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Sample records for program jamaica bay

  1. 33 CFR 117.795 - Jamaica Bay and Connecting Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jamaica Bay and Connecting Waterways. 117.795 Section 117.795 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.795 Jamaica Bay and...

  2. Flood Risk Mitigation for the Jamaica Bay Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, J.L.; De Boer, R.; Evers, G.A.; Kruis, M.C.; Van der Valk, K.

    2014-01-01

    Project Jamaica Bay is a response to superstorm Sandy, occurring in October, 2012. The storm was a disaster for New York City, causing around 50 billion US dollars of damage. Research shows that 75% of the expected annual dam-age in New York occurs around the Jamaica Bay area. Another problem that

  3. Gateway National Recreation Area, Jamaica Bay Unit : Jamaica Bay Greenway Missing Links Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    Based on both a field site reconnaissance and workshop, this study developed a conceptual plan for the location and design of bicyle facilites to complete a "missing link" of the Jamaica Bay through the Rockaway region of Brooklyn and Queens in New Y...

  4. Mapping resilience not risk: Turning the tide in New York City and Jamaica Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, A. S.; Sanderson, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Resilience in urban coastal areas is affected by actions at multiple levels from individuals to community groups to city, state and federal governments. At any level, actions can be a response to immediate hazards (e.g. flooding of coastal homes) or long-term drivers of change (e.g. sea level rise). Jamaica Bay, a highly urbanized estuary within New York City, exemplifies the Nation's coastal zone challenges. Prior to Hurricane Sandy, city, state, and federal governments had made the estuary a major focal point for habitat restoration, improvements to public access and outdoor recreation, and sustainable development. Sandy caused the highest flood level in the recorded history of New York City, eventually claiming 44 lives and costing over $19 billion. Electrical system failure caused four of NYCs wastewater pollution control plants to shutdown, discharging untreated sewage into Jamaica Bay. The Sea Level Rise Tool for Sandy Recovery (the Tool), a flood mapping tool developed by several government agencies including FEMA, NYC, and the Executive Branch, integrated science from the National Flood Insurance Program and the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC). While compound flooding hazards (stormwater plus coastal flooding) remain an important uncertainty, the Tool and subsequent NPCC mapping efforts provide sufficient evidence for science-based discourse around coastal flood risks in Jamaica Bay. But toward what outcome? Coastal flood risk reduction measures and other management actions are managed within existing regulatory frameworks. Disaster relief funds appropriated by Congress in the immediate aftermath of Sandy have provided critical resources to the Jamaica Bay region. However, the challenge now is to transition from the short-term response to long-term resilience planning, a challenge which requires new institutional capacity. This transition to resilience planning and implementation is not only critical in New York City, but in other coastal

  5. Growth and Survival of the American Oyster Crassostrea virginica in Jamaica Bay, New York

    OpenAIRE

    Sarinsky, Gary; Carroll, Margaret A; Nduka, Ebere; Catapane, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    Jamaica Bay is a major inlet opening to the Atlantic Ocean. It was abundant with oysters until early 1900's. Over-harvesting, pressure from predators, parasitic invasion and declining water quality often are cited as causes. Despite actions to arrest and reverse the pollution, oysters are not reestablished. We are studying factors relating to the rehabitation of Crassostrea virginica in Jamaica Bay to determine if the water quality and environmental conditions are suitable for their survival....

  6. Application of Computer-Aided Tomography (CT) Technology to Visually Compare Belowground Components of Salt Marshes in Jamaica Bay and Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using CT imaging, we found that rapidly deteriorating marshes in Jamaica Bay had significantly less belowground mass and abundance of coarse roots and rhizomes at depth (Jamaica Bay Estuary. In addition, the rhizome diameters and pea...

  7. Jamaica National Net-Billing Pilot Program Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stout, Sherry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Kimberly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-18

    This technical report discusses the effectiveness of the Jamaica Public Service Company Limited Net-Billing Pilot Program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed data from a wide range of stakeholders, conducted in-country research, and compared program elements to common interconnection practices to form programmatic recommendations for the Jamaica context. NREL finds that the net-billing pilot program has successfully contributed to the support of the emerging solar market in Jamaica with the interconnection of 80 systems under the program for a total of 1.38 megawatts (MW) at the time of original analysis.

  8. Application of decision science to resilience management in Jamaica Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell; Fuller, Angela K.; Johnson, Fred A.; Hare, M. P.; Stedman, Richard C.; Sanderson, E.W.; Solecki, W. D.; Waldman, J.R.; Paris, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the growing interest in management interventions designed to enhance the resilience of the Jamaica Bay socio-ecological system. Effective management, whether the focus is on managing biological processes or human behavior or (most likely) both, requires decision makers to anticipate how the managed system will respond to interventions (i.e., via predictions or projections). In systems characterized by many interacting components and high uncertainty, making probabilistic predictions is often difficult and requires careful thinking not only about system dynamics, but also about how management objectives are specified and the analytic method used to select the preferred action(s). Developing a clear statement of the problem(s) and articulation of management objectives is often best achieved by including input from managers, scientists and other stakeholders affected by the decision through a process of joint problem framing (Marcot and others 2012; Keeney and others 1990). Using a deliberate, coherent and transparent framework for deciding among management alternatives to best meet these objectives then ensures a greater likelihood for successful intervention. Decision science provides the theoretical and practical basis for developing this framework and applying decision analysis methods for making complex decisions under uncertainty and risk.

  9. Contribution of Cultural Eutrophication to Marsh Loss in Jamaica Bay (NY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of salt marsh area in the Jamaica Bay Estuary (NY) has accelerated in recent years, with loss rates as high as 45 acres per year. A contributing factor to this acceleration is likely cultural eutrophication due to over 6 decades of sewage effluent inputs. We examined marsh...

  10. Growth and Survival of the American Oyster Crassostrea virginica in Jamaica Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinsky, Gary; Carroll, Margaret A; Nduka, Ebere; Catapane, Edward J

    2005-01-01

    Jamaica Bay is a major inlet opening to the Atlantic Ocean. It was abundant with oysters until early 1900's. Over-harvesting, pressure from predators, parasitic invasion and declining water quality often are cited as causes. Despite actions to arrest and reverse the pollution, oysters are not reestablished. We are studying factors relating to the rehabitation of Crassostrea virginica in Jamaica Bay to determine if the water quality and environmental conditions are suitable for their survival. Oysters placed in Jamaica Bay grew well when housed in protective containers and growth was influenced by placement near the sediment as compared to the surface. Oysters placed 1 foot above the sediment grew larger that those suspended 1 foot below the surface. Water temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, conductivity, chlorophyll-a and dissolved O2 were taken to compare water quality at each site. To study growth and survival in a more natural condition, oyster seed and adults were placed just off the bottom in unprotected containers and photographed. After 1 year they are growing and surviving well and there has been evidence of reproduction. Thus far there are no serious signs of predation by crabs or starfish. The study shows that Jamaica Bay water quality is suitable for oyster growth under the various conditions of our experiments.

  11. Examination of Below-Ground Structure and Soil Respiration Rates of Stable and Deteriorating Salt Marshes in Jamaica Bay (NY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan imaging is currently being used to examine below-ground peat and root structure in cores collected from salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, part of the Gateway National Recreation Area (NY). CAT scans or Computer-Aided Tomography scans use X-ray equipment to produce multiple i...

  12. Submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes to Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Smith, D.

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that submarine groundwater discharge can be a significant source of terrestrially-derived nutrients to coastal waters as groundwater fluxes may be comparable to surface fluxes, especially where river flow is small or non-existent, and more attention is now being paid to the contribution of groundwater discharge to biogeochemical processes within the coastal zone. Due to the high temporal and spatial variability of groundwater discharge, quantification may be difficult and various methods have been used to estimate fluxes. The submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient fluxes to Discovery Bay, a small tropical embayment on the island of Jamaica, were investigated. Fluxes via submarine springs and seepage through bottom sediments were determined from direct flow measurements and chemical analysis of groundwater and coastal waters. The total groundwater discharge into the bay ranged from 13 to 67 x 103 m3 d-1. Discharge from submarine springs accounted for 70% of the total discharge during dry periods and was not affected by seasonal (rainfall-related) changes. After periods of heavy rainfall, seepage rates increased ten-fold and accounted for about 80% of the total discharge. Subterranean mixing of freshwater and marine water resulted in brackish (salinity ≥ 11) spring and seepage water. The nitrogen and phosphorus originating in the groundwater diluted conservatively within the bay and the average groundwater nutrient concentrations, predicted from dilution curves, were 97(±39) μM N and 0.76(±0.55) μM P. The highest nutrient fluxes to the bay (1200 mol N d-1 and 29 mol P d-1) occurred following heavy rainfall in the watershed. An extension of the study utilizing the naturally-occurring tracers Rn and Ra, to verify the groundwater discharge estimates, and the results of preliminary 222Rn surveys within the bay are also discussed.

  13. Hydraulic and sediment characteristics at the North Channel Bridge, Jamaica Bay, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubitz, W.W.; Wolcott, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Data were collected during the spring of 1984 in the vicinity of North Channel Bridge in Jamaica Bay, New York to define the hydraulic regime and the physical characteristics and chemical quality of bottom sediments. The data were used in a semiquantitative analysis to predict the effects of bridge replacement and the attendant resuspension of bottom sediments, on the hydraulics and quality of water and bottom sediments. The bay-bottom configuration at the bridge site was defined, and continuous tidal stage and tidal velocity data were collected for about a month. In addition, eight bottom-sediment samples were collected near the bridge and analyzed. Results of the hydraulic analysis show that the proposed bridge should not have any measurable effect on the net water transport at the bridge cross section. The sediment data indicate that bottom sediments are relatively unpolluted in the vicinity of the bridge. Seventy-five percent of the resuspended bottom sediments will probably settle within 186 m of the bridge during an average ebb tide. Metals and nutrients released from the sediments to the water column are expected to be diluted far below detection limits. The extra oxygen demand exerted by the resuspended bottom sediments is also expected to be far less than ambient biochemical oxygen demand of the water column. (USGS)

  14. Estuarine Shoreline Changes in Jamaica Bay, New York City: Implications for Management of an Urban National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, Rebecca; Connolly, James; Christiano, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Jamaica Bay portion of Gateway National Recreation Area, located next to highly urbanized New York City, faces many challenges to preserve and protect its natural, cultural, and recreational resources. To aid in the management of the park resources, detailed estuarine shoreline analyses of Jamaica Bay were undertaken using imagery taken in 1951, 1974, and 2006. A 15-class land use/land cover (LULC) classification scheme was created after doing an initial examination of the types of LULC in the 2006 orthoimagery and then applied in the analyses of the previous years. By quantifying how and where the shoreline has changed over the past 60 years, park managers can better assess the impact of management practices by comparing LULC of the shoreline within the park boundary to the LULC of the shoreline outside the park boundary before and after the park was created in 1972. Despite the heavy development of New York City and the trend for shoreline modification, the overall shoreline of Jamaica Bay has maintained large percentages of undeveloped vegetation and sandy beaches. Much of the LULC change has occurred in the creeks as a result of dredging and shape modification for residential and commercial uses. Park management has been effective in limiting the alteration of undeveloped shoreline although there have been significant changes in the relative percentages of sand and vegetated beaches between 1974 and 2006.

  15. Avian morbidity and mortality from botulism, aspergillosis, and salmonellosis at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, C.J.; Windingstad, R.M.; Siegfried, L.M.; Duncan, R.M.; Cook, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    During the summers of 1981 and 1982, studies were conducted at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, Long Island, New York, to determine whether annual water-level drawdowns used to create shorebird habitat also led to the occurrence of avian botulism (Clostridium botulinum type C). Low levels of morbidity and mortality from avian botulism occurred on the two ponds throughout both summers, but there was no apparent relationship between the occurrence or rates of botulism losses and drawdowns of the ponds. Botulism also occurred throughout both summers on other areas of the refuge. Botulinal toxin was found in fly larvae associated with avian carcasses, including birds that did not die from botulism. Toxin was not found in other samples of aquatic biota in the ponds, although it was demonstrated in a single sample of decomposing sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca) in Jamaica Bay. Aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) and salmonellosis (Salmonella spp.) were also frequently-diagnosed causes of morbidity and mortality. We believe that botulinal toxin present in carcasses of birds dying from botulism, or produced postmortem in birds dying from other causes, on the two ponds and other areas in Jamaica Bay were a major source of botulinal toxin. Toxin could be ingested by birds through direct scavenging on carcasses, or by consumption of toxic fly larvae associated with carcasses. Diligent carcass pickup at the two ponds is recommended to reduce mortality from avian botulism.

  16. Jamaica: a middle-aged program searches for new horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The advertising and marketing consultant for Jamaica's Commercial Distribution of Contraceptives (JCDC) program, states that the program has reached a state of maturity that has resulted in some inertia. Although still the leader among contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs in reaching the greatest percentage of its target market, product sales are no longer on an upswing, and retail outlets are not increasing in number. The project is hoping that the introduction of a new thin condom can help, but more than 1 new product may be needed to recapture momentum. The JCDC began in 1974 when Westinghouse Health Systems won a 3 year Agency for International Development (AID) award to create a Jamaican CSM program. Challenges facing the new social marketing project included: oral contraceptives (OCs) were sold only by prescription; most pharmacies were located in urban areas; many consumers associated condoms with prostitution and disease; and retailers were reluctant to carry contraceptives and ignorant of OC side effects. The 1st breakthrough came when Westinghouse obtained government permission to sell a project pill without prescription. After market research, project managers chose the name "Perle" for the JCDC's pill, manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday. "Panther" became the project's condom. Prices were set at US17 cents for a Panther 3-pack and 34 cents for a Perle cycle. Advertising messages appeared on television, radio, bus shelters, cinema screens, billboards, and point of purchase displays. By the end of the 1st year's sales, a soft goods manufacturer had asked permission to produce Panther T-shirts and a Reggae composer had popularized songs about the product. Such promotional tactics boosted sales of all contraceptives on the island. About 690,000 Panther condoms and 450,000 other brands were sold in 1976; 195,000 Perle cycles were purchased compared with 135,000 cycles for all other brands combined. By 1977, Westinghouse was reducing

  17. Salt Marsh Monitoring in Jamaica Bay, New York from 2003 to 2013: A Decade of Change from Restoration to Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Campbell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used Quickbird-2 and Worldview-2, high resolution satellite imagery, in a multi-temporal salt marsh mapping and change analysis of Jamaica Bay, New York. An object-based image analysis methodology was employed. The study seeks to understand both natural and anthropogenic changes caused by Hurricane Sandy and salt marsh restoration, respectively. The objectives of this study were to: (1 document salt marsh change in Jamaica Bay from 2003 to 2013; (2 determine the impact of Hurricane Sandy on salt marshes within Jamaica Bay; (3 evaluate this long term monitoring methodology; and (4 evaluate the use of multiple sensor derived classifications to conduct change analysis. The study determined changes from 2003 to 2008, 2008 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013 to better understand the impact of restoration and natural disturbances. The study found that 21 ha of salt marsh vegetation was lost from 2003 to 2013. From 2012 to 2013, restoration efforts resulted in an increase of 10.6 ha of salt marsh. Hurricane Sandy breached West Pond, a freshwater environment, causing 3.1 ha of freshwater wetland loss. The natural salt marsh showed a decreasing trend in loss. Larger salt marshes in 2012 tended to add vegetation in 2012–2013 (F4,6 = 13.93, p = 0.0357 and R2 = 0.90. The study provides important information for the resource management of Jamaica Bay.

  18. Numerical modeling of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and potential future hurricanes on spatial patterns of salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; Snedden, Gregg A.; Hartig, Ellen K.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Johnson, Cody L.; Orton, Philip M.

    2017-03-29

    The salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, managed by the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation and the Gateway National Recreation Area of the National Park Service, serve as a recreational outlet for New York City residents, mitigate flooding, and provide habitat for critical wildlife species. Hurricanes and extra-tropical storms have been recognized as one of the critical drivers of coastal wetland morphology due to their effects on hydrodynamics and sediment transport, deposition, and erosion processes. However, the magnitude and mechanisms of hurricane effects on sediment dynamics and associated coastal wetland morphology in the northeastern United States are poorly understood. In this study, the depth-averaged version of the Delft3D modeling suite, integrated with field measurements, was utilized to examine the effects of Hurricane Sandy and future potential hurricanes on salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City. Hurricane Sandy-induced wind, waves, storm surge, water circulation, sediment transport, deposition, and erosion were simulated by using the modeling system in which vegetation effects on flow resistance, surge reduction, wave attenuation, and sedimentation were also incorporated. Observed marsh elevation change and accretion from a rod surface elevation table and feldspar marker horizons and cesium-137- and lead-210-derived long-term accretion rates were used to calibrate and validate the wind-waves-surge-sediment transport-morphology coupled model.The model results (storm surge, waves, and marsh deposition and erosion) agreed well with field measurements. The validated modeling system was then used to detect salt marsh morphological change due to Hurricane Sandy across the entire Jamaica Bay over the short-term (for example, 4 days and 1 year) and long-term (for example, 5 and 10 years). Because Hurricanes Sandy (2012) and Irene (2011) were two large and destructive tropical cyclones which hit the northeast coast, the validated coupled

  19. Patterns of sexual recruitment of acroporid coral populations on the West Fore Reef at Discovery Bay,Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J Quinn

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral recruitment was examined on terracotta tiles deployed for four six-month periods between March 2001 and April 2003 on the West Fore Reef at Discovery Bay,Jamaica.During each sampling period, four tiles were deployed on each of two arrays at six depths ranging from 3 m to 33 m.Only three Acropora spat recruited to the tiles over the sampling period.The Acropora spat recruited during only one of the four six-month sampling periods and at only one depth,3m.That represents a density of 8 spat m-2 at 3 m depth for one six-month sampling period.Acropora recruitment represented El reclutamiento de corales fue estudiado utilizando placas de cerámica colocadas en cuatro períodos de seis meses,entre marzo de 2001 y abril de 2003,en el Arrecife Frontal Oeste en Discovery Bay,Jamaica.Durante cada período de muestreo se colocaron dos grupos de cuatro placas a seis profundidades,en un ámbito de 3-33 m.Se encontraron tres reclutas de Acropora durante todo el estudio, únicamente a 3 m de profundidad y durante uno de los cuatro períodos.Esto representa una densidad de 8 reclutas m-2 a 3 m,para un semestre de muestreo.Acropora representó <1%del total de reclutas de las placas colocadas a 3 m durante los cuatro períodos de muestreo.Se encontró una densidad baja de acropóridos en el Arrecife Frontal Oeste. Únicamente se encontró una colonia de Acropora palmata durante los censos de cobertura coralina y densidad realizados a profundidades de 3,9,14 y 19 m.Considerando la escasez de colonias de acropóridos y el asentamiento infrecuente de reclutas en el Arrecife Frontal Oeste,la recuperación de la abundancia histórica de A.palmata y A. cervicornis,es poco probable a corto plazo.

  20. Profiles of Pre-Service Teacher Education: An Investigation into the Nature of Selected Exemplary Programs in Jamaica and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sherwood, Heather

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative multi-case study investigated three exemplary pre-service teacher education programs in Jamaica and Michigan in order to provide an account of how they are structured in different contexts of tertiary institutions and, to identify how they ensure that their graduates are prepared to function effectively in today's schools. Five…

  1. History as a guide to the future for cities: coastal storms and Jamaica Bay in New York City as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E. W.; Orton, P. M.; Giampieri, M.; Spagnoli, C.

    2015-12-01

    History can provide a guide to the future by revealing the physical climatic and geomorphological dynamics with which cities must contend. We used historical maps from the U.S. Coast Survey and the Stevens Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model (sECOM) to simulate how and where coastal flooding from storm surge affected the Jamaica Bay region of southeastern New York City at different points in time. This area, which houses approximately 1.2 million people today and the John F. Kennedy International Airport, was heavily impacted by coastal flooding during Hurricane Sandy. Historical analysis showed that the Rockaway Peninsula was an active barrier island system up until the early twentieth century, growing approximately 70 meters per year to the west between 1844 - 1891. Older historical maps made by American and European cartographers from 1524 - 1844 suggest that Jamaica Bay may have been a much more open system, with few or no interior marsh islands, at the time of European discovery. From these studies, we constructed digital terrain models and land cover maps for two historical periods: ca. 1870s and ca. 1609, and today. Storm simulations of hurricanes over the historical and present-day landscapes showed how a smaller inlet, shallower channel depths, and larger floodplains all can reduce the height of flooding inside the bay, and suggested a series of leverage experiments that test the efficacy of present-day green infrastructure interventions to lessen peak flood heights while maintaining tidal flushing. By combining history, modelling, and policy-relevant scenarios, we believe we have developed a reshreshing and accessible toolkit for policymakers thinking about resilience measures in coastal cities like New York.

  2. Evaluation of a sexuality education program for young adolescents in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggleston Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite their increasing numbers, few of the sexuality education and pregnancy prevention programs in developing countries have been evaluated. This study, conducted in 1995-1997, assesses the impact of a school-based sexuality education program, the Grade 7 Project, on 945 Jamaican seventh graders (aged 11-14 and their initiation of sexual activity and use of contraception at first intercourse, as well as the knowledge and attitudes that influence their behaviors. Using a quasi-experimental design, the study measured the effects of the Grade 7 Project when the nine-month intervention was completed (short term and one year after that (long term. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the project had no effect on initiation of sexual activity, but it had a positive short-term impact on use of contraception at first intercourse (P = .08; adolescents in the intervention group were more than twice as likely to use contraception. The project also had a positive short-term influence on several aspects of the adolescents' knowledge of and attitudes about sexuality and pregnancy. The modest impact of the Grade 7 Project is encouraging, as school-based sexuality education programs of limited duration rarely have a long-term impact. Moreover, competing socioeconomic and cultural forces in Jamaica encourage early sexuality and parenthood among adolescents. The use of more participatory teaching methods and smaller class sizes might strengthen the Grade 7 Project and enhance its impact.

  3. Status of the coral reefs in Foul and Folly Bays, Morant Wetlands, south-eastern Jamaica, with emphasis on corals and macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise A. Chin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Foul and Folly Bays are located within the Morant Wetlands near the eastern tip of Jamaica. They have never been investigated but were believed to be important for larval productivity because of the extent of benthic habitats, absence of major coastal developments and remote location. The study was aimed at providing baseline data on the spatial distribution and status of corals and associated benthos. We investigated coral reefs and associated areas with phototransects at eight stations analysed with the Coral Point Count software. Most areas were dominated by algae, evidence of a phase shift from coral to algal reefs. Coral cover varied significantly across the bays (ANOVA, p= 0.0342 with a maximum of 27.03% at the deepest station and a mean of 5.6% at all other stations combined. Mean cover of macroalgae was 39% and varied significantly across stations (α= 0.05, F= 7.472, p= 0.005. The deepest station also had the highest percentage of calcareous algae and live coral while dead coral with algae (DCA was a significant variable across all other stations (ANOVA, p<0.001. Gorgonians (ANOVA, p<0.001, sponges and urchins were also assessed. Diadema antillarum was not observed at any station. Overall the status of the reefs was poor, probably due to overfishing, absence of urchins and the resultant algal proliferation.

  4. Blue Carbon Accumulation, Paleoecology, Human Impact, and Sea Level History of Yellow Bar and JoCo Marshes, Jamaica Bay, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Nichols, J. E.; Kenna, T. C.; Lamb, A.; Taylor, M.; Reza, M.; O'Connor, J.; Kovari, S.; Chang, C.; Reguyal, S.; Stern-Protz, S.

    2016-12-01

    Yellow Bar and JoCo represent two significant marshes in Jamaica Bay National Wildlife Refuge in the lower Hudson Estuary. They are regional remnant marshes, and serve as nurseries for fish, coastal buffers in storms, and exceptional habitat for birds. In addition, they provide valuable paleoenvironmental archives. Through the last decade, we have focused field efforts on assessing the depths of the marshes through a series of probe transects and the acquisition of sediment cores upon which we utilize X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analysis along with pollen, plant and foraminifera macrofossil analysis, and AMS C-14 dating of identified macrofossils. A major decline in inorganic supply to the marshes in recent centuries is evident in cores that span marsh initiation. Coupling carbon accumulation with regional and local shifts in vegetation and rates of sea level rise are presented along with the history of human impacts including heavy metals. Young investigators from secondary schools in New York City participated in much of the fieldwork as part of the NASA/GISS NYC Research Initiative.

  5. Genet and reef position effects in out-planting of nursery-grown Acropora cervicornis (Scleractinia:Acroporidae in Montego Bay, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Ross

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The reef-building coral Acropora cervicornis was a dominant ecosystem element on the Caribbean reef until the 1980s, when it declined by some 97% due primarily to anthropogenic ecosystem changes and disease. This branching species expanded its colony footprint and achieved local dominance largely through fragmentation and regrowth, thus is suited to nursery culture towards restoration. In this experiment, fragments of Acropora cervicornis of four lineages or genets were followed and measured for growth and health over 12 months in 2006 and 2007 on buoyant drop-loop line nurseries at one shallow and one deep fore-reef site in Montego Bay, Jamaica. Sixty-five of these corals were then out-planted to wild reef sites of similar depth and condition to their respective nurseries and monitored photographically for 11 months through 2007 and 2008. A period of rapid death was seen in the out-planted material at both sites over the first four months, followed by a period of relative stability or recuperation. Hermodice carunculata predation was the primary problem in the shallow fore-reef, and was combined with a banding syndrome at the deeper site. This syndrome was noted in the samples prior to planting, during a one week storage period on the seafloor. Continued slow decline occurred in the subsequent seven months in the shallow fore-reef site; however, regrowth was noted in the deeper site in the remaining material. Including these losses, final total live coral length was more than fourfold greater than the initial wild harvest: a net increase through multi-stage propagative restoration or coral gardening. Returns were noted particularly in the faster-growing genets of the nursery and larger planted corals tended to retain more material at eleven months, suggesting that propagative restoration programmes invest in stronger genets and larger corals. Adaptive management and maintenance gardening of the planted material and reef would likely have

  6. Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region. CIMS is an organized, distributed library of information and software tools designed to increase basin-wide public access to Chesapeake Bay information. The information delivered by CIMS includes technical and public information, educational material, environmental indicators, policy documents, and scientific data. Through the use of relational databases, web-based programming, and web-based GIS a large number of Internet resources have been established. These resources include multiple distributed on-line databases, on-demand graphing and mapping of environmental data, and geographic searching tools for environmental information. Baseline monitoring data, summarized data and environmental indicators that document ecosystem status and trends, confirm linkages between water quality, habitat quality and abundance, and the distribution and integrity of biological populations are also available. One of the major features of the CIMS network is the Chesapeake Bay Program's Data Hub, providing users access to a suite of long- term water quality and living resources databases. Chesapeake Bay mainstem and tidal tributary water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, toxics, plankton, and fluorescence data can be obtained for a network of over 800 monitoring stations.

  7. Evaluating the potential of natural reproduction and artificial techniques to increase Acropora cervicornis populations at Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J Quinn

    2006-12-01

    han vuelto poco comunes en los arrecifes de la costa norte de Jamaica debido a numerosos factores. En muchos arrecifes, las algas han tomado su lugar y el resultado es la pérdida de hábitat para muchas especies de peces e invertebrados y la pérdida de atractivo de los arrecifes, que tienen mucho menos peces. Estos arrecifes parecen ser excelentes candidatos para restauración de corales. Sin embargo, antes de emprender un esfuerzo de restauración, debe examinarse el potencial de los corales para regenerarse naturalmente, ya que si la población tiene la capacidad de recobrarse por sus propios medios, la restauración de arrecifes se vuelve innecesaria. Nosotros observamos que la tasa de colonización por adherencia a un sustrato duro de Acropora en el Caribe, es más baja que la de muchas otras familias de corales del Caribe y mucho menor que la de Acropora en el Pacífico sur. Un muy bajo porcentaje de colonias de A. cervicornis poseía gametos en desarrollo y estaba saludable en julio de 2005, un mes antes del desove. Al parecer, la supervivencia a largo plazo de las poblaciones remanentes de A. cervicornis está amenazada a menos que se restaure una reproducción sexual exitosa. Se utilizaron varias técnicas para probar los métodos de transplante para restaurar las poblaciones de A. cervicornis. La supervivencia promedio y la tasa de crecimiento resultantes de una de las técnicas fue de >75% y de casi 250% por año, respectivamente. Al trabajar con agentes de hoteles, grupos ambientalistas y pescadores locales, estamos tratando de reintroducir A. cervicornis en lugares donde anteriormente existía e incrementar la biomasa del coral y la complejidad de estos sitios. Los arrecifes con mayores biomasas de A. cervicornis tienen también mayores poblaciones de peces comestibles. Si se protegen estos arrecifes en restauración, prevemos que habrá un incremento de peces comestibles, no sólo en los arrecifes restaurados, sino también en los adyacentes. Más a

  8. Jamaica on Early Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Columbus sighted Jamaica during his second voyage and was marooned there for more than a year during his fourth. The succession of early maps of Jamaica betrays its slow development and its unimportance to early colonizers. Modern tourism is the elusive "gold" which the Spanish fortune hunters did not find. (CS)

  9. BEMRP and Jamaica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Ritter

    2008-01-01

    While it wasn't quite as good as actually going to Jamaica, visiting with Jamaican forest managers on the Bitterroot was still fun. In late September 2007, the Northern Region hosted a visit from Marilyn Headley - Conservator of Forests, Keith Porter - Senior Director (both from the Forestry Department) and Lorna Jones - Lee from the Cabinet Office in Jamaica;...

  10. Florida Bay Science Program: a Synthesis of Research on Florida Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, John; Nuttle, William

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the progress made toward the objectives established in the Strategic Plan revised in 1997 for the agencies cooperating in the program. These objectives are expressed as five questions that organized the research on the Florida Bay ecosystem: Ecosystem History What was the Florida Bay ecosystem like 50, 100, and 150 years ago? Question 1—Physical Processes How and at what rates do storms, changing freshwater flows, sea level rise, and local evaporatio...

  11. Jamaica SME Finance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    Almost all formal small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Jamaica have access to checking or saving accounts, but the financial sector is scarcely used to finance their investments. The lack of funding for the SME sector, or its high cost, has a negative impact on entrepreneurship and business profitability and stability through the business life-cycle, having a particularly negative effect...

  12. AutoBayes Program Synthesis System System Internals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann Martin

    2011-01-01

    This lecture combines the theoretical background of schema based program synthesis with the hands-on study of a powerful, open-source program synthesis system (Auto-Bayes). Schema-based program synthesis is a popular approach toward program synthesis. The lecture will provide an introduction into this topic and discuss how this technology can be used to generate customized algorithms. The synthesis of advanced numerical algorithms requires the availability of a powerful symbolic (algebra) system. Its task is to symbolically solve equations, simplify expressions, or to symbolically calculate derivatives (among others) such that the synthesized algorithms become as efficient as possible. We will discuss the use and importance of the symbolic system for synthesis. Any synthesis system is a large and complex piece of code. In this lecture, we will study Autobayes in detail. AutoBayes has been developed at NASA Ames and has been made open source. It takes a compact statistical specification and generates a customized data analysis algorithm (in C/C++) from it. AutoBayes is written in SWI Prolog and many concepts from rewriting, logic, functional, and symbolic programming. We will discuss the system architecture, the schema libary and the extensive support infra-structure. Practical hands-on experiments and exercises will enable the student to get insight into a realistic program synthesis system and provides knowledge to use, modify, and extend Autobayes.

  13. The results of long term coral reef monitoring at three locations in Jamaica: Monkey Island, “Gorgo City” and Southeast Cay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Creary Ford

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The global and regional impacts of climate change are having devastating consequences on the coral reef ecosystems of the Caribbean. Long term monitoring are important tool for assessing reef health. Monitoring was established in 2000 in the Bahamas, Belize and Jamaica. Following the pilot project, the program was institutionalized in Jamaica and monitoring was conducted on eight occasions from 2000 to 2010. Monkey Island and “Gorgo City” near Discovery Bay (both on the north coast and Southeast Cay at Port Royal on the south coast were selected. Macroalgae dominated the benthic substrate. Monkey Island and “Gorgo City” had the highest coral cover. Porites astreoides, Montastraea spp., Porites porities, Siderastrea siderea, and Agaricia agaricites were the most common species. Data from this programme have been used in local and regional coral reef assessment and management initiatives.

  14. Epidemiology of Chikungunya fever outbreak in Western Jamaica during July–December 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham PN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phuong N Pham,1 LaQueena T Williams,1 Uduak Obot,1 Luz A Padilla,1 Maung Aung,2 Tomi F Akinyemiju,1 April P Carson,1 Pauline E Jolly1 1Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Epidemiology Unit, Western Regional Health Authority, Ministry of Health, Montego Bay, Jamaica Objective: Our study describes the 2014 Chikungunya outbreak in Western Jamaica in terms of geographic distribution and trend of the outbreak over time, and evaluates clinical symptoms of the disease based on pre-existing conditions.Methods: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 609 clinically defined ­Chikungunya virus (CHIKV fever cases that occurred in the four parishes of the Western Regional Health Authority of Jamaica from July 2014 to December 2014. Cases were not confirmed by laboratory tests but met clinical and epidemiological criteria of CHIKV fever.Results: Our results show a propagated spread of CHIKV fever during the outbreak period with the peak at the end of October. Main urban cities, such as Montego Bay and Lucea, were identified as places that had high numbers of cases. Fever and arthralgia were the two most common clinical symptoms in CHIKV patients. Although a majority (80% of infants aged <2 years had up to four symptoms (80%, the percentage of infants with higher numbers of symptoms (9–10 was higher than in older age groups. However, back pain was found to occur significantly more in older patients. Those with arthritis as a pre-existing condition were more likely to experience headache, asthenia, back pain, and periarticular edema.Conclusion: These findings can help public health officials develop more effective programs to prevent the spread of CHIKV outbreaks by focusing on crowded urban cities. The findings indicate that those who are likely to develop a higher number of symptoms, such as young infants and people with pre-existing conditions, such as arthritis, should be more closely

  15. Instructional Collaboration with Rural Educators in Jamaica: Lessons Learned from an International Interdisciplinary Consultation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stacy A. S.; Staulters, Merry L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary to high school student population in Jamaica has become more academically diverse, and schools are experiencing the pressures of implementing reform programs without adequate financial and professional development support. The schools facing the greatest challenges and needs in Jamaica are often those in the rural areas. Researchers…

  16. Investigating gender violence in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiring, Fred

    2014-01-01

    As Jamaica moves through implementation of their National Policy on Gender Equality and develops harassment legislation, this article attempts to investigate current levels and trends of gender-based violence in Jamaica. All analyses make use of existing data and data formats in developing performance indicators that illustrate the current state of gender violence in Jamaica. The analyses provide a baseline for the future assessment and comparison with internationally accepted gender-based violence indicators. All source data has been included to facilitate comparisons and discussions regarding related levels and trends of violence as well as addressing performance indicator effectiveness.

  17. Achieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Olabode ABDULKADRI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ieving the Renewable Energy Target for Jamaica Abstract: The high cost of energy in Jamaica, one of the highest in the Caribbean region, is usually cited as a hindrance to industrial development and efficiency, especially in the manufacturing sector. High energy cost is also considered to be a national energy security issue and the government is taking steps to ensure adequate supply of energy at affordable prices. In the current National Development Plan, the government has set a target for renewable energy sources to supply 20% of the country's energy need by the year 2030. Using a linear programing model of energy planning, we examine how realistically this target could be achieved. Our findings indicate that the 20% renewable energy target is technically achievable with the optimal plan showing a mixture of wind power, hydropower and bagasse power but no solar power. However, when the timeline for investment in new generating capacities that will ensure the attainment of the target is considered, it becomes highly improbable that the target will be met. This study fills the gap that exists in evidence-based analysis of energy policy in Jamaica.

  18. Return migration to Jamaica and its development potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-hope, E

    1999-01-01

    The return of migrants to Jamaica is closely associated with the persistence of the transnational household, which is established between the family members abroad and those who remain in Jamaica. The strength of transnational linkages is strongly determined by the manner and purpose of migration, by whether the migration involves an individual or a family, and the extent of the migrant's obligations in compensation for the neglect of responsibilities during his or her absence. Remittances precede, accompany, and follow the return of migrants. There was a consistent increase in remittances during the 1990s; they increased in revenue from US$183.3 million in 1991 to US$668.7 million in 1997. Quantitative statistics on return migration to Jamaica have only been gathered officially since 1992. Data showed a steady increase in the volume of return migration from 1992 to 1997. The largest numbers of returning residents were recorded in 1993 (2493) and in 1994 (2417). The majority of the migrants came from the US followed by the UK. A smaller percentage of return migrants came from Canada and other locations, chiefly Caribbean countries. Seeing potential in the Jamaican overseas community, the Government of Jamaica has established programs, such as the Return of Talent program, to encourage the return of its nationals. Two factors have had an impact on return migration to Jamaica: 1) the characteristics of the migrants in terms of skill level, experience, and attitudes and 2) the social and economic condition of the country itself.

