Sample records for program kohl irrigation

  1. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 11, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality parameters of eggplant under greenhouse conditions, using Class A pan evaporation calculations and different plant-pan coefficients. Irrigation water was applied through drip irrigation method twice a ...

  2. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality parameters of eggplant under greenhouse conditions, using Class A pan evaporation calculations and different plant-pan coefficients. Irrigation water was applied through drip irrigation method twice a week during the ...

  3. Sur Amblyellus Hasdrubal Kohl (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae, Pompilinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahis, R.


    En 1894, Kohl décrit d'Espagne la ♀ de Pompilus hasdrubal, espèce voisine de Pompilus sexmaculatus Spinola et caractérisée, entre autres, par un peigne de trois épines au métatarse 1 ce qui correspond bien au spécimen typique que Michael Day et moi-même avons pu examiner, en juillet 1981, au

  4. Radiological and Toxic Risk Assessment of Nigerian Kohl as Cosmetic Compared with Imported Kohl Cosmetics


    I.Y. Zakari; A.M. Sadiq; R. Nasiru; U. Sadiq


    A total of 38 different samples of Kohl comprising of 23 indigenous mined products and 15 imported products as control and were analyzed for general elemental composition but with particular interest in those reported to be of relevance (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Co and Sb) in cosmetics. Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis EDXRA was used for the assay. Only Pb, As, Ni and Cr were detected among the elements of interest. Mean Pb concentrations of 277300 ppm; Ni at 2256 ppm concentration; and A...

  5. National Irrigation Water Quality Program data-synthesis data base (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.


    Under the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) of the U.S. Department of the Interior, researchers investigated contamination caused by irrigation drainage in 26 areas in the Western United States from 1986 to 1993. From 1992 to 1995, a comprehensive relational data base was built to organize data collected during the 26-area investigations. The data base provided the basis for analysis and synthesis of these data to identify common features of contaminated areas and hence dominant biologic, geologic, climatic, chemical, and physiographic factors that have resulted in contamination of water and biota in irrigated areas in the Western United States. Included in the data base are geologic, hydrologic, climatological, chemical, and cultural data that describe the 26 study areas in 14 Western States. The data base contains information on 1,264 sites from which water and bottom sediment were collected. It also contains chemical data from 6,903 analyses of surface water, 914 analyses of ground water, 707 analyses of inorganic constituents in bottom sediments, 223 analyses of organochlorine pesticides in bottom sediments, 8,217 analyses of inorganic constituents in biota, and 1,088 analyses for organic constituents in biota. The data base is available to the public and can be obtained at the NIWQP homepage as dBase III tables for personal-computer systems or as American Standard Code for Information Exchange structured query language (SQL) command and data files for SQL data bases.

  6. Square wave voltammetric determination of lead in commercial kohl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple sensitive square wave voltammetric method for the determination of lead contamination of several kohl samples purchased from Algeria retail stores was developed using glassy carbon electrode. The peak current response of 5 standards aqueous solution of lead in NaNO3 as supporting electrolyte was observed ...

  7. Analysis to develop a program for energy conservation in irrigated agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.; Brix, V.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Laughlin, B.M.


    It is estimated by the FEA that 0.26 quadrillion Btus of energy is annually required to irrigate crops in the USA. The development of a DOE program for energy conservation in irrigation is described. Information is included on: studies of how this energy consumption can be reduced and by how much; engineering and economic studies of irrigation equipment and methods; proposals for improving the efficiency of pumps and prime movers; projects selected for demonstrating irrigation energy conservation; and recommendations for further research. (LCL)

  8. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  9. A review of mathematical programming models of irrigation water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crops modelled influence water values, but there is no apparent relationship between objective function specification and average value. Nor does the number of irrigation options seem to influence water value either. The policy implication is that while similar models for the same region produce consistent estimates, each ...

  10. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen


    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  11. [Closed automatic programmed aspiration-irrigation method in the treatment of abdominal abscesses]. (United States)

    Kanshin, N N; Bystritskiĭ, A L


    Treatment of 124 patients with abdominal abscesses is analysed. Sixty-four patients (a test group) were treated by air-tight drainage of the abscess cavity with double-tube silicone drains and automatic fraction irrigation of the purulent cavity in the postoperative period. Other methods of intraabdominal abscess drainage were used in 60 patients (a control group). The advantages of closed programmed aspiration-irrigation treatment are shown.

  12. Linda C. Farthing and Benjamin H. Kohl. Evo’s Bolivia: Continuity and Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Fabricant


    Full Text Available This is a review of Linda Farthing and Benjamin Kohl's Book "Evo's Bolivia: Continuity and Change" which explores the rise of Evo Morales and Bolivia's Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS.

  13. Using Home Irrigation Users' Perceptions to Inform Water Conservation Programs (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Lamm, Alexa J.; Rumble, Joy N.; Momol, Esen


    Targeted agricultural education programs can play a role in solving complex water issues. This article applies importance-performance analysis to examine dimensions of water resources that may inform local water conservation campaigns in the United States. The purpose of this study was to generate a deep understanding of home irrigation users'…

  14. Inexact nonlinear improved fuzzy chance-constrained programming model for irrigation water management under uncertainty (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Shanshan; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Ping


    An inexact nonlinear mλ-measure fuzzy chance-constrained programming (INMFCCP) model is developed for irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. Techniques of inexact quadratic programming (IQP), mλ-measure, and fuzzy chance-constrained programming (FCCP) are integrated into a general optimization framework. The INMFCCP model can deal with not only nonlinearities in the objective function, but also uncertainties presented as discrete intervals in the objective function, variables and left-hand side constraints and fuzziness in the right-hand side constraints. Moreover, this model improves upon the conventional fuzzy chance-constrained programming by introducing a linear combination of possibility measure and necessity measure with varying preference parameters. To demonstrate its applicability, the model is then applied to a case study in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. An interval regression analysis method is used to obtain interval crop water production functions in the whole growth period under uncertainty. Therefore, more flexible solutions can be generated for optimal irrigation water allocation. The variation of results can be examined by giving different confidence levels and preference parameters. Besides, it can reflect interrelationships among system benefits, preference parameters, confidence levels and the corresponding risk levels. Comparison between interval crop water production functions and deterministic ones based on the developed INMFCCP model indicates that the former is capable of reflecting more complexities and uncertainties in practical application. These results can provide more reliable scientific basis for supporting irrigation water management in arid areas.

  15. [Automatic programmed aspiration and irrigation treatment of abscesses and phlegmons of soft tissues]. (United States)

    Bystritskiĭ, A L; Golubev, L N; Ledeneva, V M


    The article presents results of treatment of 111 patients with abscesses and phlegmons of soft tissues. In 46 patients (the investigation group) the minimal accesses (1.5 cm) to the abscess were used with drainage of purulent cavities with bilumenal silicon drains TMMK and performing the automatic programmed aspiration-irrigation treatment. In 65 patients (control group) treatment of suppurative processes was effected by an open tampon method. Advantages of the closed method of treatment over the traditional means are shown.

  16. [Lead poisoning caused by prolonged use of kohl, an underestimated cause in French-speaking countries]. (United States)

    De Caluwé, J-P


    Use of kohl (called surma in India and Pakistan) as an eye cosmetic is very common, especially among women, children, and babies, not only in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Egypt), but also in the Near East and the Middle East, as well in India and Pakistan. This practice has now become widespread in European countries and North America. The cultural custom is very old and has been in use in Egypt since the Ancient Empire. In a great number of kohls available on the free market, lead sulfide is the main component and the very high lead concentration is a risk, particularly for women and children. We report the observation of a case of lead poisoning in a young Moroccan woman caused by prolonged use of a kohl and provide a review of the published literature. This case study should draw the attention of ophthalmologists in French-speaking areas to a public health problem, largely ignored, although real, considering the high lead concentrations found in the majority of kohls. Actions such as prohibition (importation and sale of eye cosmetics made of lead sulfide) have proved to be inadequate. Appropriate educational campaigns directed toward populations using eye cosmetics will be more effective over the long term.

  17. A generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming approach for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Guo, Ping


    The vague and fuzzy parametric information is a challenging issue in irrigation water management problems. In response to this problem, a generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming (GFCCFP) model is developed for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. The model can be derived from integrating generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained programming (GFCCP) into a linear fractional programming (LFP) optimization framework. Therefore, it can solve ratio optimization problems associated with fuzzy parameters, and examine the variation of results under different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and necessary. It has advantages in: (1) balancing the economic and resources objectives directly; (2) analyzing system efficiency; (3) generating more flexible decision solutions by giving different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and (4) supporting in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among system efficiency, credibility level and weight coefficient. The model is applied to a case study of irrigation water allocation in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. Therefore, optimal irrigation water allocation solutions from the GFCCFP model can be obtained. Moreover, factorial analysis on the two parameters (i.e. λ and γ) indicates that the weight coefficient is a main factor compared with credibility level for system efficiency. These results can be effective for support reasonable irrigation water resources management and agricultural production.

  18. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Pb, Fe and Zn in kohl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Daar

    Full Text Available Kohl, a facial salve used in ancient times as a symbol of affluence, now enjoys more widespread traditional followings, for cosmetic, religious and supposed medicinal purposes. Popularly used by women and men of all ages, particularly those of North African, Middle Eastern, Southern Asia, Japanese and Chinese origins, it is also known to be used on neonates and children from such populations. With small-scale producers of kohl possessing a growing awareness of the adverse market impact of products that contain (lead Pb and other toxicity related elements, some claim their products to be Pb-free, offering an apparent change from the more traditional galena-based (lead sulphide media. Among the published physiological effects of exposure to Pb is that it replaces Ca in bones and teeth, making them weak and fragile, other impacts including nephrotoxicity, also linked with increased Pb blood levels in studies in Oman, Canada, Saudi Arabia, India and Pakistan. Current study involves XRF analysis of Pb, Fe and Zn concentrations in 135 samples of kohl from nine randomly selected suppliers (15 samples of each brand being represented. In pursuit of this, use was made of an in-house assembled facility comprising compact high-performance components, the arrangement offering sufficient sensitivity for the purposes of present study. In most of the samples investigated in the present study observation has been made of concentrations of Pb at elevated levels, quantification of those levels also demonstrating a need to address self-attenuation by the Pb itself. Significant concentration of Fe have also been found in several of the samples. Keywords: X-ray florescence, Pb, Fe and Zn contamination, Kohl

  19. Installation of a coal blending stockyard; Errichtung eines Kohle-Misch- und Stapelplatzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, J. [MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)


    In November 1996, MIBRAG Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH awarded a contract to MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH for the installation of a coal blending stockyard. The MIBRAG mbH owned open cast mine, Vereinigtes Schleenhain, located in the South of Leipzig, was developed to provide about 10 Mt of raw lignite per year to the new VEAG owned power station of Lippendorf for the period of 40 years. The open cast mine Vereinigtes Schleenhain is complex consisting of the open cast mine Schleenhain and the coal blending stockyard built on the floor of the former open cast mine Perez. The core of any coal handling system, that is designed as a conveyor handling system to feed coal to a power station, is a coal blending stockyard (hereinafter briefly called CBS). (orig.) [German] Die MIBRAG Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH erteilte im November 1996 der MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH den Auftrag zur Errichtung eines Kohle-Misch- und Stapelplatzes. Der im Suedraum von Leipzig liegende Tagebau Vereinigtes Schleenhain der MIBRAG mbH hat die Aufgabe, das VEAG Neubaukraftwerk Lippendorf ueber einen Zeitraum von 40 Jahren mit jaehrlich ca. 10 Mt Rohbraunkohle zu versorgen. Der Tagebau Vereinigtes Schleenhain besteht aus dem Tagebau Schleenhain und dem Kohle-Misch- und Stapelplatz, der auf der Sohle des ehemaligen Tagebaues Perez errichtet wurde. In einem fuer die Bekohlung des Kraftwerkes errichteten Kohletransportsystem, das als Bandsystem ausgefuehrt ist, bildet der Kohle-Misch- und Stapelplatz (nachfolgend kurz KMS genannt) das Herzstueck. (orig.)

  20. Operational ET remote sensing (RS) program for irrigation scheduling and management: challenges and opportunities (United States)

    Prasanna Gowda


    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water balance and a major consumptive use of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. Any attempt to improve water use efficiency must be based on reliable estimates of ET for irrigation scheduling purposes.

  1. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Pb, Fe and Zn in kohl (United States)

    Daar, Eman; Alsubaie, Abdullah; Almugren, K. S.; Barnes, S.; Alanazi, A.; Alyahyawi, A.; Alomairy, S.; Al-Sulaiti, H.; Bradley, D. A.

    Kohl, a facial salve used in ancient times as a symbol of affluence, now enjoys more widespread traditional followings, for cosmetic, religious and supposed medicinal purposes. Popularly used by women and men of all ages, particularly those of North African, Middle Eastern, Southern Asia, Japanese and Chinese origins, it is also known to be used on neonates and children from such populations. With small-scale producers of kohl possessing a growing awareness of the adverse market impact of products that contain (lead) Pb and other toxicity related elements, some claim their products to be Pb-free, offering an apparent change from the more traditional galena-based (lead sulphide) media. Among the published physiological effects of exposure to Pb is that it replaces Ca in bones and teeth, making them weak and fragile, other impacts including nephrotoxicity, also linked with increased Pb blood levels in studies in Oman, Canada, Saudi Arabia, India and Pakistan. Current study involves XRF analysis of Pb, Fe and Zn concentrations in 135 samples of kohl from nine randomly selected suppliers (15 samples of each brand being represented). In pursuit of this, use was made of an in-house assembled facility comprising compact high-performance components, the arrangement offering sufficient sensitivity for the purposes of present study. In most of the samples investigated in the present study observation has been made of concentrations of Pb at elevated levels, quantification of those levels also demonstrating a need to address self-attenuation by the Pb itself. Significant concentration of Fe have also been found in several of the samples.

  2. PRN 87-1: Label Improvement Program for Pesticides Applied through Irrigation Systems (Chemigation) (United States)

    This Notice requires registrants of pesticide products registered under FIFRA and applied through irrigation systems to revise the labeling for such products to include additional use directions and other statements described in this Notice.

  3. Multicriteria and Multiperiod Programming for Scenario Analysis in Guadalquivir River Irrigated Farming


    Vecino, Julio Berbel; Baldovín, Maria Jose López; Gutierrez, Carlos


    A multiperiod model based upon a multicriteria objective function has been developed for a representative area of the Guadalquivir Valley, dividing the irrigated area into homogeneous types of farming as identified by cluster analysis. The model was applied to different future scenarios with a time horizon of 10 years and several different farming environments. A set of eight sustainability indicators has been evaluated for the model. The results show that the evolution of crops over time is ...

  4. Detection of highly toxic elements (lead and chromium) in commercially available eyeliner (kohl) using laser induced break down spectroscopy (United States)

    Gondal, M. A.; Dastageer, M. A.; Al-Adel, F. F.; Naqvi, A. A.; Habibullah, Y. B.


    A sensitive laser induced breakdown spectroscopic system was developed and optimized for using it as a sensor for the detection of trace levels of lead and chromium present in the cosmetic eyeliner (kohl) of different price ranges (brands) available in the local market. Kohl is widely used in developing countries for babies as well adults for beautification as well eyes protection. The atomic transition lines at 405.7 nm and 425.4 nm were used as the marker lines for the detection of lead and chromium respectively. The detection system was optimized by finding the appropriate gate delay between the laser excitation and the data acquisition system and also by achieving optically thin plasma near the target by establishing the local thermodynamic equilibrium condition. The detection system was calibrated for these two hazardous elements and the kohl samples under investigation showed 8-15 ppm by mass of lead and 4-9 ppm by mass of Chromium, which are higher than the safe permissible levels of these elements. The limits of detection of the LIBS system for lead and chromium were found to be 1 and 2 ppm respectively.

  5. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming model for sustainable irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions (United States)

    Li, Mo; Fu, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Ma, Mingwei; Liu, Xiao


    Water scarcity causes conflicts among natural resources, society and economy and reinforces the need for optimal allocation of irrigation water resources in a sustainable way. Uncertainties caused by natural conditions and human activities make optimal allocation more complex. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming (IFMONLP) model for irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions is developed to help decision makers mitigate water scarcity. The model is capable of quantitatively solving multiple problems including crop yield increase, blue water saving, and water supply cost reduction to obtain a balanced water allocation scheme using a multi-objective non-linear programming technique. Moreover, it can deal with uncertainty as well as hesitation based on the introduction of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Consideration of the combination of dry and wet conditions for water availability and precipitation makes it possible to gain insights into the various irrigation water allocations, and joint probabilities based on copula functions provide decision makers an average standard for irrigation. A case study on optimally allocating both surface water and groundwater to different growth periods of rice in different subareas in Heping irrigation area, Qing'an County, northeast China shows the potential and applicability of the developed model. Results show that the crop yield increase target especially in tillering and elongation stages is a prevailing concern when more water is available, and trading schemes can mitigate water supply cost and save water with an increased grain output. Results also reveal that the water allocation schemes are sensitive to the variation of water availability and precipitation with uncertain characteristics. The IFMONLP model is applicable for most irrigation areas with limited water supplies to determine irrigation water strategies under a fuzzy environment.

  6. Small Scale Irrigation Systems: A Training Manual. Planning--Construction--Operation and Maintenance of Small Scale Irrigation Systems. A Two-Week In-Service Training Program for Peace Corps Volunteers. Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-13. (United States)

    Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc., Manhattan, KS.

    This manual provides materials for a two-week inservice training program for Peace Corps volunteers on the planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of small-scale irrigation systems. The workshop is designed to be given by two experienced professionals: one with practical knowledge of irrigation system design, operation, and…

  7. SURDEV: surface irrigation software; design, operation, and evaluation of basin, border, and furrow irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurriëns, M.; Zerihun, D.; Boonstra, J.; Feyen, J.


    SURDEV is a computer package for the design, operation, and evaluation of surface irrigation. SURDEV combines three sub-programs: BASDEV (for basin irrigation), FURDEV (for furrow irrigation), and BORDEV for (border irrigation). This combination enables the user to simulate many of the problems

  8. Conservation program works as an alternative irrigation districts in sustainable water management of agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Peinado Guevara


    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an issue of worldwide concern since it is already having an impact on social development. Mexico is not an exception to this problem because in several regions of the country are great difficulties in supplying water, primarily for agricultural use. In Sinaloa, it had been mentioned repeatedly by the media that in the Irrigation District 063, located in the northern of the state, there are problems of water scarcity, and yet there still exist difficulties in conserving the resource. More than 49% of the water used for agriculture is wasted. To resolve this problem, producers and government agencies spend significant resources for investment in water conservation. However, the results have not been entirely satisfactory because the waste is high, a situation that motivates them to study more deeply the main weaknesses that affect sustainable resource use. Farmer’s participation in the administration of water infrastructure is important, as well as providing financial resources for the conservation of water system; and participation in activities of construction and repaired of water infrastructure. Farmer’s should also plan and design strategies for water conservation. This situation requires an appropriate level of technology and intellectual, rather than local producers and thus no complicated sustainable resource management. That is what local producers don’t have and therefore it complicates the sustainable management of the resource.

  9. Treatment of periocular hyperpigmentation due to lead of kohl (surma by penicillamine: A single group non-randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Safoury Omar


    Full Text Available Background: Periocular hyperpigmentation is a condition in which skin of eyelids become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin. Lead and other heavy metals produce increased pigmentation because of deposition of metal particles in the dermis and increased epidermal melanin production. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the dual effect of chelation therapy in treating periocular hyperpigmentation and lead toxicity. Methods: The study population consisted of nine females complaining from dark coloration of their eyelids. The nine females were continuously using kohl as eyeliner. Lead levels in conjunctiva and serum before and after D-penicillamine (D-PCN oral administration were estimated in relation to vertical, horizontal length, and degree of hyperpigmentation score. Results: Highly significant P values (0.000 were obtained as regard to the conjunctival lead levels, serum lead levels, horizontal length, and degree of darkness score before and after D-PCN therapy. A less significant P value (0.040 was recorded as regard to the vertical length. Conclusion: Regardless other causes, this study spots the light on a new concept for periocular hyperpigmentation from lead toxicity in adult females using kohl and suggests D-PCN in a low divided dose (750 mg/day for its treatment.

  10. Summary of the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program and evaluation of methods used to collect and analyze irrigation data in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins, 2004-2010 (United States)

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.


    Since receiving jurisdiction from the State Legislature in June 2003 to implement the Georgia Agricultural Water Conservation and Metering Program, the Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission (Commission) by year-end 2010 installed more than 10,000 annually read water meters and nearly 200 daily reporting, satellite-transmitted, telemetry sites on irrigation systems located primarily in southern Georgia. More than 3,000 annually reported meters and 50 telemetry sites were installed during 2010 alone. The Commission monitored rates and volumes of agricultural irrigation supplied by groundwater, surface-water, and well-to-pond sources to inform water managers on the patterns and amounts of such water use and to determine effective and efficient resource utilization. Summary analyses of 4 complete years of irrigation data collected from annually read water meters in the middle and lower Chattahoochee and Flint River basins during 2007-2010 indicated that groundwater-supplied fields received slightly more irrigation depth per acre than surface-water-supplied fields. Year 2007 yielded the largest disparity between irrigation depth supplied by groundwater and surface-water sources as farmers responded to severe-to-exceptional drought conditions with increased irrigation. Groundwater sources (wells and well-to-pond systems) outnumbered surface-water sources by a factor of five; each groundwater source applied a third more irrigation volume than surface water; and, total irrigation volume from groundwater exceeded that of surface water by a factor of 6.7. Metered irrigation volume indicated a pattern of low-to-high water use from northwest to southeast that could point to relations between agricultural water use, water-resource potential and availability, soil type, and crop patterns. Normalizing metered irrigation-volume data by factoring out irrigated acres allowed irrigation water use to be expressed as an irrigation depth and nearly eliminated the disparity

  11. Hydrogen production by water splitting with biomass and coal; Wasserstoffgewinnung durch Wasserspaltung mit Biomasse und Kohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, H.; Henrich, E.; Dinjus, E.


    traditional gasification a new process concept is presented to the split of water under hydrothermal conditions. In conclusion the research and development need is discussed. (orig.) [German] Diese Abhandlung soll dazu beitragen den chemischen und verfahrenstechnischen Forschungs- und Entwicklungsbedarf fuer die zukuenftige Energieversorgung, die neben verbesserter Energieeffizienz zunehmend auf erneuerbare Energien bauen wird, deutlicher zu erkennen und die in dieser Hinsicht bestehenden Luecken aufzuzeigen. Zur Einfuehrung in das komplexe Thema wird eine zusammengefasste Einschaetzung der zustaendigen internationalen Gremien ueber die Entwicklung des Energiebedarfes und dessen Deckung im laufenden Jahrhundert vorangestellt. Daraus kann fuer die Biomasse eine bedeutende Rolle abgeleitet werden. Die Nutzung der in der Biomasse gespeicherten Sonnenenergie zur Wasserspaltung koennte eine nicht unwesentliche Rolle beim Ersatz von Oel und Erdgas spielen. Daneben wird die Kohle im laufenden Jahrhundert wahrscheinlich noch einen grossen Beitrag leisten muessen. Bei der Kohlenutzung, ob fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung oder Kraftstoffherstellung, steht die Effizienzverbesserung der Umwandlungsverfahren und die Senkung der Emissionen und Immissionen im Vordergrund. Dieses Ziel ist nach heutigen Wissensstand am besten ueber Vergasung zu erreichen; fuer die Elektrizitaetserzeugung in Verbindung mit GuD oder den heute noch teuren Brennstoffzellen. Die Verfahrensprinzipien der Vergasung sind fuer die verschiedenen kohlenstoffhaltigen Edukte - von der Biomasse bis zum Anthrazit - die gleichen, die Unterschiede in der Reaktivitaet und bei den Begleitstoffen erfordem allerdings ein besseres Verstaendnis der chemisch - physikalischen Vorgaenge und verfahrenstechnische Fortschritte, um bei hohem Gaswirkungsgrad die restriktiven Reinheitsspezifikationen der Speisegase fuer Gasturbinen oder Brennstoffzellen sicher zu stellen. Der Stand der Technik fuer die Wasserstoffherstellung wird

  12. Irrigation System (United States)


    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  13. Correlation between E. coli levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens in surface irrigation water: Establishment of a sampling program. (United States)

    Truchado, Pilar; Hernandez, Natalia; Gil, Maria I; Ivanek, Renata; Allende, Ana


    To establish the association between microbial indicators and the presence of foodborne pathogens in irrigation water, Escherichia coli was enumerated using two quantification methods (plate counts and PMA-qPCR) and presence/absence of pathogenic microorganisms, including five strains from the Shiga toxigenic E. coli (O157:H7, O26, O103, O111 and O145) and Salmonella spp. were evaluated. The results confirmed that surface water can be considered a microbial hazard when used for irrigation. The levels of viable E. coli were very similar to those of cultivable E. coli, except for irrigation water obtained from water reservoirs. Comparison between the E. coli counts in samples positive and negative for the presence of pathogenic bacteria for the evaluated water sources identified E. coli level of 2.35 log cfu/100 mL as a cut-off able to correctly predict positive and negative samples with 93% sensitivity and 66% specificity, respectively. Thus, for the samples with levels of E. coli under 2.35 log cfu/100 mL (e.g., 2.24 log cfu/100 mL) there was a 90% probability that the samples were not contaminated with pathogenic microorganism in locations with similar prevalence. E. coli levels in irrigation water were affected by the ambient temperature confirming that water source and climate conditions should be taken into account by growers when designing a sampling program and the frequency of the monitoring to make a better and more efficient use of their resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Kohl-Chikni Dawa – a compound ophthalmic formulation of Unani medicine on naphthalene-induced cataracts in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidi Zehra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, accounting for 13-27% of cases. Kohl-Chikni Dawa (KCD is reputed for its beneficial effects in the treatment of premature cataracts. However, its efficacy is yet to be tested. To investigate the rationality of the therapeutic use of Kohl-Chikni Dawa (KCD in Unani medicine. Methods The effect of Kohl-Chikni Dawa eye drops on naphthalene-induced cataracts in rats was investigated by slit-lamp biomicroscopic analysis. The normal group of experimental animals was administered with mineral oil (orally, while other groups were given naphthalene (orally along with local application of KCD eye drops (once and twice daily, placebo and distilled water (twice daily. Initial morphological changes of the lenses were observed twice a week for two weeks, and thereafter once a week for four weeks. Results Local application of KCD (twice daily caused significant reduction in the lens opacification after 2 to 4 weeks of naphthalene administration. Conclusion KCD eye drops may have the potential to delay progression of naphthalene-induced cataracts in rats.

  15. Realisation of a system for interactive borehole logging data evaluation in the exploration of mineral resources (coal); Aufbau eines interaktiven Auswertesystems fuer Bohrlochmessungen in Explorationsbohrungen auf mineralische Rohstoffe (Kohle)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, H.J.


    The project was intended to establish an integrated system for processing and evaluation of measured well data. With the ``Well Data System`` and its specially developed programs and interfaces to existing software, special evaluation programs can be run at any time. The system includes all peripheral devices, from data acquisition to data storage through to the plotting device. The report explains the performance of the system using as an example a very comprehensive examination of the capabilities to correct density data obtained in a coal desposit. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Ziel des Projekts war die Schaffung eines integrierten Systems zur Bearbeitung von Bohrlochmessungen. Mit dem ``Well Data System`` und den neu entwickelten Programmen innerhalb des WDS sowie den Schnittstellen zu vorhandener Software koennen jederzeit spezielle Auswertungen durchgefuehrt werden. Die gesamte Peripherie, angefangen von der Datenerfassung ueber die Datenspeicherung bis hin zur Ausgabe (Plot) ist vorhanden. Im folgenden wird die Arbeitsweise des Systems mittels einer umfangreichen Untersuchung ueber die Korrekturmoeglichkeiten von Dichtemessungen fuer Kohle gezeigt. (orig./MSK)

  16. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation...

  17. First description of the male and redescription of the female of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) from the mountains of Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama. (United States)

    Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Domínguez, Lillian G; Torres, Sugeys S; Bernal, Juan A; Montenegro, Victor M; Bermúdez, Sergio E


    The male of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae) is described for the first time and the female is redescribed in greater detail. Adults of I. tapirus are similar to those of Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956, Ixodes lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958, Ixodes montoyanus Cooley, 1944 and Ixodes venezuelensis Kohls, 1953 but can be distinguished by their overall size, the amount of sclerotisation of the conscutum and accessory plates, the shape of the scutum, the number of punctations and their pattern on the conscutum and scutum, the depth of the punctations on the basis capituli dorsally, the shape and size of the porose areas and the size and shape of the auriculae. Adults of I. tapirus were collected from tapirs and vegetation in the mountains of Colombia, Panama and recorded from Costa Rica for the first time.

  18. Small Acreage Irrigation Management


    Heaton, Kevin M.


    Field irrigation application methods include surface (wild flooding, border, furrow, basins), sprinkler (hand line, wheel move, solid set, center pivot), low flow or micro-irrigation (drip, trickle, micro-spray), and subirrigation (water table manipulation under special conditions).

  19. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  20. The future prospects of coal worldwide and the geopolitical situation of coal utilisation; Rolle der Kohle fuer die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung weltweit - die geopolitische Situation der Kohlenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellmer, F.W.; Barthel, F. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)


    Although the world has vast coal reserves, about 60 % of the reserves are concentrated in just three countries, of which Germany is one. The future prospects of the German coal industry are gone into. [German] In 85 Laendern der Welt sind Kohlereserven von ca. 558 Mrd. t SKE vorhanden. Sie reichen fuer eine lange Zeit aus, um eine angemessene Versorgung zu gewaehrleisten. Allerdings sind 60% der Reserven auf drei Laender konzentriert, womit die Kohle den hoechsten Grad bei allen Energierohstoffen erreicht. Die wichtigsten Kohlelaender und deren Foerderung werden vorgestellt. Kennzeichnend ist bei der Foerderung eine Konzentration von ueber 60% auf drei Laender bei der Steinkohle und von ca. 40% bei der Braunkohle mit Deutschland an erster Stelle. Die weltweiten Mergers und Acquisitions grosser Bergbaugesellschaften hat auch bei der Kohle zu einer Fokussierung des Lagerstaettenbesitzes und der Foerderanteile gefuehrt. Abgesehen von den staatlich kontrollierten Kohlegesellschften vereinigen die drei groessten privaten Kohlegesellschaften fast 1/4 der Kohlefoerderung auf sich. Die deutsche RAG Coal International befindet sich darunter. Fuer die deutsche Versorgung spielen die Importe eine zunehmende Rolle bei gleichzeitig sinkender einheimischer Foerderung. (orig.)

  1. Replacement of coal-fuelled stoves by modern room heating systems in multistorey dwellings; Abloesung der Kohle-Einzelofenheizung durch moderne Raumheizungssysteme in Mehrgeschossbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, K. [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany)


    In eastern Germany, approximately one million residential units in multi-storey apartment buildings are still heated with coal-fired stoves. Not all building societies or private house-owners can afford to substitute modern heating systems for individual coal stoves within the foreseeable future. Problems encountered when modernizing heating systems are described. A way of pre-financing modernization is by loans given by the tenants to the building society. The paper deals with individual aspects, such as contract conditions, organization and experience with this model, as well as its advantages for the landlord and tenant. (MSK) [Deutsch] In Ostdeutschland werden noch rund 1 Million Wohnungen in mehrgeschossigen Wohnhaeuern mit Kohle geheizt. Nicht alle Wohnungsgenossenschaften oder privaten Hauseigentuemer sind finanziell in der Lage in absehbarer Zeit die Kohle-Einzelheizung durch moderne Heizungssysteme abzuloesen. Im Folgenden werden die Probleme bei der Heizungsmodernisierung beschrieben. Der Weg Heizungsmodernisierung durch Mieterdarlehen wird in einzelnen Punkten wie Finanzierung durch Mieterdarlehen, deren Organisation und Erfahrungen mit diesem Modell sowie die Vorteile fuer Vermieter und Mieter dargelegt.

  2. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum)


    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez; Yoslén Fernández Gálvez; Mayra Martínez Pírez; Camilo Bonet Pérez; Manuel A Hernández Victoria; Arlandy Noy Perera


    This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ersoy Yildirim


    Full Text Available Turkey is located within semi-arid climate zone and large portion of the country experience water deficits. Thus, efficient water use has become a significand issue in agricultural practices. Current global warming and climate change have aggravated such deficiencies. Konya province is located right at the center of Central Anatolia region and mostly groundwater is used in irrigations. Excessive groundwater withdrawals drop groundwaters levels and also increase energy costs. Although farmers pay quite high sums for energy, they were not using water efficiently and thus were not able to get desired benefits from the irrigations. In this study, irrigation practices of an irrigation cooperative were assessed and compared with optimum irrigation programs created through IRSIS irrigation scheduling software. It was concluded that all irrigation practices of the region were wrong and way behind the optimum ones.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll


    Irrigated agriculture makes societies more likely to be ruled by authoritarian regimes. Ancient societies have long been thought to follow this pattern. We empirically show that irrigation affects political regimes even in the present. To avoid endogeneity, we use geographical and climatic...... variation to identify irrigation dependent societies. We find that countries whose agriculture depended on irrigation are about six points less democratic on the 21-point polity2 scale than countries where agriculture has been rainfed. We find qualitatively similar results across regions within countries....... We argue that the effect has historical origins: irrigation allowed landed elites in arid areas to monopolize water and arable land. This made elites more powerful and better able to oppose democratization. Consistent with this conjecture, we show that irrigation dependence predicts land inequality...

  5. The Mawala irrigation scheme


    de Bont, Chris


    This booklet was written to share research results with farmers and practitioners in Tanzania. It gives a summary of the empirical material collected during three months of field work in the Mawala irrigation scheme (Kilimanjaro Region), and includes maps, tables and photos. It describes the history of the irrigation scheme, as well current irrigation and farming practices. It especially focuses on the different kinds of infrastructural improvement in the scheme (by farmers and the government...

  6. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  7. Principles of drip irrigation management in vegetable production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhi BAŞTUĞ


    Full Text Available Because drip irrigation normally supplies water to a specific part of the soil volume occupied by plant, limited areas to be wetted in soil volume near each emitter or along each lateral line. This is an important context for irrigation system design, operation and management and cultural practices management. Therefore, this characteristic must be taken into consideration for appropriate management of vegetable drip irrigation systems with knowledge requires including of soil hydraulic characteristics, plant growth and water use characteristics and evaporative demand. The irrigation schedule must integrate these features and conform to existing irrigation system and cultural constraits. Additionally, irrigation management program must be coupled with the fertilizer management program to avoid excessive water applications that leach plant nutrients in soil.

  8. Irrigation water quality assessments (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  9. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide. (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  10. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide. (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  11. Irrigation in endodontics. (United States)

    Haapasalo, M; Shen, Y; Wang, Z; Gao, Y


    Irrigation is a key part of successful root canal treatment. It has several important functions, which may vary according to the irrigant used: it reduces friction between the instrument and dentine, improves the cutting effectiveness of the files, dissolves tissue, cools the file and tooth, and furthermore, it has a washing effect and an antimicrobial/antibiofilm effect. Irrigation is also the only way to impact those areas of the root canal wall not touched by mechanical instrumentation. Sodium hypochlorite is the main irrigating solution used to dissolve organic matter and kill microbes effectively. High concentration sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has a better effect than 1 and 2% solutions. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is needed as a final rinse to remove the smear layer. Sterile water or saline may be used between these two main irrigants, however, they must not be the only solutions used. The apical root canal imposes a special challenge to irrigation as the balance between safety and effectiveness is particularly important in this area. Different means of delivery are used for root canal irrigation, from traditional syringe-needle delivery to various machine-driven systems, including automatic pumps and sonic or ultrasonic energy.

  12. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 4, 2016 ... mathematical programming model was developed and applied in this paper to provide decision support regarding the optimal mainline ... integrates irrigation system design, irrigation water management and the use of ... rate is calculated using the methodology proposed in Boelhje end Eidman (1984).

  13. Vision of irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Braz-Tangerino


    Full Text Available Irrigation not only has been a key factor for the development and maintenance of human societies but it still plays this role now and it is foreseen that in the future as well. Its evolution has been constrained to the advance in knowledge on matters regarding Agronomy and Water Engineering and in technology however, many challenges deserve further research. It is worth to note that Brazil has strongly promoted irrigation in the last decade. Within the limited extension of this article, some current topics in irrigation, some of them are innovative such us the research line studying water flow in soil-plant in Mediterranean plants and its consequences on water use,. and future challenges are presented with the purpose of stimulate publication of Irrigation papers in the journal “Ingeniería del Agua” among Portuguese and Spanish language communities.

  14. Advances in Irrigation (United States)

    Gardner, W. R.

    This is the first volume of Advances in Irrigation, a new serial publication by the publishers of Advances in Agronomy and Advances in Hydroscience and designed to follow the same format. The editor is a well-known researcher and writer on irrigation and related subjects and has assembled a collection of highly regarded and respected authors for the initial volume. The readership for this volume will probably be mainly specialists and students interested in irrigation and an occasional design engineer.The seven contributions in this volume fall roughly into two classes: research and practice. Three papers (“Conjunctive Use of Rainfall and Irrigation in Semi-arid Regions,” by Stewart and Musik, “Irrigation Scheduling Using Soil Moisture Measurements: Theory and Practice,” by G. S. and M. D. Campbell, and “Use of Solute Transport Models to Estimate Salt Balance Below Irrigated Cropland,” by Jury) cover topics that have been the subject of a number of reviews. The contributions here provide brief, well-written, and authoritative summaries of the chosen topics and serve as good introductions or reviews. They should lend themselves well to classroom use in various ways. They also should be helpful to the nonspecialist interested in getting a sense of the subject without going into great detail.

