation, we find the actual installed well capacity is approximately sufficient to irrigate the entire area. This would appear to be an overinvestment in well capacity. In this paper we examine to what extent groundwater is being developed as insurance against periods of low streamflow. Using a simulation model which couples the hydrology of a conjunctive stream aquifer system to a behavioral-economic model which incorporates farmer behavior in such a system, we have investigated the economics of an area patterned after a reach of the South Platte Valley in Colorado. The results suggest that under current economic conditions the most reasonable groundwater pumping capacity is a total capacity capable of irrigating the available acreage with groundwater. Installing sufficient well capacity to irrigate all available acreage has two benefits: (1) this capacity maximizes the expected net benefits and (2) this capacity also minimizes the variation in annual income: it reduces the variance to essentially zero. As pumping capacity is installed in a conjunctive use system, the value of flow forecasts is diminished. Poor forecasts are compensated for by pumping groundwater.

  14. A Powerful, Cost Effective, Web Based Engineering Solution Supporting Conjunction Detection and Visual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Daniel M.; Biamonti, Davide; Gross, Jeremy; Milnes, Martin

    2013-08-01

    An innovative and visually appealing tool is presented for efficient all-vs-all conjunction analysis on a large catalogue of objects. The conjunction detection uses a nearest neighbour search algorithm, based on spatial binning and identification of pairs of objects in adjacent bins. This results in the fastest all vs all filtering the authors are aware of. The tool is constructed on a server-client architecture, where the server broadcasts to the client the conjunction data and ephemerides, while the client supports the user interface through a modern browser, without plug-in. In order to make the tool flexible and maintainable, Java software technologies were used on the server side, including Spring, Camel, ActiveMQ and CometD. The user interface and visualisation are based on the latest web technologies: HTML5, WebGL, THREE.js. Importance has been given on the ergonomics and visual appeal of the software. In fact certain design concepts have been borrowed from the gaming industry.

  15. Operational Implementation of a Pc Uncertainty Construct for Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lauri K.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.

    2016-01-01

    Earlier this year the NASA Conjunction Assessment and Risk Analysis (CARA) project presented the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of a method to include the uncertainties in the calculation inputs when computing the probability of collision (Pc) between two space objects, principally uncertainties in the covariances and the hard-body radius. The output of this calculation approach is to produce rather than a single Pc value an entire probability density function that will represent the range of possible Pc values given the uncertainties in the inputs and bring CA risk analysis methodologies more in line with modern risk management theory. The present study provides results from the exercise of this method against an extended dataset of satellite conjunctions in order to determine the effect of its use on the evaluation of conjunction assessment (CA) event risk posture. The effects are found to be considerable: a good number of events are downgraded from or upgraded to a serious risk designation on the basis of consideration of the Pc uncertainty. The findings counsel the integration of the developed methods into NASA CA operations.

  16. [Outbreak of follicular conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus in a geriatric centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artieda, Juncal; Montes, Milagrosa; Vicente, Diego; Martínez, Consuelo; Piñeiro, Luis; Mendiola, Josune

    2010-12-01

    Adenovirus serotype 4a is a respiratory virus that occasionally causes conjunctivitis. This paper describes an outbreak of follicular conjunctivitis that occurred in a geriatric centre. Outbreak description and epidemiological research through a survey. For the microbiological study conjunctival swabs were collected using viral and bacterial transport media. Adenovirus was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The serotype was determined by sequencing of a fragment of the hexon and E1 genes. In autumn 2008 an outbreak of follicular conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus serotype 4a was detected. Twenty three percent 23% (69/300) of residents and 5% (9/180) of workers in a geriatric centre in Gipuzkoa were affected. The clinical symptoms were of prolonged duration (11±5 days). The temporal association of the cases suggested transmission from person to person. The sanitary measures established (asepsis and frequent hand washing, cleaning and disinfection of objects and surfaces) were effective, interrupting the transmission of the disease within a short period of time. Rapid detection, identification of the causative agent and implementing appropriate control measures can significantly reduce the impact on both health and economic costs of these outbreaks. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Conjunction analysis and propositional logic in fMRI data analysis using Bayesian statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudert, Thomas; Lohmann, Gabriele

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate logical expressions over different effects in data analyses using the general linear model (GLM) and to evaluate logical expressions over different posterior probability maps (PPMs). In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis, the GLM was applied to estimate unknown regression parameters. Based on the GLM, Bayesian statistics can be used to determine the probability of conjunction, disjunction, implication, or any other arbitrary logical expression over different effects or contrast. For second-level inferences, PPMs from individual sessions or subjects are utilized. These PPMs can be combined to a logical expression and its probability can be computed. The methods proposed in this article are applied to data from a STROOP experiment and the methods are compared to conjunction analysis approaches for test-statistics. The combination of Bayesian statistics with propositional logic provides a new approach for data analyses in fMRI. Two different methods are introduced for propositional logic: the first for analyses using the GLM and the second for common inferences about different probability maps. The methods introduced extend the idea of conjunction analysis to a full propositional logic and adapt it from test-statistics to Bayesian statistics. The new approaches allow inferences that are not possible with known standard methods in fMRI. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Epidemiological Study of Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Conjunctivitis in a Level III Neonatal Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conjunctivitis is one of the most frequently occurring hospital-acquired infections among neonates, although it is less studied than potentially life-threatening infections, such as sepsis and pneumonia. Objectives. The aims of our work were to identify epidemiologic characteristics, pathogens, and susceptibility patterns of bacterial hospital-acquired conjunctivitis (HAC in a level III neonatal unit. Materials and Methods. Data were collected retrospectively from patient charts and laboratory databases. Hospital-acquired conjunctivitis was defined in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN diagnostic criteria. Results. One or more episodes of HAC were diagnosed in 4,0% ( of 1492 neonates admitted during the study period. Most of the episodes involved premature (75,4% and low birth weight (75,4% neonates. Infection rates were higher among patients undergoing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (46,7%, parenteral nutrition (13,6%, and phototherapy (6,8%. Predominant pathogens included Serratia marcescens (27,9%, Escherichia coli (23%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18%. Susceptibility patterns revealed bacterial resistances to several antibiotic classes. Gentamicin remains the adequate choice for empirical treatment of HAC in our NICU. Conclusion. It is important to know the local patterns of the disease in order to adjust prevention strategies. Our work contributes to the epidemiological characterization of a sometimes overlooked disease.

  19. About the composition of self-relevance: Conjunctions not features are bound to the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sarah; Frings, Christian; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-06-01

    Sui and colleagues (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105-1117, 2012) introduced a matching paradigm to investigate prioritized processing of instructed self-relevance. They arbitrarily assigned simple geometric shapes to the participant and two other persons. Subsequently, the task was to judge whether label-shape pairings matched or not. The authors found a remarkable self-prioritization effect, that is, for matching self-related trials verification was very fast and accurate in comparison to the non-matching conditions. We analyzed whether single features or feature conjunctions are tagged to the self. In particular, we assigned colored shapes to the labels and included partial-matching trials (i.e., trials in which only one feature matched the label, whereas the other feature did not match the label). If single features are tagged to the self, partial matches would result in interference, whereas they should elicit the same data pattern as non-matching trials if only feature conjunctions are tagged to the self. Our data suggest the latter; only feature conjunctions are tagged to the self and are processed in a prioritized manner. This result emphasizes the functionality of self-relevance as a selection mechanism.

  20. Preattentive representation of feature conjunctions for concurrent spatially distributed auditory objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegata, Rika; Brattico, Elvira; Tervaniemi, Mari; Varyagina, Olga; Näätänen, Risto; Winkler, István

    2005-09-01

    The role of attention in conjoining features of an object has been a topic of much debate. Studies using the mismatch negativity (MMN), an index of detecting acoustic deviance, suggested that the conjunctions of auditory features are preattentively represented in the brain. These studies, however, used sequentially presented sounds and thus are not directly comparable with visual studies of feature integration. Therefore, the current study presented an array of spatially distributed sounds to determine whether the auditory features of concurrent sounds are correctly conjoined without focal attention directed to the sounds. Two types of sounds differing from each other in timbre and pitch were repeatedly presented together while subjects were engaged in a visual n-back working-memory task and ignored the sounds. Occasional reversals of the frequent pitch-timbre combinations elicited MMNs of a very similar amplitude and latency irrespective of the task load. This result suggested preattentive integration of auditory features. However, performance in a subsequent target-search task with the same stimuli indicated the occurrence of illusory conjunctions. The discrepancy between the results obtained with and without focal attention suggests that illusory conjunctions may occur during voluntary access to the preattentively encoded object representations.

  1. Visual search for features and conjunctions following declines in the useful field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Lees, Monica N; Lee, John D; Rizzo, Matthew; Vecera, Shaun P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Typical measures for assessing the useful field (UFOV) of view involve many components of attention. The objective of the current experiment was to examine differences in visual search efficiency for older individuals with and without UFOV impairment. The authors used a computerized screening instrument to assess the useful field of view and to characterize participants as having an impaired or normal UFOV. Participants also performed two visual search tasks, a feature search (e.g., search for a green target among red distractors) or a conjunction search (e.g., a green target with a gap on its left or right side among red distractors with gaps on the left or right and green distractors with gaps on the top or bottom). Visual search performance did not differ between UFOV impaired and unimpaired individuals when searching for a basic feature. However, search efficiency was lower for impaired individuals than unimpaired individuals when searching for a conjunction of features. The results suggest that UFOV decline in normal aging is associated with conjunction search. This finding suggests that the underlying cause of UFOV decline may arise from an overall decline in attentional efficiency. Because the useful field of view is a reliable predictor of driving safety, the results suggest that decline in the everyday visual behavior of older adults might arise from attentional declines.

  2. More than meets the eye: the role of language in binding and maintaining feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessalegn, Banchiamlack; Landau, Barbara

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the effects of language on vision by focusing on a well-known problem: the binding and maintenance of color-location conjunctions. Four-year-olds performed a task in which they saw a target (e.g., a split square, red on the left and green on the right) followed by a brief delay and then were asked to find the target in an array including the target, its reflection (e.g., red on the right and green on the left), and a square with a different geometric split. Errors were overwhelmingly reflections. This finding shows that the children failed to maintain color-location conjunctions. Performance improved when targets were accompanied by sentences specifying color and direction (e.g., "the red is on the left"), but not when the conjunction was highlighted using a nonlinguistic cue (e.g., flashing, pointing, changes in size), nor when sentences specified a nondirectional relationship (e.g., "the red is touching the green"). The relation between children's matching performance and their long-term knowledge of directional terms suggests two distinct mechanisms by which language can temporarily bridge delays, providing more stable representations.

  3. Conjunctions between motion and disparity are encoded with the same spatial resolution as disparity alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allenmark, Fredrik; Read, Jenny C A

    2012-10-10

    Neurons in cortical area MT respond well to transparent streaming motion in distinct depth planes, such as caused by observer self-motion, but do not contain subregions excited by opposite directions of motion. We therefore predicted that spatial resolution for transparent motion/disparity conjunctions would be limited by the size of MT receptive fields, just as spatial resolution for disparity is limited by the much smaller receptive fields found in primary visual cortex, V1. We measured this using a novel "joint motion/disparity grating," on which human observers detected motion/disparity conjunctions in transparent random-dot patterns containing dots streaming in opposite directions on two depth planes. Surprisingly, observers showed the same spatial resolution for these as for pure disparity gratings. We estimate the limiting receptive field diameter at 11 arcmin, similar to V1 and much smaller than MT. Higher internal noise for detecting joint motion/disparity produces a slightly lower high-frequency cutoff of 2.5 cycles per degree (cpd) versus 3.3 cpd for disparity. This suggests that information on motion/disparity conjunctions is available in the population activity of V1 and that this information can be decoded for perception even when it is invisible to neurons in MT.

  4. Progress on the occulter experiment at Princeton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Eric; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Carr, Michael; Dickie, Matthew; Echternach, Pierre; Groff, Tyler; Kasdin, Jeremy; Laftchiev, Christian; McElwain, Michael; Sirbu, Dan; Vanderbei, Robert; White, Victor

    2009-08-01

    An occulter is used in conjunction with a separate telescope to suppress the light of a distant star. To demonstrate the performance of this system, we are building an occulter experiment in the laboratory at Princeton. This experiment will use an etched silicon mask as the occulter, with some modifications to try to improve the performance. The occulter is illuminated by a diverging laser beam to reduce the aberrations from the optics before the occulter. We present the progress of this experiment and expectations for future work.

  5. A double-masked study to compare the efficacy and safety of topical cromolyn for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-lin Liu

    2011-11-01

    Conclusion: Cromolyn 2 % ophthalmic solution was effective and safe to treat allergic conjunctivitis. A short-term use of cromolyn 2 % ophthalmic solution with 0.01% BAK would not cause any significant toxicity in patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Preservative-free cromolyn may be beneficial to the compromised eyes or eyes required of long-term medication.

  6. 21 CFR 582.30 - Natural substances used in conjunction with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural substances used in conjunction with spices... with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. Natural substances used in conjunction with spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings that are generally recognized as safe for their...

  7. Implementation of trastuzumab in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munck, L.; Schaapveld, M.; Siesling, S.; Wesseling, J.; Voogd, A. C.; Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G.; Otter, R.; Willemse, P. H. B.

    Trastuzumab in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy markedly improves outcome. In the Netherlands, a national guideline was released in September 2005 stating that trastuzumab should be given in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Aim of this study was

  8. Implementation of trastuzumab in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munck, L.; Schaapveld, M.; Siesling, Sabine; Wessling, J.; Voogd, A.C.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.G.; Otter, R.; Willemse, P.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Trastuzumab in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy markedly improves outcome. In the Netherlands, a national guideline was released in September 2005 stating that trastuzumab should be given in conjunction with adjuvant chemotherapy in women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Aim of this study was

  9. Effect of Mandarin Orange Yogurt on Allergic Conjunctivitis Induced by Conjunctival Allergen Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuko; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Sakane, Yuri; Takezawa, Yuki; Kamao, Tomoyuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Yasunaga, Sho; Sugahara, Takuya

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of mandarin orange yogurt containing nobiletin and β-lactoglobulin on the allergic conjunctivitis induced by a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC). Experiment 1 was performed on 26 asymptomatic patients (age, 25.3 ± 5.3 years) with proven seasonal allergic conjunctivitis due to cedar pollen. We compared the degree of conjunctivitis induced by CAC before and after ingesting mandarin orange yogurt for 2 weeks. Experiment 2 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed on 31 patients (age, 32.5 ± 12.2 years). A diet containing mandarin orange yogurt was compared to a diet containing yogurt lacking the mandarin orange on the conjunctivitis induced by CAC. The temperature of the inferior bulbar conjunctiva was measured before and 20 minutes after the CAC with an ocular surface thermographer (OST). The degree of conjunctival injection and chemosis was graded by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The changes in the symptoms were evaluated by a questionnaire. In experiment 1, the scores of redness (3.07 ± 3.03 vs. 1.05 ± 1.70), chemosis (2.84 ± 2.27 vs. 0.81 ± 1.11), itching (4.34 ± 3.05 vs. 1.39 ± 2.12), and temperature (0.73 ± 0.42°C vs. 0.45 ± 0.43°C) were significantly lower (P yogurt for 2 weeks. In experiment 2, the scores of redness (1.03 ± 0.18 vs. 1.28 ± 0.52; P = 0.0156), itching (1.93 ± 1.92 vs. 2.82 ± 2.21; P = 0.0133), and surface temperature (0.54 ± 0.21°C vs. 0.31 ± 0.25°C; P yogurt group than in the control yogurt group. Mandarin orange yogurt can be an effective nutritional intervention for allergic conjunctivitis.

  10. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L.; Hejduk, M.; Frigm, R.; Duncan, M.

    2014-09-01

    On-orbit collisions pose a significant mission risk to satellites operating in the space environment. Recognizing the likelihood and consequence of on-orbit collisions, NASA has taken several proactive measures to mitigate the risk of both a catastrophic loss of mission and the increase in the space debris population. In fall 2004, NASA GSFC established an Agency-wide, institutionalized process and service for identifying and reacting to predicted close approaches. The team responsible for executing this mission is the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team. By fall 2005, this process had resulted in the execution of the first collision avoidance maneuver by a NASA unmanned satellite. In February 2008, NASA adopted a policy, documented in NASA Procedural Requirement 8715.6a Process for Limiting Orbital Debris that directed maneuverable satellites to have such an on-orbit collision mitigation process. In 2009, NASA decided to require support for all operational satellites. By January 2014, the CARA team has processed nearly 500,000 close approach messages from the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) and has assisted our mission customers with planning and executing over 75 collision avoidance maneuvers for unmanned satellites in LEO, GEO, and HEO orbital regimes. With the increase in number of operational missions supported; growth in the orbital debris environment due to events such as the intentional destruction of the Fengyun 1-C satellite in 2007 and collision between Iridium-33 and Cosmos-2251; and improvements to the United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and its ability to track, catalog, and screen against small debris objects, the demands on the CARA process have consequently required the CARA Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to evolve to manage those demands. This evolution is centered on the ability to effectively and efficiently manage JSpOC, CARA, and Mission Operations resources, applying operational and analytical

  11. Current-State Constrained Filter Bank for Wald Testing of Spacecraft Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2012-01-01

    We propose a filter bank consisting of an ordinary current-state extended Kalman filter, and two similar but constrained filters: one is constrained by a null hypothesis that the miss distance between two conjuncting spacecraft is inside their combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one is constrained by an alternative complementary hypothesis. The unconstrained filter is the basis of an initial screening for close approaches of interest. Once the initial screening detects a possibly risky conjunction, the unconstrained filter also governs measurement editing for all three filters, and predicts the time of closest approach. The constrained filters operate only when conjunctions of interest occur. The computed likelihoods of the innovations of the two constrained filters form a ratio for a Wald sequential probability ratio test. The Wald test guides risk mitigation maneuver decisions based on explicit false alarm and missed detection criteria. Since only current-state Kalman filtering is required to compute the innovations for the likelihood ratio, the present approach does not require the mapping of probability density forward to the time of closest approach. Instead, the hard-body constraint manifold is mapped to the filter update time by applying a sigma-point transformation to a projection function. Although many projectors are available, we choose one based on Lambert-style differential correction of the current-state velocity. We have tested our method using a scenario based on the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale mission, scheduled for launch in late 2014. This mission involves formation flight in highly elliptical orbits of four spinning spacecraft equipped with antennas extending 120 meters tip-to-tip. Eccentricities range from 0.82 to 0.91, and close approaches generally occur in the vicinity of perigee, where rapid changes in geometry may occur. Testing the method using two 12,000-case Monte Carlo simulations, we found the

  12. Adenovirus urethritis and concurrent conjunctivitis: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Olivia Louise; Samuel, Mannampallil Itty; Sudhanva, Malur; Ellis, Joanna; Taylor, Chris

    2015-03-01

    We present eight cases and review the literature of concurrent urethritis and conjunctivitis where adenovirus was identified as the causative pathogen. The focus of this review concerns the identification of specific sexual practices, symptoms, signs and any serotypes that seem more commonly associated with such adenovirus infections. We discuss the seasonality of adenovirus infection and provide practical advice for clinicians to give to the patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Air pollution and emergency department visits for conjunctivitis: A case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Szyszkowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between emergency department (ED visits for conjunctivitis and ambient air pollution levels in urban regions across the province of Ontario, Canada. Material and Methods: Information from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System was used to create time-series records, for the period of April 2004 to December 2011, on emergency department visits of patients suffering from conjunctivitis. A total of 77 439 emergency department visits for conjunctivitis were analyzed. A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied, completed with meta-analysis in order to pool inter-city results. Odds ratio (OR for an emergency department visit was calculated in different population strata per one-unit increase (one interquartile range – IQR increase in a pollutant’s daily level while controlling for the impacts of temperature and relative humidity. Results: Statistically significant positive results were observed in the female population sample, for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 exposure lagged 5–8 days, with the highest result for the 7-day lag (OR = 1.035, 95% CI: 1.018–1.052 and for fine particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5, for lags 6 and 7 days, with the highest result for lag 7 (OR = 1.017, 95% CI: 1.003–1.031. In the male population sample, statistically significant positive results were observed for NO2 at lag 5 days (OR = 1.024, 95% CI: 1.004–1.045 and for ozone (O3, at lags 0–3 and 7 days, with the highest result for lag 0 (OR = 1.038, 95% CI: 1.012–1.056. Also for males, statistically significant results were observed in the case of PM2.5 exposure lagged by 5 days (OR = 1.003, 95% CI: 1.000–1.038 and sulfur dioxide (SO2 exposure lagged by 1 and 2 days (OR = 1.016, 95% CI: 1.000–1.031 and OR = 1.018, 95% CI: 1.002–1.033. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that there are associations between levels of air

  14. Attentional Selection of Feature Conjunctions Is Accomplished by Parallel and Independent Selection of Single Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Søren K; Müller, Matthias M; Hillyard, Steven A

    2015-07-08

    Experiments that study feature-based attention have often examined situations in which selection is based on a single feature (e.g., the color red). However, in more complex situations relevant stimuli may not be set apart from other stimuli by a single defining property but by a specific combination of features. Here, we examined sustained attentional selection of stimuli defined by conjunctions of color and orientation. Human observers attended to one out of four concurrently presented superimposed fields of randomly moving horizontal or vertical bars of red or blue color to detect brief intervals of coherent motion. Selective stimulus processing in early visual cortex was assessed by recordings of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) elicited by each of the flickering fields of stimuli. We directly contrasted attentional selection of single features and feature conjunctions and found that SSVEP amplitudes on conditions in which selection was based on a single feature only (color or orientation) exactly predicted the magnitude of attentional enhancement of SSVEPs when attending to a conjunction of both features. Furthermore, enhanced SSVEP amplitudes elicited by attended stimuli were accompanied by equivalent reductions of SSVEP amplitudes elicited by unattended stimuli in all cases. We conclude that attentional selection of a feature-conjunction stimulus is accomplished by the parallel and independent facilitation of its constituent feature dimensions in early visual cortex. The ability to perceive the world is limited by the brain's processing capacity. Attention affords adaptive behavior by selectively prioritizing processing of relevant stimuli based on their features (location, color, orientation, etc.). We found that attentional mechanisms for selection of different features belonging to the same object operate independently and in parallel: concurrent attentional selection of two stimulus features is simply the sum of attending to each of those

  15. Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Analysis of Orbital Conjunction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis; Gold, Dara

    2013-01-01

    We propose a Wald Sequential Probability Ratio Test for analysis of commonly available predictions associated with spacecraft conjunctions. Such predictions generally consist of a relative state and relative state error covariance at the time of closest approach, under the assumption that prediction errors are Gaussian. We show that under these circumstances, the likelihood ratio of the Wald test reduces to an especially simple form, involving the current best estimate of collision probability, and a similar estimate of collision probability that is based on prior assumptions about the likelihood of collision.

  16. Preattentive extraction of abstract feature conjunctions from auditory stimulation as reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, P; Simola, J; Jaramillo, M; Näätänen, R; Winkler, I

    2001-03-01

    Brain mechanisms extracting invariant information from varying auditory inputs were studied using the mismatch-negativity (MMN) brain response. We wished to determine whether the preattentive sound-analysis mechanisms, reflected by MMN, are capable of extracting invariant relationships based on abstract conjunctions between two sound features. The standard stimuli varied over a large range in frequency and intensity dimensions following the rule that the higher the frequency, the louder the intensity. The occasional deviant stimuli violated this frequency-intensity relationship and elicited an MMN. The results demonstrate that preattentive processing of auditory stimuli extends to unexpectedly complex relationships between the stimulus features.

  17. Covariance Based Pre-Filters and Screening Criteria for Conjunction Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, E., Chan, K.

    2012-09-01

    Several relationships are developed relating object size, initial covariance and range at closest approach to probability of collision. These relationships address the following questions: - Given the objects' initial covariance and combined hard body size, what is the maximum possible value of the probability of collision (Pc)? - Given the objects' initial covariance, what is the maximum combined hard body radius for which the probability of collision does not exceed the tolerance limit? - Given the objects' initial covariance and the combined hard body radius, what is the minimum miss distance for which the probability of collision does not exceed the tolerance limit? - Given the objects' initial covariance and the miss distance, what is the maximum combined hard body radius for which the probability of collision does not exceed the tolerance limit? The first relationship above allows the elimination of object pairs from conjunction analysis (CA) on the basis of the initial covariance and hard-body sizes of the objects. The application of this pre-filter to present day catalogs with estimated covariance results in the elimination of approximately 35% of object pairs as unable to ever conjunct with a probability of collision exceeding 1x10-6. Because Pc is directly proportional to object size and inversely proportional to covariance size, this pre-filter will have a significantly larger impact on future catalogs, which are expected to contain a much larger fraction of small debris tracked only by a limited subset of available sensors. This relationship also provides a mathematically rigorous basis for eliminating objects from analysis entirely based on element set age or quality - a practice commonly done by rough rules of thumb today. Further, these relations can be used to determine the required geometric screening radius for all objects. This analysis reveals the screening volumes for small objects are much larger than needed, while the screening volumes for

  18. The Language of the Internet – The Use of Concessive Conjunctions in Blogs by Companies Providing Private Tuition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřiška Kraťkova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Concessions are said to be a key aspect of English semantics because concessive constructions create a place for contrast, i.e. contradicting relations. Several studies have been carried out on this topic (i.e. on the positioning of conjunctions, linguistic interference, etc.. The aim of this paper is to focus on the frequency of use of the most common concessive conjunctions in Internet discussions with native speakers who give private tuition. The focus is primarily on the main, most commonly used concessive conjunctions in tutoring blogs.

  19. Influences on cocaine tolerance assessed under a multiple conjunctive schedule of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N

    2009-11-01

    Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the effects of cocaine on key-pecking responses of White Carneau pigeons maintained under a three-component multiple conjunctive FI (10 s, 30 s, & 120 s) FR (5 responses) schedule of food presentation. Dose-effect curves representing the effects of presession cocaine on responding were assessed in the context of (1) acute administration of cocaine (2) chronic administration of cocaine and (3) daily administration of saline. Chronic administration of cocaine generally resulted in tolerance to the response-rate decreasing effects of cocaine, and that tolerance was generally independent of relative FI value, as measured by changes in ED50 values. Daily administration of saline decreased ED50 values to those observed when cocaine was administered acutely. The results show that adding a FR requirement to FI schedules is not sufficient to produce schedule-parameter-specific tolerance. Tolerance to cocaine was generally independent of FI-parameter under the present conjunctive schedules, indicating that a ratio requirement, per se, is not sufficient for tolerance to be dependent on FI parameter.

  20. The effect on outcome of peribulbar anaesthesia in conjunction with general anesthesia for vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, A M; El Btarny, A M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate peri-operative outcome after vitreoretinal surgery when peribulbar anaesthesia is combined with general anaesthesia. Sixty adult patients undergoing elective primary retinal detachment surgery with scleral buckling or an encircling procedure received either peribulbar anaesthesia in conjunction with general anaesthesia or general anaesthesia alone. For peribulbar anaesthesia a single percutaneous injection of 5-7 ml of local anaesthetic solution (0.75% ropivacaine with hyaluronidase 15 iu.ml(-1)) was used. The incidence of intra-operative oculocardiac reflex and surgical bleeding interfering with the surgical field, postoperative pain and analgesia requirements, and postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded. In the block group there was a lower incidence of oculocardiac reflex and surgical bleeding intra-operatively. Patients in the block group also had better postoperative analgesia and a lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with the group without a block. The use of peribulbar anaesthesia in conjunction with general anesthesia was superior to general anaesthesia alone for vitreoretinal surgery with scleral buckling.

  1. COBE: A Conjunctive Ontology Browser and Explorer for Visualizing SNOMED CT Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Zhu, Wei; Tao, Shiqiang; Cui, Licong; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Ontology search interfaces can benefit from the latest information retrieval advances. This paper introduces a Conjunctive Ontology Browser and Explorer (COBE) for searching and exploring SNOMED CT concepts and visualizing SNOMED CT fragments. COBE combines navigational exploration (NE) with direct lookup (DL) as two complementary modes for finding specific SNOMED CT concepts. The NE mode allows a user to interactively and incrementally narrow down (hence conjunctive) the search space by adding word stems, one at a time. Such word stems serve as attribute constraints, or "attributes" in Formal Concept Analysis, which allows the user to navigate to specific SNOMED CT concept clusters. The DL mode represents the common search mechanism by using a collection of key words, as well as concept identifiers. With respect to the DL mode, evaluation against manually created reference standard showed that COBE attains an example-based precision of 0.958, recall of 0.917, and F1 measure of 0.875. With respect to the NE mode, COBE leverages 28,371 concepts in non-lattice fragments to construct the stem cloud. With merely 9.37% of the total SNOMED CT stem cloud, our navigational exploration mode covers 98.97% of the entire concept collection.

  2. Levocabastine eye drops are effective and well tolerated for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunello Wüthrich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This open-label, prospective, multicentre, 4-week trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy and tolerability of twice daily levocabastine eye drops (0.5 mg/ml, with sodium cromoglycate nasal spray for the relief of concurrent nasal symptoms if required, in a total of 233 children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. No correlation between efficacy, tolerability and age was found. Investigator assessments revealed that the total severity of ocular symptoms decreased by 84 ± 34% in patients < 12 years and 85 ± 30% in those ≥ 12 years, with corresponding reductions in the total severity of ocular findings of 84% in both patient groups over the 4-week treatment period. Global assessments of therapeutic efficacy revealed the effect of therapy on ocular symptoms to be excellent or good in 81% of patients < 12 years and 82% of those ≥ 12 years after 2 weeks of treatment, with corresponding values at the end of the trial of 88% and 82% in the two groups, respectively. Treatment tolerability was considered to be excellent or good by 94% of patients overall. Application site reactions were the most common adverse event associated with ocular levocabastine, occurring in 13% of patients < 12 years and 9% of those ≥ 12 years. Twice daily levocabastine eye drops therefore appear to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in children.

  3. Influence of aeroallergens on the incidence of conjunctivitis in Zagreb and Zagreb County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Toth, Ivan; Hercog, Predrag; Vojniković, Bozo; Cop, Rasa; Bradić-Hammoud, Mirna

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the temporal and spatial variations of pollen spectra in the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County according to frequency of inhalation allergy and rhino-conjunctivitis in the adult population by setting allergen/patient relationship. The study was carried out at three inland sites in Croatia during four years (2003-2006). A number of 2,192 patients have been tested for allergy skin prick tests over the same period. The majority of patients allergic to pollen allergens were sensitized to allergens from the plant pollen which belong to the botanical family of grass 46.91%, ambrosia 42.07%, birch 25.66%, hazel 15.19% (with symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis (42.5%), conjunctivitis (28.3%) and rhinitis (23.9%). Increased symptoms in patients allergic to pollen allergens in the entire study period coincided with the presence of pollen in the air. Patients sensitized to dust mites have symptoms throughout the year with a slightly increased number of cases in April and June. In patients sensitized to fungi and mold spores and animal hairs, the number of cases with worsening of symptoms is equal during the same year.