  19. Anemia in pregnancy in Western Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saidah Wright,1 Dominique Earland,1 Swati Sakhuja,1 Anna Junkins,1 Sarah Franklin,1 Luz Padilla,1 Maung Aung,2 Pauline E Jolly1 1Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Western Region Health Authority, Cornwall Regional Hospital, Ministry of Health, Montego Bay, Jamaica Background: Anemia is one of the most prevalent problems in pregnancy. In 2011, 29.9% of all pregnant women in Jamaica were diagnosed with anemia.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of anemia in pregnancy in Western Jamaica.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 mothers attending post-natal clinics in Western Jamaica. A questionnaire was administered to the mothers, and an abstraction form was used to collect clinical data from the mothers’ records.Results: The prevalence of anemia among the women was 37.6%. Younger mothers (aged 18–24 years were more likely to be anemic compared to those ≥35 years (odds ratio [OR]: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.07–11.06. Mothers who reported not always washing their hands after using the toilet were almost 10 times more likely to be anemic (OR: 9.7, 95% CI: 1.72–54.78 compared to those who reported always washing their hands. Mothers who attended a public facility for antenatal care were 2.3 times more likely to be anemic (OR: 2.31, 95% CI: 1.03–5.18 compared to those who obtained care at a private facility, and mothers who reported being told that they were anemic by a health care provider (HCP were almost six times more likely to be anemic compared with those who were not told (OR: 5.58, 95% CI: 1.73–17.93.Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that early identification and treatment of anemia, especially among younger pregnant women, should be a priority. HCP should ensure that women understand the need to be cured of their anemia and to adhere to preventive hygienic practices. Keywords

  20. Fishery Management Program Progress Report: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary of fishery biologist's visit to Back Bay to remove carp from impoundments at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge.

  1. FY 2016 Grant Announcement: FY 2016 Technical Analysis and Programmatic Evaluation Support to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office is announcing a Request for Proposals for applicants to provide the Chesapeake Bay Program partners with a proposal(s) for providing technical analysis and programmatic evaluation

  2. The War Against Generational Poverty: A Comparative Study of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs in Brazil, Chile, and Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    integrating the extremely poor and indigent , who it was discovered were not receiving intended cash from the state, into the national social welfare... indigent , and its ability to supply social services as demanded by the population.25 In a counter to generally positive evaluations of Solidario, Silvia...designed for a small part of the population, namely the indigent . Its relatively small size means that the program can take a more novel approach to

  3. A Descriptive Exploration of Practicum Supervision in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupart, Yvette V.

    2010-01-01

    A marked increase in the number counseling programs in Jamaica and the concomitant need for practicum supervision warrants an exploration of the practice of supervision within the context. Besides, the multicultural literature within counseling supervision focuses predominantly on diverse identities within the United States and other developed…

  4. Interventions to prevent and control food-borne diseases associated with a reduction in traveler's diarrhea in tourists to Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, David V M; Walters, Christine; Dockery-Brown, Cheryl; McNab, André; Ashley, Deanna E C

    2004-01-01

    In 1996 a study found that approximately one in four tourists to Jamaica were affected with traveler's diarrhea (TD) during their stay. That year the Ministry of Health initiated a program for the prevention and control of TD. The aim of this ongoing program was to reduce attack rates of TD from 25% to 12% over a 5-year period by improving the environmental health and food safety standards of hotels. Hotel-based surveillance procedures for TD were implemented in sentinel hotels in Negril and Montego Bay in 1996, Ocho Rios in 1997, and Kingston in 1999. A structured program provided training and technical assistance to nurses, food and beverage staff, and environmental sanitation personnel in the implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles for monitoring food safety standards. The impact of interventions on TD was assessed in a survey of tourists departing from the international airport in Montego Bay in 1997-1998 and from the international airport in Kingston in 1999-2000. The impact of the training and technical assistance program on food safety standards and practices was assessed in hotels in Ocho Rios as of 1998 and in Kingston from 1999. At the end of May 2002, TD incidence rates were 72% lower than in 1996, when the Ministry of Health initiated its program for the prevention and control of TD. Both hotel surveillance data and airport surveillance data suggest that the vast majority of travelers to Kingston and southern regions are not afflicted with TD during their stay. The training and technical assistance program improved compliance to food safety standards over time. Interventions to prevent and control TD in visitors to Jamaica are positively associated with a reduction in TD in the visitor population and improvements in food safety standards and practices in hotels.

  5. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Biscayne Bay, Florida (1995-1996) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The toxicity of sediments in Biscayne Bay and many adjoining tributaries was determined as part of a bioeffects assessments program managed by NOAA's National Status...

  6. Annual Marsh and Water Management Program: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Marsh and water management activities have been conducted for nearly thirty years at Back Bay NWR. Annual programs were submitted for many years. In the early 1970's...

  7. Chesapeake Bay coordinated split sample program annual report, 1990-1991: Analytical methods and quality assurance workgroup of the Chesapeake Bay program monitoring subcommittee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a federal-state partnership with a goal of restoring the Chesapeake Bay. Its ambient water quality monitoring programs, started in 1984, sample over 150 monitoring stations once or twice a month a month. Due to the size of the Bay watershed (64,000 square miles) and the cooperative nature of the CBP, these monitoring programs involve 10 different analytical laboratories. The Chesapeake Bay Coordinated Split Sample Program (CSSP), initialed in 1988, assesses the comparability of the water quality results from these laboratories. The report summarizes CSSP results for 1990 and 1991, its second and third full years of operation. The CSSP has two main objectives: identifying parameters with low inter-organization agreement, and estimating measurement system variability. The identification of parmeters with low agreement is used as part of the overall Quality Assurance program. Laboratory and program personnel use the information to investigate possible causes of the differences, and take action to increase agreement if possible. Later CSSP results will document any improvements in inter-organization agreement. The variability estimates are most useful to data analysts and modelers who need confidence estimates for monitoring data.

  8. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - San Francisco Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the San Francisco Bay...

  9. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Kachemak Bay Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Kachemak Bay system in...

  10. Shallow water sponges of Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Soest, van Rob W.M.

    1998-01-01

    An annotated comprehensive list is provided of all shallow-water sponges (down to 60 m) recently collected and previously recorded from Jamaica. Five new species are described, Plakina jamaicensis, Melophlus ruber, Agelas repens, Stylissa caribica and Hyrtios tubulatus, two of which belong to genera

  11. Family planning in the workplace in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    The Jamaica Family Planning Association started holding presentations and discussions in the workplace in January 1986, now reaching 8000 people in 32 companies. The firms are primarily manufacturers (21) and hotels(7), but also include publishing, construction, printing and supermarket businessess. In these companies as well as many of the 480 members of the Jamaica Chamber of Commerce, employees are usually women of reproductive age who cannot afford to take time off to attend a clinic. There is a great demand for information and discussion on sexually transmitted diseases and clarification of the contraindications of various contraceptive methods. At the end of the discussions, educators offer pills, condoms and neo-sampoon, and may refer people for clinical services. Almost new acceptors have been recruited. The success of the project depends heavily on cooperation of management, supervisors and union representatives. In some cases union representives or company nurses act as distributors of contraceptives. This project has been so successful that some companies expressed an interest in participating in the Associations's resource development program.

  12. Gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalor, G.C.; Robotham, H. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica)); Miller, J.M.; Simpson, P.R. (British Geological Survey, Keyworth (UK))

    The results of a total gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica, carried out with car-borne instrumentation, are presented and the data compared with the contents of potassium, thorium and uranium in rocks and in surface (soil, stream-sediment, pan concentrate and water) samples obtained at six sites selected to be representative of the principal rock types and surface environments of Jamaica. The work formed part of an orientation study for a regional geochemical survey of the CARICOM countries of the Caribbean. The initial results indicate that enhanced gamma activity is correlated with enrichment in uranium and thorium, but not potassium, in terra rossa soils and/or bauxite deposits in limestone. Elsewhere, gamma levels are increased on the Above Rocks Cretaceous basement Inlier, where they correlate generally with the presence of volcanogenic sediments and a granodiorite intrusion. The lowest radioactivity was recorded in the vicinity of ultrabasic rocks in the Blue Mountains Inlier. (author).

  13. Enhancing Political Participation in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd George Waller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation through political talk appears to be shifting to the online public sphere in many parts of the world. Many attribute this shift to online social networks such as Facebook. Emerging research seem to suggest that this may be a cure for the problem of political apathy among the youth. This study explores such a possibility in Jamaica. In all, 752 youth ages 15 to 24 were surveyed to ascertain whether Facebook encourages political talk among this age cohort, and what if any are the primary factors that discourage this practice. The findings suggest that (a Facebook is an extension of offline political talk among the civically engaged and politically charged youth of Jamaica; (b Facebook does not substantively encourage political talk among the politically apathetic Jamaican youth; and (c fear of political victimization is the primary factor that discourages many Jamaican youth to engage in political talk on Facebook.

  14. A Constraint Programming model for fast optimal stowage of container vessel bays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado, Alberto; Jensen, Rune Møller; Janstrup, Kira

    2012-01-01

    planning phase that distributes the containers to bay sections and a slot planning phase that assigns containers of each bay section to slots. In this paper, we focus on the slot planning phase of this approach and present a Constraint Programming and Integer Programming model for stowing a set......Container vessel stowage planning is a hard combinatorial optimization problem with both high economic and environmental impact. We have developed an approach that often is able to generate near-optimal plans for large container vessels within a few minutes. It decomposes the problem into a master...... of containers in a single bay section. This so-called slot planning problem is NP-hard and often involves stowing several hundred containers. Using state-of-the-art constraint solvers and modeling techniques, however, we were able to solve 90% of 236 real instances from our industrial collaborator to optimality...

  15. TRAMIL ethnomedicinal survey in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picking, D; Delgoda, R; Younger, N; Germosén-Robineau, L; Boulogne, I; Mitchell, S

    2015-07-01

    A survey was undertaken in Jamaica to document medicinal plants frequently used in the treatment or prophylaxis of illness and trends in their use, following the methodology established by the TRAMIL network. TRAMIL, a Caribbean-wide applied research programme, scientifically evaluates and documents the efficacy and safety of medicinal plant remedies used for primary health care. Initial results from this survey, on an aspect of safety, focusing on the concomitant use and prevalence of medicinal plant use in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in Jamaica, were published in an earlier paper in 2011. This paper now reports survey results on the ethnobotanical use of medicinal plants by Jamaicans. A survey using a structured and modified TRAMIL questionnaire was administered to 407 adults selected randomly from systematically selected households within randomly selected clusters. The clusters were selected from each of the three areas that were purposefully selected. Respondents identified their use of 107 botanically identified medicinal plants distributed in 51 plant families to treat illnesses or maintain health in the previous twelve months. Fourteen plants, with significant use equal to or greater than 20% for a specified health issue were shortlisted, representing Jamaica׳s first submission to the TRAMIL database. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Rice Bitters) was reported as a plant remedy with significant use for the first time in a TRAMIL survey. Informant consensus factor (ICF) values were high for a number of health issues such as mental health (nerves, insomnia, etc.), respiratory system (cold/flu/cough etc.) and for health maintenance with tonics (washout and blood cleanse), indicating strong cultural coherence in medicinal plant selection for these categories. Forty two per cent (113/270) of medicinal plant users utilised mixtures, combining more than one plant. Leaf material was the most commonly used plant part (69%), with fresh material (98

  16. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Jamaica is among the Caribbean islands that Columbus claimed for Spain. In response to its rich diversity of peoples: Europeans, Asians, Chinese, Indians and Africans, the motto of Jamaica is: Out of Many, One People."Jamaican music is as varied as the people who inhabit the island... [M]uch folk music retains features and functions of black African music, blended with elements of European (primarily British music" (Lewin & Gordon, 2007-2011. Jamaican musical genres, such as ska, rocksteady, reggae, and dancehall, are popular and influential internationally.The classical music tradition in Jamaica dates back to the 18th century.

  17. Sexuality among fathers of newborns in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Peter B; Reece, Jody-Ann; Coore-Desai, Charlene; Dinnall-Johnson, Twana; Pellington, Sydonnie; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background While a growing body of research has addressed pregnancy and postpartum impacts on female sexuality, relatively little work has been focused upon men. A few studies suggest that a fraction of men report decreases in libido during a partner?s pregnancy and/or postpartum, with alterations in men?s sexual behavior also commonly aligning with those of a partner. Here, we investigate sexuality among fathers of newborn children in Jamaica. In Jamaica, as elsewhere in the Caribbean, relat...

  18. Customary Right Compensation and Forest Villages Development Programs of Mangrove Company at Bintuni Bay Papua Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove at Bintuni bay offers various services to indigenous communities from ecology, social, and economic. Mangrove also could be harvested accordingly to optimize contributions to indigenous communities welfares. This paper highlights implementation of customary right compensation (CRC, and Forest Villages Development programs (FVDP of mangrove company at Bintuni Bay, Papua Barat. Company reports and documents related to CRC and FVDP from 1988 to June 2013 were reviewed and analyzed. Field works were conducted to examine the implementation of both programs at four villages of two districts. Sustained mangrove harvest for chipwood production in Bintuni bay for more than 25 years is the most outstanding achievement of mangrove utilization and management in Indonesia. Huge amount of expenditure have been spent out, and given to indigenous communities through the CRC and FVDP programs, respectively. These cover from economic, social, and environmental related programs, manufactured public facilities, scholarships, and others. However, the indigenous communities are remained poor, and failed of being self-sufficient community. It clearly impresses that the main goals to improve the welfare, prosperity of indigenous people are considerable failed. It is presumably that social culture systems, and subsistence agriculture practices contribute to the failing these programs. Mostly, forest communities in Papua are practicing subsistence agriculture, hunting, heavily relying on their surrounding natural resources, and spending all their cash or money instantly for consumption, not for saving, investments or even productive activities. Therefore, several program could be initiated to improve in achieving the CRC and FVDP missions, such as building capacity, providing counselors and strengthen local community governance, which could accelerate of being self-reliant community.Keywords: customary right compensation, forest villages development, mangrove

  19. Coastal Mapping Program Project MN1501: SILVER BAY, MN.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  20. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  1. ‘Cleave to the Black’: expressions of Ethiopianism in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Reavis Price

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Describes the development of Ethiopianism, and illustrates its ideological and thematic content and manifestations, especially focusing on Jamaica, while also referring to the US and South Africa. First, the author outlines the content of Ethiopianism, describing how it is pro-black, contests white hegemony, colonialism, poverty and oppression, looks at Africa, and points at black people's redemption. Therefore the Bible is reread, Africa (Ethiopia the holy land, and God considered black. He discusses Ethiopianism's early origins in the slavery period, and how it could take political as well as non-political, mental forms. Author points at the 1865 Morant Bay Rebellion as the vital link in developing Ethiopianism in Jamaica, and then describes 3 groups/movements embodying the movement: the influence of the preacher Bedward and his teachings against black oppression, Marcus Garvey's teachings and activities for black progress, and the first Rastafarians between 1930 and 1938, who were in part influenced by Bedward and Garvey.

  2. Jamaica Higher Education: Utilizing the Benchmarks of Joint Board Teaching Practice at Church Teachers' College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Hyacinth P.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a descriptive case study portraying a teaching-practice program designed to highlight the preparation of student-teachers for teaching practice, using the Joint Board of Teacher Education (JBTE) benchmarks, in a teachers' college in Jamaica. At Church Teachers' College (CTC) 22 informants of mixed gender were selected for the…

  3. Customary Right Compensation and Forest Villages Development Programs of Mangrove Company at Bintuni Bay Papua Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove at Bintuni bay offers various services to indigenous communities from ecology, social, and economic. Mangrove also could be harvested accordingly to optimize contributions to indigenous communities welfares. This paper highlights implementation of customary right compensation (CRC, and Forest Villages Development programs (FVDP of mangrove company at Bintuni Bay, Papua Barat. Company reports and documents related to CRC and FVDP from 1988 to June 2013 were reviewed and analyzed. Field works were conducted to examine the implementation of both programs at four villages of two districts. Sustained mangrove harvest for chipwood production in Bintuni bay for more than 25 years is the most outstanding achievement of mangrove utilization and management in Indonesia. Huge amount of expenditure have been spent out, and given to indigenous communities through the CRC and FVDP programs, respectively. These cover from economic, social, and environmental related programs, manufactured public facilities, scholarships, and others. However, the indigenous communities are remained poor, and failed of being self-sufficient community. It clearly impresses that the main goals to improve the welfare, prosperity of indigenous people are considerable failed. It is presumably that social culture systems, and subsistence agriculture practices contribute to the failing these programs. Mostly, forest communities in Papua are practicing subsistence agriculture, hunting, heavily relying on their surrounding natural resources, and spending all their cash or money instantly for consumption, not for saving, investments or even productive activities. Therefore, several program could be initiated to improve in achieving the CRC and FVDP missions, such as building capacity, providing counselors and strengthen local community governance, which could accelerate of being self-reliant community.

  4. Genital human papillomaviruses among women of reproductive age in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Bell, Karen; Luciani, Silvana; Unger, Elizabeth R; Hariri, Susan; McFarlane, Shelly; Steinau, Martin; Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Vicari, Andrea S; Irons, Beryl; Lewis, Merle J; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2013-03-01

    To characterize the prevalence and distribution of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women in Jamaica, and to explore risk factors associated with HPV infection. This was a cross-sectional study that took place in April-July 2010 with 852 sexually-active women, 16-49 years of age, who had attended a selected public or private primary health clinic in one of Jamaica's four health authority regions. Sociodemographic data was collected from each participant by trained study staff. Each participant had a gynecological examination that included a clinical Pap test and a cervical sample for HPV detection and typing-performed using the Research Use Only Linear Array (LA) genotyping assay (Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, Indiana, United States). Overall and type-specific prevalence of HPV infection was calculated for 37 HPV types included in the LA genotyping assay. HPV DNA was detected in 460 of the 852 women (54.0%). Oncogenic HPV was detected in 297 women (34.9%) and HPV types 16/18 were found in 86 women (10.1%). The most frequently occurring HPV types were: 16 (6.2%); 35 (6.0%); 62 and 83 (5.5%); 61 and 58 (5.4%); 84 (4.7%); 18 (4.3%); and, 66 and 81 (4.2%). HPV prevalence was highest among women who were single, young (16-19 years), and had had more than three sexual partners in their lifetime. These results, coupled with high rates of cervical cancer, support introducing HPV vaccines while maintaining and strengthening cervical cancer screening services. Policy decision-making that reflects these results is instrumental to establishing a comprehensive cervical cancer program in Jamaica.

  5. Dispersed scolecodonts from Cainozoic strata of Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Scolecodonts found in Cainozoic palynological and palaeontological samples from Jamaica are compared with dispersed scolecodonts from Tertiary strata in France. The problem of delimiting species and genera is discussed in view of the variability observed in Recent polychaete annelids and of the

  6. Decolonization of psychiatric public policy in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, F W; Gibson, R C

    2012-07-01

    Involuntary commitment and custodialization were the principal tenets of British colonial public policy provisions for the management of the violent, disturbed mentally ill in Jamaica and the West Indies. Over the fifty years following Jamaica's political independence from Britain, a community engagement mental health programme has developed through a decolonization process that has negated involuntary certification, incarceration and custodialization, has promoted family therapy and short stay treatment in conventional primary and secondary care health facilities, and has promoted reliance on traditional and cultural therapies that have been extremely successful in the treatment of mental illness and the reduction of stigma in Jamaica. Collaborations involving The University of the West Indies, the Jamaican Ministry of Health and the Pan American Health Organization have been seminal in the development of the decolonizing of public policy initiatives, negating the effects of involuntary certification that had been imposed on the population by slavery and colonization. This collaboration also catalysed the psychiatric training of medical, nursing and mental health practitioners and the execution of community mental health policy in Jamaica.

  7. The Anura of Jamaica: a progress report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert; Fowler, Danny C.

    1973-01-01

    The Antillean island of Jamaica is inhabited by 17 native species of frogs and three introduced species. This anuran fauna has not been reviewed since 1940, and the present paper brings up to date the nomenclature of the Jamaican frogs, and in addition gives much new zoogeographic, altitudinal,

  8. Lower Miocene echinoderms of Jamaica, West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, S.K.; Portell, R.W.; Veltkamp, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite being diverse globally, Miocene echinoids are poorly known from Jamaica. Moderately diverse echinoids and other echinoderms have been identified mainly from fragmentary specimens collected from chalks and mass-flow deposits of the Lower Miocene Montpelier Formation, White Limestone Group,

  9. Malaria in a returning traveler from Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Michael; Bavaro, Mary

    2014-06-01

    Malaria in Jamaica is a real, but uncommon entity and poses a health risk to our Department of Defense personnel, which should not be overlooked in returning travelers. Malaria in Jamaica was actually considered eradicated in the 1960s, but there has been a reemergence attributed to the combination of Haitian nationals as well as endemic Anopheles mosquitoes in the Kingston area. Our facility recently admitted a 33-year-old Marine who had two Emergency Department visits before being evaluated for malaria. He had returned from Kingston 14 days before presentation, which included fever, night sweats, and headache followed by a period of malaise prior to the next paroxysm. He was found to have a 1.5% parasitemia with Malaria falciparum that borders on severe malaria. Fortunately, he was treated effectively with atovaquone/proguanil and had a favorable outcome. The Center for Disease Control acknowledges that malaria is present in Jamaica, but only recommends mosquito avoidance without prophylaxis. This case emphasizes the need to consider malaria in differential diagnosis in Jamaica as well as in any returning travelers with fever because of broad global travel. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Healthy Eating in Jamaica: The Cost Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, F J; Caines, D; Eyre, S

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the importance of food cost in securing a healthy diet to combat non-communicable diseases. Several studies have evaluated whether healthier foods or diets cost more but a full range of health criteria has rarely been explored. Rather than merely comparing high and low energy dense foods, this study also included type of fat, vitamin, mineral and fibre content of foods in classifying them as healthy and less healthy. Both 'commonly consumed' and 'all available' foods were ranked according to their nutritional value and potential positive or negative contribution to the development of major health problems in Jamaica such as obesity and chronic diseases. The costs of 158 food items were averaged from supermarkets, municipal markets and wholesale outlets in six parishes across Jamaica. Cost differentials were then assessed in comparing healthy and less healthy foods. The study found that among the commonly consumed foods in Jamaica, healthy options cost J$88 (US$0.78) more than less healthy ones. However, when all the available food items were considered, the less healthy options cost more. The cheapest daily cost of a nutritionally balanced diet in Jamaica varied considerably by parish but was on average J$269 (US$2.40) per person. For a family of three, this translates approximately to the total minimum wage per week. Eating healthy in Jamaica can be achieved at low cost if appropriate information on nutrient content/value for money is provided to consumers. Effective promotions by public and private sector agencies are essential for consumer choice to be optimal.

  11. Piloting a pediatric trauma course in Western Jamaica: Lessons learned and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Hadley K; Plant, Valerie; Helou, Marieka; Wharton, Karen; Fray, Delroy; Haynes, Jeffrey; Bagwell, Charles

    2017-07-01

    Pediatric injuries are a leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite this, there are few formal pediatric-specific trauma educational initiatives available in LMICs. While new educational tools are being developed to address this, they have not been piloted in LMICs. In Jamaica, pediatric injuries are a leading cause of hospital admission but care is limited by a lack of training in triage and stabilization. Our objective was to implement and evaluate a pediatric trauma course in Jamaica to determine the impact this may have on further course development. A pediatric trauma course was conducted at the Cornwall Regional Hospital in Montego Bay, Jamaica sponsored by the Children's Medical Services International, a nonprofit organization. Participants took part in six didactic modules, an infant airway intubation skills session, and three clinical simulation scenarios. Participants completed a postcourse survey at the conclusion of the course. Twenty-five participants including surgical, pediatric, and emergency medicine residents from regional- and district-level hospitals in Jamaica participated in the course. Participants viewed the course favorably. Strengths included good review of pediatric trauma physiology, short modules, hands-on practice, and applicable clinical scenarios. Using a Likert-type rating scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being minimal and 10 being very knowledgeable, precourse knowledge was ranked as 5.9, which increased to 9.2 after the course. Using a similar scale, the precourse comfort level to run a pediatric trauma was 4.9 and increased to 8.5 following the course. Implementation of this pilot pediatric trauma course was feasible and successful through collaboration with the hosting regional hospital. The lack of formal pediatric training can be overcome by a course such as this which includes both didactics and hands-on clinical patient simulations. 4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of dengue in Jamaica dengue virus genotypes in Jamaica, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M G; Salas, R A; Vickers, I E; Heslop, O D; Smikle, M F

    2011-03-01

    The genotypes of dengue viruses (DENV) isolated from patients with dengue in Jamaica during 2007 were determined using DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the C-prM gene junction. The 17 DENV analysed included strains of DENVserotypes 1 (DENV-1, n = 3), DENV-2 (n = 7) and DENV-4 (n = 7). All strains ofDENV-1 were classified as genotype III, while 1 of 7 strains of DENV-2 belonged to the Asian American/Asian genotype, genotype I/III (Jamaica genotype), 2 were genotype V, the American genotype and 4 strains clustered with reference strains belonging to genotype IV. The 6 DENV-4 strains from Jamaica and the control strain clustered together in a separate clade from Caribbean/American reference strains, which belong to genotype II and Asian strains, classified as genotypes I and III. There has been little evolution in the DENV-1 strains circulating in Jamaica over the years and this might reduce the risk of outbreaks due to this serotype. In contrast, the high genetic diversity in strains of DENV-2 viruses in circulation, the presence of more recently introduced genotypes and a new clade of DENV-4 might contribute to the epidemic potential of these DENV serotypes. These preliminary data clearly indicate the need to maintain laboratory surveillance, and other control measures against hyperendemicity of dengue in Jamaica.

  13. Tampa Bay Extension Agents’ Views of Urban Extension: Philosophy and Program Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Harder

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to explore the concept of urban Extension as perceived by Extension agents within the Tampa Bay area, one of Florida’s fastest growing metropolitan areas. From a theoretical perspective, it is critical to understand Extension agents’ beliefs about urban Extension because behaviors are directly related to attitudes (Ajzen, 2012. In 2016, a qualitative investigation was undertaken to explore the perspectives of 23 agents working within the Tampa Bay area. Results showed the majority of agents believed that context and client needs are unique for urban Extension, and that to a lesser extent, unique agent expertise is required. Further, these beliefs impacted how agents reported their approach to programming, with an emphasis on providing convenience and seeking partnerships. Difficulties were identified related to identifying the role of Extension in a resource-rich environment of service providers, which contributed to the existence of a perceived disconnect between urban audiences and Extension. Opportunities exist for Extension leadership to provide strategic organizational support that will enhance agents’ abilities to succeed in the metropolitan environment.

  14. Jamaica: Test case for tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyre, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Deforestation in Jamaica, according to the United Nations (FAO/UNEP) and other sources, is occurring at an annual rate of about tree percent. This is accepted by some Jamaican government agencies, but strongly disputed by others. The Ministry of Agriculture, in particular, claims that the national forested area is actually increasing rapidly. A survey of humid tropical forests in Jamaica, carried out by the author in 1986, indicates a 3.3 percent per annum rate of deforestation for 1980-1986. But, despite significant commercial lumber production, large clear fellings are rare and most modification of the forest is due to expansion of small-scale farming (including Cannabis sativa) and pastoral activity. The size of area cleared is most often 20 to 25 hectares. As uncontrolled deforestation is adversely affecting watersheds and inducing serious flooding some form of control and management is urgently required.

  15. Jamaica: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    billion stand-by arrangement with Jamaica to help the country cope with the consequences of the global downturn and support the country’s economic...times has been a thorny issue in U.S. relations with the region, with challenges centered on criminal deportees and social stigma faced by the...September 15, 2009. 26 Information provided to CRS by the Department of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Office of Detention

  16. Interdisciplinary approach to the demography of Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The trans-Atlantic slave trade dramatically changed the demographic makeup of the New World, with varying regions of the African coast exploited differently over roughly a 400 year period. When compared to the discrete mitochondrial haplotype distribution of historically appropriate source populations, the unique distribution within a specific source population can prove insightful in estimating the contribution of each population. Here, we analyzed the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA in a sample from the Caribbean island of Jamaica and compared it to aggregated populations in Africa divided according to historiographically defined segments of the continent's coastline. The results from these admixture procedures were then compared to the wealth of historic knowledge surrounding the disembarkation of Africans on the island. Results In line with previous findings, the matriline of Jamaica is almost entirely of West African descent. Results from the admixture analyses suggest modern Jamaicans share a closer affinity with groups from the Gold Coast and Bight of Benin despite high mortality, low fecundity, and waning regional importation. The slaves from the Bight of Biafra and West-central Africa were imported in great numbers; however, the results suggest a deficit in expected maternal contribution from those regions. Conclusions When considering the demographic pressures imposed by chattel slavery on Jamaica during the slave era, the results seem incongruous. Ethnolinguistic and ethnographic evidence, however, may explain the apparent non-random levels of genetic perseverance. The application of genetics may prove useful in answering difficult demographic questions left by historically voiceless groups. PMID:22360861

  17. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  18. Ethical challenges and opportunities for nurses in HIV and AIDS community-based participatory research in Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, C.M.; Kahwa, E.; Atkinson, U.; Hepburn-Brown, C.; Aiken, J.; Dawkins, P.; Rae, T.; Edwards, N.; Roelofs, S.; MacFarlane, D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a multinational program of research, we undertook a community-based participatory research project in Jamaica to strengthen nurses' engagement in HIV and AIDS policy. Three leadership hubs were purposefully convened and included small groups of people (6-10) from diverse HIV and AIDS

  19. Unique Cryptosporidium Population in HIV-Infected Persons, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatei, Wangeci; Barrett, Donnett; Lindo, John F.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; Cama, Vitaliano

    2008-01-01

    A cryptosporidiosis survey showed the presence of Cryptosporidium hominis, C. parvum, C. canis, and C. felis in 25, 7, 1, and 1 HIV-positive persons from Jamaica, respectively; 1 person had both C. hominis and C. felis. Multilocus sequence typing indicated the presence of a homogeneous but geographically distinct C. hominis population in Jamaica. PMID:18439378

  20. Modernising the Framework for Arbitration in Jamaica - Some Salient Points

    OpenAIRE

    Onyema, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    Comments made on the text of a working draft law for a new arbitration regime in Jamaica. I argue in my comments that Jamaica should adapt the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration and use this text as the basis for its new arbitration law.

  1. Cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis acquired in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, S; Francia, C; Persico, M C; La Vela, V

    2009-12-01

    The authors describe a case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in a 23-year-old Italian woman who contracted the infestation during a tour in Jamaica. The infestation was located on the back and was characterized clinically by a single inflammatory nodule. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis acquired in Jamaica.

  2. Evolution of Counseling in Jamaica: Past, Present, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Geoffrey J.; Palmer, Ransford W.; Payne-Borden, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Counseling maintains a small yet growing presence in Jamaica as a profession. Practitioners are confronted with several societal problems. The authors provide a historical overview of Jamaica and a synopsis of the development of counseling. The emergence of counseling services through the limitations of psychiatry and psychology sets the stage for…

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue infection in Westmoreland, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Faisal; Todd, Dana; Campbell-Stennett, Dianne; Ehiri, John; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in most tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Dengue fever is endemic in Jamaica and continues to be a public health concern. There is a paucity of information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Jamaicans regarding dengue infection. Objective To describe dengue related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of residents of Westmoreland, Jamaica. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 192 parents attending child health clinics in the Parish of Westmoreland was conducted. Results More than half of the parents (54%) had good knowledge about signs, symptoms, and modes of transmission of dengue. Approximately 47% considered dengue to be a serious but preventable disease to which they are vulnerable. Nevertheless, a majority (77%) did not use effective dengue preventive methods such as screening of homes and 51% did not use bed nets. Educational attainment (OR, 2.98; CI, 1.23–7.23) was positively associated with knowledge of dengue. There was no correlation between knowledge about dengue and preventive practices (p=0.34). Radio and TV were the predominant sources of information about dengue fever. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the good knowledge about dengue fever among residents of Westmoreland did not translate to adoption of preventive measures. Health program planners and practitioners need to identify and facilitate removal of barriers to behavior change related to control of dengue fever among the population. Future campaigns should focus on educating and encouraging individuals and families to adopt such simple, inexpensive preventive actions, such as, use of insecticide treated bed nets and screening of homes. PMID:21132094

  4. Measuring and explaining health and health care inequalities in Jamaica, 2004 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ewan; Theodore, Karl

    2013-02-01

    This study addresses the need to measure and explain the inequalities and inequities of Jamaica's health system to generate evidence to support policy development, monitoring, and evaluation. The nationally representative Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions data sets for 2004 and 2007 were used to produce concentration curves and concentration indices for three health outcome variables (probability of any illness or injury, duration of latest episode of -illness, and self-assessed health status) and two health care utilization variables (probability of a curative visit to a health practitioner and number of curative visits) to measure income-related inequalities. Their standardized counterparts were used to measure inequities. Decomposition of the concentration index provides a basis for explaining the contributions of socioeconomic and demographic factors to overall inequalities. Probability of illness and duration of illness were concentrated among the poor, while there was a distinct pro-rich inequality with respect to utilization of heath care services. These inequalities and inequities became more pronounced over the period 2004 - 2007. The level of household welfare was found to be the single most significant factor contributing to these inequalities. Other significant contributing factors were unemployment and rural location for health outcomes and insurance coverage for utilization of services. In spite of measures taken ostensibly to address health equity in Jamaica, income-related inequalities in health outcomes and health care have increased and the population group that needs health services most is using them least. These findings suggest a need for more innovative programs geared toward improving equity in health in Jamaica.

  5. Support vector inductive logic programming outperforms the naive Bayes classifier and inductive logic programming for the classification of bioactive chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Edward O; Amini, Ata; Bender, Andreas; Sternberg, Michael J E; Muggleton, Stephen H; Glen, Robert C; Mitchell, John B O

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the classification performance of circular fingerprints in combination with the Naive Bayes Classifier (MP2D), Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) and Support Vector Inductive Logic Programming (SVILP) on a standard molecular benchmark dataset comprising 11 activity classes and about 102,000 structures. The Naive Bayes Classifier treats features independently while ILP combines structural fragments, and then creates new features with higher predictive power. SVILP is a very recently presented method which adds a support vector machine after common ILP procedures. The performance of the methods is evaluated via a number of statistical measures, namely recall, specificity, precision, F-measure, Matthews Correlation Coefficient, area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and enrichment factor (EF). According to the F-measure, which takes both recall and precision into account, SVILP is for seven out of the 11 classes the superior method. The results show that the Bayes Classifier gives the best recall performance for eight of the 11 targets, but has a much lower precision, specificity and F-measure. The SVILP model on the other hand has the highest recall for only three of the 11 classes, but generally far superior specificity and precision. To evaluate the statistical significance of the SVILP superiority, we employ McNemar's test which shows that SVILP performs significantly (p Bayes Classifier was shown to perform very well in molecular classification studies, these results suggest that SVILP is able to extract additional knowledge from the data, thus improving classification results further.

  6. Siletz Bay - Oregon Coast Invasive Species Mapping, Monitoring and Eradication Program 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Siletz Bay NWR contains a variety of coastal habitat types including salt marsh, brackish marsh, tidal sloughs, mudflats, and coniferous and deciduous forestland....

  7. Delaware Bay Database; Delaware Sea Grant College Program, 28 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delaware Bay database contains records of discrete quality observations, collected on 40 oceanographic cruises between May 1978 and October 1985. Each record...

  8. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Chesapeake Bay Summary Database (1998-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Chesapeake Bay system...

  9. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  10. School feeding in Jamaica: a review of its evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, D T

    1998-04-01

    This paper reviews two studies that evaluated the school feeding program in Jamaica. The first examined 115 children aged 12-13 y who were enrolled in three classes in a poor, rural school. One class was served the standard school meal at 0900 whereas the other two classes served as controls. The outcome variables included school achievement, attendance, and weight gain. After one semester, the class receiving the meal showed improved arithmetic scores and school attendance compared with the control classes; however, they showed no weight gain. The academic improvement remained significant after school attendance was controlled for. It was therefore hypothesized that the gains in arithmetic resulted from the alleviation of hunger in the classroom. The other study, conducted in a metabolic ward, examined the effects of missing breakfast on cognitive function in 90 children aged 9-10 y and of differing nutritional status. Using a crossover design, the investigators tested each child on two mornings 1 wk apart, once after serving them breakfast and second without. Breakfast, consisting of the school program meal, was served at 0800. When severely malnourished, stunted, or wasted children received no breakfast, their performance in various cognitive tests deteriorated. These results indicate that alleviation of hunger was one of the mechanisms by which school feeding improved academic achievement in the previous study. Undernourished children are more likely to benefit from school feeding programs than are adequately nourished children.

  11. NPP Tropical Forest: John Crow Ridge, Jamaica, 1974-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass and productivity for four subtypes of an upper montane tropical forest along John Crow Ridge in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Jamaica from 1974 to 1978

  12. Integrating naive Bayes and FOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Landwehr, Niels; Kersting, Kristian; De Raedt, Luc

    2007-01-01

    A novel relational learning approach that tightly integrates the naive Bayes learning scheme with the inductive logic programming rule-learner FOIL is presented. In contrast to previous combinations that have employed naive Bayes only for post-processing the rule sets, the presented approach employs the naive Bayes criterion to guide its search directly. The proposed technique is implemented in the NFOIL and TFOIL systems, which employ standard naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes model...