  15. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  16. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system


    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.


    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  17. The effect of irrigation uniformity on irrigation water requirements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of water in South Africa. Due to the limited amount of water resources, the efficient and equitable use of water is of paramount importance. This can only be achieved through effective design, maintenance and management of irrigation systems. The uniformity with which an irrigation ...

  18. Planning for an Irrigation System. (United States)

    Turner, J. Howard; Anderson, Carl L.

    The publication, with the aid of tables and colored illustrations and diagrams, presents information to help the farmer who is considering the installation of an irrigation system determine whether or not to irrigate, the type of system to use, and the irrigation cost and return on investment. Information is presented on the increase in yield to…

  19. dry vs irrigated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 5, 2009 ... (dry vs irrigated) on the genetic relationships among the selected cotton lines from F6 population was studied using a ... a crop plant to produce its economic product with mini- mum loss in a water-deficit ..... Analysis System (NTSYS-pc) Version 2.0 software package (Rohlf,. 1993). The resulting genetic ...

  20. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.


    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  1. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. Al-Ghobari


    Full Text Available Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  2. Review on Trickle Irrigation Application in Groundwater Irrigation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Government of Indonesia has developed groundwater irrigation schemes in some province e.g. East Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, Wast Java, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara. However, not all regions were able to optimally utilize it. The irrigation effeciency of groundwater irrigation scheme was about 59%, while the wells-pumping efficiencies were varied from 28 to 98 %. In thefuture, the irrigation effieciency should be increased to anticipate water deficit during dry season. The application of trickle irrigation in indonesia has not been widely developed. Although trickle system has been used, however, it is still limited for few commercial agribusinesses. Trickle irrigation systems have a prospect to be developed in some regions having limited water resources. For preliminary stage, the systems could be applied in groundwater irrigation schemes that have been developed either by farmers or government.

  3. Accounting for water : institutional viability and impacts of market-oriented irrigation interventions in Central Mexico


    Kloezen, W.H.


    During the past decade, many countries throughout the world have attempted to improve their generally poor performance record of agency-managed irrigation systems by designing and implementing institutional policy programs. This thesis analyses the institutional viability and the local impact on irrigation performance of two such institutional intervention programs. This is done in the context of the Alto Río Lerma irrigation district (ARLID),...

  4. Computational modeling for irrigated agriculture planning. Part I: general description and linear programming Modelagem computacional para planejamento em agricultura irrigada: Parte I: descrição geral e programação linear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. F. Borges Júnior


    Full Text Available Linear programming models are effective tools to support initial or periodic planning of agricultural enterprises, requiring, however, technical coefficients that can be determined using computer simulation models. This paper, presented in two parts, deals with the development, application and tests of a methodology and of a computational modeling tool to support planning of irrigated agriculture activities. Part I aimed at the development and application, including sensitivity analysis, of a multiyear linear programming model to optimize the financial return and water use, at farm level for Jaíba irrigation scheme, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using data on crop irrigation requirement and yield, obtained from previous simulation with MCID model. The linear programming model outputted a crop pattern to which a maximum total net present value of R$ 372,723.00 for the four years period, was obtained. Constraints on monthly water availability, labor, land and production were critical in the optimal solution. In relation to the water use optimization, it was verified that an expressive reductions on the irrigation requirements may be achieved by small reductions on the maximum total net present value.Modelos de programação linear são ferramentas eficazes de suporte ao planejamento inicial ou periódico de empreendimentos agrícolas, requerendo, todavia, coeficientes técnicos que podem ser obtidos por modelos computacionais de simulação. Este trabalho, dividido em duas partes, aborda o desenvolvimento, a aplicação e os testes de metodologia e da modelagem computacional de uma ferramenta de auxílio ao planejamento da exploração agrícola irrigada. Teve-se o objetivo de desenvolver e aplicar, com análise de sensibilidade, um modelo de programação linear plurianual para otimização do retorno financeiro e uso da água, em nível de propriedade rural no perímetro de irrigação do Jaíba - MG, utilizando dados de requerimento de irriga

  5. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.


    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of irrigant extrusion using passive ultrasonic irrigation, EndoActivator, or syringe irrigation. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Figueroa, Carolina; McClanahan, Scott B; Bowles, Walter R


    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation is critical to endodontic success, and several new methods have been developed to improve irrigation efficacy (eg, passive ultrasonic irrigation [PUI] and EndoActivator [EA]). Using a novel spectrophotometric method, this study evaluated NaOCl irrigant extrusion during canal irrigation. One hundred fourteen single-rooted extracted teeth were decoronated to leave 15 mm of the root length for each tooth. Cleaning and shaping of the teeth were completed using standardized hand and rotary instrumentation to an apical file size #40/0.04 taper. Roots were sealed (not apex), and 54 straight roots (n = 18/group) and 60 curved roots (>20° curvature, n = 20/group) were included. Teeth were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl by 1 of 3 methods: passive irrigation with needle, PUI, or EA irrigation. Extrusion of NaOCl was evaluated using a pH indicator and a spectrophotometer. Standard curves were prepared with known amounts of irrigant to quantify amounts in unknown samples. Irrigant extrusion was minimal with all methods, with most teeth showing no NaOCl extrusion in straight or curved roots. Minor NaOCl extrusion (1-3 μL) in straight roots or curved roots occurred in 10%-11% of teeth in all 3 irrigant methods. Two teeth in both the syringe irrigation and the EA group extruded 3-10 μL of NaOCl. The spectrophotometric method used in this study proved to be very sensitive while providing quantification of the irrigant levels extruded. Using the PUI or EA tip to within 1 mm of the working length appears to be fairly safe, but apical anatomy can vary in teeth to allow extrusion of irrigant. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas (United States)


    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 3 Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas En vi ro nm...EL TR-17-13 July 2017 Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas Jacob F. Berkowitz, Jason P. Pietroski, and Steven J. Currie...following report is the first to evaluate the capacity of wetland hydrology to persist following the cessation of external water inputs for the

  8. Irrigation mitigates against heat extremes (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Fischer, Erich; Visser, Auke; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use gridded observations and ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on hot extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Finally we find that present-day irrigation is partly masking GHG-induced warming of extreme temperatures, with particularly strong effects in South Asia. Our results overall underline that irrigation substantially reduces our exposure to hot temperature extremes and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  9. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.


    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  10. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications


    Victor B. Ella


    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  11. Alkali release and sorption during combustion and gasification of coal under pressure; Freisetzung und Einbindung von Alkalien bei der Verbrennung und Vergasung von Kohle unter Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffin, C.R.; Wanzl, W.; Heek, K.H. van [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich FuelTec - Kokerei- und Brennstofftechnik


    unmittelbar Konsequenzen fuer die Brennstoffauswahl und Betriebsfuehrung in einem DKSF-Prozess. Ein geeigneter Brennstoff hinsichtlich geringer Alkalieemissionen stellt eine Kohle dar, die einen moeglichst geringen Anteil an wasserloeslichen Alkalien und einen hohen Anteil azider Tonminerale aufweist. Zur Reduzierung der wasserloeslichen Alkalien kann eine intensiver Waesche innerhalb der nasschemischen Aufbereitung nutzbringend sein. (orig./AKF)

  12. 1989, un caso de historia inmediata 20 años después. Hacia una reconstrucción del cuádruple efecto perverso producido por Jaruzelski, Gorbachov, Kohl y Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ortiz de Landázuri


    Full Text Available Se analizan cuatro interpretaciones actuales de la caída del muro de Berlín en 1989, en las que se reflexiona sobre el doble uso que Francis Fukuyama y Erik J. Hobsbawm hicieron de esta fecha de corte, según la concibieran como el fin de la historia en sentido liberal o el término de un siglo corto donde tuvo lugar la autodisolución del comunismo. Pero simultáneamente también se reconstruye el cuádruple efecto perverso que incluso hoy día siguen teniendo las distintas estrategias seguidas entonces por Jaruzelski, Gorbachov, Kohl y Obama para tratar de encauzar el conflicto generado por los sucesos de 1989.Palabras clave: fin de la historia, siglo corto, efecto perverso, comunismo, liberalismo.___________________________Abstract: They analyse four current interpretations of the fall of the wall of Berlin in 1989, in which it considers the double use that Francis Fukuyama and Erik J. Hobsbawm did of this date of cut, as they conceived it like the end of the history in liberal sense or the term of a short century where took place the dissolution of the communism. But simultaneously also it reconstructs the four perverse effect that even today day follow having the distinct strategies entered then by Jaruzelski, Gorbachov, Kohl and Obama to treat to pipe the conflict generated by the events of 1989.Keywords: end of history, short century, perverse effect, communism, liberalism.

  13. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.


    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  14. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  15. Soil Suitability Classification of Tomas Irrigation Scheme for Irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parametric method reveals that all the mapping units had an index of current productivity (IPC) of 5.63 (N2) which is permanently not suitable. Tomas irrigation scheme was found to be potentially moderately suitable (S2) for irrigated rice production using non-parametric method after the soil fertility status was amended.

  16. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  17. Soil nitrate testing supports nitrogen management in irrigated annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Lazicki


    Full Text Available Soil nitrate (NO3− tests are an integral part of nutrient management in annual crops. They help growers make field-specific nitrogen (N fertilization decisions, use N more efficiently and, if necessary, comply with California's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program, which requires an N management plan and an estimate of soil NO3− from most growers. As NO3− is easily leached into deeper soil layers and groundwater by rain and excess irrigation water, precipitation and irrigation schedules need to be taken into account when sampling soil and interpreting test results. We reviewed current knowledge on best practices for taking and using soil NO3− tests in California irrigated annual crops, including how sampling for soil NO3− differs from sampling for other nutrients, how tests performed at different times of the year are interpreted and some of the special challenges associated with NO3− testing in organic systems.

  18. Irrigation trends in Kansas, 1991–2011 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fact sheet examines trends in total reported irrigation water use and acres irrigated as well as irrigation water use by crop type and system type in Kansas for...

  19. Technical and technological bases for the design of small-scale irrigation system


    Gačnik, Nejc


    Due to the relatively high amount of rainfall, irrigation is one complementary measure that enables quantitative and qualitative, stable crop production in Slovenia. Government programs suggest more efficient water use and this is the advantage that drip irrigation systems have. In the latter, the water travels from the pumping station through a pipe network directly to the roots of plants. The core of the drip irrigation systems are laterals (pipes) with installed drippers, throu...

  20. Amelioration of the irrigated lands of the Vakhsh valley (United States)

    Ikromov, Islomkul; Mirzoev, Mm


    In the agro-industrial country like Tajikistan, the efficient use of irrigation of arable land is important because it contributes to the solution of the State Program of the Food independence of the country, by increasing the yield of agricultural production per unit of irrigated area. The irrigated area in the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1.01.2014g. equal to about 750 thousand. ha, per capita, on average, less than 0.10 hectares. and its share in relation to agricultural land is only 10.5%. However, more than 90% of crop production are grown on these lands. Given the demographic growth of the population of the republic specific area of irrigated land from year to year is becoming less and less of that call into question the successful solution of the above program. Therefore, in our view, to ensure food independence of the country in addition to the development of land from the reserve, should focus on the amelioration of existing irrigated areas, improve the culture of land and water, on modernization of reclamation systems contribute to a high degree of adaptability based on a high degree of water metering, water distribution, water and resource conservation, the use of the latest technology and irrigation techniques. Condition of the soil is their estimated figures is mainly determined by its productivity. It is determined by the degree of salinity of soils, the depth of the groundwater level and salinity, erosion and on stony ground. Vakhsh valley in Tajikistan is one of the main oases, ensuring production of agricultural products but, in recent years due to a number of man-made reasons: Adherence crop irrigation, low technical condition of irrigation systems and as a consequence their efficiency and utilization of irrigation water and farming, inoperable drainage system, or lack of them all, the virtual absence of vodouchёta on the field, no use of it modern technology and irrigation techniques, etc., the level of both fresh and saline groundwater rose

  1. Water requirement and irrigation schedule for tomato in northern guinea savanna zone, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Alhassan


    Full Text Available Assessment of water requirement and irrigation schedule for tomato with the support of FAO-CROPWAT simulation model was carried out for Yola, Nigeria with the aim of planning irrigation schedules for tomato and develop recommendations for improve irrigation practices. The climatic data for 2012/2013 and soil properties of the study area were input into the program. Tomato crop properties were updated by the FAO data and three irrigation intervals were tested (7 and 10 days irrigation intervals and irrigation schedule of 10 days interval during initial and development stage and 6 days interval at mid and late season stages of tomato crop. The simulated results analysis for tomato according to the irrigation schedule showed that highest yield reduction of 16.2% was recorded with 10 days irrigation interval treatment and the least of 0.4% with irrigation interval of 10 days at first two growth stages and 6 days at last two stages. FAO-CROPWAT 8.0 can be used in planning proper irrigation schedule for tomato in Yola, Nigeria.

  2. Assessing environmental impacts of constructed wetland effluents for vegetable crop irrigation. (United States)

    Castorina, A; Consoli, S; Barbagallo, S; Branca, F; Farag, A; Licciardello, F; Cirelli, G L


    The objective of this study was to monitor and assess environmental impacts of reclaimed wastewater (RW), used for irrigation of vegetable crops, on soil, crop quality and irrigation equipment. During 2013, effluents of a horizontal sub-surface flow constructed treatment wetland (TW) system, used for tertiary treatment of sanitary wastewater from a small rural municipality located in Eastern Sicily (Italy), were reused by micro-irrigation techniques to irrigate vegetable crops. Monitoring programs, based on in situ and laboratory analyses were performed for assessing possible adverse effects on water-soil-plant systems caused by reclaimed wastewater reuse. In particular, experimental results evidenced that Escherichia coli content found in RW would not present a risk for rotavirus infection following WHO (2006) standards. Irrigated soil was characterized by a certain persistence of microbial contamination and among the studied vegetable crops, lettuce responds better, than zucchini and eggplants, to the irrigation with low quality water, evidencing a bettering of nutraceutical properties and production parameters.

  3. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir


    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  4. Benefits of increased irrigation efficiency in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area


    Kemp, Adrian; Hafi, Ahmed


    Limited water availability in the face of increasing competing demands for water; including water for environmental purposes, has highlighted the need to make the most efficient use of the available water in the Murray Darling Basin. This study forces on the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (MIA) and considers the benefits of increasing irrigation efficiency. A model of the MIA which incorporates both on and off farm components is used to evaluate the benefits of adopting two on-farm options-twin...

  5. Intelligent irrigation performance: evaluation and quantifying its ability for conserving water in arid region (United States)

    Al-Ghobari, Hussein M.; Mohammad, Fawzi S.


    Intelligent irrigation technologies have been developed in recent years to apply irrigation to turf and landscape plants. These technologies are an evapotranspiration (ET)-based irrigation controller, which calculates ET for local microclimate. Then, the controller creates a program for loading and communicating automatically with drip or sprinkler system controllers. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the new ET sensors in ability to irrigate agricultural crops and to conserve water use for crop in arid climatic conditions. This paper presents the case for water conservation using intelligent irrigation system (IIS) application technology. The IIS for automating irrigation scheduling was implemented and tested with sprinkle and drip irrigation systems to irrigate wheat and tomato crops. Another irrigation scheduling system was also installed and operated as another treatment, which is based on weather data that retrieved from an automatic weather station. This irrigation control system was running in parallel to the former system (IIS) to be control experiments for comparison purposes. However, this article discusses the implementation of IIS, its installation, testing and calibration of various components. The experiments conducted for one growing season 2009-2010 and the results were represented and discussed herein. Data from all plots were analyzed, which were including soil water status, water consumption, and crop yield. The initial results indicate that up to 25% water saving by intelligent irrigation compared to control method, while maintaining competing yield. Results show that the crop evapotranspiration values for control experiments were higher than that of ET-System in consistent trend during whole growth season. The analysis points out that the values of the two treatments were somewhat close to each other's only in the initial development stages. Generally, the ET-System, with some modification was precise in

  6. 76 FR 20971 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2011. d. Submitted By: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... Regulatory Affairs, Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, California 95381, 209-883-8241 and...

  7. 77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed... any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, as the..., Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, CA 95381. Greg Dias or Representative, Modesto...

  8. 77 FR 5507 - Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed... any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, as the..., Sacramento, CA 95816. Robert Nees, or Representative, Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, CA...

  9. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of...: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 USC 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Turlock Irrigation...

  10. Optimal design of pressurized irrigation systems. Application cases (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mireya Lapo Pauta


    Full Text Available This paper presents research completed with the intention of finding the most economical solution in the design of pressurized irrigation networks, while efficiently meet service delivery. A systematic methodology is proposed that combines two optimization techniques through a “hybrid method” in, which linear programming, nonlinear programming and genetic algorithms are fused. The overall formulations of the problem of optimal dimensioning consist of minimizing an objective function constituted through the associated cost of the pipes that form the network. This methodology was implemented in three networks a fictitious irrigation and two irrigation networks (Tuncarta and Cariyacu located in the cities of Loja and Chimborazo which yielded optimal design  solutions. Finally different scenarios were simulated in both models to obtain an overview of the operation of the hydraulic variables

  11. Current developments on the coal and gas markets and their retroactive effects on the Merit Order; Aktuelle Entwicklungen auf den Kohle- und Gasmaerkten und ihre Rueckwirkungen auf die Merit Order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecking, Harald; Cam, Eren; Schoenfisch, Max; Schulte, Simon [ewi Energy Research and Scenarios gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)


    Coal and gas continue to play a significant role in the European power generation system, especially in Germany. According to the AG energy balances, the share of hard coal in German gross electricity generation in 2016 was 17.2% and natural gas 12.4%. In addition to the CO{sub 2} price, the prices for steam coal and natural gas are a key factor in determining which gas or coal power station is in Merit Order and whether it comes to a fuel switch. Declining gas prices have been rising sharply since the middle of 2016, and the volatile prices for steam coal have been rising. This article discusses the developments and factors responsible for these developments, which could be expected in the near future, and the implications for the gas-coal spread in the electricity market. [German] Kohle und Gas spielen weiterhin eine bedeutende Rolle im europaeischen Stromerzeugungssystem, insbesondere in Deutschland. Laut AG Energiebilanzen lag 2016 der Anteil der Steinkohle an der deutschen Bruttostromerzeugung bei 17,2 % und der von Erdgas bei 12,4 %. Neben dem CO{sub 2}-Preis sind die Preise fuer Kesselkohle und Erdgas massgeblich dafuer verantwortlich, welches Gas- bzw. Kohlekraftwerk welche Position in der Merit Order einnimmt und ob es zu einem Fuel Switch kommt. Sinkende Preise beim Gas stehen seit Mitte 2016 stark gestiegenen und volatilen Preisen fuer Kesselkohle gegenueber. Dieser Artikel diskutiert, welche Entwicklungen und Faktoren fuer diese Entwicklungen verantwortlich sind, womit in naher Zukunft zu rechnen sein koennte und welche Implikationen dies fuer den Gas-Kohle-Spread im Strommarkt hat.

  12. Irrigation Controllers Specification and Certification (United States)

    WaterSense labeled irrigation controllers, which act like a thermostat for your sprinkler system telling it when to turn on and off, use local weather and landscape conditions to tailor watering schedules to actual conditions on the site.

  13. Irrigation Sprinklers Notice of Intent (United States)

    High-efficiency irrigation sprinklers aim to deliver water more evenly to the landscape than traditional sprinklers and/or regulate outlet pressure to ensure a constant flow rate over a range of supply pressures.

  14. Swing Set Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambe Verma


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT India is a vast country based on agriculture and irrigation is the most important factor for agriculture. In India there are many sources provide for irrigation. Every day new technologies are emerged in the world which brings a revolutionary change in the nature of this world. day by day the energy resources used by the large population of this world are coming on the last stage This project give the idea that how the other different form of energy can be used and implemented efficiently to overcome from this problem The aim of this project is to achieve the objective of energy lasting problem which is likely to be faced over in coming decades. Energy lasting is a big problem in India. This is faced by every people who live in the country. Swing energy is the form of energy. In this paper we have represented the methodology of swing energy using for rural area of application. This paper is all about Swing Set Water Pump in which the water pump will execute with the help of a swing set of canopy type. As we need a motor to operate the water pump but in this project we use the swing in the place of motor and we use oscillatory motion of swing in the place of rotating motion of a motor. Everybody has needed the energy at an increasing rate ever since he came on the Earth. Because of this lot of energy has been exhausted and wasted. All the member are dedicated the amount of their important time to participate in multiple meetings read and research for making the content to the report. We would especially like to thanks for the efficient condition of the entire Advisory member and their experiences. This study was initial and performed within the BUDDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GIDA Gorakhpur the final report represents the labour and interest of the entire member working for this project. Finally we would like to thanks to all the member of our college workshop who helped us in manufacturing of this project model.

  15. Sex allocation and sex-dependent selection for body size in Trypoxylon rogenhoferi Kohl (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae Alocação sexual e seleção sexo-dependente para tamanho de corpo em Trypoxylon rogenhoferi Kohl (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carlos Peruquetti


    Full Text Available Two populations of the wasp Trypoxylon rogenhoferi Kohl, 1884 from São Carlos and Luís Antônio, State of São Paulo, Brazil, were observed and sampled from May 1999 to February 2001 using trap-nests. This mass-provisioning wasp was used to test some aspects of optimal sex allocation theory. Both populations fit all the predictions of the models of Green and Brockmann and Grafen. Maternal provisions determined the size of each offspring, and females allocated well-stocked brood cells to daughters, the sex that benefits most being large. This strategy resulted in a difference in size between the sexes. In São Carlos, female weight at emergence was 1.18 times that of males, in Luís Antônio this value was 1.13. The brood cell volume was correlated with both wing length and weight at emergence in both sexes, and the chance that a given brood cell contained a male offspring decreased with increased brood cell volume. In T. rogenhoferi female body size was related to fitness. Larger females were able to collect more mass of spiders per day, the spiders they captured were heavier, and they provisioned more brood cells per day. They also produced larger daughters. For males, no relationship between body size and fitness was found, but the data were scarce. Since the patterns of provisioning were variable among different females in both study sites, it is possible that the females not follow a unique strategy for sex allocation. The sex ratio and/or investment ratio in the São Carlos population was female-biased and in Luís Antônio, male-biased. In spite of the influence of trap-nests diameters on male production in Luís Antônio, there is some evidence that in São Carlos population the local availability of prey and/or lower rate of parasitism may be major forces in determining the observed sex ratio, but further studies are necessary to verify such hypothesis.

  16. Adaptive Effectiveness of Irrigated Area Expansion in Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on Crop Yields in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhang


    Full Text Available To improve adaptive capacity and further strengthen the role of irrigation in mitigating climate change impacts, the Chinese government has planned to expand irrigated areas by 4.4% by the 2030s. Examining the adaptive potential of irrigated area expansion under climate change is therefore critical. Here, we assess the effects of irrigated area expansion on crop yields based on county-level data during 1980–2011 in northern China and estimate climate impacts under irrigated area scenarios in the 2030s. Based on regression analysis, there is a statistically significant effect of irrigated area expansion on reducing negative climate impacts. More irrigated areas indicate less heat and drought impacts. Irrigated area expansion will alleviate yield reduction by 0.7–0.8% in the future but associated yield benefits will still not compensate for greater adverse climate impacts. Yields are estimated to decrease by 4.0–6.5% under future climate conditions when an additional 4.4% of irrigated area is established, and no fundamental yield increase with an even further 10% or 15% expansion of irrigated area is predicted. This finding suggests that expected adverse climate change risks in the 2030s cannot be mitigated by expanding irrigated areas. A combination of this and other adaptation programs is needed to guarantee grain production under more serious drought stresses in the future.

  17. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  18. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti


    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  19. Radiological Evaluation of Penetration of the Irrigant according to Three Endodontic Irrigation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Dhaimy


    Full Text Available Introduction. This experimental study is to compare radiographs based on the penetration depth of the irrigant following three final irrigation techniques. Material and Method. A sample of sixty teeth with single roots were prepared with stainless steel K files followed by mechanized Ni-Ti files iRace® under irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Radiopaque solution was utilized to measure the penetration depth of the irrigant. Three irrigation techniques were performed during this study: (i passive irrigation, (ii manually activated irrigation, and (iii passive irrigation with an endodontic needle CANAL CLEAN®. Radiographs were performed to measure the length of irrigant penetration in each technique. Results. In comparison, passive irrigation with a conventional syringe showed infiltration of the irrigant by an average of 0.682±0.105, whereas the manually activated irrigation technique indicated an average of 0.876±0.066 infiltration. Irrigation with an endodontic syringe showed an average infiltration of 0.910±0.043. The results revealed highly significant difference between the three irrigation techniques (α=5%. Conclusion. Adding manual activation to the irrigant improved the result by 20%. This study indicates that passive irrigation with an endodontic needle has proved to be the most effective irrigation technique of the canal system.

  20. Water Stress & Biomass Monitoring and SWAP Modeling of Irrigated Crops in Saratov Region of Russia (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga


    Development of modern irrigation technologies are balanced between the need to maximize production and the need to minimize water use which provides harmonious interaction of irrigated systems with closely-spaced environment. Thus requires an understanding of complex interrelationships between landscape and underground of irrigated and adjacent areas in present and future conditions aiming to minimize development of negative scenarios. In this way in each irrigated areas a combination of specific factors and drivers must be recognized and evaluated. Much can be obtained by improving the efficiency use of water applied for irrigation. Modern RS monitoring technologies offers the opportunity to develop and implement an effective irrigation control program permitting today to increase efficiency of irrigation water use. These technologies provide parameters with both high temporal and adequate spatial needed to monitor agrohydrological parameters of irrigated agricultural crops. Combination of these parameters with meteorological and biophysical parameters can be used to estimate crop water stress defined as ratio between actual (ETa) and potential (ETc) evapotranspiration. Aggregation of actual values of crop water stress with biomass (yield) data predicted by agrohydrological model based on weather forecasting and scenarios of irrigation water application may be used for indication of both rational timing and amount of irrigation water allocation. This type of analysis facilitating an efficient water management can be easily extended to irrigated areas by developing maps of water efficiency application serving as an irrigation advice system for farmers at his fields and as a decision support tool for the authorities on the large perimeter irrigation management. This contribution aims to communicate an illustrative explanation about the practical application of a data combination of agrohydrological modeling and ground & space based monitoring. For this aim some

  1. Fuzzy System of Irrigation Applied to the Growth of Habanero Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) under Protected Conditions in Yucatan, Mexico


    Ceballos, Martha Rocio; Gorricho, Juan Luis; Palma Gamboa, Oscar; Huerta, Mónica Karel; Rivas, David; Erazo Rodas, Mayra


    Agriculture is the largest user of water worldwide by using about 70 percent of total consumption. The world food production depends on the availability of water, considering factors such as demographic and climate change, so the use of efficient irrigation is necessary to apply the correct amount of water to crops. The traditional irrigation systems generally program their scheme based on measurements made at Class A evaporimeter pan. In this paper an irrigation scheme defined by an algorith...

  2. Irrigation and groundwater in Pakistan (United States)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Iftikhar Kazmi, Syed


    Introduction of large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in late nineteenth century without a drainage system resulted in water table rise consequently giving rise to water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem government initiated salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in 1960. Initially 10,000 tube wells were installed in different areas, which not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the full irrigation motivated framers to install private tube wells. Present estimate of private tube wells in Punjab alone is around 0.6 million and 48 billion cubic meter of groundwater is used for irrigation, contributing is 1.3 billion to the economy. The Punjab meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tubewells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. As the importance of groundwater in sustaining human life and ecology is evident so are the threats to its sustainability due to overexploitation, but sufficient information for its sustainable management especially in developing countries is still required. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. Groundwater recharge is broadly defined as water that reaches the aquifer from any direction (Lerner 1997). Sustainability and proper management of groundwater resource requires reliable quantification of the resource. In order to protect the resource from contamination and over exploitation, identification of recharge sources and their contribution to resource is a basic requirement. Physiochemical properties of some pesticides and their behavior in soil and water can make them potential tracers of subsurface moisture movement. Pesticides are intensively used in the area to

  3. Irrigation Scheduling Based on Soil Moisture Studies and Crop Yield Under Deficit Irrigation (United States)

    Rao, K.; Jayakumar, K.


    A critical element in irrigation scheduling is the accurate measurement of the volume of water applied or the depth of application at a predetermined frequency. The problem arises when there is deficit in the availability of water for the desired cropping pattern. A live problem in a distributory of a major irrigation project in the State of Andhra Pradesh in South India has been taken up for the present study. A software "SOMOSIM" (Soil Moisture Simulation) has been developed as a part of the study to determine the frequency and depth of irrigation. This program is then combined with the software B2D developed by Playan et al (1994) to determine the discharge required and corresponding duration to store a design depth of irrigation in a prescribed dimensioned strip of land. The study is carried for different levels of deficits and adopting various cropping patterns prescribed by statutory bodies and funding agencies. Sensitive factors of different crops, suggested by FAO are also taken into consideration for various stages of crop growth in the computation. Necessary data for this study were obtained from the agricultural university, agricultural research station and the agriculture marketing department. The results of the study indicate a scientific allocation of water under deficit conditions. When the deficit is large and if the crops are very sensitive for shortage of water, such crops may not be grown. Four approaches are used in the study for distribution of deficit, viz., Distribution of deficit equally among all the crops Distribution of deficit on the basis of weighted average of sensitive factors Distribution of deficit on the basis of relative weights of sensitive factors, and Distribution of deficits to achieve constant relative yield. The study shows that the fourth method is the best among the various methods tested.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Łabędzki


    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the so far used in Poland methods and criteria for assessing the needs of irrigation for planning purposes, the assessment because of the agroclimatic conditions and taking into account the soil water retention. Irrigation needs of the most are determined taking into account crop water deficits. This is the factor that is characterized by a shortage of precipitation in relation to the water requirements of crops. Some methods use only the meteorological parameters that determine the state of the atmosphere-soil-plant system, and some also take into account soil water retention and its availability for plants.

  5. Developing Automatic Controllers for sprinkler irrigation systems (United States)

    Playán, E.; Salvador, R.; Cavero, J.; López, C.; Lecina, S.; Zapata, N.


    The application of new technologies to the control and automation of irrigation processes is quickly gaining attention. The automation of irrigation execution (through irrigation controllers) is now widespread. However, the automatic generation and execution of irrigation schedules is receiving growing attention due to the possibilities offered by the telemetry/remote control systems currently being installed in collective pressurized networks. These developments can greatly benefit from the combination of irrigation system and crop models, and from the interaction with agrometeorological databases, hydraulic models of pressurized collective distribution networks, weather forecasts and management databases for water users associations. Prospects for the development of such systems in collective sprinkler irrigation systems are analyzed in this presentation. Additionally, experimental results are presented on the application of these concepts to a hydrant irrigating a solid-set irrigated maize field.

  6. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrutia Cobo, N.


    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands

  7. 75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications June 16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal...

  8. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.


    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation

  9. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation District (collectively, the Districts), are co-licensees for the Don Pedro...

  10. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University


    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  11. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food... DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator. (a) Identification. An ostomy irrigator is a device that consists of a container for fluid, tubing with a cone-shaped...

  12. small scale irrigation management practices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lm = Labor-use man-days,. Pn =Purchased inputs in Naira,. Fx = Fertilizer used in kilogram,. 1w = Quantity of irrigation water used in ha-cm, and U = Stochastic error term. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Age of the farmers is an important factor that determines labor productivity in traditional agriculture. The average age of ...

  13. Sediment transport in irrigation canals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendez V., N.J.


    The world population is rapidly increasing and is expected to double to about 10 billion by the year 2050. To support an increasing population in terms of food sufficiency, more and more water will be required. Irrigation is the most critical component of the modern package of inputs to

  14. Speed control variable rate irrigation (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  15. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. II. Irrigation strategies. (United States)

    Evett, Steven R; Zalesny, Ronald S; Kandil, Nabil F; Stanturf, John A; Soriano, Chris


    An Egyptian national program targets annual reuse of 2.4 billion m3 of treated wastewater (TWW) to irrigate 84,000 ha of manmade forests in areas close to treatment plants and in the desert. To evaluate the feasibility of such afforestation efforts, we describe information about TWW irrigation strategies based on (1) water use of different tree species, (2) weather conditions in different climate zones of Egypt, (3) soil types and available irrigation systems, and (4) the requirement to avoid deep percolation losses that could lead to groundwater contamination. We conclude that drip irrigation systems are preferred, that they should in most cases use multiple emitters per tree in order to increase wetted area and decrease depth of water penetration, that deep rooting should be encouraged, and that in most situations irrigation system automation is desirable to achieve several small irrigations per day in order to avoid deep percolation losses. We describe directed research necessary to fill knowledge gaps about depth of rooting of different species in sandy Egyptian soils and environments, tree crop coefficients needed for rational irrigation scheduling, and depth of water penetration under different irrigation system designs. A companion paper addresses recommendations for afforestation strategies (see Zalesny et al. 2011, this issue).

  16. Testing an Irrigation Decision Support Tool for California Specialty Crops (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Cahn, M.; Benzen, S.; Zaragoza, I.; Murphy, L.; Melton, F. S.; Martin, F.; Quackenbush, A.; Lockhart, T.


    Estimation of crop evapotranspiration supports efficiency of irrigation water management, which in turn can mitigate nitrate leaching, groundwater depletion, and provide energy savings. Past research in California and elsewhere has revealed strong relationships between photosynthetically active vegetation fraction (Fc) and crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Additional research has shown the potential of monitoring Fc by satellite remote sensing. The U.C. Cooperative Extension developed and operates CropManage (CM) as on-line database irrigation (and nitrogen) scheduling tool. CM accounts for the rapid growth and typically brief cycle of cool-season vegetables, where Fc and fraction of reference ET can change daily during canopy development. The model automates crop water requirement calculations based on reference ET data collected by California Dept. Water Resources. Empirically-derived equations are used to estimate daily Fc time-series for a given crop type primarily as a function of planting date and expected harvest date. An application programming interface (API) is under development to provide a check on modeled Fc of current crops and facilitate CM expansion to new crops. The API will enable CM to extract field scale Fc observations from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS). SIMS is mainly Landsat based and currently monitors Fc over about 8 million irrigation acres statewide, with potential for adding data from ESA/Sentinel for improved temporal resolution. In the current study, a replicated irrigation trial was performed on romaine lettuce at the USDA Agricultural Research Station in Salinas, CA. CropManage recommendations were used to guide water treatments by drip irrigation at 50%, 75%, 100% ETc replacement levels, with an added treatment at 150% ET representing grower standard practice. Experimental results indicate that yields from the 100% and 150% treatments were not significantly different and were in-line with industry average, while

  17. Saline nasal irrigation for upper respiratory conditions. (United States)

    Rabago, David; Zgierska, Aleksandra


    Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of spray and liquid saline nasal irrigation to manage symptoms of mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory tract infections. Consensus guidelines recommend saline nasal irrigation as a treatment for a variety of other conditions, including rhinitis of pregnancy and acute rhinosinusitis. Saline nasal irrigation appears safe, with no reported serious adverse events. Minor adverse effects can be avoided with technique modification and salinity adjustment.

  18. Otimização do uso da água no perímetro irrigado do Gorutuba, utilizando-se a técnica da programação linear Optimization of water use in the Gorutuba irrigation district, Minas Gerais (Brazil using the linear programming model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fonseca de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se selecionar as culturas e os meses de plantio que proporcionem a maximização da renda do agricultor e da utilização de recursos hídricos no Perímetro Irrigado do Gorutuba, utilizando-se um modelo de programação linear cuja função-objetivo visa maximizar as receitas líquidas mensais em função da área cultivada com as culturas normalmente utilizadas na região, tendo-se como restrição a área irrigável do lote e a quantidade de água disponível. A diferença observada entre as receitas líquidas obtidas na otimização, com e sem restrição de área por cultura, foi de 15,2% nos lotes empresariais e de 10,2% nos demais lotes. O sistema de distribuição de água não limita a escolha das culturas a serem implantadas no projeto Gorutuba, mas a diferença entre a ocupação das áreas irrigadas e, conseqüentemente, as receitas líquidas observadas, foram mais influenciadas pelos sistemas de irrigação utilizados que pelas variações na capacidade de retenção de água dos solos considerados.This research was developed with the objective of selecting the crops and planting dates in order to maximize the farmers income and the water resources in the Gorutuba Irrigation District. A linear programming model was used with an objective function to maximize the monthly income as a function of the cultivated area with the crops used in the region, subjected to the restrictions of the irrigated area and the availability of water. The net income differences obtained in the optimization with and without restriction in the cultivated area of yearly crops were 15.2% and 10.2%, for the large and the small farm plots, respectively. The water distribution system does not limit the crop selection in the irrigation district. The difference in the net income caused by the crops used was influenced more by the type of irrigation systems than by the soil water holding capacity.

  19. Dealing with drought in irrigated agriculture through insurance schemes: an application to an irrigation district in Southern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M.; Bielza, J.; Garrido, A.; Iglesias, A.