  4. Effect of 30-Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter on platelet and transfusion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojima, Hiromi; Sawada, Umihiko; Horie, Takashi; Itoh, Takeyoshi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of 30-Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter on platelet and transfusion efficiency, we studied platelet recovery, leukocyte reduction rate, content of platelet factor 4 and β-thromboglobulin in platelet products, platelet functions, and positive rates of platelet surface membranes CD42 and CD62, prior to and after treatment. We also evaluated the efficiency of platelet transfusion by estimating post- transfusion (1 and 24 hour) corrected count increment (CCI), and transfusion side effects. Recovery of platelets was 91.8±6.5% and depletion rate of leukocytes was 1.7±1.1 log. There was no significant difference in platelet activation markers or function tests prior to and after the procedure. The mean post-transfusion CCI and 1 and 24 hours were 16,550 (n=114) and 13,310 (n=93), respectively, with 30-Gy irradiation and leukocyte reduction filter. Those treated solely with leukocyte reduction filter were 14,970 (n=114) and 10,880 (n=118), respectively. There was no increase in transfusion side effects after the treatment of platelet concentrate with 30-Gy irradiation combined with leukocyte reduction filter compared with treatment by leukocyte reduction filter alone. These results indicate that treatment with 30 Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter is safe and effective in platelet transfusion. (author)

  5. Conjunction of color and form without attention: evidence from an orientation-contingent color aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M R; Hoffman, J E

    1986-05-01

    According to feature-integration theory (Treisman & Gelade, 1980), separable features such as color and shape exist in separate maps in preattentive vision and can be integrated only through the use of spatial attention. Many perceptual aftereffects, however, which are also assumed to reflect the features available in preattentive vision, are sensitive to conjunctions of features. One possible resolution of these views holds that adaptation to conjunctions depends on spatial attention. We tested this proposition by presenting observers with gratings varying in color and orientation. The resulting McCollough aftereffects were independent of whether the adaptation stimuli were presented inside or outside of the focus of spatial attention. Therefore, color and shape appear to be conjoined preattentively, when perceptual aftereffects are used as the measure. These same stimuli, however, appeared to be separable in two additional experiments that required observers to search for gratings of a specified color and orientation. These results show that different experimental procedures may be tapping into different stages of preattentive vision.

  6. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy in conjunction with mitomycin C in corneal macular and granular dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Yuksel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the visual outcomes, recurrence patterns, safety, and efficacy of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK in conjunction with mitomycin C (MMC for corneal macular and granular diystrophies. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD that caused superficial corneal plaque opacities, and Group 2 included patients with granular corneal dystrophy (GCD. Patients in both groups were pre-, peri-, and postoperatively evaluated. The groups were compared in terms of uncorrected visual acuity (VA, best spectacle-corrected VA, presence of mild or significant recurrence, and time of recurrence. Results: Eighteen eyes (nine with MCD and nine with GCD of 18 patients (10 men and eight women were included. PTK was performed for each eye that was included in this study. The mean ablation amount was 117.8 ± 24.4 µm and 83.5 ± 45.7 µm in MCD and GCD, respectively, (p=0.18. The postoperative improvement of the mean VA was similar between the two groups before recurrences (p>0.43 and after recurrences (p>0.71. There were no statistically significant differences in the recurrence rate and the recurrence-free period for any recurrence type. Conclusion: PTK was an effective, safe, and minimally invasive procedure for patients with MCD and GCD. PTK in conjunction with MMC was similarly effective for both groups in terms of recurrence and visual outcomes.

  7. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy in conjunction with mitomycin C in corneal macular and granular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Erdem; Cubuk, Mehmet Ozgur; Eroglu, Hulya Yazıcı; Bilgihan, Kamil

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the visual outcomes, recurrence patterns, safety, and efficacy of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) in conjunction with mitomycin C (MMC) for corneal macular and granular diystrophies. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) that caused superficial corneal plaque opacities, and Group 2 included patients with granular corneal dystrophy (GCD). Patients in both groups were pre-, peri-, and postoperatively evaluated. The groups were compared in terms of uncorrected visual acuity (VA), best spectacle-corrected VA, presence of mild or significant recurrence, and time of recurrence. Eighteen eyes (nine with MCD and nine with GCD) of 18 patients (10 men and eight women) were included. PTK was performed for each eye that was included in this study. The mean ablation amount was 117.8 ± 24.4 µm and 83.5 ± 45.7 µm in MCD and GCD, respectively, (p=0.18). The postoperative improvement of the mean VA was similar between the two groups before recurrences (p>0.43) and after recurrences (p>0.71). There were no statistically significant differences in the recurrence rate and the recurrence-free period for any recurrence type. PTK was an effective, safe, and minimally invasive procedure for patients with MCD and GCD. PTK in conjunction with MMC was similarly effective for both groups in terms of recurrence and visual outcomes.

  8. Event-related potentials and illusory conjunctions in the time domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gil-Gómez de Liaño

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (Rapid Serial Visual Presentation, RSVP can migrate forming a wrong combination or illusory conjunction. Several serial and parallel models have been proposed to explain the generation of this type of errors. The behavioral results fit better the two-stage parallel model than other serial and parallel models. However, they have not been studied the psychophysiological correlates that distinguish successful bindings from Illusory Conjunctions. The goal here is to collect electrophysiological records during this task to determine the degree to which they converge with the evidence from behavioral results. One RSVP task required to identify the only uppercase word in a stream of lowercase words at a rate of 12 items/sec. As in previous experiments, more intrusions from post-target items than from pre-target items were observed. The results from eventrelated potentials are also more supportive for the two-stage parallel model than for the serial or other parallel models, as reflected in the differential waves associated to correct and wrong combinations

  9. Treatment with galectin-1 eye drops regulates mast cell degranulation and attenuates the severity of conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Bosnic, Claudia; Gimenes, Alexandre Dantas; Oliani, Sonia Maria; Gil, Cristiane Damas

    2018-05-31

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a β-galactoside-binding protein with diverse biological activities in the pathogenesis of inflammation, however the mechanisms by which Gal-1 modulates cellular responses in allergic inflammatory processes have not been fully determined. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Gal-1 eye drops in an experimental model of conjunctivitis. Wistar rats received a topical application of compound (C)48/80 (100 mg/ml) into right eyes and a drop of vehicle into the contralateral eye. Another group of rats received Gal-1 (0.3 or 3 μg/eye) or sodium cromoglycate (SCG; 40 mg/ml) in both eyes and, after 15 min, right eye was challenged with C48/80. Conjunctivitis-induced by C48/80 was characterized by severe eyelid oedema and tearing, but clinical signs were ameliorated by eye drop doses of both Gal-1 (0.3/3 μg) and SCG. As expected, an increased proportion of degranulated mast cells (62%, P cell degranulation (31-36%), eosinophil migration and eosinophil peroxidase levels in the eyes. Gal-1 (3 μg) and SCG treatments also decreased IL-4 levels, as well as activation of mitogen activated protein kinases compared to untreated C48/80 eyes. Our findings suggest that Gal-1 eye drops represent a new therapeutic strategy for ocular allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The neural response in short-term visual recognition memory for perceptual conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R; Dolan, R J

    1998-01-01

    Short-term visual memory has been widely studied in humans and animals using delayed matching paradigms. The present study used positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the neural substrates of delayed matching to sample for complex abstract patterns over a 5-s delay. More specifically, the study assessed any differential neural response associated with remembering individual perceptual properties (color only and shape only) compared to conjunction between these properties. Significant activations associated with short-term visual memory (all memory conditions compared to perceptuomotor control) were observed in extrastriate cortex, medial and lateral parietal cortex, anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and the thalamus. Significant deactivations were observed throughout the temporal cortex. Although the requirement to remember color compared to shape was associated with subtly different patterns of blood flow, the requirement to remember perceptual conjunctions between these features was not associated with additional specific activations. These data suggest that visual memory over a delay of the order of 5 s is mainly dependent on posterior perceptual regions of the cortex, with the exact regions depending on the perceptual aspect of the stimuli to be remembered.

  11. Visual search for conjunctions of physical and numerical size shows that they are processed independently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Kenith V; Puri, Amrita M; Faulkenberry, Thomas J; Dague, Taylor D

    2017-03-01

    The size congruity effect refers to the interaction between numerical magnitude and physical digit size in a symbolic comparison task. Though this effect is well established in the typical 2-item scenario, the mechanisms at the root of the interference remain unclear. Two competing explanations have emerged in the literature: an early interaction model and a late interaction model. In the present study, we used visual conjunction search to test competing predictions from these 2 models. Participants searched for targets that were defined by a conjunction of physical and numerical size. Some distractors shared the target's physical size, and the remaining distractors shared the target's numerical size. We held the total number of search items fixed and manipulated the ratio of the 2 distractor set sizes. The results from 3 experiments converge on the conclusion that numerical magnitude is not a guiding feature for visual search, and that physical and numerical magnitude are processed independently, which supports a late interaction model of the size congruity effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Amphiphilic conjunct of methyl cellulose and well-defined polyvinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Congming; Xia, Cunping

    2013-01-01

    Tailor-made conjunct of methyl cellulose (MC) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) was synthesized through the combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and thiol-ene click reaction. MC was firstly transferred into unsaturated MC (UMC), and then covalently connected with well-defined PVAc obtained by RAFT polymerization of vinyl acetate. The structure of the conjunct polymer (MCV) was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). Well-defined MCV was amphiphilic and able to self-assemble into size controllable micelles, which was verified with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and size distribution analysis. It was found that the mean diameters of the micelles in aqueous solution were 105.6, 96.0 and 75.9 nm when the number average molecular weights of PVAc segments of MCV were 49,300, 32,500 and 18,200, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Update and clinical utility of alcaftadine ophthalmic solution 0.25% in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigbu DI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available DeGaulle I Chigbu, Alissa M Coyne Pennsylvania College of Optometry Salus University, Elkins Park, PA, USA Abstract: Allergic disorders of the ocular surface are primarily characterized as IgE- and/or T-lymphocyte-mediated disorders that affect the cornea, conjunctiva, and eyelid. Approximately 40% of individuals in the developed countries have allergic conjunctivitis, and as such, it is the most common form of ocular allergy. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis is the most prevalent type of allergic conjunctivitis that impacts the quality of life of patients. This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, clinical efficacy, and safety of alcaftadine. Histamine and the pathological mechanism of ocular allergy will be briefly reviewed with the intent of providing a background for the detailed discussion on the clinical utility of alcaftadine in allergic conjunctivitis. The Medline PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases were used to search for evidence-based literature on histamine and immunopathological mechanism of allergic conjunctivitis, as well as on pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, and clinical efficacy of alcaftadine. The treatment and management goals of allergic conjunctivitis are to prevent or minimize the inflammatory cascade associated with allergic response in the early stages of the pathological mechanism. It is of note that activation of histamine receptors on immune and nonimmune cells are associated with allergen-induced inflammation of the conjunctiva and its associated ocular allergic manifestations, including itching, edema, hyperemia, and tearing. Alcaftadine is an efficacious multiple action antiallergic therapeutic agent with inverse agonist activity on H1, H2, and H4 receptors, as well as anti-inflammatory and mast cell stabilizing effects that could provide therapeutic benefits to patients with allergic conjunctivitis

  14. The Language of the Internet – The Use of Concessive Conjunctions in Blogs by Companies Providing Private Tuition

    OpenAIRE

    Jindřiška Kraťkova

    2017-01-01

    Concessions are said to be a key aspect of English semantics because concessive constructions create a place for contrast, i.e. contradicting relations. Several studies have been carried out on this topic (i.e. on the positioning of conjunctions, linguistic interference, etc.). The aim of this paper is to focus on the frequency of use of the most common concessive conjunctions in Internet discussions with native speakers who give private tuition. The focus is primarily on the main, most commo...

  15. Human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in visual search for conjunctions but not features: a theta TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Roger; Muggleton, Neil G; Cowey, Alan; Walsh, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the detection of a target defined by more than one feature (for example, a conjunction of colour and orientation) amongst distractors is associated with the activation of a network of brain areas. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), along with areas such as the frontal eye fields (FEF) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC), is a component of this network. While transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) had shown that both FEF and PPC are necessary for, and not just correlated with, successful conjunction search, this is not the case for DLPFC. To test the hypothesis that this area is also necessary for efficient conjunction search, TMS was applied over DLPFC and the effects on conjunction and feature (in this case colour) search performance compared with those when TMS was delivered over area MT/V5 and a vertex control stimulation condition. DLPFC TMS impaired performance on the conjunction search task but was without effect on feature search, similar to findings when TMS is delivered over PPC or FEF. Vertex TMS had no effects whereas MT/V5 TMS significantly improved performance with a time course that may indicate that this was due to modulation of V4 activity. These findings illustrate that, like FEF and PPC, DLPFC is necessary for fully effective conjunction visual search performance.

  16. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  17. Conjuntivite presumível por Acanthamoeba Conjunctivitis presumably due to Acanthamoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Carvalho Ruthes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Abordar quatro casos de conjuntivite presumível por Acanthamoeba, descrevendo o diagnóstico, considerando sinais e sintomas e o tratamento instituído. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados casos de conjuntivite presumível por Acanthamoeba diagnosticados no Hospital de Olhos do Paraná (HOP, no período de setembro/1998 a janeiro/2002. Todos os olhos estudados foram submetidos a um protocolo de investigação que incluía exame oftalmológico completo, microbiologia e cultura de secreções conjuntivais. RESULTADOS: Os exames laboratoriais de microscopia e cultura do material colhido estes pacientes revelaram o diagnóstico de Acanthamoeba. A maioria dos pacientes referia olhos vermelhos e irritação ocular de longa data. Os autores encontraram correlação entre a cultura e o exame direto, em que se evidenciou a presença de cistos e trofozoítas do protozoário. CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro relato de conjuntivite provavelmente por Acanthamoeba de acordo com a literatura revisada. Pacientes selecionados e refratários ao tratamento habitual de infecção ocular externa devem ser considerados para estudo laboratorial adequado à procura etiológica da doença.PURPOSE: To describe four cases of conjunctivitis presumably due to Acanthamoeba considering diagnosis, signs, symptoms and treatment. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients who presented a clinical diagnosis of Acanthamoeba conjunctivitis between September/1998 to January/2001 at the "Hospital de Olhos do Paraná (HOP". All eyes were submitted to a protocol of investigation that included ophthalmologic examination, microscopic examination and culture exams of conjunctival smears for adequate treatment. RESULTS: The laboratorial results of conjunctival smears revealed contamination with Acanthamoeba by direct examination and thereafter, confirmed by culture. The authors observed cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of

  18. Semaphorin 3A controls allergic and inflammatory responses in experimental allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmi Tanaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the efficacy of topical Semaphorin-3A (SEMA3A in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. METHODS: Experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC mice model induced by short ragweed pollen (SRW in 4-week-old of BALB/c mice, mice were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, immunofluorescence and light microscope photographs. Early phase took the samples in 24h after instillation and late phase took the samples between 4 to 14d after the start of treatment. The study use of topical SEMA3A (10 U, 100 U, 1000 U eye drops and subconjunctival injection of SEMA3A with same concentration. For comparison, five types of allergy eyedrops were quantified using clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Clinical score of composite ocular symptoms of the mice treated with SEMA3A were significantly decreased both in the immediate phase and the late phase compared to those treated with commercial ophthalmic formulations and non-treatment mice. SEMA3A treatment attenuates infiltration of eosinophils entering into conjunctiva in EAC mice. The score of eosinophil infiltration in the conjunctiva of SEMA3A 1000 U-treated group were significantly lower than low-concentration of SEMA3A treated groups and non-treated group. SEMA3A treatment also suppressed T-cell proliferation in vitro and decreased serum total IgE levels in EAC mice. Moreover, Treatment of SEMA3A suppressed Th2-related cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α release, but increased regulatory cytokine IL-10 concentration in the conjunctiva of EAC mice. CONCLUSIONS: SEMA3A as a biological agent, showed the beneficial activity in ocular allergic processes with the less damage to the intraocular tissue. It is expected that SEMA3A may be contributed in patients with a more severe spectrum of refractory ocular allergic diseases including allergic conjunctivitis in the near future.

  19. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Fukuda

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis.

  20. Galileo PPR at Io: High Resolution Scans Taken in Conjunction with SSA and NIMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, J. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Tamppari, L. K.; Martin, T. Z.; Barnard, L.; Travis, L. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Galileo Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR), when used in the radiometry mode which is most often used at Io, is a long-wavelength infrared single-aperture photometer. It is sensitive to temperatures from about 60 to several hundred K, and is thus useful for studying the volcanoes and background temperatures on Io. PPR can take raster scan images when it is the primary instrument being used (these data were discussed last year, see Rathbun et al., 2002). It can also take data in ride-along mode in conjunction with another remote sensing instrument (either SSI or NIMS) producing one-dimensional temperature scans. The best data of this type were taken during the close approach flybys during orbits I24, I25, I27, I31, I32, and I33 and include measurements of the volcanoes Pele, Prometheus, Pillan, Zamama, Tvashtar, Daedalus, Amarani, Gish Bar, Isum, Emakong, Tupan, and Tohil.

  1. Quantitative Classification of Quartz by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Conjunction with Discriminant Function Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A responsive laser induced breakdown spectroscopic system was developed and improved for utilizing it as a sensor for the classification of quartz samples on the basis of trace elements present in the acquired samples. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS in conjunction with discriminant function analysis (DFA was applied for the classification of five different types of quartz samples. The quartz plasmas were produced at ambient pressure using Nd:YAG laser at fundamental harmonic mode (1064 nm. We optimized the detection system by finding the suitable delay time of the laser excitation. This is the first study, where the developed technique (LIBS+DFA was successfully employed to probe and confirm the elemental composition of quartz samples.

  2. Modelling uncertainty with generalized credal sets: application to conjunction and decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronevich, Andrey G.; Rozenberg, Igor N.

    2018-01-01

    To model conflict, non-specificity and contradiction in information, upper and lower generalized credal sets are introduced. Any upper generalized credal set is a convex subset of plausibility measures interpreted as lower probabilities whose bodies of evidence consist of singletons and a certain event. Analogously, contradiction is modelled in the theory of evidence by a belief function that is greater than zero at empty set. Based on generalized credal sets, we extend the conjunctive rule for contradictory sources of information, introduce constructions like natural extension in the theory of imprecise probabilities and show that the model of generalized credal sets coincides with the model of imprecise probabilities if the profile of a generalized credal set consists of probability measures. We give ways how the introduced model can be applied to decision problems.

  3. Use of the NetBeans Platform for NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabey, Nickolas J.

    2014-01-01

    The latest Java and JavaFX technologies are very attractive software platforms for customers involved in space mission operations such as those of NASA and the US Air Force. For NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA), the NetBeans platform provided an environment in which scalable software solutions could be developed quickly and efficiently. Both Java 8 and the NetBeans platform are in the process of simplifying CARA development in secure environments by providing a significant amount of capability in a single accredited package, where accreditation alone can account for 6-8 months for each library or software application. Capabilities either in use or being investigated by CARA include: 2D and 3D displays with JavaFX, parallelization with the new Streams API, and scalability through the NetBeans plugin architecture.

  4. Ligneous conjunctivitis in a patient of juvenile colloid milia: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhangi Sudhir Bhave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present to you, case of a 10-year-old female with h/o redness, watering since 8 months. Her vision was 20/30 in right eye and 20/70 in left eye. Conjunctiva had plenty of purulent discharge and palpebral conjunctiva was studded with membranous lesions. She was found to have multiple hyperpigmented papulopustular lesions over face, palms and legs. She was started with topical moxifloxacin and lubricating drops. Patient was followed-up after 15 days. At that time her conjunctiva had formation of a woody pseudomembrane. Excision of the lesions and skin biopsy was done and sent for hislopathological examination. Findings of histopathological examination were suggestive of ligneous conjunctivitis and juvenile colloid milia. We have started this patient with long-term cyclosporine drops and tear supplements. In next visit, the membrane was resolved. Hence, we continued with the same treatment, but again the woody membrane recurred.

  5. Eyelid Molluscum Contagiosum Lesions in Two Patients with Unilateral Chronic Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Serin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Molluscum contagiosum (MC is a viral infection of the skin and mucosal tissues characterized by skin-colored or transparent round nodules with a dimple or pit in the center. The infection is caused by a DNA poxvirus called the MC virus. Although MC generally occurs in children, it has also been reported in immunocompromised and atopic patients. The virus is transmitted by skin contact or sexual intercourse. The lesions disappear spontaneously within several months in most cases. However, excision, cryotherapy, cauterization, topical chemical and antiviral agents, and/or oral cimetidine are used in refractory cases or to accelerate the healing process. Herein, we discussed the clinical findings and our treatment of two patients with unilateral chronic conjunctivitis associated with eyelid MC lesions in light of the literature.

  6. Using SDP to optimize conjunctive use of surface and groundwater in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Mo, X; Liu, S.

    2014-01-01

    A hydro-economic modelling approach to optimize conjunctive use of scarce surface water and groundwater resources under uncertainty is presented. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from allocations of surface water, head-dependent groundwater......, which includes surface water droughts and groundwater over-pumping. The head-dependent groundwater pumping costs will enable assessment of the long-term effects of increased electricity prices on the groundwater pumping. The optimization framework is used to assess realistic alternative development...... pumping costs, water allocations from the South-North Water Transfer Project and water curtailments of the users. Each water user group (agriculture, industry, domestic) is characterized by fixed demands and fixed water allocation and water supply curtailment costs. The non-linear one step-ahead sub...

  7. Microspore culture of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in conjunction with other in vitro technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegielska-Taras, T.; Szala, L.; Bartkowiak-Broda, I.

    2001-01-01

    Microspore culture in conjunction with other technologies such as selection, mutagenesis and transformation has been used for the production of novel genotypes of Brassica napus L. for crop improvement. The example of in vitro selection of microspore - derived embryos includes: a) ploidy level, b) seed oil composition (for example: high level of erucic acid), c) genotypes with restorer gene for CMS-ogura system (by means of isozyme marker PGI-2 ), d) herbicide resistant forms. Efficiency of microspore mutagenesis has been tested by the treatment of freshly isolated microspores with UV and MNU. Direct delivery of foreign gene to the microspores (microprojectile bombardment) combined with the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to microspore derived embryos seems to be a promising way of oilseed rape transformation. (author)

  8. A model of the formation of illusory conjunctions in the time domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, J; Suero, M; Barriopedro, M I

    2001-12-01

    The authors present a model to account for the miscombination of features when stimuli are presented using the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) technique (illusory conjunctions in the time domain). It explains the distributions of responses through a mixture of trial outcomes. In some trials, attention is successfully focused on the target, whereas in others, the responses are based on partial information. Two experiments are presented that manipulated the mean processing time of the target-defining dimension and of the to-be-reported dimension, respectively. As predicted, the average origin of the responses is delayed when lengthening the target-defining dimension, whereas it is earlier when lengthening the to-be-reported dimension; in the first case the number of correct responses is dramatically reduced, whereas in the second it does not change. The results, a review of other research, and simulations carried out with a formal version of the model are all in close accordance with the predictions.

  9. NERBio: using selected word conjunctions, term normalization, and global patterns to improve biomedical named entity recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Hsieh-Chuan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical named entity recognition (Bio-NER is a challenging problem because, in general, biomedical named entities of the same category (e.g., proteins and genes do not follow one standard nomenclature. They have many irregularities and sometimes appear in ambiguous contexts. In recent years, machine-learning (ML approaches have become increasingly common and now represent the cutting edge of Bio-NER technology. This paper addresses three problems faced by ML-based Bio-NER systems. First, most ML approaches usually employ singleton features that comprise one linguistic property (e.g., the current word is capitalized and at least one class tag (e.g., B-protein, the beginning of a protein name. However, such features may be insufficient in cases where multiple properties must be considered. Adding conjunction features that contain multiple properties can be beneficial, but it would be infeasible to include all conjunction features in an NER model since memory resources are limited and some features are ineffective. To resolve the problem, we use a sequential forward search algorithm to select an effective set of features. Second, variations in the numerical parts of biomedical terms (e.g., "2" in the biomedical term IL2 cause data sparseness and generate many redundant features. In this case, we apply numerical normalization, which solves the problem by replacing all numerals in a term with one representative numeral to help classify named entities. Third, the assignment of NE tags does not depend solely on the target word's closest neighbors, but may depend on words outside the context window (e.g., a context window of five consists of the current word plus two preceding and two subsequent words. We use global patterns generated by the Smith-Waterman local alignment algorithm to identify such structures and modify the results of our ML-based tagger. This is called pattern-based post-processing. Results To develop our ML

  10. Speeded induction under uncertainty: the influence of multiple categories and feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R; Paton, Helen; Hayes, Brett K; Griffiths, Oren

    2010-12-01

    When people are uncertain about the category membership of an item (e.g., Is it a dog or a dingo?), research shows that they tend to rely only on the dominant or most likely category when making inductions (e.g., How likely is it to befriend me?). An exception has been reported using speeded induction judgments where participants appeared to use information from multiple categories to make inductions (Verde, Murphy, & Ross, 2005). In two speeded induction studies, we found that participants tended to rely on the frequency with which features co-occurred when making feature predictions, independently of category membership. This pattern held whether categories were considered implicitly (Experiment 1) or explicitly (Experiment 2) prior to feature induction. The results converge with other recent work suggesting that people often rely on feature conjunction information, rather than category boundaries, when making inductions under uncertainty.

  11. Visual search for motion-form conjunctions: is form discriminated within the motion system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mühlenen, A; Müller, H J

    2001-06-01

    Motion-form conjunction search can be more efficient when the target is moving (a moving 45 degrees tilted line among moving vertical and stationary 45 degrees tilted lines) rather than stationary. This asymmetry may be due to aspects of form being discriminated within a motion system representing only moving items, whereas discrimination of stationary items relies on a static form system (J. Driver & P. McLeod, 1992). Alternatively, it may be due to search exploiting differential motion velocity and direction signals generated by the moving-target and distractor lines. To decide between these alternatives, 4 experiments systematically varied the motion-signal information conveyed by the moving target and distractors while keeping their form difference salient. Moving-target search was found to be facilitated only when differential motion-signal information was available. Thus, there is no need to assume that form is discriminated within the motion system.

  12. NERBio: using selected word conjunctions, term normalization, and global patterns to improve biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Sung, Cheng-Lung; Dai, Hong-Jie; Hung, Hsieh-Chuan; Sung, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2006-12-18

    Biomedical named entity recognition (Bio-NER) is a challenging problem because, in general, biomedical named entities of the same category (e.g., proteins and genes) do not follow one standard nomenclature. They have many irregularities and sometimes appear in ambiguous contexts. In recent years, machine-learning (ML) approaches have become increasingly common and now represent the cutting edge of Bio-NER technology. This paper addresses three problems faced by ML-based Bio-NER systems. First, most ML approaches usually employ singleton features that comprise one linguistic property (e.g., the current word is capitalized) and at least one class tag (e.g., B-protein, the beginning of a protein name). However, such features may be insufficient in cases where multiple properties must be considered. Adding conjunction features that contain multiple properties can be beneficial, but it would be infeasible to include all conjunction features in an NER model since memory resources are limited and some features are ineffective. To resolve the problem, we use a sequential forward search algorithm to select an effective set of features. Second, variations in the numerical parts of biomedical terms (e.g., "2" in the biomedical term IL2) cause data sparseness and generate many redundant features. In this case, we apply numerical normalization, which solves the problem by replacing all numerals in a term with one representative numeral to help classify named entities. Third, the assignment of NE tags does not depend solely on the target word's closest neighbors, but may depend on words outside the context window (e.g., a context window of five consists of the current word plus two preceding and two subsequent words). We use global patterns generated by the Smith-Waterman local alignment algorithm to identify such structures and modify the results of our ML-based tagger. This is called pattern-based post-processing. To develop our ML-based Bio-NER system, we employ conditional

  13. [Simultaneous determination of eight kinds of conjunct bile acids in human bile by R-HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z; Tan, G; Qian, K; Chen, X

    1997-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of eight kinds of conjunct bile acids in human bile was developed by HPLC. They were separated on a YWG-C18 (3 microns) column at 30 degrees C, with methanol/water (65/35, V/V, pH3.0) as mobile phase, and detection wavelength at UV 210 nm. The linear ranges were 50-1,000 microns.ml-1, the recoveries were 91.2%-108.6%. The biles of 30 cases with cholelithiasis cholecystolithiasis and 20 cases without gallstone were detected by HPLC. The results showed that the constitution of bile acids was different between patients with cholelithiasis cholecystolithiasis and patients without gallstone.

  14. Complex systematic review - Perioperative antibiotics in conjunction with dental implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Bodil; Hultin, Margareta; Tranaeus, Sofia; Naimi-Akbar, Aron; Klinge, Björn

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to revisit the available scientific literature regarding perioperative antibiotics in conjunction with implant placement by combining the recommended methods for systematic reviews and complex systematic reviews. A search of Medline (OVID), The Cochrane Library (Wiley), EMBASE, PubMed and Health technology assessment (HTA) organizations was performed, in addition to a complementary hand-search. Selected systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed using GRADE and AMSTAR, respectively. A meta-analysis was performed. The literature search identified 846 papers of which 10 primary studies and seven systematic reviews were included. Quality assessment of the systematic reviews revealed two studies of moderate risk of bias and five with high risk of bias. The two systematic reviews of moderate risk of bias stated divergent numbers needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one patient from implant failure. Four of the primary studies comparing antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo were estimated to be of low, or moderate, risk of bias and subjected to meta-analysis. The NNT was 50 (pooled RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18, 0.84; P = 0.02). None of these four studies individually show a statistical significant benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis. Furthermore, narrative analysis of the studies eligible for meta-analysis reveals clinical heterogeneity regarding intervention and smoking. Antibiotic prophylaxis in conjunction with implant placement reduced the risk for implant loss by 2%. However, the sub-analysis of the primary studies suggests that there is no benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis in uncomplicated implant surgery in healthy patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Medical practice, magic and religion - conjunction and development before and after Reformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvardardottir, Olina Kjerulf

    2017-12-01

    The conjunction between medical practice, religion and magic becomes rather visible when one peers into old scripts and ancient literature. Before the foundation and diffusion of universities of the continent, the european convents and cloisters were the centers of medical knowl-edge and -practice for centuries. Alongside the scholarly development of medical science, driven from the roots of the eldest scholarly medicial practice, the practice of folk-medicin flourished and thrived all over Europe, not least the herbal-medicine which is the original form and foundation for modern pharmacy. This article deals with the conjunction of religion, magic and medical practice in ancient Icelandic sources such as the Old-Norse literature, medical-scripts from the 12th - 15th century Iceland, and not least the Icelandic magical-scripts (galdrakver) of the 17th century. The last mentioned documents were used as evidence in several witch-trials that led convicted witches to suffer executions at the stake once the wave of European witch-persecutions had rushed ashore in 17th century Iceland. These sources indicate a decline of medical knowledge and science in the 16th and 17th century Iceland, the medical practice being rather undeveloped at the time - in Iceland as in other parts of Europe - there-fore a rather unclear margin between "the learned and the laymen". While common people and folk-healers were convicted as witches to suffer at the stake for possession of magical scripts and healing-books, some scholars of the state of Danmark were practicing healing-methods that deserve to be compared to the activities of the former ones. That comparison raises an inevitable question of where to draw the line between the learned medical man and the magician of 17th century Iceland, that is between Magic and Science.