  13. Sexuality among fathers of newborns in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Reece, Jody-Ann; Coore-Desai, Charlene; Dinnall-Johnson, Twana; Pellington, Sydonnie; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen

    2015-02-21

    While a growing body of research has addressed pregnancy and postpartum impacts on female sexuality, relatively little work has been focused upon men. A few studies suggest that a fraction of men report decreases in libido during a partner's pregnancy and/or postpartum, with alterations in men's sexual behavior also commonly aligning with those of a partner. Here, we investigate sexuality among fathers of newborn children in Jamaica. In Jamaica, as elsewhere in the Caribbean, relationship dynamics can be fluid, contributing to variable paternal roles and care, as well as a high fraction of children born into visiting relationships in which parents live apart from each other. During July-September, 2011, 3410 fathers of newborns with an average age of 31 (SD = 8) years participated in the fatherhood arm of a national birth cohort study (JAKids). These fathers answered questions about sociodemographic background, relationship quality and sexuality (e.g., various components of sexual function such as sex drive and sexual satisfaction as well as number of sexual partners the previous 12 months and sexual intercourse the previous week) during a visit to a hospital or birth center within a day or two of their child being born. Showed that sex drive was more variable than other components (erections, ejaculation, problem assessment) of sexual function, though sexual satisfaction was generally high. Thirty percent of men reported two or more sexual partners the previous 12 months. Nearly half of men indicated not engaging in sexual intercourse the past week. Multivariate analyses showed that relationship status was related to various aspects of men's sexuality, such as men in visiting relationships reporting more sexual partners and more openness to casual sex. Relationship quality was the most consistent predictor of men's sexuality, with men in higher quality relationships reporting higher sexual satisfaction, fewer sexual partners, and higher frequency of sex

  14. Hudson Bay wood gasifier: Final technical report on a Renewables-Conservation Demonstration Program Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    With electricity generation in mind, the 0.25 MW British Columbia Research fluidized bed wood gasifier was scaled up into a 1.2 MW pilot plant at the Saskatchewan Forest Products plywood mill in Hudson Ray, Saskatchewan, with the commissioning of the unit being completed in 1979. Following the installation of a new airlock, grate and ash scraper and a program of preliminary runs, a 60-day period was completed, during which the suitability of the Hudson Bay wood gasification system for continous operation was evaluated. It was concluded that serious deficiencies exist in the available scale-up procedures and expertise. Areas requiring major changes include the feed system, to alleviate the back-leakage of product gases, and to prevent overheating in the combustion zone, the grate/ash removal system, and the mode of operation (fixed or fluidized bed). Because the gasifier was designed to run in the fluidized mode, and in fact operates as a fixed moving bed, problems have arisen with ash removal and overheating. The stack gas and the waste water effluents were found to pose no serious threat to the environment, and can be safely disposed of without producing pollution problems. The scrubber operated very well, producing a cool, clean gas which burned well in the diesel and in the Maxon burner. A comparison of wood gasification to diesel oil generation of electricity revealed that, over the next 15 years, wood gas will produce cheaper electricity than well diesel, when a free source of waste wood is available, such as the situation in which the plant is listed at the source of the waste wood, and is operated by the waste wood producer. 4 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Insecticide resistance to permethrin and malathion and associated mechanisms in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from St. Andrew Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sheena; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Perera, Rushika; Paine, Mark; Black, William C; Delgoda, Rupika

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of novel diseases spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in Jamaica and the Caribbean, has prompted studies on insecticide resistance towards effective management of the vector. Though Jamaica has been using the organophosphate insecticide malathion in its vector control program for more than 30 years, resistance to the pesticide has not been tested in over a decade. We analyzed resistance to malathion and the pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin on mosquitoes collected across St. Andrew, Jamaica, and analyzed the molecular basis of resistance. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) bioassay revealed that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from St. Andrew, Jamaica were resistant to permethrin (15 μg/bottle) with mortalities at 0-8% at 30 minute exposure time, while contact with malathion (50 μg/bottle) revealed ≤ 50% mortality at 15 minutes, which increased to 100% at 45 minutes. The standard susceptible New Orleans (NO) strain exhibited 100% mortality within15 minutes. The activities of multifunction oxidases and p-nitro phenyl-acetate esterases were significantly greater in most Jamaican populations in comparison to the NO strain, while activities of glutathione-S-transferase, acetylcholinesterase, α-esterase and ß-esterase activity were relatively equal, or lower than that of the control strain. The frequency of knockdown resistance mutations in the voltage dependent sodium channel gene were measured. All collections were fixed for Cys1,534 while 56% of mosquitoes were Ile1,016/Val1,016 heterozygotes, and 33% were Ile1,016 homozygotes. Aedes aegypti from St. Andrew Jamaica are resistant to permethrin with variations in the mode of mechanism, and possibly developing resistance to malathion. Continued monitoring of resistance is critically important to manage the spread of the vector in the country.

  16. Insecticide resistance to permethrin and malathion and associated mechanisms in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from St. Andrew Jamaica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena Francis

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel diseases spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in Jamaica and the Caribbean, has prompted studies on insecticide resistance towards effective management of the vector. Though Jamaica has been using the organophosphate insecticide malathion in its vector control program for more than 30 years, resistance to the pesticide has not been tested in over a decade. We analyzed resistance to malathion and the pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin on mosquitoes collected across St. Andrew, Jamaica, and analyzed the molecular basis of resistance. The Center for Disease Control (CDC bioassay revealed that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from St. Andrew, Jamaica were resistant to permethrin (15 μg/bottle with mortalities at 0-8% at 30 minute exposure time, while contact with malathion (50 μg/bottle revealed ≤ 50% mortality at 15 minutes, which increased to 100% at 45 minutes. The standard susceptible New Orleans (NO strain exhibited 100% mortality within15 minutes. The activities of multifunction oxidases and p-nitro phenyl-acetate esterases were significantly greater in most Jamaican populations in comparison to the NO strain, while activities of glutathione-S-transferase, acetylcholinesterase, α-esterase and ß-esterase activity were relatively equal, or lower than that of the control strain. The frequency of knockdown resistance mutations in the voltage dependent sodium channel gene were measured. All collections were fixed for Cys1,534 while 56% of mosquitoes were Ile1,016/Val1,016 heterozygotes, and 33% were Ile1,016 homozygotes. Aedes aegypti from St. Andrew Jamaica are resistant to permethrin with variations in the mode of mechanism, and possibly developing resistance to malathion. Continued monitoring of resistance is critically important to manage the spread of the vector in the country.

  17. Biology and Identification of Rays in the Chesapeake Bay. Sea Grant Program. Educational Series Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph W.; Merriner, J. V.

    This booklet provides a brief discussion of the anatomy and biology of rays in the Chesapeake Bay and a key to their identification. Descriptions of seven types of rays are also provided (with accompanying illustrations). These include electric rays, stingrays, butterfly rays, eagle rays, cownose rays, and manta rays. (JN)

  18. The Divisive Gate-Keeping Role of Languages in Jamaica: Establishing Post Primary Schools as Centres for Immersion in the Target Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the role of the official and "de facto" languages of anglophone Caribbean islands such as Jamaica. In reflecting on their statuses as users of language, tertiary level students registered in a Year One Performing Arts Program provided much insights into the interplay of both languages that coexist in society…

  19. Prehypertension in Jamaica: a review of data from recent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T S; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Younger, N O; McFarlane, S R; Francis, D K; Wilks, R J

    2011-07-01

    Prehypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120-139 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of 80-89 mmHg in patients not on medication for hypertension. Recent studies have shown that prehypertension has a high prevalence in both western and eastern countries and is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, incident CVD and CVD mortality. We reviewed data from ongoing epidemiological studies in Jamaica in order to provide an update on the prevalence and predictors of prehypertension in Jamaica. Studies included were the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Surveys (2000-2001 and 2007-2008), the Jamaica Youth Risk and Resiliency Behaviour Survey 2006, the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort Study and the Spanish Town Cohort Study. The prevalence of prehypertension in the most recent national survey was 35% (95% CI 33, 38%). Prevalence was higher in men compared to women (42% versus 29%). Jamaicans with prehypertension were more likely to have other CVD risk factors and were three times more likely to develop hypertension compared with persons with a normal blood pressure. Prevalence was also high among youth, particularly males. Longitudinal analysis from the 1986 birth cohort suggested that prehypertension may be more common in persons with low birthweight or short birth length. Physicians and public health practitioners should recognize the increased CVD risk associated with prehypertension and should begin to institute CVD prevention measures in persons with prehypertension. Sex differences and the early onset of prehypertension in men require further exploration.

  20. Shooting from the HIP: Hyperion's efforts to clean Santa Monica Bay. [Hyperion Improvement Program (HIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosse, J.T. (Hyperion Treatment Plant, Playa del Rey, CA (United States)); Smith, D.L. (James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineers, Pasadena, CA (United States)); Sizemore, H.M. (Bureau of Sanitation, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Abkian, V.; Horenstein, B.K. (Hyperion Treatment Plant, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The Outstanding Achievement Award in Water Pollution Control' is intended to recognize the water pollution control program that best demonstrates achieving significant, lasting, and measurable excellence in water-quality improvement in preventing water-quality degradation in a region, basin, or water body. This article is about the 1991 Award. This year, WPCF honored Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant with a citation of outstanding achievement. To qualify for this honor, Hyperion has remarkably improved the quality of wastewater discharged to Santa Monica Bay since 1985. Capital programs developed by Los Angeles to achieve this rapid improvement, coined the Hyperion Improvement Program (HIP), reflect the city's commitment to protect the valuable resource of Santa Monica Bay. The HIP was conceived in 1986 to cease sludge ocean disposal by the end of 1987 and expedite effluent quality improvement before 1991, when the full secondary expansion is scheduled for completion. The program included implementing chemical addition to enhance primary treatment performance; installing fine bubble diffusers to double the level of secondary treatment from 3.38 to 8.76 m{sup 3}/s (100 to 200 mgd); increasing waste activated sludge thickening capacity to handle the doubled secondary flow; improving digester performance, increasing sludge dewatering capacity; ceasing ocean disposal of sludge; and completing a truck loading facility to support the EPA-award-winning off-site beneficial sludge reuse program. The successful HIP effort resulted in the plant's meeting more stringent 1991 discharge standards in 1986 and meeting 1998 full secondary treatment standards (except for biochemical oxygen demand) in 1989.

  1. Everything is bigger in Texas : Reflection program case ‘Houston Galveston Bay, Texas’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Brand, A.D.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    The saying goes that ‘Everything is bigger in Texas.’ This holds true for both the flood risk in the Houston-Galveston Bay Area, and for the complexity of issues that need to be dealt with in order to reduce it – assuming there is agreement that the current risk is

  2. Balamuthia mandrillaris therapeutic mud bath in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, C D; Reyes-Batlle, M; Piñero, J E; Martínez-Carretero, E; Valladares, B; Lindo, J F; Lorenzo-Morales, J

    2015-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns.

  3. Materialism, slavery, and the history of Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Suman

    2014-12-01

    This essay explores the racial theories of Edward Long, the West Indian planter and slave owner who published his History of Jamaica in 1774. Long's polygenism, it argues, looks strikingly different from that we are more familiar with from nineteenth-century sources. The reason for the difference is twofold. First, although Long was willing to buck biblical orthodoxy, he balked at materialism, a position that gained traction in racial studies following the successes of the phrenological movement in the early nineteenth century. Second, Long presents us with a (relatively rare) case of an eighteenth-century writer on "race science" with political sympathies toward a part of the world that was both outside the bounds of the European metropole and contained a majority black population. As a result, one finds a fundamental ambivalence in his writings on race, an ambivalence that stemmed directly from his desire to manage social relations and political systems in a slave society. Metropolitan figures who believed in-the fixity of race (regardless of the question of origin) made a cornerstone of their position the essential identity of newly arrived African slaves and their descendants. For Long, however, the difference between "salt-water" and "creole" Negroes was to be the solution to the most pressing social problem of the sugar islands: slave insurrection. This understanding of the (potential) political and social differences between generations of slaves required a physical corollary: Long's polygenism presumed less fixity than the monogenism of a figure like Immanuel Kant.

  4. Jamaica's Critically Endangered Butterfly: A Review of the Biology and Conservation Status of the Homerus Swallowtail (Papilio (Pterourus) homerus Fabricius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Matthew S; Kramer, Valerie R; Rawlins, John E; Verdecia, Vanessa; Daniels, Jaret C

    2017-07-10

    The Homerus swallowtail, Papilio (Pterourus) homerus Fabricius, is listed as an endangered species and is endemic to the Caribbean island of Jamaica. The largest butterfly in the Western Hemisphere, P. homerus once inhabited seven of Jamaica's 14 parishes and consisted of at least three populations; however, now only two stronghold populations remain, a western population in the rugged Cockpit Country and an eastern population in the Blue and John Crow Mountains. Despite numerous studies of its life history, much about the population biology, including estimates of total numbers of individuals in each population, remains unknown. In addition, a breeding program is needed to establish an experimental population, which could be used to augment wild populations and ensure the continued survival of the species. Here, we present a review of the biology of P. homerus and recommendations for a conservation plan.

  5. Toxic hypoglycemic syndrome--Jamaica, 1989-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-31

    In January and February 1991, the health officer in the parish of St. Ann, Jamaica, received reports of eight persons with toxic hypoglycemic syndrome (THS), an illness associated with consumption of unripe ackee fruit and, possibly, renta yam; two cases were fatal. On July 25, the Jamaican Ministry of Health (JMH) contacted CDC for assistance in investigating the continued occurrence of THS; the collaborative JMH and CDC epidemiologic investigation focused on characterizing the epidemiology of THS in Jamaica and assessing the role of ackee fruit, renta yams, and other factors.

  6. Conceptualizations of School Leadership among High School Principals in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Mairette

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on evidence from research that adopted a qualitative case study design and used grounded theory methods of data analysis, this study examined how selected high school principals in Jamaica conceptualize school leadership. Data were sourced from semi-structured interviews, field observations as well as from school, principal and official…

  7. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Marigold J.

    2008-01-01

    A population-based prevalence study in one region of Jamaica in 1987-1989 indicated that about 8% of the childhood population had cognitive (intellectual) disability. Some harmful beliefs and practices persist about child rearing, violence towards women, and child abuse of all types. A lack of knowledge is apparent about the efficacy of home-based…

  8. The fauna of the Port Royal mangal, Kingston, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleng, Gerard P.

    1997-01-01

    ALLENG, Gerard P., 1997. The fauna of the Port Royal mangal, Kingston, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam 1997: 23-42. An analysis and a characterization are presented of the Port Royal mangrove fauna. The existing literature on the subject is extensively reviewed and a fauna

  9. Comparative Studies of Spinal Celes in Switzerland, Jamaica, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Methods and Materials: From 1975 to 2008,17 spinal celes (including 2 meningoceles) were routinely repaired in Imo and Ebonyi States of Nigeria, and 5 in Jamaica,the West Indies; none in Basel, Switzerland. All 20 meningomyeloceles were incontinent of urine and faeces, had severe paraparesis to paraplegia, ...

  10. Traditional and Alternative Therapy for Mental Illness in Jamaica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate traditional and alternative therapy for mental illness in Jamaica: patients' conceptions and practitioners' attitudes. The sample included 60 psychiatric patients selected from Ward 21 at the University of the West Indies, Kingston as well as Princess Margaret outpatient clinic, and 30 ...

  11. The hybrid state: crime and citizenship in urban Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffe, R.

    2013-01-01

    In inner-city neighborhoods in Kingston, Jamaica, criminal "dons" have taken on a range of governmental functions. While such criminal actors have sometimes been imagined as heading "parallel states," I argue that they are part of a hybrid state, an emergent political formation in which multiple

  12. Sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive persons in Jamaica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stopping transmission acts among HIV-positive people is crucial in reversing HIV incidence. Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive individuals in clinical care in Northwestern Jamaica. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 118 (33 males and 85 ...

  13. Prostate cancer educational intervention among men in Western Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Capanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To conduct and evaluate the impact of a theory-based health education intervention on awareness of prostate cancer and intention to screen among men in Western Jamaica and determine screening rates of men participating in the intervention at 6 months post-intervention. 454 men utilizing various clinics and hospitals in Western Jamaica completed an interviewer-administered pretest survey on general prostate cancer knowledge and intention to screen. Upon completing the pretest, participants observed a prostate cancer health education intervention and immediately completed a posttest survey. Statistically significant improvements in the percentage of correct responses between the pretest and posttest were evident (p < 0.05. Additionally, screening rates increased dramatically by 6 months post-intervention with over 33% of men receiving a prostate exam after participating in the educational intervention. The theory-based educational intervention increased participants' knowledge of prostate cancer, types of screening tests, frequency of screenings and risk factors and symptoms, and was effective in increasing screening rates among the men in Western Jamaica within 6 months post-intervention. This theory-based educational intervention may be replicated to promote awareness of prostate cancer and further increase screening rates in other areas of Jamaica and other developing countries.

  14. Prostate cancer educational intervention among men in western Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanna, Christian; Chujutalli, Ricardo; Murray, Shushawna; Lwin, Kyaw; Aung, Maung; Jolly, Pauline

    To conduct and evaluate the impact of a theory-based health education intervention on awareness of prostate cancer and intention to screen among men in Western Jamaica and determine screening rates of men participating in the intervention at 6 months post-intervention. 454 men utilizing various clinics and hospitals in Western Jamaica completed an interviewer-administered pretest survey on general prostate cancer knowledge and intention to screen. Upon completing the pretest, participants observed a prostate cancer health education intervention and immediately completed a posttest survey. Statistically significant improvements in the percentage of correct responses between the pretest and posttest were evident. (p < 0.05). Additionally, screening rates increased dramatically by 6 months post-intervention with over 33% of men receiving a prostate exam after participating the in the educational intervention. The theory-based educational intervention increased participants' knowledge of prostate cancer, types of screening tests, frequency of screenings and risk factors and symptoms, and was effective in increasing screening rates among the men in Western Jamaica within 6 months post- intervention. This theory-based educational intervention may be replicated to promote awareness of prostate cancer and further increase screening rates in other areas of Jamaica and other developing countries.

  15. The rediscovery of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium crenulatum in Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunte, Waine

    1979-01-01

    A record of the freshwater shrimps of Jamaica has been provided by Hart (1961b). His study includes taxonomical comments and notes on the locations at which the various species were caught. Since then Holthuis (1963a) has described a new subterranean freshwater shrimp, Troglocubanus jamaicensis,

  16. Sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive persons in Jamaica.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    general populations.4 The HIV prevalence rate in Jamaica is 1.8% ... According to the Jamaican National HIV/STI Control ..... to antiretroviral medication and depression.25,26 In accor- ... Olukoga I. Epidemiologic trends of HIV/AIDS in Ja-.

  17. Schoolchildren and Ganja: Youthful Marijuana Consumption in Rural Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Melanie Creagan

    1984-01-01

    Examination of the ideology and behavior surrounding childhood marijuana use in Jamaica, and the way in which it is articulated with the domestic and school life of children in two rural communities, shows that parents expect marijuana to increase household productivity, enhance academic performance, and ensure families' health and strength. (CMG)

  18. HIV treatment as prevention in Jamaica and Barbados: magic bullet or sustainable response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Geoffrey; Barrow, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This discursive article introduces HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) and identifies various models for its extrapolation to wider population levels. Drawing on HIV surveillance data for Jamaica and Barbados, the article identifies significant gaps in HIV response programming in relation to testing, antiretroviral treatment coverage, and treatment adherence, thereby highlighting the disparity between assumptions and prerequisites for TasP success. These gaps are attributable, in large part, to sociocultural impediments and structural barriers, severe resource constraints, declining political will, and the redefinition of HIV as a manageable, chronic health issue. Antiretroviral treatment and TasP can realize success only within a combination prevention frame that addresses structural factors, including stigma and discrimination, gender inequality and gender-based violence, social inequality, and poverty. The remedicalization of the response compromises outcomes and undermines the continued potential of HIV programming as an entry point for the promotion of sexual, health, and human rights. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. HOUSTON, we’ve got a problem : Introduction program case Houston Galveston Bay Region, Texas (USA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, A.D.; Kothuis, B.L.M.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Various interesting tools were used and/or developed to stimulate knowledge integration in the Multifunctional Flood Defenses program. This chapter will present a diverse collection of these tools, hopefully stimulating others to consider using some of them in future.

  20. Predictors of prejudice against lesbians and gay men in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keon; Cowell, Noel M

    2015-01-01

    Jamaica has acquired an international reputation for strong antigay prejudice, incidents of antigay violence, and outspoken, antigay public figures. In recent years, national and international gay rights groups have attempted to improve this situation. However, these efforts have not been based on an empirical analysis of the factors underlying Jamaican antigay bias, which is essential for developing effective prejudice-reducing strategies. Using data collected in two large-scale national surveys in 2011 and 2012 (N 2011 = 997, N 2012 = 945), we investigated predictors of Jamaican antigay prejudice, including age, gender, religious affiliation, education, income, and a preference for dancehall music. We also examined changes in reported antigay bias between 2011 and 2012 after accounting for other predictors. All proposed variables predicted some aspect of antigay prejudice, though sometimes in unexpected ways. Male gender emerged as a particularly important predictor. We discuss the strengths and limitations of our design and the implications of our findings for prejudice-reduction strategies in Jamaica.

  1. "Head take you": causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Carlotta M; Whitley, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Causal attributions are a key factor in explanatory models of illness; however, little research on causal attributions of mental illness has been conducted in developing nations in the Caribbean, including Jamaica. Explanatory models of mental illness may be important in understanding illness experience and be a crucial factor in mental health service seeking and utilization. We explored causal attributions of mental illness in Jamaica by conducting 20 focus groups, including 16 community samples, 2 patient samples, and 2 samples of caregivers of patients, with a total of 159 participants. The 5 most commonly endorsed causal attributions of mental illness are discussed: (a) drug-related causes, including ganja (marijuana); (b) biological causes, such as chemical imbalance, familial transmission, and "blood"; (c) psychological causes, including stress and thinking too much; (d) social causes, such as relationship problems and job loss; and (e) spiritual or religious causes, including Obeah. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Supply Side Constraints on Export Development in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Freckleton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina los impedimientos por el lado de la oferta que afectan al desarollo de la exportación en Jamaica. El análisis se basa en un examen de exportadores jamaicanos no tradicionales. Los resultados indican que los exportadores jamaicanos hacen frente a impedimientos significativos por el lado de la oferta incluyendo la falta de acceso a capital, insuficiencia de innovaciones, altos costos energéticos y deficiencias infraestructurales. El artículo concluye que en el caso de los países en vías de desarollo afectados por impedimientos por el lado de la oferta se hace necesario tomar medidas que les permitan la ventaja de acceder a los mercados disponibles. En el caso de Jamaica, las medidas requeridas para aliviar los impedimientos por el lado de la oferta incluyen el establecimiento de instituciones financieras de riesgo, el estímulo de la innovación y el desarrollo de la infraestructura. English: This article examines the supply side constraints affecting export development in Jamaica. The analysis is based on a survey of non-traditional exporters. The results of the survey indicates that Jamaican exporters face significant supply side constraints including lack of access to capital, insufficient innovation, high energy costs and infrastructural deficiencies. The article concludes that in the cases of those developing countries facing binding supply side constraints, measures to relax such constraints are necessary to allow them to take full advantage of available market access. In the case of Jamaica, measures required to relax supply side constraints include establishment of venture capital institutions, stimulation of innovation and upgrading of infrastructure.

  3. Jamaica: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-03

    roots party support. The opposition JLP has been headed by popular politician Bruce Golding since February 2005, when long-time party leader Edward...especially those working with high-risk groups. USAID has also provided assistance to care and support to those affected by the disease , and for...concerns about Jamaica’s abilities to prosecute drug traffickers and to eradicate cannabis . Although marijuana is illegal in Jamaica, it remains the

  4. Dengue among American missionaries returning from Jamaica, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Abelardo C; Baumblatt, Jane; Thomas, Dana; Harvey, Kira A; Atrubin, David; Stanek, Danielle; Sotir, Mark; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge L; Jentes, Emily S; Sharp, Tyler M; Arguello, D Fermin

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by any of four mosquito-transmitted dengue virus (DENV) types. Dengue is endemic in Jamaica, where an epidemic occurred in 2012. An investigation was conducted by multiple agencies for 66 missionaries traveling from nine US states to Jamaica after 1 missionary from the group was confirmed to have dengue. Travelers were offered diagnostic testing, and a survey was administered to assess knowledge, behaviors, and illness. Of 42 survey respondents, 9 (21%) respondents reported an acute febrile illness during or after travel to Jamaica. Of 15 travelers that provided serum specimens, 4 (27%) travelers had detectable anti-DENV immunoglobulin M antibody, and 1 traveler also had DENV-1 detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Recent or past infection with a DENV was evident in 93% (13 of 14) missionaries with available sera. No behavioral or demographic factors were significantly associated with DENV infection. This investigation shows that even trips of short duration to endemic areas present a risk of acquiring dengue. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Household food safety awareness of selected urban consumers in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter G; Jackson, Jose C; Bain, Brendan; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise

    2003-07-01

    Home interviews of 110 randomly selected householders representing three distinct socio-economic groups in North Central St Andrew, an urban community in Jamaica, were conducted during January-March 1999. Respondents were interviewed about their awareness of safe food handling, risk perception, food handling practices and attitude to food safety issues. The majority of respondents reported a fairly high knowledge of safe food handling practices; however, more than one-half were unfamiliar with the correct procedure for freezing and thawing of foods. Householders were very concerned about the food they purchased for preparation at home, displayed strong concerns about sanitation of food handling establishments, food handlers practices, and the appearance of foods purchased. The majority of respondents had never contacted their local Health Department or the Ministry of Health regarding food safety concerns. Diarrhea, stomach pain, vomiting and nausea were reported as the major symptoms of food-borne illness, while animal foods including dairy, beef, chicken, pork and fish/shellfish were implicated as the main source of food borne illnesses. There were no significant differences (Pfood and shopping options, respectively. These findings raise concerns about consumer food safety knowledge and practices in Jamaica. It is suggested that a national knowledge, awareness and practices survey should be conducted, followed by a properly designed food safety public education campaign, to enhance household food safety awareness in Jamaica.

  6. Genital human papillomaviruses among women of reproductive age in Jamaica Virus de los papilomas humanos genitales en mujeres en edad reproductiva de Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lewis-Bell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence and distribution of genital human papillomavirus (HPV types among women in Jamaica, and to explore risk factors associated with HPV infection. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that took place in April-July 2010 with 852 sexually-active women, 16-49 years of age, who had attended a selected public or private primary health clinic in one of Jamaica's four health authority regions. Sociodemographic data was collected from each participant by trained study staff. Each participant had a gynecological examination that included a clinical Pap test and a cervical sample for HPV detection and typing-performed using the Research Use Only Linear Array (LA genotyping assay (Roche Diagnostics Corp., Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. Overall and type-specific prevalence of HPV infection was calculated for 37 HPV types included in the LA genotyping assay. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in 460 of the 852 women (54.0%. Oncogenic HPV was detected in 297 women (34.9% and HPV types 16/18 were found in 86 women (10.1%. The most frequently occurring HPV types were: 16 (6.2%; 35 (6.0%; 62 and 83 (5.5%; 61 and 58 (5.4%; 84 (4.7%; 18 (4.3%; and, 66 and 81 (4.2%. HPV prevalence was highest among women who were single, young (16-19 years, and had had more than three sexual partners in their lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: These results, coupled with high rates of cervical cancer, support introducing HPV vaccines while maintaining and strengthening cervical cancer screening services. Policy decisionmaking that reflects these results is instrumental to establishing a comprehensive cervical cancer program in Jamaica.OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia y la distribución de los tipos de virus de los papilomas humanos (VPH genitales en las mujeres de Jamaica y explorar los factores de riesgo asociados con la infección por VPH. MÉTODOS: Este estudio transversal se llevó a cabo de abril a julio del 2010. Participaron 852 mujeres

  7. A University-Hosted Program in Pursuit of Coastal Sustainability: The Case of Tokyo Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Baba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a unique way by which a university program can contribute to capacity development for coastal sustainability. The program is steered by a working group of volunteer faculty members, having different academic backgrounds, in collaboration with students and marine professionals, including fisherfolk and environment education interpreters. Although the program began with conventional educational ideas and style, its practical framework evolved to include interactive activities with collaborators in the community, all of which were geared toward social learning. The combination of service learning and participatory action research (PAR was proven to be an adequate approach to link higher education for sustainable development (HESD and university-community partnerships and to promote learning for coastal sustainability. Challenges identified include (1 ensuring continuity of learning and (2 reducing the heavy workload of faculty members involved in program preparation and coordination. The authors would like to emphasize the possibilities offered by the engagement of scholarship in the capacity development for coastal sustainability by focusing on community-based efforts.

  8. Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, B. E.; Thacker, K.; Hanson, C.; Getten, L.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination. A baseline survey of DIN and SRP concentrations, C:N:P and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on shallow and deep reefs of the NMP in 1998 showed strong P-limitation and evidence of increasing sewage pollution. In 1999, a sewage collection and treatment project began diverting wastewater from the resort and urban areas to a pond system that discharged partially-treated effluent into the South Negril River (SNR). These sewage discharges significantly increased concentrations of NH{4/+} and SRP (N:P ˜13) in the SNR, which flows into Long Bay and around Negril's "West End". Concentrations of SRP, the primary limiting nutrient, were higher on shallow reefs of the West End in 2001 compared to 1998. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on both shallow and deep reefs of the West End in 2002 were significantly higher than baseline values in 1998, indicating an escalating impact of sewage nitrogen pollution over this timeframe. The increased nutrient concentrations and δ15N enrichment of reef macroalgae correlated with blooms of the chlorophyte Chaetomorpha linum in shallow waters of Long Bay and Codium isthmocladum and Caulerpa cupressoides on deep reefs of the West End. Sewage treatment systems adjacent to coral reefs must include nutrient removal to ensure that DIN and SRP concentrations, after dilution, are below the low thresholds noted for these oligotrophic ecosystems.

  9. Simulation-based inexact chance-constrained nonlinear programming for eutrophication management in the Xiangxi Bay of Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y L; Huang, G H; Liu, D F; Zhu, H; Sun, W

    2012-10-15

    Although integrated simulation and optimization approaches under stochastic uncertainty have been applied to eutrophication management problems, few studies are reported in eutrophication control planning where multiple formats of uncertainties and nonlinearities are addressed in forms of intervals and probabilistic distributions within an integrated framework. Since the impounding of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China in 2003, the hydraulic conditions and aquatic environment of the Xiangxi Bay (XXB) have changed significantly. The resulting emergence of eutrophication and algal blooms leads to its deteriorated water quality. The XXB becomes an ideal case study area. Thus, a simulation-based inexact chance-constrained nonlinear programming (SICNP) model is developed and applied to eutrophication control planning in the XXB of the TGR under uncertainties. In the SICNP, the wastewater treatment costs for removing total phosphorus (TP) are set as the objective function; effluent discharge standards, stream water quality standards and eutrophication control standards are considered in the constraints; a steady-state simulation model for phosphorus transport and fate is embedded in the environmental standards constraints; the interval programming and chance-constrained approaches are integrated to provide interval decision variables but also the associated risk levels in violating the system constraints. The model results indicate that changes in the violating level (q) will result in different strategy distributions at spatial and temporal scales; the optimal value of cost objective is from [2.74, 13.41] million RMB to [2.25, 13.08] million RMB when q equals from 0.01 to 0.25; the required TP treatment efficiency for the Baisha plant is the most stringent, which is followed by the Xiakou Town and the Zhaojun Town, while the requirement for the Pingyikou cement plant is the least stringent. The model results are useful for making optimal policies on eutrophication

  10. Sedimentation and Flood assessment for the expansion of Kingston Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, P.; Verreijken, K.; Vermerris, P.; Wijs, J.

    2012-01-01

    Student project report, in cooperation with Smith-Warner International Ltd. (SWIL), Kingston, Jamaica. At this moment the shipping channels in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, slowly accrete. When the harbour is expanded, the local and global sediment transport is likely to change. During this project it

  11. A new species of land crab, Sesarma Say, 1817 (Decapoda, Brachyura), from the Pleistocene of Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Mitchell, S.F.; Donovan, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods are poorly known from the Cenozoic of Jamaica. A probably Late Pleistocene land crab, Sesarma primigenium sp. nov., is described from the Western Cement Company Cave, parish of St. Elizabeth, southwestern Jamaica. The same species is also tentatively recognised from the Late

  12. Private Higher Education in Jamaica: Expanding Access in Pursuit of Vision 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Chad Orlando

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight on why private higher education institutions have flourished as key providers of higher education in Jamaica, how these institutions facilitate access to higher education, and to what extent private higher education institutions contribute to the achievement of Jamaica's national higher education…

  13. Adult Education, Social Change and Development in Post-Colonial Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Shermaine Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to demonstrate how adult education enabled the process of economic and social change, and national development in Jamaica through a critical review of two cases of adult education provisions in Jamaica since the country gained independence in 1962. Content analysis of various documents from primary…

  14. Gender Norms and Family Planning Practices Among Men in Western Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Melonie M; Ehiri, John; Kempf, Mirjam C; Funkhouser, Ellen; Bakhoya, Marion; Aung, Maung; Zhang, Kui; Jolly, Pauline E

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association between gender norms and family planning practices among men in Western Jamaica. A cross-sectional survey of 549 men aged 19 to 54 years attending or visiting four government-operated hospitals was conducted in 2011. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with taking steps to prevent unwanted pregnancy, intention to have a large family size (three or more children), and fathering children with multiple women. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from the models. Reduced odds for taking steps to prevent unwanted pregnancy among men with moderate (AOR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-0.8) and high (AOR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.1-0.6) support for inequitable gender norms was observed. Desiring large family size was associated with moderate (AOR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.3-2.5) and high (AOR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.5-4.3) support for macho scores. For men with two or more children (41%), there were increased odds of fathering children with multiple women among those who had moderate (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0-4.4) and high (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.1-5.6) support for masculinity norms. Support for inequitable gender norms was associated with reduced odds of taking steps to prevent unwanted pregnancy, while support for masculinity norms was associated with desiring a large family size and fathering children with multiple women. These findings highlight the importance of including men and gender norms in family planning programs in Jamaica. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen H Logie; Ashley Lacombe-Duncan; Natasha Brien; Nicolette Jones; Nakia Lee-Foon; Kandasi Levermore; Annecka Marshall; Laura Nyblade; Newman, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica have the highest HIV prevalence in the Caribbean. There is little information about HIV among transgender women in Jamaica, who are also overrepresented in the Caribbean epidemic. HIV-related stigma is a barrier to HIV testing among Jamaica?s general population, yet little is known of MSM and transgender women?s HIV testing experiences in Jamaica. We explored perceived barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young ...

  16. Mixed infection of Sida jamaicensis in Jamaica reveals the presence of three recombinant begomovirus DNA A components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cheryl; Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria; Graham, André; Martin, Darren; Gilbertson, Robert; Roye, Marcia

    2014-09-01

    Begomoviruses impose serious constraints on agriculture throughout the temperate, tropical and subtropical regions. Previously, we characterised a sida golden yellow vein virus isolate, SiGYVV-[JM:Lig2:08] (HQ009519-20) from a symptomatic Sida jamaicensis plant. With the aim of establishing whether it was hosting a mixed infection that could facilitate recombination, PCR-RFLP was done on DNA extracted from this plant, and the results suggested the presence of two additional genetically distinct DNA-A molecules. Sequence analysis of these two DNA-A molecules (relying on BLAST searches and the CLUSTAL V algorithm within the DNASTAR MegAlign module) revealed that they belonged to novel species, and we have tentatively named these viruses sida golden mosaic Braco virus-[Jamaica:Liguanea:2008] and sida golden mosaic Liguanea virus-[Jamaica:1:2008]. Using RDP4 (recombination detection program), we determined that all three viruses were recombinant, with bases ~10 to ~440 of both SiGMLigV-[JM:Lig:08] and SiGYVV-[JM:Lig2:08] having been derived from a relative of SiGMBV-[JM:Lig:08] (P<2.070×10(-7) for all seven of the recombination detection methods). SiGMBV-[JM:Lig:08] was itself a product of recombination, deriving bases ~490-1195 from a virus that was ~92% similar to malvastrum yellow mosaic Helshire virus. Phylogenetically, these DNA-A components are most closely related to those of malvaceous weed-infecting begomoviruses from Jamaica, Cuba, Florida and Mexico. The SiGMBV DNA-A was able to elicit symptomatic infection in N. benthamiana.