    Hydrological drought is expected to have an increasing impact on both crop and fruit yields in arid and semi-arid regions. Some existing crop insurance schemes provide coverage against water deficits in rain-fed agriculture. The Prevented Planting Program in the USA covers against drought for irrigated agriculture. However, drought insurance for irrigated agriculture is still a challenge for companies and institutions because of the complexity of the design and implementation of this type of insurance. Few studies have attempted to evaluate the risk of loss due to irrigation water scarcity using both stand-alone production functions and crop simulation models. This paper’s contributions are that it evaluates the suitability of AquaCrop for calculating drought insurance premiums for irrigated agriculture and that it discusses contract conditions and insurance design for hydrological drought risk coverage as part of a traditional insurance product, with on-field loss assessment in combination with a trigger index. This method was applied to an irrigation district in southern Spain. Our insurance premium calculation showed that it is feasible to apply this method provided that its data requirements are met, such as a large enough set of reliable small-scale yield and irrigation time series data, especially soil data, to calibrate AquaCrop. The choice of a trigger index should not be underestimated because it proved to have a decisive influence on insurance premiums and indemnities. Our discussion of the contract conditions shows that hydrological drought insurance must comply with a series of constraints in order to avoid moral hazard and basis risk. (Author)

  20. Irrigation effectiveness of continuous ultrasonic irrigation system: An ex vivo study. (United States)

    Jamleh, Ahmed; Suda, Hideaki; Adorno, Carlos G


    This study evaluated the irrigation extrusion and smear layer (SL) removal of continuous ultrasonic irrigation (CUI). Forty root canals were shaped, embedded in warm sterile saline agar colored with 1% acid red, and distributed into four groups; three groups had the final irrigation sequence of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA solutions performed by using syringe irrigation (SI), EndoVac (EV), and CUI, respectively. Group 4 had the canals ultrasonically irrigated with saline (CUIS). Irrigant extrusion was verified by a color change of the agar. The SL was evaluated under scanning electron microscope. Irrigant extrusion was observed in two and four teeth in the CUI and SI, respectively, whilst none had irrigant extruded in the EV. In term of SL, the CUI was comparable to EV at 1 and 3 mm but different to SI at 1 mm. Although CUI might clean the root canal system effectively, it was unable to avoid irrigant extrusion.

  1. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development (United States)

    Schramm, G.


    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  2. Irrigation water demand: A meta-analysis of price elasticities (United States)

    Scheierling, Susanne M.; Loomis, John B.; Young, Robert A.


    Metaregression models are estimated to investigate sources of variation in empirical estimates of the price elasticity of irrigation water demand. Elasticity estimates are drawn from 24 studies reported in the United States since 1963, including mathematical programming, field experiments, and econometric studies. The mean price elasticity is 0.48. Long-run elasticities, those that are most useful for policy purposes, are likely larger than the mean estimate. Empirical results suggest that estimates may be more elastic if they are derived from mathematical programming or econometric studies and calculated at a higher irrigation water price. Less elastic estimates are found to be derived from models based on field experiments and in the presence of high-valued crops.



    Sarker, F I M Golam Wahed; Lingard, John


    This study was undertaken in an area of Bangladesh to assess the impact of minor irrigation on different farm sizes and determines the optimum allocation of resources of large and small farmers among different crops in a shallow tubewell (STW) irrigation system. Farm survey method was used to collect data in order to develop linear programming representative farm models. The analysis takes into account crop activities, inputs used, farm size and soil types. Optimal plans show mis-allocation o...

  4. Present-day irrigation mitigates heat extremes (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, David M.; Hirsch, Annette L.; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    Irrigation is an essential practice for sustaining global food production and many regional economies. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. Yet how this practice influences climate extremes is currently unknown. Here we use ensemble simulations with the Community Earth System Model to assess the impacts of irrigation on climate extremes. An evaluation of the model performance reveals that irrigation has a small yet overall beneficial effect on the representation of present-day near-surface climate. While the influence of irrigation on annual mean temperatures is limited, we find a large impact on temperature extremes, with a particularly strong cooling during the hottest day of the year (-0.78 K averaged over irrigated land). The strong influence on extremes stems from the timing of irrigation and its influence on land-atmosphere coupling strength. Together these effects result in asymmetric temperature responses, with a more pronounced cooling during hot and/or dry periods. The influence of irrigation is even more pronounced when considering subgrid-scale model output, suggesting that local effects of land management are far more important than previously thought. Our results underline that irrigation has substantially reduced our exposure to hot temperature extremes in the past and highlight the need to account for irrigation in future climate projections.

  5. Point irrigation for locality Buchel in the north desert Gobi in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Spitz


    Full Text Available The design of point irrigation, created by Filip et al. (2007, was worked up as the bilateral projekt in the frame of abroad developing cooperation between the Czech Republic and Mongolia „Rehabilitation of plant production in semiarid territories of northern Gobi”. The period of project realization are years 2006–2009. The responsible institution for the project is Ministery of Agriculture of the Czech Republic and with the realization of the project was encharged Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno. The task was work irrigation design for experimental plants and vegetables on the choosen land in Gobi desert in Mongolia. To disposition was underground water source – bore with capacity about 2 l / s and temperature about 10 °C, electric power and land about area cca 1 ha. The condition was use simple irrigation equipment. The fundamental limitation was im­pos­si­bi­li­ty using technically more complex and more sophisticated equipment e.g. drip irrigation. The map was not to the disposition, only a judgment of slope 0,2 % in flat terrain. The technical design of surface and subsurface point irrigation are introduced, shortly described are hydrotechnical basis used to created and described the original PC program HYBOZAM (hydraulics of point irrigation for Mongolia developed in table editor of Microsoft Excel for pipe dimensions of point irrigation design. Part of the program is also evaluation of the irrigation uniformity from outflows on irrigation line.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto


    Full Text Available Airports consume significant amounts of water which can be compared to the volume consumed by mid-size cities, thus practices aimed at reducing water consumption are important and necessar y. The objective of this study was to assess the reuse potential of sewage effluent produced at a mid-size international airport for nursery irri gation. The sewage treatment system consisted of a facultative pond followed by a constructed wetland, which were monitored during one hydrological year a nd the parameters COD, pH, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and Escherichia coli we re analyzed. Removal efficiencies of 85% and 91% were achieved for C OD and solids, respectively. Removal efficiencies for ammonia nitrogen a nd total phosphorus were 77% and 59%, respectively. In terms of E. coli concen tration, the treated effluent met the recommendations by the World Health Organization for reuse in irrigation with the advantage of providing high levels of residual nutrient. The ornamental species Impatiens walleriana was irrigated with treated sewage effluent and plant growth characteristics were evalua ted. The experiment showed that reuse can enhance plant growth without signi ficantly affecting leaf tissue and soil characteristics. This study highlighted th e importance of simple technologies for sewage treatment especially in count ries which still do not present great investment in sanitation and proved that effluent reuse for landscape irrigation can provide great savings of water and financial resources for airport environments.

  7. Use of Irrigation to Extend the Seeding Window for Final Reclamation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRW Environmental Safety


    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to investigate the feasibility of various techniques for reclaiming lands disturbed during site characterization at Yucca Mountain. As part of this program, two studies were conducted in 1997 to assess the effects of combinations of seeding date (date that seeds are planted) and supplemental irrigation on densities of native plant species at Yucca Mountain. Study objectives were to (1) determine whether the traditional seeding window (October-December) could be extended through combinations of seeding date and irrigation date, (2) determine which combination of seeding date and irrigation was most successful, and (3) assess the effects of irrigation versus natural precipitation on seedling establishment. In the first study, a multi-species seed mix of 16 native species was sown into plots on four dates (12/96, 2/97, 3/97, and 4/97). Irrigation treatments were control (no irrigation) or addition of 80 mm of supplemental water applied over a one month period. Plant densities were sampled in August and again in October, 1997. In the second study, Larrea tridentata and Lycium andersonii, two species that are common at Yucca Mountain, but difficult to establish from seed, were sown together into plots in January and August, 1997. Half the plots were irrigated with approximately 250 mm of water between August 18 and September 11, while the remaining plots received no irrigation (control). Plant densities were sampled in October, 1997. The August census for the multi-species mix study showed irrigated plots that were sown in February, March and April had higher plant densities and more species than plots that were not irrigated. Irrigation had no effect on plant densities on plots that were seeded in December. Plots were used again in October following 18 mm of precipitation in September. Densities of three species, Ambrosia dumosa, Hymenoclea salsola, and L. tridentata, (warm-season species) were lower on irrigated

  8. Development of an Irrigation Scheduling Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper presents an irrigation scheduling software named ?Mehran Model? which computes reference evapotranspiration (ETo using FAO-56 Penman Monteith method and crop evapotranspiration (ETc by dual crop coefficients. The model can develop irrigation schedules for sixty-six crop types using soil and water balance approach. The model distinguishes soil texture classes, irrigation methods, and designs real time irrigation schedule for a crop using daily weather data of a reference site. The Mehran Model also includes planning on demand basis as well as rotational (warabandi irrigation schedules, and synchronizes both systems as well. The model has been field tested and validated on planning and management of irrigation schedules for cotton and wheat crops in Lower Indus Basin of Pakistan. Statistical analysis showed that the model at an average overestimated seasonal ETc of cotton and wheat crop by 2.41% and 4.31% respectively.

  9. A review of transanal irrigation in adults. (United States)

    Wilson, Mary


    This article discusses transanal irrigation: what it is, the clinical conditions that might be helped by it and less invasive options that should be considered before starting irrigation. It looks at the delivery of this procedure, describes the different options available and compares and contrasts devices manufactured by five different companies. Contraindications are listed and side-effects discussed. Problems and possible solutions are considered. Transanal irrigation education for nurses and teaching patients is reviewed. Follow-up is discussed, including the reasons why some patients abandon irrigation. Quality of life can be improved for those who become successful users of transanal irrigation. When patients do continue to irrigate, even when this is not problem free, it can help them regain control over their bowel dysfunction by allowing them to evacuate their bowels at a time and a place that is convenient.

  10. Optimal Irrigation Water Allocation Using a Genetic Algorithm under Various Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Khanjari Sadati


    Full Text Available Growing water scarcity, due to growing populations and varying natural conditions, puts pressure on irrigation systems, which often are the main consumptive water users. Therefore, water resources management to improve the allocation of limited water supplies is essential. In this study, a non-linear programming optimization model with an integrated soil/water balance is developed to determine the optimal reservoir release policies and the optimal cropping pattern around Doroudzan Dam in the South-West of Iran. The proposed model was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA. Four weather conditions were identified by combining the probability levels of rainfall, evapotranspiration and inflow. Moreover, two irrigation strategies, full irrigation and deficit irrigation were modeled under each weather condition. The results indicate that for all weather conditions the total farm income and the total cropped area under deficit irrigation were larger than those under full irrigation. In addition, our results show that when the weather conditions and the availability of water changes the optimal area under corn and sugar beet decreases sharply. In contrast, the change in area cropped with wheat is small. It is concluded that the optimization approach has been successfully applied to Doroudzan Dam region. Thus, decision makers and water authorities can use it as an effective tool for such large and complex irrigation planning problems.

  11. Effects of Irrigation in India on the Atmospheric Water Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Stacke, T.; Wiltshire, A.; Lucas-Picher, P.


    The effect of large-scale irrigation in India on the moisture budget of the atmosphere was investigated using three regional climate models and one global climate model, all of which performed an irrigated run and a natural run without irrigation. Using a common irrigation map, year-round irrigation

  12. Effects of Seven Different Irrigation Techniques on Debris and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 19, 2015 ... Brush, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, and conventional irrigation. The .... with 2 mL 5.25% NaOCl between each file. The teeth were divided randomly into 8 groups (n = 10) and final irrigation procedures were performed. Irrigation ..... irrigation techniques has become more important in terms of ...

  13. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16, 2012...

  14. Performance of arthroscopic irrigation systems assessed with automatic blood detection. (United States)

    Tuijthof, G J M; de Vaal, M M; Sierevelt, I N; Blankevoort, L; van der List, M P J


    During arthroscopies, bleeding episodes occur as a result of tissue damage. Irrigation systems assist in minimizing these disturbances. The performance of three arthroscopic irrigation systems in clearing bleeding episodes was evaluated objectively. One surgeon performed 99 shoulder arthroscopies using three irrigation systems: gravity infusion, single roller, and double roller pump. The three irrigation systems groups were matched postoperatively for type of surgery-acromioplasty, SLAP, release, rotator cuff repair and capsule repair, and operation duration. The recorded arthroscopies were analyzed for the presence of bleeding episodes with a special computer program that automatically detects the tinctures of red-colored blood. A least 20% of an arthroscopic image had to be covered with blood to qualify as bleeding episode. The median (min-max) presence of bleeding episodes as a percentage of the operation time was 6.6% (0.0-43.6%) for gravity infusion, 3.7% (0.2-46.4%) for the single roller, and 3.3% (0.0-19.3%) for the double roller pump, respectively. The large variation could be attributed to the occurrence of arterial bleeding episodes during some procedures. No significant differences were found between the irrigation systems. For a subgroup including acromioplasties and releases, significant differences were found in favor of both roller pumps (P < 0.05). Overall, the roller pumps did not outperform gravity infusion. However, from the results, high-risk procedures for bleeding episodes were identified (acromioplasty and release of a frozen shoulder) that can benefit from the use of roller pumps. A clear view is essential to perform an arthroscopic procedure safely and efficiently.

  15. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems


    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.


    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation modernisation plan. It investigates the validity of the design assumptions on percolation and the prospects of water availability estimation as well as characterizes the system operation and management...

  16. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  17. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  18. Effect of biofilm in irrigation pipes on the microbial quality of irrigation water (United States)

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that microbial quality of irrigation water can be substantially altered by the association of E. coli with pipe lining in irrigation systems. Methods and Results: The sprinkler irrigation system was outfitted with coupons that were extracted before four 2-hour long irri...

  19. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, K.


    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since

  20. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  1. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for...

  2. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.


    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  3. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilcox, Edmund [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goli, Sasank [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  4. Analysis of the Economic and Welfare Impacts of Establishing Irrigation Water Market in Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In this study economic and welfare impacts of establishing irrigation water market in Qazvin province as well as potentiality of irrigation water transfer under stress irrigation conditions in the cities of Qazvin province were analyzed. To achieve the above objectives, Positive Mathematical Programming model and State Wide Agricultural Production functions were used. To achieve applicable results, the production function with a constant elasticity of substitution and cost function with an exponential form were included into the Positive Mathematical Programming model was imported. The study data for the year 2011-2012 was collected by asking the relevant offices in each city of Qazvin province. The proposed model was solved in six successive stages using the GAMS software. After solving the model, amount changes in the area of irrigated crops, farmer's gross profit and labor surplus under the two conditions of “existence of water market” and “lack of water market “at the regional level were calculated. The results showed that establishing irrigation water market increases total irrigated lands for 1/2 percent, total farmer’s gross profit for 1/86 percent and total labor force employed in agriculture for 1/8 percent in the province. Ultimately, considering the supportive and constructive role of regional water markets, it is recommended to provide necessary conditions and tools to establish an optimal use of such a mechanism associated with the type of market in Qazvin province.

  5. Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management types. ... The assessment used the International Water Management Institute (IWMI)'s six performance indicators for the year 2001. ... Key Words: Comparative indicators, irrigation project, management types, irrigation management, performance, Turkey.

  6. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.


    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  7. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  8. Irrigated Agricultural in the United States, State-Level Data


    Hanchar, John J.


    This report presents previously unreported State-level data on the structure and characteristics of irrigated farms in Arkansas, Louisiana, Florida, and the 17 Western States, which together account for 93 percent of all irrigated acres in the Nation. Irrigated farms produce about 30 percent of the sales of agricultural products from all U.S. farms. Data include distributions of irrigated farms, irrigated acres, and value of agricultural products sold from irrigated farms for a variety of far...

  9. Identifying the potential for irrigation development in Mozambique: Capitalizing on the drivers behind farmer-led irrigation expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, P.W.; Veldwisch, G.J.A.; Bolding, J.A.


    Smallholder irrigation in Central Mozambique predominantly takes place in an informal setting. This renders these smallholders and their activities invisible for policy purposes. Identification efforts of smallholder irrigation as well as the potential for new irrigation development are often the

  10. Reclaimed Water for Turfgrass Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunzhong Zhang


    Full Text Available Sustainable irrigation of turfgrass grown on coarse-textured soils with reclaimed water must avoid detrimental effects of soluble salts on plant growth and soil quality and groundwater enrichment of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P. The purpose of this study was (1 to investigate the effects of irrigating with municipal reclaimed water containing higher concentrations of soluble salts than potable water on turfgrass growth and quality and (2 to compare the effects of reclaimed and potable water on turfgrass assimilation and leaching of N and P. A sand-based medium plumbed to supply potable and reclaimed water and instrumented with lysimeters to collect leachate was planted with hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis var. Tifsport and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. L-93. Both species produced high quality turfgrass with the reclaimed water. Although both grasses are moderately or highly salt tolerant when fully established, the bermudagrass growth and quality were reduced by the reclaimed water upon breaking dormancy, and its N use during this period was reduced. Continuous use of reclaimed water of the quality used in the study poses a potential soil Na accumulation problem. Both turfgrasses assimilated high amounts of N and P with minimal potential losses to groundwater.

  11. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen


    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  12. Irrigation practices affecting land degradation in Sicily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crescimanno, G.


    The available amount of fresh water for agriculture, and specifically for irrigation, is decreasing all over the world. The quality of irrigation water is deteriorating, and saline/sodic waters are increasingly used in many arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Salinization is closely

  13. Water Resources Impacts on Tribal Irrigation Projects (United States)

    Minihane, M.


    The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Branch of Irrigation and Power provides oversight and technical support to select irrigation projects and systems on tribal lands. The BIA provides operations and maintenance support for 16 irrigation systems. To make the best use of limited resources, the BIA must incorporate climate change impacts on hydrology and water management for these irrigation systems in the coming decades. The 16 irrigation projects discussed here are divided into three climatological regions: the Pacific Northwest Region, the Greater Rocky Mountain Region, and the Western, Southwest, & Navajo Region. Significant climate projections that impact irrigation systems in one or more of these regions include increased temperatures and evaporative demand, earlier snowmelt and runoff, an increase in floods, an increase in heavy precipitation events, an increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts, and declining water supplies. Some irrigation projects are particularly vulnerable to these climate impacts because they are in already water-stressed areas or areas in which water resources are over-allocated. Other irrigation projects will have to adjust their storage and water management strategies to accommodate changes in the timing of streamflow. Overall, though, the BIA will be better able to assist tribal nations by incorporating expected climate impacts into their water resources management practices.

  14. Supporting farmer-led irrigation in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, Wouter; Veldwisch, Gert Jan


    Smallholder irrigation technologies introduced in sub-Saharan Africa are often unsustainable in the sense that they are not maintained by their users. In contrast, there is clear evidence that smallholder farmers have been developing and expanding irrigated areas. An approach was developed that

  15. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally ...

  16. Men, Masculinities and Water Powers in Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.


    The aim of this article is to provide an informed plea for more explicitly identifying, naming and unravelling the linkages between water control and gender in irrigation. The fact that power, expertise and status in irrigation tend to have a strong masculine connotation is by now quite well

  17. Precision irrigation for improving crop water management (United States)

    Precision irrigation is gaining attention by the agricultural industry as a means to optimize water inputs, reduce environmental degradation from runoff or deep percolation and maintain crop yields. This presenation will discuss the mechanical and software framework of the irrigation scheduling sup...

  18. Using Automation to Improve Surface Irrigation Management (United States)

    In the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area (WRA 08), also called the Mid-South, 2 million ha of cropland (80% of the irrigated farmland) employ surface irrigation, almost equally divided between furrow (52%) and controlled flooding (48%). Because Mid-South farmers experience less-than-optimal surf...

  19. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  20. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.


    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  1. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.


    In this study the fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products which are irrigated on arable land with treated municipal waste-water was investigated. In Braunschweig, Germany, wastewater has been irrigated continuously for more than 45 years. In the winter time only the effluent...... of the sewage treatment plant (STP) of Braunschweig is used for irrigation, while during summer digested sludge is mixed with the effluent. In the present case study six wells and four lysimeters located in one of the irrigated agricultural fields were monitored with regard to the occurrence of 52...... pharmaceuticals and two personal care products (PPCPs; e.g. betablockers, antibiotics, antiphlogistics, carbamazepine, musk fragrances, iodinated contrast media (ICM) and estrogens). No differences in PPCP pollution of the groundwater were found due to irrigation of STP effluents with and without addition...

  2. Effect of biofilm in irrigation pipes on microbial quality of irrigation water. (United States)

    Pachepsky, Y; Morrow, J; Guber, A; Shelton, D; Rowland, R; Davies, G


    The focus of this work was to investigate the contribution of native Escherichia coli to the microbial quality of irrigation water and to determine the potential for contamination by E. coli associated with heterotrophic biofilms in pipe-based irrigation water delivery systems. The aluminium pipes in the sprinkler irrigation system were outfitted with coupons that were extracted before each of the 2-h long irrigations carried out with weekly intervals. Water from the creek water and sprinklers, residual water from the previous irrigation and biofilms on the coupons were analysed for E. coli. High E. coli concentrations in water remaining in irrigation pipes between irrigation events were indicative of E. coli growth. In two of the four irrigations, the probability of the sample source, (creek vs sprinkler), being a noninfluential factor, was only 0.14, that is, source was an important factor. The population of bacteria associated with the biofilm on pipe walls was estimated to be larger than that in water in pipes in the first three irrigation events and comparable to one in the fourth event. Biofilm-associated E. coli can affect microbial quality of irrigation water and, therefore, should not be neglected when estimating bacterial mass balances for irrigation systems. This work is the first peer-reviewed report on the impact of biofilms on microbial quality of irrigation waters. Flushing of the irrigation system may be a useful management practice to decrease the risk of microbial contamination of produce. Because microbial water quality can be substantially modified while water is transported in an irrigation system, it becomes imperative to monitor water quality at fields, rather than just at the intake. © No claim to US Government works Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Historical influence of irrigation on climate extremes (United States)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    Land irrigation is an essential practice sustaining global food production and many regional economies. During the last decades, irrigation amounts have been growing rapidly. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that land irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. However, a thorough understanding of the impact of irrigation on extreme climatic conditions, such as heat waves, droughts or intense precipitation, is currently still lacking. In this context, we aim to assess the historical influence of irrigation on the occurrence of climate extremes. To this end, two simulations are conducted over the period 1910-2010 with a state-of-the-art global climate model (the Community Earth System Model, CESM): a control simulation including all major anthropogenic and natural external forcings except for irrigation and a second experiment with transient irrigation enabled. The two simulations are evaluated for their ability to represent (i) hot, dry and wet extremes using the HadEX2 and ERA-Interim datasets as a reference, and (ii) latent heat fluxes using LandFlux-EVAL. Assuming a linear combination of climatic responses to different forcings, the difference between both experiments approximates the influence of irrigation. We will analyse the impact of irrigation on a number of climate indices reflecting the intensity and duration of heat waves. Thereby, particular attention is given to the role of soil moisture changes in modulating climate extremes. Furthermore, the contribution of individual biogeophysical processes to the total impact of irrigation on hot extremes is quantified by application of a surface energy balance decomposition technique to the 90th and 99th percentile surface temperature changes.

  4. Drip irrigation uptake in traditional irrigated fields: The edaphological impact. (United States)

    Puy, Arnald; García Avilés, José M; Balbo, Andrea L; Keller, Michèle; Riedesel, Svenja; Blum, Daniel; Bubenzer, Olaf


    Historical and traditional flood-irrigated (FI) schemes are progressively being upgraded by means of drip irrigation (DI) to tackle current water and demographic challenges. This modernization process is likely to foster several changes of environmental relevance at the system level. In this paper we assess the effects derived from DI uptake on soil health and structure in ancient FI systems through the case study of Ricote, SE Spain, first established in the 10-13th centuries CE. We approach the topic by means of physico-chemical analyses (pH, electrical conductivity, available P, carbon analyses, bulk density, soil water content and particle size distribution), Electrical Resistivity Measurements (ERT) and robust statistics. We reach a power of 1-ß = 77 aiming at detecting a large effect size (f ≥ 0.4). Results indicate that, compared to FI, DI soils present significantly higher water content, a higher proportion of coarse particles relative to fines due to clay translocation, and less dispersion in salt contents. The soils away from the emitters, which were formerly FI and comparatively account for larger extensions, appear significantly depleted in organic matter, available P and N. These results are not affected by departures from statistical model assumptions and suggest that DI uptake in formerly FI systems might have relevant implications in terms of soil degradation and emission of greenhouse gases. A proper assessment of the edaphological trade-offs derived from this modernization process is mandatory in order to tackle undesired environmental consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions. (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen; Forner, Leopoldo


    Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layers and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Chifamba


    Full Text Available Water pricing and recuperation of the costs of irrigation investment have been litigious issues for many decades in the dry area of Nyanyadzi because the community view irrigation as a development expenditure, financed by donors and the government for backward areas through lowering of food prices and reduction of tariffs. The soaring charges for irrigation water are questioned, as well as, the diminutive percentage of farmers who fundamentally recompense the charges. The failure to institute clear cost recuperation and water pricing methods has threatened the viability and sustainability of irrigation projects in the study area. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The study revealed that where the economy is usually subsidized, convalesce the cost of water delivery is much more complicated and difficult. In the case of establishing user fees, these should be estimated as a percentage of the "traditional user's capability for payment" derived from irrigation benefits (the net increase in farmers' income as a result of irrigation. Nyanyadzi has an opportunity in irrigation led development, if stakeholders address critical challenges in the planning, design, water delivery and maintenance of its irrigation systems. Since Nyanyadzi faces severe budgetary difficulties in financing irrigation projects, it is obligatory to consider the foundation on which irrigation projects operate and impose the principle of self sustaining. Sustainable methods of irrigation evaluation and collection of fees must be considered in light of Nyanyadzi's economic and technical environment. The research noted that water use efficiency is required in order to maximize the benefits farmers derive from the irrigation projects and extraordinarily high user fees should be avoided in the project development stages, where the payment capability is much less at the beginning than at the maturity stages of irrigation projects.

  7. An optimal management of water for a turf irrigation system in Milan area (Italy) (United States)

    Deangelis, Maria Laura; Mazzoleni, Abramo


    The design of an irrigation system is not just "draw", but a complex organization that takes into account of a whole range of information that are inherently contained in the graphic representation of the final plan. The various stages that make up the activity of designing an irrigation system include: general survey of the site to be irrigated, meteorological analysis of the site and the calculation of the water requirement, development of the project with the choice and location of the components. The use of a numerical model based on water balance in a soil-water-atmosphere system allows the evaluation of the optimal water requirement as a function of meteorological characteristics. The water saving is enabled through a smart programming of a modern automation system for irrigation. The meteorological data analysis was conducted choosing from the series of two special years: the year 2002, particularly rainy, and the other in 2007, extraordinarily drought. The determination of the water requirements of turf was conducted on a daily scale. The water consumption was calculated in a classic irrigation system that covers the delivery of 5 mm of water per day, interrupted only by a rain sensor. In the second case water consumption was analysed by managing an irrigation controller based on actual water needs of turf day by day. For the two years in question water savings ranges between 13 and 27%.

  8. Hydrochemical assessment of water quality for irrigation: a case study of the Medjerda River in Tunisia (United States)

    Etteieb, Selma; Cherif, Semia; Tarhouni, Jamila


    In order to characterize, classify and evaluate the suitability of Medjerda River water for irrigation, a hydrochemical assessment was conducted. It accounts for 80 % of the total Tunisian surface water. In this paper, hydrographical methods and PHREEQC geochemical program were used to characterize water quality of Medjerda River, whereas its suitability for irrigation was determined in accordance with its electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and sodium concentrations. It was established that the water samples were undersaturated with calcite, dolomite, aragonite, anhydrite, gypsum and halite except in one water sample which is supersaturated with carbonate minerals. The quality assessment of Medjerda River for irrigation purposes showed that some points belonged to the excellent-to-good and good-to-permissible irrigation water categories, while the remaining ones were classified as doubtful to unsuitable for irrigation making the river water use limited to plants with high salt tolerance. Moreover, based on FAO guidelines, almost all water samples may cause immediate salinity to gradual increasing problem but no soil infiltration problems except for two sampling points. However, immediate development or possible increasing of severe toxicity problems may be caused by the continuous use of this water for irrigation due to troublesome concentrations of chloride and sodium.

  9. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Naydyonova


    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the state of microbial cenosis of Ukraine’s chernozems under irrigation. Considerable part of Ukraine’s chernozems is located in the areas where humidification is insufficient and unstable. Irrigation is a soil-reclamation measure for chernozems of Ukrainian Forest-steppe and Steppe which enables getting the assured yield, especially vegetable and fodder crops. At the same time, irrigation is a powerful anthropogenic factor that affects the soil, causes a significant transformation of many of its properties and regimes including biological ones. Often these changes are negative. The purpose of our investigation was to identify changes in the state of microbial cenoses of chernozem soils under irrigation which depend on such factors as the quality of irrigation water, the duration and intensity of irrigation, the initial properties of soil, the structure of crop rotation, usage of fertilizing systems and agroameliorative techniques. We identified direction and evaluated a degree of changes in biological properties of chernozems under influence of irrigation in different agro-irrigational and soil-climatic conditions. In the long-term stationary field experiments we identified the following biological indices of irrigated soils and their non-irrigated analogues: a number of microorganisms which belong to main ecological-trophic groups, activity of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidase, soil phytotoxic activity, cellulose destroying capacity of soil, indices of oligotrophy and mineralization, summary biological index (SBI and index of biological degradation (BDI. Results of researches showed that irrigation unbalanced the soil ecosystem and stipulated the forming of microbial cenosis with new parameters. Long-term intensive irrigation of typical chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water under condition of 4-fields vegetable crop rotation led to the degradation changes of its microbial cenosis such as

  10. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  11. Integrating Satellite and Surface Sensor Networks for Irrigation Management Applications in California (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Johnson, L.; Post, K. M.; Guzman, A.; Zaragoza, I.; Spellenberg, R.; Rosevelt, C.; Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.; Cahn, M.; Frame, K.; Temesgen, B.; Eching, S.


    Satellite mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) from irrigated agricultural lands can provide agricultural producers and water managers with information that can be used to optimize agricultural water use, especially in regions with limited water supplies. The timely delivery of information on agricultural crop water requirements has the potential to make irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and accurate. We present a system for irrigation scheduling and management support in California and describe lessons learned from the development and implementation of the system. The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) framework integrates satellite data with information from agricultural weather networks to map crop canopy development, basal crop coefficients (Kcb), and basal crop evapotranspiration (ETcb) at the scale of individual fields. Information is distributed to agricultural producers and water managers via a web-based irrigation management decision support system and web data services. SIMS also provides an application programming interface (API) that facilitates integration with other irrigation decision support tools, estimation of total crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and calculation of on-farm water use efficiency metrics. Accuracy assessments conducted in commercial fields for more than a dozen crop types to date have shown that SIMS seasonal ETcb estimates are within 10% mean absolute error (MAE) for well-watered crops and within 15% across all crop types studied, and closely track daily ETc and running totals of ETc measured in each field. Use of a soil water balance model to correct for soil evaporation and crop water stress reduces this error to less than 8% MAE across all crop types studied to date relative to field measurements of ETc. Results from irrigation trials conducted by the project for four vegetable crops have also demonstrated the potential for use of ET-based irrigation management strategies to reduce total applied water by

  12. Irrigation water use in Kansas, 2013 (United States)

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.


    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources, presents derivative statistics of 2013 irrigation water use in Kansas. The published regional and county-level statistics from the previous 4 years (2009–12) are shown with the 2013 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. An overall Kansas average and regional averages also are calculated and presented. Total reported irrigation water use in 2013 was 3.3 million acre-feet of water applied to 3.0 million irrigated acres.

  13. Impact of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and spatial management on maize (United States)

    The spatial management of irrigation water and N fertilization can be employed to reduce interactive effects, thus increasing water and N use efficiency and reducing pollution. Partial root-zone irrigation is a modified form of deficit irrigation which involves irrigating only one part of the root z...

  14. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto


    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  15. Validation of an extracted tooth model of endodontic irrigation. (United States)

    Hope, C K; Burnside, G; Chan, S N; Giles, L H; Jarad, F D


    An extracted tooth model of endodontic irrigation, incorporating reproducible inoculation and irrigation procedures, was tested against Enterococcus faecalis using a variety of different irrigants in a Latin square methodology. ANOVA revealed no significant variations between the twelve teeth or experiments undertaken on different occasions; however, variation between irrigants was significant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Problems of Public Health Importance Associated with Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These effects arise from the source and quality of irrigation water, the irrigation method and the run-off from the irrigated land. The main effects are transmission of water-borne disease, proliferation of disease vectors with subsequent increase in water-based diseases, toxic effects from chemicals in irrigation water, and ...

  17. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Judith”) plant grown in a plastic greenhouse and irrigated by a drip irrigation system under Mediterranean conditions was investigated. Irrigation intervals varied from 1 to 6 days in I1 and 4 to 12 days in I2 treatments. Both irrigation intervals (I) and pan coefficient (Pc) significantly influenced carnation yield. Maximum yields ...

  18. Is the Revitalisation of Smallholder Irrigation Schemes (RESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smallholder irrigation in South Africa comprises only 3% of the irrigated area. Despite this relatively small area share, Limpopo Province is using the development of smallholder irrigation as a way of developing rural areas and correcting historical imbalances. Unlike the smallholder irrigation developed in most African ...

  19. Reform in Indian canal irrigation: does technology matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, V.


    This paper examines the implications of technology - the design of canal irrigation for irrigation management reform. With reference to two different design systems in Indian irrigation - shejpali and warabandi - it shows that the potential for reform varies with the design of canal irrigation.

  20. Productivity of irrigated gamba grass ( Andropogon Gayanus Kunth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of irrigated gamba grass ( Andropogon Gayanus Kunth ) as influenced by flood irrigation and compost manure levels in zaria. ... A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of varying levels of irrigation volume, irrigation frequency and compost manure application on growth components, forage yield ...

  1. Perceived profitability and well-being in Australian dryland farmers and irrigators. (United States)

    Peel, Dominic; Berry, Helen L; Schirmer, Jacki


    To describe the relationship between self-reported farm profitability and farmer well-being, and to explore potential implications for farmer assistance policy. Cross-sectional analysis of farmers from Regional Wellbeing Survey data (wave 1, 2013) and comparison between groups. Participants were 1172 dryland farmers (35% women) and 707 irrigators (24% women). The Personal Wellbeing Index and the Kessler 10-item measure of general psychological distress. There is a consistent and significant relationship between higher profitability, greater well-being and less distress among dryland farmers and irrigators. The relationship between farm profitability and the well-being of Australian dryland farmers and irrigators has the potential to inform farmer assistance policy. Assistance programs can be more effective if they explicitly incorporate a profitability assessment into their targeting and eligibility requirements and a well-being component into program design and delivery. Rural Australia. Not applicable. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  2. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal


    Paudel, K.


    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since Kennedy published his channel-forming discharge theory in 1895. Subsequently different theories have been developed and are used around the world. All of them assume uniform and steady flow conditions ...

  3. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda


    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oprea Radu; Daniel Bucur


    .... Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered...

  5. Research Group "Irrigation, Agronomy and the Environment"


    Aragüés Lafarga, Ramón; Playán Jubillar, Enrique


    Research Group Objective: Generate scientific and technological information in the “soil-water-cropatmosphere” interface leading to more competitive, efficient and sustainable agricultural systems with emphasis on irrigation, agronomy and the environment, and with an applied-research focus.

  6. Estimated Irrigated Agricultural Water Use In 2000 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a 100-meter cell resolution raster dataset of estimated use of irrigated agricultural water use data for the southwestern U.S. The dataset was...

  7. Micro-pressure drip irrigation technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 17, 2010 ... 1National Engineering Research Center for Water-saving Irrigation at Yangling, Institute of Soil and Water .... between minimum pipe wall thickness, δ, and pressure is: ..... First, water supply and fertilizer injection devices for.

  8. Automatic bladder irrigation after vaginal surgery. (United States)

    Chamberlain, G; Holt, E


    Comparing Cystomatic irrigation of the bladder with conventional gravity drainage, there was no decrease in immediate urinary infection rates nor was there any obvious improvement in the speed of recovery of bladder function.

  9. Strategic irrigation against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren


    In Denmark there are several organic orchards, that do not spray at all, and they seek non-spraying methods to prevent apple scab. In this pilot trial, irrigation with water at strategic moments was tested to prevent scab-infection. In April-June 2011 in five organic orchards we irrigated...... the orchard floor, to force the ascospores to be released. We irrigated with at least 0.2 mm of water in dry periods, at least 12 hours before rain forecast. The idea was to empty the stock of ascospores during dry spells, so they would dry out without infecting the leaves. To find the best strategic times...... for irrigation, we used the local weather forecast and the scab-warning programme Rimpro based on data from climate stations located in the orchards. In this first year of trial we experienced difficulties in spreading the water evenly. A water wagon turned out to work better than sprinklers. We found...

  10. Water users associations and irrigation water pricing


    Srđević, Zorica; Srđević, Bojan


    A brief review of contemporary discussion on irrigation water pricing and implementation of related strategies to collect annual fees is presented. Emphasis is on water pricing and its relation to water users associations' interests and real power. An example from Spain is provided to illustrate how contemporary multi-criteria analysis and its tools (AHP and TOPSIS) can be used to identify best irrigation water pricing and collection strategy; two water districts with 1500 farmers served as c...