  16. The economic and quality of life impact of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in a Spanish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F; Pitt, Andrew D; Rodruiguez, Alejandra E; Alio, Jorge L; Marti, Nicolas; Teus, Miguel; Guillen, Santiago; Bataille, Laurent; Barnes, J Rod

    2005-08-01

    Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) is a highly prevalent condition that exacts a range of costs from its sufferers. The aim of this study was to examine quality of life (QoL) and economic consequences of SAC amongst private health care patients in Spain. 201 sufferers of SAC and 200 controls were recruited from four private eye clinics and one public hospital in five Spanish cities: Alicante, Madrid, Albacete, Las Palmas de Gran Canarias and Valladolid. Participants were between 10 and 80 years of age and Spanish speaking. All potential participants were asked selected questions and sorted into one of the two groups or excluded. Sufferers were administered a set of four questionnaires by researchers consisting of the EQ-5D Health Questionnaire, the National Eye Institute (US) Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25), the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) and a Health Economic and Demographic Questionnaire (HEDQ). Control participants self-administered the full EQ-5D and VFQ-25 and abbreviated versions of the RQLQ and HEDQ. The groups were comparable in terms of age and sex, but sufferers had a significantly higher hourly income than controls (p = 0.02). Sufferers exhibited a significantly higher incidence of asthma, nasal symptoms, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, food allergies and other allergies (p aspects of vision as a result of their SAC. In relative terms, the per-capita economic cost of the condition was higher than in a previous public health care study. This was ascribed to sufferers' willingness-to-pay for symptom alleviation. The unexpectedly high expenditure of the proportion of SAC sufferers who receive private health care serves to highlight the importance of SAC as a costly condition. It also illustrates the need to account for both private and public heath care modalities when attempting to ascribe a total cost to a medical condition.

  17. Tracoma em pacientes com conjuntivite alérgica Trachoma in patients with allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo de Lucena Bezerra

    2010-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis com a conjuntivite alérgica, dada à possibilidade de alterar o prognóstico visual e os sintomas se potencializarem no caso de acometimento duplo. Desta forma faz-se necessário a realização da imunofluorescência direta para o devido diagnóstico em pacientes com conjuntivite alérgica.Purpose: The aim of this paper was to identify a possible association between allergic conjunctivitis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Methods: A prospective study was carried out in 104 eyes of 52 patients with diagnosis of vernal conjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Conjunctival cytology was performed in all the 52 patients, once it can evidence eosinophils presence and inclusions corpuscles in the conjunctival scraping smear, as well as the direct immunofluorescence that is the choice exam for Chlamydia trachomatis infection confirmation. All procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board Ethics Committee. Results: Of the 52 patients, 41 (78.8% presented vernal conjunctivitis and 11 (21.2% atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Forty-one patients (78.8% were male and 11 (21.2% female. The ages varied from 3 to 19 years, with an average of 9.8 years. Regarding racial distribution, 16 (30.8% patients were caucasian, 14 (26.9% were black and 22 (42.3% were brown. Regarding systemic allergic diseases, it was observed that 25 (48.1% patients presented asthma, 20 (38.5% allergic rhinitis and 5 (9.6% atopic dermatitis. The main symptoms complained by the patients were coryza (59.6%, ocular itching (98.1%, burning (61.5%, tearing (65.3% and photophobia (61.5%. The main clinical signs were: ocular hyperemia (100%, bilaterality (100%, superior tarsal papilla (92.3% and mucous secretion (82.7%. The cytology of the conjunctival scrapings found eosinophil in 86.5% of the cases. Only seven patients did not present eosinophils in the conjunctival scrapings. Three patients (5.8% presented positive immunofluorescence for Chlamydia, evidencing an association

  18. The role of topical moxifloxacin, a new antibacterial in Europe, in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Del-Castillo, Jose; Verboven, Yves; Stroman, David; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses current practice in the treatment of conjunctivitis and how the use of topical moxifloxacin can increase therapeutic effectiveness, reduce treatment failures and, consequently, be cost effective and reduce the societal burden of the disorder. Current practice and effectiveness data were derived from the literature. Data on healthcare utilization as a result of treatment failure were collected by survey and the cost of treatment was defined using national costings. A decision-analytic model to assess cost effectiveness was developed and the impact on the healthcare budget was calculated to define the health economic impact. Bacterial conjunctivitis represents a significant health problem and accounts for an estimated 1-1.5% of primary-care consultations. The disorder is highly contagious and causes a substantial healthcare and societal burden. Bacterial conjunctivitis is generally self-limiting, resolving within 1-2 weeks. However, the use of antibacterials significantly improves clinical and microbiological remission, shortens symptom duration, and enables more effective use of healthcare resources, compared with placebo. From a health economic perspective this benefits the healthcare system and society, since fewer healthcare resources are needed and the adult affected, or the parent/caregiver of the child affected, can return to full work capacity sooner, reducing loss of productivity. Treatment strategies vary significantly between countries. Most patients are first seen in primary care, where 'wait-and-see', lubrification and antiseptic or antibacterial treatment is provided. In Europe, when antibacterials are prescribed most general practitioners (GPs) prescribe a broad-spectrum topical antibacterial. The most commonly used drugs are chloramphenicol and fusidic acid, with fluoroquinolones rarely reported as first-line treatment by GPs. At the specialist (ophthalmologist) level, or for second-line treatment at the GP level, topical

  19. Association Between Using Smartphone Dating Applications and Alcohol and Recreational Drug Use in Conjunction With Sexual Activities in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edmond P H; Wong, Janet Y H; Lo, Herman H M; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine H M; Fong, Daniel Y T

    2017-03-21

    The association between using smartphone dating applications (apps) and substance use in conjunction with sexual activities was only examined in homosexual men. This association was poorly understood in heterosexual samples. To explore the association between using dating apps and alcohol, and use of recreational drug in conjunction with sexual activities in college students. 666 students from four universities in Hong Kong were recruited in this cross-sectional study in the year 2015. Outcome measures included the use of dating apps, sexual history, and drug and alcohol use. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed. The use of dating apps for more than 1 year was found to be associated with recreational drug use in conjunction with sexual activities (adjusted odds ratio: 7.23). Other risk factors of recreational drug use in conjunction with sexual activities included being bisexual/homosexual male, a smoker, and having one's first sexual intercourse at the age of less than 16 years. The use of dating apps was not a risk factor for alcohol consumption in conjunction with sexual activities. Risk factors for alcohol consumption in conjunction with sexual activities included being older, having monthly income more than HKD5,000, and a smoker. Furthermore, risk factors for alcohol consumption in conjunction with the last sexual activity included currently being in a dating relationship, a smoker, and having sex with a casual partner. Using dating apps is an emerging risk factor of drug misuse. Interventions for practising safe sex and preventing drug use should be targeted at dating app users.

  20. Can attentional control settings be maintained for two color-location conjunctions? Evidence from an RSVP task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Jessica L; Remington, Roger W

    2013-07-01

    Previous investigations of the ability to maintain separate attentional control settings for different spatial locations have relied principally on a go/no-go spatial-cueing paradigm. The results have suggested that control of attention is accomplished only late in processing. However, the go/no-go task does not provide strong incentives to withhold attention from irrelevant color-location conjunctions. We used a modified version of the task in which failing to adopt multiple control settings would be detrimental to performance. Two RSVP streams of colored letters appeared to the left and right of fixation. Participants searched for targets that were a conjunction of color and location, so that the target color for one stream acted as a distractor when presented in the opposite stream. Distractors that did not match the target conjunctions nevertheless captured attention and interfered with performance. This was the case even when the target conjunctions were previewed early in the trial prior to the target (Exp. 2). However, distractor interference was reduced when the upcoming distractor was previewed early on in the trial (Exp. 3). Attentional selection of targets by color-location conjunctions may be effective if facilitative attentional sets are accompanied by the top-down inhibition of irrelevant items.

  1. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a group ... conditions ( Schamberg's disease , Lichenoid dermatitis of Gourgerot-Blum, purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi and Lichen aureus). Schamberg's ...

  2. Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which cause different symptoms. Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include these difficulties: Comprehending spoken or written ... word meanings Naming objects Logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia Symptoms include: Having difficulty retrieving words Frequently pausing ...

  3. Bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution 1.5% for alleviating nasal symptoms in patients with allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavet ME

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Megan E Cavet,1 Paul J Gomes,2 Warner W Carr,3 Jon I Williams4 1Bausch + Lomb, Rochester, NY, 2Ora, Andover, MA, 3Allergy and Asthma Associates of Southern California, Mission Viejo, CA, 4Bausch + Lomb, Irvine, CA, USA Background: Bepotastine besilate ophthalmic solution (BBOS 1.5% is a topical antihistamine for the treatment of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis (AC. Allergic rhinitis and AC are common comorbid conditions. We explored the efficacy of BBOS 1.5% in alleviating nasal symptoms in an integrated analysis of two Phase III conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC studies and a Phase IV environmental allergen study. Methods: In the Phase III trials, a CAC was performed 15 minutes, 8 hours, and 16 hours following ocular instillation of BBOS 1.5% (n=78 or placebo (n=79, and subjects evaluated nasal symptoms. In the environmental study, subjects instilled BBOS 1.5% (n=123 or placebo (n=122 twice daily and nasal symptoms were evaluated over 2 weeks. Results: In the Phase III trials, BBOS 1.5% had reduced CAC-induced nasal congestion and pruritus at 15 minutes and 8 hours postdosing and rhinorrhea and a non-ocular composite-symptom score (sum of nasal scores plus ear or palate pruritus at all time points postdosing (all P≤0.01 vs placebo. In the Phase IV environmental study, BBOS 1.5% reduced sneezing and nasal pruritus over 2 weeks and median number of days to improvement of nasal pruritus and total nasal symptom score (sum for rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal pruritus, and nasal congestion; P≤0.04 vs placebo. Additionally, investigator-reported improvement in overall ocular (pruritus, hyperemia, tearing and nasal symptoms was greater with BBOS 1.5% vs placebo (P≤0.03. Conclusion: Results of these exploratory analyses indicate that topical ocular BBOS 1.5% reduced nasal symptoms, supporting its use for alleviating rhinitis symptoms associated with AC. Keywords: bepotastine besilate, nasal symptoms, allergic rhinitis

  4. Evaluation of a novel Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface for consumer health information: a crowdsourced comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Licong; Carter, Rebecca; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2014-02-10

    Numerous consumer health information websites have been developed to provide consumers access to health information. However, lookup search is insufficient for consumers to take full advantage of these rich public information resources. Exploratory search is considered a promising complementary mechanism, but its efficacy has never before been rigorously evaluated for consumer health information retrieval interfaces. This study aims to (1) introduce a novel Conjunctive Exploratory Navigation Interface (CENI) for supporting effective consumer health information retrieval and navigation, and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of CENI through a search-interface comparative evaluation using crowdsourcing with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). We collected over 60,000 consumer health questions from NetWellness, one of the first consumer health websites to provide high-quality health information. We designed and developed a novel conjunctive exploratory navigation interface to explore NetWellness health questions with health topics as dynamic and searchable menus. To investigate the effectiveness of CENI, we developed a second interface with keyword-based search only. A crowdsourcing comparative study was carefully designed to compare three search modes of interest: (A) the topic-navigation-based CENI, (B) the keyword-based lookup interface, and (C) either the most commonly available lookup search interface with Google, or the resident advanced search offered by NetWellness. To compare the effectiveness of the three search modes, 9 search tasks were designed with relevant health questions from NetWellness. Each task included a rating of difficulty level and questions for validating the quality of answers. Ninety anonymous and unique AMT workers were recruited as participants. Repeated-measures ANOVA analysis of the data showed the search modes A, B, and C had statistically significant differences among their levels of difficulty (Pconsumer health information retrieval and

  5. The progressive tax

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the argumentative structure of Hayek on the relationship between power to tax and the progressive tax. It is observed throughout its work giving special attention to two works: The Constitution of Liberty (1959) and Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol3; The Political Order of Free People, 1979) Hayek describes one of the arguments most complete information bout SFP progressive tax systems (progressive tax). According to the author the history of the tax progressive system...

  6. The fast detection of rare auditory feature conjunctions in the human brain as revealed by cortical gamma-band electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusuvirta, T; Huotilainen, M

    2005-01-01

    Natural environments typically contain temporal scatters of sounds emitted from multiple sources. The sounds may often physically stand out from one another in their conjoined rather than simple features. This poses a particular challenge for the brain to detect which of these sounds are rare and, therefore, potentially important for survival. We recorded gamma-band (32-40 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations from the scalp of adult humans who passively listened to a repeated tone carrying frequent and rare conjunctions of its frequency and intensity. EEG oscillations that this tone induced, rather than evoked, differed in amplitude between the two conjunction types within the 56-ms analysis window from tone onset. Our finding suggests that, perhaps with the support of its non-phase-locked synchrony in the gamma band, the human brain is able to detect rare sounds as feature conjunctions very rapidly.

  7. Conjunctions of Governance: the State and the conservation-development nexus in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Büscher (Bram); T. Dietz (Ton)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: From the fortress conservation paradigm in the 1960s and 1970s to the community based conservation paradigm of the 1980s and 1990s, the ideological linkage of people and conservation of natural resources in Africa seemed to have progressed towards local ownership and local

  8. Efficacy of topical application of 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ajit Kumar; Singh, Prodip Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis is commonly observed eye diseases in Sikkim, India due to the abundance of seasonal pollens, environmental pollutants, and house dust. We evaluated the efficacy of topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye ointment in the management of simple allergic conjunctivitis. A prospective observational study was designed consisting of 41 patients with refractory simple allergic conjunctivitis, whose condition responded very poorly to conventional anti-allergic eye drops (azelastine, olopatadine, chlorpheniramine maleate, sodium chromoglycate). Simple allergic conjunctivitis cases were diagnosed and followed up evaluating both subjective and objective findings (itching, photophobia, tearing, chemosis, conjunctival congestion, tarsal papilla, and eyelid edema). Existing ocular treatment was discontinued at enrolment and 0.03% tacrolimus ointment was applied into the conjunctival sac of the affected eyes twice daily for 4 weeks followed by a 2 weeks washout period. Patients were followed up at the end of 1(st) week, 4(th) week, and at 7(th) week (2 weeks washout period). Symptoms of simple allergic conjunctivitis (itching, tearing and photophobia) were significantly reduced at the end of 1(st) week. Signs such as conjunctival chemosis, congestion, tarsal papillae, and eyelid edema were effectively treated in all cases at the end of 1(st) week. At the end of 4(th) week, all cases were fully cured and none of the patient had any recurrences up to 7(th) week. Mean score at 1(st) day (9.6 ± 3.27) was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced by 7(th) day (1.35 ± 1.19) of treatment. Topical application of tacrolimus ointment is an excellent alternative to anti-allergic and steroids eye drops for the treatment of simple allergic conjunctivitis as it significantly reduces recurrences.

  9. Re-assessment of seismic loads in conjunction with periodic safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonczyk, Josef

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the fundamental consideration of a safeguard-aim-oriented approach for use in the re-assessment of seismic events with regard to the periodic safety review (PSR) of nuclear power plants (NPP). The re-assessment aspects of site-specific design earthquakes (DEQ), specially the procedure for seismic hazard analysis, will not, however, be considered in detail here. The proposed assessment concept clearly presents a general approach for safety assessments. The approach is based on a successive screening review of components that are considered sufficiently earthquake-resistant. In this respect, the principle of maximum practical application of the design documentation has been considered in the re-assessment process. On the other hand, the safeguard-aim-oriented evaluation will also be applied with regard to whether the requirements of the safety regulations are fulfilled with respect to the safety goals. The review in conjunction with PSR does not, however, attempt to perform this under all technical aspects. Moreover, it is possible to make extensive use of experimental knowledge and engineering judgement with regard to the structural capacity behaviour in case of a seismic event. Compared with design procedures, however, this proposed approach differs from the one applied in licensing procedures, in which such assessment freedom will not usually be exhausted. (author)

  10. Health behavior of elderly people engaged in agriculture in conjunction with information communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Chieko; Okahisa, Reiko; Matsushita, Yasuko; Tada, Toshiko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the health behavior of elderly people engaged in agriculture and information communication technology (ICT). The participants were 61 people engaged in agriculture in conjunction with ICT systems (group A), and 49 people not engaged in this (group B) from among the people aged 65 years or over in village C, both living located in a mountain areas. Data were collected from August 2009 to June 2011 in two stages: interviews to members of group A through home visits, and a group survey of groups A and B through questionnaires. The results of the study were as follows: 1) members of group A lived with feelings of attachment to the land to which they were accustomed and showed gratitude to their ancestors; 2) in group A, the desire of participants to continue their life was sufficient motivation to look after their own health and maintain independence; and 3) they provided a new challenge and a sense of achievement. The results suggest that the health behavior in group A was behavior adopted voluntarily in order to maintain an independent lifestyle supported by working, and it is likely to be linked to the preservation of health.

  11. Measurements of very large deformations in potash salt in conjunction with an ongoing mining operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, A.R.; Christensen, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Room and pillar deformation were measured in conjunction with a relatively new type of mining operation in a southeastern New Mexico potash mine. The extraction ration was approximately 90 percent in a first mining operation. Due to severe deformations encountered, instrumentation had to be developed/modified for these measurements. This paper concentrates on experiment design, design of special instrumentation, field installation of equipment, and presentation of the data. Measurements made include extensometers in the pillar, in the floor and ceiling in the room between pillars, absolute level measurements, floor ceiling closure, and stress (strain) measurements. Associated laboratory rock mechanics measurements of samples from the mine are being done separately. Two separate room pillar complexes were instrumented. In the first complex, floor-ceiling deformations of approximately 1 inch/day and pillar deformations around 1/2 inch/day were measured. In the second complex, instrumentation was installed while the pillar was a part of a long wall and the subsequent sequential mining (long wall-pillar with only one adjoining room on one side - pillar in the middle of room pillar complex) was observed. Data return from this operation was good

  12. Ocular sporotrichosis: A frequently misdiagnosed cause of granulomatous conjunctivitis in epidemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, João Paulo M; Rudolph, Fabiana B; Nobre, Maria Clara L; Nascimento, Leninha V; Sampaio, Felipe Maurício S; Arinelli, Andrea; Freitas, Dayvison F

    2017-12-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix sp., a dimorphic fungus. Although the cutaneous form is the most frequent form, the ocular presentation has been increasingly diagnosed in epidemic areas. We describe three cases of ocular sporotrichosis with the involvement of the ocular adnexa due to autoinoculation without trauma with successful antifungal treatment. Patient 1: A 68-year-old woman presented with granulomatous conjunctivitis of the right eye with an ulcerated nodule on the right temporal region for 5 months. Patient 2: A 46-year-old woman with conjunctival hyperemia of the left eye with associated periorbital edema and erythema for the past 4 months was referred to the Dermatology Department due to an ulcerated nodule on the left malar region. Patient 3: A 14-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with inferior palpebral edema with a 5-day evolution. Specimens were obtained from the lesions of the three patients, and the cultures were positive for Sporothrix sp. The three cases were diagnosed as ocular sporotrichosis and were successfully treated with itraconazole (200-400 mg/d). Two of the three patients developed sequelae such as conjunctival fibrosis and symblepharon. We emphasize the importance of the ophthalmologist being familiar with the diagnosis and management of this rare and frequently misdiagnosed form of sporotrichosis.

  13. Long-range active retroreflector to measure the rotational orientation in conjunction with a laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofherr, O.; Wachten, Christian; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    High precision optical non-contact position measurement is a key technology in modern engineering. Laser trackers (LT) accurately determine x-y-z coordinates of passive retroreflectors. Next-generation systems answer the need to measure an object`s rotational orientation (pitch, yaw, roll). So far, these devices are based either on photogrammetry or on enhanced retroreflectors. Here we present a new method to measure all six degrees of freedom in conjunction with a LT. The basic principle is to analyze the orientation to the LT's beam path by coupling-out laser radiation. The optical design is inspired by a cat's eye retroreflector equipped with an integrated beam splitter layer. The optical spherical aberration is compensated, which reduces the divergence angle for the reflected beam by one order of magnitude compared to an uncompensated standard system of the same size. The wave front distortion is reduced to less than 0.1 λ @ 633 nm for beam diameters up to 8 mm. Our active retroreflector is suitable for long-range measurements for a distance > 10 m.

  14. Estimating Household Travel Energy Consumption in Conjunction with a Travel Demand Forecasting Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garikapati, Venu M. [Systems Analysis and Integration Section, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401; You, Daehyun [Maricopa Association of Governments, 302 North First Avenue, Suite 300, Phoenix, AZ 85003; Zhang, Wenwen [School of City and Regional Planning, Center for Geographic Information Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, 760 Spring Street, Suite 230, Atlanta, GA 30308; Pendyala, Ram M. [School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, 660 South College Avenue, Tempe, AZ 85281; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit [School of City and Regional Planning, Center for Geographic Information Systems, Georgia Institute of Technology, 760 Spring Street, Suite 230, Atlanta, GA 30308; Brown, Marilyn A. [School of Public Policy, 685 Cherry Street, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332; Dilkina, Bistra [School of Computational Science and Engineering, 266 Ferst Drive, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the consumption of household travel energy at the level of the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) in conjunction with information that is readily available from a standard four-step travel demand model system. This methodology embeds two algorithms. The first provides a means of allocating non-home-based trips to residential zones that are the source of such trips, whereas the second provides a mechanism for incorporating the effects of household vehicle fleet composition on fuel consumption. The methodology is applied to the greater Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan region in the United States and is found to offer a robust mechanism for calculating the footprint of household travel energy at the level of the individual TAZ; this mechanism makes possible the study of variations in the energy footprint across space. The travel energy footprint is strongly correlated with the density of the built environment, although socioeconomic differences across TAZs also likely contribute to differences in travel energy footprints. The TAZ-level calculator of the footprint of household travel energy can be used to analyze alternative futures and relate differences in the energy footprint to differences in a number of contributing factors and thus enables the design of urban form, formulation of policy interventions, and implementation of awareness campaigns that may produce more-sustainable patterns of energy consumption.

  15. The effect of ketotifen on inflammatory markers in allergic conjunctivitis: an open, uncontrolled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Julio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy and safety of ketotifen eye drop treatment in allergic conjunctivitis (AC management is perfectly known by several studies, but the mechanism of action at the biochemical levels is poorly understood so we decided to perform an open, uncontrolled study in order to investigate the effect of the topical administration of ketotifen fumarate 0.05% on biochemical markers of inflammation on conjunctival cells in patients with AC. Methods Nineteen patients with symptoms and signs of AC (itching, discharge, burning, redness, increase in the watery discharge, swelling and follicles and with a history of allergy were prescribed with two daily instillation of one drop of eyewash ketotifen fumarate 0,05% in both eyes during thirty days. They were studied by measuring clinical and immunologic parameters. Results Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total symptoms and signs score for each patient as well as each symptoms and signs at all time points compared with day 0 (p Conclusion Ketotifen besides the well-known effect in reducing signs and symptoms of AC significantly diminished production of eotaxin and expression of CD29 by epithelial cells in patients with seasonal AC.

  16. Conjuntivite por Achromobacter xylosoxidans: relato de caso Conjunctivitis due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Faggion Lucatelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de conjuntivite ocasionada por Achromobacter xylosoxidans em paciente imunocompetente usuária de lentes de contato rígidas. A bactéria foi isolada da solução utilizada para a desinfecção das lentes bem como do raspado conjuntival. A. xylosoxidans tem sido descrita em infecções oportunistas em pacientes imunodeprimidos, contudo pode ser confundida com outros bacilos gram-negativos, principalmente Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isoladas de infecções oculares em pacientes imunocompetentes. Devido ao reduzido perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos demonstrado pelo A. xylosoxidans, torna-se importante a identificação deste agente etiológico em quadros de conjuntivite.We report here a case of conjunctivitis in an immunocompetent patient due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was associated with the use of rigid contact lenses. The bacteria were isolated from the scraped conjunctival swab as well as from the lens cleaning fluid. A. xylosoxidans is an opportunistic pathogen, especially in immunocompromised patients; however, in isolates of ocular infections, from immunocompetent patients, it may be confused with other gram-negative organisms, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Due to an increased resistance against different antimicrobial agents, A. xylosoxidans must be fully identified and differentiated from other gram-negative isolates from ocular infections.

  17. Examples of deformation-dependent flow simulations of conjunctive use with MF-OWHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Traum, Jonathan A.; Boyce, Scott E.; Schmid, Wolfgang; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    The dependency of surface- and groundwater flows and aquifer hydraulic properties on deformation induced by changes in aquifer head is not accounted for in the standard version of MODFLOW. A new USGS integrated hydrologic model, MODFLOW-OWHM, incorporates this dependency by linking subsidence and mesh deformation with changes in aquifer transmissivity and storage coefficient, and with flows that also depend on aquifer characteristics and land-surface geometry. This new deformation-dependent approach is being used for the further development of the integrated Central Valley hydrologic model (CVHM) in California. Preliminary results from this application and from hypothetical test cases of similar systems show that changes in canal flows, stream seepage, and evapotranspiration from groundwater (ETgw) are sensitive to deformation. Deformation feedback has been shown to also have an indirect effect on conjunctive surface- and groundwater use components with increased stream seepage and streamflows influencing surface-water deliveries and return flows. In the Central Valley model, land subsidence may significantly degrade the ability of the major canals to deliver surface water from the Delta to the San Joaquin and Tulare basins. Subsidence can also affect irrigation demand and ETgw, which, along with altered surface-water supplies, causes a feedback response resulting in changed estimates of groundwater pumping for irrigation. This modeling feature also may improve the impact assessment of dewatering-induced land subsidence/uplift (following irrigation pumping or coal-seam gas extraction) on surface receptors, inter-basin transfers, and surface infrastructure integrity.

  18. Discriminability and dimensionality effects in visual search for featural conjunctions: a functional pop-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene, S

    1989-07-01

    Treisman and Gelade's (1980) feature-integration theory of attention states that a scene must be serially scanned before the objects in it can be accurately perceived. Is serial scanning compatible with the speed observed in the perception of real-world scenes? Most real scenes consist of many more dimensions (color, size, shape, depth, etc.) than those generally found in search paradigms. Furthermore, real objects differ from each other along many of these dimensions. The present experiment assessed the influence of the total number of dimensions and target/distractor discriminability (the number of dimensions that suffice to separate a target from distractors) on search times for a conjunction of features. Search was always found to be serial. However, for the most discriminable targets, search rate was so fast that search times were in the same range as pop-out detection times. Apparently, greater discriminability enables subjects to direct attention at a faster rate and at only a fraction of the items in a scene.

  19. Modified SARME (Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion) in Conjunction with Orthodontic Treatment-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Sagar; Chitra, Prasad; Rao, Sadam Srinivas; Bindra, Sukhvinder

    2015-10-01

    Transverse maxillary hypoplasia or maxillary constriction in conjunction with unilateral or bilateral posterior cross bites is a common finding in cleft palate patients. These situations are also commonly encountered in adults who have not had recourse to orthodontic treatment in childhood. In adults, after ossification of the mid palatal suture is complete, the accepted means of correcting transverse skeletal discrepancies is by Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion (SARME). The disadvantage of this technique in the Indian scenario is reduced patient acceptance and increased treatment costs. Le Fort-I down fracture and mid palatal suture sectioning requires hospitalization and increases morbidity. A case of a 21-year-old non-cleft male who presented with Class I malocclusion with transverse skeletal discrepancy and bilateral posterior cross bites is presented. A modified SAARME technique was performed without pterygomaxillary disjunction, as an outpatient procedure. The results obtained were satisfactory and the desired amount of transverse skeletal correction was achieved. The patient was discharged the same day. The technique can be used to successfully treat a large number of patients in India with maxillary skeletal transverse problems with increased predictability, reduced costs and morbidity and higher rates of acceptance.

  20. Determination of isoniazid concentration in rabbit vertebrae by isotope tracing technique in conjunction with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Fu, Zhaozong; Jiang, Jianming; Yuan, Liang; Lin, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Medications compounded with isoniazid (INH) are usually applied to surgical sites at the completion of surgery to locally kill postoperative residual tubercle bacilli. However, the distribution and elimination of INH in the vertebrae in vivo are not known. In this study, isotope tracing was used in conjunction with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to address this. INH and technetium-99 m-labeled INH were applied to the vertebrae of rabbits. After 2 and 6 h, osseous tissues containing INH, as determined by radionuclide imaging, were collected for detection with HPLC. The results showed that INH mainly stayed around the vertebrae 6 h after its application and did not permeate widely into the blood or other organs, except for the kidneys. The standard deviations of INH concentrations in the technetium-99 m-INH group were approximately four-fold smaller than those in the INH group. This method of coupling isotope tracing and HPLC can effectively limit experimental error during sample collection, allowing accurate and reliable identification of the concentration levels of INH in osseous tissues in vivo. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Multiobjective genetic algorithm conjunctive use optimization for production, cost, and energy with dynamic return flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Richard C.; Forghani, Ali; Fayad, Hala

    2014-04-01

    Many real water resources optimization problems involve conflicting objectives for which the main goal is to find a set of optimal solutions on, or near to the Pareto front. E-constraint and weighting multiobjective optimization techniques have shortcomings, especially as the number of objectives increases. Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms (MGA) have been previously proposed to overcome these difficulties. Here, an MGA derives a set of optimal solutions for multiobjective multiuser conjunctive use of reservoir, stream, and (un)confined groundwater resources. The proposed methodology is applied to a hydraulically and economically nonlinear system in which all significant flows, including stream-aquifer-reservoir-diversion-return flow interactions, are simulated and optimized simultaneously for multiple periods. Neural networks represent constrained state variables. The addressed objectives that can be optimized simultaneously in the coupled simulation-optimization model are: (1) maximizing water provided from sources, (2) maximizing hydropower production, and (3) minimizing operation costs of transporting water from sources to destinations. Results show the efficiency of multiobjective genetic algorithms for generating Pareto optimal sets for complex nonlinear multiobjective optimization problems.