  17. Health of children in Jamaica: the new health realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization developed a mathematical technique, which discount the life expectancy by the years spent in disability or morbidity. Health, therefore, must be more than morbidity as it expands to quality of life. It is within this framework that a study on childhood health in Jamaica is of vital importance. To (1) expand the health literature in Jamaica and by extension the Caribbean, (2) understand the status of child health outside of mortality, (3) aid public health practitioners with research, upon which they are able to further improve the quality of life of children by adding quality to their lived years, (4) investigate the age at with children in Jamaica become influenced by chronic disease, it typology, and (5) evaluate the subjective wellbeing of children as is done for the general populace and elderly. The current study extracted a sample of 8,373 and 2,104 children 0-14 years from two surveys. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and analysis of variance and independent sample t-test. The current study found that a shift in health condition was noticed in 2007 over 2002. The number of children who had diarrhea fell by 84.2% in 2007 over 2002, and a similar reduction was observed for those with asthma (42.1% in 2002 and 19.7% in 2007). Another critical finding was that 1.2% of children, in 2007, had diabetes mellitus. Public health now has an epidemiological profile of health conditions of children and the demographic shifts, which are occurring, and this can be used for effective management and planning of the new health reality of the Jamaican child.

  18. Nutritional markers in patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, D; Soyibo, A K; Barton, E N

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the study is to assess the nutritional status in patients on chronic haemodialysis in Jamaica using the Subjective Global Assessment tool and to correlate this with measured serum nutritional biomarkers, and also to identify nutritional biomarkers that can be used to assess nutritional status of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Two hundred and nine consecutive patients on haemodialysis were selected from dialysis centres in Kingston, the capital of Jamaica, St. Catherine and Manchester Jamaica. The nutritional status of each participant was assessed using the Subjective Global Assessment tool in an interview performed by the researcher. Serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, highly sensitive complement reactive protein (hsCRP) and total fasting cholesterol were determined from a single serum sample. Only patients with ESRD were selected. Patients with acute renal failure or those with ESRD who were admitted in the previous two weeks were excluded from the study. Informed consent was obtained prior to interview and obtaining blood samples. Of the total participants, 54.5% (n=114) were male and 45.5% (n=95) female. The mean age for males was 51.9 years and females 47.6 years. Diabetes was documented as the most common cause of chronic renal disease and was found in 29.7%, hypertension in 24.4% and chronic glomerulonephritis in 22% of the participants. Approximately 80% of the study population had moderate malnutrition. There was a significant association between moderate malnutrition and a diagnosis of ESRD secondary to diabetes mellitus, p = 0.03. Being on haemodialysis for 10 mg/L was associated with moderate malnutrition, though statistical significance was not met (p = 0.39). Factors associated with malnutrition in patients on dialysis were having ESRD secondary to diabetes mellitus, dialysis duration for < or = six months, low serum albumin, pre-dialysis serum creatinine of 880 micromol/L, low total cholesterol and

  19. Predictors of anemia among pregnant women in Westmoreland, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Alyson M.; Campbell-Stennett, Dianne; Yatich, Nelly; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2010-01-01

    Anemia in pregnancy is a worldwide problem, but it is most prevalent in the developing world. This research project was conducted to determine the predictors of anemia in pregnant women in Westmoreland, Jamaica. A cross-sectional study design was conducted and descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Body mass index, Mid-upper arm circumference, and the number of antenatal care visits showed a statistically significant association with anemia. Based on the results, we believe that maintaining a healthy body weight, and frequently visiting an antenatal clinic, will help to lower the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in Westmoreland. PMID:20526925

  20. Cinema in Jamaica - Legacy of The Harder They Come

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ceccato

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream cinema representing Jamaica and Jamaicans has always made use of clichés and stereotypes. The emergence of a local Jamaican cinema—beginning in 1972 with Perry Henzell’s movie—immediately started to give a new image of the country and its inhabitants. From The Harder They Come up to most recent movies, Jamaican cinema has used consistent style, techniques, and themes to give a new vision of the country. Jamaican movies may have low production value, but they provide a more authentic representation of Jamaica’s culture. Viewing Jamaican movies gives the audience a sense of a small but growing cinematic tradition.

  1. Rastafari : identidade e hibridismo cultural na Jamaica, 1930-1981

    OpenAIRE

    Rabelo, Danilo

    2006-01-01

    Na Jamaica, o passado colonial baseado na plantation escravista, produziu uma sociedade estratificada na qual a cor mais clara da pele era considerada um meio de distinção social inclusive entre os afro-descendentes, mesmo após o fim da escravidão em 1838. Contra essa marginalização dos afro-jamaicanos, surgiu na década de 1930, um movimento religioso chamado Ras Tafari, cujas principais doutrinas a princípio era a divindade do imperador Haile Selassie I da Etiópia, o desejo de repat...

  2. Down by the Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth; Tunks, Karyn; Hardman, Kacie

    2017-01-01

    The Pelican's Nest, located near Mobile Bay in the Gulf of Mexico, is a science center supported by a local educational foundation. Programs are geared toward marine wildlife and the coastal habitat with an emphasis on hands-on learning for students in grades K-6. The director of the science center conducts daily classroom labs and discovery trips…

  3. Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Model Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical memorandum provides results of an extended load reduction simulation. The memorandum serves as an addendum to the main Missisquoi Bay Phosphorus Mass Balance Model report prepared for the Lake Champlain Basin Program by LimnoTech in 2012

  4. A mixed-methods study of health worker migration from Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; MacKenzie, Adrian; Waysome, Benjamin; Guy-Walker, Joan; Palmer, Rowena; Elliott Rose, Annette; Rigby, Janet; Labonté, Ronald; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2016-06-30

    This study sought to better understand the drivers of migration, its consequences, and the various strategies countries have employed to mitigate its negative impacts. The study was conducted in four countries-Jamaica, India, the Philippines, and South Africa-that have historically been 'sources' of health workers migrating to other countries. The aim of this paper is to present the findings from the Jamaica portion of the study. Data were collected using surveys of Jamaica's generalist and specialist physicians, nurses, midwives, and dental auxiliaries, as well as structured interviews with key informants representing government ministries, professional associations, regional health authorities, healthcare facilities, and educational institutions. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Multiple stakeholder engagement workshops were held across Jamaica to share and validate the study findings and discuss implications for the country. Migration of health workers from Jamaica continues to be prevalent. Its causes are numerous, long-standing, and systemic, and are largely based around differences in living and working conditions between Jamaica and 'destination' countries. There is minimal formal tracking of health worker migration from Jamaica, making scientific analysis of its consequences difficult. Although there is evidence of numerous national and international efforts to manage and mitigate the negative impacts of migration, there is little evidence of the implementation or effectiveness of such efforts. Potential additional strategies for better managing the migration of Jamaica's health workers include the use of information systems to formally monitor migration, updating the national cadre system for employment of health personnel, ensuring existing personnel management policies, such as bonding, are both clearly understood and equitably enforced, and providing greater

  5. Work at the Periphery: Issues of Tourism Sustainability in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry in Jamaica, as elsewhere in the Caribbean, has provided government interests and tourism stakeholders with increasingly profitable economic benefits. The development and prosperity of the 'all-inclusive' vacation model has become a significant aspect of these benefits. Vacationers from North America and Europe are particularly attracted to tourism destinations providing resort ac-commodations that cater to foreign visitors, offering 'safe spaces' for the enjoyment of sun, sand, and sea that so many leisure-seekers desire. Safety and security are progressively becoming more relevant within the contexts of poverty, crime, and tourist harassment that are now commonplace in many of these island destinations. This model of tourism development, however, represents a problematic relationship between these types of hotels and the environmental, political, and economic interests of the communities in which they are located. The lack of linkage between tourist entities and other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, leaves members of local communities out of the immense profits that are generated. Based on a review of relevant literature and ethnographic research conducted in one of Jamaica's most popular resort towns, this paper considers the ways in which the sociocultural landscape of a specific place is affected by and responds to the demands of an overtly demanding industry. Utilizing an anthropological approach, I explore local responses to tourism shifts, and analyse recent trends in the tourism industry as they relate to the concept of sustainability.

  6. Feel American, Watch American, Eat American? Remote Acculturation, TV, and Nutrition Among Adolescent-Mother Dyads in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M; Muzaffar, Henna; Iturbide, Maria I; Chu, Hui; Meeks Gardner, Julie

    2017-04-25

    Globalization prompts remote acculturation toward U.S. culture in Jamaica; this study used a bioecological systems approach to examine its proximal impact on nutrition through U.S. cable TV consumption, and maternal influences in the home. Overall, 330 randomly selected adolescent-mother dyads from schools in Kingston, Jamaica (Madolescent_age  = 13.8 years, SDadolescent_age  = 1.8) completed questionnaires reporting American identity and behavioral preferences, daily time spent watching U.S.-produced TV programs, and frequency of eating unhealthy foods. Actor-partner interdependence models revealed that girls' American identity/behavior directly predicted their unhealthy eating, whereas girls' mothers and boys' American identity/behavior indirectly predicted unhealthy eating as mediated by their U.S. TV hours. Additionally, mothers' American identity/behavior predicted daughters' unhealthy eating as mediated by mothers' U.S. TV hours. Remote acculturation theory may facilitate more targeted research and prevention/intervention. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Establishing the Jamaica lupus registry: report of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus attending a major referral hospital in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, A K; DeCuelaer, K; Miller, R K; Smith, R; Maloney, K; Barton, E N

    2012-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by multisystem microvascular inflammation with the generation of autoantibodies. There are reports on demographic data and clinical manifestation of lupus in the United States of America and some other developed countries. There is a single study that has reported on the clinical and immunological features of SLE patients in Jamaica and another that reported that the prevalence of SLE in Jamaica was 5-17/100,000 in 1979. A Jamaican lupus registry was established in 2008 at the Department of Medicine, The University of the West Indies. Data were collected using patient records and interview of patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology revised diagnostic criteria for SLE. Information on demographics, presence of diagnostic criteria for SLE, presence of complications and other clinical parameters were collected. There were a total of 107 patients that met the criteria for diagnosis of SLE at the referral centre, 96.3% of them female. Positive ANA (90.7%), arthritis (70.0%), malar rash (53.5%) and a positive dsDNA (40.1%) were the more frequent manifestations and diagnostic indices of the disease. Up to 41.7% of the SLE population suffered some form of complication. The initiation of a lupus registry has allowed for reporting ofpreliminary demographic, clinical and serological data and identifying of disease burden.

  8. Social-ecological factors associated with selling sex among men who have sex with men in Jamaica: results from a cross-sectional tablet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Kenny, Kathleen S; Levermore, Kandasi; Jones, Nicolette; Baral, Stefan D; Wang, Ying; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) experience social marginalization and criminalization that increase HIV vulnerability by constraining access to HIV prevention and care. People who sell sex also experience criminalization, rights violations, and violence, which elevate HIV exposure. MSM who sell sex may experience intersectional stigma and intensified social marginalization, yet have largely been overlooked in epidemiological and social HIV research. In Jamaica, where same sex practices and sex work are criminalized, scant research has investigated sex selling among MSM, including associations with HIV vulnerability. We aimed to examine social ecological factors associated with selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, including exchanging sex for money, shelter, food, transportation, or drugs/alcohol (past 12 months). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a peer-driven sample of MSM in Kingston, Ocho Rios, and Montego Bay. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate intrapersonal/individual, interpersonal/social, and structural factors associated with selling sex. Among 556 MSM, one-third (n = 182; 32.7%) reported selling sex. In the final multivariable model, correlates of selling sex included: individual/intrapersonal (lower safer sex self-efficacy [AOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.94]), interpersonal/social (concurrent partnerships [AOR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.56, 19.53], a higher need for social support [AOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], lifetime forced sex [AOR: 2.74, 95% 1.65, 4.55]) and structural-level factors (sexual stigma [AOR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], food insecurity [AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.41, 4.02], housing insecurity [AOR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.16, 3.26], no regular healthcare provider [AOR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.60, 4.64]). This study highlights social ecological correlates of selling sex among MSM in Jamaica, in particular elevated stigma and economic insecurity. Findings suggest that MSM in Jamaica who sell sex experience intensified

  9. Media representation of personality disorder in Jamaica - public scholarship as a catalyst of health promotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hickling, F W; Robertson-Hickling, H A

    2013-01-01

    ...) in Jamaica prompted a health promotion outcome. A January 2011 to December 2012 trawl of news media articles linking 'PD' to published public scholarship articles on the epidemiology of PD recorded titles and contents of the reports...

  10. Factors associated with blood lead concentrations of children in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S; Loveland, Katherine A; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a heavy metal known to be detrimental to neurologic, physiologic, and behavioral health of children. Previous studies from Jamaica reported that mean lead levels in soil are four times that of lead levels in some other parts of the world. Other studies detected lead levels in fruits and root vegetables, which were grown in areas with lead contaminated soil. In this study, we investigate environmental factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The participants in this study comprised 125 typically developing (TD) children (ages 2-8 years) who served as controls in an age- and sex-matched case-control study that enrolled children from 2009-2012 in Jamaica. We administered a questionnaire to assess demographic and socioeconomic information as well as potential exposures to lead through food. Using General Linear Models (GLMs), we identified factors associated with blood lead concentrations in Jamaican children. The geometric mean blood lead concentration (GMBLC) in the sample of children in this study was 2.80 μg dL(-1). In univariable GLM analyses, GMBLC was higher for children whose parents did not have education beyond high school compared to those whose parents had attained this level (3.00 μg dL(-1) vs. 2.31 μg dL(-1); P = 0.05), children living near a high traffic road compared to those who did not (3.43 μg dL(-1) vs. 2.52 μg dL(-1); P ackee compared to those who did not eat this fruit (2.89 μg dL(-1) vs. 1.65 μg dL(-1); P < 0.05). In multivariable analysis, living near a high traffic road was identified as an independent risk factor for higher adjusted GMBLC (3.05 μg dL(-1) vs. 2.19 μg dL(-1); P = 0.01). While our findings indicate that GMBLC in Jamaican children has dropped by at least 62% during the past two decades, children living in Jamaica still have GMBLC that is twice that of children in more developed countries. In addition, we have identified significant risk factors for higher blood lead concentrations in

  11. ICON - West Fore Reef, Discovery Bay, Jamaica 2008 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0054499)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  12. ICON - West Fore Reef, Discovery Bay, Jamaica 2007 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0054497)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  13. Gateway National Recreation Area, Jamaica Bay Unit alternative transportation feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    The National Park Service Gateway National Recreation Area (GATE) was created to provide convenient access to outdoor recreation in the National Park System for residents and visitors to the New York City (NYC) area. The Volpe Center completed a numb...

  14. Mobility and Anxious Cosmopolitanism: Jamaica Kincaid's Among Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Nayar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on a particular site of the transnational: mobility. Reading a contemporary travel narrative, Jamaica Kincaid's Among Flowers, it maps the articulation of a certain 'anxious cosmopolitanism'. Two intertwined discourses produce this anxious cosmopolitanism. Kincaid, I propose, presents a discourse of the uncertain traveller, nervous and hesitant in the Himalaya, even as she is alert to her privileged First World role. A second discourse, that of the cultural insider, with her expertise in plants and gardening situates her within a larger and longer tradition, which also includes, problematically, colonial plant collection. Finally, Kincaid, through acts of memory citizenship, refuses to be identified exclusively within the colonial tradition, foregrounds her horticultural insiderness and multiple allegiances that are local and global.

  15. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  16. Socioeconomic factors associated with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie S Thompson

    Full Text Available Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic.We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000-2013 in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS. Cases of SAM were grouped by community and the number of cases per community/year correlated to socioeconomic variables and geochemistry data for the relevant year.375 cases of SAM were mapped across 204 urban and rural communities in Jamaica. The mean age at admission was 9 months (range 1-45 months and 57% were male. SAM had a positive correlation with major crime (r = 0.53; P < 0.001, but not with educational attainment or the poverty index. For every one unit increase in the number of crimes reported, the rate of occurrence of SAM cases increased by 1.01% [Incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.01 (95% CI = 1.006-1.014; P P<0.001]. The geochemistry data yielded no correlation between levels of heavy metals and the prevalence of malnutrition.Major crime has an independent positive association with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaican infants. This could suggest that SAM and major crime might have similar sociological origins or that criminality at the community level may be indicative of reduced income opportunities with the attendant increase in poor nutrition in the home.

  17. Socioeconomic factors associated with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbie S; Younger-Coleman, Novie; Lyew-Ayee, Parris; Greene, Lisa-Gaye; Boyne, Michael S; Forrester, Terrence E

    2017-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic. We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000-2013) in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Cases of SAM were grouped by community and the number of cases per community/year correlated to socioeconomic variables and geochemistry data for the relevant year. 375 cases of SAM were mapped across 204 urban and rural communities in Jamaica. The mean age at admission was 9 months (range 1-45 months) and 57% were male. SAM had a positive correlation with major crime (r = 0.53; P < 0.001), but not with educational attainment or the poverty index. For every one unit increase in the number of crimes reported, the rate of occurrence of SAM cases increased by 1.01% [Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.01 (95% CI = 1.006-1.014); P P<0.001]. The geochemistry data yielded no correlation between levels of heavy metals and the prevalence of malnutrition. Major crime has an independent positive association with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaican infants. This could suggest that SAM and major crime might have similar sociological origins or that criminality at the community level may be indicative of reduced income opportunities with the attendant increase in poor nutrition in the home.

  18. Suicide among adolescents in Jamaica: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder-Nevins, D; James, K; Bridgelal-Nagassar, R; Bailey, A; Thompson, E; Eldemire, H; Sewell, C; Abel, W D

    2012-08-01

    Suicide is increasingly acknowledged as a global problem. Yet little is known worldwide about suicide rates among adolescents. Several social factors that exist in Jamaica present as stressors and may predispose to suicide. Ascertaining prevailing patterns and associated factors is important for crafting interventions. This paper establishes adolescent suicide rates for the years 2007-2010 in Jamaica and provides related epidemiological data. Data pertaining to suicides were extracted from standardized data collected by the police. Information regarding the number of suicides among adolescents, 9-19 years of age, was reviewed for the years 2007-2010. Sociodemographic characteristics of cases: gender, location and occupation along with related variables were also examined. Variation of rates over time was ascertained. Statistically significant associations were determined by reference to p-values and confidence intervals. The incidence for suicide in adolescents was 1.1 per 100 000. Rates for males were significantly higher than females. Most suicide cases were students and the majority of cases was from rural areas (65%). Hanging was the main method used to commit suicide (96.2%). Items of clothing were commonly used for this purpose. Male adolescent suicide rates showed an upward trend in contrast to the downward trend for females in the four-year period studied. Continued surveillance is needed for greater understanding of adolescent suicides. Collaboration among health services, parents, schools and communities is integral in prevention efforts. Recent media coverage of suicides provides a window of opportunity to galvanize support for research and the development of intervention strategies.

  19. Socioeconomic factors associated with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbie S.; Younger-Coleman, Novie; Lyew-Ayee, Parris; Greene, Lisa-Gaye; Boyne, Michael S.; Forrester, Terrence E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic. Methods We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000–2013) in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Cases of SAM were grouped by community and the number of cases per community/year correlated to socioeconomic variables and geochemistry data for the relevant year. Results 375 cases of SAM were mapped across 204 urban and rural communities in Jamaica. The mean age at admission was 9 months (range 1–45 months) and 57% were male. SAM had a positive correlation with major crime (r = 0.53; P < 0.001), but not with educational attainment or the poverty index. For every one unit increase in the number of crimes reported, the rate of occurrence of SAM cases increased by 1.01% [Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.01 (95% CI = 1.006–1.014); P P<0.001]. The geochemistry data yielded no correlation between levels of heavy metals and the prevalence of malnutrition. Conclusion Major crime has an independent positive association with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaican infants. This could suggest that SAM and major crime might have similar sociological origins or that criminality at the community level may be indicative of reduced income opportunities with the attendant increase in poor nutrition in the home. PMID:28291805

  20. USING A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MODEL AS A FRAMEWORK FOR ADVANCEMENT OF SMALL-SCALE ECOTOURISM ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN JAMAICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn H. PEARCY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean island of Jamaica relies heavily upon tourism to support its economy. Despite the influx of significant tourism revenue, large numbers of Jamaica's indigenous people still face substantial economic hardships. This paper examines the potential for Jamaica to expand small-scale ecotourism entrepreneurship in order to improve the economic situation of larger numbers of its people. This analysis is conducted within a knowledge management framework, with particular emphasis placed upon the involvement of a wide array of stakeholders. The overall premise is that successful small-scale ecotourism entrepreneurship will rely on Jamaica's effective use of both its natural surroundings and its knowledge base as key assets.

  1. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  2. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  3. Factors associated with incomplete childhood immunization among residents of St. Mary parish of Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Faisal; Kimbrough, Denise; Roofe, Michele; McGwin, G; Jolly, Pauline

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate factors associated with caregiver failure to complete immunizations for their children in the parish of St. Mary, Jamaica. Methods A case-control study was conducted with 50 cases defined as caregivers who failed to immunize their children and 179 controls defined as caregivers of children who were properly immunized. The cases were caregivers of children who were randomly selected from clinic records of children who failed to complete their immunization within the study period. Contrarily, controls were caregivers of children who were identified to have completed their immunization from a similar list. Cases and controls were visited at home and interviewed using a validated questionnaire. Cases and controls were compared in terms of socio-demographic, economic and other variables. Results Participants with less than secondary school education were more likely to be non-compliant (odds ratio [OR], 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–5.97), while participants who were aware of legislation against non-compliance with immunization (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17–0.69) were less likely to fail to immunize their children. Conclusion Policy makers and program managers need to use established educational and communication channels to increase awareness about immunization especially among families with lower educational levels in the parish. PMID:21473405

  4. The status of HEU and LEU core conversion activities at the Jamaica SLOWPOKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, J.; Grant, C., E-mail: john.preston@uwimona.edu.jm [Univ. of the West Indies, Mona Campus, International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences, Kingston (Jamaica)

    2013-07-01

    The SLOWPOKE reactor in Jamaica has been operated by the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences, University of the West Indies since 1984, mainly for the purpose of Neutron Activation Analysis. The HEU core with current utilization has another 14 years of operation, before the addition of a large beryllium annulus would be required to further extend the life-time by 15 years. However, in keeping with the spirit of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, the decision was taken in 2003 to convert the core from HEU to LEU, inline with those at the Ecole Polytechnic and RMC SLOWPOKE facilities. This paper reports on the current status of the conversion activities, including key fuel manufacture and regulatory issues, which have seen substantial progress during the last year. A timetable for the complete process is given, and provided that the fuel fabrication can be completed in the estimated 18 months, the core conversion should be accomplished by the end of 2014. (author)

  5. HIV morbidity and mortality in Jamaica: analysis of national surveillance data, 1993–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Figueroa, Peter; Duncan, Jacqueline; Divi, Nomita; Wolf, Lindsey L.; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Robertson, Minnette; Harvey, Kevin; Whorms, Sheldon; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Gebre, Yitades

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objectives Pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) HIV-related survival and timing of HIV identification have not been reported from the Caribbean. Using Jamaican national surveillance data, we estimated overall, AIDS-free, and AIDS survival, identified factors influencing HIV-related mortality, and examined factors associated with late HIV/AIDS identification. Methods The Jamaican HIV/AIDS tracking system (HATS) national surveillance data included timing of first positive HIV test, stage at identification, date of AIDS diagnosis, and death. We estimated overall and AIDS-free survival by initial stage, using a proportional hazard model to identify factors associated with worse survival, and logistic regression to examine factors related to later case identification. Results Of 10 674 reported HIV cases, 48% were asymptomatic, 14% symptomatic, and 38% first reported with AIDS. Five-year AIDS-free survival was 77% for asymptomatic persons and 63% for symptomatic. Median survival after AIDS diagnosis was 1.02 years. Age, number of opportunistic diseases, and initial stage were strongly associated with mortality. Older age, drug use, and sex with a commercial sex worker were associated with later identification. Conclusions In the pre-ART era, over one-third of HIV-infected persons in Jamaica were first identified with advanced disease. This highlights the need for earlier diagnosis as ART programs roll out in the Caribbean. PMID:17706448

  6. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  7. Key geophysical indicators of seismic vulnerability in Kingston, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. A.; Hornbach, M. J.; Salazar, W.; Kennedy, M.

    2012-12-01

    Kingston, the major city and hub of all commercial and industrial activity in Jamaica, has a history of moderate seismic activity; however, two significant (>Mw 6) earthquakes (1692 and 1907) caused major devastation resulting in thousands of casualties. Both the 1692 and 1907 events also triggered widespread liquefaction and tsunamis within Kingston Harbor. Kingston remains vulnerable to these earthquakes today because the city sits on 200-m to 600-m thick alluvial fan deposits adjacent to the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault—the same fault system that activated during the Haiti 2010 earthquake. Recent GPS results suggest the potential for a Mw 7-7.5 earthquake near Kingston along the Enriquillo- Plantain Garden fault Zone (EPGFZ), the dominant east-west trending fault through Jamaica. Whether active strands EPGFZ extend through downtown Kingston remains unclear, however, recent sonar mapping in Kingston harbor show evidence for active faulting, with offshore faults connecting to proposed active on-land fault systems that extend through populated areas of the city. Seismic "Chirp" reflections also shows evidence for multiple recent (Holocene) submarine slide deposits in the harbor that may be associated with historic tsunamis. Using recently acquired chirp and sediment cores, we are currently studying the recurrence interval of earthquake events. We also recently performed a microtremor survey to identify areas prone to earthquake-induced ground shaking throughout the city of Kingston & St. Andrew parish. Data was collected at 200 points with a lateral spacing of 500 metres between each point. Our analysis shows significant variations in the fundamental frequency across the city and results clearly indicate areas of potential amplification, with areas surrounding Kingston harbor (much of which has been built on reclaimed land) showing the highest potential for ground amplification. The microtremor analysis suggests several high-density urban areas as well as key

  8. A Brief Report on the Association of Academic Tracking with Depressive Symptoms in High School Students in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A.; Halliday, Sharon; Morris-Patterson, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N.

    2010-01-01

    There has been limited research on academic tracking and depressive symptoms among high school students in Jamaica. Students enrolled in Grade 10 of traditional and nontraditional high schools in Jamaica were surveyed (N = 278). Students completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II along with several other measures. Seven in every 10 students…

  9. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda F. Morrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE and prostate specific antigen (PSA tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL. Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5–1059 ng/mL. Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  10. Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone in Jamaica: paleoseismology and seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R.D.; Mann, P.; Prentice, Carol S.; Brown, L.; Benford, B.; Grandison-Wiggins, M.

    2013-01-01

    The countries of Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic all straddle the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone ( EPGFZ), a major left-lateral, strike-slip fault system bounding the Caribbean and North American plates. Past large earthquakes that destroyed the capital cities of Kingston, Jamaica (1692, 1907), and Port-au-Prince, Haiti (1751, 1770), as well as the 2010 Haiti earthquake that killed more than 50,000 people, have heightened awareness of seismic hazards in the northern Caribbean. We present here new geomorphic and paleoseismic information bearing on the location and relative activity of the EPGFZ, which marks the plate boundary in Jamaica. Documentation of a river bank exposure and several trenches indicate that this fault is active and has the potential to cause major destructive earthquakes in Jamaica. The results suggest that the fault has not ruptured the surface in at least 500 yr and possibly as long as 28 ka. The long period of quiescence and subdued geomorphic expression of the EPGFZ indicates that it may only accommodate part of the ∼7–9 mm=yr plate deformation rate measured geodetically and that slip may be partitioned on other undocumented faults. Large uncertainties related to the neotectonic framework of Jamaica remain and more detailed fault characterization studies are necessary to accurately assess seismic hazards.

  11. Reliance on medicinal plant therapy among cancer patients in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kimberley; Younger, Novie; Aiken, William; Brady-West, Doreen; Delgoda, Rupika

    2017-11-01

    Patients' perspective of their treatment regime plays a vital role in its success. Recognizing the high prevalence of medicinal plant usage among Jamaicans at large, we investigated the engagement of such remedies by cancer patients, with the aim of uncovering self-medicating habits, perceptions and details of utilized plants. A structured, interviewer-based questionnaire was administered to 100 patients attending the oncology and urology clinics at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica. A method of convenience sampling was employed and the data were analyzed using summary statistics and statistical significance tests. A large proportion (n = 80, 80%) of interviewed patients, engaged medicinal plants in their treatment regimes. Such habits were independent of person's education, economic status and were higher among the 55-74 age groups (p Petiveria alliacea L. were the most commonly used plants for treating breast and prostate cancers, respectively. A large proportion of Jamaican cancer patients use medicinal plants in self-medicating practices and their perceptions and habits need to be considered by physicians, in the design of safe and effective care regimes.

  12. A theory-based intervention to improve breast cancer awareness and screening in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anakwenze, Chidinma P; Coronado-Interis, Evelyn; Aung, Maung; Jolly, Pauline E

    2015-05-01

    Despite declines in breast cancer mortality rates in developed countries, mortality rates remain high in Jamaica due to low levels of screening and lack of early detection. We hypothesized that a theory-based health educational intervention would increase awareness of breast cancer and intention to screen among women in Western Jamaica. Two hundred and forty six women attending hospitals or clinics were enrolled in an educational intervention consisting of a pretest, breast cancer presentation, and posttest if they had never been screened or had not been screened in 5 years or more. The questionnaires assessed attitudes and knowledge of risk factors and symptoms related to breast cancer. Participants were followed approximately 6 months after the intervention to determine whether they accessed breast cancer screening. There were statistically significant increases (p Jamaica and other developing countries.

  13. Leadership in surgery for public sector hospitals in Jamaica: strategies for the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica.Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys.

  14. Emergency department physician training in Jamaica: a national public hospital survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Eric W

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency Department (ED medical officers are often the first medical responders to emergencies in Jamaica because pre-hospital emergency response services are not universally available. Over the past decade, several new ED training opportunities have been introduced locally. Their precise impact on the health care system in Jamaica has not yet been evaluated. We sought to determine the level of training, qualifications and experience of medical officers employed in public hospital EDs across the nation. Methods A database of all medical officers employed in public hospital EDs was created from records maintained by the Ministry of Health in Jamaica. A specially designed questionnaire was administered to all medical officers in this database. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 10.0. Results There were 160 ED medical officers across Jamaica, of which 47.5% were males and the mean age was 32.3 years (SD +/- 7.1; Range 23–57. These physicians were employed in the EDs for a mean of 2.2 years (SD +/- 2.5; Range 0–15; Median 2.5 and were recent graduates of medical schools (Mean 5.1; SD +/- 5.9; Median 3 years. Only 5.5% of the medical officers had specialist qualifications (grade III/IV, 12.8% were grade II medical officers and 80.5% were grade I house officers or interns. The majority of medical officers had no additional training qualifications: 20.9% were exposed to post-graduate training, 27.9% had current ACLS certification and 10.3% had current ATLS certification. Conclusion The majority of medical officers in public hospital EDs across Jamaica are relatively inexperienced and inadequately trained. Consultant supervision is not available in most public hospital EDs. With the injury epidemic that exists in Jamaica, it is logical that increased training opportunities and resources are required to meet the needs of the population.

  15. Seismic hazard along the southern boundary of the Gônave microplate: block modelling of GPS velocities from Jamaica and nearby islands, northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, B.; DeMets, C.; Tikoff, B.; Williams, P.; Brown, L.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.

    2012-07-01

    We use block modelling of GPS site velocities from Jamaica and nearby islands, including Hispaniola, to test alternative plate boundary geometries for deformation in Jamaica and estimate slip rates along the island's major fault zones. Relative to the Caribbean Plate, GPS sites in northern Jamaica move 6.0 ± 0.5 mm yr-1 to the WSW, constituting a lower bound on the motion of the Gônave microplate across its southern boundary in Jamaica. Obliquely convergent motion of all 30 GPS sites on and near Jamaica relative to the island's ˜E-W-trending strike-slip faults may be partitioned into 2.6 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 of ˜N-S shortening across submarine faults south of Jamaica and 5-6 mm yr-1 of E-W motion. Guided by geological and seismic information about the strikes and locations of faults in Jamaica, inverse block modelling of the regional GPS velocities rejects plate boundary configurations that presume either a narrow plate boundary in Jamaica or deformation concentrated across a restraining bend defined by the topographically high Blue Mountains of eastern Jamaica. The best-fitting models instead place most deformation on faults in central Jamaica. The 4-5 mm yr-1 slip rate we estimate for the Plantain Garden fault and Blue Mountain restraining bend of southeastern Jamaica implies significant seismic hazard for the nearby capital of Kingston.

  16. Exploring the context of child sexual abuse in Jamaica: addressing the deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms, Kimika M; Cholewa, Blaire E

    2014-01-01

    Jamaican media sources have recently noted the prevalence of child sexual abuse within the country. While research has continually noted the mental health impact of child sexual abuse, there is a dearth of literature on the relationship between the two in Jamaica. The purpose of this article is to provide the context of child sexual abuse in Jamaica, including the cultural considerations, current legislation, government created agencies, and modes of treatment. Moreover, recommendations are given for public health educators, school personnel, and mental health service providers in order to improve the psychological well-being of sexually abuse children.

  17. Family relationships and sexual orientation disclosure to family by gay and bisexual men in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Yohann; Sandfort, Theo; Morgan, Kai; Carpenter, Karen; Pierre, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual men in Jamaica encounter stigma and discrimination due to criminalization of and negative attitudes towards same-sex sexuality. Disclosure of sexual orientation may be self-affirming, but could increase exposure to negative responses and stressors. Outcomes of an online survey among 110 gay and bisexual Jamaican men ages 18 to 56 years suggest that disclosure to family is affected by level of economic independence. Furthermore, negative familial responses to sexual identity significantly predicted depression. Social and structural interventions, and efforts to strengthen positive family relationships, are needed to foster an environment that enables well-being among sexual minorities in Jamaica. PMID:28243342

  18. O movimento RastafÃri: da Jamaica para identidade e cultura em Fortaleza.

    OpenAIRE

    DÃbora Andrade Pamplona Bezerra

    2012-01-01

    Esta pesquisa explora e descreve como o movimento RastafÃri tem se manifestado em Fortaleza, CearÃ. ApÃs um abrangente panorama do movimento conforme se originou na Jamaica, busquei caracterizar a diversidade da cultura e da organizaÃÃo do viver de alguns adeptos residentes em Fortaleza, comparando-os com aspectos gerais do movimento na Jamaica. Busquei tambÃm apontar para traÃos das suas vivÃncias que possam ter sido influenciados pela cultura e identidade brasileiras e cearenses. Adotando c...

  19. Tectonic geomorphology and paleoseismology of strike-slip faults in Jamaica: Implications for distribution of strain and seismic hazard along the southern edge of the Gonave microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R. D.; Mann, P.; Brown, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The east-west, left lateral strike-slip fault system forming the southern edge of the Gonave microplate crosses the110-km-long and 70-km-wide island of Jamaica. GPS measurements in the northeastern Caribbean are supportive of the microplate interpretation and indicate that ~ half of the Caribbean-North America left-lateral plate motion (8-14 mm/yr) is carried by the Plantain Garden (PGFZ) and associated faults in Jamaica. We performed Neotectonic mapping of the Plantain Garden fault along the southern rangefront of the Blue Mountains and conducted a paleoseismic study of the fault at Morant River. Between Holland Bay and Morant River, the fault is characterized by a steep, faceted, linear mountain front, prominent linear valleys and depressions, shutter ridges, and springs. At the eastern end of the island, the PGFZ is characterized by a left-stepping fault geometry that includes a major, active hot spring. The river cut exposure at Morant River exposes a 1.5-m-wide, sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and faulted Cretaceous basement rocks. This section is overlain by an, unfaulted 3-m-thick fluvial terrace inset into a late Pleistocene terrace that is culturally modified. Upward fault terminations indicate the occurrence of three paleoearthquakes that occurred prior to deposition of the flat lying inset terrace around 341-628 cal yr BP. At this time, our radiocarbon results suggest that we can rule out the PGFZ as the source of the 1907 Kingston earthquake 102 years ago, as well as, the 1692 event that destroyed Port Royal 317 years ago and produced a major landslide at Yallahs. Pending OSL ages will constrain the age of the penultimate and most recent ruptures. Gently to steeply dipping rocks as young as Pliocene exposed in roadcuts within the low coastal hills south of and parallel to the Plantain Garden fault may indicate active folding and blind thrust faulting. These structures are poorly characterized and may accommodate an unknown amount of

  20. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms-Rodriguez, Camille-Ann; Mazzulli, Tony; Christian, Nicole; Willey, Barbara M; Boyd, David A; Mataseje, Laura F; Mulvey, Michael R; Christie, Celia D C; Nicholson, Alison M

    2016-02-28

    The global dissemination of the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM) gene among certain strains of bacteria has serious implications since the infections caused by such organisms pose a therapeutic challenge. Although the NDM gene has been detected in various parts of the world, this is the first report of its detection in the English-speaking Caribbean. The NDM producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from an Indian patient who had recently relocated to Jamaica. Identification and susceptibility testing of the K. pneumoniae isolate was performed using the Vitek 2 automated system) in keeping with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards. It was identified as a metallobetalactamase producer using the Rosco KPC+MBL kit. Genotypic screening for common betalactamase (including carbapenemase) genes, was carried out  using two multiplex PCRs: one for SHV-, TEM-, CTX-M-, OXA-1-, and CMY-2-types, and one for VIM-, KPC-, IMP-, OXA-48, GES-, and NDM-types. Strain typing was conducted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI and multi-locus sequencing (MLS). Plasmid isolation and analysis was also performed. K. pneumoniae (N11-02395), not previously associated with the dissemination of the NDM in India, Sweden or the UK, was found to harbor the NDM-1 gene on plasmid pNDM112395. The identification of the NDM-1 gene underscores the need for effective surveillance and infection control measures to identify and prevent spread of multidrug resistant Gram negative bacilli. Strict infection control measures implemented for this patient helped to prevent the spread of this organism to other patients.