  11. Proceedings of the solar irrigation workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The ERDA Solar Irrigation Workshop was structured to be a major vehicle for information dissemination and technology transfer. It covered a wide range of subject matter related to crop irrigation including current hardware, economics, experiments, and international requirements. Speakers represented manufacturers, ranchers, governmental entities, universities and research firms. The proceedings consist of one page abstracts for each presentation, a brief biographical sketch of each speaker and sources for further information on each subject.

  12. Soil resistivity monitoring of an irrigation experiment


    Dahlin, Torleif; Aronsson, Par; Thornelof, Mats


    Resistivity measurements were used for tracing water transport during a three-year irrigation study. Three different rates of landfill leachate irrigation and one control treatment were applied to two cultivars of short-rotation willow coppice. Groundwater level measurements and water sampling were carried out in pipes installed in the centre of each plot. Resistivity was measured with permanently installed electrodes along six lines running through the centre of the plots. The resistivity re...

  13. System contemplations for precision irrigation in agriculture (United States)

    Schubert, Martin J. W.


    This communication contemplates political, biological and technical aspects for efficient and profitable irrigation in sustainable agriculture. A standard for irrigation components is proposed. The need for many, and three-dimensionally distributed, soil measurement points is explained, thus enabling the control of humidity in selected layers of earth. Combined wireless and wired data transmission is proposed. Energy harvesting and storage together with mechanical sensor construction are discussed.

  14. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape (United States)


    a semi - arid climate , where indoor air is mostly re-circulated, and HVAC unit temperature set points are intentionally high to conserve energy...Traditional Irrigation System • May be applicable in any climate (i.e., arid and/or semi - arid ). • Are economical in many regions of the country where...consumption for irrigation at our DoD installations located in semi - arid regions where alternative water conservation measures are being pursued. The

  15. Simulated climate effects of desert irrigation geoengineering (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Moore, John C.; Cao, Long; Ji, Duoying; Zhao, Liyun


    Geoengineering, the deliberate large-scale manipulation of earth’s energy balance to counteract global warming, is an attractive proposition for sparsely populated deserts. We use the BNU and UVic Earth system models to simulate the effects of irrigating deserts under the RCP8.5 scenario. Previous studies focused on increasing desert albedo to reduce global warming; in contrast we examine how extending afforestation and ecological projects, that successfully improve regional environments, fair for geoengineering purposes. As expected desert irrigation allows vegetation to grow, with bare soil or grass gradually becoming shrub or tree covered, with increases in terrestrial carbon storage of 90.3 Pg C (UVic-ESCM) - 143.9 Pg C (BNU-ESM). Irrigating global deserts makes the land surface temperature decrease by 0.48 °C and land precipitation increase by 100 mm yr-1. In the irrigated areas, BNU-ESM simulates significant cooling of up to 4.2 °C owing to the increases in low cloud and latent heat which counteract the warming effect due to decreased surface albedo. Large volumes of water would be required to maintain global desert irrigation, equivalent 10 mm/year of global sea level (BNU-ESM) compensate for evapotranspiration losses. Differences in climate responses between the deserts prompt research into tailored albedo-irrigation schemes.

  16. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica


    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  17. Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction: irrigation or probing? (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Moon, S C; Yoo, K W


    The authors investigated the efficacy of antibiotic irrigation as the therapeutic option in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 76 patients' eyes in whom congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction had been diagnosed. In 50 of these patients, the colonizing microorganism was identified and, irrigation through canaliculi was performed using antibiotics of suitable sensitivity. Nasolacrimal system probing was performed on 26 patients as the control group. Treatment was regarded successful when over a 4 week period epiphora or mucous discharge disappeared and when saline passed without resistance on irrigation. 96.0% of patients in the irrigation group and 84.6% of patients in probing group were treated successfully. There was no statistical difference in the success rate between the two groups (P = 0.173). The recovery period based on culture results was 3.22 +/- 0.37 months in the group in which microorganisms were isolated and 2.39 +/- 0.35 months in the group in which no organisms were isolated. There were no statistically significant differences in the success rates between the group in which there was growth and the group in which there was no growth (P = 0.1308). Thus a similar result was obtained using nasolacrimal probing and canaliculus antibiotic irrigation in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Antibiotic irrigation is a safe and simple therapeutic option in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  18. Irrigation efficiency and quality of irrigation return flows in the Ebro River Basin: an overview. (United States)

    Causapé, J; Quílez, D; Aragüés, R


    The review analysis of twenty two irrigation efficiency (IE) studies carried out in the Ebro River Basin shows that IE is low (average IE)(avg)(= 53%) in surface-irrigated areas with high-permeable and shallow soils inadequate for this irrigation system, high (IE)(avg)(= 79%) in surface-irrigated areas with appropriate soils for this system, and very high (IE)(avg)(= 94%) in modern, automated and well managed sprinkler-irrigated areas. The unitary salt (total dissolved solids) and nitrate loads exported in the irrigation return flows (IRF) of seven districts vary, depending on soil salinity and on irrigation and N fertilization management, between 3-16 Mg salt/ha x year and 23-195 kg NO)(3) (-)-N/ha x year, respectively. The lower nitrate loads exported from high IE districts show that a proper irrigation design and management is a key factor to reduce off-site nitrogen pollution. Although high IE's also reduce off-site salt pollution, the presence of salts in the soil or subsoil may induce relatively high salt loads (>or=14 Mg/ha x year) even in high IE districts. Two important constrains identified in our revision were the short duration of most surveys and the lack of standards for conducting irrigation efficiency and mass balance studies at the irrigation district level. These limitations {emphasize the need for the establishment of a permanent and standardized network of drainage monitoring stations for the appropriate off-site pollution diagnosis and control of irrigated agriculture.

  19. Documentation of methods and inventory of irrigation data collected for the 2000 and 2005 U.S. Geological Survey Estimated use of water in the United States, comparison of USGS-compiled irrigation data to other sources, and recommendations for future compilations (United States)

    Dickens, Jade M.; Forbes, Brandon T.; Cobean, Dylan S.; Tadayon, Saeid


    Every five years since 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP) has compiled water-use information in the United States and published a circular report titled "Estimated use of water in the United States," which includes estimates of water withdrawals by State, sources of water withdrawals (groundwater or surface water), and water-use category (irrigation, public supply, industrial, thermoelectric, and so forth). This report discusses the impact of important considerations when estimating irrigated acreage and irrigation withdrawals, including estimates of conveyance loss, irrigation-system efficiencies, pasture, horticulture, golf courses, and double cropping.

  20. Accounting for water : institutional viability and impacts of market-oriented irrigation interventions in Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloezen, W.H.


    During the past decade, many countries throughout the world have attempted to improve their generally poor performance record of agency-managed irrigation systems by designing and implementing institutional policy programs. This thesis analyses the


    Many irrigation districts use Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software to manage their canal systems. Whether homegrown or commercial, these programs require a significant amount of training for new operators. While some SCADA operators are hired with extensive field experience, o...

  2. Effect of Subsurface Irrigation with Porous Clay Capsules on Quantitative and Quality of Grape Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghorbani Vaghei


    Full Text Available Introduction: Maintaining soil moisture content at about field capacity and reducing water loss in near root zone plays a key role for developing soil and water management programs. Clay pot or porous pipe is a traditional sub-irrigation method and is ideal for many farms in the world’s dry land with small and medium sized farms and gardens and is still used limitedly in dry lands of India, Iran, Pakistan, the Middle East, and Latin-America. Clay capsule is one of porous pipes in sub irrigation that is able to release water in near root zone with self- regulative capacity. Watering occurs only in amounts that the plants actually need (this amount is equal to field capacity and released water in near root zone without electricity or use of an automatic dispenser. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out in 2013 on the experimental field of agriculture faculty of Tarbiat Modares University, to study the effect of two irrigation types on qualitative and quantitative characters in grape production (Vitis vinifera L.. In order to provide the water requirement of grape plant were used porous clay capsules for sub irrigation with height and diameter of 12 cm and 3.5 cm and dripper with Neta film type for drip irrigation, respectively. Porous clay capsules provided from soil science group at Tarbiat Modares University. In this research, the volume of water delivered to grape plants during entire growth period in two different irrigation methods was measured separately with water-meters installed at all laterals. The water consumption, yield production and water use efficiency were evaluated and compared in two drip and porous clay irrigation systems at veraison phonological stages. In the veraison stages, cluster weight, cluster length, solid solution and pH content were measured in grape fruits. Leaf chlorophyll content and leaf water content were also measured in two irrigation systems. Results and Discussion: The results of fruit quality

  3. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer: experiences in Colombia: the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobo, N.U.


    This book is focused in the formulation of a framework for the sustainable management of the irrigation systems transferred to the users organizations by the government. It describes the experience of the irrigation management transfer in Colombia, the impacts from a technical, social, environment

  4. Role of irrigation and irrigation automation in improving crop water use efficiency (United States)

    In arid climates, irrigation is required for significant agricultural production. In subhumid and semiarid climates, supplemental irrigation is recognized as both economically necessary (prevention of crop losses in periodic droughts) and as a means to improve overall crop water use effi...

  5. Biofilms in irrigation pipes affect the microbial quality of irrigation water (United States)

    Irrigation is an essential element in the production of many food crops. Irrigation water is often delivered to fields from surface or subsurface sources via pipe-based systems. Surface waters are known to contain pathogenic microorganisms. Disease outbreaks in crops that are eaten raw (i.e. leafy g...

  6. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.


    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems

  7. Comparison between ultrasonic irrigation and syringe irrigation in clinical and laboratory studies. (United States)

    Chen, Shulan; Liu, Jianxin; Dong, Gang; Peng, Bin; Yang, Pishan; Chen, Zhenggang; Yang, Fang; Guo, Dawei


    Ultrasonic irrigation and syringe irrigation were compared for their efficacy at cleaning root canal in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo study used 60 anterior teeth or premolars from 60 patients with periapical periodontitis who were randomly assigned to a syringe irrigation group (group S) or an ultrasonic irrigation group (group U). After instrumentation with a K-file using the step-back technique, the two groups received ultrasonic or syringe irrigation using 40 mL of 2.5% NaOCl respectively, followed by conventional lateral compaction. The in vitro study used 60 extracted single-canal premolars, which were also divided into U and S groups, and underwent the same irrigation and compaction. Forty of them were evaluated histologically by light microscopy, and the remaining 20 by scanning electron microscopy. No difference in main root canal filling was observed between the U and S groups. Notably, group U had a larger number of obturated lateral canals than group S. Moreover, a smaller amount of organic debris and more open dentinal tubules were observed in the root canal in group U than in group S. Our findings suggest that ultrasonic irrigation has a greater capacity to clean instrumented root canals than syringe irrigation. (J Oral Sci 58, 373-378, 2016).

  8. Economic feasibility of converting center pivot irrigation to subsurface drip irrigation (United States)

    Advancements in irrigation technology have increased water use efficiency. However, producers can be reluctant to convert to a more efficient irrigation system when the initial investment costs are high. This study examines the economic feasibility of replacing low energy precision application (LEPA...

  9. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon


    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  10. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan


    Full Text Available Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effect of declining well capacities on the usefulness of cotton ET (ETc for irrigation. Thirty years (1975–2004 of daily ETc data were used to compare irrigation demand vs. irrigation responses at four locations, analyzed for multiple years and range of well capacities for three irrigation-intervals. Results indicated that when well capacities declined to the point that over-irrigation was not possible, the lower well capacities reduced the value of ETc in terms of the number of irrigations and total amount of water applied. At well capacities <1514 L·min−1 the fraction of irrigations for which ETc information was used to determine the irrigation amount was <35% across years and irrigation intervals. The value of an ETc-based irrigation may fall into disuse when irrigation-water supplies decline.

  11. Cleaning of Root Canal System by Different Irrigation Methods. (United States)

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Miano, Lucas Martinati; Chávez-Andrade, Gisselle Moraima; Torres, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves; Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria


    The aim of this study was to compare the cleaning of main and lateral canals using the irrigation methods: negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and manual irrigation (MI). Resin teeth were used. After root canal preparation, four lateral canals were made at 2 and 7 mm from the apex. Root canals were filled with contrast solution and radiographed pre- and post-irrigation using digital radiographic system [radiovisiography (RVG)]. The irrigation protocols were: MI1-manual irrigation [22 G needle at 5 mm short of working length-WL]; MI2-manual irrigation (30G needle at 2 mm short of WL); PUI; EV1-EndoVac (microcannula at 1 mm short of WL); EV2-Endovac (microcannula at 3 mm short of WL). The obtained images, initial (filled with contrast solution) and final (after irrigation) were analyzed by using image tool 3.0 software. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (5% significance level). EV1 and EV2, followed by PUI showed better cleaning capacity than manual irrigation (MI1 and MI2) (p irrigation and PUI promoted better cleaning of main and simulated lateral canals. Conventional manual irrigation technique may promote less root canal cleaning in the apical third. For this reason, the search for other irrigation protocols is important, and EndoVac and PUI are alternatives to contribute to irrigation effectiveness.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Dentinal Erosion after Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation versus Irrigation with Reciprocating Activation: An Environmental Scanning Electron Study. (United States)

    Simezo, Ana Paula; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Pelegrine, Rina Andrea; Rocha, Daniel Guimarães Pedro; de Martin, Alexandre Sigrist; Kato, Augusto Shoji


    The aim of this study was to assess ex vivo the erosive effects of passive ultrasonic irrigation versus irrigation with reciprocating activation on the dentinal surface of the root canal at 3 predetermined levels using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Ten roots of mandibular premolars were prepared using the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The specimens were embedded in flasks cleaved longitudinally, and indentations were made 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 mm from the apex. The specimens in the control group (n = 10) were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath containing 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA and then dried. Then, environmental scanning electron microscopic images were obtained at magnification × 800. The specimens were then reassembled in their flasks, and the NaOCl and EDTA solutions were activated according to the conditions established for the experimental groups (ie, the passive ultrasonic irrigation group [n = 5] and the EasyClean (Easy Equipamentos Odontológicos, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil) group, irrigation with reciprocating activation with the EasyClean instrument [n = 5]). The specimens of both experimental groups were analyzed in the same manner as in the control group. Analysis of the dentinal surface topography was conducted using the 3D Roughness Reconstruction program (Phenom-World BV, Eindhoven, the Netherlands) as a means for assessing erosion. The data were evaluated by means of the Kruskal-Wallis, Student-Newman-Keuls, and Mann-Whitney tests. In the EasyClean group, the degree of dentinal erosion at 3.0 mm was significantly higher than at 9.0 mm. In the other comparisons, there was no statistically significant difference (P < .05). The final irrigation techniques tested were equivalent in relation to the degree of erosion caused to the dentinal surface. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu


    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  14. Response of Table Grape to Irrigation Water in the Aconcagua Valley, Chile


    Carlos Zúñiga-Espinoza; Cristina Aspillaga; Raúl Ferreyra; Gabriel Selles


    The irrigation water available for agriculture will be scarce in the future due to increased competition for water with other sectors, and the issue may become more serious due to climate change. In Chile, the table grape is only cultivated under irrigation. A five-year research program (2007–2012) was carried out in the Aconcagua Valley, the central area of grapes in Chile, to evaluate the response of table grape vines (Vitis vinifera L., cv Thompson Seedless) to different volumes of irrigat...

  15. Wavelet-cointegration prediction of irrigation water in the irrigation district (United States)

    Zhang, Jinping; Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Yong; Hong, Yang


    Affected by various influencing factors, many time series analysis methods are used to predict irrigation water. However, it is often assumed to be stationary for the hydrologic time series which will result in an insignificant "spurious regression". Actually, irrigation water is largely determined by rainfall and crop water requirement in the irrigation district. With the wavelet analysis method, the varying fluctuation characteristics of rainfall, irrigation water, and crop water requirement with multi-temporal scales are exhibited. The cointegration equilibrium relationship amongst their original time series and decomposed time series are also revealed by the cointegration theory. Combining the wavelet analysis method with the cointegration theory, the wavelet-cointegration prediction model of irrigation water is proposed. The results show that the model has the available prediction accuracy, and the relative errors of all predicted years are less than 5%, except 2004 and 2012.

  16. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems. (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  17. Carbon and water footprints of irrigated corn and non-irrigated wheat in Northeast Spain. (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; Carvalho, Monica; Causapé, Jesús


    Irrigation increases yields and allows several crops to be produced in regions where it would be naturally impossible due to limited rainfall. However, irrigation can cause several negative environmental impacts, and it is important to understand these in depth for the correct application of mitigation measures. The life cycle assessment methodology was applied herein to compare the main irrigated and non-irrigated crops in Northeast Spain (corn and wheat, respectively), identifying those processes with greater contribution to environmental impacts (carbon and water footprint categories) and providing scientifically-sound information to facilitate government decisions. Due to concerns about climate change and water availability, the methods selected for evaluation of environmental impacts were IPCC 2013 GWP (carbon footprint) and water scarcity indicator (water footprint). The area studied, a 7.38-km(2) basin, was monitored for 12 years, including the period before, during, and after the implementation of irrigation. The functional unit, to which all material and energy flows were associated with, was the cultivation of 1 ha, throughout 1 year. The overall carbon footprint for irrigated corn was higher, but when considering the higher productivity achieved with irrigation, the emissions per kilogram of corn decrease and finally favor this irrigated crop. When considering the water footprint, the volumes of irrigation water applied were so high that productivity could not compensate for the negative impacts associated with water use in the case of corn. Nevertheless, consideration of productivities and gross incomes brings the results closer. Fertilizer use (carbon footprint) and irrigation water (water footprint) were the main contributors to the negative impacts detected.

  18. Effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Moraes


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of 20 demonstrative units participating in the “Balde Cheio” Program in the state of Rio de Janeiro from January to December 2011. The following variables were obtained: dam/labor ratio, herd size/labor ratio, milk yield/labor ratio, animals/production area, percentage of lactating cows, and milk yield. Return was analyzed considering gross margin, net margin, outcome (profit or loss, and profitability. The data were analyzed using the PASW 18.0 software. Pasture irrigation did not significantly alter the indicators studied. The greater profitability and return of farms using pasture irrigation were the consequence of better animal production rates/day and per ha/year. When gross margin, net margin and outcome using total revenue are considered, there is decapitalization of the farms. 

  19. Bacteriological analysis of horticultural irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákylla Fernanda Souza Silva


    Full Text Available This study analyzed the quality of water used for the irrigation of five crops based upon microorganism indicators of fecal contamination (group coliforms and contamination by organic material (Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both the water and in the irrigated food. The study also verified the decrease in the activity of these microorganisms by heterotrophic bacterial count before and after treatment with three different sanitizers. The presence of coliform (NMP > 1600 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in both the irrigation water and in the irrigated food, and the coefficient of variation (R2 revealed a strong correlation between the rates of contamination of the water and food. All of the sanitizers evaluated reduced the bacterial load of the food, especially sanitization with vinegar at 200 ppm, which, in addition to greatly reducing food contamination, is also considered a low-cost and toxicologically safe product, and therefore may be indicated for this purpose. Thus, the use of poor quality water in the irrigation of vegetables may directly contribute to food contamination, with serious implications for the health of consumers.

  20. Caloric testing by continuous automatic alternating irrigation. (United States)

    Reker, U


    Quantitative caloric test results show a high variability. They were described as questionable by Frenzel (1955) and a review of the test was recommended by Hood (1973). Thus, we developed a new method: continuous automatic alternating irrigation. An irrigator is connected to two water-baths of 30 degrees C and 44 degrees C. A time-relays switches over from one bath to the other every 60 s. The continuous, but alternating, irrigations produce subsequently alternating exponential temperature waves in the temporal bone. The mathematical model shows a quasi-periodicity and sufficient symmetry of the alternating thermal gradient across the canal, except for the first stimulus. After 11 irrigations of 60 s, a short (20 s) "washout" irrigation terminates the sequence. By the five repetitions of each stimulus and the additional possibility of correlating the response to the paper-marked stimulus periodicity the judgement is far more reliable and therefore, in doubtful cases, despite the five-fold data, quicker. The technical device is simple enough for routine use and inexpensive. The results of the caloric test are now much more clear-cut and the correlation to a known clinical pathology is remarkably high.

  1. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro


    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  2. Holistic irrigation water management approach based on stochastic soil water dynamics (United States)

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.


    Appreciating the essential gap between fundamental unsaturated zone transport processes and soil and water management due to low effectiveness of some of monitoring and modeling approaches, this study presents a mathematical programming model for irrigation management optimization based on stochastic soil water dynamics. The model is a nonlinear non-convex program with an economic objective function to address water productivity and profitability aspects in irrigation management through optimizing irrigation policy. Utilizing an optimization-simulation method, the model includes an eco-hydrological integrated simulation model consisting of an explicit stochastic module of soil moisture dynamics in the crop-root zone with shallow water table effects, a conceptual root-zone salt balance module, and the FAO crop yield module. Interdependent hydrology of soil unsaturated and saturated zones is treated in a semi-analytical approach in two steps. At first step analytical expressions are derived for the expected values of crop yield, total water requirement and soil water balance components assuming fixed level for shallow water table, while numerical Newton-Raphson procedure is employed at the second step to modify value of shallow water table level. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, combined with the eco-hydrological simulation model, has been used to solve the non-convex program. Benefiting from semi-analytical framework of the simulation model, the optimization-simulation method with significantly better computational performance compared to a numerical Mote-Carlo simulation-based technique has led to an effective irrigation management tool that can contribute to bridging the gap between vadose zone theory and water management practice. In addition to precisely assessing the most influential processes at a growing season time scale, one can use the developed model in large scale systems such as irrigation districts and agricultural catchments. Accordingly

  3. Assessment of drainage water quality in pre- and post-irrigation seasons for supplemental irrigation use. (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitris; Gotsis, Dimitris; Giakoumakis, Spyros


    Knowledge on hydrochemistry is very important to assess the quality of water for effective management of water resources or drainage water reuse. On this basis, an assessment of water quality was conducted in the Agoulinitsa district in Peloponnese (western Greece). Both drainage and irrigation channel water samples have been collected, treated, and subjected to chemical analysis. A characterization has been carried out using the Piper-trilinear diagram. Assessment of the water samples from the point of view of sodium adsorption ratio, Na(+)%, and residual sodium carbonate indicated that 60.0% and 83.3% of the drainage water samples during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples, are chemically suitable for irrigation use. Moreover, assessment of the water samples by comparing quality parameters with the Food and Agriculture Organization guidelines indicated that 20.0% and 44.4% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples could cause slight to moderate problems to the plants. On the other hand, 80.0% and 55.6% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, could cause immediate development of severe problems to the plants growth.

  4. The occurrence of heavy metals in irrigated and non-irrigated arable soils, NW Albania. (United States)

    Kasa, Elian; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Gjoka, Fran


    The study analysed the content of heavy metals in surface soil and sediment samples from the Bregu i Matit Plain in NW Albania in relation to irrigation in order to evaluate the soil pollution and the potential risk to human health. Evaluation of soil pollution was performed using the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. Contents of cadmium, chromium and nickel of irrigated soils were significantly higher than those of non-irrigated soil, while contents of lead (in three of the irrigated locations), zinc and arsenic (in one of the irrigated locations) were significantly lower. Correlation analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the primary source of the first three metals was irrigation, and the last three metals were originated from other anthropic sources, like the use of chemicals, etc. Enrichment factor (E f) calculation showed that irrigated soils were most enriched in cadmium, chromium, copper and nickel. Index of geo-accumulation (I geo) revealed that arable soils of Bregu i Matit are unpolluted to moderately polluted with cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc and moderately to strongly polluted with nickel and arsenic. The presence of heavy metals in the studied soils indicates a potential risk of transfer of these elements in the food chain. Therefore, further studies on the speciation of heavy metals in the studied soils in order to evaluate their mobility are needed.

  5. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance. (United States)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Tran, Davis V; Winter V, Amos G


    Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC) drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  6. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkit Shamshery

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  7. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31481518X


    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  8. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra


    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  9. Landscape Planning of Forest Amelioration on Irrigated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruleva Olga Vasilyevna


    Full Text Available The authors study the landscape program which supposes the formation of land use system aimed at connection of protective shelterbelts to geo-morphological watershed elements, relief, unsimilarity of agricultural territories, adapted to the dynamically balanced state of substance and energy within a landscape. Such approach favors the development of agricultural lands estimation system by means of forest amelioration. It happens due to transformation (reorganization of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of energy mass transfer. Consequently, the radiation, heat, soil, hydrophysical and hydrodynamical processes change as well. So, the area adjoining the protective forest belt is the area of determined processes, while further from the forest belt the space is open for changes of all the characteristics. While estimating lands geoecology, the agroforest landscape was considered as a modification of agricultural landscape forming and functioning under the influence of protective shelterbelts. The landscape unsimilarity of the territory should be taken into account during the optimum organization of irrigated farming. It was made by means of desiphering space photos. According to bioclimatical zonal indications, the dry steppe and desert steppe agrolandscape types have been determined. The irrigated soils of the Volgograd region are located mainly in dry steppe agroforest landscapes on dark-chestnut and chestnut soils within natural ameliorative areas of Privolzhskaya and Ergeninskaya Hills and partly in Zavolzhskaya river delta plain; in semi-desert agroforest landscapes on light-chestnut soils within Zavolzhskaya river delta plain and Sarpinskaya lowlands. The favourable hydrogeological ameliorative situation on the territory of southern Privolzhskaya Hill gives the opportunity to revive the irrigation in the Volgograd region and therefore to increase the productivity and sustainability of agricultural production on a higher scientific

  10. Apical pressure created during irrigation with the GentleWave™ system compared to conventional syringe irrigation. (United States)

    Haapasalo, Markus; Shen, Ya; Wang, Zhejun; Park, Ellen; Curtis, Allison; Patel, Payal; Vandrangi, Prashanthi


    The purpose of this study is to compare pressures at the apical foramen created by conventional syringe irrigation and the GentleWave™ System, which releases high-velocity degassed irrigants to the pulp chamber and uses broad-spectrum sound energy for cleaning. The apical pressure generated during irrigation was measured for palatal and distobuccal root canals of four extracted maxillary molars after no instrumentation, minimal instrumentation to a size #15/.04, instrumentation to a size #40/.04 taper, and after perforating the apical foramen to size #40. The root canals opened into an air-tight custom fixture coupled to a piezoresistive pressure transducer. Apical pressures were measured for the GentleWave™ System and syringe-needle irrigation at different irrigant flow rates, with the needle tip at 1 and 3 mm from the apical foramen using 30-gauge (G) open-ended or side-vented safety tip needles. The GentleWave™ System generated negative apical pressures (P irrigation); the mean pressures were between -13.07 and -17.19 mmHg. The 30 G needles could not reach the 1 and 3 mm from the working length in uninstrumented and 1 mm in minimally instrumented canals. The mean positive pressures between 6.46 and 110.34 mmHg were measured with needle irrigation depending on the flow rate, needle insertion depth, and size of the root canal. The GentleWave™ System creates negative pressure at the apical foramen during root canal cleaning irrespective of the size of canal instrumentation. Positive apical pressures were measured for syringe irrigation. Negative pressure during irrigation contributes to improved safety as compared to high-positive pressure.

  11. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moniri Far


    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  12. The Power to Resist: Irrigation Management Transfer in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhardiman, D.


    In the last two decades, international donors have promoted Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) as an international remedy to management problems in government irrigation systems in many developing countries. This article analyses the political processes that shape IMT policy formulation and

  13. Performance of arthroscopic irrigation systems assessed with automatic blood detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; de Vaal, M. M.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Blankevoort, L.; van der List, M. P. J.


    During arthroscopies, bleeding episodes occur as a result of tissue damage. Irrigation systems assist in minimizing these disturbances. The performance of three arthroscopic irrigation systems in clearing bleeding episodes was evaluated objectively. One surgeon performed 99 shoulder arthroscopies

  14. When should irrigators invest in more water-efficient technologies as an adaptation to climate change? (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Yoder, J.


    The western US is expected to experience more frequent droughts with higher magnitudes and persistence due to the climate change, with potentially large impacts on agricultural productivity and the economy. Irrigated farmers have many options for minimizing drought impacts including changing crops, engaging in water markets, and switching irrigation technologies. Switching to more efficient irrigation technologies, which increase water availability in the crop root zone through reduction of irrigation losses, receives significant attention because of the promise of maintaining current production with less. However, more efficient irrigation systems are almost always more capital-intensive adaptation strategy particularly compared to changing crops or trading water. A farmer's decision to switch will depend on how much money they project to save from reducing drought damages. The objective of this study is to explore when (and under what climate change scenarios) it makes sense economically for farmers to invest in a new irrigation system. This study was performed over the Yakima River Basin (YRB) in Washington State, although the tools and information gained from this study are transferable to other watersheds in the western US. We used VIC-CropSyst, a large-scale grid-based modeling framework that simulates hydrological processes while mechanistically capturing crop water use, growth and development. The water flows simulated by VIC-CropSyst were used to run the RiverWare river system and water management model (YAK-RW), which simulates river processes and calculates regional water availability for agricultural use each day (i.e., the prorationing ratio). An automated computational platform has been developed and programed to perform the economic analysis for each grid cell, crop types and future climate projections separately, which allows us to explore whether or not implementing a new irrigation system is economically viable. Results of this study indicate that

  15. SEBAL Model Using to Estimate Irrigation Water Efficiency & Water Requirement of Alfalfa Crop (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga


    geo database and used for experiment program managment. Quite good agreement between measured and calculated biomass and LAI were obtained. Estimation of effectiveness of water efficiency as well as estimation of applied water losses were done in the base of supplied irrigation water provided by local operating irrigation water supply companies and data of soil moisture monitoring. Following analyse of the remote sensing use to estimate of crop water requirement will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. This study was financially supported by G2G project

  16. Irrigated and non-irrigated radiofrequency ablation systems and ways of non-irrigated RF systems development (United States)

    Evtushenko, A. V.; Evtushenko, V. V.; Bykov, A. N.; Sergeev, V. S.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Kistenev, Yu. V.; Anfinogenova, Ya. D.; Smyshlyaev, K. A.; Kurlov, I. O.


    Improving of radiofrequency ablation systems for the myocardium is one of the fundamental problems of cardiac surgery. We used pig left ventricular myocardium as a working model. Mean thickness of the left ventricular wall was 10.1 ± 5.6 mm. The studies were performed on 10 hearts. The mean weight of hearts was 294.7 ± 21g. Research is being done on the electrophysical bench in 2 stages. In the first stage the hearts were placed on the electrophysical bench and heated to 36.6°C. In the second stage heart cooled to 20°C. The monopolar radiofrequency exposure was processing on the myocardium by two types of electrodes: spherical irrigated electrode and non-irrigated penetrating one within 20 seconds. The electrical resistance of the myocardium was measured at different temperatures before and after exposure. This paper shows that the decrease in ambient temperature combined with using of new penetrating electrodes for radiofrequency ablation gives better results than using of irrigated and non-irrigated systems. This method allows significantly reduce time exposure for a maximum depth of destruction in the myocardium.

  17. Water-Energy balance in pressure irrigation systems (United States)

    Sánchez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis; Laguna, Francisco V.; Castañón, Guillermo; Gil, María; Benitez, Javier


    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. Automation techniques become easier after modernization, and operation management plays an important role in energy efficiency issues. Modern systems use to include elevated water reservoirs with enough capacity to irrigate during peak water demand period about 16 to 48 h. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems according to their management possibilities. Also is an objective to estimate the fraction of the water reservoirs available along the irrigation campaign for storing the energy from renewable sources during their availability periods. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity and new opportunities in the renewable energy field.

  18. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector


    Nijman, C.


    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the performance of irrigation investments was far below its potential. The size of this underperformance is well represented by Seckler's alarming conclusion that the average irrigation investment costs twi...

  19. Automatic programmers for solid set sprinkler irrigation systems


    Zapata Ruiz, María Valvanera; Salvador Esteban, Raquel; Cavero Campo, José; Lecina Brau, Sergio; Playán Jubillar, Enrique


    Introduction: The application of new technologies to the control and automation of irrigation processes is becoming very important in the last decade. Although automation of irrigation execution (irrigation programmers) is now widespread the automatic generation and execution of irrigation schedules is receiving growing attention due to the possibilities offered by the telemetry / remote control systems currently being installed in collective pressurized networks. In this paper, a protot...

  20. Irrigation development and management in Ghana: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... existing schemes. It is envisaged that irrigation will be seen in its right perspective as a multidisciplinary activity to ensure the success of schemes. There is the need for running a postgraduate programme in irrigation at the KNUST to enhance the nations efforts at developing and managing irrigation projects successfully.

  1. Land Evaluation for improved Rice Production in Watari Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at raising irrigated rice production in Watari Irrigation scheme, in Kano state, as to bridge the gap between the demand for rice and its supply. The food and Agricultural Organization FAO, (1985) frame work for land evaluation for irrigated rice production was employed, and the soil map of the study area has ...

  2. Fertilization and irrigation of Eucalyptus in southern California (United States)

    Paul W. Moore


    An experiment to determine the interaction of three levels of irrigation, three levels of fertility and three densities of planting was started at the University of California Moreno Ranch in 1982. Differential irrigation and fertility treatments will begin in June of 1983. Some current practices of irrigation and fertilization by southern California growers are...

  3. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.


    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  4. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.


    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  5. Yield, irrigation production efficiency and economic return of broccoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect of irrigation methods and irrigation schedules on marketable yield, irrigation oroduction efficiency and economic return of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea. Var. italica). lrrigation was applied when the sum of daily pan evaporation data from United States Weather Bureau (USWB) class- A-open ran reach approximately to ...

  6. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    In this present study, the quality of municipal wastewater used for irrigation of spinach was investigated for its heavy metal build-up. The municipal wastewater used for irrigation and the irrigated spinach samples were collected and analyzed for their heavy metal concentrations. The results indicate that the municipal ...

  7. Socio–economic and environmental effects of Bakolori irrigation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is in recognition of the enormous influence of irrigation on farm level productivity and enhanced living standard that government and development agencies embark on gigantic irrigation projects. This study therefore, investigated the socio - economic and environmental impacts of two irrigation projects in a semi arid ...

  8. Irrigation technology for smallholder farmers: a strategy for achieving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the importance of rural irrigation schemes in addressing community and household food security and ensuring health nutrition uptake by irrigators and surrounding communities. Rural irrigation systems enable farmers to become net food sellers allowing them to benefit from food price volatility.

  9. Field Irrigation Practice and the Performance of Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To a large extent, the farmers\\' practices were determined by their perceptions and understanding of irrigation events. An assortment of irrigation scheduling methods was practised, water application approaches were not as per system design and there was a general tendency to over irrigate. The performance of both ...

  10. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.


    Spate irrigation is a system used for wetting land prior to planting. Use is made of seasonal rivers (wadis) producing flash floods in the uplands, which are directed by structures to irrigate fields in the lowlands. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea was studied in

  11. Breaking the Vicious Cycle in Irrigation Farming System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a pilot investigation into irrigation activities and the need for a reform to attain food security in Nigeria. Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the. Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ilorin was chosen as epitome of irrigation projects in Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were administered on the 135 farmers ...

  12. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    irrigation systems. Drip irrigation is considered to be one of the most efficient irrigation systems available, but through a WRC-supported research project evidence was obtained from the literature as well as from on-farm and in-field testing that even this system can be inefficient, as a result of poor water quality, mismanage-.

  13. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  14. 76 FR 58293 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects (United States)


    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... has an interest in, irrigation projects located on or associated with various Indian reservations throughout the United States. We are required to establish irrigation assessment rates to recover the costs...

  15. 75 FR 67095 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects (United States)


    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... has an interest in irrigation projects located on or associated with various Indian reservations throughout the United States. We are required to establish irrigation assessment rates to recover the ] costs...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5220 - Colonic irrigation system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colonic irrigation system. 876.5220 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5220 Colonic irrigation system. (a) Identification. A colonic irrigation system is a device intended to instill water into the colon...

  17. Critical parameters for maize yield under irrigation farming in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the critical variables that determine maize yield under irrigation farming in the savanna ecological zone of Kwara State. Seventy-five soil samples were randomly collected from irrigation farm of Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority Ilorin and bulked into 15 ...

  18. 75 FR 29577 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects (United States)


    ... Indian Irrigation Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Rate Adjustments. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) owns, or has an interest in, irrigation projects located on or... irrigation assessment rates to recover the costs to administer, operate, maintain, and rehabilitate these...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device intended to provide a pressurized stream of water to...

  20. The impact of smallholder irrigation on household welfare: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of smallholder irrigated agriculture to enhance food security and alleviate rural poverty has led the South African Government to prioritise and invest significantly in irrigation establishment, rehabilitation and revitalisation. The question addressed in this study pertains to the extent to which smallholder irrigation ...

  1. Determinants of micro irrigation adoption for maize production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is an assessment of the determinants of micro irrigation adoption for maize production in smallholder irrigation schemes. The focus of the study was on Hama Mavhaire irrigation scheme in Midlands Province, Zimbabwe. An assessment of the major production constraints in the scheme was carried out, factors that ...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4360 - Ocular surgery irrigation device. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over the...

  3. 77 FR 63850 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects (United States)


    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... has an interest in irrigation projects located on or associated with various Indian reservations throughout the United States. We are required to establish irrigation assessment rates to recover the costs...