  2. Examples of deformation-dependent flow simulations of conjunctive use with MF-OWHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Hanson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of surface- and groundwater flows and aquifer hydraulic properties on deformation induced by changes in aquifer head is not accounted for in the standard version of MODFLOW. A new USGS integrated hydrologic model, MODFLOW-OWHM, incorporates this dependency by linking subsidence and mesh deformation with changes in aquifer transmissivity and storage coefficient, and with flows that also depend on aquifer characteristics and land-surface geometry. This new deformation-dependent approach is being used for the further development of the integrated Central Valley hydrologic model (CVHM in California. Preliminary results from this application and from hypothetical test cases of similar systems show that changes in canal flows, stream seepage, and evapotranspiration from groundwater (ETgw are sensitive to deformation. Deformation feedback has been shown to also have an indirect effect on conjunctive surface- and groundwater use components with increased stream seepage and streamflows influencing surface-water deliveries and return flows. In the Central Valley model, land subsidence may significantly degrade the ability of the major canals to deliver surface water from the Delta to the San Joaquin and Tulare basins. Subsidence can also affect irrigation demand and ETgw, which, along with altered surface-water supplies, causes a feedback response resulting in changed estimates of groundwater pumping for irrigation. This modeling feature also may improve the impact assessment of dewatering-induced land subsidence/uplift (following irrigation pumping or coal-seam gas extraction on surface receptors, inter-basin transfers, and surface infrastructure integrity.

  3. Feedback of land subsidence on the movement and conjunctive use of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Wolfgang; Hanson, Randall T.; Leake, Stanley A.; Hughes, Joseph D.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The dependency of surface- or groundwater flows and aquifer hydraulic properties on dewatering-induced layer deformation is not available in the USGS's groundwater model MODFLOW. A new integrated hydrologic model, MODFLOW-OWHM, formulates this dependency by coupling mesh deformation with aquifer transmissivity and storage and by linking land subsidence/uplift with deformation-dependent flows that also depend on aquifer head and other flow terms. In a test example, flows most affected were stream seepage and evapotranspiration from groundwater (ETgw). Deformation feedback also had an indirect effect on conjunctive surface- and groundwater use components: Changed stream seepage and streamflows influenced surface-water deliveries and returnflows. Changed ETgw affected irrigation demand, which jointly with altered surface-water supplies resulted in changed supplemental groundwater requirements and pumping and changed return runoff. This modeling feature will improve the impact assessment of dewatering-induced land subsidence/uplift (following irrigation pumping or coal-seam gas extraction) on surface receptors, inter-basin transfers, and surface-infrastructure integrity.

  4. Development of an Architecture of Sun-Synchronous Orbital Slots to Minimize Conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, B.

    Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) satellites serve many important functions, primarily in the areas of Earth reconnaissance and weather. The orbital parameters of altitude, inclination and right ascension which allow for the unique utility of Sun-sync orbit limit these satellites to a very specific region of space. The popularity of these satellite missions combined with the use of similar engineering solutions has resulted in the majority of current Sun-sync satellites within this region having very similar inclinations and altitudes while also spaced around the Equator in right ascension, creating the opportunity for conjunctions at the polar crossing points and a serious safety issue that could endanger long-term sustainability of SSO. This paper outlines the development of a new architecture of SSO zoning to create specific slots separating SSO satellites in altitude, right ascension and time at all orbital intersections while minimizing the limitations on utility. A methodical approach for the development of the system is presented along with the work-to-date and a software tool for calculating repeating ground track orbits. The slot system is intended to allow for continued utility of and safe operation within SSO while greatly decreasing the chance of collisions at orbital intersections. This architecture is put forward as one possible element of a new Space Traffic Management (STM) system with the overall goal of maintaining the safe and continued used of space by all actors.

  5. Outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenbo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC occurred in Yunnan Province, China between August and September in 2007. A total of 3,597 cases were officially reported and the incidence rate reached 1390.94/100,000. Descriptive epidemiological analysis of the outbreak was conducted using the data from National Disease Supervision Information Management System (NDSIMS. To determine the causative agent for this outbreak and to analyze their genetic features, 30 conjunctival swabs and 19 paired serum specimens of acute and convalescent phase were collected from 30 patients with AHC, and viral isolation, molecular typing, antibody assay and phylogenetic analysis were performed. 11 virus strains were isolated from 30 conjunctival swabs. Amplification and sequencing of the VP4 region of these strains identified that coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v could be the causative agent of the AHC outbreak and this was further confirmed by subsequent virus neutralizing antibody test on 19 paired serum specimens. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 3C regions showed that the Yunnan CA24v strains belonged to Group 3 and clustered with the strains isolated from worldwide AHC outbreaks after 2002. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial VP1 revealed that the Yunnan strains differed from the strains isolated from AHC outbreak in Guangdong of China in 2007 with 2.8 - 3.0% nucleotide divergence, suggesting that two different lineages of CA24v caused the independent AHC outbreaks in Yunnan and Guangdong, respectively.

  6. The control of attentional target selection in a colour/colour conjunction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the time course of attentional object selection processes in visual search tasks where targets are defined by a combination of features from the same dimension, we measured the N2pc component as an electrophysiological marker of attentional object selection during colour/colour conjunction search. In Experiment 1, participants searched for targets defined by a combination of two colours, while ignoring distractor objects that matched only one of these colours. Reliable N2pc components were triggered by targets and also by partially matching distractors, even when these distractors were accompanied by a target in the same display. The target N2pc was initially equal in size to the sum of the two N2pc components to the two different types of partially matching distractors and became superadditive from approximately 250 ms after search display onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the superadditivity of the target N2pc was not due to a selective disengagement of attention from task-irrelevant partially matching distractors. These results indicate that attention was initially deployed separately and in parallel to all target-matching colours, before attentional allocation processes became sensitive to the presence of both matching colours within the same object. They suggest that attention can be controlled simultaneously and independently by multiple features from the same dimension and that feature-guided attentional selection processes operate in parallel for different target-matching objects in the visual field.

  7. SDS-PAGE in conjunction with match lane statistical analysis for the detection of meat adulteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, R.A.; Nassef, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seven meat types and two component mixtures of them were made. Banding patterns of resulting denstograms in conjunction with cluster analysi and match lane statistical analysis were used for the detection of meat adulteration. The use of beef as a reference meat have resulted in a clear distinction from goat, pork, chicken, turkey, camel meats and their mixture and camel meat. The use of pork meat as a reference was more assurate because of the low degrees of matching with all meats and their mixtures and consequently high abilities of differentiations. The purpose of identification. the purpose of identification of meat species arises from the desire of human, in general, to confirm what he eat ? for moslems the establisment that meat is free from pork type is most important. Another economic purpose is the detection of adulteration of valuable meat by less valuable types. Several attempts in different laboratories were done to serve this object but most of analytical techniques. Barbieri and formi (1999) were able to detect 5% of meat type in mixtures by isolelectric focusing and 1% of meat type by PCR technique in beef, pork, chicken and turkey meats. By crossover immunoelectrophoresis technique, zanon and vianello (1998) were also to detect a limit of 5% of specific meat in mixuters of beef, pork, mutton/lamb, horse and chicken meats

  8. Illusory conjunctions in the time domain and the resulting time-course of the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Juan; Arend, Isabel; Suero, Manuel

    2004-05-01

    Illusory conjunctions in the time domain are errors made in binding stimulus features presented In the same spatial position in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) conditions. Botella, Barriopedro, and Suero (2001) devised a model to explain how the distribution of responses originating from stimuli around the target in the series is generated. They proposed two routes consisting of two sequential attempts to make a response. The second attempt (sophisticated guessing) is only employed if the first one (focal attention) fails in producing an integrated perception. This general outline enables specific predictions to be made and tested related to the efficiency of focal attention in generating responses in the first attempt. Participants had to report the single letter in an RSVP stream of letters that was presented in a previously specified color (first target, T1) and then report whether an X (second target, T2) was or was not presented. Performance on T2 showed the typical U-shaped function across the T1-T2 lag that reflects the attentional blink phenomenon. However, as was predicted by Botella, Barriopedro, and Suero's model, the time-course of the interference was shorter for trials with a correct response to T1 than for trials with a T1 error. Furthermore, longer time-courses of interference associated with pre-target and post-target errors to the first target were indistinguishable.

  9. Unitary Transformations in the Quantum Model for Conceptual Conjunctions and its Application to Data Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eVeloz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum models of concept combinations have been successful in representing various experimental situations that cannot be accommodated by traditional models based on classical probability or fuzzy set theory. In many cases, the focus has been on producing a representation that fits experimental results to validate quantum models. However, these representations are not always consistent with the cognitive modeling principles. Moreover, some important issues related to the representation of concepts such as the dimensionality of the realization space, the uniqueness of solutions, and the compatibility of measurements, have been overlooked.In this paper, we provide a dimensional analysis of the realization space for the two-sector Fock space model for conjunction of concepts focusing on the first and second sectors separately. We then introduce various representation of concepts that arise from the use of unitary operators in the realization space. In these concrete representations, a pair of concepts and their combination are modeled by a single conceptual state, and by a collection of exemplar-dependent operators. Therefore, they are consistent with cognitive modeling principles. %Moreover, we show that each representation is unique up to change of basis. This framework not only provides a uniform approach to model an entire data set, but, because all measurement operators are expressed in the same basis, allows us to address the question of compatibility of measurements. In particular, we present evidence that it may be possible to predict non-commutative effects from partial measurements of conceptual combinations.

  10. Unitary Transformations in the Quantum Model for Conceptual Conjunctions and Its Application to Data Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloz, Tomas; Desjardins, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Quantum models of concept combinations have been successful in representing various experimental situations that cannot be accommodated by traditional models based on classical probability or fuzzy set theory. In many cases, the focus has been on producing a representation that fits experimental results to validate quantum models. However, these representations are not always consistent with the cognitive modeling principles. Moreover, some important issues related to the representation of concepts such as the dimensionality of the realization space, the uniqueness of solutions, and the compatibility of measurements, have been overlooked. In this paper, we provide a dimensional analysis of the realization space for the two-sector Fock space model for conjunction of concepts focusing on the first and second sectors separately. We then introduce various representation of concepts that arise from the use of unitary operators in the realization space. In these concrete representations, a pair of concepts and their combination are modeled by a single conceptual state, and by a collection of exemplar-dependent operators. Therefore, they are consistent with cognitive modeling principles. This framework not only provides a uniform approach to model an entire data set, but, because all measurement operators are expressed in the same basis, allows us to address the question of compatibility of measurements. In particular, we present evidence that it may be possible to predict non-commutative effects from partial measurements of conceptual combinations.

  11. Feature Selection with Conjunctions of Decision Stumps and Learning from Microarray Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M; Marchand, M; Corbeil, J

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of designing feature selection learning algorithms is to obtain classifiers that depend on a small number of attributes and have verifiable future performance guarantees. There are few, if any, approaches that successfully address the two goals simultaneously. To the best of our knowledge, such algorithms that give theoretical bounds on the future performance have not been proposed so far in the context of the classification of gene expression data. In this work, we investigate the premise of learning a conjunction (or disjunction) of decision stumps in Occam's Razor, Sample Compression, and PAC-Bayes learning settings for identifying a small subset of attributes that can be used to perform reliable classification tasks. We apply the proposed approaches for gene identification from DNA microarray data and compare our results to those of the well-known successful approaches proposed for the task. We show that our algorithm not only finds hypotheses with a much smaller number of genes while giving competitive classification accuracy but also having tight risk guarantees on future performance, unlike other approaches. The proposed approaches are general and extensible in terms of both designing novel algorithms and application to other domains.

  12. Explaining efficient search for conjunctions of motion and form: evidence from negative color effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Dent, Humphreys, and Braithwaite (2011) showed substantial costs to search when a moving target shared its color with a group of ignored static distractors. The present study further explored the conditions under which such costs to performance occur. Experiment 1 tested whether the negative color-sharing effect was specific to cases in which search showed a highly serial pattern. The results showed that the negative color-sharing effect persisted in the case of a target defined as a conjunction of movement and form, even when search was highly efficient. In Experiment 2, the ease with which participants could find an odd-colored target amongst a moving group was examined. Participants searched for a moving target amongst moving and stationary distractors. In Experiment 2A, participants performed a highly serial search through a group of similarly shaped moving letters. Performance was much slower when the target shared its color with a set of ignored static distractors. The exact same displays were used in Experiment 2B; however, participants now responded "present" for targets that shared the color of the static distractors. The same targets that had previously been difficult to find were now found efficiently. The results are interpreted in a flexible framework for attentional control. Targets that are linked with irrelevant distractors by color tend to be ignored. However, this cost can be overridden by top-down control settings.

  13. Task relevance modulates the cortical representation of feature conjunctions in the target template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Reshanne R; Hanke, Michael; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-07-03

    Little is known about the cortical regions involved in representing task-related content in preparation for visual task performance. Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) to investigate the BOLD response pattern similarity between task relevant and task irrelevant feature dimensions during conjunction viewing and target template maintenance prior to visual search. Subjects were cued to search for a spatial frequency (SF) or orientation of a Gabor grating and we measured BOLD signal during cue and delay periods before the onset of a search display. RSA of delay period activity revealed that widespread regions in frontal, posterior parietal, and occipitotemporal cortices showed general representational differences between task relevant and task irrelevant dimensions (e.g., orientation vs. SF). In contrast, RSA of cue period activity revealed sensory-related representational differences between cue images (regardless of task) at the occipital pole and additionally in the frontal pole. Our data show that task and sensory information are represented differently during viewing and during target template maintenance, and that task relevance modulates the representation of visual information across the cortex.

  14. Auroral zone electric fields from DE 1 and 2 at magnetic conjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, D. R.; Goertz, C. K.; Gurnett, D. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Burch, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Nearly simultaneous measurements of auroral zone electric fields are obtained by the Dynamics Explorer spacecraft at altitudes below 900 km and above 4,500 km during magnetic conjunctions. The measured electric fields are usually perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. The north-south meridional electric fields are projected to a common altitude by a mapping function which accounts for the convergence of the magnetic field lines. When plotted as a function of invariant latitude, graphs of the projected electric fields measured by both DE-1 and DE-2 show that the large-scale electric field is the same at both altitudes, as expected. Superimposed on the large-scale fields, however, are small-scale features with wavelengths less than 100 km which are larger in magnitude at the higher altitude. Fourier transforms of the electric fields show that the magnitudes depend on wavelength. Outside of the auroral zone the electric field spectrums are nearly identical. But within the auroral zone the high and low altitude electric fields have a ratio which increases with the reciprocal of the wavelength. The small-scale electric field variations are associated with field-aligned currents. These currents are measured with both a plasma instrument and magnetometer on DE-1.

  15. Visual Search for Motion-Form Conjunctions: Selective Attention to Movement Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Mühlenen, Adrian; Müller, Hermann J

    1999-07-01

    In 2 experiments requiring visual search for conjunctions of motion and form, the authors reinvestigated whether motion-based filtering (e.g., P. McLeod, J. Driver, Z. Dienes, & J. Crisp, 1991) is direction selective and whether cuing of the target direction promotes efficient search performance. In both experiments, the authors varied the number of movement directions in the display and the predictability of the target direction. Search was less efficient when items moved in multiple (2, 3, and 4) directions as compared with just 1 direction. Furthermore, precuing of the target direction facilitated the search, even with "wrap-around" displays, relatively more when items moved in multiple directions. The authors proposed 2 principles to explain that pattern of effects: (a) interference on direction computation between items moving in different directions (e.g., N. Qian & R. A. Andersen, 1994) and (b) selective direction tuning of motion detectors involving a receptive-field contraction (cf. J. Moran & R. Desimone, 1985; S. Treue & J. H. R. Maunsell, 1996).

  16. “Natural coordination” and the origin of the Lithuanian conjunction beĩ ‘and’.

    OpenAIRE

    Norbert Ostrowski

    2018-01-01

    Productivity of the Lithuanian conjunction beĩ ‘and’, marker of so called „natural coordination”, is strictly connected to the area of Lithuania Minor (former East Prussia). Lithuanian beĩ comes from conflation of the common Baltic conjunction bè ‘and’ and an additive particle ir ‘also’. The conflated form *beir has been further reduced to beĩ in accordance with Lithuanian phonotactic rules that do not tolerate group VRR (V = Vocal, R = Resonant). There are some traces that suggest that Lithu...

  17. Conjunctive patches subspace learning with side information for collaborative image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lining; Wang, Lipo; Lin, Weisi

    2012-08-01

    Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) has attracted substantial attention during the past few years for its potential practical applications to image management. A variety of Relevance Feedback (RF) schemes have been designed to bridge the semantic gap between the low-level visual features and the high-level semantic concepts for an image retrieval task. Various Collaborative Image Retrieval (CIR) schemes aim to utilize the user historical feedback log data with similar and dissimilar pairwise constraints to improve the performance of a CBIR system. However, existing subspace learning approaches with explicit label information cannot be applied for a CIR task, although the subspace learning techniques play a key role in various computer vision tasks, e.g., face recognition and image classification. In this paper, we propose a novel subspace learning framework, i.e., Conjunctive Patches Subspace Learning (CPSL) with side information, for learning an effective semantic subspace by exploiting the user historical feedback log data for a CIR task. The CPSL can effectively integrate the discriminative information of labeled log images, the geometrical information of labeled log images and the weakly similar information of unlabeled images together to learn a reliable subspace. We formally formulate this problem into a constrained optimization problem and then present a new subspace learning technique to exploit the user historical feedback log data. Extensive experiments on both synthetic data sets and a real-world image database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in improving the performance of a CBIR system by exploiting the user historical feedback log data.

  18. Enhancing drought resilience with conjunctive use and managed aquifer recharge in California and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Pool, Donald; Uhlman, Kristine

    2016-03-01

    Projected longer-term droughts and intense floods underscore the need to store more water to manage climate extremes. Here we show how depleted aquifers have been used to store water by substituting surface water use for groundwater pumpage (conjunctive use, CU) or recharging groundwater with surface water (managed aquifer recharge, MAR). Unique multi-decadal monitoring from thousands of wells and regional modeling datasets for the California Central Valley and central Arizona were used to assess CU and MAR. In addition to natural reservoir capacity related to deep water tables, historical groundwater depletion further expanded aquifer storage by ˜44 km3 in the Central Valley and by ˜100 km3 in Arizona, similar to or exceeding current surface reservoir capacity by up to three times. Local river water and imported surface water, transported through 100s of km of canals, is substituted for groundwater (≤15 km3 yr-1, CU) or is used to recharge groundwater (MAR, ≤1.5 km3 yr-1) during wet years shifting to mostly groundwater pumpage during droughts. In the Central Valley, CU and MAR locally reversed historically declining water-level trends, which contrasts with simulated net regional groundwater depletion. In Arizona, CU and MAR also reversed historically declining groundwater level trends in active management areas. These rising trends contrast with current declining trends in irrigated areas that lack access to surface water to support CU or MAR. Use of depleted aquifers as reservoirs could expand with winter flood irrigation or capturing flood discharges to the Pacific (0-1.6 km3 yr-1, 2000-2014) with additional infrastructure in California. Because flexibility and expanded portfolio options translate to resilience, CU and MAR enhance drought resilience through multi-year storage, complementing shorter term surface reservoir storage, and facilitating water markets.

  19. Life cycle evaluation of an intercooled gas turbine plant used in conjunction with renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thank-God Isaiah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle estimation of power plants is important for gas turbine operators. With the introduction of wind energy into the grid, gas turbine operators now operate their plants in Load–Following modes as back-ups to the renewable energy sources which include wind, solar, etc. The motive behind this study is to look at how much life is consumed when an intercooled power plant with 100 MW power output is used in conjunction with wind energy. This operation causes fluctuations because the wind energy is unpredictable and overtime causes adverse effects on the life of the plant – The High Pressure Turbine Blades. Such fluctuations give rise to low cycle fatigue and creep failure of the blades depending on the operating regime used. A performance based model that is capable of estimating the life consumed of an intercooled power plant has been developed. The model has the capability of estimating the life consumed based on seasonal power demands and operations. An in-depth comparison was undertaken on the life consumed during the seasons of operation and arrives at the conclusion that during summer, the creep and low cycle life is consumed higher than the rest periods. A comparison was also made to determine the life consumed between Load–Following and stop/start operating scenarios. It was also observed that daily creep life consumption in summer was higher than the winter period in-spite of having lower average daily operating hours in a Start–Stop operating scenario.

  20. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akash; Dougherty, Max; Findlay, Gregory M; Geisheker, Madeleine; Klein, Jason; Lazar, John; Machkovech, Heather; Resnick, Jesse; Resnick, Rebecca; Salter, Alexander I; Talebi-Liasi, Faezeh; Arakawa, Christopher; Baudin, Jacob; Bogaard, Andrew; Salesky, Rebecca; Zhou, Qian; Smith, Kelly; Clark, John I; Shendure, Jay; Horwitz, Marshall S

    2014-01-01

    Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD) adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  1. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar

    Full Text Available Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  2. Extracellular vesicles in gastrointestinal cancer in conjunction with microbiota: On the border of Kingdoms

    KAUST Repository

    Barteneva, Natasha S.

    2017-06-29

    Extracellular vesicle (EV) production is a universal feature of metazoan cells as well as prokaryotes (bMVs - bacterial microvesicls). They are small vesicles with phospholipid membrane carrying proteins, DNA and different classes of RNAs and are heavily involved in intercellular communication acting as vectors of information to target cells. For the last decade, the interest in EV research has exponentially increased though thorough studies of their roles in various pathologies that was not previously possible due to technical limitations.This review focuses on research evaluating the role of EV production in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer development in conjunction with GI microbiota and inflammatory diseases. We also discuss recent studies on the promising role of EVs and their content as biomarkers for early diagnosis of GI cancers. The bMVs have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of GI chronic inflammatory diseases, however, possible role of bMVs in tumorigenesis remains underestimated. We propose that EVs from eukaryotic cells as well as from different microbial, fungi, parasitic species and edible plants in GI tract act as mediators of intracellular and inter-species communication, particularly facilitating tumour cell survival and multi-drug resistance. In conclusion, we suggest that matching sequences from EV proteomes (available from public databases) with known protein sequences of microbiome gut bacteria will be useful in identification of antigen mimicry between evolutionary conservative protein sequences. Using this approach we identified Bacteroides spp. pseudokinase with activation loop and homology to PDGFRα, providing a proof-of-concept strategy. We speculate that existence of microbial pseudokinase that ‘mimic” PDGFRα may be related to PDGFRα and Bacteroides spp. roles in colorectal carcinogenesis that require further investigation.

  3. Enhancing drought resilience with conjunctive use and managed aquifer recharge in California and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Faunt, Claudia; Pool, Donald R.; Uhlman, Kristine;

    2016-01-01

    Projected longer‐term droughts and intense floods underscore the need to store more water to manage climate extremes. Here we show how depleted aquifers have been used to store water by substituting surface water use for groundwater pumpage (conjunctive use, CU) or recharging groundwater with surface water (Managed Aquifer Recharge, MAR). Unique multi‐decadal monitoring from thousands of wells and regional modeling datasets for the California Central Valley and central Arizona were used to assess CU and MAR. In addition to natural reservoir capacity related to deep water tables, historical groundwater depletion further expanded aquifer storage by ~44 km3 in the Central Valley and by ~100 km3 in Arizona, similar to or exceeding current surface reservoir capacity by up to three times. Local river water and imported surface water, transported through 100s of km of canals, is substituted for groundwater (≤15 km3/yr, CU) or is used to recharge groundwater (MAR, ≤1.5 km3/yr) during wet years shifting to mostly groundwater pumpage during droughts. In the Central Valley, CU and MAR locally reversed historically declining water‐level trends, which contrasts with simulated net regional groundwater depletion. In Arizona, CU and MAR also reversed historically declining groundwater level trends in Active Management Areas. These rising trends contrast with current declining trends in irrigated areas that lack access to surface water to support CU or MAR. Use of depleted aquifers as reservoirs could expand with winter flood irrigation or capturing flood discharges to the Pacific (0 – 1.6 km3/yr, 2000–2014) with additional infrastructure in California. Because flexibility and expanded portfolio options translate to resilience, CU and MAR enhance drought resilience through multi‐year storage, complementing shorter term surface reservoir storage, and facilitating water markets.

  4. Category-based guidance of spatial attention during visual search for feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nako, Rebecca; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The question whether alphanumerical category is involved in the control of attentional target selection during visual search remains a contentious issue. We tested whether category-based attentional mechanisms would guide the allocation of attention under conditions where targets were defined by a combination of alphanumerical category and a basic visual feature, and search displays could contain both targets and partially matching distractor objects. The N2pc component was used as an electrophysiological marker of attentional object selection in tasks where target objects were defined by a conjunction of color and category (Experiment 1) or shape and category (Experiment 2). Some search displays contained the target or a nontarget object that matched either the target color/shape or its category among 3 nonmatching distractors. In other displays, the target and a partially matching nontarget object appeared together. N2pc components were elicited not only by targets and by color- or shape-matching nontargets, but also by category-matching nontarget objects, even on trials where a target was present in the same display. On these trials, the summed N2pc components to the 2 types of partially matching nontargets were initially equal in size to the target N2pc, suggesting that attention was allocated simultaneously and independently to all objects with target-matching features during the early phase of attentional processing. Results demonstrate that alphanumerical category is a genuine guiding feature that can operate in parallel with color or shape information to control the deployment of attention during visual search. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. [Midterm results of thoracic aortic dissection endovascular repair in conjunctions with the location of Adamkiewicz artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ying-bin; Li, Jian; Su, Yong-hui; Ma, Jie-fei; Guan, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Bai-meng

    2012-10-23

    To evaluate the effects of using longer xenografts in conjunctions with the location of Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) on midterm outcomes of endovascular treatment for thoracic aortic dissection. From March 2005 to September 2011, 217 patients with type B dissection were recruited. There were 143 males and 74 females with a mean age of 65 ± 11 years. Among them, 43 patients were from Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University while another 174 patients from Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. They were divided into 2 groups according to whether AKA was identified or not pre-operatively. Endovascular repairs were performed for all patients. Distal landing levels of xenografts were recorded. The thrombosis of false lumen and the complications of spinal cord injury and endoleak were analyzed. AKA was detected in 121 (55.8%) patients (group A) but not in 96 (44.2%) patients (group B). According to the levels of AKA, the patients of group A obtained the stabilization of affected thoracic aorta over a longer distance. And the ratio of patients with distal landing levels at T8-T10 was significantly higher than in group B (59.5% vs 12.5%, χ² = 49.85, P < 0.01). Also, during the follow-up period of 7.3 months, the ratio of patients with total thrombosis of false lumen in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (32.1% vs 19.1%, χ² = 4.34, P < 0.05). During the endovascular repair of thoracic aortic dissection, selecting a longer device may provide a better structural stability of affected aorta and promote false lumen thrombosis.

  6. Hippocampal damage equally impairs memory for single items and memory for conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Craig E L; Squire, Larry R

    2003-01-01

    In a prior study of continuous recognition performance, data were reported in support of the hypothesis that the hippocampus is not needed to remember the individual components of a stimulus but is important for remembering associations between its components (Kroll et al. 1996. J Mem Lang 35:176-196). Patients with left hippocampal damage were able to endorse recently encountered words and to reject novel words, as well as disyllabic words in which one of the syllables had been previously encountered. However, they failed to reject words in which both syllables had been encountered independently in different words. We present data from five experiments designed to examine this finding in more detail. In each experiment, five patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and eight controls were tested using the same protocol as Kroll et al. (1996). On each trial, a two-component stimulus was presented. Stimuli could be entirely novel, novel with one previously encountered (repeated) component, novel but with both components repeated, or a true repetition. The first experiment was a direct replication using the same disyllabic words as Kroll et al. (1996). The second experiment used pseudo-words, constructed of two monosyllabic words (e.g., jambark). The third experiment used the same pairs of monosyllabic words, but presented separately on the screen to encourage participants to treat each component independently. The fourth experiment used pairs of objects, and the fifth experiment used face-house pairs. In all five experiments, patients with hippocampal damage exhibited impaired recognition memory. The impairment extended across all trial types with no evidence that hippocampal damage selectively (or disproportionately) impaired the associative or conjunctive component of memory. We discuss our findings in the light of the work by Kroll et al. (1996) and other recent neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of hippocampal function and

  7. The multi-faceted outcomes of conjunct diabetes and cardiovascular familial history in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Michel P; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F

    2012-01-01

    Familial history of early-onset CHD (EOCHD) is a major risk factor for CHD. Familial diabetes history (FDH) impacts β-cell function. Some transmissible, accretional gradient of CHD risk may exist when diabetes and EOCHD familial histories combine. We investigated whether the impact of such combination is neutral, additive, or potentiating in T2DM descendants, as regards cardiometabolic phenotype, glucose homeostasis and micro-/macroangiopathies. Cross-sectional retrospective cohort study of 796 T2DM divided according to presence (Diab[+]) or absence (Diab[-]) of 1st-degree diabetes familial history and/or EOCHD (CVD(+) and (-)). Four subgroups: (i) [Diab(-)CVD(-)] (n=355); (ii) [Diab(+)CVD(-)] (n=338); (iii) [Diab(-)CVD(+)] (n=47); and (iv) [Diab(+)CVD(+)] (n=56). No interaction on subgroup distribution between presence of both familial histories, the combination of which translated into additive detrimental outcomes and higher rates of fat mass, sarcopenia, (hs)CRP and retinopathy. FDH(+) had lower insulinemia, insulin secretion, hyperbolic product, and accelerated hyperbolic product loss. An EOCHD family history affected neither insulin secretion nor sensitivity. There were significant differences regarding macroangiopathy/CAD, more prevalent in [Diab(-)CVD(+)] and [Diab(+)CVD(+)]. Among CVD(+), the highest macroangiopathy prevalence was observed in [Diab(-)CVD(+)], who had 66% macroangiopathy, and 57% CAD, rates higher (absolute-relative) by 23%-53% (overall) and 21%-58% (CAD) than [Diab(+)CVD(+)], who inherited the direst cardiometabolic familial history (p 0.0288 and 0.0310). A parental history for diabetes markedly affects residual insulin secretion and secretory loss rate in T2DM offspring without worsening insulin resistance. It paradoxically translated into lower macroangiopathy with concurrent familial EOCHD. Conjunct diabetes and CV familial histories generate multi-faceted vascular outcomes in offspring, including lesser macroangiopathy/CAD. Copyright

  8. Studies in semiconducting metal oxides in conjunction with silicon for solid state gas sensors. Progress report for April 1, 1977--March 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, A.G.