  1. An update on the burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Jamaica: findings from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T S; Francis, D K; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Younger, N O M; McFarlane, S R; Wilks, R J

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies have documented a high burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Jamaica and suggest that mortality from CVD may be increasing. This paper provides an update on the burden of CVD risk factors in Jamaica using data from the most recent national health survey and evaluates the impact of obesity and physical activity on other CVD risk factors. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008 (JHLS-2) recruited a nationally representative sample of 2848 Jamaicans, 15-74 years old between November 2007 and March 2008. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographic characteristics, medical history and health behaviour Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were made using standardized protocols and capillary blood samples were obtained to measure fasting glucose and total cholesterol. Prevalence estimates for the various CVD risk factors were obtained within and across sex and other demographic categories. Data were weighted for the complex survey design, nonresponse to questionnaire items or failure to complete some segments of the evaluation. Prevalence estimates for traditional CVD risk factors were: hypertension, 25%; diabetes, 8%; hypercholesterolaemia, 12%; obesity, 25%; smoking 15%. In addition, 35% of Jamaicans had prehypertension, 3% had impaired fasting glucose and 27% were overweight. A higher proportion of women had diabetes, obesity and hypercholesterolaemia while the prevalence of prehypertension and cigarette smoking was higher in men. Approximately 50% of persons with hypertension, 25% of persons with diabetes and 86% of persons with hypercholesterolaemia were unaware of their risk status. In multivariate analysis, obesity was associated with increased odds of hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia while physical inactivity was associated with higher odds of diabetes. The burden of CVD risk factors in Jamaica remains very high and warrants interventions to reduce CVD risk.

  2. Wastewater Out Front in Bay Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean Water Act programs administered by EPA and the delegated states have played a central role in the success of the wastewater sector in effectively meeting nutrient limits in the Chesapeake Bay “pollution diet” a decade early.

  3. High patient satisfaction with nurse practitioner delivered services at two health centres in urban Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Khadene; Hepburn-Brown, Cerese; Anderson-Johnson, Pauline; Lindo, Jascinth L M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To explore the level of patient satisfaction with nurse practitioner delivered services at two health centres in urban Jamaica. A cross sectional survey of 120 adult clients (age ≥18 years old) seen by Nurse Practitioner at a Type 3 or Type 5 health centre in Kingston, Jamaica was conducted using a modified self-administered Nurse Practitioner Satisfaction Survey questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS® version 18 for Windows®. The study achieved response rate of 91.6% (N = 120). The majority were females (77%) with an average age of 40 ± 16 years. Most (63%) were from the Type 5 health centre and the rest (37%) were from a Type 3 facility. The mean general satisfaction score was 81 out of a possible 90 and 83% of the respondents reported they were very satisfied with another 17% expressing that they were satisfied with the nurse practitioner services at both facilities. No respondent was dissatisfied. The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among respondents 40 years and older than that of their younger counterparts. Socio demographic and organisation characteristics were not associated with the mean satisfaction score. A high level of satisfaction exists among patients seen by nurse practitioners at two facilities in Kingston, Jamaica. This may represent an opportunity for expanded role of Nurse practitioners in the delivery of primary in Jamaica.

  4. Influence of Accountability on the Administration of Student Loans in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Lack of accountability and transparency in governance was among the challenges that influenced Jamaica's corruption rating of 3.3, resulting in an 87th ranking out of 183 countries in 2011. Although the monitoring of internal control business structures supported accountability, evidence of their presence was limited in government offices. The…

  5. Political Geographies of Academic Development in Jamaica, Ethiopia and Japan: Reflections on the Impossibilities of Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…

  6. Theatre-Arts Pedagogy for Social Justice: Case Study of the Area Youth Foundation in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I describe and analyse the socio-educational significance of a theatre arts approach to learning for young adults in Jamaica, implemented by the Area Youth Foundation (AYF). Briefly outlining the genesis and development of the AYF, I provide snapshots of the experiences and destinations of some of its young participants. The paper…

  7. Politics, Religion and Social Connections: Pillars for Progression among Primary Teachers in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions about teacher progression among Jamaica's primary schoolteachers should force society to stop and ask itself several questions. Are these perceptions accurate? If not, how did these perceptions emerge and what can national leaders and those in positions of authority do to "manage" if not resolve these perceptions? If there is…

  8. Maternal and Paternal Age Are Jointly Associated with Childhood Autism in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Loveland, Katherine A.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Bressler, Jan; Chen, Zhongxue; Ardjomand-Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Grove, Megan L.; Beecher, Compton; Bloom, Kari; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported maternal and paternal age as risk factors for having a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), yet the results remain inconsistent. We used data for 68 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs collected from Jamaica. Using Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) and controlling for parity, gestational age, and…

  9. The Rise of Private Higher Education in Jamaica: Neo-Liberalism at Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Chad O.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of private higher education in Jamaica plays a key role in expanding educational access to the masses. The shift towards the neo-liberal perspective has directed the focus of education policy reforms toward emphasizing economic efficiency, diversity in choice, and market mechanisms. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain…

  10. Children at Risk: A Review of Sexual Abuse Incidents and Child Protection Issues in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The right of children to be protected from abuse is grounded in international law. Children should be free to enjoy their childhoods and to engage with their physical environment without fear for their safety. In recent years, girls and women in Jamaica have been targeted by men who rape and/or otherwise sexually assault them. This is without…

  11. Experiences of Violence and Deficits in Academic Achievement among Urban Primary School Children in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Meeks-Gardner, Julie; Chang, Susan; Walker, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's experiences of three different types of violence and academic achievement among primary school children in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1300 children in grade 5 [mean (S.D.) age: 11 (0.5) years] from 29 government primary schools in urban…

  12. Quality of customer service: perceptions from guests in all-inclusive resorts in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel L. Frater

    2007-01-01

    With data collected from guests in all-inclusive resorts in Jamaica, West Indies, the purposes of this study were to: (1) delineate unique dimensions of customer service perceptions among guests and (2) report the finding of a study that measured guests' perceptions of the quality of customer service in all-inclusive resorts. The study asked the following research...

  13. Copepoda (Siphonostomatoida) associated with Ophiuroidea in Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humes, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Three new siphonostomatoid copepods are associated with Ophiuroidea in the tropical western Atlantic. Collocheres vervoorti spec. nov., from Ophiothrix angulata in Jamaica, has an elongate, gently tapered genital double-somite in the female and the second segment of leg 5 has a distal outer notch.

  14. Overcoming Smallness through Education Development: A Comparative Analysis of Jamaica and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Between 1960 and 2010, Singapore's real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita skyrocketed from $4,383 to $55,862, while Jamaica's barely increased from $6,417 to $8,539. It is plausible that differing rates of GDP growth are associated with differences in the development of education systems but causally the linkage is not well understood. Using…

  15. Sexual Violence and Reproductive Health among Young People in Three Communities in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Wedderburn, Maxine; McCarraher, Donna; Cuthbertson, Carmen; Pottinger, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    A secondary analysis of data collected from 1,130 young people ages 15 to 24 in a population-based household survey to assess the reproductive health needs of young people in three communities in Jamaica was conducted to determine the relationships among three measures of sexual violence, background variables, three measures of sexual risk taking…

  16. Teaching Tourism in Jamaica: Developing Students' Critical Consciousness and Intercultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Carey; Rex, Cathy

    2018-01-01

    Within this article, we convey ideas about stereotypes and ethnic supremacy that many university students tend to hold about Jamaica and the challenges of disabusing travellers of these notions and to achieve educational goals related to equity, diversity and inclusivity. We explore the concept of the "tourism imaginary" and key ideas in…

  17. Languages as Socio-Cultural Capital in the Context of Contemporary Linguistic Reality of Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper, "Languages as Socio-Cultural Capital in the Context of Contemporary Linguistic Reality of Jamaica." examines how the narratives of students can offer useful understanding and insights into their attitudes and achievements in second language acquisition. These situations are specific to Creole-speaking learning environments in…

  18. Crime and insurgent citizenship: extra-state rule and belonging in urban Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffe, R.

    2012-01-01

    Through an analysis of the ‘don’ system in Jamaica, Rivke Jaffe explores alternatives concepts of citizenships. She argues that new definitions of belonging to a political community, and the rights and responsibilities associated with these memberships, can take shape within a shifting spatial logic

  19. Early Childhood Care and Education in Jamaica. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Global Influences on a Local Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead-Clark, Zoyah

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to contribute to the dearth of literature pertaining to the impact of globalisation on education in Jamaica. Focussing on the early childhood level, it outlines the perceptions of stakeholders regarding the trajectory of sector development and highlights how they have had to accommodate their practices. Teachers,…

  20. Infinite Rehearsal of Culture in St Catherine Jamaica: Heritage as Tourist Product, Implications for Caribbean Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 20 years educational policies across the globe have become more closely aligned with industry interests. Jamaica is no exception. But what does this mean when the country's leading "industry" is tourism? It is no coincidence that in this decade the Ministry for Education became the Ministry for Education and Culture. When…

  1. Human Rights as Safeguarding: The Schooling Experiences of HIV+ Children in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul; Kelly, Kemesha; Spawls, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The interface between HIV/AIDS, education and human rights is an important issue in Jamaican society. The spread of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean is second only to that in Africa, and Jamaica itself has the second highest numbers of HIV+ individuals within the Caribbean region. Using a qualitative methodology, this exploratory study aimed to discern…

  2. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    CHOW, Barbara A., 1997. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 1-22. Observations are given for the first time of West Harbour, a pristine south-coast Jamaican mangal. West Harbour is shown to be a

  3. Fossil Crustacea of the Late Pleistocene Port Morant Formation, west Port Morant Harbour, southeastern Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Donovan, S.K.; Stemann, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene Port Morant Formation of southeast Jamaica is particularly rich in fossil marine crustaceans. A new locality on the west side of Port Morant Harbour, parish of St. Thomas, has yielded decapods including the callianassids Lepidophthalmus jamaicense? (Schmitt ), Neocallichirus

  4. Getting Past the Gatekeeper: Safeguarding and Access Issues in Researching HIV+ Children in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul; Kelly, Kemesha; Spawls, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This article is derived from a recently completed research study on the "Schooling Experiences of HIV+ Children in Jamaica". It is written against the background of researching children generally, and also in the context of researching vulnerable children, specifically those who are HIV+. Research carries with it various notions of power…

  5. Caribbean Women Finding a Balance between Returning to Higher Education and Being Successful: Voices from Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black-Chen, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a dramatic increase in continuing education enrollment among non-traditional-aged females both in Jamaica and overseas. This article explores the academic experiences of Jamaican women returning to college, placing emphasis on support services within the higher education institutions attended and on these…

  6. First report of the complete sequence of Sida golden yellow vein virus from Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cheryl S; Kon, Tatsuya; Gilbertson, Robert L; Roye, Marcia E

    2011-08-01

    Begomoviruses are phytopathogens that threaten food security [18]. Sida spp. are ubiquitous weed species found in Jamaica. Sida samples were collected island-wide, DNA was extracted via a modified Dellaporta method, and the viral genome was amplified using degenerate and sequence-specific primers [2, 11]. The amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that a DNA-A molecule isolated from a plant in Liguanea, St. Andrew, was 90.9% similar to Sida golden yellow vein virus-[United States of America:Homestead:A11], making it a strain of SiGYVV. It was named Sida golden yellow vein virus-[Jamaica:Liguanea 2:2008] (SiGYVV-[JM:Lig2:08]). The cognate DNA-B, previously unreported, was successfully cloned and was most similar to that of Malvastrum yellow mosaic Jamaica virus (MaYMJV). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that this virus was most closely related to begomoviruses that infect malvaceous hosts in Jamaica, Cuba and Florida in the United States.

  7. Load estimation and assessment of land-based pollution for Quanzhou Bay and their relevance to the Total Quantity Control of Pollutants Discharged into the Sea (TQCPS) Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W. L.; Yang, S. Y.; Wang, J.; Xiao, J. M.; Lu, X. X.; Lin, J.; Huang, P.; Cai, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Total Quantity Control of Pollutants Discharged into the Sea (TQCPS) Program belonged to the Public Science and Technology Research Funds Projects of Ocean in China, launched in 2008. As one of the most important and typical demonstration cases of the TQCPS Program, a full investigation of the land-based pollutions discharges around Quanzhou Bay, China developed the total input for three main environmental factors (NH3-N, TP, COD) which were estimated and quantified in 2008 and 2012, respectively. Combined with the trend of seawater quality changes in Quanzhou Bay in the same periods, the effects of the program's implementation were then evaluated. On the whole, by using the basic survey data and export coefficient method, the total amounts of NH3-N, TP and COD discharged into the bay were estimated to be approximately 888.3, 130.6 and 14527.4 t/a in 2008, and 1518.6, 558.8 and 19986.7 t/a in 2012, respectively, where the percentage of the discharge from domestic sources (46.5% in 2008 and 45.2% in 2012) was generally higher than that from the other sources. Based on the characteristic of geography and administrative division, the land areas around the bay were divided into three parts: the south coast region (SCR), the west coast region (WCR), and the north coast region (NCR). The SCR and WCR accounted for 59.2 and 35.4% of the COD loads, and 49.2 and 48.0% of NH3-N loads in 2008. The NCR contributed less of the industrial pollution, but most to domestic pollution (54.1%), followed by 26.2% in the SCR in 2012. The contributions of the discharge from different land areas to the pollution of Quanzhou Bay were found to be differed in 2008 and 2012. Due to the difference in the levels of the economic development among these three areas, the discharge of pollutants from the north coast was much lower than that from the other two parts in 2008; however, following our suggestion of the moderation and optimization of the industrial distribution and the sewage

  8. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model on a small tropical island (Great River Watershed, Jamaica as a tool in Integrated Watershed and Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orville P. Grey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Great River Watershed, located in north-west Jamaica, is critical for development, particularly for housing, tourism, agriculture, and mining. It is a source of sediment and nutrient loading to the coastal environment including the Montego Bay Marine Park. We produced a modeling framework using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and GIS. The calculated model performance statistics for high flow discharge yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE value of 0.68 and a R² value of 0.70 suggesting good measured and simulated (calibrated discharge correlation. Calibration and validation results for streamflow were similar to the observed streamflows. For the dry season the simulated urban landuse scenario predicted an increase in surface runoff in excess of 150%. During the wet season it is predicted to range from 98 to 234% presenting a significant risk of flooding, erosion and other environmental issues. The model should be used for the remaining 25 watersheds in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. The models suggests that projected landuse changes will have serious impacts on available water (streamflow, stream health, potable water treatment, flooding and sensitive coastal ecosystems.

  9. Effectiveness of a pressurized stormwater filtration system in Green Bay, Wisconsin: a study for the environmental technology verification program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwatich, J.A.; Corsi, Steven R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2004-01-01

    A pressurized stormwater filtration system was installed in 1998 as a stormwater-treatment practice to treat runoff from a hospital rooftop and parking lot in Green Bay, Wisconsin. This type of filtration system has been installed in Florida citrus groves and sewage treatment plants around the United States; however, this installation is the first of its kind to be used to treat urban runoff and the first to be tested in Wisconsin. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored the system between November 2000 and September 2002 to evaluate it as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Fifteen runoff events were monitored for flow and water quality at the inlet and outlet of the system, and comparison of the event mean concentrations and constituent loads was used to evaluate its effectiveness. Loads were decreased in all particulate-associated constituents monitored, including suspended solids (83 percent), suspended sediment (81 percent), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (26 percent), total phosphorus (54 percent), and total recoverable zinc (62 percent). Total dissolved solids, dissolved phosphorus, and nitrate plus nitrite loads remained similar or increased through the system. The increase in some constituents was most likely due to a ground-water contribution between runoff events. Sand/silt split analysis resulted in the median silt content of 78 percent at the inlet, 87 percent at the outlet, and 3 percent at the flow splitter.

  10. Rapid increases in obesity in Jamaica, compared to Nigeria and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Luke, Amy; Cooper, Richard S; Cao, Guichan; Dugas, Lara; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Boyne, Michael; Forrester, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Background Weight gain in adulthood is now common in many populations, ranging from modest gains in developing countries to a substantial percentage of body weight in some Western societies. To examine the rate of change across the spectrum of low to high-income countries we compared rates of weight change in samples drawn from three countries, Nigeria, Jamaica and the United States. Methods Population samples from Nigeria (n = 1,242), Jamaica (n = 1,409), and the US (n = 809) were selected during the period 1995–1999 in adults over the age of 19; participation rates in the original survey were 96%, 60%, and 60%, respectively. Weight in (kg) was measured on 3 different occasions, ending in 2005. Multi-level regression models were used to estimate weight change over time and pattern-mixture models were applied to assess the potential effect of missing data on estimates of the model parameters. Results The unadjusted weight gain rate (standard error) was 0.34(0.06), 1.26(0.12), 0.34(0.19) kg/year among men and 0.43(0.06), 1.28(0.10), 0.40(0.15) kg/year among women in Nigeria, Jamaica, US, respectively. Regression-adjusted weight change rates were significantly different across country, sex, and baseline BMI. Adjusted weight gain in Nigeria, Jamaica and US was 0.31(0.05), 1.37(.04), and 0.52(0.05) kg/year respectively. Women in Nigeria and the US had higher weight gains than men, with the converse observed among Jamaicans. The obese experienced weight loss across all three samples, whereas the normal weight (BMI Jamaica, relative to Nigeria and the US, is most likely attributable to the accelerating effects of the cultural and behavioral shifts which have come to bear on transitional societies. PMID:18433493

  11. The epidemiology of suicide in Jamaica 2002-2010: rates and patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, W D; James, K; Bridgelal-Nagassar, R; Holder-Nevins, D; Eldemire, H; Thompson, E; Sewell, C

    2012-08-01

    Suicide is increasingly recognized as a worldwide problem. There is a paucity of quality data pertaining to suicide in developing countries. Epidemiological analysis of suicide data elucidates prevailing patterns that facilitate risk factor identification and the development of germane programmatic responses. This paper analyses temporal variations in suicide rates for the years 2002-2010 in Jamaica and describes the sociodemographic profile of cases and method of suicide for the latter four years. Data pertaining to suicides were extracted from the police (The Jamaica Constabulary Force) records. These were summarized and analysed with respect to person, place and time. Population statistics for the computation of rates were obtained from publications of the Statistical Institute of Jamaica. Age-standardized rates were generated for comparison of trends over time. Poisson and binomial probabilities were used to determine statistically significant differences in rates. Suicide rates in Jamaica have remained relatively stable for the period reviewed with mean overall annual incidence of 2.1 per 100 000 population. Rates for males were significantly higher than those for females. The majority (90.4%) of suicide cases were males. A trend for higher rates of suicide was generally noted in the 25-34-year and the 75-year and over age groups. Hanging was the main method used to commit suicide (77.5%). Age-adjusted rates of suicide indicate no significant changes in Jamaica over the period 2002 to 2010. Continued surveillance of suicide as well as improved recording of the circumstances surrounding suicides are recommended to promote greater understanding of suicides and this will ultimately inform intervention strategies.

  12. The Dangerous Drugs Act Amendment in Jamaica: Reviewing goals, implementation, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Steven; Pardo, Bryce

    2016-11-01

    After decades of internal discussion, the Government of Jamaica recently amended its laws to create a regulated and licensed cannabis industry for medical and scientific purposes. The new law also decriminalizes personal possession and use of cannabis; allows cannabis to be used by individuals for religious, medical, scientific and therapeutic purposes; and permits home cultivation of up to five plants. We first describe the statutory changes under the Dangerous Drugs (Amendment) Act of 2015 and compare it with other jurisdictions. We provide an analytical framework for understanding how the DDA Amendment affects key populations and achieves its stated goals, drawing on publicly available information and unstructured interviews with non-governmental stakeholders in Jamaica. The Amendment's primary goals are to deliver economic impact and reduce criminal justice costs. A relaxed policy of enforcement toward possession and use seems to have occurred even before the law's passage; after the law's passage, enforcement remains limited. To access medical cannabis under the DDA residents must receive authorization from a certified health professional in Jamaica; tourists may self-declare their medical need; and Rastafarians may grow and exchange non-commercially for religious purposes. Internally, many see "ganja" as an industry sorely needed to drive economic growth in Jamaica. Indeed, the potential impacts could be large, especially if Jamaica draws additional tourism or creates a viable export industry. A growing cannabis-related tourism industry seems more realistic. We maintain that policymakers and observers should proceed in an orderly fashion, continuing to identify and resolve remaining uncertainties, initiate new types of data collection, and make decisions based on realistic assessments of potentials for economic impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among socio-economically vulnerable men who have sex with men in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, J Peter; Cooper, Carol Jones; Edwards, Jessie K; Byfield, Lovette; Eastman, Shashauna; Hobbs, Marcia M; Weir, Sharon S

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica and explores social determinants of HIV infection among MSM. An island-wide cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited by peer referral and outreach was conducted in 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered and HIV/STI tests done. We compared three groups: MSM who accepted cash for sex within the past 3 months (MSM SW), MSM who did not accept cash for sex (MSM non-SW), and MSM with adverse life events (ever raped, jailed, homeless, victim of violence or low literacy). HIV prevalence among 449 MSM was 31.4%, MSM SW 41.1%, MSM with adverse life events 38.5%, 17 transgender MSM (52.9%), and MSM non-SW without adverse events 21.0%. HIV prevalence increased with age and number of adverse life events (test for trend P Jamaica is probably in the range of 20%. The study illustrates the importance of social vulnerability in driving the HIV epidemic. Programs to empower young MSM, reduce social vulnerability and other structural barriers including stigma and discrimination against MSM are critical to reduce HIV transmission.

  14. Assessment of existing local houses condition as analysis tools for shore housing improvement program in Weriagar district, Bintuni Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, F.; Fernando, A.; Allo, I. P. R.

    2018-01-01

    The housing assessment is a part of the pre-feasibility study inThe Shore Housing Improvement Program in Weriagar District, West Papua. The housing assessment was conducted to identify the physical condition of existing houses. The parameters of assessment formulated from local references, practices and also national building regulation that covers each building system components, such as building structure/frame, building floor, building cover, and building roof. This study aims to explains lessons from local practices and references, used as the formula to generate assessment parameter, elaborate with Indonesia building regulation. The result of housing assessment were used as a basis to develop the house improvement strategy, the design alternative for housing improvement and further planning recommendations. The local knowledges involved in housing improvement program expected that the local-based approach could respect to the local build culture, respect the local environment, and the most important can offer best suitable solutions for functional utility and livability.

  15. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity in Four Bays of the Florida Panhandle: Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, St. Andrew and Apalachicola

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The toxicity of sediments in Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, St. Andrew and Apalachicola Bays was determined as part of bioeffects assessments performed by NOAA's...

  16. Forward Stagewise Naive Bayes

    OpenAIRE

    Vidaurre Henche, Diego; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga Múgica, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The naïve Bayes approach is a simple but often satisfactory method for supervised classification. In this paper, we focus on the naïve Bayes model and propose the application of regularization techniques to learn a naïve Bayes classifier. The main contribution of the paper is a stagewise version of the selective naïve Bayes, which can be considered a regularized version of the naïve Bayes model. We call it forward stagewise naïve Bayes. For comparison’s sake, we also introduce an explicitly r...

  17. Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Jones, Nicolette; Ahmed, Uzma; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2017-04-06

    Transgender women are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Transgender women involved in sex work may experience exacerbated violence, social exclusion, and HIV vulnerabilities, in comparison with non-sex work-involved transgender women. Scant research has investigated sex work among transgender women in the Caribbean, including Jamaica, where transgender women report pervasive violence. The study objective was to examine factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica. In 2015, we implemented a cross-sectional survey using modified peer-driven recruitment with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica, in collaboration with a local community-based AIDS service organization. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with paid sex and transactional sex. Exchanging oral, anal or vaginal sex for money only was categorized as paid sex. Exchanging sex for survival needs (food, accommodation, transportation), drugs or alcohol, or for money along with survival needs and/or drugs/alcohol, was categorized as transactional sex. Among 137 transgender women (mean age: 24.0 [SD: 4.5]), two-thirds reported living in the Kingston area. Overall, 25.2% reported being HIV-positive. Approximately half (n = 71; 51.82%) reported any sex work involvement, this included sex in exchange for: money (n = 64; 47.06%); survival needs (n = 27; 19.85%); and drugs/alcohol (n = 6; 4.41%). In multivariable analyses, paid sex and transactional sex were both associated with: intrapersonal (depression), interpersonal (lower social support, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, multiple partners/polyamory), and structural (transgender stigma, unemployment) factors. Participants reporting transactional sex also reported increased odds of incarceration perceived to be due to transgender identity, forced sex, homelessness, and lower resilience, in comparison with participants reporting

  18. Antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Jamaica Resistencia a antibióticos en cepas clínicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Brown

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Jamaica, and to obtain baseline information on the presence of this important pathogen. METHODS: A total of 51 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, obtained from 162 clinical specimens from major hospitals and laboratories in seven parishes in Jamaica, were analyzed between May and August 2002. Isolates were tested against 18 different antibiotics by a disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Organisms were cultured from wound swabs (56%, high vaginal swabs (10.5% and ear swabs (42.5%. Overall, the highest percentage rates of resistance were found for cefaclor (100% of all isolates, nalidixic acid (82.4%, kanamycin (76.5%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (56.9%. Resistance rates were 25.5% or lower for tobramycin, gentamicin and polymyxin B, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, piperacillin, carbapenems and amikacin. Forty-one isolates showed intermediate sensitivity to most of the antipseudomonal antibiotics, and the remaining 10 isolates were resistant to eight or more antibiotics. The multiresistant isolates, most of which were hospital isolates, were all resistant to tetracycline, nalidixic acid and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and highly (80%-90% resistant to kanamycin, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that antibiotic resistance in this clinical pathogen is emerging in Jamaica, and suggests that due care must be taken in hospital settings to adequately diagnose pseudomonal infections and prescribe the antibiotic treatment most effective in preventing the increase in multidrug resistant organisms.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la resistencia a antibióticos de cepas clínicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en Jamaica y obtener información de base sobre la presencia de este agente patógeno importante. MÉTODOS: Entre mayo y agosto de 2002 se analizó un total de 51 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa que se obtuvieron de 162 especímenes cl

  19. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Points, SF Bay CA, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  20. Brote epidémico de denguevirus 2, genotipo Jamaica, en Bolivia Epidemic outbreak of dengue virus 2/subgroup Jamaica in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gianella

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Confirmar la presencia de brote de dengue en la ciudad de Santa Cruz, Bolivia, así como identificar el denguevirus causal, estimar la tasa de ataque y determinar la proporción de infecciones sintomáticas. Material y métodos. En marzo de 1997 se realizó una encuesta seroepidemiológica con muestreo aleatorio en un distrito céntrico de la ciudad. Se obtuvo información sobre episodios de enfermedad aguda, antecedentes de cuadro febril reciente y muestras de sangre venosa. Se determinó la presencia de IgM antidengue con el método MAC ELISA y se procedió a la tipificación del virus con tecnología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM en 6.5% de los adultos (IC95% 3.4-9.6 y 5.1% de los niños (IC 95% 2.0-8.2. El virus circulante fue identificado como dengue serotipo 2, genotipo Jamaica. Menos de la mitad de los niños infectados tuvieron una infección sintomática, contra casi 90% de los adultos. Conclusiones. La tasa de ataque estimada es compatible con una epidemia de dengue en Santa Cruz. La introducción del serotipo 2 - Jamaica en el país aumenta el riesgo de dengue hemorrágico.Objective. To confirm an epidemic outbreak of Dengue virus in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, and to determine the serotype of the virus, to estimate the rate of attack and the proportion of symptomatic infections. Material and methods. In March 1997, a seroepidemiological survey was conducted with random sampling in a central district of the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Information on recent acute illness and febrile episodes was gathered, and venous blood samples were obtained. Levels of antidengue IgM were determined by MAC Elisa and the virus was tipified with RT-PCR. Results. IgM antibodies were detected in 6.5% of adults (CI 95% 3.4-9.6 and 5.1% of children (CI 95% 2.0-8.2. Circulating virus was identified as Dengue serotype 2, subgroup Jamaica. Less than half of the infected children experienced

  1. The prevalence of personality disorder in a general medical hospital population in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J; Walcott, G; Clarke, T R; Barton, E N; Hickling, F W

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of personality disorders in patients admitted to the general medical wards of the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). Patients (n = 100) sequentially admitted to the general medical wards of the UHWI were assessed for the diagnosis of personality disorder using the gold standard of a consultant assessment based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for personality disorder, the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening questionnaire (IPDE-S) and the Jamaica Personality Disorder Inventory (JPDI). The three assessment instruments identified a prevalence of personality disorder in the cohort of patients of 21% consultant DSM IV-TR assessment, 28% JPDI and 70% IPDE-S. The prevalence rate identified by the IPDE-S was significantly higher than the local instruments used (p Jamaica is significantly higher than the prevalence rate of studies in other countries.

  2. Tectono-stratigraphic development of the Coastal Group of south-eastern Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Williamson, Sherene A.; Mitchell, Simon F.; Ramsook, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    The sedimentary succession of southeastern Jamaica preserves a depositional record of accommodation changes and tectonic events for the last 14 Ma. The depositional systems which occur in the area have been classified according to distinct tectono-stratigraphic packages based on the depositional environments, rapid facies changes, and or significant erosion surfaces. This paper places the sedimentology and geochemistry within a tectonic evolutionary framework for the northern margin of the Caribbean Plate over the last 14 Ma. This involves considering issues of changing accommodation; deformation episodes including folding and faulting and the subsequent cutting of unconformities. A model for the tectono-stratigraphic development of southeastern Jamaica is also proposed. The model incorporates critical surfaces, major faults, subsidence and uplift which later influence the depositional environments.

  3. The prevalence of personality disorder in a psychiatric and substance abuse population in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, G; Martin, J; Hickling, F W

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of personality disorders in patients admitted to the psychiatric wards of the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). Patients (n = 100) sequentially admitted to the psychiatric wards of the UHWI were assessed for personality disorder using the gold standard of a consultant assessment using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for personality disorder, the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening questionnaire (IPDE-S), and the Jamaica Personality Disorder Inventory (JPDI). The three assessment instruments identified a prevalence of personality disorder in the cohort of patients of 51% consultant DSM-IV-TR assessment, 57% JPDI and 86% IPDE-S. The prevalence rate identified by the IPDE-S was significantly higher that the local instruments used (p Jamaica is comparable to the prevalence rate of studies in other countries in a similar population.

  4. Children's exposure to violence in Jamaica: over a decade of research and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, A M

    2012-07-01

    Many children in Jamaica are exposed to violence of various forms in settings where they should be protected, namely, their homes, schools and communities. Schools in particular which were once seen as safe havens have been in the media with reports of student on student violence, student on teacher violence, teacher on student violence and community on school violence. This paper presents research findings over the last 15 years out of The University of the West Indies (UWI), Mona, Jamaica on the nature and prevalence of violence exposure, outcomes and associated risk and protective factors. It also highlights psychologically-driven interventions and policy papers addressing violence exposure coming out of the Department of Child and Adolescent Health, UWI, Mona, during the past decade.

  5. Remote Acculturation of Early Adolescents in Jamaica towards European American Culture: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as “Americanization”. This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica (n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families. PMID:25709142

  6. ‘Race’ and inequality in postcolonial urban settings Examples from Peru, Jamaica, and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J.M. Nas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we present three case studies of Peru, Jamaica and Indonesia toillustrate the use of the concept of race in daily life in relation to labour, popularculture and beauty respectively. These cases demonstrate how the use of theconcept of race changes in the transition from a colonial into a postcolonialsetting, depending on the role of the state and nation building. In Peru, we seea clear continuation of racialized thinking; thinking and speaking in terms of‘race’ is still the norm. In Jamaica we find a process of inversion: the concept ofrace is maintained as a frame of societal analysis, but blackness is revalidatedand has become a prerequisite for national and cultural belonging. In Indonesiaracialized categorizations have disappeared almost completely as ‘race’ hasbecome subjected to the development rhetoric, which just allows limited spacefor ethnic manifestations. However, discrimination on other rhetorical basis,such as non-citizenship, remains.

  7. The molecular characterisation of a Sida-infecting begomovirus from Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cheryl; Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria; Graham, André; Martin, Darren; Gilbertson, Robert; Roye, Marcia

    2014-02-01

    The complete DNA sequence of both genome components of a new begomovirus (Sida golden mosaic Buckup virus-[Jamaica:St. Elizabeth:2004]; SiGMBuV-[JM:SE:04]) was determined from a field-infected Sida sp. sample from Buckup, St. Elizabeth, Jamaica. Phylogenetically, both genome components of SiGMBuV-[JM:SE:04] are most closely related to malvaceous weed-infecting Floridian and Mexican begomoviruses. Its DNA-B is a recombinant molecule, the majority of which was derived from a virus resembling Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005] (SiYMYuV-[MX:Yuc:05]), while nucleotides 43-342 were derived from a virus resembling Sida golden mosaic virus-[United States of America:Florida] (SiGMV-[US:Flo]). Symptomatic infectivity of our cloned SiGMBuV-[JM:SE:04] components was confirmed in Nicotiana benthamiana.

  8. Minimal health impact from exposure to diet-sourced cadmium on a population in central Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul R D; Rattray, Robin; Lalor, Gerald; Hanson, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring Cd have been found mainly in the bauxitic soils of central Jamaica at levels up to 100-1,000 times higher than typical worldwide averages. Some food crops cultivated on these soils absorb significant amounts of Cd. Autopsy studies of kidney Cd concentrations confirm elevated human exposure, and some long-term residents in central Jamaica exceed the general population average by a factor of two. Diet studies have ascertained that a population in central Jamaica is at risk of being exposed to Cd levels in excess of the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) set by the WHO of 7 μgCd/kg bodyweight/week, and the EU TWI of 2.5 μgCd/kg bodyweight/week. Elevated levels of urine cadmium (U-Cd) and beta-2 microglobulin (β2-MG) concentrations were confirmed with a strong correlation between soil Cd and the U-Cd. Also, higher β2-MG concentrations (>200μg/g creatinine) were found in the population with U-Cd concentrations greater than 2.5μg/L. While this identification is often taken to indicate impairment in the reabsorption capacity of the renal tubules leading to renal disease, there is no evidence in the mortality records of enhanced deaths in central Jamaica compared with the general population resulting from renal disease or diabetes related complications. The highest median age of death in the island is found in Manchester, the parish with the highest average Cd concentration. While we have identified a possible Cd linked renal dysfunction, significant indications of morbidity are not present in the general population.

  9. Assessment of fish consumption and mercury exposure among pregnant women in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Phylicia; Basu, Niladri; Fletcher, Horace; Voutchkov, Mitko; Bassaw, Bharat

    2016-12-01

    Fish is an essential and traditional element in the diet of most Caribbean people. However it also contains methylmercury which can have severe effects on fetal neurodevelopment. The objective of this study was to assess the fish intake of a selected group of pregnant women from Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago and evaluate prenatal mercury exposure, using the placenta as a biomarker. Food frequency questionnaires and placental samples were obtained from participating parturients at the time of delivery at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica (N = 100, from November 2012 to March 2013) and the Mt Hope Women's hospital in St Joseph, Trinidad & Tobago (N = 30, in June 2015). The participants were asked to identify the species of fish and the frequency of consumption. Placental samples were analysed for mercury using cold vapour atomic absorption. The fish consumption preferences for pregnant women, varies based on the marine fish catch production of each country. The main fish species that contributed to the highest estimated methylmercury exposure in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago were cod and shark, respectively. There was a weak association between maternal fish intake and placental mercury concentrations. The mean placental mercury concentrations in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago were 0.74 ± 0.5 μg/kg and 1.46 ± 0.6 μg/kg, wet weight respectively. The results from this study showed an influence of Caribbean fish intake preferences on mercury exposure and thus a recommendation for continuous bio-monitoring for public health purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender differences in the effects of urban neighborhood on depressive symptoms in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullings, Jasneth Asher; McCaw-Binns, Affette Michelle; Archer, Carol; Wilks, Rainford

    2013-12-01

    To explore the mental health effects of the urban neighborhood on men and women in Jamaica and the implications for urban planning and social development. A cross-sectional household sample of 2 848 individuals 15-74 years of age obtained from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008 was analyzed. Secondary analysis was undertaken by developing composite scores to describe observer recorded neighborhood features, including infrastructure, amenities/services, physical conditions, community socioeconomic status, and green spaces around the home. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to explore the associations among gender, neighborhood factors, and risk of depressive symptoms. While no associations were found among rural residents, urban neighborhoods were associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Among males, residing in a neighborhood with poor infrastructure increased risk; among females, residing in an informal community/unplanned neighborhood increased risk. The urban neighborhood contributes to the risk of depression symptomatology in Jamaica, with different environmental stressors affecting men and women. Urban and social planners need to consider the physical environment when developing health interventions in urban settings, particularly in marginalized communities.