  4. 77 FR 10767 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects (United States)


    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... interest in, irrigation projects located on or associated with various Indian reservations throughout the United States. We are required to establish irrigation assessment rates to recover the costs to...

  5. 25 CFR 152.32 - Irrigation fee; payment. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrigation fee; payment. 152.32 Section 152.32 Indians... Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.32 Irrigation fee; payment. Collection of all construction costs against any Indian-owned lands within Indian irrigation projects is deferred as long as Indian...

  6. 76 FR 26759 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects (United States)


    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... interest in, irrigation projects located on or associated with various Indian reservations throughout the United States. We are required to establish irrigation assessment rates to recover the costs to...

  7. Irrigation farmers motivation for participating in social networking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety four irrigation farmers were randomly selected from three irrigation farming areas in two states of Kwara and Kogi in north central Nigeria. Data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. The Motivation for undertaking irrigation farming and their level of participation in social networking were ...

  8. Fertigation - Injecting soluble fertilizers into the irrigation system (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Jeremy R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis


    Fertigation (fertilization + irrigation) is the newest way for nursery managers to apply fertilizer, and has become a standard practice in container nurseries. Because of the inherent inefficient water distribution patterns in field irrigation systems, fertigation has not been widely used in bareroot nurseries. However, a bareroot nursery with a center-pivot irrigation...

  9. Comparison of Endovac irrigation system with conventional irrigation for removal of intracanal smear layer: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Abarajithan, Mohan; Dham, Sonal; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Valerian-Albuquerque, Denzil; Ballal, Suma; Senthilkumar, Hemamalathi


    This study comparatively evaluated the efficacy of Endovac irrigation system with conventional needle irrigation in removing smear layer from the root canal. Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth each. In group I, the teeth were instrumented and irrigated by conventional irrigation using 27-gauge irrigation needle. In group II, irrigation was done using Endovac irrigation system. In group III (negative control) chemomechanical preparation was performed using saline solution. Scanning electron microscope evaluation was done for assessment of smear layer removal in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. Data were analyzed using post hoc test and Kruskal-Wallis test for significance at P irrigation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Share of irrigated land and farm size in rainwater harvesting irrigation in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, Mekonnen B.; Gardebroek, Koos


    Rainfall shortages constrain small-holders' agricultural production in developing countries and with ongoing climate change these shortages may increase in volume and frequency. Rainwater harvesting irrigation is an interesting technology that decreases this risk. Therefore, one would expect an

  11. Identifying and locating land irrigated by center-pivot irrigation systems using satellite imagery (United States)

    Hoffman, R. O.


    A methodology for using Landsat imagery for the identification and location of land irrigated by center-pivot irrigation systems is presented. The procedure involves the use of sets of Landsat band 5 imagery taken separated in time by about three weeks during the irrigation season, a zoom transfer scope and mylar base maps to record the locations of center pivots. Further computer processing of the data has been used to obtain plots of center-pivot irrigation systems and tables indicating the distribution and growth of systems by county for the state of Nebraska, and has been found to be in 95% agreement with current high-altitude IR photography. The information obtainable can be used for models of ground-water aquifers or resource planning.

  12. Irrigation Practice Affects Soil Phosphorus Chemistry (United States)

    Ippolito, J.; Bjorneberg, D.


    It is expected, given the same water source applied to the same soil, that changes in soil chemistry would be subtle when comparing furrow and sprinkler irrigation practices. From four paired fields, we collected soil (after similar crops were harvested in September) from the 0-5 cm depth. Samples were analyzed for changes in soil P chemistry due to sprinkler or furrow irrigation using: 1) the Olsen soil test P extraction; 2) the alkaline phosphatase enzyme assay; 3) a sequential extraction technique which fractionated inorganic and organic soil P pools; and 4) a measure of the amorphous soil Al and Fe mineral phases. Olsen-extractable soil P was lower under sprinkler irrigation; however, this was not due to a reduction in microbial phosphatase activity. Soils under sprinkler irrigation contained lower inorganic P concentrations in soluble/Al-bound/Fe-bound and in the occluded phases, lesser amounts of organic P present in the moderately labile and non-labile fractions, and contained lower amorphous Fe concentrations. These results indicate that the method of water application affects soil chemistry and nutrient cycling.

  13. Management of irrigation schemes in arid countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; Urso, d' G.


    The issue of the actual practical scope of remote sensing is to some extent a matter of unfulfilled promises in the early stage of remote sensing by satellites. A detailed analysis of irrigation management procedures should always come first. Once data requirements are defined in detail, the actual

  14. Using a System Model for Irrigation Management (United States)

    de Souza, Leonardo; de Miranda, Eu; Sánchez-Román, Rodrigo; Orellana-González, Alba


    When using Systems Thinking variables involved in any process have a dynamic behavior, according to nonstatic relationships with the environment. In this paper it is presented a system dynamics model developed to be used as an irrigation management tool. The model involves several parameters related to irrigation such as: soil characteristics, climate data and culture's physiological parameters. The water availability for plants in the soil is defined as a stock in the model, and this soil water content will define the right moment to irrigate and the water depth required to be applied. The crop water consumption will reduce soil water content; it is defined by the potential evapotranspiration (ET) that acts as an outflow from the stock (soil water content). ET can be estimated by three methods: a) FAO Penman-Monteith (ETPM), b) Hargreaves-Samani (ETHS) method, based on air temperature data and c) Class A pan (ETTCA) method. To validate the model were used data from the States of Ceará and Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the culture was bean. Keyword: System Dynamics, soil moisture content, agricultural water balance, irrigation scheduling.

  15. Water quality and irrigation [Chapter 10 (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Kim M. Wilkinson


    Water is the single most important biological factor affecting plant growth and health. Water is essential for almost every plant process: photosynthesis, nutrient transport, and cell expansion and development. In fact, 80 to 90 percent of a seedling's weight is made up of water. Therefore, irrigation management is the most critical aspect of nursery operations....

  16. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    2010). The most commonly used term for placing a numerical value on uniformity of application for agricultural irrigation systems is Christiansen's coefficient of uniformity expressed as a percent (Christiansen,. 1942). It is based on the absolute deviation of individual amounts from the mean amount. Another parameter that.

  17. Streamflow Prediction in Ungauged, Irrigated Basins (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Thompson, S. E.


    The international "predictions in ungauged basins" or "PUB" effort has broadened and improved the tools available to support water resources management in sparsely observed regions. These tools have, however, been primarily focused on regions with limited diversion of surface or shallow groundwater resources. Incorporating anthropogenic activity into PUB methods is essential given the high level of development of many basins. We extended an existing stochastic framework used to predict the flow duration curve to explore the effects of irrigation on streamflow dynamics. Four canonical scenarios were considered in which irrigation water was (i) primarily sourced from water imports, (ii) primarily sourced from direct in-channel diversions, (iii) sourced from shallow groundwater with direct connectivity to stream channels, or (iv) sourced from deep groundwater that is indirectly connected to surface flow via a shallow aquifer. By comparing the predicted flow duration curves to those predicted by accounting for climate and geomorphic factors in isolation, specific "fingerprints" of human water withdrawals could be identified for the different irrigation scenarios, and shown to be sensitive to irrigation volumes and scheduling. The results provide a first insight into PUB methodologies that could be employed in heavily managed basins.

  18. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater-irrigated vegetables may pose public health hazards to farming communities in the study areas. Therefore, evaluation and surveillance of parasitological quality of vegetables is crucial in an attempt to control vegetable-transmitted parasitic infections.

  19. Irrigation performance assessment in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Roerink, G.J.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Popovych, V.F.


    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic

  20. Irrigation management of muskmelon with tensiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana


    Full Text Available The production and consumption of muskmelon have been increasing (MELO et al., 2014, thus, information on techniques for higher field productions are necessary. The experiment described in the present work was conducted in the IFTM, Uberaba, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the muskmelon yield under different soil water tensions. A randomized block experimental design was used with five treatments (soil water tensions of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kPa and four replications (plots of two rows of 14 plants. Two harvests were carried out and the fruit yield, stem diameter, number of fruits per plant and efficiency of water use were evaluated. Irrigation was performed with a drip irrigation system and managed with tensiometry. The cultivar Bonus n.2 was used with spacing of 1.0 x 0.6 m. The data of the variables were subjected to the F test and regression test. The treatments showed statistical differences in number of fruits per plant, fruit weight (fruit yield and stem diameter. The highest fruit yield found was 1.36 kg fruit-1 and the highest water use efficiency was 4.08 g mm-1 with irrigation for a soil water tension of 10 kPa. The lowest fruit yield was found with irrigation for a soil water tension of 50 kPa.

  1. Scheduling irrigation for jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 30, 2010 ... 2Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling. Shaanxi 712100 ... Key words: Water stress, water status indicators, soil water potential, Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) ...... of cover crops and irrigation rates on tomato yields and quality in a.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and has a variable success rate, while multiple tracks increase the risk of complications of. PNL, especially bleeding. We herein describe a technique of intra- operative percutaneous calyceal irrigation us- ing fluoroscopic and endoscopic guide. This helps to increase the stone clearance rate dur- ing PNL without the need ...

  3. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.


    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  4. Reuse of drainage water from irrigated areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willardson, L.S.; Boels, D.; Smedema, L.K.


    Increasing competition for water of good quality and the expectation that at least half of the required increase in food production in the near-future decades must come from the world's irrigated land requires to produce more food by converting more of the diverted water into food. Reuse of the

  5. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study


    Arindam Dutta; Mala Kundabala


    Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups ...

  6. Irrigating lives : development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project


    Magadlela, D.


    This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with changes in their livelihoods which had been introduced from outside by development intervention. The study was sustained by the realisation that irrigation is not just a matter of technical artefacts...

  7. Irrigation et paludisme : un couple infernal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.


    Full Text Available Irrigation and Malaria - a Terrible Combination?. Increasing agricultural productivity is a priority in most of the developing countries and using irrigation is one of the most efficient ways of achieving this goal. Almost half a billion people in the world contract malaria every year and approximately one million die as a result. The majority of these victims are farmers or members of their families. In infected areas, malaria continues to have major negative impacts on agricultural productivity. For example, in the Equateur province of the DRC, after access to production means, fevers are considered the second biggest obstacle to the development of agricultural activities. In the Ivory Coast, a study has shown that growers suffering from malaria were about half as productive as their healthy colleagues. The disease often strikes at the start of the rainy season when work begins again in the fields. It reduces the amount of land cultivated and affects the amount of care taken with crops. Agricultural practices influence the risk of contracting malaria. Irrigation, in particular, can encourage the proliferation of vectors of the disease and make it more likely to spread. This tendency can be observed in many locations where irrigated rice production is on the increase. Paradoxically, however, an increased number of mosquitoes does not systematically result in more malaria. In Ethiopia, malaria is more prevalent close to the micro-dams sponsored by the government, whereas, in Tanzania, there is less malaria in irrigated areas. Various theories can be put forward in order to explain this paradox. In particular, increased income due to higher rice yields enables farmers to purchase insecticide-treated mosquito nets. It also allows them to eat better, which strengthens their immune systems. It also appears that the negative impact of irrigation systems is greater in areas, in which immunity levels were low in the population prior to the creation of

  8. Comparison of nasal sprays and irrigations in the delivery of topical agents to the olfactory mucosa. (United States)

    Lam, Kent; Tan, Bruce K; Lavin, Jennifer M; Meen, Eric; Conley, David B


    Sinonasal diseases are often treated with topical agents administered through various application techniques, but few prior studies have examined their distribution to the olfactory mucosa. The purpose of this study was to compare the distribution of nasal irrigations to sprays within the olfactory cleft. Human cadaveric study. Eight cadaveric heads, providing a total of 15 nasal sides, underwent treatment with methylene blue solution. Application utilized a pressurized spray device followed by an irrigation squeeze bottle, both used according to manufacturer instructions. Videos and images from six standardized anatomical positions were recorded by rigid nasal endoscopy prior to and following each method of agent delivery. Using the acquired images, three reviewers blinded to the means of application scored the approximate surface area stained. An image-analysis program was additionally calibrated and used to measure pixel intensity in order to quantify surface delivery of methylene blue. Based on both blinded reviewer ratings and image pixel intensity measurements, irrigations demonstrated a greater extent and intensity of staining than sprays within the sphenoethmoid recess, superior turbinate, and superior olfactory cleft (all P Sprays and irrigations, however, were comparable in the extent of staining at the nasal vestibule (P > 0.05), inferior turbinate (P = 0.04), and middle turbinate (P > 0.05). Compared to sprays, irrigations provide a more effective method of delivering topical agents to the posterior and superior aspects of the nasal cavity. The thorough distribution of irrigations has important clinical implications for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents to the olfactory mucosa. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Smart Irrigation From Soil Moisture Forecast Using Satellite And Hydro -Meteorological Modelling (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Ceppi, Alessandro; Salerno, Raffaele; Sobrino, Josè


    Increased water demand and climate change impacts have recently enhanced the need to improve water resources management, even in those areas which traditionally have an abundant supply of water. The highest consumption of water is devoted to irrigation for agricultural production, and so it is in this area that efforts have to be focused to study possible interventions. The SIM project funded by EU in the framework of the WaterWorks2014 - Water Joint Programming Initiative aims at developing an operational tool for real-time forecast of crops irrigation water requirements to support parsimonious water management and to optimize irrigation scheduling providing real-time and forecasted soil moisture behavior at high spatial and temporal resolutions with forecast horizons from few up to thirty days. This study discusses advances in coupling satellite driven soil water balance model and meteorological forecast as support for precision irrigation use comparing different case studies in Italy, in the Netherlands, in China and Spain, characterized by different climatic conditions, water availability, crop types and irrigation techniques and water distribution rules. Herein, the applications in two operative farms in vegetables production in the South of Italy where semi-arid climatic conditions holds, two maize fields in Northern Italy in a more water reach environment with flood irrigation will be presented. This system combines state of the art mathematical models and new technologies for environmental monitoring, merging ground observed data with Earth observations. Discussion on the methodology approach is presented, comparing for a reanalysis periods the forecast system outputs with observed soil moisture and crop water needs proving the reliability of the forecasting system and its benefits. The real-time visualization of the implemented system is also presented through web-dashboards.

  10. Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater used for irrigation in Rumphi and Karonga districts, Northern Malawi (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Gulula, Lewis C.; Phiri, Ambrose

    Irrigation water quality is an essential component of sustainable agriculture. Irrigation water quality concerns have often been neglected over concerns of quantity in most irrigation projects in Malawi. In this study, a hydrochemical assessment of groundwater was carried out to characterize, classify groundwater and evaluate its suitability for irrigation use in Karonga and Rumphi districts, Northern Malawi. Groundwater samples were collected during wet (January-April 2011) and dry (July-September 2011) seasons from 107 shallow wells and boreholes drilled for rural water supply using standard sampling procedures. The water samples were analysed for pH, major ions, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity (EC), using standard methods. Multivariate chemometric (such as Kruskal Wallis test), hydrographical methods (i.e. Piper diagram) and PHREEQC geochemical modelling program were used to characterise the groundwater quality. Electrical conductivity, percentage sodium ion (% Na+), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Kelly’s ratio (KR) and permeability index (PI) were used to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation. It was established that groundwater is neutral to alkaline and mostly freshwater (TDS SAR, KR and % Na+ indicated good and permissible quality of water for irrigation uses. However, samples with doubtful RSC (6% from Karonga district), unsuitable PI (5% and 3% from Karonga and Rumphi, respectively) and a high salinity hazard (56.2% and 20.3% from Karonga and Rumphi, respectively) values restrict the suitability of the groundwater for agricultural purposes, and plants with good salt tolerance should be selected for such groundwaters. A detailed hydro-geochemical investigation and integrated water management is suggested for sustainable development of the water resources for better plant growth, long-term as well as maintaining human health in the study area.

  11. Evaluation of hydraulic performance of downstream-controlled Maira-PHLC irrigation canals under crop-based irrigation operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munir, S.; Schultz, B.; Suryadi, F.X.; Bharati, L.


    Demand-based irrigation systems are operated according to crop water requirements. As crop water requirements remain variable throughout the growing season, the discharges in the canal also vary to meet demands. The irrigation system under study is a demand-based semi-automatic irrigation system,

  12. Geospatial compilation and digital map of centerpivot irrigated areas in the mid-Atlantic region, United States (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jason S.; Nardi, Mark R.


    To evaluate water availability within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Delaware Agricultural Extension, created a dataset that maps the number of acres under center-pivot irrigation in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain study area. For this study, the extent of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain falls within areas of the States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The irrigation dataset maps about 271,900 acres operated primarily under center-pivot irrigation in 57 counties. Manual digitizing was performed against aerial imagery in a process where operators used observable center-pivot irrigation signatures—such as irrigation arms, concentric wheel paths through cropped areas, and differential colors—to identify and map irrigated areas. The aerial imagery used for digitizing came from a variety of sources and seasons. The imagery contained a variety of spatial resolutions and included online imagery from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Imagery Program, Microsoft Bing Maps, and the Google Maps mapping service. The dates of the source images ranged from 2010 to 2012 for the U.S. Department of Agriculture imagery, whereas maps from the other mapping services were from 2013.

  13. Improving yield and water use efficiency of sugarcane under drip irrigation in the Gharb region of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AABAD


    Full Text Available One of the most limiting factors for agricultural development in Morocco is water scarcity linked to climate change. Since 2008, an important program promoting drip irrigation was undertaken by the state to achieve water saving and productivity. An experiment on sugarcane was conducted in the Gharb region under Mediterranean climate with a silty clay soil during two cropping seasons. The objectives were to assess the sugarcane water requirements, optimize WUE and test the crop response to variable irrigation water supplies under drip irrigation. The experiment was conducted using ‘’CP70-321’’ sugarcane cultivar in an experimental station using a randomized block design with four replications and five water regimes. The results showed a highly significant effect of the water regime on sugar and stems yields and also on height of stems. Water requirements for sugarcane were estimated at 7500 m³.ha-1, but 5000 m³.ha-1 equivalent to 67%ETc, was sufficient to optimize WUE (132 to 157 kg of stems and 22.2 to 24.2 kg of sugar This means that drip irrigation on sugarcane could potentially i save about 50% of the irrigation volume, comparatively to sprinkler irrigation, ii almost double the stem yields and iii increase the sugar yields from 8 to 23 tons/ha.

  14. Simulated errors in deep drainage beneath irrigated settings: Partitioning vegetation, texture and irrigation effects using Monte Carlo (United States)

    Gibson, J. P.; Gates, J. B.; Nasta, P.


    Groundwater in irrigated regions is impacted by timing and rates of deep drainage. Because field monitoring of deep drainage is often cost prohibitive, numerical soil water models are frequently the main method of estimation. Unfortunately, few studies have quantified the relative importance of likely error sources. In this study, three potential error sources are considered within a Monte Carlo framework: water retention parameters, rooting depth, and irrigation practice. Error distributions for water retention parameters were determined by 1) laboratory hydraulic measurements and 2) pedotransfer functions. Error distributions for rooting depth were developed from literature values. Three irrigation scheduling regimes were considered: one representing pre-scheduled irrigation ignoring preceding rainfall, one representing pre-scheduled irrigation that was altered based on preceding rainfall, and one representing algorithmic irrigation scheduling informed by profile matric potential sensors. This approach was applied to an experimental site in Nebraska with silt loam soils and irrigated corn for 2002-2012. Results are based on Six Monte-Carlo simulations, each consisting of 1000 Hydrus 1D simulations at daily timesteps, facilitated by parallelization on a 12-node computing cluster. Results indicate greater sensitivity to irrigation regime than to hydraulic or vegetation parameters (median values for prescheduled irrigation, prescheduled irrigation altered by rainfall, and algorithmic irrigation were 310 ,100, and 110 mm/yr, respectively). Error ranges were up to 700% higher for pedotransfer functions than for laboratory-measured hydraulic functions. Deep drainage was negatively correlated with alpha and maximum root zone depth and, for some scenarios, positively correlated with n. The relative importance of error sources differed amongst the irrigation scenarios because of nonlinearities amongst parameter values, profile wetness, and deep drainage. Compared to pre

  15. Automation in irrigation process in family farm with Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianne Crystie Bezerra da Cunha


    Full Text Available The small farmers tend not to use mechanical inputs in the irrigation process due to the high cost than conventional irrigation systems have and in other cases, the lack of knowledge and technical guidance makes the farmer theme using the system. Thus, all control and monitoring are made by hand without the aid of machines and this practice can lead to numerous problems from poor irrigation, and water waste, energy, and deficits in production. It is difficult to deduce when to irrigate, or how much water applied in cultivation, measure the soil temperature variables, temperature, and humidity, etc. The objective of this work is to implement an automated irrigation system aimed at family farming that is low cost and accessible to the farmer. The system will be able to monitor all parameters from irrigation. For this to occur, the key characteristics of family farming, Arduino platform, and irrigation were analyzed.

  16. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell


    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  17. Irrigation Signals Detected From SMAP Soil Moisture Retrievals (United States)

    Lawston, Patricia M.; Santanello, Joseph A.; Kumar, Sujay V.


    Irrigation can influence weather and climate, but the magnitude, timing, and spatial extent of irrigation are poorly represented in models, as are the resulting impacts of irrigation on the coupled land-atmosphere system. One way to improve irrigation representation in models is to assimilate soil moisture observations that reflect an irrigation signal to improve model states. Satellite remote sensing is a promising avenue for obtaining these needed observations on a routine basis, but to date, irrigation detection in passive microwave satellites has proven difficult. In this study, results show that the new enhanced soil moisture product from the Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite is able to capture irrigation signals over three semiarid regions in the western United States. This marks an advancement in Earth-observing satellite skill and the ability to monitor human impacts on the water cycle.

  18. Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Li, Guitong; Andersen, Mathias Neumann


    Biochar is an amendment that can be used for enhancing soil water storage which may increase crop productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar on physiology, yield and quality of tomato under different irrigation regimes. From early flowering to fruit maturity...... stages, the plants were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying irrigation (PRD) and two levels of biochar (0% and 5% by weight). In FI, the plants were irrigated daily to pot water holding capacity while in DI and PRD, 70% of FI was irrigated on either...... the whole or one side of the pots, respectively. In PRD, irrigation was switched between sides when the soil water content of the dry side decreased to 15%. The results showed that addition of biochar increased the soil moisture contents in DI and PRD, which consequently improved physiology, yield...

  19. Two Challenges for U.S. Irrigation Due to Climate Change: Increasing Irrigated Area in Wet States and Increasing Irrigation Rates in Dry States (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I.; Girvetz, Evan H.


    Agricultural irrigation practices will likely be affected by climate change. In this paper, we use a statistical model relating observed water use by U.S. producers to the moisture deficit, and then use this statistical model to project climate changes impact on both the fraction of agricultural land irrigated and the irrigation rate (m3ha−1). Data on water withdrawals for US states (1985–2005) show that both quantities are highly positively correlated with moisture deficit (precipitation – PET). If current trends hold, climate change would increase agricultural demand for irrigation in 2090 by 4.5–21.9 million ha (B1 scenario demand: 4.5–8.7 million ha, A2 scenario demand: 9.1–21.9 million ha). Much of this new irrigated area would occur in states that currently have a wet climate and a small fraction of their agricultural land currently irrigated, posing a challenge to policymakers in states with less experience with strict regulation of agriculture water use. Moreover, most of this expansion will occur in states where current agricultural production has relatively low market value per hectare, which may make installation of irrigation uneconomical without significant changes in crops or practices by producers. Without significant increases in irrigation efficiency, climate change would also increase the average irrigation rate from 7,963 to 8,400–10,415 m3ha−1 (B1 rate: 8,400–9,145 m3ha−1, A2 rate: 9,380–10,415 m3ha−1). The irrigation rate will increase the most in states that already have dry climates and large irrigation rates, posing a challenge for water supply systems in these states. Accounting for both the increase in irrigated area and irrigation rate, total withdrawals might increase by 47.7–283.4 billion m3 (B1 withdrawal: 47.7–106.0 billion m3, A2 withdrawal: 117.4–283.4 billion m3). Increases in irrigation water-use efficiency, particularly by reducing the prevalence of surface irrigation, could eliminate the increase in

  20. Drip irrigation management in different chufa planting strategies: yield and irrigation water use efficiency (United States)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, José Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo


    In a study presented in the EGU assembly 2012, it was analysed how yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus), crop, were affected by planting strategy (ridges and flat raised beds, with two and three plant rows along them) and irrigation system [furrow (FI) and drip irrigation (DI)]. Each irrigation session started when the Volumetric Soil Water Content (VSWC) in ridges dropped to 80% of field capacity; beds were irrigated simultaneously with ridges and with the same irrigation duration. R produced lower yield than the two types of beds, and yields in DI were higher than those FI. Ridges led to the highest IWUE with DI, and to the lowest with FI. Then, it was decided to analyse, in DI, how yield and IWUE responded to start each irrigation session when the VSWC in the central point of different planting strategies [ridges (R), and flat raised beds with two (b) and three (B) plant rows along them] dropped to 80% of field capacity. In R and b, plants were irrigated by a single dripline per plant row, while in B two irrigation layouts were assayed: a single dripline per plant row (B3) and two driplines per bed (B2), placing each dripline between two planting rows. Irrigation session stop was also automated as a function of the VSWC. Results show that yield was affected (P˜0.01) by planting strategy; the greatest yield was obtained in b (2.4 kgm-2), differing (P˜0.05) from that obtained in R (2.1 kgm-2), with intermediate yields in B2 (2.3 kgm-2) and B3 (2.3 kgm-2). Yield was not affected (P˜0.05) by the utilisation of two or three driplines in B. Considerably less irrigation water was applied (IWA) in R (376 mm) than in B3 (465 mm), B2 (475 mm) and b (502 mm). This automatic irrigation management, as a function of the VSWC in each planting strategy, lead to adjust the IWA to the plant water requirements, which were similar in all three flat raised beds, since they correspond to the same planting density, that was

  1. Improving irrigation management in L'Horta Nord (Valencia, Spain) (United States)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, Jose Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo


    L'Horta Nord is an important irrigation district in Valencia (Spain), especially for vegetable crops. The traditional cropping pattern in the region consists of a rotation of chufa with crops such as potato, onion, lettuce, escarole and red cabbage, being all these crops furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of the water used is acceptable, water is not expensive and there are no limitations on supply. Consequently, growers are not aware of the volumes of water used, application efficiencies, nor water productivity for any of the crops cited. The European Framework Directive 2000/60, based on the precautionary principle, considers preventive action for measures to be taken; moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. Thus, water use is an issue to improve. In this sense, the current situation of the irrigation in the area is analysed using chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) as representative of the crops, since most of the crops in the area have shallow root systems, as chufa, which are irrigated in similar patterns. In order to analyse the irrigation performance of the traditional chufa crop as well as to achieve more sustainable results, different studies have been carried out, during the last decade. Efforts have been directed to increase water productivity, increasing yield and minimising the volumes of water applied. Different planting configurations and different irrigation thresholds, not only in furrow irrigation but also in drip irrigation, are examples of how the irrigation performance could be improved. Herein is presented a two-year study, comparing, in both furrow and drip irrigation, two irrigation schedules based on the volumetric soil water content, which was continuously monitored using capacitance sensors. Yield was significantly affected by the growing season, the irrigation system and by the irrigation schedule, and by the second order interactions of the

  2. Economics of Irrigation Water Mixing Within a Farm Framework (United States)

    Feinerman, E.; Yaron, D.


    Linear programing models, deterministic in the short run and stochastic (random rainfall) in the long run, aimed at guiding annual decision making with regard to crop mix and saline irrigation water mixing from various sources within a farm framework, are presented. The short-run model incorporates the physical, biological, and economic relationships involved in one endogenous system and enables an in depth analysis of them but is limited to a single year. The long-run model considers the effects of the short-run decisions on the future but several relationships are incorporated exogenously. The short run model's results are utilized for the determination of some of these predetermined relationships. The models are applied to a potential farm situation in southern Israel. The results provide priorities in the allocation of water and soil plots of varying salinity levels and empirical estimates of the shadow prices and the rates of substitution between the limited resources.

  3. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation. (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I


    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  4. Efficient Operation of a Multi-purpose Reservoir in Chile: Integration of Economic Water Value for Irrigation and Hydropower (United States)

    Olivares, M. A.; Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Moreno, R.


    Operation of hydropower reservoirs in Chile is prescribed by an Independent Power System Operator. This study proposes a methodology that integrates power grid operations planning with basin-scale multi-use reservoir operations planning. The aim is to efficiently manage a multi-purpose reservoir, in which hydroelectric generation is competing with other water uses, most notably irrigation. Hydropower and irrigation are competing water uses due to a seasonality mismatch. Currently, the operation of multi-purpose reservoirs with substantial power capacity is prescribed as the result of a grid-wide cost-minimization model which takes irrigation requirements as constraints. We propose advancing in the economic co-optimization of reservoir water use for irrigation and hydropower at the basin level, by explicitly introducing the economic value of water for irrigation represented by a demand function for irrigation water. The proposed methodology uses the solution of a long-term grid-wide operations planning model, a stochastic dual dynamic program (SDDP), to obtain the marginal benefit function for water use in hydropower. This marginal benefit corresponds to the energy price in the power grid as a function of the water availability in the reservoir and the hydrologic scenarios. This function allows capture technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoir in the power grid and is generated with the dual variable of the power-balance constraint, the optimal reservoir operation and the hydrologic scenarios used in SDDP. The economic value of water for irrigation and hydropower are then integrated into a basin scale stochastic dynamic program, from which stored water value functions are derived. These value functions are then used to re-optimize reservoir operations under several inflow scenarios.

  5. Comparison of a continuous ultrasonic irrigation device and conventional needle irrigation in the removal of root canal debris. (United States)

    Curtis, Tyson O; Sedgley, Christine M


    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare a continuous ultrasonic irrigation device (VPro StreamClean System [VSS], Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI) with conventional needle irrigation when used as a final irrigation procedure to debride the apical region of the root canal. The null hypothesis that there is no difference was tested. Root canals of matched pairs (N = 20) of extracted human teeth were prepared to an apical size of 36/.04 using Profile series 29/.04 rotary files (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation. One tooth of each pair was randomly assigned to receive final irrigation with either VSS or conventional needle irrigation. The gauge of the needle (#30), the irrigation cycles (ie, 5 mL NaOCl, 5 mL 15% EDTA, and 5 mL NaOCl), the irrigant flow rate (5 mL/min), and needle depth placement (1 mm from the working length [WL]) were experimental constants. Serial sections were obtained at 1 and 3 mm from the WL, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and viewed at 100× magnification for the presence of debris. The percentage of debris in the canal lumen after VSS or conventional needle irrigation was compared by using the Wilcoxon matched pairs test. There was significantly less debris in the VSS group compared with the conventional needle irrigation group at the 1-mm level (1.50% [VSS] vs 9.90% [conventional needle irrigation], P = .0001) and the 3-mm level (0.45% [VSS] vs 5.16% [conventional needle irrigation], P = .0014). The null hypothesis was rejected. Final irrigation with the VSS compared with conventional needle irrigation delivery resulted in significantly less debris present in root canals at 1 and 3 mm from the WL. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.


    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  7. Irrigation drainage: Green River basin, Utah (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, Jerry B.


    A reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah during 1986-87 determined that concentrations of selenium in water and biological tissues were potentially harmful to wildlife at the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and in the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Concentations of selenium in irrigation drainage entering Stewart Lake ranged from 14 to 140 micrograms per liter; liver tissue from coots collected from the lake contained selenium concentrations of as much as 26 micrograms per gram and samples of tissue from carp contained as much as 31 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of selenium in a pond at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, which receives irrigation water and shallow ground water, were as much as 93 micrograms per liter. Liver tissue from coots collected from this pond contained selenium concentrations of as much as 43 micrograms per gram; eggs of water birds contained as much as 120 micrograms per gram.

  8. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

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    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  9. Irrigants in non-surgical endodontic treatment. (United States)

    Regan, John D; Fleury, Alex A P


    This paper highlights that one of the main goals of root canal treatment is the elimination of microorganisms from the contaminated root canal system. Instrumentation alone will not allow for adequate debridement and disinfection of the complex and diverse root canal system. Chemomechanical debridement is required. The importance of the use of irrigants during non-surgical root canal treatment has frequently been neglected both during instruction of dental students and later in the clinical practice of endodontics. The article highlights 'shape, clean and fill' vs. 'clean, shape and fill' to enable chemomechanical debridement. Our protocol advises mechanical debridement and copious irrigation for a minimum of twenty minutes with 2.5% to 6% solutions of sodium hypochlorite, followed by a rinse with a 17% solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and a final rinse with 2% chlorhexidine. The canals are dried with high volume aspirators and sterile paper points.

  10. Stochastic Optimization of Irrigation Capacity and Farm Decisions for Agricultural Drought Risk Management (United States)

    Zhu, T.; Liu, Y.


    Agriculture is vulnerable to droughts and the adverse impacts can be widespread and long-lasting. Incorporating drought risk considerations into local irrigation infrastructure capacity planning and farm level management decisions can reduce economic losses during drought events and improve farm income stability. This study uses a multi-stage stochastic programming approach to optimize irrigation capacity and operations as well as on-farm decisions in a semi-arid study site located at the western section of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The model includes irrigation water supply capacity (canal and wells) and irrigation technology choice decisions in the first stage, seasonal crop planting decisions in the second stage based on probabilistic seasonal climate forecasts, and crop abandonment or replanting decisions in the third stage when monsoon rainfall amount is known. Using a modified climatology we examine the responses of cropping pattern and farm income to increased drought frequency and magnitude. We further explore the effects of alternative water and energy prices on groundwater pumping to examine potentially promising policies that can reduce groundwater overdraft which has become an increasingly serious issue in the region and jeopardizes its capacity to cope with droughts.

  11. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.


    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  12. Towards a smart automated surface irrigation management in rice-growing areas in Italy

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    Daniele Masseroni


    Full Text Available Italy is the leading rice producer in Europe, accounting for more than half of the total high-quality production of this crop. Rice is traditionally grown in fields that remain flooded starting with crop establishment until close to harvest, and this traditional irrigation technique (i.e., continuous submergence is recognised as an important water resource sink (almost 40% of the irrigation water available worldwide is used for paddy areas. Meanwhile, the water management in rice areas requires a high level of labour because it is based on maintaining a predetermined water height in paddy fields and because the regulation of input and output flow is typically operated manually by the farmer. This study reveals the hardware and software characteristics of an automated and remote controlled technology tested for the first time in a rice farm near Pavia (Italy, during the 2016 growing season, aiming at a more efficient and less burdensome irrigation management system for rice fields. A water level sensor in the field provides the data required to govern the inflow regulation gate in real-time, according to the precise time to cut off the flow rate. Using a dedicated web page, the farmer can control flows, volumes and water levels in the fields by operating directly on the gate if necessary or setting the irrigation program according to his agronomic practices.

  13. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai


    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  14. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape (United States)


    technical support provided by Mr. Scott Clark and Mr. Glen DeWillie of HydroGeoLogic, Inc. as well as administrative support from Mr. Peter Knowles and Ms...scenarios on a typical administrative facility surrounded by irrigated turf. Building 1000, found at NBVC was chosen for the analysis and comparison...Size (Combined Track, Football and Soccer Field) 7,500 FT2 Average Rain Per year 14 Inches/year Rainwater Available @ 50% normal 129,395 gallons

  15. Coolidge solar powered irrigation pumping project (United States)

    Larson, D. L.


    A 150 kW solar thermal electric power plant which includes over 2100 square meters of parabolic trough type collectors and an organic Rankine cycle turbine engine was constructed on an irrigated farm. The plant is interconnected with the electrical utility grid. Operation is providing an evaluation of equipment performance and operating and maintenance requirements as well as the desirability of an on farm location.

  16. Hydraulics of IDEal Drip Irrigation Systems


    Thompson, Evan J


    The hydraulics of IDEal drip irrigation system components were analyzed under controlled laboratory conditions and the results can be applied to the design of IDEal systems. The hydraulic loss coefficient for the lateral-submain connector valves was determined based on laboratory measurements. It was found that the hydraulic loss due to friction in the lay-flat laterals can be accurately estimated with standard friction loss equations using a smaller effective diameter based on the wall thi...

  17. Irrigation port hydration in phacoemulsification surgery

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    Suzuki H


    Full Text Available Hisaharu Suzuki,1 Yoichiro Masuda,2 Yuki Hamajima,1 Hiroshi Takahashi3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Nippon Medical School Musashikosugi Hospital, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University, Katsushika Medical Center, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan Background: In most cases, hydration is performed by water injection into the stromal tissue with a needle. The technique is simple, however it is sometimes troublesome.Purpose: We describe a simple technique for hydrating the corneal stroma in cataract surgery using an irrigation port.Patients and methods: The technique began by pushing the irrigation port against the corneal stroma for a few seconds during phacoemulsification, which generated edema in the corneal incision that subsequently prevented leakage. This procedure is called the hydration using irrigation port (HYUIP technique. A total of 60 eyes were randomized and placed in two groups, 30 eyes underwent surgeries using the HYUIP technique (HYUIP group and 30 eyes underwent surgeries without the HYUIP technique (control. The three points evaluated during each surgery included 1 the occurrence of anterior chamber collapse during the pulling out of the I/A tip after inserting the intraocular lens, 2 the need for conventional hydration, and 3 watertight completion at the end stage of surgery.Results: The anterior chamber collapse and the need for conventional hydration were significantly smaller in the HYUIP group compared to the control group. Regarding the self-sealing completion, no significant difference was observed between the two groups.Conclusion: The HYUIP technique is an effective method for creating self-sealing wound. In addition, this technique helps to prevent anterior chamber collapse. Keywords: cataract surgery, hydration, irrigation and aspiration, phacoemulsification, wound, self-sealing 

  18. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study. (United States)

    Dutta, Arindam; Kundabala, Mala


    The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC) and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use.