    1978-04-01

    ZnO films have been reproducibly grown using chemical deposition and radio-frequency sputtering techniques. These films are polycrystalline or amorphous, but are stable, uniform and lend themselves to material characterization by Auger and x-ray analysis techniques, and electrical measurements. SnO 2 films have been reproducibly grown by chemical vapor deposition, vacuum deposition and radio-frequency sputtering techniques. These films are also polycrystalline or amorphous, and lend themselves to material characterization and measurements. By vacuum deposition techniques, Si-SnO 2 heterojunctions have been grown, which exhibit good rectification properties. An original thermodynamic analysis of the growth of SnO 2 by a chemical vapor deposition technique based on the reaction between SnCl 4 and H 2 O has been developed and submitted for publication. Pd-SiO 2 -Si Schottky barrier diodes exhibiting excellent rectification properties have been successfully fabricated. A formalism has been established for the analysis of the behavior of these devices in the presence of H 2 , H 2 S and CO. The ZnO films grown by chemical deposition have proven to be sensitive to CO and CH 4 . Sputtered ZnO films are sensitive to O 2 and H 2 . SnO 2 films grown by chemical vapor deposition are not very sensitive to gases. Sputtered films, however, are very sensitive to H 2 and H 2 S. The Pd-SiO 2 -Si diodes are extremely sensitive to H 2 , H 2 S and NH 3 , and, under certain conditions, to CO. A microprocessor data processing system has been developed incorporating gas sensors in the presence of a variety of gases and gas mixtures

  9. Selective attention and error processing in an illusory conjunction task - An event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, AA; Boksem, MAS

    2005-01-01

    We recorded event-related potentials in an illusory conjunction task, in which subjects were cued on each trial to search for a particular colored letter in a subsequently presented test array, consisting of three different letters in three different colors. In a proportion of trials the target

  10. An event-related brain potential study of visual selective attention to conjunctions of color and shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, HGOM; Jakob, A; Heinze, HJ

    What cognitive processes underlie event-related brain potential (ERP) effects related to visual multidimensional selective attention and how are these processes organized? We recorded ERPs when participants attended to one conjunction of color, global shape and local shape and ignored other

  11. Conjunctivitis associated with Chlamydia pecorum in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Oliver; Johnson, Lynley; Woolford, Lucy; Boardman, Wayne; Polkinghorne, Adam; McLelland, David

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydiosis is a significant factor contributing to the decline of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in Australia but has not previously been reported in South Australia. We describe conjunctivitis in three wild koalas from South Australia, with Chlamydia pecorum identified by quantitative PCR.

  12. Heteroscedastic Tests Statistics for One-Way Analysis of Variance: The Trimmed Means and Hall's Transformation Conjunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

    2005-01-01

    To deal with nonnormal and heterogeneous data for the one-way fixed effect analysis of variance model, the authors adopted a trimmed means method in conjunction with Hall's invertible transformation into a heteroscedastic test statistic (Alexander-Govern test or Welch test). The results of simulation experiments showed that the proposed technique…

  13. Target objects defined by a conjunction of colour and shape can be selected independently and in parallel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2017-11-01

    It is generally assumed that during search for targets defined by a feature conjunction, attention is allocated sequentially to individual objects. We tested this hypothesis by tracking the time course of attentional processing biases with the N2pc component in tasks where observers searched for two targets defined by a colour/shape conjunction. In Experiment 1, two displays presented in rapid succession (100 ms or 10 ms SOA) each contained a target and a colour-matching or shape-matching distractor on opposite sides. Target objects in both displays elicited N2pc components of similar size that overlapped in time when the SOA was 10 ms, suggesting that attention was allocated in parallel to both targets. Analogous results were found in Experiment 2, where targets and partially matching distractors were both accompanied by an object without target-matching features. Colour-matching and shape-matching distractors also elicited N2pc components, and the target N2pc was initially identical to the sum of the two distractor N2pcs, suggesting that the initial phase of attentional object selection was guided independently by feature templates for target colour and shape. Beyond 230 ms after display onset, the target N2pc became superadditive, indicating that attentional selection processes now started to be sensitive to the presence of feature conjunctions. Results show that independent attentional selection processes can be activated in parallel by two target objects in situations where these objects are defined by a feature conjunction.

  14. On the Conjunction Fallacy and the Meaning of "and", yet Again: A Reply to Hertwig, Benz, and Krauss (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Katya; Crupi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we question the theoretical tenability of Hertwig, Benz, and Krauss's (2008) (HBK) argument that responses commonly taken as manifestations of the conjunction fallacy should be instead considered as reflecting "reasonable pragmatic and semantic inferences" because the meaning of and does not always coincide with that of the logical…

  15. Do general practitioners adhere to the guideline on infectious conjunctivitis? Results of the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellevis François G

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 the guideline 'The Red Eye' was first published by the Dutch College of General Practitioners. The extent to which general practitioners adhere to this guideline is unclear. Recently, data on the management of infectious conjunctivitis by general practitioners became available from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice. We measured the age-specific incidence of infectious conjunctivitis, described its management by Dutch general practitioners, and then compared these findings with the recommendations made in the guideline. Methods In 2001, over a 12-month period, data from all patient contacts with 195 general practitioners were taken from electronic medical records. Registration was episode-oriented; all consultations dealing with the same health problem were grouped into disease episodes. Data concerning all episodes of infectious conjunctivitis (ICPC-code F70 and sub codes were analysed. Results Over one year, 5,213 new and recurrent episodes of infectious conjunctivitis were presented to general practitioners from a population of N = 375,899, resulting in an overall incidence rate of 13.9 per 1000 person-years, varying from more than 80/1000 py in children up to one-year old, to less than 12/1000 py in children over the age of 4. Topical ophthalmic ointments were prescribed in 87% of the episodes, of which 80% was antibiotic treatment. Fusidic acid gel was most frequently prescribed (69%. In most episodes general practitioners did not adhere to the guideline. Conclusion In 2001, the management of infectious conjunctivitis by Dutch general practitioners was not in accordance with the recommendations of the consensus-based guideline published five years previously, despite its wide distribution. In 2006 this guideline was revised. Its successful implementation requires more than distribution alone. Probably the most effective way to achieve this is by following a model for systemic implementation.

  16. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the white matter of the brain, caused by a virus infection ...

  17. Possible Mechanism of Action of the Antiallergic Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Heliotropium indicum L. in Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Kyei; George Asumeng Koffuor; Paul Ramkissoon; Samuel Abokyi; Osei Owusu-Afriyie; Eric Addo Wiredu

    2015-01-01

    Heliotropium indicum is used traditionally as a remedy for conjunctivitis in Ghana. This study therefore evaluated the antiallergic potential of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE) in ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis and attempted to predict its mode of action. Clinical scores for allergic conjunctivitis induced by intraperitoneal ovalbumin sensitization (100?:?10??g OVA/Al(OH)3 in phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) and topical conjunctival challenge (1.5?mg OV...

  18. Conjunct action of gamma radiation and casiopeinas in two cellular types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos V, N.I.

    2006-01-01

    In Mexico the cancer occupies the second place in the causes of death and although already there are diverse useful treatments to attack this suffering, the search of new pharmaceuticals that present positive effect in the treatment of the cancer there is taken to the development of a group of substances called Casiopeinas. Its are coordination compounds constituted by a central atom of copper (Cu II) joined to organic ligands, with general condensed formula [Cu (NN)(ON)]NO 3 , or [Cu(NN)(OO)]NO 3 . Its present different cytotoxicity levels, as well as in vitro antineoplastic activity in diverse tissues derived of tumors. Even its ignore the mechanisms of it action, but one of them, it could be by generation of reactive species of oxygen (ERO), mediated by the metallic center that contain. Thinking of this possibility was carried out in vitro experiments, exposing lymphocytes or HeLa cells, to ionizing radiation, at two casiopeinas (Casiopeina llgly and the Casiopeina Ill-e-a) or the combination of both agents, in order to determine if the antineoplastic capacity of both types of treatments increase in conjunct action. To determine it its were carried out cytotoxicity tests by means of the differential dyeing of fluorescein diacetate and etidio bromide, in these the cells alive fluorescein in green color while the dead ones only the nucleus of red tinged. The genotoxicity was evaluated by means of the comet essay. The results hurtled that as much the casiopeinas as the radiation by separate don't present difference among both cellular types, probably due to the used method that only quantifies the damages at the moment and not to long term. And according to those treatments on the whole only to the concentrations and the doses more high it favors the additive effect due to an overproduction of free radicals that not can be neutralized. According to the genotoxicity, only proven for the radiation indicates that the HeLa cells presents a major number of cells with

  19. Social and hygienic monitoring today: state and prospects in conjunction with the risk-based supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown in the article that since the establishment in 1992 and until now the social and health monitoring (SHM operates as a complex open system of extended collection and processing of heterogeneous data about the parameters of the environment, socio-economic indicators of living of the population of the country’s regions, medical and demographic characteristics of society as a whole and of individual population groups. As part of the SHM system Rospotrebnadzor annually performs hundreds of thousands of instrumental measurements of objects in the environment of the Russian Federation. These federal and regional information assets have tremendous analytical capacity and allow a knowledge-based processing of information in the "health-environment" system for a variety of management tasks of sanitary and epidemiological situation. Changing of the general paradigm of control and supervisory activities of Rospotrebnadzor and giving a fundamentally new status of control measures to researches and measurements of the system of social and hygienic monitoring without interaction with legal entities and individual entrepreneurs were important bases for further improvement of the SHM. The development of SHM in conjunction with the risk-based supervision model can significantly improve analytical capabilities, effectiveness and efficiency of each system. This development requires the adoption of a new edition of The statements of the SHM, the development of a scientific approach to the formation of "risk profiles" of objects of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance; the development of methodological approaches to the selection of points and formation of programs of instrumental studies of air, water and soil as the control activities in the areas of influence of economic entities. Of great current interest are the development and consolidation of regulatory requirements for the registration of the results of sampling and measurement in the

  20. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Cone-Beam CT in Conjunction with DSA for Identifying Prostatic Arterial Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao Qiang; Duan, Feng; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Guo Dong; Yan, Jieyu; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe findings in prostatic arteries (PAs) at digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and cone-beam computed tomography (CT) that allow identification of benign prostatic hyperplasia and to determine the value added with the use of cone-beam CT. Materials and Methods This retrospective single-institution study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement for written informed consent was waived. From February 2009 to December 2014, a total of 148 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 70.5 years ± 14.5) underwent DSA of the internal iliac arteries and cone-beam CT with a flat-detector angiographic system before they underwent prostate artery embolization. Both the DSA and cone-beam CT images were evaluated by two interventional radiologists to determine the number of independent PAs and their origins and anastomoses with adjacent arteries. The exact McNemar test was used to compare the detection rate of the PAs and the anastomoses with DSA and with cone-beam CT. Results The PA anatomy was evaluated successfully by means of cone-beam CT in conjunction with DSA in all patients. Of the 296 pelvic sides, 274 (92.6%) had only one PA. The most frequent PA origin was the common gluteal-pudendal trunk with the superior vesicular artery in 118 (37.1%), followed by the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 99 (31.1%), and the internal pudendal artery in 77 (24.2%) pelvic sides. In 67 (22.6%) pelvic sides, anastomoses to adjacent arteries were documented. The numbers of PA origins and anastomoses, respectively, that could be identified were significantly higher with cone-beam CT (301 of 318 [94.7%] and 65 of 67 [97.0%]) than with DSA (237 [74.5%] and 39 [58.2%], P < .05). Cone-beam CT provided essential information that was not available with DSA in 90 of 148 (60.8%) patients. Conclusion Cone-beam CT is a useful adjunctive technique to DSA for identification of the PA anatomy and provides information to help treatment planning

  1. Application of Electron Accelerators in Conjunction with Microwave Sources in Medical Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Craciun, G.; Manaila, E.; Ighigeanu, D.; Margaritescu, I.; Chirita, D.; Neagu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Electron beams (EB) are presently used, in addition to the routine conventional radiotherapy techniques, for cancer specialized therapies (intensity modulated radiation therapy [1] and total body electron irradiation [2]), the irradiation of blood and blood components, vaccine preparation, and other. Microwaves (MW) are presently used for therapeutic applications in cardiology, urology, surgery, ophthalmology, cancer therapy, and others, and for diagnostic applications such as cancer detection, organ imaging, and more [3]. The reported data show that low dose-all body irradiation with ionizing as well as with nonionizing irradiation may enhance the tumoricidal effects of radiation or chemotherapy, overcome acquired drug resistance and can stimulate certain components of the immune system that may aid in destroying cancer cells. These data suggested that application of low-dose total body EB + MW irradiation in conjunction with chemotherapy could contribute by novel effects to the cancer therapies. In view of this argument two specifically designed radiation exposure devices (REDs) were carried out for separate, successive and simultaneous irradiation with EB of 6.23 MeV and MW of 2.45 GHz in vivo (RED-vivo) and in vitro (RED-vitro) for the following medical studies: 1) The effects of low-dose EB + MW total body irradiation without/with drugs administration on the C57 BL/6 mice bearing malignant melanoma (MM); 2) The effects of separate and simultaneous MW and EB irradiation on MM cells culture without/with drugs incubation and on human blood components (proteins and cells) irradiated in samples of integral blood from healthy donors and from donors with MM. Both REDs consist of the following units: 1) An accelerated EB source: ALIN-10 electron linear accelerator of 6.23 MeV and adjustable absorbed dose rate from 0.002 Gy s-1 up to 70 Gy s-1 (built in the NILPRP, Bucharest, Romania); 2) A special designed exposure chamber that permits inside separate, successive or

  2. How Conjunctive Use of Surface and Ground Water could Increase Resiliency in US?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, L.; Rising, J. A.; Russo, T. A.; Troy, T. J.; Lall, U.; Allaire, M.

    2016-12-01

    Optimized management practices are crucial to ensuring water availability in the future. However this presents a tremendous challenge due to the many functions of water: water is not only central for our survival as drinking water or for irrigation, but it is also valued for industrial and recreational use. Sources of water meeting these needs range from rain water harvesting to reservoirs, water reuse, groundwater abstraction and desalination. A global conjunctive management approach is thus necessary to develop sustainable practices as all sectors are strongly coupled. Policy-makers and researchers have identified pluralism in water sources as a key solution to reach water security. We propose a novel approach to sustainable water management that accounts for multiple sources of water in an integrated manner. We formulate this challenge as an optimization problem where the choice of water sources is driven both by the availability of the sources and their relative cost. The results determine the optimal operational decisions for each sources (e.g. reservoirs releases, surface water withdrawals, groundwater abstraction and/or desalination water use) at each time step for a given time horizon. The physical surface and ground water systems are simulated inside the optimization by setting state equations as constraints. Additional constraints may be added to the model to represent the influence of policy decisions. To account for uncertainty in weather conditions and its impact on availability, the optimization is performed for an ensemble of climate scenarios. While many sectors and their interactions are represented, the computational cost is limited as the problem remains linear and thus enables large-scale applications and the propagation of uncertainty. The formulation is implemented within the model "America's Water Analysis, Synthesis and Heuristic", an integrated model for the conterminous US discretized at the county-scale. This enables a systematic

  3. Progressive geometric algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijnse, S.P.A.; Bagautdinov, T.M.; de Berg, M.T.; Bouts, Q.W.; ten Brink, Alex P.; Buchin, K.A.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Progressive algorithms are algorithms that, on the way to computing a complete solution to the problem at hand, output intermediate solutions that approximate the complete solution increasingly well. We present a framework for analyzing such algorithms, and develop efficient progressive algorithms

  4. Progressive geometric algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijnse, S.P.A.; Bagautdinov, T.M.; Berg, de M.T.; Bouts, Q.W.; Brink, ten A.P.; Buchin, K.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Progressive algorithms are algorithms that, on the way to computing a complete solution to the problem at hand, output intermediate solutions that approximate the complete solution increasingly well. We present a framework for analyzing such algorithms, and develop efficient progressive algorithms

  5. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  6. Paranormal belief and errors of probabilistic reasoning: The role of constituent conditional relatedness in believers' susceptibility to the conjunction fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Fisk, John E; Lowrie, Emma

    2017-11-01

    The present study examines the extent to which stronger belief in either extrasensory perception, psychokinesis or life-after-death is associated with a proneness to making conjunction errors (CEs). One hundred and sixty members of the UK public read eight hypothetical scenarios and for each estimated the likelihood that two constituent events alone plus their conjunction would occur. The impact of paranormal belief plus constituents' conditional relatedness type, estimates of the subjectively less likely and more likely constituents plus relevant interaction terms tested via three Generalized Linear Mixed Models. General qualification levels were controlled for. As expected, stronger PK beliefs and depiction of a positively conditionally related (verses conditionally unrelated) constituent pairs predicted higher CE generation. ESP and LAD beliefs had no impact with, surprisingly, higher estimates of the less likely constituent predicting fewer - not more - CEs. Theoretical implications, methodological issues and ideas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Is experiential-intuitive cognitive style more inclined to err on conjunction fallacy than analytical-rational cognitive style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In terms of prediction by Epstein's integrative theory of personality, cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), those people with experiential-intuitive cognitive style are more inclined to induce errors than the other people with analytical-rational cognitive style in the conjunction fallacy (two events that can occur together are seen as more likely than at least one of the two events). We tested this prediction in a revised Linda problem. The results revealed that rational and experiential cognitive styles do not statistically influence the propensity for committing the conjunction fallacy, which is contrary to the CEST's predictions. Based on the assumption that the rational vs. experiential processing is a personality trait with comparatively stabile specialities, these findings preliminarily indicate that those people who are characterized by "rational thinking" are not more inclined to use Bayes' deduction than the other people who are labeled by "intuitive thinking" or by "poor thinking."

  8. An event-related brain potential study of visual selective attention to conjunctions of color and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, H G; Jakob, A; Heinze, H J

    1999-03-01

    What cognitive processes underlie event-related brain potential (ERP) effects related to visual multidimensional selective attention and how are these processes organized? We recorded ERPs when participants attended to one conjunction of color, global shape and local shape and ignored other conjunctions of these attributes in three discriminability conditions. Attending to color and shape produced three ERP effects: frontal selection positivity (FSP), central negativity (N2b), and posterior selection negativity (SN). The results suggested that the processes underlying SN and N2b perform independent within-dimension selections, whereas the process underlying the FSP performs hierarchical between-dimension selections. At posterior electrodes, manipulation of discriminability changed the ERPs to the relevant but not to the irrelevant stimuli, suggesting that the SN does not concern the selection process itself but rather a cognitive process initiated after selection is finished. Other findings suggested that selection of multiple visual attributes occurs in parallel.

  9. The formation of novel social category conjunctions in working memory: A possible role for the episodic buffer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Allen, Richard J; Wood, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    Recent research (e.g., Hutter, Crisp, Humphreys, Waters, & Moffit; Siebler) has confirmed that combining novel social categories involves two stages (e.g., Hampton; Hastie, Schroeder, & Weber). Furthermore, it is also evident that following stage 1 (constituent additivity), the second stage in these models involves cognitively effortful complex reasoning. However, while current theory and research has addressed how category conjunctions are initially represented to some degree, it is not clear precisely where we first combine or bind existing social constituent categories. For example, how and where do we compose and temporarily store a coherent representation of an individual who shares membership of "female" and "blacksmith" categories? In this article, we consider how the revised multi-component model of working memory (Baddeley) can assist in resolving the representational limitations in the extant two-stage theoretical models. This is a new approach to understanding how novel conjunctions form new bound "composite" representations.

  10. Environmental studies in conjunction with the construction of nuclear power plants Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, L.G.; Bede, G.; Gacs, I.

    1980-01-01

    A status-of-the-art report is presented to summarize the studies in progress in Hungary concerning the radionuclide release of nuclear power plants and the motion and migration of radionuclides in the atmosphere. The presently available computerized models are described, their objectives, performances and advantages are discussed. Some examples are given to illustrate the applicability of the various models. They will be adapted to the local environmental, meteorological and architectural conditions of the Paks nuclear power plant under construction. The cooperation of research groups participating in the development or adaption of the different computerized models will continue during the start-up and operation of the Paks-1 reactor and the models will be improved on the basis of field experiences. New models will also be developed. (D.Gy.)

  11. Neoarchean history of the conjunction zone between the Belomorian mobile belt and the Karelian craton, Baltic shield: new isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, N.L.; Balaganskij, V.V.; Zinger, T.F.; Levchenkov, O.A.; Glebovitskij, V.A.; Makeev, A.F.; Yakovleva, S.Z.

    2004-01-01

    To study the neoarchean magmatism history of the conjunction zone between the Belomorian mobile belt and the Karelian craton one carried out U-Pb-isotope dating of volcanic zircons of the Kukas lake region. At the mentioned region one detected two pulses of the neoarchean volcanism that took place about 2877±45-2680.7±3.6 million years ago [ru

  12. Thickening and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with cystic white matter lesions in early infantile Krabbe disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beslow, Lauren A.; Boennemann, Carsten G. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Neurology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schwartz, Erin S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Neuroradiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    We present serial MR findings in a child ultimately diagnosed with the early infantile form of Krabbe disease. MR showed typical features of Krabbe disease including cerebellar and brainstem hyperintensity, periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensity, and cerebral atrophy. In addition, the combination of both enlargement and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with unusual cystic lesions adjacent to the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was previously unreported and expands the spectrum of imaging findings in early Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  13. Spec Rekindled-A Simple Torque Correction Mechanics for Transposed Teeth in Conjunction with Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Maurya, Raj Kumar; Thakkar, Surbhi

    2016-12-01

    Complete transposition of teeth is a rather rare phenomenon. After correction of transposed and malaligned lateral incisor and canine, attainment of appropriate individual antagonistic tooth torque is indispensable, which many orthodontists consider to be a herculean task. Here, a novel method is proposed which demonstrates the use of Spec reverse torquing auxillary as an effective adjunctive aid in conjunction with pre-adjusted edgewise brackets.

  14. Investigation of multiple visualisation techniques and dynamic queries in conjunction with direct sonification to support the browsing of audio resources

    OpenAIRE

    Brazil, Eoin

    2003-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed In this thesis, a prototype system for the browsing of audio resources was developed and an initial evaluation of this system was performed. The main contributions of this thesis are dynamic queries and multiple visualisation techniques in conjunction with direct sonification. Dynamic queries are queries that provide immediate feedback while maintaining consistency between the queries themselves and the graphical/auditory display. The multiple visualisation techniques are...

  15. 29 CFR 780.618 - “His own account”-“in conjunction with other farmers.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âHis own accountâ-âin conjunction with other farmers.â 780... farmers.” Under the terms of section 13(b)(13), the farmer may operate a livestock auction solely for his own benefit or he may join with “other farmers” to auction livestock for their mutual benefit. (See...

  16. Is experiential-intuitive cognitive style more inclined to err on conjunction fallacy than analytical-rational cognitive style?

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In terms of prediction by Epstein’s integrative theory of personality, cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST), those people with experiential-intuitive cognitive style are more inclined to induce errors than the other people with analytical-rational cognitive style in the conjunction fallacy (two events that can occur together are seen as more likely than at least one of the two events). We tested this prediction in a revised Linda problem. The results revealed that rational and experienti...

  17. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis concurrent with gingival fistula caused by Schizophyllum commune in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Madoka; Kawarai, Shinpei; Torii, Yoshiko; Ota, Kaori; Tasaka, Kiyoshi; Nishimura, Kazuko; Fujii, Chieko; Kanemaki, Nobuyuki

    2017-12-01

    We describe for the first time the diagnosis of Schizophyllum commune infection in a captive cheetah. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis was detected histopathologically in a biopsy specimen. Both a second surgical specimen and drainage fluid from a gingival mass and fistula contained fungal hyphae in giant cells with granulomatous inflammation. Allergic S. commune mycosis was suspected at this point. A monokaryotic isolate was characterized morphologically, and then identified genetically. Treatment with itraconazole and pimaricin was effective.

  18. Carbohydrate restricted diet in conjunction with metformin and liraglutide is an effective treatment in patients with deteriorated type 2 diabetes mellitus: Proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Jürgen E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic progressive disease. During the course of the disease intensive treatment is often necessary resulting in multiple interventions including administration of insulin. Although dietary intervention is highly recommended, the clinical results of the widely prescribed diets with low fat content and high carbohydrates are disappointing. In this proof-of-concept study, we tested the effect of dietary carbohydrate-restriction in conjunction with metformin and liraglutide on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Forty patients with type 2 diabetes already being treated with two oral anti-diabetic drugs or insulin treatment and who showed deterioration of their glucose metabolism (i.e. HbA1c >7.5, were treated. A carbohydrate-restricted diet and a combination of metformin and liraglutide were instituted, after stopping either insulin or oral anti-diabetic drugs (excluding metformin. After enrollment, the study patients were scheduled for follow-up visits at one, two, three and six months. Primary outcome was glycemic control, measured by HbA1c at six months. Secondary outcomes were body weight, lipid-profile and treatment satisfaction. Results Thirty-five (88% participants completed the study. Nearly all participating patients experienced a drop in HbA1c and body weight during the first three months, an effect which was maintained until the end of the study at six months. Seventy-one percent of the patients reached HbA1c values below 7.0%. The range of body weight at enrollment was extreme, reaching 165 kg as the highest initial value. The average weight loss after 6 months was 10%. Most patients were satisfied with this treatment. During the intervention no significant change of lipids was observed. Most patients who were on insulin could maintain the treatment without insulin with far better metabolic control. Conclusions Carbohydrate restriction in conjunction with

  19. A Systematic Review on the Use of Psychosocial Interventions in Conjunction With Medications for the Treatment of Opioid Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, Karen; Abraham, Amanda; Seymour, Brittany; McLoyd, Keli; Chalk, Mady; Festinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Opioid use and overdose rates have risen to epidemic levels in the United States during the past decade. Fortunately, there are effective medications (ie, methadone, buprenorphine, and oral and injectable naltrexone) available for the treatment of opioid addiction. Each of these medications is approved for use in conjunction with psychosocial treatment; however, there is a dearth of empirical research on the optimal psychosocial interventions to use with these medications. In this systematic review, we outline and discuss the findings of 3 prominent prior reviews and 27 recent publications of empirical studies on this topic. The most widely studied psychosocial interventions examined in conjunction with medications for opioid addiction were contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy, with the majority focusing on methadone treatment. The results generally support the efficacy of providing psychosocial interventions in combination with medications to treat opioid addictions, although the incremental utility varied across studies, outcomes, medications, and interventions. The review highlights significant gaps in the literature and provides areas for future research. Given the enormity of the current opioid problem in the United States, it is critical to gain a better understanding of the most effective ways to deliver psychosocial treatments in conjunction with these medications to improve the health and well-being of individuals suffering from opioid addiction.

  20. Water banking, conjunctive administration, and drought: The interaction of water markets and prior appropriation in southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanchari; Cobourn, Kelly M.; Elbakidze, Levan

    2014-08-01

    Despite recognition of the potential economic benefits and increasing interest in developing marketing instruments, water markets have remained thin and slow to evolve due to high transactions costs, third party effects, and the persistence of historical institutions for water allocation. Water banks are a marketing instrument that can address these obstacles to trade, allowing irrigators within a region to exchange water in order to mitigate the short-term effects of drought. Water banks coexist with the institutions governing water allocation, which implies that rule changes, such as adoption of a system of conjunctive surface water-groundwater administration, carry implications for the economic impacts of banking. This paper assesses and compares the welfare and distributional outcomes for irrigators in the Eastern Snake River Plain of Idaho under a suite of water management and drought scenarios. We find that water banking can offset irrigators' profit losses during drought, but that its ability to do so depends on whether it facilitates trade across groundwater and surface water users. With conjunctive administration, a bank allowing trade by source realizes 22.23% of the maximum potential efficiency gains from trade during a severe drought, while a bank that allows trade across sources realizes 93.47% of the maximum potential gains. During drought, conjunctive administration redistributes welfare from groundwater to surface water producers, but banking across sources allows groundwater irrigators to recover 88.4% of the profits lost from drought at a cost of 2.2% of the profit earned by surface water irrigators.

  1. Progress test utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vleuten, Cees; Freeman, Adrian; Collares, Carlos Fernando

    2018-04-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of progress testing. A utopia is described where medical schools would work together to develop and administer progress testing. This would lead to a significant reduction of cost, an increase in the quality of measurement and phenomenal feedback to learner and school. Progress testing would also provide more freedom and resources for more creative in-school assessment. It would be an educationally attractive alternative for the creation of cognitive licensing exams. A utopia is always far away in the future, but by formulating a vision for that future we may engage in discussions on how to get there.

  2. Waste management progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    During the Cold War era, when DOE and its predecessor agencies produced nuclear weapons and components, and conducted nuclear research, a variety of wastes were generated (both radioactive and hazardous). DOE now has the task of managing these wastes so that they are not a threat to human health and the environment. This document is the Waste Management Progress Report for the U.S. Department of Energy dated June 1997. This progress report contains a radioactive and hazardous waste inventory and waste management program mission, a section describing progress toward mission completion, mid-year 1997 accomplishments, and the future outlook for waste management

  3. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  4. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now The Progression of Liver ...

  5. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  6. Progress report for '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podest, M.

    1990-08-01

    The 1989 Progress Report presents the most important scientific and technical achievements of the Nuclear Research Institute's research work. Some specialized products prepared at or fabricated by the NRI are mentioned as well. (author). 24 figs., 8 tabs., 101 refs

  7. Progress report, Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This report reviews events and progress in the following areas: development of the TASCC facility; experimental and theoretical nuclear physics research; radionuclide standardization; condensed matter research; applied mathematics; and computer facility operation

  8. Progress for the Paralyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contents Latest Advances Help People Regain Function and Independence Founded in 2000, the National Institute for Biomedical ... More "NIBIB Robotics" Articles Progress for the Paralyzed / College Athlete Stands Again…On His Own! / Coffee to ...

  9. Progress report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Progress report on the meetings and working groups of DAF in 1979, e.g. engineering and industry, public and press, law and administration, business and industry, international cooperation in Europe and with the USA. (GL) [de

  10. Progress report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This progress report of the nuclear physics institute includes five basic subjects: theoretical physics, high energy and intermediate energy physics, nuclear physics, combined research physics and instrumentation (microelectronics, imaging, multidetectors, scintillators,...) [fr

  11. Modeling Progress in AI

    OpenAIRE

    Brundage, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Participants in recent discussions of AI-related issues ranging from intelligence explosion to technological unemployment have made diverse claims about the nature, pace, and drivers of progress in AI. However, these theories are rarely specified in enough detail to enable systematic evaluation of their assumptions or to extrapolate progress quantitatively, as is often done with some success in other technological domains. After reviewing relevant literatures and justifying the need for more ...