  11. The legacy of George L. Beckford’s plantation economy thesis in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Besson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Plantation Economy, Land Reform and the Peasantry in a Historical Perspective: Jamaica 1838-1980. CLAUS STOLBERG & SWITHIN WILMOT(eds.- Kingston: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 1992. 145 pp. (Paper n.p. This interdisciplinary collection focuses on the integration of Jamaica's classical plantation economy with the world economy, and the impact of the plantation economy on the peasantry, land reform, and agrarian modemization in Jamaica from emancipation in 1838 up to 1980. The eight papers comprising the volume were, as a one-page editorial "Introduction" outlines, presented at a symposium at the University of the West Indies, Mona, and are dedicated to the late Professor George Beckford whose work on persistent poverty in plantation economies championed the Jamaican peasantry. As such, the book is a welcome addition to the literature on the Caribbean plantation-peasant interface. However, the chapters are uneven in quality, with some reflecting analytical weaknesses and a lack of historical depth. Typographical errors, grammatical mistakes, and poor documentation are also noticeable. In addition, contrasting perspectives emerge among the contributors and this is not addressed by the editors.

  12. Gender differences in the effects of urban neighborhood on depressive symptoms in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasneth Asher Mullings

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the mental health effects of the urban neighborhood on men and women in Jamaica and the implications for urban planning and social development. METHODS: A cross-sectional household sample of 2 848 individuals 15-74 years of age obtained from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008 was analyzed. Secondary analysis was undertaken by developing composite scores to describe observer recorded neighborhood features, including infrastructure, amenities/services, physical conditions, community socioeconomic status, and green spaces around the home. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to explore the associations among gender, neighborhood factors, and risk of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: While no associations were found among rural residents, urban neighborhoods were associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Among males, residing in a neighborhood with poor infrastructure increased risk; among females, residing in an informal community/unplanned neighborhood increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: The urban neighborhood contributes to the risk of depression symptomatology in Jamaica, with different environmental stressors affecting men and women. Urban and social planners need to consider the physical environment when developing health interventions in urban settings, particularly in marginalized communities.

  13. Reducing Nutrients to San Francisco Bay through Additional Wastewater Sidestream Treatment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Reducing Nutrients to San Francisco Bay Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  14. Magnitude, distribution, and estimated level of underreporting of acute gastroenteritis in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie M; Lewis-Fuller, Eva; Williams, Hank; Miller, Zahra; Scarlett, Henroy P; Cooper, Collin; Gordon-Johnson, Kelly-Ann; Vickers, Ivan; Shaw, Karen; Wellington, Iyanna; Thame, Jennifer; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean. The epidemiology of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is important to Jamaica, particularly in the areas of health, tourism, and because of the potential impact on the local workforce and the economy. Data collected by the National Surveillance Unit on the prevalence of AGE transmitted by food are not accurate. To determine the true magnitude, risk factors, and the extent of underreporting of AGE in Jamaica, we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based retrospective survey during the periods of 21 February-7 March and 14-27 June 2009, corresponding to high- and low-AGE season respectively. Of the total 1,920 persons selected randomly by a multistage cluster-sampling process, 1,264 responded (response rate 65.8%). Trained interviewers administered a standardized, validated questionnaire during face-to-face interviews. The overall prevalence of self-reported AGE was 4.0% (95% CI 2.9-5.1) at a rate of 0.5 episodes/per person-year. The highest monthly prevalence of AGE (14.6%) was found among the 1-4 year(s) age-group and the lowest (2.1%) among the 25-44 years age-group. Of the 18 cases (36%) who sought medical care, 11% were hospitalized, 33% were treated with antibiotics, and 66.7% received oral rehydration fluids. Only 2 cases who sought medical care reportedly submitted stool specimens. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 3.1 days, which resulted in a mean loss of 4 productive days, with over half of the cases requiring someone to care for them. The burden of syndromic AGE for 2009 was extrapolated to be 122,711 cases, showing an underreporting factor of 58.9. For every laboratory-confirmed AGE case, it was estimated that 383 more cases were occurring in the population. This research confirms that the prevalence of AGE is underreported in Jamaica and not being adequately detected by the current surveillance system. The components of the integrated surveillance system for AGE in Jamaica, particularly the laboratory

  15. NODC Standard Product: Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Chesapeake Bay Region Data from 1984 to 1989 on CD-ROM (NODC Accession 9200303)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set on this CD-ROM shows changes in land cover for the Chesapeake Bay region over the 5-year interval from 1984 to 1988-89. The data set was produced...

  16. Barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H. Logie

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Findings suggest the need for policy and practice changes to enhance confidentiality and reduce discrimination in Jamaica. Interventions to challenge HIV-related and LGBT stigma in community and healthcare settings can enhance access to the HIV prevention cascade among MSM and transgender youth in Jamaica.

  17. Variational Assimilation of Glider Data in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    gliders and ten Slocum gliders were deployed in the Monterey Bay region, collecting temperature and salinity profiles (Ramp et al., 2008). Since the... Glider Data in the Monterey Bay 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0601153N 6. AUTHOR(S) Chudong Pan, Max...observed by gliders in the Monterey Bay in August 2003 are assimilated into NCOM model in the framework of a 3dVar scheme with a hybrid background error

  18. Locally Weighted Naive Bayes

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Eibe; Hall, Mark; Pfahringer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Despite its simplicity, the naive Bayes classifier has surprised machine learning researchers by exhibiting good performance on a variety of learning problems. Encouraged by these results, researchers have looked to overcome naive Bayes primary weakness - attribute independence - and improve the performance of the algorithm. This paper presents a locally weighted version of naive Bayes that relaxes the independence assumption by learning local models at prediction time. Experimental results s...

  19. Integrated Coral Observing Network (ICON) - West Fore Reef (Discovery Bay, Jamaica) 2007 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0054497)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  20. Integrated Coral Observing Network (ICON) - West Fore Reef (Discovery Bay, Jamaica) 2008 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations (NODC Accession 0054499)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  1. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan, in January and February, 2003. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research...

  2. Cancer in adolescents and young adults, Kingston and St Andrew, Jamaica, 1988-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T N; Hanchard, B; Waugh, N; McNaughton, D

    2013-01-01

    To determine the distribution of malignancies in adolescents and young adults (AYA; 15 to 29 years) in Jamaica. All cases of malignancies diagnosed in AYA in the period 1988-2007, were extracted from the files of the Jamaica Cancer Registry. For each case, age, gender and diagnosis were recorded and the diagnoses categorized according to the recently proposed diagnostic groups for cancers in AYA. The data were used to calculate incidence rates and relative frequencies. Among males, the age-specific incidence rate for the oldest age group (25-29 years) was higher than that recorded for each of the younger groups. In females, there was a progressive increase in incidence with increasing age. The age-standardized rates (ASRs) per million were 131.4 (males) and 226.1 (females). In males, the highest ASRs (per million) were those for lymphoma (34.7), carcinoma (29.3) and soft tissue sarcoma (17.2), and in females, carcinoma (121.6), lymphoma (31.4) and germ cell and trophoblastic neoplasms (14.6). Lymphoma was the commonest diagnosis in younger males, and ranked second to carcinoma in the oldest. Carcinoma and lymphoma were the commonest and second commonest diagnoses, respectively, among all three age groups in females, with carcinomas accounting for progressively greater proportions of tumours with increasing age. The incidence of malignancy in AYA in Jamaica is higher in females than in males. In both genders, increasing age is accompanied by increasing incidence and a shift from non-epithelial to epithelial malignancies. This shift occurs at an earlier age in females.

  3. A fifty-year review of soft tissue sarcomas in Jamaica: 1958-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T N; Hanchard, B; Waugh, N; McNaughton, D

    2012-10-01

    To determine the distribution of histologic subtypes of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) in Kingston and St Andrew, Jamaica, according to age and topography. From the Jamaica Cancer Registry (JCR) archives, all cases of STS diagnosed between 1958 and 2007 were extracted. For each case, age, gender, histological diagnosis and anatomical site of tumour were recorded. Patients were categorized according to age at diagnosis as: children (0-14 years) and adults (> 14 years), and the distribution of histologic diagnoses with respect to age and anatomical site were analysed. There were 432 cases (67 children, 364 adults, one person of unknown age) of STS recorded in the JCR over the 50-year period (218 males, 214 females). The commonest STS in adults were "sarcoma, not otherwise specified [NOS]" (20.1%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma [MFH] (17.9%), fibrosarcoma (12.4%), liposarcoma (10.7%) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour [MPNST] (10.2%). In children, they were neuroblastoma (38.8%), rhabdomyosarcoma (23.9%), "sarcoma, NOS" (9%), fibrosarcoma (6%) and MFH (6%). In adults, the lower limb was the commonest location, followed by trunk and/or upper limb for MFH, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma, and head and neck for MPNST. In children, head and neck was the commonest site for rhabdomyosarcoma, head and neck and upper limb for MFH, retroperitoneum for neuroblastoma and trunk for fibrosarcoma. A high proportion of soft tissue sarcomas in Jamaica are unclassified and the anatomical distribution of common classified sarcomas shows some differences with the literature. Limited access to immunohistochemistry/molecular diagnostics and increasing core biopsy diagnosis may contribute to these phenomena.

  4. Incidence of childhood cancer in Kingston and St Andrew, Jamaica, 1983-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, K L; Hanchard, B; Gibson, T N; Lowe, D; McNaughton, D; Waugh, N; Akinbebe, A

    2013-09-01

    There have been several modifications to the classification of childhood cancers since the first report (1968-1981) specific to the Jamaican paediatric population was published in 1988. This paper reports on paediatric cancer incidence in Kingston and St Andrew, Jamaica, for the 20-year period 1983-2002 based on these modifications. All cases of cancer diagnosed in children (0-14 years), between 1983 and 2002 were extracted from the Jamaica Cancer Registry archives and classified using the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, third edition. Incidence figures were calculated as per the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reporting format for childhood cancer. There were 272 cases (133 males, 139 females) of childhood cancer identified in the 20-year period. The overall age standardized rate (ASR) was 69.4 per million; that for males was 67.8 per million, and for females, 70.9 per million. The three most common malignancies overall were leukaemia (21.3%), lymphoma (15.8%) and brain and spinal neoplasms (14.0%). In males, the highest ASRs were seen for leukaemia (14.8 per million), lymphoma (12.7 per million), and brain and spinal neoplasms (8.2 per million), and in females, leukaemia (14.4 per million), nephroblastoma (11.3 per million), and brain and spinal neoplasms (10.6 per million). The rankings of the most common childhood malignancies in Jamaica (leukaemia, brain and spinal neoplasms and lymphomas) have shown few changes since the last review. However, there are differences in frequency and gender distribution of nephroblastoma and brain and spinal neoplasms.

  5. Media representation of personality disorder in Jamaica - public scholarship as a catalyst of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, F W; Robertson-Hickling, H A

    2013-01-01

    To ascertain whether the public scholarship of the epidemiology of personality disorder (PD) in Jamaica prompted a health promotion outcome. A January 2011 to December 2012 trawl of news media articles linking 'PD' to published public scholarship articles on the epidemiology of PD recorded titles and contents of the reports that were culled to capture the emotional responses and psychological defence mechanisms expressed. These were analysed with concomitant social, psychological or behavioural activities occurring in Jamaica, using SPSS version 17 software. Two public scholarship interventions to two major broadsheet newspapers triggered 25 contributed articles, which in turn prompted 160 responses from the public, five commentaries on leading radio stations and four Internet blogs. One hundred and sixty-six (84.2%) of the titles targeted PD in the Jamaican nation; 31 (13.7) articles targeted PD in leaders, athletes, inmates, individuals, families and productivity in Jamaica. One hundred and fifty-five (79.1%) expressed agreement with the scientific epidemiological observations, while 20.9% (n = 41) expressed disagreement. Eighty-two (41.8%) of the responses expressed rationalizations, 47 (24%) were expressions of reaction formation, 27 (13.8%) were in frank denial, while 25 (12.8%) were expressing open acting out responses or blunt projection (15, 7.7%) to the published epidemiology. The difference between 139 (70.9%) popular media responses to contemporary social problems and 57 (29.1%) reports that made no reference to social problems was statistically significant (p media response, generating a health promotion outcome linking contemporary social events to this medical research is confirmed.

  6. Social determinants of self-evaluated good health status of rural men in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, P A

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review revealed a gap in health research regarding the determinants of good health for rural men in Jamaica. This study seeks to fill this void by examining cross-sectional survey data to model the social determinants of the self-reported good health status of rural men in Jamaica. A sample of 5041 males (> or = 15 years) was extracted from a national cross-sectional survey of 25 018 respondents. A stratified random probability sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using SPSS for Windows 16.0 (SPSS; Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive statistics were used to provide pertinent socio-demographic characteristics of the sample, and logistic regression was used to establish a predictive model for good self-reported health status in rural Jamaican males. Seventeen percent of rural men claimed that they had poor health, 4.9% had health insurance, 61.6% visited a healthcare practitioner, 96.0% purchased prescribed medications and 45.3% completed the course of prescribed medications. The social determinants of good health status of rural men in Jamaica are cost of medical care (OR = 0.916, 95% CI = 0.841-0.997); retirement income (OR = 0.0.382, 95% CI = 0.206-0.707); marital status: separated, divorced or widowed with reference to those never married (OR = 0.270, 95% CI = 0.178-0.410), and married with reference to never married men (OR = 0.465, 95% CI = 0.356-0.609); health insurance coverage (OR = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.027-0.063); number of children in household (OR = 1.200, 95% CI = 1.069-1.347); and number of durable goods owned (OR = 1.107, 95% CI = 1.050-1.166). Children continue to be not only futuristic assets to parents, but they also currently improve the health status of rural men.

  7. Positive "Vibes" in Jamaica: drama helps teens, parents and teachers discuss sexuality and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, K

    1993-12-01

    The threat of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and other sexual challenges facing young people are depicted with humor and creativity in Vibes in a World of Sexuality, a musical revue by the ASHE Caribbean Arts Ensemble, a Jamaican performing arts group of young people 8-19 years old. The Little People and Teen Players, another youth drama group, and ASHE have performed Vibes more than 100 times in 5 countries, reaching over 50,000 people. In the revue's allegorical world, strong sexual urges, jealousy, ignorance, disease, and guilt struggle to overcome the super safer sexual skills of self control, trust, knowledge, and communication. A series of skits and catchy songs show how these skills can influence the choices made by teenagers. The music is a mixture of pop, blues, and Afro-Caribbean rhythms. Catherine Brokenshire, the resident advisor for the AIDSCAP Project in Jamaica and the US Agency for International Development Mission in Jamaica, decided to support 60 Vibes performances in Jamaican schools, youth clubs, communities, and churches. 20 audience members were asked to fill out a questionnaire about STDs and their transmission before and after each performance to assess whether it had changed their knowledge or attitudes about sex and STDs. An analysis of 100 sets of the forms found a 20% increase in correct answers to these questions. Each performance is followed by a 15-minute question-and-answer period. The most common questions are about handling peer pressure, talking to parents about sex and dating, and obtaining condoms. AIDSCAP is supporting the development of a manual to help teachers lead discussions with students after they see Vibes. Educational materials are available at every performance with addresses and phone numbers for Jamaica AIDS Support, The Family Center, and the Ministry of Health's Helpline, where people can request more information or assistance.

  8. Clinical features of spontaneous hypothyroidism in one physician’s practice in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie A Wright-Pascoe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosemarie A Wright-PascoeDepartment of Medicine, The University of the West Indies, Kingston, JamaicaObjective: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous hypothyroidism, the frequency of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and the thyroid autoantibody most often associated with this condition in a referral population in Jamaica.Methods: A retrospective study of all cases referred to the author’s endocrinology practice from 1995 to 2005 with a diagnosis of spontaneous hypothyroidism was undertaken. The clinical history, examination findings, biochemical test results, thyroid autoimmune antibodies, and imaging data were reviewed.Results: Spontaneous primary hypothyroidism was correctly diagnosed in 53 subjects. Fifty of the patients were females and three were males. Mean age was 43.3 years (range 12–82 years; 24.4% of the patients had a family member with thyroid disease; 27.1% presented because of a goiter; and 54.2% because of symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism. The thyroid was palpable in 56.3% and thyroid ultrasound was consistent with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis on 64% of occasions. Only 8% of the patients had the atrophic variant of hypothyroidism. Antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibody were positive in 75.8% and 37.5% of patients, respectively. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was confirmed in 78.8% of cases.Conclusion: In these cases in Jamaica, spontaneous hypothyroidism was predominantly a female disorder. Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was the commonest cause, and antithyroid peroxidase antibody was the thyroid antibody most likely to be positive in this population.Keywords: spontaneous hypothyroidism, Jamaican, thyroid autoantibodies, L-thyroxine, autoimmune thyroiditis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

  9. Y-chromosomal diversity in Haiti and Jamaica: contrasting levels of sex-biased gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tanya M; Wright, Marisil R; Hernandez, Michelle; Perez, Omar A; Ramirez, Evelyn C; Martinez, Emanuel; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-08-01

    Although previous studies have characterized the genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica using classical and autosomal STR polymorphisms, the patrilineal influences that are present in these countries have yet to be explored. To address this lacuna, the current study aims to investigate, for the first time, the potential impact of different ancestral sources, unique colonial histories, and distinct family structures on the paternal profile of both groups. According to previous reports examining populations from the Americas, island-specific demographic histories can greatly impact population structure, including various patterns of sex-biased gene flow. Also, given the contrasting autosomal profiles provided in our earlier study (Simms et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 142 (2010) 49-66), we hypothesize that the degree and directionality of gene flow from Europeans, Africans, Amerindians, and East Asians are dissimilar in the two countries. To test this premise, 177 high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers and 17 Y-STR loci were typed in Haiti (n = 123) and Jamaica (n = 159) and subsequently utilized for phylogenetic comparisons to available reference collections encompassing Africa, Europe, Asia (East and South), and the New World. Our results reveal that both studied populations exhibit a predominantly South-Saharan paternal component, with haplogroups A1b-V152, A3-M32, B2-M182, E1a-M33, E1b1a-M2, E2b-M98, and R1b2-V88 comprising 77.2% and 66.7% of the Haitian and Jamaican paternal gene pools, respectively. Yet, European derived chromosomes (i.e., haplogroups G2a*-P15, I-M258, R1b1b-M269, and T-M184) were detected at commensurate levels in Haiti (20.3%) and Jamaica (18.9%), whereas Y-haplogroups indicative of Chinese [O-M175 (3.8%)] and Indian [H-M69 (0.6%) and L-M20 (0.6%)] ancestry were restricted to Jamaica. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Vannellid Species Isolated from Freshwater Source in a Park in Jamaica, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheridah D. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae (FLA occupy a wide range of freshwater, marine, and soil habitats, and are opportunistic pathogens in human beings. While Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri , and Balamuthia mandrillaris are well-known opportunistic organisms, Vannella epipetala is nonpathogenic. Sediments were collected from a freshwater source from a park in Jamaica to investigate the presence of FLA. Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp. were not recovered; however, a Vannellid species identified by microscopy and PCR analysis as V. epipetala was isolated. These nonpathogens pose a threat to human beings as they may act as Trojan horses for microsporidian parasites and other pathogens, thereby facilitating their transmission to human beings.

  11. Exploring cultural connectedness in the sustainability of rural community tourism development in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Taylor; Marcella Daye; Moya Kneafsey; Hazel Barrett

    2014-01-01

    El enfoque de la investigación sobre la sostenibilidad del turismo rural comunitario en Jamaica a menudo gravita hacia los componentes económicos, ambientales, políticos y de gestión. Este estudio etnográfico explora cómo dos grupos distintivos- Charles Tow Marrons, descendientes de los esclavos combatientes de la resistencia y Seaford Town Germans, descendientes de trabajadore contratados en Alemania-están explotando su cultura por medio del turismo rural comunitario a la moda nuevas fuentes...

  12. Clinical and immunological characteristics of 150 systemic lupus erythematosus patients in Jamaica: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, K C; Ferguson, T S; Stewart, H D; Myers, A A; De Ceulaer, K

    2017-11-01

    Background Epidemiological studies in systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported in the literature in many countries and ethnic groups. Although systemic lupus erythematosus in Jamaica has been described in the past, there has not been a detailed evaluation of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in urban Jamaica, a largely Afro-Caribbean population. The goal of this study was to describe the clinical features, particularly disease activity, damage index and immunological features, of 150 systemic lupus erythematosus subjects. Methods 150 adult patients (≥18 years) followed in rheumatology clinic at a tertiary rheumatology hospital centre (one of two of the major public referral centres in Jamaica) and the private rheumatology offices in urban Jamaica who fulfilled Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria were included. Data were collected by detailed clinical interview and examination and laboratory investigations. Hence demographics, SLICC criteria, immunological profile, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and SLICC/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) damage index (SDI) were documented. Results Of the 150 patients, 145 (96.7%) were female and five (3.3%) were male. The mean age at systemic lupus erythematosus onset was 33.2 ± 10.9. Mean disease duration was 11.3 ± 8.6 years. The most prevalent clinical SLICC criteria were musculoskeletal, with 141 (94%) of subjects experiencing arthralgia/arthritis, followed by mucocutaneous manifestations of alopecia 103 (68.7%) and malar rash 46 (30.7%), discoid rash 45 (30%) and photosensitivity 40 (26.7%). Lupus nephritis (biopsy proven) occurred in 42 (28%) subjects and 25 (16.7%) met SLICC diagnostic criteria with only positive antinuclear antibodies/dsDNA antibodies and lupus nephritis on renal biopsy. The most common laboratory SLICC criteria were positive antinuclear antibodies 136 (90.7%) followed by anti-dsDNA antibodies 95 (63.3%) and

  13. A Jamaica é aqui: arranjos audiovisuais de territórios musicados

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Alvares Vidigal

    2008-01-01

    Esta tese de doutorado foi catalisada pela frase "A Jamaica é aqui", ouvida e lida em produtos audiovisuais que apresentam como tema principal as relações entre o gênero musical conhecido como reggae e determinados territórios geopolíticos. Ele visa compreender como a transposição territorial expressa naquela frase é tornada possível em certos filmes, vídeos e programas televisivos. A tese parte do pressuposto de que os produtos audiovisuais pertencentes ao corpus de análise são parte de um p...

  14. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  15. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Benthic Habitat Data, Long Island Sound, Jamaica Bay, and Lower Bay of NY/NJ Harbor, NY, 1994-2002 (NODC Accession 0089467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a collection of benthic habitat data from studies conducted in the coastal Long Island Sound, NY region in GIS shapefile (.shp, .dbf, .shx, and .prj...

  16. Parent and caregiver knowledge, beliefs, and responses to convulsive seizures in children in Kingston, Jamaica - A hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Parkinson, Debra; Tapper, Judy; Melbourne-Chambers, Roxanne

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and beliefs about seizures and actions during seizures of parents/caregivers of Jamaican children hospitalized for convulsive seizures. This was a cross-sectional study of parents and caregivers of children with acute convulsive seizures hospitalized at the Bustamante Hospital, Kingston, Jamaica between May 1 and October 31, 2013. Subjects were identified by admission records. Parents/caregivers were invited to participate. A questionnaire on the demographics, knowledge, beliefs, and response of parents/caregivers during the child's current seizure episode was administered face to face. Data were analyzed for frequencies: groups were compared using chi-square analysis for categorical variables, Student's t-test for normally distributed data, and the Mann-Whitney U-test for data not normally distributed. There were fifty participants: 39 (78%) mothers, mean (SD) age - 33.8 (10.1) years. All sought medical care first. Twenty-two (44%) had plausible beliefs about the cause of seizures. Twenty-seven (54%) knew of appropriate actions during a seizure, 10 (20%) knew of appropriate precautions, and 11 (22%) responded appropriately during the seizure. Eleven (22%) reported receiving seizure education. Witnessing a previous seizure, education level, and seizure education were associated with knowledge of seizures (p<0.05). Socioeconomic status was higher in those with plausible beliefs about seizures and lower in those who took appropriate action during a seizure (p<0.05). Parents/caregivers of children with convulsive seizures have appropriate health-care seeking behavior, but most do not have appropriate knowledge about seizures. Few take appropriate action during the episode. A public education program is needed to improve parental knowledge of and response to convulsive seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Corpses of Metaphor. Images of Death in David Leavitt and Jamaica Kincaid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Iuliano

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes two works, My Brother by Jamaica Kincaid, and "Saturn Street" by David Leavitt, investigating the construction of homosexuality as a process accomplished by resorting to illness (AIDS and death. In both works, indeed, the slow and dramatic course of AIDS amounts to the progressive unveiling of homosexuality as a social threat or a cause of anxiety and repulsion. The two works are set in different contexts: whereas Jamaica Kincaid refers to the problematic situation of homosexuality in the Caribbean, David Leavitt explores the social and cultural scenario of the 1990s Los Angeles, in the wake of a by now ended utopian confidence in science and technology.  This comparative approach helps us understand the political dynamics through which, in different and, to some extents, opposite realities, the social stigma of AIDS worked as a means to construct homosexual identity and set it apart from the sanitized spectrum of normal and sanctioned sexual behaviors. The point I want to make in this essay is that the corpse is used as an effective metaphor for a dehumanized depiction of male homosexual and ill subjects.

  18. Certification of Coroners cases by pathologists would improve the completeness of death registration in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, Affette; Holder, Yvette; Mullings, Jasneth

    2015-09-01

    Describe the completeness and quality of Jamaica's 2008 vital registration mortality database. Multiple sources (hospitals, police, forensic pathologists, Coroners courts) were used to validate deaths registered as occurring in 2008. A 10% random sample was examined to evaluate the quality of certification and coding. Jamaica, a middle-income country of 2.7 million, began vital registration in 1877; however, the mortality database was considered of limited use, and the study was commissioned to understand the problem. Of 19,286 deaths identified, 76% were registered by 31.12.2009 for inclusion among 2008 demographic returns. Registration was highest among deaths not requiring autopsy (94%) and lowest among Coroners cases (22%) with only 41% of deaths among 15-44 year-olds registered. The leading causes of death were cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and homicide. Fifteen percent were coded to ill-defined causes of death. Recoding the sample increased mortality from prematurity, pregnancy complications, homicide, selected cardiovascular disorders, and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Delays registering Coroners cases, certification and coding errors, introduced biases into the disease profile limiting the data's value in informing clinical care. Issuance of medical certificates by pathologists who investigate Coroners cases and training physicians and coders would eliminate most underreporting and improve data quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of class 1 integrons in uropathogenic fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical Escherichia coli isolates from Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Stacy A M; Brown, Paul D

    2013-03-01

    Quinolone resistance is generally caused by chromosomal mutations, but has been more recently found associated with the plasmid-mediated qnr genes. The objective of this study was to screen and analyse polymorphisms of integrons in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli in Jamaica. Previous studies in Jamaica identified fluoroquinolone resistance in predominantly uropathogenic E. coli clinical isolates: 45% harbouring qnrA, qnrB and/or qnrS, and 17% were (Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) ESBL-producers. These isolates were analysed for the presence and variation of class 1 and 2 integrase genes, 5'- and 3'- conserved segments and the Orf513 recombinase gene by primer-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP). Results indicated integron-encoded integrases in 93% of isolates primarily harbouring class 1 integrase genes; four of 58 isolates carried both classes. The Orf513 and 5'- and 3'-conserved segment (CS) regions were identified in 83% and 55% of the isolates respectively. RFLP evaluation of the 5'- and 3'-CS regions in int1-positive strains yielded two main types. The reduced diversity, but wide dispersion of class 1 integrons harbouring qnr genes may give rise to the conservation of the mobile genetic elements in which they are carried. © 2012 The Authors APMIS © 2012 APMIS.

  20. Vital registration and under-reporting of maternal mortality in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, Affette M; Mullings, Jasneth A; Holder, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    To identify why vital registration under-reports maternal deaths in Jamaica. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify all maternal deaths (during pregnancy or ≤42 days after pregnancy ended) occurring in 2008. Data sources included vital registration, hospital records, forensic pathology records, and an independent maternal mortality surveillance system. Potential cases were cross-referenced to registered live births and stillbirths, and hospital records to confirm pregnancy status, when the pregnancy ended, and registration. Medical certificates were inspected for certification, transcription, and coding errors. Maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) for registered and/or unregistered deaths were calculated. Of 50 maternal deaths identified, 10 (20%) were unregistered. Eight unregistered deaths were coroners' cases. Among 40 registered deaths, pregnancy was undocumented in 4 (10%). Among the other 36, 24 (67%) had been misclassified (59% direct and 89% indirect deaths). Therefore, only 12 (30%) registered maternal deaths had been coded as maternal deaths, yielding an MMR of 28.3 per 100 000 live births (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3-48.3), which was 76% lower than the actual MMR of 117.8 (95% CI 85.2-150.4). Under-reporting of maternal deaths in Jamaica in 2008 was attributable to delayed registration of coroners' cases and misclassification. Timely registration of coroners' cases and training of nosologists to recognize and code maternal deaths is needed. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The "brain drain" of health care workers: causes, solutions and the example of Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha K

    2012-07-18

    Despite much media attention being given to the physician shortage in Canada in recent years, this shortage pales in comparison to that seen in many middle- and low-income countries. A major cause of the shortage in these countries is the migration of health care workers from developing to developed nations, a phenomenon known as the "brain drain". The loss of these workers is having devastating impacts globally, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Causes of the "brain drain" are numerous and include poor working conditions in poorer countries and active recruitment by richer countries. Jamaica has been one of the countries in the Caribbean hardest hit by mass migration of health care workers. The multiple dimensions of Jamaica's health worker "brain drain" illustrate both the complexity of the issues reviewed in this commentary, and the net loss for low- and middle-income countries. Creative and sustainable solutions to the problem are actively being sought globally, but will require commitment and support from all nations as well as from international funding bodies if meaningful impacts on health are to be realized.

  2. From Citizen Science to Policy Development on the Coral Reefs of Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. James C. Crabbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of citizen science to help generation of scientific data and capacity-building, and so underpin scientific ideas and policy development in the area of coral reef management, on the coral reefs of Jamaica. From 2000 to 2008, ninety Earthwatch volunteers were trained in coral reef data acquisition and analysis and made over 6,000 measurements on fringing reef sites along the north coast of Jamaica. Their work showed that while recruitment of small corals is returning after the major bleaching event of 2005, larger corals are not necessarily so resilient and so need careful management if the reefs are to survive such major extreme events. These findings were used in the development of an action plan for Jamaican coral reefs, presented to the Jamaican National Environmental Protection Agency. It was agreed that a number of themes and tactics need to be implemented in order to facilitate coral reef conservation in the Caribbean. The use of volunteers and citizen scientists from both developed and developing countries can help in forging links which can assist in data collection and analysis and, ultimately, in ecosystem management and policy development.

  3. Fatal poisoning in Jamaica: a coroner's autopsy study from the University Hospital of the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Carlos T; Shirley, Suzanne E

    2004-04-01

    This study reviewed cases of fatal poisoning in a coroner's autopsy series at the University Hospital of the West Indies and represented the first such study reported from Jamaica. The autopsy protocols of all coroner's autopsies performed over the 20-year period January 1980 to December 1999 were reviewed retrospectively; 22 (1.0%) cases were identified and relevant clinical and pathological data analysed. There were 13 males and nine females (M:F ratio 1.4:1) with an age range of 2 - 69 years (mean +/- SD = 27 +/- 16.1 years). The 20 - 29 year group was most commonly affected and five patients (22.7%) were children (ackee were each implicated in two (9%) cases. The manner of death was suicidal in 14 (64%) cases and accidental in eight (36%) cases. Seven patients had documented psychiatric illnesses, six of whom committed suicide. Autopsy findings were largely non-specific. The relatively small number of cases was consistent with the low incidence of fatal poisoning in Jamaica.

  4. The challenges of managing rheumatic disease of the mitral valve in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Sherard G

    2014-12-01

    Between January, 2009 and December, 2013, 84 patients were identified who underwent isolated mitral valve surgery in Jamaica at The University Hospital of the West Indies and The Bustamante Hospital for Children. The most common pathology requiring surgery was rheumatic heart disease, accounting for 84% of the procedures performed. The majority of patients had regurgitation of the mitral valve (67%), stenosis of the mitral valve (22%), and mixed mitral valve disease (11%). The most common procedure performed was replacement of the mitral valve (69%), followed by mitral valve repair (29%). Among the patients, one underwent closed mitral commissurotomy. The choice of procedure differed between age groups. In the paediatric population (mitral valve (89%). In the adult population (18 years and above), the majority of patients underwent mitral valve replacement (93%). Overall, of all the patients undergoing replacement of the mitral valve, 89% received a mechanical valve prosthesis, whereas 11% received a bioprosthetic valve prosthesis. Of the group of patients who underwent mitral valve repair for rheumatic heart disease, 19% required re-operation. The average time between initial surgery and re-operation was 1.2 years. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease remain significant public health challenges in Jamaica and other developing countries. Focus must remain on primary and secondary prevention strategies in order to limit the burden of rheumatic valvulopathies. Attention should also be directed towards improving access to surgical treatment for young adults.

  5. Agency, lapse in condom use and relationship intimacy among female sex workers in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Althea E; Figueroa, John Peter

    2017-09-01

    This paper explores barriers to consistent condom use among female sex workers in Jamaica in a qualitative study using grounded theory. Multiple perspectives were sought through 44 in-depth interviews conducted with female sex workers, clients, the partners of sex workers and facilitators of sex work. Poverty and lack of education or skills, severely limited support systems as well as childhood abuse served to push the majority of participants into sex work and created vulnerability to HIV and other STIs. Despite these constraints, women found ways to exercise agency, ensure condom use, adopt protective measures and gain economic advantage in various aspects of the Jamaican sex trade. Perceived relationship intimacy between sex workers and their clients and/or their main partners emerged as the main factor contributing to reduced risk perception and inconsistent condom use. Relationship intimacy, with associated trust and affirmation of self, is the most important factor influencing sexual decision-making with respect to lapse in condom use among female sex workers in Jamaica. Study findings provide important insights that can enhance individual psychosocial, interpersonal and community-based interventions as well as inform environmental, structural and policy interventions to reduce risk and vulnerability among female sex workers.

  6. An Investigation of the Antioxidant Capacity in Extracts from Moringa oleifera Plants Grown in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Racquel J; Lee, Ken S; Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Hibbert, Jacqueline M; Reid, Marvin E; Wheatley, Andrew O; Asemota, Helen N

    2017-10-23

    Moringa oleifera trees grow well in Jamaica and their parts are popularly used locally for various purposes and ailments. Antioxidant activities in Moringa oleifera samples from different parts of the world have different ranges. This study was initiated to determine the antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera grown in Jamaica. Dried and milled Moringa oleifera leaves were extracted with ethanol/water (4:1) followed by a series of liquid-liquid extractions. The antioxidant capacities of all fractions were tested using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. IC50 values (the amount of antioxidant needed to reduce 50% of DPPH) were then determined and values for the extracts ranged from 177 to 4458 μg/mL. Extracts prepared using polar solvents had significantly higher antioxidant capacities than others and may have clinical applications in any disease characterized by a chronic state of oxidative stress, such as sickle cell anemia. Further work will involve the assessment of these extracts in a sickle cell model of oxidative stress.

  7. An Investigation of the Antioxidant Capacity in Extracts from Moringa oleifera Plants Grown in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Racquel J.; Lee, Ken S.; Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Hibbert, Jacqueline M.; Reid, Marvin E.; Wheatley, Andrew O.

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera trees grow well in Jamaica and their parts are popularly used locally for various purposes and ailments. Antioxidant activities in Moringa oleifera samples from different parts of the world have different ranges. This study was initiated to determine the antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera grown in Jamaica. Dried and milled Moringa oleifera leaves were extracted with ethanol/water (4:1) followed by a series of liquid–liquid extractions. The antioxidant capacities of all fractions were tested using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. IC50 values (the amount of antioxidant needed to reduce 50% of DPPH) were then determined and values for the extracts ranged from 177 to 4458 μg/mL. Extracts prepared using polar solvents had significantly higher antioxidant capacities than others and may have clinical applications in any disease characterized by a chronic state of oxidative stress, such as sickle cell anemia. Further work will involve the assessment of these extracts in a sickle cell model of oxidative stress. PMID:29065510

  8. An Investigation of the Antioxidant Capacity in Extracts from Moringa oleifera Plants Grown in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racquel J. Wright

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera trees grow well in Jamaica and their parts are popularly used locally for various purposes and ailments. Antioxidant activities in Moringa oleifera samples from different parts of the world have different ranges. This study was initiated to determine the antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera grown in Jamaica. Dried and milled Moringa oleifera leaves were extracted with ethanol/water (4:1 followed by a series of liquid–liquid extractions. The antioxidant capacities of all fractions were tested using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. IC50 values (the amount of antioxidant needed to reduce 50% of DPPH were then determined and values for the extracts ranged from 177 to 4458 μg/mL. Extracts prepared using polar solvents had significantly higher antioxidant capacities than others and may have clinical applications in any disease characterized by a chronic state of oxidative stress, such as sickle cell anemia. Further work will involve the assessment of these extracts in a sickle cell model of oxidative stress.