  19. A comparison of open irrigated and non-irrigated tip catheter ablation for pulmonary vein isolation. (United States)

    Thomas, Stuart P; Aggarwal, Gunjan; Boyd, Anita C; Jin, Yuanzhe; Ross, David L


    The relative efficacy and safety of open irrigated tip catheters compared with conventional non-irrigated catheters for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is unknown. Forty-eight patients undergoing PVI using an open irrigated tip ablation catheter (Group 1) were compared with a group of 31 historical controls (Group 2). The control group underwent similar procedures using a standard, 4 mm tip, temperature controlled ablation catheter. Electrical mapping with a circular catheter was used to guide segmental radiofrequency ablation at the vein ostia. At follow-up (3.5+/-3.5 months) after a single procedure 35/48 (73%) patients in Group 1 and 14/31 (45%) in Group 2 were in sinus rhythm (p=0.03). Antiarrhythmic drug use was lower among those in Group 1 maintained in sinus rhythm (9/35 (26%) vs 8/14 (57%), p=0.002). Recurrent atrial fibrillation was more common in Group 2 (28/31 (90%) vs 28/48 (58%) p=0.004). Serious complications were uncommon in both groups. Compared with an historical control group, pulmonary vein isolation using open irrigated tip catheters was superior to ablation with conventional 4 mm tip catheters. Patients undergoing ablation with an irrigated tip catheter were less likely to experience symptomatic recurrences of atrial fibrillation or require further therapy for post-procedural arrhythmias.

  20. Effect of three different irrigation solutions applied by passive ultrasonic irrigation

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    Carmen Llena


    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the maximum depth and percentage of irrigant penetration into dentinal tubules by passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI. Materials and Methods Thirty extracted human teeth were instrumented and divided into three groups. According to final irrigation regimen, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (Group A, NaOCl, 2% chlorhexidine (Group B, CHX and saline solution (Group C, control group were applied with Irrisafe 20 tips (Acteon and PUI. Irrigant was mixed with 0.1% rhodamine B. Sections at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm from the apex were examined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. The percentage and maximum depth of irrigant penetration were measured. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were performed for overall comparison between groups at each level and for pairwise comparison, respectively. Within a group, Wilcoxon test was performed among different levels. p values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results In all groups, highest penetration depth and percentage of penetration were observed at the 8 mm level. At 2 mm level, Groups A and B had significantly greater depths and percentages in penetration than Group C (p < 0.05, but there were no significant differences between Groups A and B. At 5 mm level, penetration depths and percentage of penetration was not significantly different among the groups. Conclusions NaOCl and CHX applied by PUI showed similar depth and percentage of penetration at all evaluated levels.

  1. Effects of traditional flood irrigation on invertebrates in lowland meadows. (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Alt, Martin; Rudolph, Isabell; Entling, Martin H


    Lowland meadow irrigation used to be widespread in Central Europe, but has largely been abandoned during the 20th century. As a result of agri-environment schemes and nature conservation efforts, meadow irrigation is now being re-established in some European regions. In the absence of natural flood events, irrigation is expected to favour fauna typical of lowland wet meadows. We analysed the effects of traditional flood irrigation on diversity, densities and species composition of three invertebrate indicator taxa in lowland meadows in Germany. Unexpectedly, alpha diversity (species richness and Simpson diversity) and beta diversity (multivariate homogeneity of group dispersions) of orthopterans, carabids, and spiders were not significantly different between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. However, spider densities were significantly higher in irrigated meadows. Furthermore, irrigation and elevated humidity affected species composition and shifted assemblages towards moisture-dependent species. The number of species of conservation concern, however, did not differ between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. More variable and intensive (higher duration and/or frequency) flooding regimes might provide stronger conservation benefits, additional species and enhance habitat heterogeneity on a landscape scale.

  2. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

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    Haibing He


    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  3. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

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    Jochen Hemming


    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  4. Irrigation Capability Evaluation of Illushi Floodplain, Edo State, Nigeria

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    A.S. Umweni


    Full Text Available Many irrigation projects, especially in the developing tropical regions, are embarked upon without any land capability assessment, resulting in avoidable and undesirable ecological consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the irrigation capability potentials of the soils of a rice growing Illushi/Ega community in Edo State of Nigeria. Soils of Illushi/Ega (200 ha were studied to establish their irrigation capabilities. Water samples were collected from the rivers within and near the sites at the proposed points of intake structures and analyzed for salinity (ECw, permeability (SAR and ion toxicity [Chlorine (Cl and Boron (B]. Gravity irrigation suitability assessment was carried out following the guidelines of the United States Bureau for Land Reclamation (USBR, 1953 and FAO (1979. Results showed that about 5.5 % of the land was non-irrigable, 11.5 % was marginally irrigable, 30.5% was moderately irrigable and 52.5 % highly irrigable.Thus about 83 % of the total land area was found to be irrigable. The results of analyses of irrigation water [ECw, SAR and Cl and B (ion toxicity problems in water sources were 0.1 – 0.7 dS m-1, 1.2 – 1.7, 0.6 – 1.8 cmol kg-1 and 0.5 – 0.7 mg kg-1] also show that there is no indication of salinity or ion toxicity problem.

  5. Men, Masculinities and Water Powers in Irrigation

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    Margreet Zwarteveen


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an informed plea for more explicitly identifying, naming and unravelling the linkages between water control and gender in irrigation. The fact that power, expertise and status in irrigation tend to have a strong masculine connotation is by now quite well established, and underlies calls for more women in water decision making, engineering education and professions. Yet, the questions of how and why water control, status and expertise are linked to masculinity, and of whether and how such links work to legitimise the exercise of power, are seldom asked. To date, associations between masculinity and professional water performance have largely been taken for granted and remained unexamined. The resulting perceived normalcy makes mechanisms of (gendered power and politics in water appear self-evident, unchangeable, and indeed gender-neutral. The article reviews examples of the masculinity of irrigation in different domains to argue that exposing and challenging such hitherto hidden dimensions of (gendered power is important for the identification of new avenues of gender progressive change, and for shedding a new and interesting light on the workings of power in water.

  6. Linear programming model to optimize the water resource use in irrigation projects: an application to the Senator Nilo Coelho Project Modelo de programação linear para otimizar o uso da água em projetos de irrigação: uma aplicação ao projeto Senador Nilo Coelho

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    J.A. Frizzone


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to develop a separable linear programming model, considering a set of technical factors which may influence the profit of an irrigation project The model presents an objective function that maximizes the net income and specifies the range of water availability. It is assumed that yield functions in response to water application are available for differents crops and describe very well the water-yield relationships. The linear programming model was developed genetically, so that, the rational use of the available water resource could be included in an irrigation project Specific equations were developed and applied in the irrigation project "Senator Nilo Coelho" (SNCP, located in Petrolina - Brazil Based on the water-yield functions considered, cultivated land constraints, production costs and products prices, it was concluded that: (a the model was suitable for the management of the SNCP, resulting in optimal cropping patterns and showing the water requirements; (b for 7,424 ha of land and 66, 644,500 m³ of water available on a year basis, the shadow price of these resources were respectively, US$ 1,115.20/ha e USS 281.60/1000 m³; (c for the total monthly water availability of 9,861,040 m³, the total annual water availability of 66,644,500 m³ became an effective restriction to the increase of the net income of the production system in the SNCP; (d maintaining the total monthly water availability of 9,861,040 m³, annual volumes lower than 88,338,983 m³ were used fully to reach the optimal solution, and that higher volumes than this limit, did not increase the net return; (e the optimization model presented, estimated a net return of 5234 % higher than the traditional cropping pattern used hi the SNCP, considering the agricultural year of 1992.O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo de programação linear separável, que considera um conjunto de fatores técnicos que influencia a

  7. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.


    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to

  8. Energy performance of sprinkler irrigated maize, wheat and sunflower in Vigia irrigation district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Rodrigues, Goncalo Caleia; Paredes, Paula; Pereira, Luis S. [Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER/ISA), Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail:


    The energy potential of a crop may be evaluated through life cycle assessment methodologies. These refer to the computation of the crop's energy balance and other related indicators, such as the energy ratio and the energetic efficiency, that may be used as to assess how a given irrigated crop may be used for production of biofuel. This study concerns sprinkler irrigated sunflower, wheat and maize crops using data relative to the campaign of 2007 in the Vigia Irrigation District, Alentejo. A model was developed and various scenarios were considered. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that the maize crop is the most efficient in producing energy and sunflower is the least one for all the alternative scenarios considered. (author)

  9. Design of a micro-irrigation system based on the control volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasseriaux G.


    Full Text Available A micro-irrigation system design based on control volume method using the back step procedure is presented in this study. The proposed numerical method is simple and consists of delimiting an elementary volume of the lateral equipped with an emitter, called « control volume » on which the conservation equations of the fl uid hydrodynamicʼs are applied. Control volume method is an iterative method to calculate velocity and pressure step by step throughout the micro-irrigation network based on an assumed pressure at the end of the line. A simple microcomputer program was used for the calculation and the convergence was very fast. When the average water requirement of plants was estimated, it is easy to choose the sum of the average emitter discharge as the total average fl ow rate of the network. The design consists of exploring an economical and effi cient network to deliver uniformly the input fl ow rate for all emitters. This program permitted the design of a large complex network of thousands of emitters very quickly. Three subroutine programs calculate velocity and pressure at a lateral pipe and submain pipe. The control volume method has already been tested for lateral design, the results from which were validated by other methods as fi nite element method, so it permits to determine the optimal design for such micro-irrigation network

  10. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area (United States)

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali


    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  11. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: I. A generalized irrigation scheme with stochastic soil moisture (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare


    With vast regions already experiencing water shortages, it is becoming imperative to manage sustainably the available water resources. As agriculture is by far the most important user of freshwater and the role of irrigation is projected to increase in face of climate change and increased food requirements, it is particularly important to develop simple, widely applicable models of irrigation water needs for short- and long-term water resource management. Such models should synthetically provide the key irrigation quantities (volumes, frequencies, etc.) for different irrigation schemes as a function of the main soil, crop, and climatic features, including rainfall unpredictability. Here we consider often-employed irrigation methods (e.g., surface and sprinkler irrigation systems, as well as modern micro-irrigation techniques) and describe them under a unified conceptual and theoretical framework, which includes rainfed agriculture and stress-avoidance irrigation as extreme cases. We obtain mostly analytical solutions for the stochastic steady state of soil moisture probability density function with random rainfall timing and amount, and compute water requirements as a function of climate, crop, and soil parameters. These results provide the necessary starting point for a full assessment of irrigation strategies, with reference to sustainability, productivity, and profitability, developed in a companion paper [Vico G, Porporato A. From rainfed agriculture to stress-avoidance irrigation: II. Sustainability, crop yield, and net profit. Adv Water Resour 2011;34(2):272-81].

  12. Impact of alternate furrow irrigation with different irrigation intervals on yield, water use efficiency, and economic return of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Abd El-Halim


    Full Text Available Alternate furrow irrigation with proper irrigation intervals could save irrigation water and result in high grain yield with low irrigation costs in arid areas. Two field experiments were conducted in the Middle Nile Delta area of Egypt during the 2010 and 2011 seasons to investigate the impact of alternate furrow irrigation with 7-d (AFI7 and 14-d intervals (AFI14 on yield, crop water use efficiency, irrigation water productivity, and economic return of corn (Zea mays L. as compared with every-furrow irrigation (EFI, conventional method with 14-d interval. Results indicated that grain yield increased under the AFI7 treatment, whereas it tended to decrease under AFI14 as compared with EFI. Irrigation water saving in the AFI7 and AFI14 treatments was approximately 7% and 17%, respectively, as compared to the EFI treatment. The AFI14 and AFI7 treatments improved both crop water use efficiency and irrigation water productivity as compared with EFI. Results also indicated that the AFI7 treatment did not only increase grain yield, but also increased the benefit-cost ratio, net return, and irrigation water saving. Therefore, if low cost water is available and excess water delivery to the field does not require any additional expense, then the AFI7 treatment will essentially be the best choice under the study area conditions.

  13. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang


    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  14. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA (United States)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.


    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  15. Irrigation scheduling of green areas based on soil moisture estimation by the active heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing AHFO (United States)

    Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sobrino, Fernando; Sánchez, Raúl


    Irrigation programing determines when and how much water apply to fulfill the plant water requirements depending of its phenology stage and location, and soil water content. Thus, the amount of water, the irrigation time and the irrigation frequency are variables that must be estimated. Likewise, irrigation programing has been based in approaches such as: the determination of plant evapotranspiration and the maintenance of soil water status between a given interval or soil matrix potential. Most of these approaches are based on the measurements of soil water sensors (or tensiometers) located at specific points within the study area which lack of the spatial information of the monitor variable. The information provided in such as few points might not be adequate to characterize the soil water distribution in irrigation systems with poor water application uniformity and thus, it would lead to wrong decisions in irrigation scheduling. Nevertheless, it can be overcome if the active heating pulses distributed fiber optic temperature measurement (AHFO) is used. This estimates the temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic and then, it is correlated with the soil water content. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content. Thus, it allows estimations of soil water content every 12.5 cm along the fiber optic cable, as long as 1500 m (with 2 % accuracy) , every second. This study presents the results obtained in a green area located at the ETSI Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y Biosistesmas in Madrid. The area is irrigated by an sprinkler irrigation system which applies water with low uniformity. Also, it has deployed and installation of 147 m of fiber optic cable at 15 cm depth. The Distribute Temperature Sensing unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) with spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m and 1 s, respectively. In this study, heat pulses of 7 W/m for 2

  16. Improvement of sustainability of irrigation in olive by the accurate management of regulated deficit irrigation (United States)

    Memmi, Houssem; Moreno, Marta M.; Gijón, M. Carmen; Pérez-López, David


    Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) is a useful tool to balance the improvement of productivity and water saving. This methodology is based in keeping the maximum yield with deficit irrigation. The key consists in setting water deficit during a non-sensitive phenological period. In olive, this phenological period is pit hardening, although, the accurate delimitation of the end of this period is nowadays under researching. Another interesting point in this methodology is how deep can be the water stress during the non-sensitive period. In this assay, three treatments were used in 2012 and 2013. A control treatment (T0), irrigated following FAO methodology, without water stress during the whole season and two RDI treatments in which water stress was avoided only during stage I and III of fruit growth. During stage II, widely considered as pit hardening, irrigation was ceased until trees reach the stated water stress threshold. Water status was monitored by means of stem water potential (ψs) measurements. When ψs value reached -2 MPa in T1 treatment, trees were irrigated but with a low amount of water with the aim of keeping this water status for the whole stage II. The same methodology was used for T2 treatment, but with a threshold of -3 MPa. Water status was also controlled by leaf conductance measurements. Fruit size and yield were determined at the end of each season. The statistically design was a randomized complete blocks with four repetitions. The irrigation amount in T1 and T2 was 50% and 65% less than T0 at the end of the study. There were no significant differences among treatments in terms of yield in 2012 (year off) and 2013 (year on).

  17. Traditional and contemporary techniques for optimizing root canal irrigation. (United States)

    Holliday, Richard; Alani, Aws


    Canal irrigation during root canal treatment is an important component of chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system. Traditional syringe irrigation can be enhanced by activating the irrigant to provide superior cleaning properties. This activation can be achieved by simple modifications in current technique or by contemporary automated devices. Novel techniques are also being developed, such as the Self-adjusting File (Re-Dent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel), Ozone (Healozone, Dental Ozone, London, UK), Photoactivated Disinfection and Ultraviolet Light Disinfection. This paper reviews the techniques available to enhance traditional syringe irrigation, contemporary irrigation devices and novel techniques, citing their evidence base, advantages and disadvantages. Recent advances in irrigation techniques and canal disinfection and debridement are relevant to practitioners carrying out root canal treatment.

  18. Comparison of Manual and Automatic Irrigation of Pot Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Vagner


    An air-lift principle for transport of water was adapted for automatic irrigation of experimental pots originally constructed for manual irrigation by the weighing method. The two irrigation techniques were compared in an experiment with increasing amounts of nitrogen fertilizer to spring barley....... Productions of grain and straw and chemical composition were almost the same after the two irrigation methods, and it was concluded that the laborious manual watering could be replaced by automatic irrigation. Comparison of the yield from individual plants in the pots showed a large difference between centre...... plants and border plants independent of irrigation principle. The increase in yield per pot with increasing N fertilization was at the highest N level caused only by an increase in yield of the border plants....

  19. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.


    were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: Lettuce irrigated with drip kits had the lowest levels of contamination, with, on average, 4 log units per 100 g, fewer thermotolerant coliforms than that irrigated with watering cans. However, drip kits often got clogged, required...... lower crop densities and restricted other routine farm activities. Watering cans were the most popular method. Using watering cans with caps on outlets from a height coliforms by 2.5 log units and helminthes by 2.3 eggs per 100 g of lettuce compared with using watering cans...

  20. Optimizing preplant irrigation for maize under limited water in the high plains (United States)

    Due to inadequate irrigation capacity, some farmers in the United States High Plains apply preplant irrigation to buffer the crop between irrigation events during the cropping season. The purpose of the study was to determine preplant irrigation amount and irrigation capacity combinations that optim...

  1. 25 CFR 171.415 - Can I place an obstruction on a BIA irrigation project? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can I place an obstruction on a BIA irrigation project... IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.415 Can I place an obstruction on a BIA irrigation project? No. You may not place obstructions on BIA irrigation projects. (a) If you do so, we will...

  2. Spatial Quantification of Groundwater Abstraction in the Irrigated Indus Basin


    Cheema, M.J.M.; W. W. Immerzeel; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.


    Groundwater abstraction and depletion were assessed at a 1-km resolution in the irrigated areas of the Indus Basin using remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation; a process-based hydrological model and spatial information on canal water supplies. A calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to derive total annual irrigation applied in the irrigated areas of the basin during the year 2007. The SWAT model was parameterized by station corrected precipitation...

  3. Principles of drip irrigation management in vegetable production


    Ruhi BAŞTUĞ


    Because drip irrigation normally supplies water to a specific part of the soil volume occupied by plant, limited areas to be wetted in soil volume near each emitter or along each lateral line. This is an important context for irrigation system design, operation and management and cultural practices management. Therefore, this characteristic must be taken into consideration for appropriate management of vegetable drip irrigation systems with knowledge requires including of soil hydraulic chara...

  4. Water quality and bead loss in irrigation filters


    Ribeiro, TAP; Paterniani, JES; Airoldi, RPD; da Silva, MJM


    Among the irrigation systems used today, trickle irrigation is one of the most efficient methods. This research, conducted by means of field tests, had the objective of comparing head loss evolution on water filtration with a disc filter (130 mum) and a non-woven synthetic fabric filter used in a drip irrigation system. The test consisted of fertirrigation with organic fertilizer, and chemical treatment of the water with sodium hypochlorite. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters were ...

  5. Influence of Irrigation Scheduling Using Thermometry on Peach Tree Water Status and Yield under Different Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Zhang


    Full Text Available Remotely-sensed canopy temperature from infrared thermometer (IRT sensors has long been shown to be effective for detecting plant water stress. A field study was conducted to investigate peach tree responses to deficit irrigation which was controlled using canopy to air temperature difference (ΔT during the postharvest period at the USDA-ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center in Parlier, California, USA. The experimental site consisted of a 1.6 ha early maturing peach tree orchard. A total of 18 IRT sensors were used to control six irrigation treatments including furrow, micro-spray, and surface drip irrigation systems with and without postharvest deficit irrigation. During the postharvest period in the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons, ΔT threshold values at mid-day was tested to trigger irrigation in three irrigation systems. The results showed that mid-day stem water potentials (ψ for well irrigated trees were maintained at a range of −0.5 to −1.2 MPa while ψ of deficit irrigated trees dropped to lower values. Soil water content in deficit surface drip irrigation treatment was higher compared to deficit furrow and micro-spray irrigation treatments in 2012. The number of fruits and fruit weight from peach trees under postharvest deficit irrigation treatment were less than those well-watered trees; however, no statistically significant (at the p < 0.05 level reduction in fruit size or quality was found for trees irrigated by surface drip and micro-spray irrigation systems by deficit irrigation. Beside doubles, we found an increased number of fruits with deep sutures and dimples which may be a long-term (seven-year postharvest regulated deficit irrigation impact of deficit irrigation on this peach tree variety. Overall, deployment of IRT sensors provided real-time measurement of canopy water status and the information is valuable for making irrigation

  6. Economic performance of irrigation capacity development to adapt to climate in the American Southwest (United States)

    Ward, Frank A.; Crawford, Terry L.


    Growing demands for food security to feed increasing populations worldwide have intensified the search for improved performance of irrigation, the world's largest water user. These challenges are raised in the face of climate variability and from growing environmental demands. Adaptation measures in irrigated agriculture include fallowing land, shifting cropping patterns, increased groundwater pumping, reservoir storage capacity expansion, and increased production of risk-averse crops. Water users in the Gila Basin headwaters of the U.S. Lower Colorado Basin have faced a long history of high water supply fluctuations producing low-valued defensive cropping patterns. To date, little research grade analysis has investigated economically viable measures for irrigation development to adjust to variable climate. This gap has made it hard to inform water resource policy decisions on workable measures to adapt to climate in the world's dry rural areas. This paper's contribution is to illustrate, formulate, develop, and apply a new methodology to examine the economic performance from irrigation capacity improvements in the Gila Basin of the American Southwest. An integrated empirical optimization model using mathematical programming is developed to forecast cropping patterns and farm income under two scenarios (1) status quo without added storage capacity and (2) with added storage capacity in which existing barriers to development of higher valued crops are dissolved. We find that storage capacity development can lead to a higher valued portfolio of irrigation production systems as well as more sustained and higher valued farm livelihoods. Results show that compared to scenario (1), scenario (2) increases regional farm income by 30%, in which some sub regions secure income gains exceeding 900% compared to base levels. Additional storage is most economically productive when institutional and technical constraints facing irrigated agriculture are dissolved. Along with

  7. Crop water stress of tomato as affected by irrigation regimes


    H. Ismail; S. Z. Abubakar; M. A. Oyebode; N. J. Shanono; M. K. Dalhat


    A field experiment was conducted at the Irrigation Research Station, Kadawa Kano State, Nigeria (located 11o 30’ N, 08o 30’ E and 486 m above mean sea level) during 2012/2013 dry season to evaluate crop water stress index of tomato (lycopersicon enculentum; UC82B) as affected by irrigation regimes. The experiment consisted of four levels of irrigation water application depth of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%  replacement of moisture depleted and three irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 21 days) com...

  8. Uncertainties in modelling the climate impact of irrigation (United States)

    de Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan


    Irrigation-based agriculture constitutes an essential factor for food security as well as fresh water resources and has a distinct impact on regional and global climate. Many issues related to irrigation's climate impact are addressed in studies that apply a wide range of models. These involve substantial uncertainties related to differences in the model's structure and its parametrizations on the one hand and the need for simplifying assumptions for the representation of irrigation on the other hand. To address these uncertainties, we used the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System model into which a simple irrigation scheme was implemented. In order to estimate possible uncertainties with regard to the model's more general structure, we compared the climate impact of irrigation between three simulations that use different schemes for the land-surface-atmosphere coupling. Here, it can be shown that the choice of coupling scheme does not only affect the magnitude of possible impacts but even their direction. For example, when using a scheme that does not explicitly resolve spatial subgrid scale heterogeneity at the surface, irrigation reduces the atmospheric water content, even in heavily irrigated regions. Contrarily, in simulations that use a coupling scheme that resolves heterogeneity at the surface or even within the lowest layers of the atmosphere, irrigation increases the average atmospheric specific humidity. A second experiment targeted possible uncertainties related to the representation of irrigation characteristics. Here, in four simulations the irrigation effectiveness (controlled by the target soil moisture and the non-vegetated fraction of the grid box that receives irrigation) and the timing of delivery were varied. The second experiment shows that uncertainties related to the modelled irrigation characteristics, especially the irrigation effectiveness, are also substantial. In general the impact of irrigation on the state of the land

  9. A Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process approach in irrigation networks maintenance (United States)

    Riza Permana, Angga; Rintis Hadiani, Rr.; Syafi’i


    Ponorogo Regency has 440 Irrigation Area with a total area of 17,950 Ha. Due to the limited budget and lack of maintenance cause decreased function on the irrigation. The aim of this study is to make an appropriate system to determine the indices weighted of the rank prioritization criteria for irrigation network maintenance using a fuzzy-based methodology. The criteria that are used such as the physical condition of irrigation networks, area of service, estimated maintenance cost, and efficiency of irrigation water distribution. 26 experts in the field of water resources in the Dinas Pekerjaan Umum were asked to fill out the questionnaire, and the result will be used as a benchmark to determine the rank of irrigation network maintenance priority. The results demonstrate that the physical condition of irrigation networks criterion (W1) = 0,279 has the greatest impact on the assessment process. The area of service (W2) = 0,270, efficiency of irrigation water distribution (W4) = 0,249, and estimated maintenance cost (W3) = 0,202 criteria rank next in effectiveness, respectively. The proposed methodology deals with uncertainty and vague data using triangular fuzzy numbers, and, moreover, it provides a comprehensive decision-making technique to assess maintenance priority on irrigation network.

  10. National Irrigation Water Quality Program Data-Synthesis Data Base (United States)


    liter endrin Float 4 39390 Endrin, total, in micrograms per liter ethion Float 4 39398 Ethion , total, in micrograms per liter flranthene Float 4 34376...micrograms per kilogram endrin_bm Float 4 39393 Endrin, in bottom material, dry weight, in micrograms per kilogram ethion_bm Float 4 39399 Ethion , in bottom

  11. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management (SAFIR) (United States)

    Cary, L.; Kloppmann, W.; Battilani, A.; Bertaki, M.; Blagojevic, S.; Chartzoulakis, K.; Dalsgaard, A.; Forslund, A.; Jovanovic, Z.; Kasapakis, I.


    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops an soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). A work package in the EU FP5 project SAFIR is dedicated to study the impact of wastewater irrigation on the soil-water-plant-product system. Its monitoring program comprises pathogens and inorganic pollutants, including both geogenic and potentially anthropogenic trace elements in the aim to better understand soil-irrigation water interactions. The SAFIR field study sites are found in China, Italy, Crete, and Serbia. A performance evaluation of SAFIR-specific treatment technology through the monitoring of waste water and irrigation water quality was made through waste water chemical and microbiological qualities, which were investigated upstream and downstream of the SAFIR specific treatment three times per season. Irrigation water transits through the uppermost soil decimetres to the crop roots. The latter will become, in the course of the irrigation season, the major sink of percolating water, together with evaporation. The water saving irrigation techniques used in SAFIR are surface and subsurface drip irrigation. The investigation of the solid soil phase concentrates on the root zone as main transit and storage compartment for pollutants and, eventually, pathogens. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of the first year irrigation; the soil quality has been monitored throughout three years under cultivation of tomatoes or potatoes. The plot layout for each of the study sites

  12. Appropriate rehabilitation strategy for a traditional irrigation supply system: a case from the Babai area in Nepal. (United States)

    Adhikari, B; Verhoeven, R; Troch, P


    This paper studies primary canals of three traditional irrigation systems in the southern plains of Nepal. It offers a scientific interpretation of the indigenous technology applied to the systems, which facilitates to use the same channel network for irrigation, drainage and flood management. The flood management technology of the farmers by diverting as much discharge as possible to the field channels results in the reduction of discharge towards the downstream part of the main channel. It is depicted in the simulation study that uses the river analysis program HEC-RAS 4.0. A cascade of weirs is found to be the most cost effective and user-friendly option to upgrade these systems preserving the existing irrigation, drainage as well as flood management functions. This study suggests that the conventional irrigation design principles should be applied very cautiously with full knowledge of the existing socio-institutional setting, hydro-ecological regime and indigenous technology for upgrading any traditional irrigation system successfully. The indigenous flood management technology strengthens the emerging concept that the floods in the Ganges plain are to be managed, not controlled.

  13. Irrigating lives : development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magadlela, D.


    This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with

  14. Surface irrigation performance of date palms under water scarcity in arid irrigated lands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haj-Amor, Zied; Ritzema, Henk; Hashemi, Hossein; Bouri, Salem


    In this paper, a study on the performance of surface irrigation of date palms in a Tunisian arid area (Douz oasis) is presented. The study is conducted in 16 plots with various sizes and soil textures over a 4-year period (2012–2015). In the first step, an assessment of total water requirements of

  15. Irrigation response and water productivity of deficit to fully irrigated spring camelina (United States)

    Camelina [Camelina sativa L. Crantz] is an oil seed crop that could be adapted to the northern High Plains of the USA as a biofuel crop. Decreased ground water allocations in Nebraska necessitated determining the impact of limited irrigation on camelina. The objective of this research was to determi...

  16. Appropriate designs and appropriating irrigation systems : irrigation infrastructure development and users' management capability in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Pérez, Z.


    The objectives of this book are to explore and demonstrate the 'divorce' that is taking place in how critical actors think about irrigation infrastructure design and management, and in how designers often impose their own narrow preferences in infrastructure composition and performance without

  17. Laser assisted irrigation and hand irrigation for root canal decontamination: a comparison (United States)

    Olivi, M.; Stefanucci, M.; Todea, C.


    Aim: to compare the bactericidal efficiency of conventional method and LAI for root canal decontamination. Material and method: 22 human single root teeth, extracted for periodontal problems, mechanically prepared up to ISO 25 at the working lenght were divided in 2 groups: after sterilization, the teeth were infected with enterococcus faecalis and incubated for 4 weeks. Group A: 10 teeth were irrigated with conventional hand technique (CI): 3ml of 5% NaClO were used for two times of 30s each and after washing with sterile bi-distilled water for 20s, a final irrigation was performed with 3ml of 17% EDTA. Group B: 10 teeth were irrigated with 3ml of NaClO and activated by erbium laser, two cycles of 30s; also the final irrigation with 3ml of 17% EDTA was activated by erbium laser. In both the groups a resting time of 30s was used between the two sessions to allow the reaction rate of NaClO. The Erbium laser 2940 nm (LightWalker AT, Fotona; Lublijana, Slovenia) was used with 50microsecond pulse duration, at 15Hz, 20mJ, with a 600micron PIPS tip. Two samples were used as positive and negative control.

  18. Yield, irrigation response, and water productivity of deficit to fully irrigated spring canola (United States)

    Canola (Brassica napus) is an oil-seed crop that is adapted to the northern High Plains of the USA and is considered a viable rotational and biofuel crop. However, decreased ground water allocations have necessitated determining the impact of limited irrigation on canola productivity. The objectives...

  19. Comparison of irrigant penetration up to working length and into simulated lateral canals using various irrigating techniques. (United States)

    Spoorthy, E; Velmurugan, N; Ballal, S; Nandini, S


    To evaluate the effect of an apical negative pressure system, a passive ultrasonic irrigation system and a combination of both apical negative pressure and passive ultrasonic irrigation on the penetration of the irrigating contrast solution (ICS) up to working length and into simulated lateral canals. The root canals of 64 single-rooted teeth were instrumented using the ProTaper rotary system. In each sample, three simulated lateral canals were created at 2, 4 and 6 mm levels from the root apex using a 06-size C+ file (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Samples were randomly assigned into 4 experimental groups (n = 16): group I - conventional needle irrigation, group II - passive ultrasonic irrigation, group III - apical negative irrigation system and group IV - combination of passive ultrasonic irrigation and apical negative pressure irrigation system. To examine irrigating solution penetration, Indian ink was mixed with 5.25% NaOCl and delivered into the root canals. Samples were then assessed by direct observation of the images taken using Canon EOS rebel T3. The depth of penetration of ICS up to the working length and into the simulated lateral canals was analysed using chi-squared tests. The combination (ANP and PUI) and ANP group had significantly deeper ICS penetration up to the working length (P Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of sealer penetration using the EndoVac irrigation system and conventional needle root canal irrigation. (United States)

    Kara Tuncer, Aysun; Unal, Bayram


    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the EndoVac irrigation system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and conventional endodontic needle irrigation on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules. Forty single-rooted, recently extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the irrigation technique used: conventional endodontic needle irrigation and EndoVac irrigation. All teeth were instrumented using the ProFile rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) labeled with fluorescent dye. Transverse sections at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the root apex were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The total percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were then measured. Mann-Whitney test results showed that EndoVac irrigation resulted in a significantly higher percentage of sealer penetration than conventional irrigation at both the 1- and 3-mm levels (P irrigation system significantly improved the sealer penetration at the 1- to 3-mm level over that of conventional endodontic needle irrigation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)


    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  2. Formalin irrigation for hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis. (United States)

    Ma, Teng-Hui; Yuan, Zi-Xu; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Wang, Huai-Ming; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Lei


    To assess the efficacy and safety of a modified topical formalin irrigation method in refractory hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). Patients with CRP who did not respond to previous medical treatments and presented with grade II-III rectal bleeding according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were enrolled. Patients with anorectal strictures, deep ulcerations, and fistulas were excluded. All patients underwent flexible endoscopic evaluation before treatment. Patient demographics and clinical data, including primary tumor, radiotherapy and previous treatment options, were collected. Patients received topical 4% formalin irrigation in a clasp-knife position under spinal epidural anesthesia in the operating room. Remission of rectal bleeding and related complications were recorded. Defecation, remission of bleeding, and other symptoms were investigated at follow-up. Endoscopic findings in patients with rectovaginal fistulas were analyzed. Twenty-four patients (19 female, 5 male) with a mean age of 61.5 ± 9.5 years were enrolled. The mean time from the end of radiotherapy to the onset of bleeding was 11.1 ± 9.0 mo (range: 2-24 mo). Six patients (25.0%) were blood transfusion dependent. The median preoperative Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was 3 points. Nineteen patients (79.2%) received only one course of topical formalin irrigation, and five (20.8%) required a second course. No side effects were observed. One month after treatment, bleeding cessation was complete in five patients and obvious in 14; the effectiveness rate was 79.1% (19/24). For long-term efficacy, 5/16, 1/9 and 0/6 patients complained of persistent bleeding at 1, 2 and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Three rectovaginal fistulas were found at 1 mo, 3 mo and 2 years after treatment. Univariate analysis showed associations of higher endoscopic VRS and ulceration score with risk of developing rectovaginal fistula. Modified formalin irrigation is an effective and safe

  3. Stochastic physical ecohydrologic-based model for estimating irrigation requirement (United States)

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.


    Climate uncertainty affects both natural and managed hydrological systems. Therefore, methods which could take this kind of uncertainty into account are of primal importance for management of ecosystems, especially agricultural ecosystems. One of the famous problems in these ecosystems is crop water requirement estimation under climatic uncertainty. Both deterministic physically-based methods and stochastic time series modeling have been utilized in the literature. Like other fields of hydroclimatic sciences, there is a vast area in irrigation process modeling for developing approaches integrating physics of the process and statistics aspects. This study is about deriving closed-form expressions for probability density function (p.d.f.) of irrigation water requirement using a stochastic physically-based model, which considers important aspects of plant, soil, atmosphere and irrigation technique and policy in a coherent framework. An ecohydrologic stochastic model, building upon the stochastic differential equation of soil moisture dynamics at root zone, is employed as a basis for deriving the expressions considering temporal stochasticity of rainfall. Due to distinguished nature of stochastic processes of micro and traditional irrigation applications, two different methodologies have been used. Micro-irrigation application has been modeled through dichotomic process. Chapman-Kolomogrov equation of time integral of the dichotomic process for transient condition has been solved to derive analytical expressions for probability density function of seasonal irrigation requirement. For traditional irrigation, irrigation application during growing season has been modeled using a marked point process. Using the renewal theory, probability mass function of seasonal irrigation requirement, which is a discrete-value quantity, has been analytically derived. The methodology deals with estimation of statistical properties of the total water requirement in a growing season that

  4. Irrigation in a changing world: a global systems analysis perspective (United States)

    Doell, P.