  12. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  13. Applications of liquid-based separation in conjunction with mass spectrometry to the analysis of forensic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Mehdi

    2018-03-12

    In the past few years, there has been a significant effort by the forensic science community to develop new scientific techniques for the analysis of forensic evidence. Forensic chemists have been spearheaded to develop information-rich confirmatory technologies and techniques and apply them to a broad array of forensic challenges. The purpose of these confirmatory techniques is to provide alternatives to presumptive techniques that rely on data such as color changes, pattern matching, or retention time alone, which are prone to more false positives. To this end, the application of separation techniques in conjunction with mass spectrometry has played an important role in the analysis of forensic evidence. Moreover, in the past few years the role of liquid separation techniques, such as liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis in conjunction with mass spectrometry, has gained significant tractions and have been applied to a wide range of chemicals, from small molecules such as drugs and explosives, to large molecules such as proteins. For example, proteomics and peptidomics have been used for identification of humans, organs, and bodily fluids. A wide range of HPLC techniques including reversed phase, hydrophilic interaction, mixed-mode, supercritical fluid, multidimensional chromatography, and nanoLC, as well as several modes of capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry, including capillary zone electrophoresis, partial filling, full filling, and micellar electrokenetic chromatography have been applied to the analysis drugs, explosives, and questioned documents. In this article, we review recent (2015-2017) applications of liquid separation in conjunction with mass spectrometry to the analysis of forensic evidence. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Hybrid-optimization algorithm for the management of a conjunctive-use project and well field design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Chia; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hi-Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-management agency in the Warren Groundwater Basin, California, plans to construct a waste water treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the groundwater system. The treated waste water will be reclaimed by recharging the groundwater basin via recharge ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy. HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctive-use strategies for managing imported surface water, reclaimed water, and local groundwater. As formulated, the mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) groundwater-management problem seeks to minimize water-delivery costs subject to constraints including potential locations of the new pumping wells, California State regulations, groundwater-level constraints, water-supply demand, available imported water, and pump/recharge capacities. In this study, a hybrid-optimization algorithm, which couples a genetic algorithm and successive-linear programming, is developed to solve the MINLP problem. The algorithm was tested by comparing results to the enumerative solution for a simplified version of the HDWD groundwater-management problem. The results indicate that the hybrid-optimization algorithm can identify the global optimum. The hybrid-optimization algorithm is then applied to solve a complex groundwater-management problem. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to assess the impact of varying the new recharge pond orientation, varying the mixing ratio of reclaimed water and pumped water, and varying the amount of imported water available. The developed conjunctive management model can provide HDWD water managers with information that will improve their ability to manage their surface water, reclaimed water, and groundwater resources. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Physicians’ Progress Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...... format is uniquely adequate for the pivotal epistemic aspect of cooperative clinical work: the narrative format enables physicians to not only record ‘facts’ but also—by filtering, interpreting, organizing, and qualifying information—to make sense and act concertedly under conditions of uncertainty...

  16. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffoli, A.; Micheletti, E.; Capra, R.; Mattioli, F.; Marciano', N.

    1991-01-01

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  17. Integrated analysis of three bacterial conjunctivitis trials of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%: microbiological eradication outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris TW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy W Morris1, Lynne S Gearinger1, Dale W Usner2, Michael R Paterno2, Heleen H DeCory3, Timothy L Comstock3, Wolfgang Haas11Microbiology and Sterilization Sciences, 2Clinical Affairs, 3Global Pharmaceutical Medical Affairs, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: To assess clinical antimicrobial efficacy results obtained with besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%, administered three times a day (TID for 5 days, integrated across three clinical trials of bacterial conjunctivitis and to investigate any microbiological eradication failures.Methods: Clinical microbiological eradication data from three randomized, double-masked, parallel group studies of patients with bacterial conjunctivitis (two vehicle controlled; one active controlled with moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution, 0.5% were integrated. All bacterial samples isolated at baseline above the species-specific threshold value were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Samples isolated at subsequent visits were subjected to susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE to investigate the cause of eradication failures and the potential for drug resistance development.Results: Visit 2 (day 4 or 5 and visit 3 (day 8 overall microbiological eradication rates were 92.2% and 88.4% for besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension compared with 61.4% and 72.5% for vehicle and 91.6% and 85.7% for moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution. Visit 2 and visit 3 microbiological eradication rates for Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates and for individual species were consistent with the overall eradication rates. The majority of observed eradication failures in any treatment group were due to the persistence of the pathogen isolated at baseline. Eradication failures in the besifloxacin treatment group were not associated with lower antimicrobial susceptibility at baseline. PFGE data showed that the majority of bacterial strains in eyes with eradication failures were identical to

  18. MODFLOW-OWHM v2: New Features and Improvements; The Next Generation of MODFLOW Conjunctive Use Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, S. E.; Hanson, R. T.; Henson, W.; Ferguson, I. M.; Schmid, W.; Reimann, T.; Mehl, S.

    2017-12-01

    The One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (One-Water) is a MODFLOW-based integrated hydrologic flow model designed for the analysis of a broad range of conjunctive-use and sustainability issues. It was motivated by the need to merge the multiple variants of MODFLOW-2005 to yield an enhanced unified version capable of simulating conjunctive use and management, sustainability, climate-related issues, and managing the relationships between groundwater, surface water, and land usage. One-Water links the movement and use of groundwater, surface water, and imported water for consumption by agriculture and natural vegetation on the landscape, and for potable and other uses within a supply-and-demand framework. The first version, released in 2014, was selected by The World Bank Water Resource Software Review in 2016 as one of three recommended simulation programs for conjunctive use and management modeling. One-Water is also being used as the primary simulation engine for FREEWAT, a European Union sponsored open-source water management software environment. The next version of One-Water will include a new surface-water operations module that simulates dynamic reservoir operations and a conduit-flow process for karst aquifers and leaky pipe networks. It will also include enhancements to local grid refinement, and additional features to facilitate easier model updates, faster execution, better error messages, and more integration/cross communication between the traditional MODFLOW packages. The new structure also helps facilitate the new integration into a "Self-Updating" structure of data streams, simulation, and analysis needed for modern water resource management. By retaining and tracking the water within the hydrosphere, One-Water accounts for "all of the water everywhere and all of the time." This philosophy provides more confidence in the water accounting to the scientific community and provides the public a foundation needed to address wider classes of problems. Ultimately

  19. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis concurrent with gingival fistula caused by Schizophyllum commune in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madoka Yoshizawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the diagnosis of Schizophyllum commune infection in a captive cheetah. Eosinophilic plasmacytic conjunctivitis was detected histopathologically in a biopsy specimen. Both a second surgical specimen and drainage fluid from a gingival mass and fistula contained fungal hyphae in giant cells with granulomatous inflammation. Allergic S. commune mycosis was suspected at this point. A monokaryotic isolate was characterized morphologically, and then identified genetically. Treatment with itraconazole and pimaricin was effective. Keywords: Allergic mycosis, Basidiomycosis, Granulomatous inflammation, Felidae, Schizophyllum commune

  20. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  1. Progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupka, A.; Dirninger, G.

    1982-01-01

    The progress report describes the scientific work and research results of the institute for radium research and nuclear physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences for the period of 1981. The progress report covers the subject areas of nuclear theory, nuclear model calculations, experimental nuclear physics and neutron involved reactions, medium energy physics, instrumentation and detectors, evaluation of nuclear data and numerical data processing, dating, applications in medicine, dosimetry and environmental studies. A list of publications of this institute is given. (A.N.)

  2. Annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management [fr

  3. Progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupka, A.; Wild, E.; Dirninger, G.

    1983-01-01

    The progress report describes the scientific work and research results of the institute for radium research and nuclear physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences for the period of 1982. The progress report covers the subject areas of nuclear theory, nuclear model calculations, experimental nuclear physics and neutron involved reactions, medium energy physics, instrumentation and detectors, evaluation of nuclear data and numerical data processing, dating, applications in medicine, dosimetry and environmental studies. A list of publications of this institute is given. (A.N.)

  4. 1985. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information [fr

  5. BARC progress report - 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyane, V L [comp.; Library and Information Services Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1999-04-01

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author) figs., tabs.

  6. BARC progress report - 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyane, V.L.

    1999-04-01

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author)

  7. Internationalisering og progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Tange, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    means that programs can attract students from outside Denmark, and these students often come from different academic backgrounds. To investigate how these changes are affecting the way professors who teach on interdisciplinary international masters programs conceive student progress, we carried out semi...

  8. Progress report of CJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the progress report of the Russian Nuclear Data Center at F.E.I., Obninsk. Evaluations have been made for dosimetry reactions and neutron reactions. Analysis of the spectra and the production cross sections were made. (a.n.)

  9. Progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, H.

    1983-01-01

    This progress report describes the scientific work and research results done by the institute for experimental physics, atom and nuclear physics of the Johannes-Kepler-Universitaet Linz in the period of 1982. The covered subject areas are ionization by cations, investigations of surface areas by light ions, measurement of stopping power in solids, data acquisition and aerosol physics. (A.N.)

  10. Recent progress in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemski, G.

    1980-03-01

    Recent progress in biophysics is reviewed, and three examples of the use of physical techniques and ideas in biological research are given. The first one deals with the oxygen transporting protein-hemoglobin, the second one with photosynthesis, and the third one with image formation, using nuclear magnetic resonance. (Author) [pt

  11. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  12. Scales of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann

    2018-01-01

    What is Goal Attainment Scaling? In this article, Lee Ann Jung defines it as a way to measure a student's progress toward an individualized goal. Instead of measuring a skill at a set time (for instance, on a test or other assignment), Goal Attainment Scaling tracks the steps a student takes over the course of a year in a targeted skill. Together,…

  13. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 2 December 2008, please note that the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, i.e. until 31 March 2010. Further information is available on : https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/prp/prp.asp HR Department, tel. 73903

  14. Progress Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document is the 1994 annual progress report of the CEA-Direction of Waste Management (DGD). It comprises four chapters. The first chapter is a general presentation of radioactive wastes, of the management of liquid effluents, solid wastes, sealed sources, of the relations with the ANDRA (The French Agency for the Management of Radioactive Wastes), and of the research and development studies in progress for the improvement of waste management. The second chapter concerns the spent fuels and their reprocessing, in particular AGR and PWR type reactor fuels, the ''Caramel'' fuel from Osiris reactor and the cover elements from the Rapsodie reactor core. The long time storage of ancient fuels is also discussed. The third chapter concerns the dismantling of decommissioned installations, the actions in progress and the planning of dismantling actions up to the year 2000. Chapter four is devoted to the management of wastes from the Direction of Military Applications (DAM), the actions in progress in the different DAM centers and the cleansing projects at Marcoule plant. (J.S.). 5 figs., 28 tabs., 21 photos., 3 appendix

  15. Progress report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This progress report deals with technical and research work done at the AAEC Research Establishment in the twelve month period ending September 30, 1979. Work done in the following research divisions is reported: Applied Maths and Computing, Chemical Technology, Engineering Research, Environmental Science, Instrumentation and Control, Isotope, Materials and Physics

  16. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  17. Progress in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.; Storm, E.

    1985-10-01

    The requirements for high gain in inertial confinement are given in terms of target implosion requirements. Results of experimental studies of the laser/target interaction and of the dynamics of laser implosion. A report of the progress of advanced laser development is also presented. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Progress report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Studsvik Science Research Laboratory herewith presents its progress report for 1978. The report summarizes the current projects carried out by the research groups working at the laboratory. Projects within the following fields are presented: neutron physics, neutron absorption and scattering, radiation chemistry, radiation damage studies, radioactivity and theoretical studies of condensed matter. (E.R.)

  19. Progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving a brief description of operations of an improvements to the University of Alberta nuclear physics facilities, this report summarizes the principal research programs. These include work on neutron scattering, thorium 232 fission, iodine 123 production. Progress towards the construction of MARIA, the Medical Accelerator Research Institute in Alberta, is described, and research on relativistic heavy ions is summarized

  20. BARC progress report - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyane, V L [comp.; Library and Information Services Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1998-07-01

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author) figs., tabs.

  1. BARC progress report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyane, V.L.

    1998-07-01

    This report is a compilation of the progress in various major activities and Research and Development programmes of the different Divisions of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The list of publications and papers presented at the various conferences, symposia, workshops and papers published in journal by the staff members of the Divisions are also given. (author)

  2. Response: Progress Takes Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Marilee C.

    1984-01-01

    Although declining enrollment and administrative seniority have hampered efforts to eliminate sex discrimination in employment practices in three Long Island, New York, school systems (Commack, Smithtown, and Bay Shore), progress is being made. Because of the Reagan administration's lack of support for affirmative action, however, litigation…

  3. Progressive Web applications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Progressive Web Applications are native-like applications running inside of a browser context. In my presentation I would like describe their characteristics, benchmarks and building process using a quick and simple case study example with focus on Service Workers api.

  4. "Paideia," Progress, Puzzlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrachovec, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Platonic "paideia" is a mainstream concept in traditional philosophy and humanistic circles generally. It is closely connected with social progress brought about by the dynamics of enlightenment and self-fulfillment, symbolized by the allegory of the cave. The main contention of this paper is that the philosophical grammar of this simile…

  5. Are Forecast Updates Progressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMacro-economic forecasts typically involve both a model component, which is replicable, as well as intuition, which is non-replicable. Intuition is expert knowledge possessed by a forecaster. If forecast updates are progressive, forecast updates should become more accurate, on average,

  6. Progress report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This progress report deals with service oriented work performed at the AAEC Research Establishment in the twelve month period ending September 30, 1979. Services provided by the Engineering Services Division, the Safety Department, Site Information Services Department and Commercial Applications are described

  7. Progression og underviserkompetencer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Tortzen Bager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available På baggrund af en kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse af undervisere ved Aarhus Universitet lavet i 2012, tematiserer artiklen, hvordan undervisere udvikler deres faglige og pædagogiske kompetencer i forhold til at kunne skabe progression inden for innovation og entreprenørskab forstået enten som didaktik, arbejdsformer i faglige forløb eller som fag på universitetet. I arbejdet med progression er det en udfordring at integrere de nye faglige dimensioner i det kernefaglige felt. Den seneste model for progression inden for innovation og entreprenør-skab siger, at det er den lærendes generelle erfaringsniveau, der er den afgørende progressionsskabende faktor (Progressionsmodellen, Fonden for Entreprenørskab, 2013b. Samtidig skelner international forskning inden for studiekompetenceområdet mellem niveauer, hvor indlejret viden er det mest avancerede kompetenceniveau (Barrie, 2002.Ifølge progressionsmodellen og den nævnte kompetenceforskning er erfaring og dybt integreret læring altså centrale dimensioner i progression. Men hvad er underviserens rolle heri? Underviserens professionelle udviklingsarbejde forekommer at være underbelyst i forhold til, at underviseren er den legitime garant for integrationen af nye faglige dimensioner og for den studerendes kompetenceniveau. Interviewundersøgelsen forholder sig til spørgsmålet om progression gennem de deltagende underviseres beskrivelse af betydningslag i entreprenørskabsbegrebet koblet til de praksisformer i undervisningen, der knytter sig hertil samt et indblik i undervisernes refleksioner over deres kompetenceudviklingsprocesser. Artiklens bidrag til progression er at se underviserens motivation og kompetenceudvikling som forudsætninger herfor.     Based on a qualitative study of five teachers in the Faculty of Arts at Aarhus University that took place during 2012, the article thematizes how teachers develop their professional and educational qualifications in innovation and

  8. Follicular Conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia felis—Case Report, Review of the Literature and Improved Molecular Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Wons

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman presented with unilateral, chronic follicular conjunctivitis since 6 weeks. While the conjunctival swab taken from the patient’s eye was negative in a Chlamydia (C. trachomatis-specific PCR, C. felis was identified as etiological agent using a pan-Chlamydia TaqMan-PCR followed by sequence analysis. A pet kitten of the patient was found to be the source of infection, as its conjunctival and pharyngeal swabs were also positive for C. felis. The patient was successfully treated with systemic doxycycline. This report, which presents one of the few documented cases of human C. felis infection, illustrates that standard PCR tests are designed to detect the most frequently seen species of a bacterial genus but might fail to be reactive with less common species. We developed a modified pan-Chlamydia/C. felis duplex TaqMan-PCR assay that detects C. felis without the need of subsequent sequencing. The role of chlamydiae-specific serum antibody titers for the diagnosis of follicular conjunctivitis is discussed.

  9. Follicular Conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia felis-Case Report, Review of the Literature and Improved Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wons, Juliana; Meiller, Ralph; Bergua, Antonio; Bogdan, Christian; Geißdörfer, Walter

    2017-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman presented with unilateral, chronic follicular conjunctivitis since 6 weeks. While the conjunctival swab taken from the patient's eye was negative in a Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis -specific PCR, C. felis was identified as etiological agent using a pan- Chlamydia TaqMan-PCR followed by sequence analysis. A pet kitten of the patient was found to be the source of infection, as its conjunctival and pharyngeal swabs were also positive for C. felis . The patient was successfully treated with systemic doxycycline. This report, which presents one of the few documented cases of human C. felis infection, illustrates that standard PCR tests are designed to detect the most frequently seen species of a bacterial genus but might fail to be reactive with less common species. We developed a modified pan- Chlamydia / C. felis duplex TaqMan-PCR assay that detects C. felis without the need of subsequent sequencing. The role of chlamydiae-specific serum antibody titers for the diagnosis of follicular conjunctivitis is discussed.

  10. MESSENGER Spacecraft Phase Scintillation due to Plasma ductting effect on RF beam propagation at Superior Solar Conjunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavi, N.; Sequeira, H.; Copeland, D.; Menyuk, C.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the evolution of a radio frequency (RF) X-band signal as it propagates through the solar corona turbulence in superior solar conjunction at low Sun-Earth-Probe (SEP) angles.Data that was obtained during several MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENivornment, GEochmeisty, and Ranging) conjunctions reveal a short-term and long-term effect. Amplitude scintillation is evident on a short time scale. Phase scintillations are stronger, but occur over a longer time scale. We examine different possible phenomena in the solar plasma that could be the source of the different time scales of the amplitude and phase scintillations. We propose a theoretical model in which the amplitude scintillations are due to local fluctuations of the index of refraction that scatter the RF signal. These rapidly varying fluctuations randomly attenuate the signal without affecting its phase. By contrast, we propose a model in which phase fluctuations are due to long ducts in the solar plasma, streaming from the sun, that trap some parts of the RF signal. These ducts act as waveguides, changing the phase velocity of the RF beam as it travels a zigzag path inside a duct. When the radiated wave exits from a duct, its phase is changed with respect to the signal that did not pass through the duct, which can lead to destructive interference and carrier suppression. The trapping of the wave is random in nature and can be either a fast or slow process. The predictions of this model are consistent with observations.

  11. The conjunction of factors that lead to formation of giant gold provinces and deposits in non-arc settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Groves

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to their province scale similarities, the different giant gold deposit styles show contrasting critical controls at the district to deposit scale. For orogenic gold deposits, the giants appear to have formed by conjunction of a greater number of parameters to those that control smaller deposits, with resultant geometrical and lithostratigraphic complexity as a guide to their location. There are few giant IRGS due to their inferior fluid-flux systems relative to orogenic gold deposits, and those few giants are essentially preservational exceptions. Many Carlin-type deposits are giants due to the exceptional conjunction of both structural and lithological parameters that caused reactive and permeable rocks, enriched in syngenetic gold, to be located below an impermeable cap along antiformal “trends”. Hydrocarbons probably played an important role in concentrating metal. The supergiant Post-Betze deposit has additional ore zones in strain heterogeneities surrounding the pre-gold Goldstrike stock. All unequivocal IOCG deposits are giant or near-giant deposits in terms of gold-equivalent resources, partly due to economic factors for this relatively poorly understood, low Cu-Au grade deposit type. The supergiant Olympic Dam deposit, the most shallowly formed deposit among the larger IOCGs, probably owes its origin to eruption of volatile-rich hybrid magma at surface, with formation of a large maar and intense and widespread brecciation, alteration and Cu-Au-U deposition in a huge rock volume.

  12. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nagata

    Full Text Available Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO, MIF transgenic (Tg and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW pollen or Japanese cedar (JC pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  13. A causal role for V5/MT neurons coding motion-disparity conjunctions in resolving perceptual ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Kristine; Cicmil, Nela; Parker, Andrew J; Cumming, Bruce G

    2013-08-05

    Judgments about the perceptual appearance of visual objects require the combination of multiple parameters, like location, direction, color, speed, and depth. Our understanding of perceptual judgments has been greatly informed by studies of ambiguous figures, which take on different appearances depending upon the brain state of the observer. Here we probe the neural mechanisms hypothesized as responsible for judging the apparent direction of rotation of ambiguous structure from motion (SFM) stimuli. Resolving the rotation direction of SFM cylinders requires the conjoint decoding of direction of motion and binocular depth signals [1, 2]. Within cortical visual area V5/MT of two macaque monkeys, we applied electrical stimulation at sites with consistent multiunit tuning to combinations of binocular depth and direction of motion, while the monkey made perceptual decisions about the rotation of SFM stimuli. For both ambiguous and unambiguous SFM figures, rotation judgments shifted as if we had added a specific conjunction of disparity and motion signals to the stimulus elements. This is the first causal demonstration that the activity of neurons in V5/MT contributes directly to the perception of SFM stimuli and by implication to decoding the specific conjunction of disparity and motion, the two different visual cues whose combination drives the perceptual judgment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integration of Distinct Objects in Visual Working Memory Depends on Strong Objecthood Cues Even for Different-Dimension Conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2016-05-01

    What makes an integrated object in visual working memory (WM)? Past evidence suggested that WM holds all features of multidimensional objects together, but struggles to integrate color-color conjunctions. This difficulty was previously attributed to a challenge in same-dimension integration, but here we argue that it arises from the integration of 2 distinct objects. To test this, we examined the integration of distinct different-dimension features (a colored square and a tilted bar). We monitored the contralateral delay activity, an event-related potential component sensitive to the number of objects in WM. The results indicated that color and orientation belonging to distinct objects in a shared location were not integrated in WM (Experiment 1), even following a common fate Gestalt cue (Experiment 2). These conjunctions were better integrated in a less demanding task (Experiment 3), and in the original WM task, but with a less individuating version of the original stimuli (Experiment 4). Our results identify the critical factor in WM integration at same- versus separate-objects, rather than at same- versus different-dimensions. Compared with the perfect integration of an object's features, the integration of several objects is demanding, and depends on an interaction between the grouping cues and task demands, among other factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Evaluation of keratoconus progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajari, Mehdi; Steinwender, Gernot; Herrmann, Kim; Kubiak, Kate Barbara; Pavlovic, Ivana; Plawetzki, Elena; Schmack, Ingo; Kohnen, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    To define variables for the evaluation of keratoconus progression and to determine cut-off values. In this retrospective cohort study (2010-2016), 265 eyes of 165 patients diagnosed with keratoconus underwent two Scheimpflug measurements (Pentacam) that took place 1 year apart ±3 months. Variables used for keratoconus detection were evaluated for progression and a correlation analysis was performed. By logistic regression analysis, a keratoconus progression index (KPI) was defined. Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed and Youden Index calculated to determine cut-off values. Variables used for keratoconus detection showed a weak correlation with each other (eg, correlation r=0.245 between RPImin and Kmax, pKPI). KPI was defined by logistic regression and consisted of a Pachymin coefficient of -0.78 (p=0.001), a maximum elevation of back surface coefficient of 0.27 and coefficient of corneal curvature at the zone 3 mm away from the thinnest point on the posterior corneal surface of -12.44 (both pKPI: D-index had a cut-off of 0.4175 (70.6% sensitivity) and Youden Index of 0.606. Cut-off for KPI was -0.78196 (84.7% sensitivity) and a Youden Index of 0.747; both 90% specificity. Keratoconus progression should be defined by evaluating parameters that consider several corneal changes; we suggest D-index and KPI to detect progression. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Effect of cromolyn sodium eye drop on the β2-microglobulin (β2-m) content in lachrymal fluid of patients with vernal conjunctivitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guohua; Huo Guoqing; Huang Hong; Rong Tianying; Zhang Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of cromolyn sodium eye drop on the β 2 -m content in lachrymal fluid of patients with acute vernal conjunctivitis. Methods: β 2 -m contents in the lachrymal fluid were measured with RIA in 72 eyes with conjunctivitis treated with cromolyn sodium eye drop for 7-10 days as well as in 50 eyes with conjunctivitis but without cromolyn sodium treatment. Results: The contents of β 2 -m in the lachrymal fluid of patients treated with cromolyn sodium eye drop for 7-10 day (10.68 ± 2. 53mg/L) were significantly lower than those in lachrymal fluid of patients without cromolyn treatment (17.70 ± 13.53mg/L, P 0.05 ). Conclusion: Cromolyn sodium eye drop treatment can lower the lachrymal fluid content of β 2 -m to normal in patients with acute vernal conjunctivitis. (authors)

  17. Deficits in visual search for conjunctions of motion and form after parietal damage but with spared hMT+/V5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Kevin; Lestou, Vaia; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2010-02-01

    It has been argued that area hMT+/V5 in humans acts as a motion filter, enabling targets defined by a conjunction of motion and form to be efficiently selected. We present data indicating that (a) damage to parietal cortex leads to a selective problem in processing motion-form conjunctions, and (b) that the presence of a structurally and functional intact hMT+/V5 is not sufficient for efficient search for motion-form conjunctions. We suggest that, in addition to motion-processing areas (e.g., hMT+/V5), the posterior parietal cortex is necessary for efficient search with motion-form conjunctions, so that damage to either brain region may bring about deficits in search. We discuss the results in terms of the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in the top-down guidance of search or in the binding of motion and form information.

  18. Conjunctions of colour, luminance and orientation: the role of colour and luminance contrast on saliency and proximity grouping in texture segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonards, U; Singer, W

    2000-01-01

    To examine whether perceptual grouping on the basis of orientation can be performed simultaneously with or only subsequently to grouping according to colour or luminance, we tested whether subjects are able to segregate arrays of texture elements that differ from surrounding elements by conjunctions of either (i) colour and orientation, or (ii) luminance contrast and orientation, or (iii) luminance contrast polarity and orientation. Subjects were able to use conjunctions between luminance and orientation for segregation but not conjunctions between colour or contrast polarity and orientation. Our results suggest that (i) in agreement with earlier findings, there seem to exist no specific conjunction detectors for colour and orientation or contrast polarity and orientation, and (ii) when orientation defined textures are to be distinguished by virtue of differences in luminance, colour, or contrast polarity, luminance provides a much stronger cue than colour or contrast polarity for saliency-based orientation grouping.

  19. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  20. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Fábio Henrique de Gobbi; Machado, Gislaine Cristina Lopes; Morillo, Lilian Schafirovits; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2010-01-01

    Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD) is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal) and ventral (occipito-temporal) pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction), complete Balint’s syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right. Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD. PMID:29213665

  1. ISABELLE: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the ISABELLE project, which has the objective of constructing a high-energy proton colliding beam facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major technical features of the intersecting storage accelerators with their projected performance are described. Application of over 1000 superconducting magnets in the two rings represents the salient characteristic of the machine. The status of the entire project, the technical progress made so far, and difficulties encountered are reviewed.

  2. ISABELLE: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the ISABELLE project, which has the objective of constructing a high-energy proton colliding beam facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major technical features of the intersecting storage accelerators with their projected performance are described. Application of over 1000 superconducting magnets in the two rings represents the salient characteristic of the machine. The status of the entire project, the technical progress made so far, and difficulties encountered are reviewed

  3. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2009-01-01

    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  4. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2008-01-01

    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  5. Recent progress in microcalorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, E; Skinner, H A

    2013-01-01

    Recent Progress in Microcalorimetry focuses on the methodologies, processes, and approaches involved in microcalorimetry, as well as heat flow, temperature constancy, and chemistry of alumina and cements.The selection first offers information on the different types of calorimeters; measurement of the heat flow between the calorimeter and jacket boundaries by means of a thermoelectric pile; and constructional details of the microcalorimeter. Discussions focus on classification of calorimeters, use of thermoelectric piles as thermometers, correct measurement of heat flow from a calorimeter conta

  6. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  7. Progress in nanophotonics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and security systems. It begins with a review of the concept of dressed photons and applications to devices, fabrication, and systems; principles and applications. Further topics include: DNA process for quantum dot chain, photon enhanced emission microscopy, near field spectroscopy of metallic nanostructure, self-organized fabrication of composite semiconductor quantum dots, formation of metallic nanostructure, and nanophotonic information systems with

  8. Three year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: x-ray and uv effects in photosynthetic organisms; effects of alcohols and oxygen concentration on transforming DNA; free radical studies; sensitization by metal ions; role of the solvated electron in radiation damage to cells; effectiveness of organic and inorganic compounds in sensitizing bacterial spores to high energy radiation; oxygen effects; radiosensitivity of enzyme systems in Chlorella; and effects of pre-irradiation of solutions on spores

  9. Participation of CD11b and F4/80 molecules in the conjunctival eosinophilia of experimental allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsuki; Ishida, Waka; Ojima, Ayako; Kajisako, Mina; Sumi, Tamaki; Yamada, Jun; Tsuru, Emi; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Tominaga, Akira; Yagita, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    CD11b and F4/80 are macrophage surface markers. How these molecules participate in allergic eosinophil infiltration remains unclear. We examined the roles CD11b and F4/80 play in the conjunctival eosinophil infiltration associated with experimental allergic conjunctivitis. Ragweed-immunized BALB/c mice were challenged with ragweed in eye drops to induce conjunctival eosinophil infiltration. The effect of challenge on conjunctival CD11b+ and F4/80+ cell numbers was determined by immunohistochemistry. In the same model, blocking anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Abs were injected intraperitoneally during the induction or the effector phase, or subconjunctivally 2 h before challenge, to determine their effect on challenge-induced conjunctival eosinophilia. To examine whether eosinophils express CD11b and F4/80 molecules, splenocytes from IL-5 gene-electroporated mice were subjected to flow cytometric analysis. To clarify the involvement of CD11b and F4/80 in conjunctival eosinophil infiltration, mice were intraperitoneally injected with anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Abs and then subconjunctivally injected with eotaxin to induce conjunctival eosinophilia. Ragweed challenge elevated conjunctival CD11b+ and F4/80+ cell numbers. Systemic anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Ab treatments during the effector phase, but not in either the induction phase or the local injection of Ab, suppressed conjunctival eosinophil infiltration in ragweed-induced conjunctivitis. Most splenic eosinophils from IL-5 gene-introduced mice expressed CD11b and F4/80. Systemic anti-CD11b and anti-F4/80 Ab treatment suppressed conjunctival eosinophilia induced by subconjunctival eotaxin injection. CD11b and F4/80 appear to participate in conjunctival eosinophil infiltration in allergic conjunctivitis. Their involvement in conjunctival eosinophilia appears to be due to their expression on eosinophils rather than on macrophages. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Multi-objective analysis of the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in a multisource water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, João; da Conceição Cunha, Maria

    2017-04-01

    A multi-objective decision model has been developed to identify the Pareto-optimal set of management alternatives for the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater of a multisource urban water supply system. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, Borg MOEA, is used to solve the multi-objective decision model. The multiple solutions can be shown to stakeholders allowing them to choose their own solutions depending on their preferences. The multisource urban water supply system studied here is dependent on surface water and groundwater and located in the Algarve region, southernmost province of Portugal, with a typical warm Mediterranean climate. The rainfall is low, intermittent and concentrated in a short winter, followed by a long and dry period. A base population of 450 000 inhabitants and visits by more than 13 million tourists per year, mostly in summertime, turns water management critical and challenging. Previous studies on single objective optimization after aggregating multiple objectives together have already concluded that only an integrated and interannual water resources management perspective can be efficient for water resource allocation in this drought prone region. A simulation model of the multisource urban water supply system using mathematical functions to represent the water balance in the surface reservoirs, the groundwater flow in the aquifers, and the water transport in the distribution network with explicit representation of water quality is coupled with Borg MOEA. The multi-objective problem formulation includes five objectives. Two objective evaluate separately the water quantity and the water quality supplied for the urban use in a finite time horizon, one objective calculates the operating costs, and two objectives appraise the state of the two water sources - the storage in the surface reservoir and the piezometric levels in aquifer - at the end of the time horizon. The decision variables are the volume of withdrawals from

  11. Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mampaey, S.; De Schepper, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.; Boven, K.; Hul, W. van

    2000-01-01

    A rare case of progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) in a 9-year-old girl is presented. Clinically, chronic painless swollen joints, accompanied by progressive motion restriction and progressive walking difficulties, were found. Radiologically, there was enlargement of the epimetaphyseal portions of the large joints, metacarpal heads, and phalanges, and generalized platyspondyly with irregular delineation of the endplates of the vertebral bodies. The radioclinical features at the peripheral joints were originally misdiagnosed as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and the structural spinal abnormalities were neglected and interpreted as Scheuermann's disease. However, the absence of active inflammatory parameters argues against JRA, whereas the low age of onset of the irregularities at the vertebral endplates is an argument against the diagnosis of Scheuermann's disease. The combination of the dysplastic abnormalities of the spine, with platyspondyly and Scheuermann-like lesions at an unusually low age of onset, and radiological features mimicking JRA of the peripheral joints, is the clue to the diagnosis of this rare autosomal-recessive disease. This case is the first to document the MRI features of PPD of the spine. (orig.)