  9. DIÁSPORA, DUELO Y MEMORIA EN MI HERMANO DE JAMAICA KINCAID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Stecher

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla un análisis de la novela autobiográfica Mi hermano de la escritora caribeña residente en Estados Unidos Jamaica Kincaid. Se muestra cómo a nivel de sus contenidos manifiestos -y también de la construcción de sí misma que hace Kincaid en una serie de entrevistas- la narrativa de esta autora se diferencia de la producida por otros autores diaspóricos contemporáneos, sobre todo en su reticencia a comprometerse en proyectos colectivos de asociación transcultural. Sin embargo, una lectura detenida del trabajo de duelo representado por la escritura de Mi hermano muestra cómo el discurso autoconsciente de la narradora-protagonista es subvertido por la fragilidad y vulnerabilidad a que la exponen la enfermedad y muerte de un ser querido.This article analyses the autobiographical novel My Brother written by Jamaica Kincaid, a Caribbean writer who lives in the United States of America. The article shows how Kincaid’s narrative texts and her self construction as a writer differ from the literature of other diasporic writers, especially regarding her reluctance to participate in collective projects of transcultural association. Nevertheless, a careful reading of the mourning represented in My Brother shows how the narrator’s self-conscious discourse is subverted by the fragility and vulnerability caused by the illness and death of a beloved person.

  10. Capital, Agency, Family and the Diaspora: An Exploration of Boys' Aspirations towards Higher Education in Urban Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockfelt, Shawanda

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses factors impacting on boys' educational aspirations at two case-study schools in urban Jamaica. It focuses on boys' experience of their educational environment in relation to social, cultural and economic factors, which shapes the nature of their aspirations towards higher education. The study utilised Bourdieu's notion of…

  11. What Is a Principal's Quality Mark? Issues and Challenges in Leadership Progression among Primary Teachers in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions about teacher progression among Jamaica's primary school teachers should force society to stop and ask itself several questions. Are these perceptions accurate? If not, how did these perceptions emerge and what can national leaders and those in positions of authority do to "manage" if not resolve these perceptions? If there…

  12. Tracing the Discourses of Accountability and Equity: The Case of the Grade 4 Literacy Test in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fokum, Yewande; Colvin, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to understand how a narrowed version of accountability in the form of high-stakes assessment deepens inequity rather than improves educational equity, we examine three education documents in Jamaica using critical discourse analysis. Our two research questions were: How did each government document position the Grade Four Literacy…

  13. Differences between Anti-Social Adolescent Behaviour in Single Sex Schools and Co-Educational Schools in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastick, Tony

    Anti-social behavior is reported to be a growing problem in school systems of different countries. A comparison was made about anti-social adolescent behaviors between students who attend single-sex schools and coeducational schools in Jamaica. Students (N=112) were interviewed to determine the most prevalent school discipline problems. A sample…

  14. Review of Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. least-cost expansion plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Cirillo, R.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to review the least-cost expansion plan (LCEP) of the Jamaica Public Service Company, Ltd. (JPSCo). The material that has been initially provided to Argonne included: (1) An electronic copy of the data and results from JPSCo's running the WASP electric system expansion planning model, (2) Approximately 20 pages of a document 'JPSCo Generation Expansion Plan', marked 'DRAFT 002', date unknown, and (3) The report 'JPSCo Least Cost Generation Expansion Plans, (1999-2009)', January 1999. It was noticed that the 20 pages from the 'DRAFT 002' document were different from the January 1999 report. An explanation was provided to Argonne that the excerpt was from an earlier draft and that the review should focus on the January 1999 report. Further, the electronic copy of the WASP case did not correspond to either the January 1999 report or to the 20-page excerpt. Again, the reason for these discrepancies was that the WASP case provided to Argonne was an earlier case and not the final one that was presented in the report. Based on the review of the available material, Argonne experts have prepared and submitted to the National Investment Bank of Jamaica (NIBJ) a preliminary draft report containing the initial findings, comments, questions and observations. As many of the comments and questions raised in the preliminary review needed to be discussed with the appropriate staff of JPSCo and other Jamaican experts, a 3-day mission to Jamaica was carried out by one Argonne expert (V. Koritarov) in the period July 20-23, 1999. Besides JPSCo experts, the discussions and the review of the LCEP during the mission included several experts from NIBJ, Ministry of Energy, and the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica. Mr. Koritarov also worked with the JPSCo technical staff to reconstruct the WASP base case that was used as a basis for the January 1999 report. The first step was to verify that the results

  15. Faulting and strain partitioning in Jamaica from GPS and structural data: Implications for Gonave and Hispaniola microplate kinematics, northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Bryn

    A series of small microplates separate the Caribbean and North America plates in the northern Caribbean. My dissertation focuses on understanding the structural evolution and neotectonic deformation of Jamaica, and how it relates to the overall microplates and tectonics of the northern Caribbean. Jamaica, which lies along the same seismically active plate boundary as Haiti, has had twelve earthquakes with Modified Mercalli intensities of VII to X since 1667. However, remarkably little is known about which faults presently constitute the most significant seismic hazards. This research provides insight into tectonic processes and facilitates mitigation of geological hazards in the region. Two chapters focus on characterizing deformation in Jamaica through modeling GPS velocities and through field mapping. The best-fitting models based on GPS velocities place most strike-slip motion on faults in central Jamaica and suggest that faults in northern Jamaica have minimal motion. I estimate 4--5 mm yr-1 of slip for faults near the capital city of Kingston of southeastern Jamaica, implying significant seismic hazard. Field mapping combined with present-day topography, focal mechanisms, geology, gravity, and well and borehole data indicate that east-west contraction is accommodated by reactivated, NNW-striking reverse faults, which are bound by E-striking strike-slip faults in southern Jamaica. The other two chapters of my thesis focuses on understanding the behavior of the microplates along the Caribbean-North America plate boundary: I model GPS velocities and use shear-wave splitting to understand the crustal and mantle behaviors, respectively of the microplates. The GPS data require an independently moving Hispaniola microplate between the Mona Passage and a likely diffuse boundary just west of or within western Hispaniola. The new microplate angular velocities predict 6.8+/-1.0 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip and 5.7+/-1 mm yr-1 of convergent motion surrounding the

  16. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the...

  17. Integrating science and resource management in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Greening, Holly; Morrison, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay is recognized internationally for its remarkable progress towards recovery since it was pronounced "dead" in the late 1970s. Due to significant efforts by local governments, industries and private citizens throughout the watershed, water clarity in Tampa Bay is now equal to what it was in 1950, when population in the watershed was less than one-quarter of what it is today. Seagrass extent has increased by more than 8,000 acres since the mid-1980s, and fish and wildlife populations are increasing. Central to this successful turn-around has been the Tampa Bay resource management community's long-term commitment to development and implementation of strong science-based management strategies. Research institutions and agencies, including Eckerd College, the Florida Wildlife Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Mote Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Southwest Florida Water Management District, University of South Florida, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, local and State governments, and private companies contribute significantly to the scientific basis of our understanding of Tampa Bay's structure and ecological function. Resource management agencies, including the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council's Agency on Bay Management, the Southwest Florida Water Management District's Surface Water Improvement and Management Program, and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, depend upon this scientific basis to develop and implement regional adaptive management programs. The importance of integrating science with management has become fully recognized by scientists and managers throughout the region, State and Nation. Scientific studies conducted in Tampa Bay over the past 10–15 years are increasingly diverse and complex, and resource management programs reflect our increased knowledge of geology, hydrology and hydrodynamics, ecology and restoration techniques. However, a synthesis of this

  18. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Lisa E.; Twichell, David C.

    2011-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted in 2007 to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay and its response to sea-level rise. A detailed geologic history could help better understand how this bay may respond to both short-term (for example, storm surge) and long-term sea-level rise. The results of this study were published (Osterman and others, 2009) as part of a special issue of Geo-Marine Letters that documents early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project.

  19. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force... approximations obtained using a commercial mapping program which utilizes Simple Cylindrical projection with a...

  20. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  1. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  2. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  3. The Health of Office-Based Workers in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Jascinth L M; LaGrenade, Janet; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise

    2017-02-01

    The health status of Jamaican workers was evaluated as a baseline for workplace health promotion interventions. Socio-demographic, health status, and lifestyle data were collected from 1,087 employees. Blood pressure, glucose and cholesterol levels, and body mass index were measured for study participants. The most common illness reported by the study participants was migraine headaches (16.0%), followed by hypertension (13.5%) and asthma (6.1%). Based on blood pressure measurements, 34.1% were pre-hypertensive (120-139/80-89 mmHg), 13.1% had Stage 1 hypertension (140-159/90-99 mmHg), and 2.3% Stage 2 hypertension (≥160/≥100 mmHg). Furthermore, 33% were overweight, 16.7% were obese, and 10% were extremely obese. Most (55.1%) of the study participants reported excessive fast-food consumption in the last 7 days. The high rates of obesity, hypertension, and fast-food consumption reported in this study emphasized the need for focused health promotion strategies. Universality across institutions presented an excellent opportunity for national workplace health intervention programs.

  4. Groundwater-quality data in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 1,850-square-mile North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer (NSF-SA) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NSF-SA study unit was the first study unit to be sampled as part of the second phase of the GAMA-PBP, which focuses on the shallow aquifer system.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection and HIV Testing Among Transgender Women in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Wang, Ying; Jones, Nicolette; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Harker, Sheldon; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A

    2016-09-01

    Transgender women are overrepresented in the Caribbean HIV epidemic. The study objective was to examine correlates of HIV infection and HIV testing among transgender women in Jamaica. We implemented a cross-sectional survey with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with HIV testing and HIV infection. Among 137 transgender women [mean age 24.0; standard deviation (SD) 5.5], three-quarters (n = 103, 75.7%) had received an HIV test. Of these, one-quarter (n = 26, 25.2%) were HIV positive. In multivariable analyses, HIV testing was associated with: perceived HIV risk [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.42, confidence interval (CI) 1.36-4.28], depression (AOR 1.34, CI 1.01-1.77), forced sex (AOR 3.83, CI 1.42-10.35), physical abuse (AOR 4.11, CI 1.44-11.72), perceived transgender stigma (AOR 1.23, 1.06-1.42), having a healthcare provider (AOR 5.89, CI 1.46-23.77), and lower HIV-related stigma (AOR 0.96, CI 0.92-0.99), incarceration (AOR 0.28, CI 0.10-0.78), and drug use (AOR 0.74, CI 0.58-0.95). HIV infection was associated with the following: homelessness (AOR 5.94, CI 1.27-27.74), perceived HIV risk (AOR 1.67, CI 1.02-2.72), depression (AOR 1.39, CI 1.06-1.82), STI history (AOR 56.79, CI 5.12-630.33), perceived (AOR 1.26, CI 1.06-1.51) and enacted (AOR 1.16, CI 1.04-1.29) transgender stigma, forced sex (AOR 4.14, CI 1.49-11.51), physical abuse (AOR 3.75, CI 1.39-10.12), and lower self-rated health (AOR 0.55, CI 0.30-0.98) and social support (AOR 0.79, CI 0.64-0.97). Transgender women in Jamaica experience high HIV infection rates and suboptimal HIV testing. Combination HIV prevention approaches should address transgender women's social and structural vulnerabilities.

  6. The Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease Control programme--Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard-Bullock, D

    2012-07-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are significant causes of World Health Organization (WHO) and International Society and Federation of Cardiology (ISFC) initiated an International Programme for Prevention of RF/RHD in 16 developing countries, including Jamaica. The Jamaican RF/RHD National Control Programme began in July 1985. The Control Programme promotes the primary prevention of RF/RHD through the appropriate treatment of streptococcal throat infections. Secondary prevention has been the main focus of the Control Programme by administration of benzathine penicillin injections every four weeks to RF/RHD patients. Case finding activities have included two retrospective surveys of case records of RF/RHD patients admitted to the major hospitals in Kingston and St Andrew in the period 1975-1985 (Survey A) and 1989-1995 (Survey B). These surveys provided clinical and laboratory data on RF/RHD in Jamaican patients which were documented and analysed. Records of 1079 patients were reviewed in Survey A and records of 512 patients were reviewed in Survey B. Seventy-seven per cent of 524 patients were aged 5-15 years in initial attacks of RF in Survey A and in Survey B, 82% of 119 patients were between 5 and 15 years in initial attacks. There was no significant sex difference in RF in Survey A and Survey B. A diagnosis of RF had been made in 54% of records in Survey A and 55% of records in Survey B. Diagnosis conformed to the Modified Jones criteria. Carditis occurred in 41% and 70% of RF patients, respectively in survey A and B. Polyarthritis occurred in 73% in Survey A and 74% in Survey B. Chorea occurred in 3% of RF patients in both surveys. Erythema marginatum and subcutaneous nodules occurred rarely in both surveys. Evidence of recent streptococcal infections in RF was found in 74% and 64% in Survey A and B, respectively. Severe carditis occurred in 7% of initial attacks of RF in A and 26% in B. In RHD, mitral incompetence was the commonest

  7. Chesapeake Bay Watershed - Protecting the Chesapeake Bay and its rivers through science, restoration, and partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the Nation's largest estuary, has been degraded due to the impact of human-population increase, which has doubled since 1950, resulting in degraded water quality, loss of habitat, and declines in populations of biological communities. Since the mid-1980s, the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), a multi-agency partnership which includes the Department of Interior (DOI), has worked to restore the Bay ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has the critical role of providing unbiased scientific information that is utilized to document and understand ecosystem change to help assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in the Bay and its watershed. The USGS revised its Chesapeake Bay science plan for 2006-2011 to address the collective needs of the CBP, DOI, and USGS with a mission to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Bay ecosystem. The USGS science themes for this mission are: Causes and consequences of land-use change; Impact of climate change and associated hazards; Factors affecting water quality and quantity; Ability of habitat to support fish and bird populations; and Synthesis and forecasting to improve ecosystem assessment, conservation, and restoration.

  8. Physical and psychological violence in Jamaica's health sector La violencia física y psicológica en el sector de la salud en Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jackson

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of experiences with physical violence and psychological violence that health staff have had in the workplace in Jamaica, and to identify factors associated with those experiences of violence. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 832 health staff answered the standardized questionnaire that was used in this cross-sectional study. Sampling was done at public facilities, including specialist, tertiary, and secondary hospitals in the Kingston Metropolitan Area; general hospitals in the rural parishes; and primary care centers in urban and rural areas. Sampling was also done in private hospitals and private medical centers. RESULTS: Psychological violence was more prevalent than was physical violence. Verbal abuse had been experienced in the preceding year by 38.6% of the questionnaire respondents, bullying was reported by 12.4%, and physical violence was reported by 7.7%. In multivariate analyses there was a lower risk of physical violence for health staff who were 55 years or older, worked during the night, or worked mostly with mentally disabled patients, geriatric patients, or HIV/AIDS patients. Staff members working mostly with psychiatric patients faced a higher risk of physical assaults than did other health staff. Of the various health occupations, nurses were the ones most likely to be verbally abused. In terms of age ranges, bullying was more commonly experienced by health staff 40-54 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Violence in the health sector workplace in Jamaica is an occupational hazard that is of public health concern. Evaluation of the environment that creates risks for violence is necessary to guide the formulation of meaningful interventions for the country.OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de experiencias con episodios de violencia física y psicológica en el lugar de trabajo entre miembros del personal de salud de Jamaica, así como los factores que se asocian con dichas experiencias. MÉTODOS: Un

  9. The lived experiences of adolescents with sickle cell disease in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Andrea Brown; Barton-Gooden, Antoinette; Pitter, Cynthia; Lindo, Jascinth L M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the lived experiences of adolescents with sickle cell disease, in Kingston, Jamaica. A descriptive qualitative design was used for this research. In-depth interviews were conducted with six adolescents with sickle cell disease at a Sickle Cell Unit operated by the University of the West Indies. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. The majority of the adolescents demonstrated a positive self-concept. They reported strong family, school, and peer support which made them feel accepted. All were actively engaged in social activities such as parties, but had challenges participating in sporting activities. Various coping strategies were utilized to address challenges of the disease including praying, watching television, and surfing the Internet. Sickle cell disease can be very challenging for the adolescent, but with positive self-concept and increased social support, especially from family and peers, these adolescents were able to effectively cope with their condition and live productive lives.

  10. Exploring cultural connectedness in the sustainability of rural community tourism development in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque de la investigación sobre la sostenibilidad del turismo rural comunitario en Jamaica a menudo gravita hacia los componentes económicos, ambientales, políticos y de gestión. Este estudio etnográfico explora cómo dos grupos distintivos- Charles Tow Marrons, descendientes de los esclavos combatientes de la resistencia y Seaford Town Germans, descendientes de trabajadore contratados en Alemania-están explotando su cultura por medio del turismo rural comunitario a la moda nuevas fuentes de sustento. La discusión se ofrece detalles sobre cómo la gente se basan en su pasado para generar tangibles e intagibles productos de turismo cultural. Se destac la cultura significados tiene para los habitantes rurales en relación con el sentido del lugar, la identidad y el desarrollo del turimo rural comunitario sostenible.

  11. Children's experience of loss by parental migration in inner-city Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Audrey M

    2005-10-01

    Migratory separation, when parents migrate and leave their children behind, was investigated in a case-control sample of 9- to 10-year-olds living in inner-city communities in Kingston and St Andrew, Jamaica (N = 54). Data analyses using descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations showed that children's reactions to their parents' migration were directly related to poor school performance and psychological difficulties. Additionally, being currently exposed to violence in the home and/or community was significantly associated with high scores on a measure of grief intensity. "Protective" factors included having someone to talk to about the migration and living in a supportive family. Migratory separation needs detailed investigation like that devoted to other childhood family disruptions, such as parental divorce or death.

  12. Stress, Burnout and Coping among Emergency Physicians at a Major Hospital in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, T A; Haase, S; French, S; McFarlane, T A

    2014-06-01

    The study examined the prevalence of stress, burnout, and coping, and the relationship between these variables among emergency physicians at a teaching hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. Thirty out of 41 physicians in the Emergency Department completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a background questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted. Fifty per cent of study participants scored highly on emotional exhaustion; the scores of 53.3% also indicated that they were highly stressed. Stress correlated significantly with the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization components of burnout. Depersonalization was significantly correlated with two coping strategies: escape-avoidance and accepting responsibility; emotional exhaustion was also significantly correlated with escape-avoidance. Emergency physicians at the hospital scored high on stress and components of burnout. Interventions aimed at reducing the occupational contributors to stress and improving levels of coping will reduce the risk of burnout and enhance psychological well-being among emergency physicians.

  13. Factors associated with self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among farmers in northwestern Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Ngqabutho M.; Fogo, Christopher; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Curtis M.; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern in developing countries. We conducted a population survey among farmers in three parishes of northwestern Jamaica to determine the occurrence of acute pesticide poisoning and to identify factors associated with pesticide poisoning. Approximately 16% of 359 farmers who participated in the study reported one or more incidents of acute pesticide poisoning within the last two years. Only 25% of the farmers reported ever receiving training in pesticide handling or safety. The majority (68%) of farmers who reported pesticide poisoning never sought medical attention for poisoning. The factors found to be associated with pesticide poisoning in this study indicate that implementation of specific intervention strategies and education of farmers is needed in order to improve safe handling, use and disposal of pesticides and reduce incidents of acute pesticide poisoning. PMID:24484363

  14. Computerized glow curve deconvolution of thermoluminescent emission from polyminerals of Jamaica Mexican flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, A.; Furetta, C.; Zaragoza, E. Cruz; Reyes, A.

    The aim of this work is to study the main thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of the inorganic polyminerals extracted from dehydrated Jamaica flower or roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) belonging to Malvaceae family of Mexican origin. TL emission properties of the polymineral fraction in powder were studied using the initial rise (IR) method. The complex structure and kinetic parameters of the glow curves have been analysed accurately using the computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) assuming an exponential distribution of trapping levels. The extension of the IR method to the case of a continuous and exponential distribution of traps is reported, such as the derivation of the TL glow curve deconvolution functions for continuous trap distribution. CGCD is performed both in the case of frequency factor, s, temperature independent, and in the case with the s function of temperature.

  15. Bridging emergency contraceptive pill users to regular contraception: results from a randomized trial in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Quee, Dawn S; Wedderburn, Maxine; Otterness, Conrad; Janowitz, Barbara; Chen-Mok, Mario

    2010-02-01

    Emergency contraception research has shifted from examining the public health effects of increasing access to emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) to bridging ECP users to a regular contraceptive method as a way of decreasing unintended pregnancies. In a randomized controlled trial in Jamaica, we tested a discount coupon for oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) among pharmacy-based ECP purchasers as an incentive to adopt (i.e., use for at least 2 months) this and other regular contraceptive methods. Women in the intervention and control arms were followed up at 3 and 6 months after ECP purchase to determine whether they adopted the OCP or any other contraceptive method. Condom use was recorded but was not considered a regular contraceptive due to its inconsistent use. There was no significant difference in the proportion of women who adopted the OCP, injectable or intrauterine device in the control group or the intervention group (p=.39), and only 14.6% of the sample (mostly OCP adopters) used one of these three methods. Condom use was high (44.0%), demonstrating that ECP users were largely a condom-using group. The discount coupon intervention was not successful. Although a small proportion of ECP users did bridge, the coupon did not affect the decision to adopt a regular contraceptive method. The study highlighted the need for bridging strategies to consider women's reproductive and sexual behaviors, as well as their context. However, in countries like Jamaica where HIV/AIDS is of concern and condom use is appropriately high, bridging may not be an optimal strategy.

  16. Out of Many, One People? Representations of Female Masqueraders in the Jamaica Carnival on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAI BARRATT

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Al igual que muchos carnavales de estilo caribeño, el desfile de carnaval jamaicano está dominado por mujeres y sus representaciones en los medios de comunicación son controladas por los fotógrafos que dictan cómo se presentan en plataformas de medios sociales como Facebook. Utilizando un marco sobre representación y poder en los medios de comunicación, el documento postula que los fotógrafos defienden las ideas hegemónicas sobre el cuerpo de las mujeres cuando deciden quién aparece en sus álbumes de fotos de Facebook. Un análisis de contenido examinó imágenes del desfile de carnaval de 2015 de tres álbumes de Facebook y encontró que los fotógrafos prefirieron a las mujeres delgadas, de piel clara, vestidas con los trajes más lisos y comprometidas con una pose de pie. Estos hallazgos contradicen el lema nacional de Jamaica “Out of Many, One People”, que promueve la idea de una sociedad con todo incluido, pero ignora las estratificaciones sociales que están arraigadas en la antigua sociedad de plantación. Estas divisiones a lo largo de las líneas de la etnicidad y la clase se traducen en última instancia a los espacios de rendimiento donde el carnaval, una importación cultural, se posiciona frente dancehall, que es el principal producto cultural de Jamaica.

  17. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Vector-borne Diseases in Western Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobuia, Wilson M; Missikpode, Celestin; Aung, Maung; Jolly, Pauline E

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue and malaria can overwhelm health systems in resource-poor countries. Environmental management strategies that reduce or eliminate vector breeding sites combined with improved personal prevention strategies can help to significantly reduce transmission of these infections. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) of residents in western Jamaica regarding control of mosquito vectors and protection from mosquito bites. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2010 among patients or family members of patients waiting to be seen at hospitals in western Jamaica. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and KAPs regarding VBDs. KAP scores were calculated and categorized as high or low based on the number of correct or positive responses. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of KAP and linear regression analysis conducted to determine if knowledge and attitude scores predicted practice scores. In all, 361 (85 men and 276 women) people participated in the study. Most participants (87%) scored low on knowledge and practice items (78%). Conversely, 78% scored high on attitude items. By multivariate logistic regression, housewives were 82% less likely than laborers to have high attitude scores; homeowners were 65% less likely than renters to have high attitude scores. Participants from households with 1 to 2 children were 3.4 times more likely to have high attitude scores compared with those from households with no children. Participants from households with at least 5 people were 65% less likely than those from households with fewer than 5 people to have high practice scores. By multivariable linear regression knowledge and attitude scores were significant predictors of practice score. The study revealed poor knowledge of VBDs and poor prevention practices among participants. It

  18. Correlates of symptoms of depression and anxiety among clinic outpatients in Western Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Cara E.; Affuso, Olivia; Martin, Michelle Y.; Aung, Maung; Crossman, Lisbeth; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There is a paucity of studies on psychosocial disorders in a clinic population in Jamaica. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of symptoms of depression and anxiety in a clinic population in western Jamaica. Methods A total of 338 participants from four outpatient clinics of the Western Regional Health Authority (WRHA) were screened for symptoms of depression and anxiety using questions from the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in symptoms of anxiety and depression by gender. Multivariate linear and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between symptoms and socio-demographic variables with significance set at p<0.05. Results Approximately 30% of participants had moderate or severe depression symptoms while 18.6% had moderate or severe anxiety symptoms. Participants aged 30–39 years were more likely than older participants to have moderate or severe anxiety symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.39–5.56). Women reported a statistically significant higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms (10.0% vs. 7.1%, p=0.003). There was also a statistically significant difference between anxiety means by gender. Furthermore, income was found to be a significant predictor of anxiety for women only (p=0.0113). Married persons were more likely than those who had never married to have moderate or severe anxiety symptoms (OR: 2.57, 95% CI: 1.14–5.76). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression may be higher than global estimates in similar outpatient settings. Screening and intervention efforts may need to focus on younger persons, women, and married persons. PMID:24756741

  19. Factors associated with the acceptability of male circumcision among men in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Melonie M; Jolly, Pauline E; Ehiri, John E; Funkhouser, Ellen; Kempf, Mirjam C; Hickman, Deborah; Aung, Maung; Zhang, Kui

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of male circumcision (MC) among men in the western region of Jamaica, and to identify factors associated with acceptability of MC for self, infants (Jamaica. The survey included questions about the acceptance of MC for self, infants, and sons before and after an information session about the benefits of MC in preventing HIV/STI transmission. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors that were associated with acceptability of MC. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from the models. Fourteen percent of the men reported that they were circumcised. In the multivariable model, which adjusted for age, education, religion and income, there were increased odds of accepting MC for infants/sons among uncircumcised men who accepted MC for self (AOR=8.1; 95% CI = 4.1-15.9), believed they would experience more pleasure during sex if circumcised (AOR=4.0; 95% CI = 2.0-8.2), and reported having no concerns regarding MC (AOR=3.0; 95% CI = 1.8-4.8). Similarly, uncircumcised men who reported no concerns about MC or who believed that they would experience more pleasure during sex if circumcised were more likely to accept MC for self. Providing men with information about MC increased acceptance of MC for self, infants (<17 years) and sons (1-17 years). Since targeted education on the benefits of male circumcision for prevention of HIV/STI can be effective in increasing acceptability of MC, health professionals should be trained, and willing to discuss MC with men in healthcare facilities and in the community.

  20. Intravaginal Cleansing among Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Kingston, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M; Gallo, M; Anderson, C; Snead, MC; Wiener, J; Bailey, A; Costenbader, E; Legardy-Williams, J; Hylton-Kong, T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although common worldwide, intravaginal cleansing is associated with poor health outcomes. We sought to describe intravaginal cleansing among women attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Jamaica. Methods We examined intravaginal cleansing (“washing up inside the vagina”, douching, and products or materials used) among 293 participants in a randomized trial of counselling messages at an STI clinic in Kingston. We focussed on information on intravaginal cleansing performed in the 30 days and three days preceding their baseline study visit. We describe reported cleansing behaviours and used logistic regression to identify correlates of intravaginal cleansing. Results Fifty-eight per cent of participants reported intravaginal cleansing in the previous 30 days, and 46% did so in the three days before baseline. Among those who cleansed in the previous 30 days, 88% reported doing so for hygiene unrelated to sex, and three-fourths reported generally doing so more than once per day. Soap (usually with water) and water alone were the most common products used for washing; commercial douches or detergents were reported infrequently. Intravaginal cleansing in the three days before the baseline visit was positively associated with having more than one sex partner in the previous three months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1, 3.2), and negatively associated with experiencing itching in the genital area at baseline (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4, 1.0). Conclusions A large proportion of women attending STI clinics in Jamaica engage in frequent intravaginal cleansing, indicating a need for clinicians to discuss this topic with them accordingly. PMID:24171329

  1. Correlates of symptoms of depression and anxiety among clinic patients in western Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, C E; Affuso, O; Martin, M Y; Aung, M; Crossman, L; Jolly, P E

    2013-07-01

    There is a paucity of studies on psychosocial disorders in clinic populations in Jamaica. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of symptoms of depression and anxiety in a clinic population in western Jamaica. A total of 338 participants from four outpatient clinics of : A total of 338 participants from four outpatient clinics of the Western Regional Health Authority (WRHA) were screened for symptoms of depression and anxiety using questions from the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The Chi-square test was used to examine differences in symptoms of anxiety and depression by gender. Multivariate linear and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between symptoms and sociodemographic variables with significance set at p<0.05. Approximately 30% of participants had moderate or severe depression symptoms while 18.6% had moderate or severe anxiety symptoms. Participants aged 30-39 years were more likely than older participants to have moderate or severe anxiety symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39, 5.56). Women reported a statistically significant higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms (10.0% vs 7.1%, p = 0.003). There was also a statistically significant difference between anxiety means by gender. Furthermore, income was found to be a significant predictor of anxiety for women only (p = 0.0113). Married persons were more likely than those who had never married to have moderate or severe anxiety symptoms (OR: 2.57, 95% CI: 1.14, 5.76). Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression may be higher than global estimates in similar outpatient settings. Screening and intervention efforts may need to focus on younger persons, women, and married persons.

  2. Knowledge, Attitude and practices regarding vector-borne diseases in Western Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobuia, Wilson M; Missikpode, Celestin; Aung, Maung; Jolly, Pauline E

    2015-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, and malaria can overwhelm health systems in resource-poor countries. Environmental management strategies that reduce/eliminate vector breeding sites combined with improved personal prevention strategies can help to significantly reduce transmission of these infections. Objective This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of residents in Western Jamaica regarding control of mosquito vectors and protection from mosquito bites. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2010 among patients or family members of patients waiting to be seen at hospitals in Western Jamaica. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and KAPs regarding vector-borne diseases. KAP scores were calculated and categorized as high or low based on number of correct/positive responses. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of KAP and linear regression analysis conducted to determine if knowledge and attitude scores predicted practice scores. Results Three-hundred and sixty-one people (85 males and 276 females) participated in the study. Most participants (87%) scored low on knowledge and practice items (78%). Conversely, 78% scored high on attitudes items. By multivariate logistic regression, housewives were 82% less likely to have high attitude scores than laborers, and homeowners were 65% less likely to have high attitude scores than renters. Participants from households with 1–2 children were 3.4 times more likely to have high attitude scores compared to those from households with no children. Participants from households ≥5 people were 65% less likely to have high practice scores compared to those from households with knowledge and attitude scores were significant predictors of practice score. Conclusion The study revealed poor knowledge of vector-borne diseases and poor prevention

  3. Factors associated with the acceptability of male circumcision among men in Jamaica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melonie M Walcott

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of male circumcision (MC among men in the western region of Jamaica, and to identify factors associated with acceptability of MC for self, infants (<1 year and older sons (1-17 years.A cross-sectional, interviewer-administered questionnaire survey of 549 men aged 19-54 years was conducted in the western region of Jamaica. The survey included questions about the acceptance of MC for self, infants, and sons before and after an information session about the benefits of MC in preventing HIV/STI transmission. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors that were associated with acceptability of MC. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated from the models.Fourteen percent of the men reported that they were circumcised. In the multivariable model, which adjusted for age, education, religion and income, there were increased odds of accepting MC for infants/sons among uncircumcised men who accepted MC for self (AOR=8.1; 95% CI = 4.1-15.9, believed they would experience more pleasure during sex if circumcised (AOR=4.0; 95% CI = 2.0-8.2, and reported having no concerns regarding MC (AOR=3.0; 95% CI = 1.8-4.8. Similarly, uncircumcised men who reported no concerns about MC or who believed that they would experience more pleasure during sex if circumcised were more likely to accept MC for self.Providing men with information about MC increased acceptance of MC for self, infants (<17 years and sons (1-17 years. Since targeted education on the benefits of male circumcision for prevention of HIV/STI can be effective in increasing acceptability of MC, health professionals should be trained, and willing to discuss MC with men in healthcare facilities and in the community.

  4. Windward Passage and Jamaica Channel: New Insights About two Tectonic Gateways of the Northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, M. H.; Blake, R. E.; Coleman, D. F.; Guerrier, K.; Raineault, N.; Saintilus, N.; Walker, S. L.; Auscavitch, S.; Wagner, J.

    2014-12-01

    This August 2014, a 14-day expedition of the E/V NAUTILUS of the OCEAN EXPLORATION TRUST will explore the region delimited by two deep straits of the northern Caribbean, the Windward passage and the Jamaica Channel. The morphology of these straits is controlled by two transform faults: The Septentrional fault, which stretches between Cuba and Haiti (slip rate: ~13 mm/yr), and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF), which stretches between Jamaica and Haiti (slip rate: ~9 mm/yr). Together, these faults bound the Gonave microplate, an elongated platelet caught between the North America plate and Caribbean plates. The Septentrional fault ruptured in 1842, devastating the town of Cap Haitien. The EPGF ruptured catastrophically in 2010 near Port-au-Prince (death toll > 100,000). Tsunamis were associated with both earthquakes. Oblique slip on these two faults is presumably controlling the history of uplift and subsidence of the seafloor, and has therefore also been regulating the water exchanges between the north central Atlantic and the Caribbean Sea. New multibeam bathymetric and CHIRP sub-bottom profiling data will be acquired with the E/V NAUTILUS, while the ROV HERCULES will be used to collect video, water and rock samples, as well as water column physical properties. We anticipate that this survey will document the following: (1) The nature of drowned carbonate platforms, which in turn may provide useful markers to assess rates of vertical deformation along the two faults. (2) The extent of major landslides detected on the steep fore reefs from existing multibeam bathymetric data. (3) Whether fluids are actively seeping along the fault traces or in association with the landslides, as has been reported elsewhere around the World. (4) If cold seeps are indeed present, to what extent their associated ecosystems are affected by the bottom currents that flow through these gateways. Altogether, the new findings should contribute to a better understanding of the

  5. Brote epidémico de denguevirus 2, genotipo Jamaica, en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianella Alberto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Confirmar la presencia de brote de dengue en la ciudad de Santa Cruz, Bolivia, así como identificar el denguevirus causal, estimar la tasa de ataque y determinar la proporción de infecciones sintomáticas. Material y métodos. En marzo de 1997 se realizó una encuesta seroepidemiológica con muestreo aleatorio en un distrito céntrico de la ciudad. Se obtuvo información sobre episodios de enfermedad aguda, antecedentes de cuadro febril reciente y muestras de sangre venosa. Se determinó la presencia de IgM antidengue con el método MAC ELISA y se procedió a la tipificación del virus con tecnología de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM en 6.5% de los adultos (IC95% 3.4-9.6 y 5.1% de los niños (IC 95% 2.0-8.2. El virus circulante fue identificado como dengue serotipo 2, genotipo Jamaica. Menos de la mitad de los niños infectados tuvieron una infección sintomática, contra casi 90% de los adultos. Conclusiones. La tasa de ataque estimada es compatible con una epidemia de dengue en Santa Cruz. La introducción del serotipo 2 - Jamaica en el país aumenta el riesgo de dengue hemorrágico.

  6. The Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction among the Patients with End Stage Renal Disease in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, K K; Soyibo, A K; James, K; Barton, E N

    2013-12-01

    Sexual performance and gratification impact quality of life. Although recognized in the literature as a problem, sexual dysfunction among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) has never been studied in Jamaica. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was determined among 268 adult Jamaican patients (166 males, 102 females) with ESRD who had been on haemodialysis for at least three months. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was determined using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 classifications of sexual disorders. Prevalence, severity of sexual dysfunctions and relationships with the primary aetiology of ESRD and anaemia were assessed. Erectile dysfunction, desire and orgasmic disorderS were found in 91.4%, 88.3%, and 81.6% of male subjects, respectively. The majority of male patients were dissatisfied with their performance at intercourse after progressing to ESRD. Hypoactive sexual disorder, sexual arousal and orgasmic disorders, and aversion sexual disorder were prevalent, found in 96%, 88.1% and 87.1% of female patients. All diabetic patients with ESRD reported hypoactive sexual disorder and orgasmic dysfunction; arousal disorder was found in 94.7%. Aversion sexual disorder was found more among patients with underlying chronic glomerulonephritis. All patients with severe anaemia were found to have hypoactive sexual disorder and among these, 87.5% and 97.8% had severe arousal and orgasmic disorders, respectively. Sexual dysfunction among patients with ESRD in Jamaica was prevalent in males and females. Associations exist between sexual dysfunction and diabetes mellitus, chronic glomerulonephritis and anaemia.