    The global issues of water security and food security are closely linked. Sustainable plant production requires a sustained provisioning of water, either in the form of "green" or of "blue" water (as introduced by Malin Falkenmark in 1993). Green water is defined as the fraction of water that is evapotranspirated, i.e. the water supply for all non-irrigated vegetation. Blue water refers to the water flows in groundwater and surface water. It represents the water that can be withdrawn, e.g. for irrigation. In areas without enough green water in the soil to achieve satisfactory crop growth, crops can be irrigated with blue water. The distinction between green and blue water helps to understand the linkages between rainfall, soil, land productivity and water availability for irrigation and other human uses. Today, about 67% of the current global water withdrawals and about 87% of the consumptive water use (withdrawal minus return flow) is for irrigation purposes. Irrigated land comprises less than one-fifth of all cropped area but produces about two-fifth of the world's cereals. Due to the high and reliable productivity of irrigated land, an extension of irrigation appears to be an appropriate strategy to feed the world's growing population However, will there be enough water available for the necessary extension? To assess this question, both water availability and demand must be analyzed. At the global scale, such an assessment is supported by the global model of water resources and use model WaterGAP 2, which, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees, computes both water resources and water use by irrigation, livestock, households, manufacturing and thermal power plants. WaterGAP is applied to derive scenarios that show the impact of climate change as well as demographic, economic and technological changes. The Global Irrigation Model of WaterGAP computes, for example, the impact of climate change on irrigation requirements on net irrigation requirements. This is

  5. Irrigation and fertigation frequencies with nitrogen in the watermelon culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Newdmar Vieira Fernandes


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of different irrigation frequencies and different nitrogen fertigation frequencies on the growth performance of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus culture. Two experiments were conducted at the Paraguay farm in the Cruz municipality, Ceará, Brazil. They was randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications. The irrigation frequency experiment consisted of the application of different irrigation frequencies. The treatments were: DM - daily irrigation in the morning with 100% daily dosage; DT - daily irrigation in the afternoon, with 100% daily dosage; DMT - twice daily irrigation, with 50% daily dosage in the morning and 50% daily dosage in the afternoon; 2D - irrigation every two days; 3D - irrigation every three days and 4D - irrigation every four days. To the experiment with different nitrogen fertigation frequencies, the treatments used were: 2F - 2 fertigations in a cycle; 4F - 4 fertigations in a cycle; 8F - 8 fertigations in a cycle; 16F - 16 fertigations in a cycle; 32F - 32 fertigations in a cycle and 64F - 64 fertigations in a cycle. We evaluated the marketable yield (PC, fruit weight (M, polar diameter (DP, equatorial diameter (DE, shell thickness (EC and soluble solids (SS. The irrigation frequency treatments influenced all variables significantly, with twice daily irrigation (DMT, 50% in the morning and the 50% in the afternoon promoting the highest productivity (69.79 t ha-1. The different frequencies of fertigation also significantly influenced all variables, except for the shell thickness, the highest yield (80.69 t ha-1 being obtained with treatment 64 fertigations in a cycle.

  6. Irrigation of Cutaneous Abscesses Does Not Improve Treatment Success. (United States)

    Chinnock, Brian; Hendey, Gregory W


    Irrigation of the cutaneous abscess cavity is often described as a standard part of incision and drainage despite no randomized, controlled studies showing benefit. Our goal is to determine whether irrigation of a cutaneous abscess during incision and drainage in the emergency department (ED) decreases the need for further intervention within 30 days compared with no irrigation. We performed a single-center, prospective, randomized, nonblinded study of ED patients receiving an incision and drainage for cutaneous abscess, randomized to irrigation or no irrigation. Patient characteristics and postprocedure pain visual analog scale score were obtained. Thirty-day telephone follow-up was conducted with a standardized data form examining need for further intervention, which was defined as repeated incision and drainage, antibiotic change, or abscess-related hospital admission. Of 209 enrolled patients, 187 completed follow-up. The irrigation and no-irrigation groups were similar with respect to diabetes, immunocompromise, fever, abscess size, cellulitis, and abscess location, but the irrigation group was younger (mean age 36 versus 40 years) and more often treated with packing (89% versus 75%) and outpatient antibiotics (91% versus 73%). The need for further intervention was not different in the irrigation (15%) and no-irrigation (13%) groups (difference 2%; 95% confidence interval -8% to 12%). There was no difference in pain visual analog scale scores (5.6 versus 5.7; difference 0.1; 95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). Although there were baseline differences between groups, irrigation of the abscess cavity during incision and drainage did not decrease the need for further intervention. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. River eutrophication: irrigated vs. non-irrigated agriculture through different spatial scales. (United States)

    Monteagudo, Laura; Moreno, José Luis; Picazo, Félix


    The main objective of this study was to determine how spatial scale may affect the results when relating land use to nutrient enrichment of rivers and, secondly, to investigate which agricultural practices are more responsible for river eutrophication in the study area. Agriculture was split into three subclasses (irrigated, non-irrigated and low-impact agriculture) which were correlated to stream nutrient concentration on four spatial scales: large scale (drainage area of total subcatchment and 100 m wide subcatchment corridors) and local scale (5 and 1 km radius buffers). Nitrate, ammonium and orthophosphate concentrations and land use composition (agriculture, urban and forest) were measured at 130 river reaches in south-central Spain during the 2001-2009 period. Results suggested that different spatial scales may lead to different conclusions. Spatial autocorrelation and the inadequate representation of some land uses produced unreal results on large scales. Conversely, local scales did not show data autocorrelation and agriculture subclasses were well represented. The local scale of 1 km buffer was the most appropriate to detect river eutrophication in central Spanish rivers, with irrigated cropland as the main cause of river pollution by nitrate. As regards river management, a threshold of 50% irrigated cropland within a 1 km radius buffer has been obtained using breakpoint regression analysis. This means that no more than 50% of irrigation croplands should be allowed near river banks in order to avoid river eutrophication. Finally, a methodological approach is proposed to choose the appropriate spatial scale when studying river eutrophication caused by diffuse pollution like agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation (United States)

    Constantz, J.


    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  9. Genetic diversity of high performance cultivars of upland and irrigated Brazilian rice. (United States)

    Coelho, G R C; Brondani, C; Hoffmann, L V; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Mendonça, J A; Rodrigues, L A; de Menezes, I P P


    The objective of this study was to analyze the diversity and discrimination of high-performance Brazilian rice cultivars using microsatellite markers. Twenty-nine rice cultivars belonging to EMBRAPA Arroz e Feijão germplasm bank in Brazil were genotyped by 24 SSR markers to establish their structure and genetic discrimination. It was demonstrated that the analyzed germplasm of rice presents an expressive and significant genetic diversity with low heterogeneity among the cultivars. All 29 cultivars were differentiated genetically, and were organized into two groups related to their upland and irrigated cultivation systems. These groups showed a high genetic differentiation, with greater diversity within the group that includes the cultivars for irrigated system. The genotyping data of these cultivars, with the morphological e phenotypical data, are valuable information to be used by rice breeding programs to develop new improved cultivars.

  10. China’s Water-Saving Irrigation Management System: Policy, Implementation, and Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Yao


    Full Text Available In response to the increased competition for water, the Chinese government has determined to promote water-saving irrigation (WSI followed by a range of institutional arrangements and policy goals. Three management mechanisms are analyzed in this study in terms of effectiveness, including the top-down regulation mechanism using direct control or economic instruments, the design-bid funding mechanism mobilizing local governments by competitive grants program, and the bottom-up participation mechanism transferring more irrigation management responsibilities to end-users. Although the WSI management has achieved notable improvements by the combination of different mechanisms, conflicts among different policy goals, uneven distribution of financial resources, and insufficient participation from water users caused the difficulty in aligning stakeholders’ incentives. Approaches are needed to enable sustainable management by coordinating incentives from different stakeholders in the management, as well as incorporating end water users to assist decision-making.

  11. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions


    Yunqi Wang; Yinghua Zhang; Wei Ji; Peng Yu; Bin Wang; Jinpeng Li; Meikun Han; Xuexin Xu; Zhimin Wang


    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure s...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos


    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  13. Whole bowel irrigation: experience in pediatric patients. (United States)

    Vila, J J; Gutierrez, C; Garcia-Sala, C; Ruiz, S


    Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) was used in 50 children aged 16 months to 14 years in preparation for surgery (n = 30) and colonoscopy (n = 20). The patients were divided into three groups according to age: group A, 12 to 36 months; group B, 3 to 6 years; and group C, 6 to 14 years. A hydroelectrolytic solution (Na 150 mEq/L, K 30 mEq/L, Cl 130 mEq/L, HCO3 50 mEq/L) was administered to all the groups at a variable rate established according to tolerance, weight, and age. Neomycin (1 g) and erythromycin (50 mg/kg) were administered in the last liter of the solution of the patients being prepared for colorectal surgery. Vital signs (heartbeat, arterial tension, and central venous pressure) and blood parameters (Na, K, HCO3, pH, and Hct) were assessed before and after irrigation and remained stable in all the groups. The rate of administration of the solution was best tolerated in each group as follows: group A, 75 mL/kg/h; group B, 60 mL/kg/h; and group C, 45 mL/kg/h. Colonic preparation was satisfactory in 49 of the 50 cases. Postoperative infectious complications were reduced to 3.3%. WBI in pediatric patients is a fast, simple, and well-tolerated method that gets a colon in excellent condition for surgery and colonoscopy exploration and considerably decreases the number of postoperative complications.

  14. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics. (United States)

    Walsh, Laurence J; George, Roy


    In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  15. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh


    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  16. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham


    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  17. Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengnian Yang


    Full Text Available Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800

  18. More efficient irrigation may compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements due to climate change in the Mediterranean area (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang


    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. We will present a recently published study1 that estimates the current level of water demand for Mediterranean agriculture and simulates the potential impacts of climate change, population growth and transitions to water-saving irrigation and conveyance technologies. The results indicate that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems, with large differences in the saving potentials across countries. Under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean. Both the Eastern and the Southern Mediterranean would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect. However, in some scenarios water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain. In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a large development2 that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops.

  19. Irrigation Development and Public-Private Partnerships in Morocco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agriculture is at the heart of Morocco's economic and social development, but in this water-stressed country, irrigation is critical to agricultural production. Irrigated agriculture plays an important role in meeting Morocco's food needs. It also generates more than three-quarters of the country's agricultural exports, providing ...

  20. Investigating deficit irrigation as a climate-smart farming option (United States)

    Global water supplies available for irrigation are declining while food demand continues to rise. Deficit irrigation offers a promising strategy to reduce water use with minimal impacts to yields, but is likely to have a range of impacts on soil nutrient cycling processes and climate change mitigati...

  1. Comparative assessment of widespread irrigation with low quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative assessment of widespread irrigation with low quality mine-water in undisturbed and rehabilitated mine-lands in the upper Olifants using the ACRU2000 ... on rehabilitated soils, a distinction was made between a rehabilitated irrigated area before and after the re-establishment of the equilibrium water table.

  2. Greenhouse evaluation of deficit irrigation on the growth of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, deficit irrigation at levels of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of field capacity was evaluated on tomato and eggplant in either the presence or absence of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica under greenhouse conditions. At irrigation levels of 20%, 40% and 60%, there was a significant decrease in leaf area, ...

  3. The supplementary irrigation effects on drought tolerance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementary irrigation is a high-performance operation for increasing crop production and income of farmers in dryland conditions. In order to study the effect of supplementary irrigation on drought tolerance and ornamental characteristics of safflower genotypes an experiment was conducted in 2013-14 at North ...

  4. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, C.


    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the

  5. Collective action and participation in irrigation water management: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This calls for strengthening of local water management systems and institutional ... ment support among smallholder irrigation farmers, accompa- ... METHODOLOGY. Theoretical and conceptual framework. The importance of collective action in the management of common pool resources like irrigation schemes is vital and.

  6. Small-Scale Irrigation, Farm Income and Access to Essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 1, 2017 ... cultivated area being equipped with irrigation; Latin America ranks second, with 6.7% of cultivated area irrigated; and Africa being last, with only 5% of cultivated area under ...... Ghana Journal of Geography, 7 (1), pp. 25-46. Place, F. and Hazell, P. (1993). Productivity effects of indigenous land tenure ...

  7. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different irrigation and nitrogen levels on lettuce yield characteristics in greenhouse condition from December 2006 to March 2007. Irrigation levels of 100% of total class A pan (S1), 80% of total class A pan (S2), 60% of total class A pan (S3) and nitrogen levels of 0 kg ...

  8. Effect of irrigation frequency and application levels of sulphur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 21, 2011 ... stages. Bharati and Prasad (2002) found that seed yield of mustard increased significantly up to an IW: CPE ratio of 0.8 with two irrigations, ach of 5 cm depth. Irrigation, thus, plays a vital role in increasing the growth and yield of mustard. So in researches, water use efficiency measurement is very important.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System Using Sweet Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gravitational drip irrigation system was developed using available materials. The system consisting of 4.0 l/hr Netafim pressure-compensating emitters was used to irrigate 0.0015 ha of land where sweet corn was planted under variable water applications in a randomised complete block design with three treatments.

  10. Socio-economic determinants of irrigation technology adoption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic determinants of irrigation technology adoption in the management of climate risk in Nigeria. ... Abstract. Climate change is expected to compound existing challenges of draught, flood and rainfall variability. ... Key words: irrigated agriculture, climate change, productivity and socio economic Factors ...

  11. Infrared thermometry for deficit irrigation of peach trees (United States)

    Water shortage has been a major concern for crop production in the western states of the USA and other arid regions in the world. Deficit irrigation can be used in some cropping systems as a potential water saving strategy to alleviate water shortage, however, the margin of error in irrigation manag...

  12. Remote sensing, GIS and hydrological modelling for irrigation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Azzali, S.; Urso, d' G.


    This paper gives an overview of literature and of work done by the authors between 1988 and 1993. It was presented at a NATO expert meeting on sustainability of irrigated agriculture in 1994. The paper deals with crop water requirements and crop waterstress, assessing irrigation performance with

  13. Effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 6, 2010 ... to drought and demonstrates some xeromorphic charac- teristics such as resistant capability to water stress at drought ... Groundwater with C2S1 quality class was used as irrigation water which is also used for drinking ..... Drought irrigation strategies for decidious orchards. Univ. of California, Div. Agric.

  14. Bureaucratic designs : the paradox of irrigation management transfer in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhardiman, D.


    Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) policy has been formulated and implemented worldwide, relying on three basic assumptions: that the irrigation agency are motivated to adapt their role in the sector's development; that farmers are willing to take over the system management; and that the process

  15. Status and migration of irrigation in the USA (United States)

    Irrigated agriculture produces 49% of crop market value on 18% of cropped lands in the USA. Irrigation is essential to the most highly productive, intensely managed, and internationally competitive sectors of our agricultural economy, which play a key role in meeting growing global food, fiber, and ...

  16. Atmospheric effects of irrigation in monsoon climate: the Indian subcontinent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.


    During the 20th century, an increasing population increased the demand for food.  As a consequence, agricultural activity has expanded and become more intense. A  part of this intensification is the use of irrigation systems to water crops. Due to this  irrigation, dams and channeling

  17. Irrigation Management in the Pamirs in Tajikistan: A Man's Domain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossenbroek, L.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.


    Families living in Gorno-Badakhshan—situated in the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan—depend on irrigated agriculture to meet their subsistence needs. Because men predominate, and are most visible in, the operation and management of irrigation systems in this region, water-related activities are often

  18. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach (United States)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  19. How to save water by choice of irrigation application method (United States)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  20. Adoption Of Irrigation And Its Consequences On Household Income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An expansion of irrigation is among the priority areas in Ethiopia although farmers' participation is below the expectations. This paper aims to identify factors that affect farmers' decisions to use irrigation and also estimate its role in household income. The data is collected using standardised questionnaire and analysed it ...

  1. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is suggested that a more dynamic approach be used for managing salinity under irrigation at farm level,. i.e. the use of models. Amongst others, future research should focus on determining the spatial and temporal distribution of salt in irrigated soils. Keywords: crop response, electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, ...

  2. Assessment of Irrigation Performance along the Canal Reach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of irrigation performance assessment made along the canal reaches of community-managed Hare irrigation scheme in. Southern Ethiopia. Field measurement, interview, group discussion and measurement of water supply were undertaken, and output performance indicators were assessed.

  3. Breaking the Vicious Cycle in Irrigation Farming System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    System for Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria. (pp. 234-245). Oriola, E. O. - Department of Geography, ... Key Words: Irrigation, vicious cycle, food, sustainable, security. Introduction. Irrigation Agriculture in Nigeria is plagued ... the whole system will collapse or at best continue to run at a low potential for food production.

  4. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    In this present study, the quality of municipal wastewater used for irrigation of spinach was investigated for its heavy metal build-up. .... digested samples were filtered with a 0.45 µm pore size cellulose nitrate membrane filter paper. ... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by Farooq et al.

  5. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  6. Performance and field practice of smallholder irrigation: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shallow-rooted crops, which can be used to schedule irrigations. Performance can be improved through appropriate water management methods such as maintenance of the water conveyance system, use of at least one scientific irrigation scheduling method, educate farmers on crop water requirements, among others.

  7. effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of okro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Cotton shows complex responses to deficit irrigation because of its deep root system, its ability to maintain low leaf water potential and to osmotically regulate leaf-turgor pressure (Grimes and Ya- mada, 1982). This study is aimed at determining the effect of different irrigation regimes on the growth and development of okro.

  8. Small private irrigation: Enhancing benefits and managing trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giordano, M.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.


    Millions of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia benefit from readily available and affordable irrigation technologies. The rapid uptake of small private irrigation in South Asia had a proven positive effect on poverty alleviation. In sub-Saharan Africa similar trends are

  9. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardossi, A.; Incrocci, L.; Incrocci, G.; Marlorgio, F.; Battista, P.; Bacci, L.; Rapi, B.; Marzialetti, P.; Hemming, J.; Balendonck, J.


    Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of

  10. Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Private Irrigation Supply in Nandom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 1, 2017 ... The absence of empirical study on farmers' willingness to pay realistic tariffs for the provision of private irrigation leaves a gap in the implementation of Ghana's current policy and puts potential private irrigation suppliers in a dilemma as to whether to invest in the sector or not. To bridge this knowledge gap, ...

  11. Stratified random sampling plan for an irrigation customer telephone survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.; Davis, L.J.


    This report describes the procedures used to design and select a sample for a telephone survey of individuals who use electricity in irrigating agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The survey is intended to gather information on the irrigated agricultural sector that will be useful for conservation assessment, load forecasting, rate design, and other regional power planning activities.

  12. Size and stochasticity in irrigated social-ecological systems (United States)

    Puy, Arnald; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Balbo, Andrea L.


    This paper presents a systematic study of the relation between the size of irrigation systems and the management of uncertainty. We specifically focus on studying, through a stylized theoretical model, how stochasticity in water availability and taxation interacts with the stochastic behavior of the population within irrigation systems. Our results indicate the existence of two key population thresholds for the sustainability of any irrigation system: or the critical population size required to keep the irrigation system operative, and N* or the population threshold at which the incentive to work inside the irrigation system equals the incentives to work elsewhere. Crossing irretrievably leads to system collapse. N* is the population level with a sub-optimal per capita payoff towards which irrigation systems tend to gravitate. When subjected to strong stochasticity in water availability or taxation, irrigation systems might suffer sharp population drops and irreversibly disintegrate into a system collapse, via a mechanism we dub ‘collapse trap’. Our conceptual study establishes the basis for further work aiming at appraising the dynamics between size and stochasticity in irrigation systems, whose understanding is key for devising mitigation and adaptation measures to ensure their sustainability in the face of increasing and inevitable uncertainty.

  13. ARS irrigation research priorities and projects-An update (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) Irrigation Scheduling Technologies for Water Productivity; 2) Water Productivity (WP) at Multiple Scales; 3) Irrigation Applicatio...

  14. Dynamics of fresh produce marketing in small-scale irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-scale irrigation schemes provide a worthwhile livelihood for smallholder farmers, though those farmers struggle to obtain a guaranteed and consistent market for their produce. This article focuses on constraints and opportunities that different types of smallholder irrigation farmers in South Africa have in meeting ...

  15. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  16. Agriculture and wildlife: ecological implications of subsurface irrigation drainage (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly


    Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage is a wastewater with the potential to severely impact wetlands and wildlife populations. Widespread poisoning of migratory birds by drainwater contaminants has occurred in the western United States and waterfowl populations are threatened in the Pacific and Central flyways. Irrigated agriculture could produce subsurface...

  17. Rainwater use by cotton under different irrigation systems (United States)

    Rainwater Use by Cotton Under Different Irrigation Systems To increase the efficiency by which agronomic crops use water input from both irrigation and rain during the growing season requires quantifying the proportion of rainfall used by the crop for any rain event. The rainfall pattern in the Texa...

  18. Small scale irrigation management practices: A study of fadama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is important because sustainability of fadama irrigation development depends to a large extent on the efficiency of the input and extension systems in terms of continuous provision of adequate and accessible inputs. In establishing an effective small scale irrigation system, pump provision at subsidized price should be ...

  19. Diagnosing Trouble Spots Caused by an Irrigation System (United States)

    John R. Scholtes


    I discuss a testing procedure to determine the water distribution pattern of a sprinkler irrigation system and steps that may be taken to improve uniformity of application. All irrigation systems require testing and maintenance to assure that water application is as uniform as possible. Even new systems installed to a manufacturer's specifications should be "...

  20. Quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University at Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of two irrigation systems (trickle and modified furrow irrigation) and five maize (M)-cowpea (C) intercropping patterns (sole M-30, sole M-15, ridge ...

  1. Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture : Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Couverture du livre Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities. Directeur(s) : Christopher Scott, Naser I. Faruqui et Liqa Raschid. Maison(s) d'édition : CABI, IWMI, CRDI.

  2. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao


    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area...

  3. Growth and biomass of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Richard B. Hall


    Resource managers are challenged with waste disposal and leachate produced from its degradation. Poplar (Populus spp.) trees offer an opportunity for ecological leachate disposal as an irrigation source for managed tree systems. Our objective was to irrigate Populus trees with municipal solid waste landfill leachate or fertilized well water (control...

  4. Bipolar diathermy forceps with automatic irrigation. Technical note. (United States)

    Ohta, T; Funatsu, N; Kuroiwa, T; Matsui, T


    A method for providing a saline drip during bipolar diathermy is described. Stainless steel tubing is incorporated in both blades of standard bipolar forceps and connected to the irrigating line. Irrigation is started when the forceps are closed and is stopped when they are open.

  5. home range and reproduction of rodents in maynugus irrigation field

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    observations were outside irrigated fields. Population dynamics of small mammals in irrigated fields is unique due to the continuous supply of food. Hence this investigation was carried out in agricultural fields at Maynugus, in northern Ethiopia, to understand the home range and reproductive patterns of rodents, and to.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  7. Irrigation Suitability Assessment of Effluents From West Kano Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This paper assesses the suitability of West Kano Rice Irrigation Scheme effluents for recycling. Water and wastewater quality variables of ten samples from two ..... becomes alkaline. High sodium soils are, therefore, plastic and sticky when wet and prone to clod and crust formation when dring. Excess sodium in irrigation ...

  8. irrigated agriculture and poverty reduction in kassena nankana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 8, 2010 ... Actors in the irrigated agriculture industry should pay equal attention to both the production and marketing aspects of their enterprises. .... develop a pricing system and a mechanism for the delivery of irrigation water that is ... gional, national, and economy-wide growth effects. All year cropping increases ...

  9. The implication of irrigation in climate change impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Gang; Webber, Heidi; Hoffmann, Holger; Wolf, Joost; Siebert, Stefan; Ewert, Frank


    This study evaluates the impacts of projected climate change on irrigation requirements and yields of six crops (winter wheat, winter barley, rapeseed, grain maize, potato, and sugar beet) in Europe. Furthermore, the uncertainty deriving from consideration of irrigation, CO2 effects on

  10. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies (United States)

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...



    Hamilton, Joel R.; Willis, David B.


    A spreadsheet-based simulation model is used to illustrate the complex relationships between irrigation efficiency, water banking and water conservation under the prior appropriation doctrine. Increases in irrigation efficiency and/or establishment of water banks do not guarantee water conservation. Conservation requires reduction in the quantity of water consumptively used by agriculture.

  12. Smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status and characteristics of the 302 smallholder irrigation schemes found in South Africa are discussed and knowledge on South African smallholder irrigation schemes generated by the Water Research Commission (WRC) over a period of nearly 20 years is reviewed. Themes covered include planning, design and ...

  13. Influence of different final irrigation regimens and various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different endodontic materials and final irrigation regimens on vertical root fracture (VRF) resistance. Materials and Methods: Eighty human teeth were prepared then assigned into two groups (n = 40) according to the final irrigations. G1: 5 mL, 5.25% sodium ...

  14. Irrigation management strategies for improved salinity and sodicity control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.


    An integrated approach is developed to assess a priori the effects of irrigation management interventions on soil salinity, sodicity and transpiration. The approach is tested for a 75,000 ha irrigation system in Pakistan, where canal and groundwater are used conjunctively. The main

  15. Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation: a Case Study from Debre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present paper tries to assess groundwater suitability for irrigation purpose in Debre Kidane Watershed (45.09 km2), northern Ethiopia. The goal was to evaluate the suitability of the groundwater for irrigation, examine the water types and to investigate possible long and short term impact on groundwater quality. Thirty six ...

  16. The politics of policy : participatory irrigation management in Andhra Pradesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikku, B.R.


    This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra

  17. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of dogs were hypothermic (<37oC). The addition of warmed irrigation fluids to a temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses. Keywords: Arthroscopy, Hypothermia, Irrigation fluid temperature, Thermoregulation.

  18. Effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted during five growing seasons from 2004 to 2008 to investigate effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield and quality of Salak apricot trees in semiarid climatic conditions. There were six irrigation treatments, five of which (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) were based on adjustment ...

  19. Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Private Irrigation Supply in Nandom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated farmers willingness to pay (WTP) for private irrigation in Nandom district, Ghana. The study randomly sampled 236 farmers and analyzed data using descriptive statistics and ordered logit regression model. Results revealed that 94.5 percent of the farmers were WTP for private irrigation services with ...

  20. Irrigation and Rural Welfare: Implications of Schistosomiasis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis infection on the socio-economic health of irrigation farmers in the rural districts of Kazaure Area, Northern Nigeria. It first reviews some general consideration of irrigation environment and schistosomiasis, its major associated health problem.

  1. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the ...

  2. Scaling up Intermittent Rice Irrigation for Malaria Control on the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling up Intermittent Rice Irrigation for Malaria Control on the North Coast of Peru. New research aims to help control malaria in one watershed in northern Peru. Malaria is widespread in Peru's arid North Coast because of the extensive irrigation required to support rice paddies. Rice growing in the region accounts for ...

  3. Enhanced fodder yield of maize genotypes under saline irrigation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor quality irrigation water adversely affects the growth and yield of crops. This study was designed to evaluate the growth, fodder yield and ionic concentration of three promising maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under the influence of varying quality irrigation water, with different salinity levels. The genotypes, such as ...

  4. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt affect on soils. The study assessed the effect of industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and plant tissues in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. The degree of pollution was evaluated using Sodium adsorption ratio, pH, cations – Cl ...

  5. Management of Fresh Wheat Residue for Irrigated Winter Canola Production (United States)

    Winter canola is popular with many irrigated growers as it provides excellent disease control benefits for potatoes grown in rotation. There is a belief among irrigated canola growers that fresh wheat residue must be burned and the soil then heavily tilled before winter canola is planted. These grow...

  6. Yield, irrigation production efficiency and economic returns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gross return, net return and benefit-cost ratio exhibited quadratic relationship which can be used for optimising economic return of broccoli under variable irrigation and lateral spacing. The results revealed that drip irrigation system is profitable for broccoli production inspite of high initial investment. Journal of Science and ...

  7. Wedlock or deadlock? Feminists' attempts to engage irrigation engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.


    In this thesis I describe my search for ways of thinking about, and conceptualizing, irrigation realities that allow recognition of gender as constitutive of such realities. This effort logically follows from the realization that in mainstream conceptualizations of irrigation it is difficult to

  8. 76 FR 35886 - Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of... (United States)


    ...--California] Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of... Projects has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) regarding Orange Cove Irrigation District's and...

  9. Performanance Evaluation of the Cauvery Irrigation System, India, Using Remote Sensing and Gis Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T. Subramani; S. Badrinarayanan


    .... In many countries, and particularly in India, accurate evaluation of irrigation system performance and sustainability is hampered by lack of adequate, reliable, and timely irrigation statistics...

  10. 76 FR 33361 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Madera Irrigation... (United States)


    ... Irrigation District Water Supply Enhancement Project located in Madera County, California AGENCY: Bureau of... prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Madera Irrigation District Water Supply...

  11. Assessment of the efficiency and water productivity in the Spanish irrigation associations "Canal Toro-Zamora" and "Canal Villagonzalo" from the Duero basin (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Amado Mendoza Hidalgo, Edwin


    Within a water scarcity scenario, the irrigated agriculture economic sector would be affected by the reduction on water supply and this might have a negative impact on the National gross income. Water for irrigation in Spain comprises the 75% of total consumption. Therefore, the search for irrigation strategies dealing with sustainable irrigation by saving water and improving the environment quality is encouraged. Within this framework the assessment of water use in the irrigation districts to assist water stakeholder decisions is reinforced. Water resources can be assessed at field scheme or regional scale by analyzing the water use efficiency and the water productivity indicators. Which determine the water availability and the water supply quality in irrigation areas. Among then, the following are broadly used: water productivity WP, and irrigation water productivity IWP, annual relative water supply (ARWS) and the annual relative irrigation water supply (ARIS). Keeping in mind the water scarcity scenario for irrigation in the short and long term and the probably scenario of water allocation for different uses following criteria of efficiency and productivity, this work is aimed at assessing the water use efficiency and water productivity of two modernized Spanish irrigation districts CCRRs: "Canal Toro-Zamora" and "Canal Villagonzalo" from the Duero basin. For that purpose, the above indicators were estimated for years 2014 and 2015. Crop water requirements are needed to calculate the indicators. For this study, maize was chosen since it is the major crop in the area and its water needs were estimated with the FAO program Cropwat. Local crop coefficients (Kc) were determined with the open access application SpiderWebGis ( which uses satelital images to monitor Kc coefficients in all crops across Spain. In both CCRRs the maize Kc coefficients were similar for all the phenology stages although a slightly spatial variability was

  12. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees. (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F


    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  13. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hormoz asadi


    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural research is important and one of the determinant factors of development of technologies in agricultural sector. Among agricultural research disciplines, breeding programs, especially, wheat breeding programs are one of the applied approaches in improving of production and food security. Based on a study by Byerlee & Traxler (1995, economic benefits and Internal Rate of Return (IRR for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (for all breeding programs were estimated US$3.0 billion per year with internal rate of 53%, and economic benefits for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (Attributed to IWIN was estimated US$1.5 billion per year during 1966-90. Materials and methods The main objectives of this research were to determine shift of supply function of variety and impacts of breeding wheat varieties on reduction costs, and determination of economic return of released irrigated bread wheat in breeding program for the period of 1991-2000. Wheat varieties included; 23 varieties of released irrigated bread wheat by wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII and Provincial Agricultural Research Centers. Ex-ante and Ex-post methods were used in this study. Measuring criteria for these methods were; quantity of shift in supply function, cost-benefit analysis and internal rate of return of varieties. For estimation of reduction costs and shift of supply function of varieties in breeding program were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: Cvb: Cost reduction due to breeding program, TCh: Cost production per ha, Yv (without: yield of check variety in breeding plots, Yv (with: yield of new variety in breeding plots, PSS: % supply shift in breeding program and Pw: price of wheat grain per kg For assessing economic criteria, Net Present Value (NPV, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were used: Following Brennan et al (2002, gross benefit of irrigated bread wheat

  14. Sensor-Based Model Driven Control Strategy for Precision Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Lozoya


    Full Text Available Improving the efficiency of the agricultural irrigation systems substantially contributes to sustainable water management. This improvement can be achieved through an automated irrigation system that includes a real-time control strategy based on the water, soil, and crop relationship. This paper presents a model driven control strategy applied to an irrigation system, in order to make an efficient use of water for large crop fields, that is, applying the correct amount of water in the correct place at the right moment. The proposed model uses a predictive algorithm that senses soil moisture and weather variables, to determine optimal amount of water required by the crop. This proposed approach is evaluated against a traditional irrigation system based on the empirical definition of time periods and against a basic soil moisture control system. Results indicate that the use of a model predictive control in an irrigation system achieves a higher efficiency and significantly reduce the water consumption.

  15. Irrigated lands assessment for water management: Technique test. [California (United States)

    Wall, S. L.; Brown, C. E.; Eriksson, M.; Grigg, C. A.; Thomas, R. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.; Tinney, L. R.; Baggett, J. O.; Sawyer, G.


    A procedure for estimating irrigated land using full frame LANDSAT imagery was demonstrated. Relatively inexpensive interpretation of multidate LANDSAT photographic enlargements was used to produce a map of irrigated land in California. The LANDSAT and ground maps were then linked by regression equations to enable precise estimation of irrigated land area by county, basin, and statewide. Land irrigated at least once in California in 1979 was estimated to be 9.86 million acres, with an expected error of less than 1.75% at the 99% level of confidence. To achieve the same level of error with a ground-only sample would have required 3 to 5 times as many ground sample units statewide. A procedure for relatively inexpensive computer classification of LANDSAT digital data to irrigated land categories was also developed. This procedure is based on ratios of MSS band 7 and 5, and gave good results for several counties in the Central Valley.

  16. Using Cotton Model Simulations to Estimate Optimally Profitable Irrigation Strategies (United States)

    Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Sapkota, P.; Johnson, J.; Maas, S.


    In recent decades irrigation pumping from the Ogallala Aquifer has led to declines in saturated thickness that have not been compensated for by natural recharge, which has led to questions about the long-term viability of agriculture in the cotton producing areas of west Texas. Adopting irrigation management strategies that optimize profitability while reducing irrigation waste is one way of conserving the aquifer's water resource. Here, a database of modeled cotton yields generated under drip and center pivot irrigated and dryland production scenarios is used in a stochastic dominance analysis that identifies such strategies under varying commodity price and pumping cost conditions. This database and analysis approach will serve as the foundation for a web-based decision support tool that will help producers identify optimal irrigation treatments under specified cotton price, electricity cost, and depth to water table conditions.

  17. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn


    Yield and water productivity of potatoes grown in 4.32 m2 lysimeters were measured in coarse sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam and imposed to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. PRD and DI as water-saving irrigation treatments received 65% of FI after...... tuber bulking and lasted for 6 weeks until final harvest. Analysis across the soil textures showed that fresh yields were not significant between the irrigation treatments. However, the same analysis across the irrigation treatments revealed that the effect of soil texture was significant on the fresh...... yield and loamy sand produced significantly higher fresh yield than the other two soils, probably because of higher leaf area index, higher photosynthesis rates, and "stay-green" effect late in the growing season. More analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between the irrigation...

  18. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn


    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate...... leaching without compromising profits. Four replicate plots of each treatment with varying predefined and model-based (Daisy and Aquacrop crop model) irrigation and N fertilization levels were used in the study. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment-I, treatments consisted of one drip......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P...

  19. Comparison of water distribution mechanisms under two localized irrigation techniques (Drip Irrigation & Buried Diffuser) for one week irrigation period in a sandy soil of southeastern Tunisia (United States)

    Gasmi, Ines; Kodešová, Radka; Mechergui, Mohamed; Nikodem, Antonín; Moussa, Mohamed


    The majority of agricultural ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin of northern Africa suffer from water shortage and positions these regions in a highly vulnerable to climate change. In arid regions of Tunisia and exactly in the Southeastern part, during each growing season, plant productivity in sandy-loamy soils is dramatically reduced by limited availability of soil water and nutrients. Thus, highly permeable soils are unable to retain adequate water and nutrient resource in the plant root zone. Moreover, the investments of supplemental irrigation and agricultural amendments of additional fertilization are not sustainable due to the leaching of water supplies and nutrients, which severely limit agricultural productivity. In addition, inadequate soil water distribution, costly irrigation and fertilization leads to negative responses to plant nutrients added to highly permeable soils. That's why we should use irrigation techniques with high water use efficiency. This paper focuses on the comparison between two localized irrigation techniques which are the Drip Irrigation (DI) and the Buried Diffuser (BD) that has the same flow rates (4 l/h). The BD is buried at 15 cm depths. Experimental data was obtained from Smar-Médenine located in South-East of Tunisia. The water distribution at the soil surface for BD is very important about 195 cm2 while for the DI is about 25.12 cm2. The HYDRUS 2D/3D model helped to evaluate the water distribution and compare the water balance obtained with those two irrigation techniques for one week irrigation period. There is a rapid kinetic which has a duration of 3 hours (irrigation time) and a slow kinetic which is the result of the water distribution in the soil, the plant uptake and the effect of climatic condition. There are two mechanisms that affect the two irrigation techniques: the water distribution and the position of irrigation system. As a result, irrigation with BD goes dipper in the soil. The transmission zone for this

  20. Stability of Adrenaline in Irrigating Solution for Intraocular Surgery. (United States)

    Shibata, Yuuka; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Taogoshi, Takanori; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Kihira, Kenji


    Intraocular irrigating solution containing 1 µg/mL adrenaline is widely used during cataract surgery to maintain pupil dilation. Prepared intraocular irrigating solutions are recommended for use within 6 h. After the irrigating solution is admistered for dilution, the adrenaline may become oxidized, and this may result in a decrease in its biological activity. However, the stability of adrenaline in intraocular irrigating solution is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of adrenaline in clinically used irrigating solutions of varying pH. Six hours after mixing, the adrenaline percentages remaining were 90.6%±3.7 (pH 7.2), 91.1%±2.2 (pH 7.5), and 65.2%±2.8 (pH 8.0) of the initial concentration. One hour after mixing, the percentages remaining were 97.6%±2.0 (pH 7.2), 97.4%±2.7 (pH 7.5), and 95.6%±3.3 (pH 8.0). The degradation was especially remarkable and time dependent in the solution at pH 8.0. These results indicate that the concentration of adrenaline is decreased after preparation. Moreover, we investigated the influence of sodium bisulfite on adrenaline stability in irrigating solution. The percentage adrenaline remaining at 6 h after mixing in irrigating solution (pH 8.0) containing sodium bisulfite at 0.5 µg/mL (concentration in irrigating solution) or at 500 µg/mL (concentration in the undiluted adrenaline preparation) were 57.5 and 97.3%, respectively. Therefore, the low concentration of sodium bisulfite in the irrigating solution may be a cause of the adrenaline loss. In conclusion, intraocular irrigation solution with adrenaline should be prepared just prior to its use in surgery.