  12. [Requests for compensation for immaterial damage: child and adolescent psychiatric legal assessment in conjunction with the revised legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinius, J

    1995-03-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatry is concerned with many forensic questions. Among these, expert testimony about immaterial injury (pain, suffering) in conjunction with claims for compensation is being requested with increasing frequency. Until recently German law took the position that in cases of severe brain damage compensation (smart money) had to be granted only as a symbolic payment because the loss of cognition and lack of suffering excluded a feeling of satisfaction resulting from compensation. The highest court in Germany has now revised its position by introducing a new category of immaterial injury. This additional category refers to cases of severe brain damage where the "loss of personal quality" in itself creates the basis for a claim for compensation. As a result, related medical examinations and evaluations require as careful a description as possible and the use of scales to assess quality of life.

  13. Safety of sublingual immunotherapy Timothy grass tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis and history of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maloney, J; Durham, S; Skoner, D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma may be more susceptible to adverse events (AEs) with sublingual immunotherapy tablet (SLIT-tablet) treatment, such as severe systemic reactions and asthma-related events. Using data from eight trials of grass SLIT-tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with....../without conjunctivitis (AR/C), AE frequencies were determined in adults and children with and without reported asthma. METHODS: Data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of Timothy grass SLIT-tablet MK-7243 (2800 BAU/75 000 SQ-T, Merck/ALK-Abelló) were pooled for post hoc analyses. Subjects...... with asthma treated with grass SLIT-tablet versus subjects without asthma in or outside of pollen season. There were 6/120 asthma-related TRAEs assessed as severe with grass SLIT-tablet and 2/60 with placebo, without a consistent trend among subjects with and without asthma (5 and 3 events, respectively...

  14. Theoretical study on the mechanics of the conjunct gnatoprothetic devices in the context of occlusive function rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M R; Trană, F; Manolea, H; Rauten, Ane-Marie; Șurlin, Petra; Dragomir, L P

    2014-01-01

    The partially intercalated edentation offers the practitioner the possibility of the functional rehabilitation of the dental arcades through conjunct gnato-prosthetic devices. The functions of the dento-maxilar device, disturbed by the presence of edentation, require a treatment approach so that, without pre-planning or estimating, the result can lead most of the times to failure in terms of functionality. Clinical evaluation associated with pre- and proprosthetic treatment can also impose, in some situations the evaluation of the dental units involved in prosthetic rehabilitation. The association and implementation of the prosthetic construction in the occlusive-articular ensemble, as well as the counterbalancing of the mastication forces per dental unit and whole interarch system, linked to the distribution of the forces at the level of the pillar teeth and prosthetic construction, represent the goal of this theoretical study.

  15. Evaluation of novel scoring system named 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scoring system using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). Subjects were 103 patients with ACD including 40 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 20 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and 43 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale consists of the following 3 graded groups of clinical observations: the 100-point-grade group (100 points for each observation) includes active giant papillae, gelatinous infiltrates of the limbus, exfoliative epithelial keratopathy, shield ulcer and papillary proliferation at lower palpebral conjunctiva; the 10-point-grade group (10 points for each observation) includes blepharitis, papillary proliferation with velvety appearance, Horner-Trantas spots, edema of bulbal conjunctiva, and superficial punctate keratopathy; and the 1-point-grade group (1 point for each observation) includes papillae at upper palpebral conjunctiva, follicular lesion at lower palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of bulbal conjunctiva, and lacrimal effusion. The total points in each grade group were determined as the severity score of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. The median severity scores of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale in VKC, AKC and AC were 243 (range: 12-444), 32.5 (11-344), and 13 (2-33), respectively. The severity score of each ACD disease type was significantly different (P Kruskal-Wallis test). The severity of each type of ACD was classified as severe, moderate, or mild according to the severity score. The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale is a useful clinical tool for grading the severity of each type of ACD.

  16. Geosciences Information for Teachers (GIFT) Workshops held in Conjunction with Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) EGU Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, Carlo; Cifelli, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    The Alexander von Humboldt Conference Series of the European Geosciences Union are a series of meetings held outside of Europe, in particular in South America, Africa or Asia, on selected topics of geosciences with a socio-economic impact for regions on these continents, jointly organised with the scientists and their institutes and the institutions of these regions. Given the increasing success of the GIFT workshops held in conjunction with the General Assemblies, since 2010 EGU has also developed a series of GIFT workshops held in conjunction with AvH conferences. Associated GIFT workshops were held in Merida, Yucatan, on the theme of Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Societies (March 2010), then in Penang, Malaysia (June 2011) on the theme of Ocean Acidification, in November 2012 in Cusco (Peru) on the theme of Natural Disasters, Global Change and the Preservation of World Heritage Sites, finally in Istanbul (March 2014) on "High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The next GIFT workshop is already planned for October 2015 in Adis Ababa (Ethiopia) on the theme "Water". In each case, the GIFT workshop was held on the last two days of the AvH conference and reunited 40-45 teachers from the nation where the AvH was held. Keynote speakers from AvH were speakers to the GIFT workshops which also included hands-on activities animated by sciences educators. These GIFT workshops represented the first workshops specifically aimed at teachers held in the country, and therefore represents a significant Earth Sciences contribution to secondary education in non European countries.

  17. Hybrid-optimization algorithm for the management of a conjunctive-use project and well field design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Chia; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hi-Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-management agency in the Warren Groundwater Basin, California, plans to construct a waste water treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the groundwater system. The treated waste water will be reclaimed by recharging the groundwater basin via recharge ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy. HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctiveuse strategies for managing imported surface water, reclaimed water, and local groundwater. As formulated, the mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) groundwater-management problem seeks to minimize water delivery costs subject to constraints including potential locations of the new pumping wells, California State regulations, groundwater-level constraints, water-supply demand, available imported water, and pump/recharge capacities. In this study, a hybrid-optimization algorithm, which couples a genetic algorithm and successive-linear programming, is developed to solve the MINLP problem. The algorithm was tested by comparing results to the enumerative solution for a simplified version of the HDWD groundwater-management problem. The results indicate that the hybrid-optimization algorithm can identify the global optimum. The hybrid-optimization algorithm is then applied to solve a complex groundwater-management problem. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to assess the impact of varying the new recharge pond orientation, varying the mixing ratio of reclaimed water and pumped water, and varying the amount of imported water available. The developed conjunctive management model can provide HDWD water managers with information that will improve their ability to manage their surface water, reclaimed water, and groundwater resources.

  18. Multiple aspects of high school students' strategic processing on reading outcomes: The role of quantity, quality, and conjunctive strategy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Meghan M; Dinsmore, Daniel L

    2018-03-01

    While the literature on strategy use is relatively mature, measures of strategy use overwhelmingly measure only one aspect of that use, frequency, when relating that strategy use to performance outcomes. While this might be one important attribute of strategy use, there is increasing evidence that quality and conditional use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies may also be important. This study examines how multiple aspects of strategy use, namely frequency, quality, and conjunctive use of strategies, influence task performance on both well- and ill-structured task outcomes in addition to other concomitant variables that may interact with strategic processing during reading. The sample consisted of 21 high school students enrolled in an upper-level biology class in a suburban school in the north-eastern United States. These participants completed measures of prior knowledge and interest, then read either an expository or persuasive text while thinking aloud. They then completed a passage recall and open-ended response following passage completion. In general, quantity was not positively related to the study outcomes and was negatively related to one of them. Quality of strategy use, on the other hand, was consistently related to positive reading outcomes. The influence of knowledge and interest in terms of strategies is also discussed as well as six cases which illustrate the relation of aspects of strategy use and the other concomitant variables. Evaluating strategy use by solely examining the frequency of strategy use did not explain differences in task performance as well as evaluating the quality and conjunctive use of strategies. Further, important relations between prior knowledge, interest, and the task outcomes appeared to be mediated and moderated by the aspects of strategy use investigated. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Illusory conjunctions in visual short-term memory: Individual differences in corpus callosum connectivity and splitting attention between the two hemifields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuo; Ray, Nicholas R; Ramakrishnan, Nithya; Nashiro, Kaoru; O'Connell, Margaret A; Basak, Chandramallika

    2016-11-01

    Overloading the capacity of visual attention can result in mistakenly combining the various features of an object, that is, illusory conjunctions. We hypothesize that if the two hemispheres separately process visual information by splitting attention, connectivity of corpus callosum-a brain structure integrating the two hemispheres-would predict the degree of illusory conjunctions. In the current study, we assessed two types of illusory conjunctions using a memory-scanning paradigm; the features were either presented across the two opposite hemifields or within the same hemifield. Four objects, each with two visual features, were briefly presented together followed by a probe-recognition and a confidence rating for the recognition accuracy. MRI scans were also obtained. Results indicated that successful recollection during probe recognition was better for across hemifields conjunctions compared to within hemifield conjunctions, lending support to the bilateral advantage of the two hemispheres in visual short-term memory. Age-related differences regarding the underlying mechanisms of the bilateral advantage indicated greater reliance on recollection-based processing in young and on familiarity-based processing in old. Moreover, the integrity of the posterior corpus callosum was more predictive of opposite hemifield illusory conjunctions compared to within hemifield illusory conjunctions, even after controlling for age. That is, individuals with lesser posterior corpus callosum connectivity had better recognition for objects when their features were recombined from the opposite hemifields than from the same hemifield. This study is the first to investigate the role of the corpus callosum in splitting attention between versus within hemifields. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. ARGUS progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darden, C.W. III.

    1982-01-01

    On September 7th, 1982, following four years of planning and construction, the magnetic solenoid detector ARGUS was moved into one of the two interaction regions of the electron-positron storage ring DORIS. A month later the ring started delivering luminosity for physics research, specifically, the study of the formation and decay of members of the Upsilon family of mesons. These mesons are bound states, b anti b, of the heaviest of the five known quarks and therefore of considerable interest. This report describes the progress made during the year from March 1982 to March 1983 with emphasis on the experience gained during the first running period

  1. HSX progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Brief statements on the progress of the design and construction of the HSX experiment are reported. Topics covered include the modular and auxiliary coil systems, the coil support structure, vacuum vessel, the ECH system, the magnet power supply and site. The proposed budget for Year 2 (August 1, 1994 through July 31, 1995) is presented. The effects of a flat funding profile (based on Year 2 budget level of $1137K) on out-years and the HSX project schedule are discussed. The stretching out of the program to accommodate the reduced funding profile should result in only a slight delay in HSX operations

  2. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    1977-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  3. [Research progress on fascioliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Cheng, Na; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Xue-Nian

    2013-06-01

    Fascioliasis is an important zoonosis caused by Fasciola spp. It can cause pathological damages to human liver and gallbladder, as well as economic loss in animal husbandry. Fascioliasis can be easily misdiagnosed with other hepatobiliary diseases. The appearance of resistance to triclabendazole is an issue problem for fascioliasis control. Therefore, research for better diagnostic methods, effective drugs and vaccines become to the focus of fascioliasis control. This article summarizes the progress on epidemiological status, diagnostic method, therapy, drug resistance, vaccine and omics of fascioliasis.

  4. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, B. Utkin

    2011-10-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type.

  5. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utkin, Andrei B.

    2011-01-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. TASCC Division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    The TASCC (Tandem Accelerator-Superconducting Cyclotron) facility is devoted to developing and providing beams for an experimental program of basic nuclear research. Beam was on target for 2901 hours during the period of interest. The cyclotron provided beam for 524 hours, and tandem beams were used for a total of 3940 hours. The most exciting experimental result was the first evidence of a rotational band with the characteristics of hyperdeformation: a ridge-valley structure in 152 Dy. This progress report details experimental results and instrumentation and facility development over the period. (L.L.) (refs., tabs., figs.)

  7. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2006-01-01

    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  8. Progress in nanophotonics 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsu, Motoichi (ed.) [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2011-07-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology, and security systems. It begins with a review of the concept of dressed photons and applications to devices, fabrication, and systems; principles and applications. Further topics include: DNA process for quantum dot chain, photon enhanced emission microscopy, near field spectroscopy of metallic nanostructure, self-organized fabrication of composite semiconductor quantum dots, formation of metallic nanostructure, and nanophotonic information systems with security. These topics are reviewed by seven leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics. (orig.)

  9. Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia misdiagnosed as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia misdiagnosed as seronegative juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ozgur Taspinar, Fatih Kelesoglu, Yasar Keskin, Murat Uludag. Abstract. Background: Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) is a rare spondylo- epi-metaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD). It can be confused with juvenile ...

  10. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or child care if you're not able to take time off — just stay consistent in practicing good hygiene. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in the mother's birth canal. ...

  11. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto; Bando, Mitsuaki.

    1991-01-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.)

  12. Progress in computational toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods have been widely applied to toxicology across pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental fields over the past decade. Progress in computational toxicology is now reviewed. A literature review was performed on computational models for hepatotoxicity (e.g. for drug-induced liver injury (DILI)), cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity and genotoxicity. In addition various publications have been highlighted that use machine learning methods. Several computational toxicology model datasets from past publications were used to compare Bayesian and Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning methods. The increasing amounts of data for defined toxicology endpoints have enabled machine learning models that have been increasingly used for predictions. It is shown that across many different models Bayesian and SVM perform similarly based on cross validation data. Considerable progress has been made in computational toxicology in a decade in both model development and availability of larger scale or 'big data' models. The future efforts in toxicology data generation will likely provide us with hundreds of thousands of compounds that are readily accessible for machine learning models. These models will cover relevant chemistry space for pharmaceutical, consumer product and environmental applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russek, A.

    1975-06-01

    Progress has been made in calculation of cross-sections for dielectronic and radiative recombination when hot electrons are incident on partially stripped impurity ions. Calculations were completed for the cases of 1 keV and 10 keV electrons incident on ions of arbitrary Z with ionization state consistent with a 1 keV plasma temperature. It was found that dielectronic recombination dominates radiative recombination by a factor of 100 at 1 keV incident electron energy to a factor of 1000 at 10 keV incident electron energy. The work is now being extended to other plasma temperatures and is being improved by more accurate calculation of the matrix elements involved. Progress was also made in the calculation of accurate bremsstrahlung and higher order radiative processes which also occur when hot electrons are incident on partially stripped impurity ions. Formal expressions for the matrix elements have been obtained for cross-sections in a fully relativistic partial wave analysis for bremsstrahlung radiation both with and without electron excitation of the target ion. Final evaluation now awaits the evaluation of the relativistic radial integrals involved in these matrix elements. (U.S.)

  14. Ghrelin and cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Chieh; Hsiao, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Ghrelin is a small peptide with 28 amino acids, and has been characterized as the ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). In addition to its original function in stimulating pituitary growth hormone release, ghrelin is multifunctional and plays a role in the regulation of energy balance, gastric acid release, appetite, insulin secretion, gastric motility and the turnover of gastric and intestinal mucosa. The discovery of ghrelin and GHSR expression beyond normal tissues suggests its role other than physiological function. Emerging evidences have revealed ghrelin's function in regulating several processes related to cancer progression, especially in metastasis and proliferation. We further show the relative GHRL and GHSR expression in pan-cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), suggesting the potential pathological role of the axis in cancers. This review focuses on ghrelin's biological function in cancer progression, and reveals its clinical significance especially the impact on cancer patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Annual progress report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The technical support activities of the IPSN to competent administrations in 1980 has been marked: namely by the authorizations of divergence for 9 units EdF-PWR of 900 MW, the authorization project of creation and extension of reprocessing plant of COGEMA at the Hague UP 2 -800 and the authorization of starting up of the third unit of production of the EURODIF enrichment plant at Tricastin. On the other hand, IPSN has participated at the elaboration of a certain number of legislative and regulation texts relative to the control of nuclear matter, to radioprotection standards and to criteria of safety. For the safety of breeder, the test made at CABRI pile, in the international research program has given confirmation of the validity of theoretical models used in accidents calculations, hypothetical accidents which has allowed to reactualize safety criteria which have to be used for the development of this type of reactor. In worker radioprotection the results obtained in laboratory on the effect of radon, the progress made in personal dosimetry and the action of radioprotection undertaken in uranium mines constitutes a coherent effort. The deep drilling in granit (1000 m) and the experimental associated program which has finished the indispensable scientific data for the future policy in matter of storage of radioactives wastes. IPSN has contributed to progress made in the rules of exploitation of reactors, in the definition of wastes containment -specially at the output of reprocessing plant- in handling machines in hazardeous areas and in the study of environment [fr

  16. Association for Progressive Communication : Institutional ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Monitoring Progress Toward the Information Society : Digital Divide Index. Orbicom's Digital Divide Index is a rigorous statistical tool for benchmarking access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT), and monitoring progress toward the... View moreMonitoring Progress Toward the Information ...

  17. The effect of footwear adapted with a multi-curved rocker sole in conjunction with knee-ankle-foot orthoses on walking in poliomyelitis subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojaver, Ali; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Aminian, Gholamreza; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Sharifi, Guive; Sherafatvaziri, Arash

    2017-10-01

    Knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFOs) are used by people with poliomyelitis to ambulate. Whist advances in orthotic knee joint designs for use in KAFOs such the provision of stance control capability have proven efficacy, little attention has been paid to shoe adaptations which may also improve gait. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alteration to the kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters of gait caused by the use of heel-to-toe rocker-soled footwear when ambulating with KAFOs. Nine adults with a history of poliomyelitis who routinely wore KAFOs participated in the study. A heel-to-toe rocker sole was added to footwear and worn on the affected side. A three-dimensional motion capture system was used to quantify the resulting alteration to specific gait parameters. Maximum hip joint extension was significantly increased (p = 0.011), and hip abduction and adduction were both significantly reduced (p = 0.011 and p = 0.007, respectively) when walking with the rocker sole. A significant increase in stride length (p = 0.035) was demonstrated but there were no significant increases in either walking speed or cadence. A heel-to-toe rocker sole adaptation may be useful for walking in patients with poliomyelitis who use KAFOs. Implications for Rehabilitation The poor functionality and difficulty in walking when using an orthotic device such as a KAFO which keeps the knee locked during ambulation, plus the significant energy required to walk, are complications of orthoses using. Little evidence exists regarding the biomechanical effect of walking with a KAFO incorporating fixed knee joints, in conjunction with rocker-soled footwear. The main aim of walking with a heel-to-toe rocker sole is to facilitate forward progression of the tibia when used with an AFO or KAFO or to provide easier walking for patients who have undergone an ankle arthrodesis. In this study, a rocker sole profile adaptation produced no significant alteration to hip joint flexion

  18. [A preliminary study on the role of substance P in histamine-nasal-spray-induced allergic conjunctivitis in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Zhao, Changqing

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of the non adrenergic non cholinergic nerve (NANC) and substance P (SP) in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis by observing histamine nasal provocation induced conjunctivitis in guinea pigs. Forty male guinea pigs were randomly divided into five groups with each group consisting of eight guinea pigs. All anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed either to histamine (0.2%, 5 µl) (group B~E) or saline (5 µl, group A) via unilateral nostril. No pretreatment was done in group A and B while pretreatment was done in groups C~E through injection into the unilateral common carotid artery with cholinergic nerve inhibitor (atropine, 1 mg/kg, group C), cholinergic nerve inhibitor plus adrenergic nerve inhibitors (atropine, 1 mg/kg, phentolamine, 1 mg/kg plus Esmolol, 1 mg/kg, group D) and cholinergic nerve inhibitor, adrenergic nerve inhibitors plus SP receptor antagonist (the same treatment with group D plus D-SP 10(-6) mol/L, 1 µl/g, group E), respectively. To assess the ipsilateral conjunctival inflammatory reaction, conjunctiva leakage with Evans blue dye assessments and HE staining of conjunctival tissues were performed. The SP expression in ipsilateral conjunctival tissue in different groups of guinea pigs were assessed by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. The activity of eosinophils was assessed by eosinophil major basic protein 1 (MBP1) with RT-PCR, meanwhile, the activity of mast cells was assessed by tryptase with RT-PCR. SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. At 30 min after nasal application of histamine, ipsilateral conjunctivitis was successfully induced as shown by the change of conjunctiva leakage and histology. The content of Evans blue in ipsilateral conjunctival tissue of group A~E was (13.78 ± 2.48), (29.62 ± 3.31), (19.03 ± 1.47), (18.42 ± 2.52), (14.83 ± 2.14) µg/ml, respectively. There was statistically significant difference between group A and B (t = -10.66, P 0.05). Histamine nasal provocation induced allergic

  19. Visual search for feature conjunctions: an fMRI study comparing alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) to ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Conaill, Carrie R; Malisza, Krisztina L; Buss, Joan L; Bolster, R Bruce; Clancy, Christine; de Gervai, Patricia Dreessen; Chudley, Albert E; Longstaffe, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) falls under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Diagnosis of ARND is difficult because individuals do not demonstrate the characteristic facial features associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). While attentional problems in ARND are similar to those found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the underlying impairment in attention pathways may be different. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted at 3 T. Sixty-three children aged 10 to 14 years diagnosed with ARND, ADHD, and typically developing (TD) controls performed a single-feature and a feature-conjunction visual search task. Dorsal and ventral attention pathways were activated during both attention tasks in all groups. Significantly greater activation was observed in ARND subjects during a single-feature search as compared to TD and ADHD groups, suggesting ARND subjects require greater neural recruitment to perform this simple task. ARND subjects appear unable to effectively use the very efficient automatic perceptual 'pop-out' mechanism employed by TD and ADHD groups during presentation of the disjunction array. By comparison, activation was lower in ARND compared to TD and ADHD subjects during the more difficult conjunction search task as compared to the single-feature search. Analysis of DTI data using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) showed areas of significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in ARND compared to TD subjects. Damage to the white matter of the ILF may compromise the ventral attention pathway and may require subjects to use the dorsal attention pathway, which is associated with effortful top-down processing, for tasks that should be automatic. Decreased functional activity in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of ARND subjects may be due to a

  20. Progress report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The O.P.R.I. is in charge of environmental general surveillance and follow-up of natural exposures; To monitor the nuclear installations, it carries out samples campaigns. The technical follow-up of medical installations concerns it too. The workers radiation protection as well as the public protection are in its attributions. We find in particular, three sanitary studies: about the North Cotentin, (the question of excess of leukemia or not, and due or not to the facility of La hague) Nogent-sur-Marne (the case of a nursery school built on a old factory using radium), and the situation of populations living in French Polynesia, areas that have worried the public with alarmist announcements published in newspapers. All the results relative to the radiations measurements for 1998 appear in this progress report. (N.C.)

  1. Progress report 1981 - 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, G.; Rauch, H.; Balcar, E.; Buchtela, K.; Schwertfuehrer, W.; Vana, N.

    1984-06-01

    This progress report describes the research activities of the Atom-institute of the Austrian Universities of the period 1981-1983. The chapter headings are: (1) Electron- and X-ray physics, thermoluminescence and archeometry. (2) Nuclear physics. (3) Nuclear techniques, electronics and EDP. (4) Neutron- and solid state physics with neutron scattering, low temperature physics, theoretical solid state physics and preparation technique. (5) Radiation chemistry. (6) Radiation protection and dosimetry. Each chapter gives a comprimated overview about the research work done in the described period, illustrated by diagrams and tables, a comprehensive list of publications, each citation provided with an (mostly English) Abstract and a comprehensive list of thesis, which are completed or under preparation in the corresponding working group. Additional chapters give lists of educational work, verbal presentation, cooperations with other institutions and personnel. An annex of photos gives an additional impression of the institute. (A.N.)

  2. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  3. Progressive amusia and aprosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confavreux, C; Croisile, B; Garassus, P; Aimard, G; Trillet, M

    1992-09-01

    We report a case of slowly progressive amusia and aprosody in association with orofacial and eyelid apraxias. The patient was independent in daily living activities. Insight, judgment, and behavior were intact. Her language was normal, and she demonstrated no limb, dressing, or constructional apraxia. She had no prosopagnosia, no visuospatial disturbances, and no memory impairment. Imaging studies (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography) indicated a selective disorder of the right frontal and temporal regions. Review of the literature shows an increasing number of reports of this degenerative syndrome affecting the left dominant hemisphere and language areas, whereas cases of the syndrome affecting the right hemisphere are rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which aprosody and amusia were associated with a focal cortical degeneration.

  4. 1985. Progress annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    Tore Supra construction has been vigorously continued. The whole cryogenic system has been entirely delivered. On TFR priority has been given to electron cyclotron resonance heating; but also neutral heating mechanisms, pellet injection, plasma-wall interaction in the presence of pumped limiter, impurity transport and plasma turbulence have been studied and progress on diagnostics have been made. On Petula, with lower hybrid wave, the numerous results on ion heating, current drive, plasma stability in the presence of non-inductive current and on Tore Supra technical problems are important. At last, theoretical and numerical results are concerned with plasma equilibrium macroscopic evolution of plasma, RF heating, plasma instabilities, magnetic islands, turbulence, transport coefficients and spectroscopy [fr

  5. Vivitron - Progress report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 activity report of the Strasbourg Nuclear Research, concerning the Vivitron project, is presented. After having mounted all the Van de Graaff elements of the Vivitron needed for the generator tests, the tank was closed in July 1990. It was then put under vacuum, leaks were searched for and repaired. Voltage tests started in December and a voltage of 17.6 MV was reached in February. Modifications on the charging system and to improvement of the column protection against sparks are necessary before the voltage tests can be carried on. Great progress has been made in the setting up of the new Vivitron injector and analysing magnet. In this report are included the description of project different development steps, the Vivitron budget and the list of publications, congress contributions and internal reports. 18 figs

  6. Progressive brain compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuomas, K.AA.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Vlajkovic, S.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Ganz, J.C.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Nilsson, P.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Bergstroem, K.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Ponten, U.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Zwetnow, N.N.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo

    1993-01-01

    Continuous recording of vital physiological variables and sequential MR imaging were performed simultaneously during continuous expansion of an epidural rubber balloon over the left hemisphere in anaesthetised dogs. Balloon expansion led to a progressive and slgithly nonlinear rise in intracranial CSF pressures and a full in local perfusion pressures. Changes in systemic arterial pressure, pulse rate, and respiration rate usually appeared at a balloon volume of 4% to 5% of the intracranial volume (reaction volume), together with a marked transtentorial pressure gradient and MR imaging changes consistent with tentorial herniation. Respiratory arrest occurred at a balloon volume of approximately 10% of the intracranial volume (apnoea volume), which was associated with occulsion of the cisterna magna, consistent with some degree of foramen magnum herniation. Increase in tissue water was observed beginning at approximately the reaction volume, presumably due to ischaemic oedema, due to the fall in perfusion pressures. (orig.)

  7. Muon collider progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Robert J. FNAL

    1998-08-01

    Recent progress in the study of muon colliders is presented. An international collaboration consisting of over 100 individuals is involved in calculations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this new type of lepton collider. Theoretical efforts are now concentrated on low-energy colliders in the 100 to 500 GeV center-of-mass energy range. Credible machine designs are emerging for much of a hypothetical complex from proton source to the final collider. Ionization cooling has been the most difficult part of the concept, and more powerful simulation tools are now in place to develop workable schemes. A collaboration proposal for a muon cooling experiment has been presented to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee, and a proposal for a targetry and pion collection channel experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory is in preparation. Initial proton bunching and space-charge compensation experiments at existing hadron facilities have occurred to demonstrate proton driver feasibility.

  8. Progress in nanophotonics 3

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent progress in nanophotonics technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices, fabrication technology and advanced systems. It reviews light-emitting diodes and lasers made of silicon bulk crystals in which the light emission principle is based on dressed-photon-phonons. Further topics include: theoretical studies of optoelectronic properties of molecular condensates for organic solar cells and light-emitting devices, the basics of topological light beams together with their important properties for laser spectroscopy, spatially localized modes emerging in nonlinear discrete dynamic systems and theoretical methods to explore the dynamics of nanoparticles by the light-induced force of tailored light fields under thermal fluctuations. These topics are reviewed by leading scientists. This overview is a variable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nanophotonics.

  9. Progress in nanophotonics 4

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the recent progress in the field of nanophotonics. It contains review-like chapters focusing on various but mutually related topics in nanophotonics written by the world’s leading scientists. Following the elaboration of the idea of nanophotonics, much theoretical and experimental work has been carried out, and several novel photonic devices, high-resolution fabrication, highly efficient energy conversion, and novel information processing have been developed in these years. Novel theoretical models describing the nanometric light-matter interaction, nonequilibrium statistical mechanical models for photon breeding processes and near-field‐assisted chemical reactions as well as light‐matter interaction are also explained in this book. It describes dressed photon technology and its applications, including implementation of nanophotonic devices and systems, fabrication methods and performance characteristics of ultrathin, ultraflexible organic light‐emitting diodes, organic solar cells ...

  10. The Influence of Effortful Thought and Cognitive Proficiencies on the Conjunction Fallacy: Implications for Dual-Process Theories of Reasoning and Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura D; Yates, J Frank; Baker, S Glenn; Valentine, Kathrene D

    2017-06-01

    Human judgment often violates normative standards, and virtually no judgment error has received as much attention as the conjunction fallacy. Judgment errors have historically served as evidence for dual-process theories of reasoning, insofar as these errors are assumed to arise from reliance on a fast and intuitive mental process, and are corrected via effortful deliberative reasoning. In the present research, three experiments tested the notion that conjunction errors are reduced by effortful thought. Predictions based on three different dual-process theory perspectives were tested: lax monitoring, override failure, and the Tripartite Model. Results indicated that participants higher in numeracy were less likely to make conjunction errors, but this association only emerged when participants engaged in two-sided reasoning, as opposed to one-sided or no reasoning. Confidence was higher for incorrect as opposed to correct judgments, suggesting that participants were unaware of their errors.

  11. Clinical significance of determination of changes in serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with acute conjunctivitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in patients with acute conjunctivitis after treatment. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-10 (with RIA) hs-CRP (with Immuno-turbidity) and IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 38 patients with acute conjunctivitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: The serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Measurement of the changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment might be inportant for outcome prediction in patients with acute conjunctivitis. (authors)

  12. Proceedings of the wind energy industry conference : develop, innovate, export : held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This conference was dedicated to the wind energy industry and business opportunities in Quebec, the rest of Canada and abroad. It was held in conjunction with Quebec's first wind energy industry gala which highlighted the organizations and individuals that have made outstanding contributions to the wind power sector in Quebec over the past three years. The entire conference focused on current and future requests for proposals in Quebec, innovation, and exports. Some fifteen reputed speakers shared their knowledge and experience regarding technological development and technical support available in Quebec. It was intended to clarify current and future issues affecting the wind power industry and to build key relations with leading wind energy players. The sessions of the conference were entitled: the wind energy industry in Quebec and Canada; issues surrounding requests for proposals; the players involved in the request for proposals; visual impacts of wind farms; data transmission during wind farm construction; innovating to move ahead of the crowd; innovation in practice; exporting as a means of development; and, exports in practice. A tour of the Baie-des-Sable wind farm was also provided. The conference featured 24 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Computer simulation in conjunction with medical thermography as an adjunct tool for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsan NM

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical modelling and analysis is now accepted in the engineering design on par with experimental approaches. Computer simulations enable one to perform several 'what-if' analyses cost effectively. High speed computers and low cost of memory has helped in simulating large-scale models in a relatively shorter time frame. The possibility of extending numerical modelling in the area of breast cancer detection in conjunction with medical thermography is considered in this work. Methods Thermography enables one to see the temperature pattern and look for abnormality. In a thermogram there is no radiation risk as it only captures the infrared radiation from the skin and is totally painless. But, a thermogram is only a test of physiology, whereas a mammogram is a test of anatomy. It is hoped that a thermogram along with numerical modelling will serve as an adjunct tool. Presently mammogram is the 'gold-standard' in breast cancer detection. But the interpretation of a mammogram is largely dependent on the radiologist. Therefore, a thermogram that looks into the physiological changes in combination with numerical simulation performing 'what-if' analysis could act as an adjunct tool to mammography. Results The proposed framework suggested that it could reduce the occurrence of false-negative/positive cases. Conclusion A numerical bioheat model of a female breast is developed and simulated. The results are compared with experimental results. The possibility of this method as an early detection tool is discussed.

  14. Computer simulation in conjunction with medical thermography as an adjunct tool for early detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Eddie Y-K; Sudharsan, NM

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical modelling and analysis is now accepted in the engineering design on par with experimental approaches. Computer simulations enable one to perform several 'what-if' analyses cost effectively. High speed computers and low cost of memory has helped in simulating large-scale models in a relatively shorter time frame. The possibility of extending numerical modelling in the area of breast cancer detection in conjunction with medical thermography is considered in this work. Thermography enables one to see the temperature pattern and look for abnormality. In a thermogram there is no radiation risk as it only captures the infrared radiation from the skin and is totally painless. But, a thermogram is only a test of physiology, whereas a mammogram is a test of anatomy. It is hoped that a thermogram along with numerical modelling will serve as an adjunct tool. Presently mammogram is the 'gold-standard' in breast cancer detection. But the interpretation of a mammogram is largely dependent on the radiologist. Therefore, a thermogram that looks into the physiological changes in combination with numerical simulation performing 'what-if' analysis could act as an adjunct tool to mammography. The proposed framework suggested that it could reduce the occurrence of false-negative/positive cases. A numerical bioheat model of a female breast is developed and simulated. The results are compared with experimental results. The possibility of this method as an early detection tool is discussed

  15. Mineralisation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by acoustic or hydrodynamic cavitation in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, David H; Carlo, Stefano Di; Chakinala, Anand G; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2008-04-01

    The mineralisation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the presence of zero-valent iron and hydrogen peroxide (the advanced Fenton process--AFP) whilst being subjected to acoustic or hydrodynamic cavitation is reported. If the reaction is merely stirred then there is 57% removal of TOC whilst on irradiation the figure is 64% although the latter reaction is more rapid. Use of ultrasound alone results in only 11% TOC removal in 60 min of treatment time. Addition of iron powder marginally enhances the extent of degradation but an appreciable increase is observed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide which acts as a source for hydroxyl radicals by Fenton chemistry as well as by dissociation in the presence of ultrasound. The use of hydrodynamic cavitation in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process has also been found to be a useful tool for continuous remediation of water contaminated with 2,4-D. After 20 min of treatment the residual TOC is reduced to 30% and this probably represents the remaining highly recalcitrant small organic molecules.

  16. Development of a decision support system for precision management of conjunctive use of treated wastewater for irrigation in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanatha P. W. Jayasuriya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at finding alternative options for conjunctive use of treated wastewater (TW with groundwater (GW minimizing the irrigation water from aquifers in the Al-Batinah region with the assistance of a Decision Support System (DSS. Oman is facing a three-facet problem of lowering of GW table, wastewater over-production and excess TW. Approved guidelines for use of TW with tertiary treatments are of two classes: class-A (for vegetables consumed raw, class-B (after cooking. The developed DSS is comprised of four management subsystems: (1 data management in Excel, (2 model and knowledge management by macro programming in Excel, (3 with linear programming (LP optimization models including transportation algorithms, and (4 user interface with Excel or Visual Basic (VB. The results are based on two extreme scenarios: zero TW excess, and zero GW used for irrigation. The DSS could predict water balance for number of crop rotations, and based on adjustable cost variables farmer profit margins could be created. Crop selections and rotation could be done using LP optimizations while transportation algorithm could organize best locations and capacities for treatment plants and the wastewater collection and transportation to farming areas via treatment plants. The developed DSS will be very useful as a water management, optimization and planning tool.

  17. Argon direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry in conjunction with makeup solvents: a method for analysis of labile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2013-02-05

    Helium direct analysis in real time (He-DART) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of labile compounds usually tends to be challenging because of the occurrence of prominent fragmentation, which obscures the assigning of an ion to an independent species or merely a fragment in a mixture. In the present work, argon DART (Ar-DART) MS in conjunction with makeup solvents has been demonstrated to analyze a variety of labile compounds including nucleosides, alkaloids, glucose, and other small molecules. The results presented here confirm that Ar-DART can generate significantly less energetic ions than conventional He-DART and is able to produce the intact molecular ions with little or no fragmentation in both positive and negative ion modes. Adding a makeup solvent (absolute ethyl alcohol, methanol, fluorobenzene, or acetone) to the argon gas stream at the exit of the DART ion source can result in 1-2 orders of magnitude increase in detection signals. The sensitivity attainable by Ar-DART was found to be comparable to that by He-DART. The investigation of influence of solvents improves our understanding of the fundamental desorption and ionization processes in DART. The practical application of this rapid and high throughput method is demonstrated by the successful analysis of a natural product (Crude Kusnezoff Monkshood) extract, demonstrating the great potential in mixture research.

  18. Active retroreflector with in situ beam analysis to measure the rotational orientation in conjunction with a laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofherr, O.; Wachten, C.; Müller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2013-04-01

    High precision optical non-contact position measurement is a key technology in modern engineering. Laser trackers (LT) can determine accurately x-y-z coordinates of passive retroreflectors. Next-generation systems answer the additional need to measure an object`s rotational orientation (pitch, yaw, roll). These devices are based either on photogrammetry or on enhanced retroreflectors. However, photogrammetry relies on costly camera systems and time-consuming image processing. Enhanced retroreflectors analyze the LT`s beam but are restricted in roll angle measurements. In the past we have presented a new method [1][2] to measure all six degrees of freedom in conjunction with a LT. Now we dramatically optimized the method and designed a new prototype, e.g. taking into consideration optical alignment, reduced power loss, highly optimized measuring signals and higher resolution. A method is described that allows compensating the influence of the LT's beam offset during tracking the active retroreflector. We prove the functionality of the active retroreflector with the LT and, furthermore, demonstrate the capability of the system to characterize the tracking behavior of a LT. The measurement range for the incident laser beam is +/-12° with a resolution of 0.6".

  19. Theoretical comparison, equivalent transformation, and conjunction operations of electromagnetic induction generator and triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Tang, Wei; Han, Changbao; Fan, Fengru; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-06-11

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a newly invented technology that is effective using conventional organic materials with functionalized surfaces for converting mechanical energy into electricity, which is light weight, cost-effective and easy scalable. Here, we present the first systematic analysis and comparison of EMIG and TENG from their working mechanisms, governing equations and output characteristics, aiming at establishing complementary applications of the two technologies for harvesting various mechanical energies. The equivalent transformation and conjunction operations of the two power sources for the external circuit are also explored, which provide appropriate evidences that the TENG can be considered as a current source with a large internal resistance, while the EMIG is equivalent to a voltage source with a small internal resistance. The theoretical comparison and experimental validations presented in this paper establish the basis of using the TENG as a new energy technology that could be parallel or possibly equivalently important as the EMIG for general power application at large-scale. It opens a field of organic nanogenerator for chemists and materials scientists who can be first time using conventional organic materials for converting mechanical energy into electricity at a high efficiency. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Laser-Driven Very High Energy Electron/Photon Beam Radiation Therapy in Conjunction with a Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Nakajima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new external-beam radiation therapy system using very-high-energy (VHE electron/photon beams generated by a centimeter-scale laser plasma accelerator built in a robotic system. Most types of external-beam radiation therapy are delivered using a machine called a medical linear accelerator driven by radio frequency (RF power amplifiers, producing electron beams with an energy range of 6–20 MeV, in conjunction with modern radiation therapy technologies for effective shaping of three-dimensional dose distributions and spatially accurate dose delivery with imaging verification. However, the limited penetration depth and low quality of the transverse penumbra at such electron beams delivered from the present RF linear accelerators prevent the implementation of advanced modalities in current cancer treatments. These drawbacks can be overcome if the electron energy is increased to above 50 MeV. To overcome the disadvantages of the present RF-based medical accelerators, harnessing recent advancement of laser-driven plasma accelerators capable of producing 1-GeV electron beams in a 1-cm gas cell, we propose a new embodiment of the external-beam radiation therapy robotic system delivering very high-energy electron/photon beams with an energy of 50–250 MeV; it is more compact, less expensive, and has a simpler operation and higher performance in comparison with the current radiation therapy system.

  1. Ensemble empirical model decomposition and neuro-fuzzy conjunction model for middle and long-term runoff forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting the runoff over longer periods, such as months and years, is one of the important tasks for hydrologists and water resource managers to maximize the potential of the limited water. However, due to the nonlinear and nonstationary characteristic of the natural runoff, it is hard to forecast the middle and long-term runoff with a satisfactory accuracy. It has been proven that the forecast performance can be improved by using signal decomposition techniques to product more cleaner signals as model inputs. In this study, a new conjunction model (EEMD-neuro-fuzzy) with adaptive ability is proposed. The ensemble empirical model decomposition (EEMD) is used to decompose the runoff time series into several components, which are with different frequencies and more cleaner than the original time series. Then the neuro-fuzzy model is developed for each component. The final forecast results can be obtained by summing the outputs of all neuro-fuzzy models. Unlike the conventional forecast model, the decomposition and forecast models in this study are adjusted adaptively as long as new runoff information is added. The proposed models are applied to forecast the monthly runoff of Yichang station, located in Yangtze River of China. The results show that the performance of adaptive forecast model we proposed outperforms than the conventional forecast model, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient can reach to 0.9392. Due to its ability to process the nonstationary data, the forecast accuracy, especially in flood season, is improved significantly.

  2. Early sitting, standing, and walking in conjunction with contemporary Bobath approach for stroke patients with severe motor deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingping; Tan, Lihong; Li, Baojun; Huang, Xiaosong; Ouyang, Chunhong; Zhan, Hailan; Pu, Qinqin; Wu, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    The commonly used therapeutic approach, the contemporary Bobath approach (CBA), is not sufficient to restore independent locomotion for individuals with severe motor deficit (SMD) after stroke. Therefore, we propose that the early sitting, standing, and walking in conjunction with the CBA (ECBA) be used to treat individuals with SMD after stroke. To investigate whether ECBA may enhance mobility and balance in subjects with SMD after stroke. Thirty-three men and 15 women, aged 60 to 74 years, with SMD after stroke were recruited for the study. CBA or ECBA was performed with the subjects 5 times per week in 50-minute sessions for 8 weeks. The Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) and the Berg Balance Scale were implemented before treatment and at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment, respectively. The STREAM scores indicated that ECBA was more efficient than the CBA intervention for lower extremity mobility, F(1, 46) = 24.0, P < .001, and basic mobility, F(1, 46) = 102.6, P < .001. Overall STREAM scores were higher in the ECBA group, F(1, 46) =24.1, P < .001, after 8 weeks of therapy. Balance scores of the ECBA subjects were higher than those of the CBA subjects after 8 weeks of therapy, F(1, 46) = 73.1, P < .001. However, there was no difference in upper extremity mobility between the 2 groups. ECBA is a valuable intervention to improve lower extremity mobility, basic mobility, and balance ability for individuals with SMD after stroke.

  3. Multipoint Observations of Energetic Particle Injections and Substorm Activity During a Conjunction Between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Clemmons, J. H.; Jaynes, A. N.; Leonard, T.; Baker, D. N.; Cohen, I. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mauk, B. H.; Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Strangeway, R. J.; Kletzing, C. A.; Le Contel, O.; Spence, H. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Reeves, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    This study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes on 7 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, Geotail, and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (maximum AE energy wave activity is also established from Van Allen Probes and MMS. Drift mapping using a simplified magnetic field model provides estimates of the dispersionless injection boundary locations as a function of universal time, magnetic local time, and L shell. The analysis reveals that at least five electron injections, which were localized in magnetic local time, preceded a larger injection of both electrons and ions across nearly the entire nightside of the magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit. The larger ion and electron injection did not penetrate to L < 6.6, but several of the smaller electron injections penetrated to L < 6.6. Due to the discrepancy between the number, penetration depth, and complexity of electron versus ion injections, this event presents challenges to the current conceptual models of energetic particle injections.

  4. Water resources management in the Ganges Basin: a comparison of three strategies for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Voss, Clifford I.; Yu, Winston; Michael, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    The most difficult water resources management challenge in the Ganges Basin is the imbalance between water demand and seasonal availability. More than 80 % of the annual flow in the Ganges River occurs during the 4-month monsoon, resulting in widespread flooding. During the rest of the year, irrigation, navigation, and ecosystems suffer because of water scarcity. Storage of monsoonal flow for utilization during the dry season is one approach to mitigating these problems. Three conjunctive use management strategies involving subsurface water storage are evaluated in this study: Ganges Water Machine (GWM), Pumping Along Canals (PAC), and Distributed Pumping and Recharge (DPR). Numerical models are used to determine the efficacy of these strategies. Results for the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh (UP) indicate that these strategies create seasonal subsurface storage from 6 to 37 % of the yearly average monsoonal flow in the Ganges exiting UP over the considered range of conditions. This has clear implications for flood reduction, and each strategy has the potential to provide irrigation water and to reduce soil waterlogging. However, GWM and PAC require significant public investment in infrastructure and management, as well as major shifts in existing water use practices; these also involve spatially-concentrated pumping, which may induce land subsidence. DPR also requires investment and management, but the distributed pumping is less costly and can be more easily implemented via adaptation of existing water use practices in the basin.

  5. A COMPARISON OF CLOMIPHENE CITRATE AND SEQUENTIAL CLOMIPHENE CITRATE PLUS HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPIN FOR USE IN CONJUNCTION WITH INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rashidi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There are currently ‎many different protocols in use for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH, but the optimal method has ‎not yet been determined. To compare the outcome of COH using ‎clomiphene citrate (CC versus CC plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG in conjunction with intrauterine insemination (IUI, we studied 117 infertile couples‎. IUI with CC was used in 92 cycles ‎(group A and IUI with CC plus hMG was used in 66 cycles (group B. ‎Data analysis demonstrated no significant difference between the two ‎groups with respect to patients’ age, duration and type of infertility, prior COH and endometrial thickness and pattern. Group A had a little ‎longer follicular phase length than group B. ‎Pregnancy rate for group A and B were 6.52% and 12.12%, respectively (P= 0.22. ‎Endometrial pattern and thickness had no impact on pregnancy rate. ‎There were no multiple gestation and obvious hyperstimulation syndrome. ‎For patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with IUI, ‎CC plus hMG protocol yields higher pregnancy rate than one using CC, although this ‎difference was not statistically significant because of limitation of number of ‎cycles.

  6. Parameter estimation of brain tumors using intraoperative thermal imaging based on artificial tactile sensing in conjunction with artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, M; Mojra, A; Sadeghi, S

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative Thermal Imaging (ITI) is a new minimally invasive diagnosis technique that can potentially locate margins of brain tumor in order to achieve maximum tumor resection with least morbidity. This study introduces a new approach to ITI based on artificial tactile sensing (ATS) technology in conjunction with artificial neural networks (ANN) and feasibility and applicability of this method in diagnosis and localization of brain tumors is investigated. In order to analyze validity and reliability of the proposed method, two simulations were performed. (i) An in vitro experimental setup was designed and fabricated using a resistance heater embedded in agar tissue phantom in order to simulate heat generation by a tumor in the brain tissue; and (ii) A case report patient with parafalcine meningioma was presented to simulate ITI in the neurosurgical procedure. In the case report, both brain and tumor geometries were constructed from MRI data and tumor temperature and depth of location were estimated. For experimental tests, a novel assisted surgery robot was developed to palpate the tissue phantom surface to measure temperature variations and ANN was trained to estimate the simulated tumor’s power and depth. Results affirm that ITI based ATS is a non-invasive method which can be useful to detect, localize and characterize brain tumors. (paper)

  7. The late posterior negativity in ERP studies of episodic memory: action monitoring and retrieval of attribute conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mikael; Mecklinger, Axel

    2003-10-01

    The focus of the present paper is a late posterior negative slow wave (LPN) that has frequently been reported in event-related potential (ERP) studies of memory. An overview of these studies suggests that two broad classes of experimental conditions tend to elicit this component: (a) item recognition tasks associated with enhanced action monitoring demands arising from response conflict and (b) memory tasks that require the binding of items with contextual information specifying the study episode. A combined stimulus- and response-locked analysis of data from two studies mapping onto these classes allowed a temporal and functional decomposition of the LPN. While only the LPN observed in the item recognition task could be attributed to the involvement of a posteriorly distributed response-locked error-related negativity (or error negativity; ERN/Ne) occurring immediately after the response, the source-memory task was associated with a stimulus-locked negative slow wave occurring prior and during response execution that was evident when data were matched for response latencies. We argue that the presence of the former reflects action monitoring due to high levels of response conflict, whereas the latter reflects retrieval processes that may act to reconstruct the prior study episode when task-relevant attribute conjunctions are not readily recovered or need continued evaluation.

  8. Conjunction of anti-parallel and component reconnection at the dayside MP: Cluster and Double Star coordinated observation on 6 April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Pu, Z. Y.; Fu, S. Y.; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J.; Dunlop, M. W.; Wei, Y.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Zong, Q. G.; Xie, L.

    2011-05-01

    Previous theoretical and simulation studies have suggested that the anti-parallel and component reconnection can occur simultaneously on the dayside magnetopause. Certain observations have also been reported to support global conjunct pattern of magnetic reconnection. Here, we show direct evidence for the conjunction of anti-parallel and component MR using coordinated observations of Double Star TC-1 and Cluster under the same IMF condition on 6 April, 2004. The global MR X-line configuration constructed is in good agreement with the “S-shape” model.

  9. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  10. IPY Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2008-12-01

    We can summarize the IPY goals as: (a) make major advances in polar knowledge and understanding; (b) leave a legacy of new or enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure; (c) excite a new generation of polar scientists and engineers, and (d) elicit exceptional interest and participation from polar residents, schoolchildren, the general public, and decision-makers, worldwide. This talk reports on the progress and prospects in each of those areas from an overall international view; separate talks will describe details of future researcher and the IPY outreach efforts. To achieve major advances in knowledge, IPY has entrained the intellectual resources of thousands of scientists, many more than expected, often from 'non- polar' nations, and representing an unprecedented breadth of scientific specialties; integration of those efforts across disciplines to achieve integrated system-level understanding remains a substantial challenge. Many national and international organizations prepare plans to sustain new and improved observational systems, but clear outcomes and the necessary resources remain elusive. International outreach networks gradually build breadth and strength, largely through IPY Polar Science Days and other internationally- coordinated IPY events. A new Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) devotes talent and energy to shaping the future of polar research. These activities and networks may, with time and with continued international coordination, achieve an exceptional level of interest and participation. In all areas, much work remains.

  11. CERN: LHC progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The push for CERN's next major project, the LHC proton collider to be built in the 27-kilometre LEP tunnel, is advancing on a wide front. For the machine itself, there has been considerable progress in the detailed design. While the main thrust is for proton-proton collisions, heavy ions are also on the LHC collision menu. On the experimental side, proposals are coming into sharper focus. For the machine, the main aim is for the highest possible proton collision energies and collision rates in the confines of the existing LEP tunnel, and the original base design looked to achieve these goals in three collision regions. Early discussions on the experimental programme quickly established that the most probable configuration would have two collision regions rather than three. This, combined with hints that the electronics of several detectors would have to handle several bunch crossings at a time, raised the question whether the originally specified bunch spacing of 15 ns was still optimal

  12. Progress in neuromorphic photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Tait, Alexander N.; Nahmias, Mitchell A.; Prucnal, Paul R.

    2017-03-01

    As society's appetite for information continues to grow, so does our need to process this information with increasing speed and versatility. Many believe that the one-size-fits-all solution of digital electronics is becoming a limiting factor in certain areas such as data links, cognitive radio, and ultrafast control. Analog photonic devices have found relatively simple signal processing niches where electronics can no longer provide sufficient speed and reconfigurability. Recently, the landscape for commercially manufacturable photonic chips has been changing rapidly and now promises to achieve economies of scale previously enjoyed solely by microelectronics. By bridging the mathematical prowess of artificial neural networks to the underlying physics of optoelectronic devices, neuromorphic photonics could breach new domains of information processing demanding significant complexity, low cost, and unmatched speed. In this article, we review the progress in neuromorphic photonics, focusing on photonic integrated devices. The challenges and design rules for optoelectronic instantiation of artificial neurons are presented. The proposed photonic architecture revolves around the processing network node composed of two parts: a nonlinear element and a network interface. We then survey excitable lasers in the recent literature as candidates for the nonlinear node and microring-resonator weight banks as the network interface. Finally, we compare metrics between neuromorphic electronics and neuromorphic photonics and discuss potential applications.

  13. Progress report, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The report describes a number of areas of research at the TRIUMPH facility. Substantial progress has been made in the experiment to measure charge symmetry breaking in the n-p system. The investigations on polarized nucleon radiative capture on light nuclei have been ongoing with results of the excitation function for p + d→γ + 3 He reaction being published. Studies of the n + p→d + γ reactions are continuing. Results have been obtained in the determination of structure in the three nucleon system by studying the reaction anti d + p using tensor polarized deuterons. The Wolfenstein R-parameter in proton - 4 He elastic scattering has been measured at 500 MeV from 15 to 50 degrees (lab.) using the focal plane polarimeter on the MRS. Other experiments involving quasi-elastic scattering of polarized protons at 300 MeV, fission evaporation competition in heavy nuclei and proton-proton bremsstrahlung have been carried out. The status of the Bevelac heavy ion collaboration and the MWPC facility is also included

  14. Progressive myoclonic epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelucci, Roberto; Canafoglia, Laura; Striano, Pasquale; Gambardella, Antonio; Magaudda, Adriana; Tinuper, Paolo; La Neve, Angela; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Visani, Elisa; Panzica, Ferruccio; Avanzini, Giuliano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Bianchi, Amedeo; Zara, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinical spectrum and etiology of progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PMEs) in Italy using a database developed by the Genetics Commission of the Italian League against Epilepsy. Methods: We collected clinical and laboratory data from patients referred to 25 Italian epilepsy centers regardless of whether a positive causative factor was identified. PMEs of undetermined origins were grouped using 2-step cluster analysis. Results: We collected clinical data from 204 patients, including 77 with a diagnosis of Unverricht-Lundborg disease and 37 with a diagnosis of Lafora body disease; 31 patients had PMEs due to rarer genetic causes, mainly neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Two more patients had celiac disease. Despite extensive investigation, we found no definitive etiology for 57 patients. Cluster analysis indicated that these patients could be grouped into 2 clusters defined by age at disease onset, age at myoclonus onset, previous psychomotor delay, seizure characteristics, photosensitivity, associated signs other than those included in the cardinal definition of PME, and pathologic MRI findings. Conclusions: Information concerning the distribution of different genetic causes of PMEs may provide a framework for an updated diagnostic workup. Phenotypes of the patients with PME of undetermined cause varied widely. The presence of separate clusters suggests that novel forms of PME are yet to be clinically and genetically characterized. PMID:24384641

  15. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation

  16. Resistance to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isensee, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article deals with the tolerance test the constitutional system (Basic Law) of the Federal Republic of Germany is currently put to as a consequence of the resistance to the power structure of this country, which is expressed in the name of protection and defense for the environment and world peace. This biopacifistic resistance movment, the author says, has nothing to do with the legal right to resist, as laid down in art. 20 (4) of the Basic Law. According to the author, this attitude is an offspring of fear of the hazards of technological progress, primarily of nuclear hazards. Practical resistance, the author states, is preceded by theoretical resistance in speech: De-legitimation of the democratic legality, of the parliamentary functions, of the supreme power of the government, and denial of the citizens duty of obedience. The author raises the question as to whether this attitude of disobedience on ecological grounds marks the onset of a fourth stage of development of the modern state, after we have passed through stages characterised by fear of civil war, of tyranny, and of social privation and suffering. There are no new ideas brought forward by the ecologically minded movement, the author says, for re-shaping our institutions or constitutional system. (HP) [de

  17. A novel single-step surgical technique for vestibular deepening using laser in conjunction with periodontal flap surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis results in clinical loss of attachment, reduced width of attached gingiva (AG, periodontal pockets beyond mucogingival junction (MGJ, gingival recession, loss of alveolar bone, and decreased vestibular depth (VD. The encroachment of frenal and muscle attachments on marginal gingiva increases the rate of progression of periodontal pockets, prevents healing, and causes their recurrence after therapy. Loss of VD and AG associated with continuous progression of pocket formation and bone loss requires two-stage surgical procedures. In this article, one-stage surgical procedure is being described for the first time, to treat the periodontal pockets extending beyond the MGJ by periodontal flap surgery along with vestibular deepening with diode laser to increase the AG. One-step surgical technique is illustrated whereby pocket therapy with reconstruction of lost periodontal tissues can be done along with gingival augmentation by vestibular deepening.

  18. Functional MRI mapping of visual function and selective attention for performance assessment and presurgical planning using conjunctive visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jason G; Zalusky, Eric J; Kirbas, Cemil

    2014-03-01

    Accurate mapping of visual function and selective attention using fMRI is important in the study of human performance as well as in presurgical treatment planning of lesions in or near visual centers of the brain. Conjunctive visual search (CVS) is a useful tool for mapping visual function during fMRI because of its greater activation extent compared with high-capacity parallel search processes. The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a CVS that was capable of generating consistent activation in the basic and higher level visual areas of the brain by using a high number of distractors as well as an optimized contrast condition. Images from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed and brain regions of greatest activation and deactivation were determined using a nonbiased decomposition of the results at the hemisphere, lobe, and gyrus levels. The results were quantified in terms of activation and deactivation extent and mean z-statistic. The proposed CVS was found to generate robust activation of the occipital lobe, as well as regions in the middle frontal gyrus associated with coordinating eye movements and in regions of the insula associated with task-level control and focal attention. As expected, the task demonstrated deactivation patterns commonly implicated in the default-mode network. Further deactivation was noted in the posterior region of the cerebellum, most likely associated with the formation of optimal search strategy. We believe the task will be useful in studies of visual and selective attention in the neuroscience community as well as in mapping visual function in clinical fMRI.

  19. Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

  20. Assessing the potential for using wetlands as intermediary storages to conjunctively maintain ecological values and support agricultural demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Nathan S P; Watkins, Susanne C; Gawne, Ben; Nielsen, Daryl L

    2012-09-30

    Water sharing to meet both agricultural and environmental demands is a critical issue affecting the health of many floodplain river systems around the world. This study explored the potential for using wetlands as temporary off-river storages to conjunctively maintain ecological values and support agricultural demands by assessing the effects of artificial drawdown on wetland aquatic plant communities. An initial experiment was undertaken in outdoor mesocosms in which four different treatments were compared over a 131 day duration: (1) natural drawdown where the water was left to drawdown naturally via evaporation; (2) partial drawdown where approximately half of the volume of water was pumped out after 42 days; (3) stepped drawdown where approximately half of the volume of water pumped out after 42 days, and then the remaining volume of water was pumped out after 117 days; and (4) total drawdown where all of the of water was pumped out after 117 days. A complementary field study was subsequently undertaken where two wetlands were left to drawdown naturally and two were partially drawn down artificially (i.e. had approximately half of their volume removed by pumping). Results from both of these studies indicated that neither aquatic plant abundance nor taxon richness were adversely affected by partial drawdown. Rather, both studies showed that aquatic plant communities subjected to a partial drawdown treatment became more species rich and diverse than communities subjected to a natural drawdown treatment. This suggests that it may be possible to use wetlands as intermediary storages for the dual purposes of maintaining ecological values and supporting agricultural demands. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.