  1. A new method for real-time quantification of irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psimma, Z.; Boutsioukis, C.; Vasiliadis, L.; Kastrinakis, E.


    Aim (i) To introduce a new method of quantifying extruded irrigant during root canal irrigation ex vivo. (ii) to evaluate the effect of periapical tissue simulation and pressure equalization and (iii) to determine the effect of needle type, apical preparation size and apical constriction diameter on

  2. Pilot study of the effect of biofilms in irrigation pipes on the microbial water quality of irrigation water (United States)

    Irrigation is an essential element in the production of many food crops. Irrigation water is often delivered to fields from surface or subsurface sources via pipe-based systems. Surface waters are known to contain pathogenic microorganisms. Disease outbreaks in crops that are eaten raw (i.e. leafy g...

  3. Irrigated agriculture with limited water supply:Tools for understanding and managing irrigation and crop water use efficiencies (United States)

    Water availability for irrigated agriculture is declining in both China and the United States due to increased use for power generation, municipalities, industries and environmental protection. Persistent droughts have exacerbated the situation, leading to increases in irrigated area as farmers atte...

  4. Irrigation dynamics associated with positive pressure, apical negative pressure and passive ultrasonic irrigations: a computational fluid dynamics analysis. (United States)

    Chen, José Enrique; Nurbakhsh, Babak; Layton, Gillian; Bussmann, Markus; Kishen, Anil


    Complexities in root canal anatomy and surface adherent biofilm structures remain as challenges in endodontic disinfection. The ability of an irrigant to penetrate into the apical region of a canal, along with its interaction with the root canal walls, will aid in endodontic disinfection. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the irrigation dynamics of syringe irrigation with different needle tip designs (open-ended and closed-ended), apical negative pressure irrigation with the EndoVac® system, and passive ultrasonic-assisted irrigation, using a computational fluid dynamics model. Syringe-based irrigation with a side-vented needle showed a higher wall shear stress than the open-ended but was localised to a small region of the canal wall. The apical negative pressure mode of irrigation generated the lowest wall shear stress, while the passive-ultrasonic irrigation group showed the highest wall shear stress along with the greatest magnitude of velocity. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2013 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  5. Comparison of two negative pressure systems and syringe irrigation for root canal irrigation: an ex vivo study. (United States)

    Adorno, C G; Fretes, V R; Ortiz, C P; Mereles, R; Sosa, V; Yubero, M F; Escobar, P M; Heilborn, C


    To compare in a laboratory study two negative pressure systems and syringe irrigation, regarding the delivery of a contrast solution (CS) to working length (WL) and into simulated lateral canals and the effective volume of irrigant aspirated during negative pressure irrigation. Twenty single-canaled incisor training models were constructed with six simulated lateral canals each (2, 4 and 6 mm to WL) and a size 40, 0.04 taper apical size canal. Each model underwent all irrigation procedures (EndoVac at WL (EndoVac-0) and WL-2 mm (EndoVac-2), iNP needle with negative pressure (iNPn) and syringe irrigation with the iNP needle (iNPs) and a 30-G side-slot needle placed at WL (SI0) and WL-2 (SI2) mm in a crossover design. CS was delivered at 4 mL min(-1) for 60 s with a peristaltic pump and a recovery device collected the volume (in mL) of irrigant suctioned by the negative pressure groups. The irrigation procedures were digitally recorded, and a still image of the 60-s time-point of irrigation was evaluated for CS distance to WL (in millimetres) after irrigation and penetration into lateral canals (3-point scale). Statistical tests used were Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test. EndoVac-0, iNPn and iNPs had median distances of CS to WL of 0 mm, followed by SI0 (0.2 mm), SI2 (0.7 mm) and EndoVac-2 (1.7 mm). There were no significant differences between EndoVac-0, iNPn, iNPs and SI0, but these were significantly different to SI2 and EndoVac-2 (P irrigation and that collected by iNPn (4 mL), but these were significantly greater than EndoVac-0 (2.8 mL, P irrigation procedures were ineffective at penetration into lateral canals. iNPn, EndoVac-0, iNPs and SI0 achieved greater irrigant penetration to WL. iNPn was able to collect a median volume of CS (4 mL) similar to that delivered by syringe irrigation (iNPp, SI0 and SI2). An adequate irrigant penetration into lateral canals could not be achieved by any of the systems. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John

  6. Catheter design for effective manual bladder irrigation. (United States)

    Mesfin, Samuel; Sarkissian, Carl; Malaeb, Bahaa; Monga, Manoj


    We compared the efficiency of clearance of a simulated clot from a bladder model using a 6-hole irrigation catheter, a traditional Malecot catheter and a modified Malecot catheter with additional side holes. Latex balloons 12 inches in diameter served as the bladder model. They were filled with 300 cc Jell-O® gelatin, which had been partially solidified for 8 hours at 36F. Five manual irrigation/aspiration cycles with a 60 cc catheter tip syringe were performed to remove simulated clot from the bladder models and the amount of clot removed was measured. Five bladder models were used to test the efficiency of clot removal for each 22Fr catheter design, including a standard 22Fr Model 361222 Malecot latex 4-wing catheter (Rusch, High Wycombe, United Kingdom) and a 22Fr Bardex® Model 606118-22 latex 6-hole catheter. Two modified versions of the Malecot catheter design involving 2 and 4 additional holes were also tested to determine the effect of a hybrid 6-hole/Malecot design. The 6-hole catheter was more efficient for clot evacuation than the Malecot catheter (p = 0.014). The modified Malecot catheter with 4 additional holes was more efficient than the original Malecot catheter (p = 0.020). However, it was not significantly better than the 6-hole catheter. After 5 irrigation/aspiration cycles 77.0% of residual clot remained in the bladder with the Malecot catheter compared to 60.4% and 54.0% for the 6-hole and modified 4-hole Malecot catheters, respectively. The 6-hole catheter showed an advantage in clot removal over the Malecot catheter design. The enhanced ability of the 6-hole design to remove simulated clot may be attributable to the larger area covered by the holes at the catheter tip. Further investigation to determine the effect of spacing between the holes and the number of holes on the ability to break apart and remove clot is recommended for a more thorough understanding of differences among catheter models and methods of improvement. Copyright © 2011


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    Andrés Pérez-Magaña


    Full Text Available This contribution has the purpose to discuss the different features of the human being development and on a particular way to analyze the situation of human development in the poblana entity and its irrigation systems. The human development is a multidimensional process, which has as target the development of human being’s liberty to attend its capacities. The approaches carried out around the concept of human development share with the search of theoretical and methodological constructions that surpass the narrow vision of development as economical growth. Among the most important perspectives, that undertake this phenomenon, are found: Human Development Index (IDH proposed by the United Nations for Development Program (PNUD and the proposal of Development at Human Scale formulated by the Alternative for Development Center (CEPAUR. In relation to the situation of human development in poblana entity, was used the IDH presented by the PNUD, concluding that this state presents levels of human development under the national level, over to those found in native communities in all the country, with strong differences among municipalities. Such is the case of the 36 municipalities where more than the 50% of the population of 5 years or more speaks more than one of the three dominant native languages of the entity, where the index didn’t reach the found at native regions at national scale. On the irrigation systems used was found that they are low irrigation and high irrigation. An important amount low irrigation users (1,125, which are interested in this study, are organized according to the water legislation, to receive supports and services to improve the infrastructure, and to fulfill the purpose to provide the irrigation service among the associates, aspect that offers an important potential to take an advantage to contribute in emphasize on the decrease of the differences found in the IDH of the entity.

  8. Yield, Quality and Water Consumption of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Grown under Different Irrigation Regimes in Southern Italy

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    Riccardo d’Andria


    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herbaceous perennial plant originating in the north-east of Paraguay. Its leaves contain low-calorie sweetening agents that can be used as a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners. The leaves are consumed in special human diets and for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present work is to study water consumption, yield potential and quality characteristics of this species under different irrigation levels in southern Italy. The field work was carried out in 2006-2007. Irrigation treatments consisted of a control (T100, irrigated with 100% restitution of water consumption and two treatments that received a water depth of 33% (T33 and 66% (T66 of treatment T100. Watering volume was estimated to replenish the soil profile to field capacity for a depth of 0.40 m. The crop was harvested twice a year, and agronomic performance as well as the major cation and glycoside contents (stevioside and rebaudioside A were evaluated. Overall, the crop coefficients were similar between the two years, although in each year the second growing period showed higher values due to the higher evaporative demand of this period. Interactions of years with irrigation treatments and harvest time were not significant either for yield or yield components. In both cuts the T100 treatments achieved 40% higher leaf dry yield than T33, while T66 showed intermediate values. The harvest index and water use efficiency showed no differences between the two cuts for the same treatments, while the values of both indices decreased with the increase in irrigation regime. Stevioside, rebaudioside A and cation content in the leaves were unaffected by irrigation regime. In order to develop the field cultivation of this species, field experiments are required to prepare a cultivation protocol as well as a genetic improvement program to develop varieties that better respond to the local environment.

  9. Yield, Quality and Water Consumption of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni Grown under Different Irrigation Regimes in Southern Italy

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    Riccardo d’Andria


    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herbaceous perennial plant originating in the north-east of Paraguay. Its leaves contain low-calorie sweetening agents that can be used as a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners. The leaves are consumed in special human diets and for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present work is to study water consumption, yield potential and quality characteristics of this species under different irrigation levels in southern Italy. The field work was carried out in 2006-2007. Irrigation treatments consisted of a control (T100, irrigated with 100% restitution of water consumption and two treatments that received a water depth of 33% (T33 and 66% (T66 of treatment T100. Watering volume was estimated to replenish the soil profile to field capacity for a depth of 0.40 m. The crop was harvested twice a year, and agronomic performance as well as the major cation and glycoside contents (stevioside and rebaudioside A were evaluated. Overall, the crop coefficients were similar between the two years, although in each year the second growing period showed higher values due to the higher evaporative demand of this period. Interactions of years with irrigation treatments and harvest time were not significant either for yield or yield components. In both cuts the T100 treatments achieved 40% higher leaf dry yield than T33, while T66 showed intermediate values. The harvest index and water use efficiency showed no differences between the two cuts for the same treatments, while the values of both indices decreased with the increase in irrigation regime. Stevioside, rebaudioside A and cation content in the leaves were unaffected by irrigation regime. In order to develop the field cultivation of this species, field experiments are required to prepare a cultivation protocol as well as a genetic improvement program to develop varieties that better respond to the local environment.

  10. Efficient pricing and allocation of irrigation water: A model of the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area


    Hafi, Ahmed; Klijn, Nico; Kemp, Adrian


    A model of the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area with two linked components: the farms in the area and the off farm water delivery system is developed. Two versions of the model are formulated. The first version represents the practice of uniform pricing by water authorities where the differences in conveyance losses between farms are ignored while in the second version water authorities are assumed to charge an efficient price that reflects the cost of delivering water, including the conveyance l...

  11. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions (United States)


    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  12. Irrigation systems as common-pool resources

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    Giangiacomo Bravo


    Full Text Available Les ressources communes sont des ressources naturelles ou artificielles partagées par différents utilisateurs ; l’exploitation de ces ressources crée une rivalité, souvent (mais pas nécessairement à l’origine de leur dégradation, voire de leur destruction. Cet article présente brièvement la théorie des ressources communes développée ces vingt dernières années par Elinor Ostrom et ses collègues, et l’illustre par plusieurs études de cas de systèmes d’irrigation du nord de l’Italie (Lombardie et Vallée d’Aoste. Il démontre que différents mécanismes sociaux, tels que les valeurs partagées et le réseau social existant au sein de la communauté d’utilisateurs, influent sensiblement sur l’efficacité des systèmes institutionnels de gestion des ressources communes.Common-pool resources are natural or man-made resources shared among different users, a condition that produces a competition for their utilization leading often (although not necessarily to their degradation or even to their destruction. This paper shortly discusses the "theory of the commons", as developed in the last 20 years by Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues, and illustrates it by mean of case studies regarding a number of irrigation systems in Northern Italy (Lombardy and Aosta Valley. We show that that different social mechanisms, like the shared values e the social network existing inside the community of users, play a significant role in influencing the outcomes of the institutional schemes for the commons management.

  13. Subsurface drip irrigation in different planting spacing of sugarcane (United States)

    Pires, R. C. M.; Barbosa, E. A. A.; Arruda, F. B.; Silva, T. J. A.; Sakai, E.; Landell, M. G. A.


    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, it is important to investigate the long-term effect of irrigation in the yield and technological quality in different ecological condition cultivation. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of SDI in sugarcane cultivated in different planting spacings on technological quality, yield and theoretical recoverable sugar during four cycles of sugarcane cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Colorado Mill, Guaíra, São Paulo State in Brazil, in a clay soil. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with six replications. The treatments were three different planting spacings (S1 - 1.5 m between rows; S2 - 1.8 m between rows and S3 - planting in double line of 0.5 m x 1.3 m between planting rows) which were subdivided in irrigated and non-irrigated plots. In S1 and S2 treatments were installed one drip line in each plant row and in treatment S3 one drip line was installed between the rows with smaller spacing (0.5 m). The RB855536 genotype was used and the planting date occurred in May, 25th 2005. The analyzed parameters were: percentage of soluble solids (brix), percent apparent sucrose juice (Pol), total recoverable sugar (ATR), yield and theoretically recoverable sugar (RTR). Four years of yield (plant cane and first, second and third ratoon) were analyzed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Two months before the first harvest a yield estimate was realized. According to the observed results the irrigated plants provided increase of about 20 % compared to non irrigated plants. However there was a great tipping of plants specially in irrigated plots. The

  14. Simulation of Farmers’ Response to Irrigation Water Pricing and Rationing Policies (Case Study: Zabol City

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    abouzar parhizkari


    Full Text Available Considering that agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water, presenting integrated management for water resources and formulating effective policies to increase water productivity in this sector is essential. Therefore, using economic modeling , this study simulated the farmers’ responses to irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city. To achieve the study purpose, the State Wide Agricultural Production Model and Positive Mathematical Programming were applied. The required data for the years 2010-2011 was collected by completing questionnaires and collecting data sets from the relevant agencies of Zabol city in personal attendance. The results showed that imposing irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city leads to a reduction in the total cultivated area by 9/54 and 5/14 percent and a reduction in the water consumption by 6/23 and 7/01 percent, compared to the base year. Ultimately, irrigation water rationing policy, considering frugality of 18/9 million m3 of water, as the appropriate solution for the sustainability of water resources of Zabol city was proposed.

  15. Optimal dynamic water allocation: Irrigation extractions and environmental tradeoffs in the Murray River, Australia (United States)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom


    A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to optimally and dynamically allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, dynamic programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to optimally allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an optimal way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase optimal environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.


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    Constantin Nicolescu


    Full Text Available In Romania the economically efficient irrigated area is estimated at 3.5 million hectares. On national scale there is nointegrated approach for monitoring the quantity and quality of the irrigation water, using adequate equipment at thepumping station. On international scale, in many countries the pumping stations are provided with equipment formonitoring, on real time, the quality or the pumped water and for warning about critical situations (emergencies.This paper describes a technical solution consisting of equipment which monitors the following parameters of waterpumped in irrigation systems: turbidity, pH, CE at 25 o C, Na+, Cl-. The lapse of time for monitoring is of 10 to 60 min.The main components are the following: the sampling pump (submersible the monitoring board, the repression pipe ofthe analyzed water. Warnings are made about values exceeding the programmed level for each monitored parameter,about the fact that the pump and agitator do not work or about any other source of damage.The technical solution and equipment were tested at a pumping station which uses water from Danube, in most casesmixed with water originating from drainage. Results showed a reduction of the total content of soluble salts from soiland of their negative impact upon the crops, a reduction of the degree of river alluvial deposits within the irrigationsystem and reduction of the energetic consumption required for pumping.

  17. Wastewater Irrigation: Persistent Organic Pollutans in Soil and Product

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    Mehmet Emin AYDIN


    Full Text Available Treated or untreated wastewaters, used for irrigation purpose, contain various persistent organic pollutants. The long use of these waters for irrigation purpose results in deposition of the pollutants in soil, contaminates products and has adverse health affect on the human through food chain, and biologic activity of flora and fauna. The wastewaters of Konya were conveyed to the Salt Lake through the main drainage channel without any treatment until 2010.  During the arid period, the wastewater in the main drainage channel was used for irrigation and the products were cultivated. In this work, persistent organic pollutants i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, acenaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene are determined in wastewater irrigated agricultural soil samples and the wheat samples cultivated in the region. High alkaline properties and clay structure of Konya soil were determined. These properties of soil result in the accumulation of contaminants in top soil layer used for agricultural production. On the other hand, PCB and PAH compounds were determined in comparable concentrations in well water irrigated reference soils with wastewater irrigated soils. PCB and PAH sources other than wastewater irrigation was evidenced for the study field.

  18. [Optimal allocation of irrigation water resources based on systematical strategy]. (United States)

    Cheng, Shuai; Zhang, Shu-qing


    With the development of the society and economy, as well as the rapid increase of population, more and more water is needed by human, which intensified the shortage of water resources. The scarcity of water resources and growing competition of water in different water use sectors reduce water availability for irrigation, so it is significant to plan and manage irrigation water resources scientifically and reasonably for improving water use efficiency (WUE) and ensuring food security. Many investigations indicate that WUE can be increased by optimization of water use. However, present studies focused primarily on a particular aspect or scale, which lack systematic analysis on the problem of irrigation water allocation. By summarizing previous related studies, especially those based on intelligent algorithms, this article proposed a multi-level, multi-scale framework for allocating irrigation water, and illustrated the basic theory of each component of the framework. Systematical strategy of optimal irrigation water allocation can not only control the total volume of irrigation water on the time scale, but also reduce water loss on the spatial scale. It could provide scientific basis and technical support for improving the irrigation water management level and ensuring the food security.

  19. Comparison of final irrigation techniques in removal of calcium hydroxide. (United States)

    Yücel, Ali Çağın; Gürel, Melek; Güler, Eda; Karabucak, Bekir


    The aim of this study was to compare new irrigation systems with a conventional irrigation technique for the removal of inter-appointment calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ]. Forty-seven extracted human single-rooted teeth were instrumented, and Ca(OH)2 paste was placed into root canals by using a lentulo spiral at the apical third. Teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to different irrigation protocols using a 30-gauge slot-tipped needle, EndoVac system and ProUltra® PiezoFlow™ ultrasonic irrigation system. Scanning electron microscopic images of the selected root canal surfaces (cervical, middle and apical third) were evaluated using a 5-grade scale. The influence of the irrigation system was evaluated using a two-way analysis of variance test and Tukey's test. The EndoVac and PiezoFlow groups demonstrated the lowest scale values (cleanest canals); however, there was no statistical difference between these two groups. The conventional irrigation group exhibited significantly higher scores (P ultrasonic irrigation systems improved the removal of the intracanal medicament resulting in cleaner root canal walls. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2011 Australian Society of Endodontology.


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    Elka N. Radeva


    Full Text Available Introduction: Calcium hydroxide is widely used in the field of endodontics as a temporary root canal filling. This medicament significantly increases pH and optimizes the treatment outcome. Its total removal before final obturation is very important. Otherwise it could affect the hermetic filling and respectively the endodontic success. Aim: To evaluate the most effective irrigation protocol of calcium hydroxide removal from root canals. Materials and methods: In this study 36 single root canal teeth were observed. They were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each group according to the technique applied for calcium hydroxide removal - manual irrigation, irrigation and Revo-S rotary instrumentation; and passive ultrasonic irrigation, and a control group (n=6 – irrigation with distilled water only. After calcium hydroxide removals following the procedures above, teeth were separated longitudinally in a buccal-lingual direction and remnants of medicaments were observed in the apical, middle and coronal part of each tooth. Then all of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by a specified scale. The results have undergone statistical analysis. Results: In the case of calcium hydroxide in the apex and in the middle with highest average is Revo-S, followed by Ultrasonic and irrigation. In the coronal part the highest average belongs to Revo-S, irrigation and Ultrasonic. In all groups the highest average is represented by control group. Conclusion: There is not a universal technique for removal of intracanal medicaments and applying more than one protocol is required.

  1. Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions Modulate Irrigation's Climate Impacts (United States)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Gentine, Pierre; Nazarenko, Larissa


    Numerous studies have focused on the local and regional climate effects of irrigated agriculture and other land cover and land use change (LCLUC) phenomena, but there are few studies on the role of ocean- atmosphere interaction in modulating irrigation climate impacts. Here, we compare simulations with and without interactive sea surface temperatures of the equilibrium effect on climate of contemporary (year 2000) irrigation geographic extent and intensity. We find that ocean-atmosphere interaction does impact the magnitude of global-mean and spatially varying climate impacts, greatly increasing their global reach. Local climate effects in the irrigated regions remain broadly similar, while non-local effects, particularly over the oceans, tend to be larger. The interaction amplifies irrigation-driven standing wave patterns in the tropics and mid-latitudes in our simulations, approximately doubling the global-mean amplitude of surface temperature changes due to irrigation. The fractions of global area experiencing significant annual-mean surface air temperature and precipitation change also approximately double with ocean-atmosphere interaction. Subject to confirmation with other models, these findings imply that LCLUC is an important contributor to climate change even in remote areas such as the Southern Ocean, and that attribution studies should include interactive oceans and need to consider LCLUC, including irrigation, as a truly global forcing that affects climate and the water cycle over ocean as well as land areas.

  2. Apical Negative Pressure irrigation presents tissue compatibility in immature teeth

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    Carolina Maschietto Pucinelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To compare the apical negative pressure irrigation (ANP with conventional irrigation in the teeth of immature dogs with apical periodontitis. Methods: Fifty-two immature pre-molar root canals were randomly assigned into 4 groups: ANP (n=15; conventional irrigation (n=17; healthy teeth (control (n = 10; and teeth with untreated apical periodontitis (control (n=10. After induction of apical periodontitis, teeth were instrumented using EndoVac® (apical negative pressure irrigation or conventional irrigation. The animals were euthanized after 90 days. The sections were stained by HE and analyzed under conventional and fluorescence microscopy. TRAP histoenzymology was also performed. Statistical analyses were performed with the significance level set at 5%. Results: There was difference in the histopathological parameters between ANP and conventional groups (p0.05. However, a lower number of osteoclasts was observed in the ANP group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The EndoVac® irrigation system presented better biological results and more advanced repair process in immature teeth with apical periodontitis than the conventional irrigation system, confirming the hypothesis.

  3. Determination of priority of the construction of irrigation network

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    Subandiyah Azis


    Full Text Available Development of the irrigation network is one of the factors that give the great impact to economic growth in Indonesia. The Indonesian government has the authority on this development. However, the handling of the irrigation network has not been maximum and cannot meet the expectations/needs during this time. This is because the limitation of government funding which is not in a good proportion to the increasing of the damage of the irrigation network from year to year and the priority scale is only based on the proposed community and the desire of some of the stakeholders. Therefore, a research is important to determine priority scale, which is appropriate to the real needs in the field. The method applied in this research was descriptive research by spread over the questioner to the stakeholders related to the development of the irrigation network and analyzed the data using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The location of the research was in Sidoarjo Regency that covers 10 locations. The analysis results showed the priority order execution of irrigation network development in accordance with the requirements of the irrigation network. It is expected that this method can be applied to the entire development of the irrigation networks and other infrastructures, therefore, limited government funds can be used efficiently and effectively.

  4. Silicate fertilizer and irrigation depth in corn production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Eloy Dantas Júnior


    Full Text Available Calcium-magnesium silicates improve the soil physicochemical properties and provide benefits to plant nutrition, since they are sources of silica, calcium and magnesium. The objective of this study was to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn fertilized with calcium-magnesium silicate. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil, using plastic pots containing 80 kg of soil. The treatments consisted of the combination of four irrigation depths, related to water replacement of 50, 75, 100 and 125% of the crop evapotranspiration, with fertilizer levels of 0, 82, 164 and 246 g of calcium-magnesium silicate, with three replications. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with the irrigation depths distributed in bands while the silicon levels constituted the subplots. Corn yield was influenced by calcium-magnesium silicate and by irrigation depth, obtaining the greatest grain yield with the dose of 164 g pot-1 irrigated at the highest water level. The water-use efficiency of in corn production tended to decrease when the irrigation depth was increased. The best water-use efficiency was observed when the irrigation level was between 87 and 174 mm, and the dose of silicate was 164 g pot-1.

  5. Modeling and assessing the impact of reclaimed wastewater irrigation on the nutrient loads from an agricultural watershed containing rice paddy fields. (United States)

    Kim, Sang Min; Park, Seung Woo; Lee, Jeong Jae; Benham, Brian L; Kim, Hak Kwan


    Two models were used in concert to predict nutrient loads in a waterbody receiving irrigation return flows from a rice paddy production system. Two irrigation scenarios were simulated, one using reclaimed wastewater as the irrigation water source, the other using water from a surface reservoir designed to supply irrigation water. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads in irrigation return flows from the rice paddy fields were simulated using the field-scale water quality model Chemical, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management System model for rice paddy fields (CREAMS-PADDY). The output from CREAMS-PADDY was then used as input data for Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model. HSPF was used to evaluate TN and TP loads in the receiving waterbody at the watershed-scale. CREAMS-PADDY and HSPF were calibrated for both hydrology and water quality using observed data. Both CREAMS-PADDY and HSPF showed good agreement between the observed and simulated data during the calibration and validation periods. Simulation indicated that TN and TP loads from the study paddy fields increased by 207% and 1022% when reclaimed wastewater was used for irrigation compared to conventional irrigation. Irrigating paddy fields (18.8% of the 385 ha study watershed) with reclaimed wastewater increased the TN load at the watershed outlet by 10.3% and TP by 14.0%. The increase in nutrient loads was the result of the high nutrient concentration in the reclaimed wastewater. The procedures used in this research can be used to develop wastewater reuse strategies that minimize environmental impacts on watershed water quality.

  6. Irrigating grazed pasture decreases soil carbon and nitrogen stocks. (United States)

    Mudge, Paul L; Kelliher, Francis M; Knight, Trevor L; O'Connell, Denis; Fraser, Scott; Schipper, Louis A


    The sustainability of using irrigation to produce food depends not only on the availability of sufficient water, but also on the soil's 'response' to irrigation. Stocks of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are key components of soil organic matter (SOM), which is important for sustainable agricultural production. While there is some information about the effects of irrigation on soil C stocks in cropping systems, there is a paucity of such studies in pastoral food production systems. For this study, we sampled soils from 34 paired, irrigated and unirrigated pasture sites across New Zealand (NZ) and analysed these for total C and N. On average, irrigated pastures had significantly (P soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) than adjacent unirrigated pastures, with differences of 6.99 t C ha-1 and 0.58 t N ha-1 in the uppermost 0.3 m. Differences in C and N tended to occur throughout the soil profile, so the cumulative differences increased with depth, and the proportion of the soil C lost from deeper horizons was large. There were no relationships between differences in soil C and N stocks and the length of time under irrigation. This study suggests SOM will decrease when pastures under a temperate climate are irrigated. On this basis, increasing the area of temperate pasture land under irrigation would result in more CO2 in the atmosphere and may directly and indirectly increase N leaching to groundwater. Given the large and increasing area of land being irrigated both in NZ and on a global scale, there is an urgent need to determine whether the results found in this study are also applicable in other regions and under different land management systems (e.g. arable). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Herbicide incorporation by irrigation and tillage impact on runoff loss. (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Strickland, Timothy C; Bosch, David D; Webster, Theodore M


    Runoff from farm fields is a common source of herbicide residues in surface waters. Incorporation by irrigation has the potential to reduce herbicide runoff risks. To assess impacts, rainfall was simulated on plots located in a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) field in Georgia's Atlantic Coastal Plain region after pre-emergence application of metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-[(1S)-2-methoxy-1-methylethyl]-acetamide) and pendimethalin (N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitro-benzenamine). Runoff, sediment, and herbicide loss as function of strip tillage (ST) versus conventional tillage (CT) were compared with and without irrigation (12.5 mm) after application of an herbicide tank mixture. For the CT system, metolachlor runoff was reduced 2x and pendimethalin 1.2x when compared with the non-irrigated treatment. The difference in irrigated and non-irrigated metolachlor means was significant (P = 0.05). Irrigation reduced metolachlor runoff by 1.3x in the ST system, but there was a 1.4x increase for pendimethalin. Overall results indicated that irrigation incorporation reduces herbicide runoff with the greatest impact when CT is practiced and products like metolachlor, which have relatively low K(oc) and high water solubility, are used. The lower ST system response was likely due to a combination of spray interception and retention by the ST system cover crop mulch and higher ST soil organic carbon content and less total runoff. During the study, the measured K(oc) of both herbicides on runoff sediment was found to vary with tillage and irrigation after herbicide application. Generally, K(oc) was higher for ST sediment and when irrigation incorporation was used with the CT system. These results have significant implications for simulation model parametization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alves Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis A. Chev. is a tree species that has been increasing in Brazilian commercial planting. However, the lack of water and nutrition are great obstacles for crop production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of young mahogany plants submitted to drip irrigation and topdressing. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with three repetitions in subdivided plots. Treatments consisted of drippers: 1, 2 and 3plt-1; flows: 2, 4 and 8L h-1, and a treatment without irrigation. For topdressing, subplots levels were, as follows: 1 17.5 and 25.2; 2 35.1 and 50.1; 3 52.5 and 75.0; 4 70.0 and 100.2; and 5 87.5 and 125.1 g plant-1 N and K2O, respectively, divided into five bimonthly applications, which started in the 4th month after planting. Plant height, diameter at root collar and at breast height (DBH, and stem height were evaluated. Results showed statistically significant differences (P>0.05 between irrigated and non-irrigated plants. Mean plant height ranged (from 2 to 20 months in field from 0.33 to 3.25 and 2.67m for irrigated and non-irrigated plants, respectively. Mean stem height ranged from 0.23m to 0.87 and 0.71m for irrigated and non-irrigated plants, respectively. Thus, irrigation with 1 dripper per tree and flow of 2L h-1 was able to supply mahogany water requirements in the first two years in field. Trees have not responded to N and K topdressing at the beginning of the cycle.

  9. Changes of soil organic matter and microbial activity in irrigated and non irrigated olive groves (United States)

    Kavvadias, Victor; Papadopoulou, Maria; Theocharopoulos, Sideris; Vavoulidou, Evagelia; Doula, Maria; Reppas, Spiros


    The implementation of olive cultivation techniques in Greece has not been systematically tested under the prevailing Mediterranean conditions. A LIFE+ project was initiated (oLIVE-CLIMA; LIFE 11/ENV/000942) aiming to introduce new management practices in olive tree crops that lead to increased carbon dioxide uptake by plants as well as carbon sequestration from the atmosphere and reverse the trend of soil organic matter decline, erosion and desertification. This paper presents data on soil organic matter and microbial activity from a soil campaign in a pilot region in Greece, and particularly in the area of Chora, prefecture of Messinia, South west Peloponnese. The soil campaign took place during the period December 2012-February 2013. Twelve soil parcels of olive groves were selected (6 irrigated and 6 rainfed) and in each soil parcel six composite soil samples were taken from 0-10 cm depth at equal intervals along a straight line of the trunk of the tree to the middle of the distance from the nearest tree of the next tree series. The first three samples were under olive tree canopy. An additional composite sample was taken at depth of 10-40 cm. Soil samples were analyzed for soil physicochemical and biological properties. In this study results for total organic carbon (TOC), soil basal microbial respiration (BR), microbial biomass C (MB-C) from the region of Messinia, are presented. Organic matter was determined by dichromate oxidation. The microbial activity was measured by the amount of CO2 evolution, while microbial biomass C was determined by substrate-induced respiration, after the addition of glucose. The results showed considerable differences in TOC, BR and MB-C associated with the sampling position and soil depth. The higher TOC, BR and MB-C values, in most cases, were determined in samples taken from points under the canopy, but not close to the tree trunk compared to the sampling points outside the canopy. This indicates the positive effect of

  10. Temporospatial quantification of fluorescein-labeled sinonasal irrigation delivery. (United States)

    Bleier, Benjamin S; Debnath, Indranil; Harvey, Richard J; Schlosser, Rodney J


    Treatment of sinonasal disease is predicated on the delivery and retention of the agent at the desired location. Despite multiple distribution studies, there remains a need for a method capable quantifying not only the site and amount of agent deposition but the rate of clearance as well. Five patients underwent endoscopic image capture of 3 subsites over 15 minutes following fluorescein-dyed irrigation using a squeeze bottle, nasal saline spray, or nasal gel spray. Area and intensity staining were quantified using a graphics editing program. Total intensity scores were compared using a Student t test. The squeeze bottle was the only method demonstrating delivery to the oropharynx (37 ± 22 mm(2) ). The nasal gel resulted in the greatest coverage of the middle turbinate region (10 ± 15 mm(2) ) while the nasal saline spray (75 ± 31 mm(2) ) resulted in the greatest inferior turbinate coverage. No significant differences in clearance rates were found between delivery methods at any subsite. This method is capable of quantifying both the area and intensity of fluorescein deposition using a variety of delivery methods. While small variations in subsite coverage were noted, all methods resulted in significant internal valve deposition. Despite differences in delivery volume and viscosity, all methods resulted in similar rates of fluorescein clearance. Copyright © 2011 American Rhinologic Society-American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, LLC.

  11. Climate change and irrigation demand: Uncertainty and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A. Woznicki


    New hydrological insights for the region: Uncertainty in irrigation demand was found to increase moving from 2020–2039 to 2060–2079, with demand generally decreasing moving further into the future for corn and soybean. A shift in timing of peak irrigation demand and increases in temperature lead to corn yield reductions. However, soybean yield increased under these conditions. Finally, the adaptation strategy of planting earlier increased irrigation demand and water available for transpiration, while delaying planting resulted in demand decreases for both crops.

  12. Evaluation of antifungal efficacy of QMix 2in1 as a final irrigant: An in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 15, 2015 ... qualities of an ideal endodontic irrigant.[6] While no specific antifungal agent exists at present for the irrigation of infected root canals,[2] many endodontic irrigants have been used in infected root canals with antifungal efficacy.[2,7‑10]. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is an endodontic irrigant that has been ...

  13. Estimation of furrow irrigation sediment loss using an artificial neural network (United States)

    The area irrigated by furrow irrigation in the U.S. has been steadily decreasing but still represents about 20% of the total irrigated area in the U.S. Furrow irrigation sediment loss is a major water quality issue and a method for estimating sediment loss is needed to quantify the environmental imp...

  14. The phenology of malaria mosquitos in irrigated rice fields in Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E.; Takken, W.; Huibers, F.P.; Touré, Y.T.


    A field study was carried out in the large-scale rice irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali to investigate the relation between anopheline mosquito larval development and small-scale differences in irrigation practices, such as water level, irrigation application and irrigation frequency.

  15. Irrigation management using an expert system, soil water potentials, and vegetative indices for spatial applications (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems are irrigation systems that are capable of applying different water depths both in the direction of travel and along the length of the irrigation system. However, when compared to traditional irrigation systems, VRI systems require a higher level of management...

  16. 77 FR 13585 - Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting... (United States)


    ... Project would be located on the north pipe of the Three Sisters Irrigation District's Main Canal Pipeline... COMMISSION Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2012. d. Applicant: Three Sisters Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Three Sisters Irrigation...

  17. Effect of irrigation Interval on the Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during 2010 and 2011 dry seasons under irrigation at the Ajiwa Irrigation Site in Katsina State (Lat. 130 17' N and Long. 70 05' E) to study the effects of irrigation intervals on the yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Treatments consisted of four irrigation intervals (2, 4, 6 and 8 day) laid out in a ...

  18. Comparison of energy of irrigation regimes in sugar beet production in a semi-arid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topak, Ramazan; Sueheri, Sinan; Acar, Bilal [Department of Agricultural Structures and irrigation, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey)


    This study analyzed the effect of three levels of drip irrigation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production in the Middle Anatolian region of Turkey. Two deficit irrigation treatments 75% and 50% of measured soil water depletion were compared with a full irrigation control treatment. In this paper, root yield, NEY (net energy yield), EEP (efficiency of energy production) and EWUE (energy water use efficiency) were investigated. Energy consumption of irrigation was found to be about 60% of total energy input in sugar beet production under full and deficit irrigation treatments. It was found that sugar beet had the highest EEP value (6.29) under the partial deficit irrigation (representing 75% of full irrigation). However, it was observed that full and severe deficit irrigation (representing 50% of full irrigation) treatments had a lower value. Results of this study indicated that the partial deficit drip irrigation technique can be applied in sugar beet production. In practice, deficit irrigation technique can reduce irrigation water use up to 25% compared to full irrigation technique. In addition, partial deficit drip irrigation technique may save 11.2% of total energy inputs, 16.1% of irrigation energy inputs, 21.2% of total fuel use and 25% of fuel use in irrigation. (author)

  19. 25 CFR 171.210 - Where will BIA provide my irrigation service? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where will BIA provide my irrigation service? 171.210 Section 171.210 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Service § 171.210 Where will BIA provide my irrigation service? (a) We...

  20. 25 CFR 171.400 - Who is responsible for structures on a BIA irrigation project? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is responsible for structures on a BIA irrigation... WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Irrigation Facilities § 171.400 Who is responsible for structures on a BIA irrigation project? (a) We may build, operate, maintain, rehabilitate or remove...