  7. Social marketing program sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This table presents data on social marketing program sales for projects that provide more than 5000 couple-years of protection. Cited are social marketing programs in Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, and Sri Lanka. Included in the table are data on program funding, product sales (generally condoms, pills, and foaming tablets), and couple-years of protection provided. Among the social marketing programs reporting particularly high couple-years of protection levels are the Bangladesh Family Planning Social Marketing Program (1,165,100), the Egyptian Family Planning Association's Family for the Future Program (732,200), India's Nirodh Marketing Program (2,225,000), and Pakistan's Social Marketing Contraceptive Program (280,000).

  8. Bayes and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes' theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law.

  9. Preparing Informal Bay Area Educators for Climate Education Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Bay Area Climate Literacy Impact Collaborative (Bay-CLIC) joins informal science educators from over 30 environmental education organizations with the common goal of increasing climate literacy and action. Over this past year, the collaborative has been gathering existing tools and resources that will allow informal educators in the Bay Area to communicate on climate change with confidence. Bay-CLIC's work plans to bring climate science to life by equipping educators with climate data that resonates best with local audiences, which is data that is place-based and personal. Bay-CLIC is also researching effective sustainability campaigns focused on behavior change that can be crafted to fit our unique regional context and rolled out across multiple Bay-CLIC member organizations. This session will focus on sharing our findings from our six month information gathering phase. The overarching discussion will focus on the needs that Bay Area educators identified as necessary to address in order for them to provide the best quality climate education programming. We will also discuss the data we gathered on what local educators are already using in their work and share out on how this diverse array of informal educators will be implementing our research into their programs.

  10. The Wright Institute Sanctuary Project: Development and Proposed Evaluation of a Graduate Training Program Providing Clinical Services to Asylum Seekers in the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Brenda Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the development of a graduate training program at The Wright Institute in Berkeley, CA, which provides assessment services for undocumented immigrants seeking asylum. This program focuses on the needs of a general asylum seeking population, with a specific relevance to some of the populations that may be served in the…

  11. Evolving extended naive Bayes classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Klawonn, Frank; Angelov, Plamen

    2006-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers are a very simple, but often effective tool for classification problems, although they are based on independence assumptions that do not hold in most cases. Extended naive Bayes classifiers also rely on independence assumptions, but break them down to artificial subclasses, in this way becoming more powerful than ordinary naive Bayes classifiers. Since the involved computations for Bayes classifiers are basically generalised mean value calculations, they easily render ...

  12. Culture and contact in the promotion and reduction of anti-gay prejudice: evidence from Jamaica and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keon; Hewstone, Miles

    2012-01-01

    Jamaica has been called "the most homophobic place on Earth" ( Padgett, 2006 , p. 1), and has been involved in numerous international incidents with Britain, and other countries, concerning anti-gay prejudice. However, neither the severity of Jamaican anti-gay prejudice, nor any means of reducing this prejudice has ever been empirically investigated. Intergroup contact-social interaction with a person from another group-is one of the most successful and widely used social-psychological interventions to reduce prejudice and improve intergroup relations. In this article, we compared sexual prejudice in Jamaica to that in Britain and investigated the relationship between contact and sexual prejudice in both countries. Jamaican participants reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than did British participants, but contact was more strongly associated with reduced sexual prejudice for Jamaican participants than for British participants. Implications for reducing Jamaican sexual prejudice are discussed.

  13. Jamaica, Three Years Later: Effects of Intensified Pro-Gay Activism on Severe Prejudice Against Lesbians and Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Keon

    2016-01-01

    Jamaica has developed an international reputation for severe anti-gay prejudice. However, in the past few years, between 2012 and 2015, intensified waves of activism have increased the visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Jamaicans, and supported their social and legal inclusion in Jamaican society. This research investigated the effects of that activism by taking advantage of two large, representative surveys of Jamaicans' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: one in 2012 and one in 2015. Over the three-year period there were significant reductions in desire for social distance and opposition to gay rights. However, there was no significant change in anti-gay attitudes, and there was evidence of an increase in anti-gay behaviors. There was also no evidence of polarization of responses to gay men and lesbians; rather, the most prejudiced Jamaicans showed the largest reductions in bias. Implications of these findings for activism in Jamaica and other anti-gay countries are discussed.

  14. Long-term changes in above ground biomass after disturbance in a neotropical dry forest, Hellshire Hills, Jamaica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño, Milena; McLaren, Kurt P.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We used data from experimental plots (control, partially cut and clear-cut) established in 1998, in a tropical dry forest (TDF) in Jamaica, to assess changes in above ground biomass (AGB) 10 years after disturbance. The treatments reduced AGB significantly in 1999 (partially cut: 37.6 %, clear-cu...... for the clear-cut plots to recover pre-treatment AGB; this is significantly longer than AGB recovery time for some successional rainforests on abandoned pastures/farmland. Consequently, this TDF may not be as resilient as tropical rainforests.......We used data from experimental plots (control, partially cut and clear-cut) established in 1998, in a tropical dry forest (TDF) in Jamaica, to assess changes in above ground biomass (AGB) 10 years after disturbance. The treatments reduced AGB significantly in 1999 (partially cut: 37.6 %, clear...

  15. Anti-Spanish sentiment in the Jamaica Letter: between the legitimacy of independence and the justification of republican failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saralegui Benito

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Simón Bolívar’s Jamaica Letter has underestimated the importance of Hispanophobia. Generally this aspect of the text has been regarded as purely rhetorical and circumstantial. However, this element is of central importance to the text, because virtually every idea in the essay is closely tied up with this hatred towards Spain. Without Hispanophobia, the Jamaica Letter would simply cease to exist. In this work, I will try to show the three cornerstones of this enmity created by Bolívar: criticism of the Conquest and the Colony, the time gap undermining the Spanish Empire and the invention of this Empire as the worst tyranny in history, an issue to which I will devote particular attention. By means of this exaggeration, Bolívar offers an unintentional justification of every political disaster or constitutional failure.

  16. Interpersonal violence in three Caribbean countries: Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago Violencia interpersonal en tres países del Caribe: Barbados, Jamaica y Trinidad y Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie Le Franc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This article reports the prevalence of two types of interpersonal violence (IPV (sexual and physical and one type of aggression (psychological in three low-to-middle-income Caribbean countries. It examines IPV among adolescents and young adults as both victims and perpetrators. METHODS: This population-based study compares the experiences of 15-30 year olds in countries at different levels of socioeconomic development. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2 and other behavioral instruments were used to assess the level and characteristics of IPV. RESULTS: Out of 3 401 respondents, 70.9% reported victimization by some form of violence, which was most commonly perpetrated by a relationship partner (62.8%. Sexual violence victimization was reported more commonly by women, and was highest in Jamaica. Significant between-country differences in overall levels of reported physical violence, and psychological aggression, were evident when stratifying by perpetrator type. CONCLUSIONS: The very high levels of reported IPV indicate very high levels of tolerance among victims, and suggest a culture of violence and of adversarial intimate relationships may be well entrenched. The findings support the view that co-occurrence of general interpersonal violence and partner violence may be limited, and that one may not necessarily be a predictor of the other. They also reveal that, among partners, not only are there no gender differentials in victimization by physical violence, but more women than men are self-reporting as perpetrators of this type of IPV.OBJETIVOS: Se informa la prevalencia de dos formas de violencia interpersonal (VIP -la sexual y la física- y de un tipo de agresión -la psicológica- en tres países del Caribe de bajo a mediano ingresos. Se analiza la VIP entre adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, ya sea como víctimas o agresores. MÉTODOS: En este estudio basado en la población se comparan las experiencias de personas de 15 a 30

  17. Understanding the high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among socio-economically vulnerable men who have sex with men in Jamaica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Peter Figueroa

    Full Text Available This study estimates HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM in Jamaica and explores social determinants of HIV infection among MSM.An island-wide cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited by peer referral and outreach was conducted in 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered and HIV/STI tests done. We compared three groups: MSM who accepted cash for sex within the past 3 months (MSM SW, MSM who did not accept cash for sex (MSM non-SW, and MSM with adverse life events (ever raped, jailed, homeless, victim of violence or low literacy.HIV prevalence among 449 MSM was 31.4%, MSM SW 41.1%, MSM with adverse life events 38.5%, 17 transgender MSM (52.9%, and MSM non-SW without adverse events 21.0%. HIV prevalence increased with age and number of adverse life events (test for trend P < 0.001, as did STI prevalence (P = 0.03. HIV incidence was 6.7 cases/100 person-years (95% CI: 3.74, 12.19. HIV prevalence was highest among MSM reporting high-risk sex; MSM SW who had been raped (65.0%, had a STI (61.2% and who self identified as female (55.6%. Significant risk factors for HIV infection common to all 3 subgroups were participation in both receptive and insertive anal intercourse, high-risk sex, and history of a STI. Perception of no or little risk, always using a condom, and being bisexual were protective.HIV prevalence was high among MSM SW and MSM with adverse life events. Given the characteristics of the sample, HIV prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is probably in the range of 20%. The study illustrates the importance of social vulnerability in driving the HIV epidemic. Programs to empower young MSM, reduce social vulnerability and other structural barriers including stigma and discrimination against MSM are critical to reduce HIV transmission.

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN QUÍMICA Y COLORIMÉTRICA DE CULTIVARES DE JAMAICA (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Camelo Méndez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    La jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) se destaca por su alto contenido en antocianinas y potencial actividad antioxidante. En la medicina tradicional se usa como: bactericida, diurético, cicatrizante y laxante entre otros. Actualmente, en México existen programas de mejoramiento genético tradicional de materiales, que han generado materiales de esta planta con diversos grados de pigmentación y tolerancia a plagas y enfermedades. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar químic...

  19. Jamaica, Three Years Later: Effects of Intensified Pro-Gay Activism on Severe Prejudice Against Lesbians and Gay Men

    OpenAIRE

    West, Keon

    2016-01-01

    Jamaica has developed an international reputation for severe anti-gay prejudice. However, in the past few years, between 2012 and 2015, intensified waves of activism have increased the visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Jamaicans, and supported their social and legal inclusion in Jamaican society. This research investigated the effects of that activism by taking advantage of two large, representative surveys of Jamaicans' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: one in...

  20. Sexual restrictions beyond anti-gay prejudice: Anal sex, oral sex, masculinity and sexual prejudice in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    West, Keon

    2016-01-01

    This is the first quantitative research to investigate attitudes toward heterosexual anal and oral sex in Jamaica, compare them to anti-gay and anti-lesbian attitudes, and frame them within a broader understanding of sexual prejudice based on gender norms. Fifty Jamaican participants’ attitudes toward heterosexual anal sex were as negative as attitudes toward gay male sex, and more negative than attitudes toward lesbian sex. Negative attitudes toward male sexual behaviours were predicted by m...

  1. RESPONSE OF THE JAMAICA-BEAN-CORN POLYCULTURE CROPPING SYSTEM TO THREE TREATMENTS OF FERTILIZATION IN VILLAFLORES, CHIAPAS, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosey Obet Ruiz-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The corn (Zeamays Linneo and bean (Phaseolusvulgaris Linneo are the economic basis to meet the basic needs of rural families, but these crops are no longer economically viable for various reasons and jeopardize the family livelihood and productive alternatives are needed to improve the rural economy. The research was conducted during the spring-summer cycle from 1999 to 2000 in Villaflores , Chiapas, in order to evaluate the response of polyculturejamaica-bean-corn three fertilization treatments ( 00-00-00 , 60-60-60 and 120-60-60 . The experimental design was random blocks with three fertilization treatments, seven patterns of crops, and three replications and performance in the three plant species and vegetative variables were evaluated. With the data an ANOVA was performed and the treatment means were compared with the test of Tukey (p ≤ 0.05. The best vegetative response of the jamaica was to associate it with beans and corn with 60-60 fertilization treatment - 60, getting as much of: foliage (170 hojasplanta-1, branches (31 ramasplanta-1, acorns (54 bellotasplanta-1 and increased performance of dried calyxes (698 kgha-1.The beans associated with maize without fertilizations showed increase in foliage (62 hojasplanta-1 and in monoculture with fertilization 60-60 - 60 had the best performance (1,565 kgha-1of beans. Corn had the best vegetative response (18 hojasplanta-1 associated with beans and fertilization 120 - 60-60, and the best performance was when teamed with the beans and the jamaica (7,667 kgha-1. The best equivalent land-use was 3.31 in jamaica-bean-corn crop pattern. The analysis of the results indicates that the jamaica by associating it with corn and beans represents a biological and economic production alternative to improve the economy of rural families in Mexican soils which are acidified.

  2. The orbiter Discovery rolls from OPF bay 1 to bay 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    KSC employees chaperone the transfer of the orbiter Discovery from Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) bay 1 to OPF bay 3 where ongoing payload and ground processing assessments will be completed. Managers will then determine when to roll the orbiter to the Vehicle Assembly Building for stacking with the external tank and solid rocket boosters, and when to roll out to Launch Pad 39A. Discovery is scheduled to launch Oct. 5 at 9:30 p.m. EDT on mission STS-92, which will be the 100th flight in the Shuttle program.

  3. Development of an integrated ecosystem model to determine effectiveness of potential watershed management projects on improving Old Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward T. Sherwood; Holly Greening; Lizanne Garcia; Kris Kaufman; Tony Janicki; Ray Pribble; Brett Cunningham; Steve Peene; Jim Fitzpatrick; Kellie Dixon; Mike Wessel

    2016-01-01

    The Tampa Bay estuary has undergone a remarkable ecosystem recovery since the 1980s despite continued population growth within the region. However during this time, the Old Tampa Bay (OTB) segment has lagged behind the rest of the Bay’s recovery relative to improvements in overall water quality and seagrass coverage. In 2011, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, in...

  4. Household food insecurity and childhood overweight in Jamaica and Québec: a gender-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon-Strachan Georgiana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood overweight is not restricted to developed countries: a number of lower- and middle-income countries are struggling with the double burden of underweight and overweight. Another public health problem that concerns both developing and, to a lesser extent, developed countries is food insecurity. This study presents a comparative gender-based analysis of the association between household food insecurity and overweight among 10-to-11-year-old children living in the Canadian province of Québec and in the country of Jamaica. Methods Analyses were performed using data from the 2008 round of the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development and the Jamaica Youth Risk and Resiliency Behaviour Survey of 2007. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1190 10-year old children in Québec and 1674 10-11-year-old children in Jamaica. Body mass index was derived using anthropometric measurements and overweight was defined using Cole's age- and sex-specific criteria. Questionnaires were used to collect data on food insecurity. The associations were examined using chi-square tests and multivariate regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals. Results The prevalence of overweight was 26% and 11% (p Conclusions Public health interventions which aim to stem the epidemic of overweight/obesity should consider gender differences and other family factors associated with overweight/obesity in both developed and developing countries.

  5. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  6. Late Quaternary Activity and Seismogenic Potential of the Gonave Microplate: Plantain Garden Strike-Slip Fault Zone of Eastern Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.; Prentice, C.; King, W.; Demets, C.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.; Benford, B.

    2008-12-01

    At the longitude of Jamaica, Caribbean (Carib)-North America (Noam) plate motion of 19 ± 2 mm/a is carried by two parallel, left-lateral strike-slip faults, the Oriente fault zone, immediately south of Cuba, and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ), which lies 100-150 km further south. It has been postulated that the lithosphere between these faults constitutes an independent Gonave microplate that has formed in response to the ongoing collision between the leading edge of Carib in Hispaniola and the Bahama carbonate platform. GPS measurements in Jamaica and Hispanola is supportive of the microplate hypothesis and indicates that roughly half of Carib-Noam plate motion (8-14 mm/a) is carried by the EPGFZ of southern Hispaniola and eastern Jamaica. This study applies geomorphic and paleoseismic methods as a direct test of the activity and amount of microplate motion carried on the Plantain Garden fault segment of eastern Hispaniola and how this motion is distributed across a large restraining bend that has formed the island of Jamaica since the late Miocene. The EPFZ curves gently to the northeast and forming a steep mountain front to the Blue Mountains restraining bend with elevations up to 2200 m. Geomorphic fault-related features along the mountain front fault zone include left-laterally deflected rivers and streams, but no small scale features indicative of Holocene activity. River and stream deflections range from 0.1 to 0.5 km. We identified and trenched the most active trace of the mountain front fault at the Morant River where the fault is characterized by a 1.5-m-wide sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and fault Cretaceous basement rocks This section is overlain by a 6-m-thick fluvial terrace. Trenching in the unfaulted terrace immediately overlying the fault trace revealed radiocarbon and OSL ages ranging from 20 to 21 ka that are consistent with a prominent unfaulted alluvial fan along the projection of this fault 1.5 km to

  7. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Case Study: San Francisco Bay Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major interagency, regional planning effort led to the development of the Long-Term Management Strategy and other planning programs in the San Francisco Bay area. These programs incorporate beneficial uses of dredged material into local projects.

  8. Lessons from monitoring water quality in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Schraga, T.S.; Lopez, C.B.; Labiosa, R.

    2003-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is the defining landscape feature of the place we call ‘The Bay Area,’ but most of us only experience the Bay as we view it from an airplane window or drive across one of its bridges. These views from afar suggest that the Bay is static and sterile, but this impression is deceptive. If you are one of the many thousands of students who have experienced the Bay through a school excursion with the Marine Science Institute or other educational programs, you observed its rich plankton soup under a microscope, sorted clams and worms and crustaceans from mud samples, and identified the gobies, sole, halibut, bat rays, sharks, sardines, and smelt caught with trawls. San Francisco Bay is much more than a landscape feature. It is a dynamic ecosystem, continually changing and teeming with life. The Bay once supported the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of the United States, but commercial fishing for shellfish, shrimp, sturgeon, shad, salmon, and striped bass ended many decades ago because of habitat loss, pollution, invasive species and over harvest.

  9. Does local government have capacity for enabling local economic development? Lessons from Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eris D Schoburgh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Caribbean Local Economic Development Project (CARILED1began in 2012 in seven countries for a duration of six years, to support sustainable economic growth in the region. CARILED has introduced the idea of local economic development (LED to the ‘development’ debate in the region but has also brought the organisational capacity of local government, and local government’s role as ‘facilitator’ of LED,to the fore. This paper assesses organizational behaviour and capability in local government in Jamaica to determine the state of readiness for a developmental role. The paper draws on two sets of research data to aid its analysis–a capacity audit (CAPAUD conducted in 2010 and an organisational analysis (OAcommissioned by the Ministry of Local Government in 2010, both of which targeted a sample of local authorities in Jamaica. The study found that when assessed against established criteria for an LED organisation, ie: research and information provision; marketing and coordination; learning and innovation; and leadership - local government’s institutional and organisational capacity for development is unevenly distributed. For instance, local leaders understood organisational purpose but efforts to give effect to this appeared undeveloped, sporadic and uni-directional. It was also evident that participatory strategies are used to gain information from communities but these were often devoid of systematic research methodologies rendering formal community impact on local planning negligent. Finally there is strong potential for the kind of administrative leadership required by a developmental local government to evolve,indicated by the quality of training, quantum of managerial/supervisory staff, and stability of staff establishment. However, this potential is threatened by the deficiencies in the non-traditional functional areas that are strategic to the organisation’s effectiveness as a ‘facilitator’ of LED, ie

  10. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available 3815 9 D A Lord Department of Oceanography University of Port Elizabeth P 0 Box 1600 PORT ELIZABETH 6000 N D Geldenhuys Department of Environment Affairs Private Bag X9005 CAPE TOWN 8000 Cover: Richards Bay from the air showing city... of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material...

  11. 'Men at risk': sex work, tourism, and STI/HIV risk in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren C

    2016-09-01

    Female sex tourism has become an accepted income generator for many underemployed men in Jamaica who seek to reap economic benefits from relationships with visiting tourist women. This issue provides contexts to explore the numerous ways in which health intersects with issues of masculinity, sexuality and marginality. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a popular Jamaican resort town, this paper examines the health implications of female sex tourism for the local population and tourist visitors. Data from this project indicate the need for improved sexually transmitted infection education and HIV outreach work towards men who are involved in transactional sex with tourist women. Due to prevalent perceptions of masculinity and gendered notions of sexuality, men who engage in sex tourism constitute a population that rarely receives the attention of local and national health authorities. Data from this qualitative study suggest that engaging this particular vulnerable population could potentially decrease the risk of STI and HIV infection in the country's most popular resort areas. Research of this kind is urgently needed to better understand the risk factors and challenges for Caribbean populations, as well as to inform future prevention efforts in the region.

  12. Leptospirosis and malaria as causes of febrile illness during a dengue epidemic in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, John; Brown, Paul D; Vickers, Ivan; Brown, Michelle; Jackson, Sandra T; Lewis-Fuller, Eva

    2013-09-01

    Epidemics of febrile illnesses are often associated with rainy seasons in the tropics. During 2007-2008 an epidemic of dengue was identified in Jamaica based on serological testing of sera. A subset of 3165 of 5400 sera submitted for dengue analysis was tested for Leptospira IgM and malaria IgG using ELISA to determine their role in causing epidemic fever. Seropositivity for dengue, leptospirosis, and malaria were 38·4 and 6·0 and 6·5%, respectively, indicative of three concurrent epidemics. Mixed exposure to all three diseases was rare (0·1%), as were mixed dengue/malaria (2·4%); dengue/leptospirosis (1·6%), and leptospirosis/malaria (0·03%) exposure. Exposure to dengue and malaria appeared to occur most frequently among children while leptospirosis was more common among adults. While serological diagnosis definitively established that dengue was the main cause of the epidemic febrile illness, the data suggested that there may be other causes of fever, which may occur simultaneously. Consequently, leptospirosis and malaria should be considered as causes of fever during epidemics of dengue in endemic areas.

  13. Diabetic retinopathy and its risk factors at the university hospital in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowatt, Lizette

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of diabetic retinopathy and its risk factors in diabetic patients attending the eye clinic at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). This was a prospective cohort study of diabetic outpatients attending the Eye Clinic at the UHWI. Data were collected on age, gender, type of diabetes mellitus (DM), type of diabetic retinopathy, other ocular diseases, visual acuity, blood glucose and blood pressure. There were 104 patients (208 eyes) recruited for this study. There were 58.6% (61/104) females (mean age 53.6 ± 11.9 years) and 41.4% (43/104) males (mean age 61.7 ± 12.1 years). Type II DM was present in 68.3% (56% were females) of the patients and Type I DM was present in 31.7% (69.7% were females). Most patients (66%) were compliant with their diabetic medications. The mean blood glucose was 11.4 ± 5.3 mmol/L. Elevated blood pressure (Jamaica has a high frequency of PDR which is more common in Type I diabetics and females. This was associated with poor glucose and blood pressure control.

  14. Jean-Charles Houzeau's Visual Magnitude Estimates from Jamaica in 1868

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-09-01

    Jean-Charles Houzeau de Lehaie (1820-1888) was a Belgian astronomer who, as an observer, covered astronomy, geography, cartography, geodesy and natural sciences. He is known for designing the ``heliometer with unequal focal lengths" for the 1882 transit of Venus, for which he organised two expeditions: one to San Antonio (Texas), and one to Santiago (Chile). Less known, but historically important from the point of view of his consistent approach to observational science, was his ``Uranométrie générale", in which he systematically recorded visual magnitudes of 5719 northern and southern stars up to mag 6.4. He carried out the visual estimates from Jamaica in less than 400 nights in 1875--76. This presentation discusses the observational approach of his project, and weighs the merit of a dataset that was produced in one throw, by one single person from one single observing site of excellent atmospheric quality, without any recourse to data produced by other observers. A proving example of the virtue of Houzeau's Uranométrie is that it has been used in the construction of the charts of the first edition of ``Norton's Star Atlas".

  15. Leptospirosis and malaria as causes of febrile illness during a dengue epidemic in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, John; Brown, Paul D; Vickers, Ivan; Brown, Michelle; Jackson, Sandra T; Lewis-Fuller, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemics of febrile illnesses are often associated with rainy seasons in the tropics. During 2007–2008 an epidemic of dengue was identified in Jamaica based on serological testing of sera. Methods: A subset of 3165 of 5400 sera submitted for dengue analysis was tested for Leptospira IgM and malaria IgG using ELISA to determine their role in causing epidemic fever. Findings: Seropositivity for dengue, leptospirosis, and malaria were 38.4 and 6.0 and 6.5%, respectively, indicative of three concurrent epidemics. Mixed exposure to all three diseases was rare (0.1%), as were mixed dengue/malaria (2.4%); dengue/leptospirosis (1.6%), and leptospirosis/malaria (0.03%) exposure. Exposure to dengue and malaria appeared to occur most frequently among children while leptospirosis was more common among adults. Conclusion: While serological diagnosis definitively established that dengue was the main cause of the epidemic febrile illness, the data suggested that there may be other causes of fever, which may occur simultaneously. Consequently, leptospirosis and malaria should be considered as causes of fever during epidemics of dengue in endemic areas. PMID:24188242

  16. Low adherence to secondary prophylaxis among clients diagnosed with rheumatic fever, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sheron Boswell; Brown, Cerese Hepburn; Edwards, Ann Marie; Lindo, Jascinth L M

    2014-07-01

    To determine the level of adherence and possible barriers to secondary prophylaxis among clients with rheumatic fever in Kingston, Jamaica. Cross-sectional survey of 39 clients diagnosed with rheumatic fever, receiving penicillin prophylaxis for more than a year using a 22-item self-administered questionnaire on adherence to secondary prophylaxis and knowledge of rheumatic fever. The patients' records were reviewed to determine the number of prophylaxis injections the patients received for the year 2010. The majority of participants (74%) were females and 51% were adults. Only 48·7% had a high level of adherence. The majority (72%) had low knowledge levels regarding their illness, while only 5% had a high knowledge level score. Most clients (70%) strongly agreed that nurses and doctors encouraged them to take their prophylaxis. However, over 60% reported that they travelled long distances and or waited long periods to get their injections. One-third reported that they missed appointments because of fear of injections and having to take time off from work or school. Clients attending the health centers studied had limited knowledge about rheumatic fever. Barriers to adherence included fear of the injections, long commutes, and long waiting periods at the facilities studied.

  17. Isolation and genotyping of acanthamoeba strains from soil sources from Jamaica, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Cheridah D; Reyes-Batlle, María; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lindo, John F; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba spp. are opportunistic pathogens that are ubiquitous in nature. Many species of this genus are responsible for a fatal encephalitis and keratitis in humans and other animals. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from the parishes across Jamaica and assessed for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Cultivation was carried out on non-nutrient agar plates seeded with heat killed Escherichia coli. PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region were carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays were utilized to investigate the pathogenic potential of the Acanthamoeba isolates. Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 63.9% of soil samples. Sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA resulted in the identification of genotypes T4, T5, and T11. T4 genotype was most frequently isolated. Most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant, indicating that they may present the potential to cause disease in humans and other animals. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  18. Home and Away': Reconstructing Identity in Jamaica Kincaid’s Lucy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Anneh Dasi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After the forceful displacement of people during the trans-Atlantic slave trade came another wave of migration from the one-time colonies to the colonial metropolis. This other shift was the result of political, social and economic instabilities that were witnessed during the clamour for independence of the colonies. The Africans and West Indians were particularly affected by this phenomenon as they struggled for a better and satisfying life. But the experiences of migration have not been very fulfilling to the migrants as they grapple with the experiences of race, class and gender hostilities and the ensuring sense of alienation. The discussion that follows looks at how Jamaica Kincaid’s Lucy translates experiences of migration and how these experiences work in reshaping and reconstructing new identities based on the individual’s perceptions of life. It focuses on how the protagonist creates a delicate balance between native culture and colonial integration to build a new identity that transcends gender, race and class. Therefore, migration constructs spaces for the renegotiation of cultural polarities that permit the formation of transnational identities.

  19. Family relations, peer influence, spirituality and drug use among students in one university in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Gough

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca clarear la relacion entre las relaciones familiares, la influencia de los pares, la espiritualidad y el uso de drogas en estudiantes de una Universidad en Kingston, Jamaica. Es un estudio de corte transversal utilizando datos cuantitativos de 335 estudiantes del pregrado, utilizando un cuestionario llenado por los estudiantes. La muestra fue compuesta de 335 estudiantes (69% sexo masculino y 31% sexo femenino entre las idades de 18-24 anos. Los 77.6% de los estudiantes de la muestra informaran ter utilizado drogas en el ano anterior. Una correlaccion positiva fue identificada entre el uso de cannabis en el ano anterior y tener una relacion familiar disfunccional y estresante (p<.05; y correlaciones negativas entre el uso en el ano anterior de alcohol, fumar e cannabis y positive para influencia de pares (p<.05, bien como para niveles alto de espiritualidad (p<.01. Una relacion familiar buena fue un factor protetor contra el uso de cannabis, encuanto la influencia positiva de pares y alto nivel de espiritualidad fueran factores positivos contra el uso de alcohol, fumar, y cannabis entre estudiantes que participaran en la investigacion.

  20. Attitudes towards mental illness of nursing students in a Baccalaureate programme in Jamaica: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J; Stennett, R

    2015-10-01

    There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Racial Metabolism: Eugenic Studies in Jamaica and Yucatán, between 1920 and 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vargas Domínguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this paper shows the configuration of research conducted by the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW, in Jamaica and Yucatan, about basal metabolism on the onset of the twen­tieth century. I argue that this physiological research, conducted outside the usual laboratory spaces, used and articulated eugenics and racialized notions about the bodies under examination.Content: from the standpoint of the history of science I have analyzed the publications, reports and correspondence of the members of the Carnegie Institution expeditions. Conclusions: I show that basal metabolism was a measure constructed and used in the first half of the twentieth cen­tury with a strong eugenic and racial bias. Francis G. Benedict, Charles B. Davenport and Morris Steggerda from the CIW conducted these expeditions not only from the medical but also from the anthropological standpoint, in order to answer the question whether there was a climatic or racial effect on the body of the subjects analyzed. The results of the research were incorporated to the formulas used to evaluate the nutritional status of populations, fact that might have con­sequences nowadays on the way we understand metabolic “normality”.

  2. Psychological Health and Life Experiences of Pregnant Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karline Wilson-Mitchell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress.

  3. A Postcolonial Reading of Jamaica Kincaid's The Autobiography Of My Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahee Hadaegh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean literature exposes a history of dispossession, exploitation and oppression which has been neglected and often deliberately misinterpreted. In this article the destructive effects of colonization and slavery in Jamaica Kincaid's 1996 novel The Autobiography of My Mother are scrutinized thoroughly. The main objective of this research is to examine Kincaid's novel within the framework of postcolonial studies, in the light of Albert Memmi (2013 and Frantz Fanon's (2008 theories on the psychology of colonialism. Frantz Fanon argues that colonialism had brought together two opposing social orders doomed to coexist in everlasting tension; the colonizer's and the colonized's; these tensions cause the moral and spiritual deformity of an ideological system based on racism, oppression, and exploitation. In contrast to Fanon, Kincaid regards resistance and liberation in a quite different perspective. Instead of attempting to build a "new woman", Xuela refuses to accept the colonizer's views of those like her that lead to self-destruction and self-hatred. Instead, in order to survive, she confidently chooses self-love, albeit an almost grotesque and obsessive one. Kincaid uses Xuela's relationships with various characters to categorize the social types that Fanon describes in his writings—from Philip and his wife Moira as examples of the deformation of behavior caused by colonial social hierarchies to using mask as a metaphor for her manipulative father's mimicry of the oppressors. This research finds out that colonization and slavery have negative impact on both the colonizer and the colonized.

  4. Gender differences in simultaneous polydrug use among undergraduate students of one university, Kingston - Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Whitehorne-Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar el patrón comparativo de policonsumo simultáneo de drogas entre géneros, en estudiantes de 1º y 2º año de pregrado en una universidad en Kingston, Jamaica. Hubo 295 participantes en el estudio (58 hombres y 237 mujeres de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de esta universidad local. El estudio utilizó un cuestionario auto-administrado en el que se abordaron diversos aspectos del consumo y poli-consumo simultáneo de drogas. Los resultados no-ajustados revelaron un significativo mayor nivel de policonsumo simultaneo en hombres que en mujeres 40,9% y 14,3% respectivamente en los últimos 12 meses (x², p=0,009 y en los últimos 30 días 8,9% vs. 1,7% (x², p=0,014. Estos resultados sugieren un predominio en el comportamiento de policonsumo simultáneo de drogas entre hombres estudiantes de pregrado en esta población comparado con mujeres, aunque se refiere investigación adicional.

  5. Psychological maltreatment and its relationship with substance abuse among university students in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Longman-Mills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Jamaica existen altas tasas de abuso de drogas, lo que remarca la necesidad de comprender los motivadores para el abuso de sustancias. El experimentar maltrato psicológico (abuso emocional y negligencia durante la infancia ha sido sugerido como un factor de riesgo para el abuso de sustancias. Este estudio investiga la relación entre maltrato psicológico infantil y el abuso de sustancias en la adultez entre estudiantes universitarios jamaiquinos. Trescientos ochenta y dos (382 estudiantes universitarios fueron seleccionados usando una técnica de muestreo sistemático. Ellos completaron el Cuestionario Escala de Distrés Psicológico de Kessler, así como ítems seleccionado de los cuestionarios de Experiencias Adversas en la Infancia y de Uso de Drogas de CICAD. El 66.7% había experimentado maltrato psicológico. El análisis de Chi-cuadrados identificó una relación significativa entre experimentar maltrato psicológico y abuso de sustancias (p<0.05. Esta investigación provee evidencia en apoyo de una asociación entre la exposición a maltrato psicológico infantil y abuso de sustancias en la adultez.

  6. Psychological Health and Life Experiences of Pregnant Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Mitchell, Karline; Bennett, Joanna; Stennett, Rosain

    2014-01-01

    A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress. PMID:24785743

  7. 78 FR 27989 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... Assessments (EAs) for three Oregon refuges--Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife... ``Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay final CCPs and FONSIs'' in the subject line of the message. U...

  8. 75 FR 73121 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for the Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay... ``Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay CCP'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Project...

  9. Ageing in place: implications of morbidity patterns among older persons--findings from a cross-sectional study in a developing country (Jamaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kenneth; Holder-Nevins, Desmalee; Morris, Chloe; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; Powell, Jeneva; Laws, Hazel

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes morbidity patterns among older people, relevant health-care resources in a localised population in a developing country (Jamaica) and implications for ageing in place in the community. Local morbidity patterns among older people were determined in Jamaica from a 2007 cross-sectional study involving record searches at major hospitals and clinics. Age-specific morbidity distributions were compiled. Data on health-care staff complement were also collected. Non-communicable diseases predominate in older people in Jamaica; 50% of diagnoses related to cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. Staff-to-population ratios were low compared with other international data. A high prevalence of non-communicable disease coupled with inadequate staffing threatens the likelihood of ageing in place in the Jamaican community. Secondary prevention efforts and social support services which enhance ageing in place are needed. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2011 ACOTA.

  10. Herring spawning and other data from aircraft from Bristol Bay and other locations as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 12 April 1976 to 12 July 1976 (NODC Accession 7601910)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Herring spawning and other data were collected from aircraft from Bristol Bay and other locations as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment...

  11. Time series current meter and other data from moorings in the North Atlantic in support of the Current and Sediment Transport in Buzzards Bay Field program from 05 July 1982 to 05 December 1985 (NODC Accession 0056730)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A field experiment designed to determine the near-bottom circulation in Buzzards Bay and the transport of fine-grained sediments. The transport of fine-grained...

  12. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  13. Violence among youth in Jamaica: a growing public health risk and challenge La violencia en jóvenes de Jamaica: un creciente riesgo y reto de salud pública

    OpenAIRE

    Delores E. Smith; Katherine E. Green

    2007-01-01

    En Jamaica, la abrumadora mayoría de los jóvenes son personas bien ajustadas social y emocionalmente. Sin embargo, el aumento vertiginoso de las agresiones y la violencia en la niñez, y la conducta delincuencial entre los jóvenes se han convertido en una gran preocupación para la sociedad y constituyen un grave problema de salud pública. A falta de investigaciones definitivas sobre las causas, las especulaciones apuntan a la frustración, los sentimientos de inadaptabilidad y la falta de auton...

  14. Needs-based human resources for health planning in Jamaica: using simulation modelling to inform policy options for pharmacists in the public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; MacKenzie, Adrian; Guy-Walker, Joan; Walker, Claudette

    2014-12-06

    Planning for human resources for health (HRH) is central to health systems strengthening around the world, including in the Caribbean and Jamaica. In an effort to align Jamaica's health workforce with the changing health needs of its people, a partnership was established between Jamaican and Canadian partners. The purpose of the work described in this paper is to describe the development and application of a needs-based HRH simulation model for pharmacists in Jamaica's largest health region. Guided by a Steering Committee of Jamaican stakeholders, a simulation modelling approach originally developed in Canada was adapted for the Jamaican context. The purpose of this approach is to promote understanding of how various factors affect the supply of and/or requirements for HRH in different scenarios, and to identify policy levers for influencing each of these under different future scenarios. This is done by integrating knowledge of different components of the health care system into a single tool that shows how changes to different parameters affect HRH supply or requirements. Data to populate the model were obtained from multiple administrative databases and key informants. Findings were validated with the Steering Committee. The model estimated an initial shortage of 110 full-time equivalent (FTE) pharmacists in the South East Region that, without intervention, would increase to a shortage of about 150 FTEs over a 15-year period. In contrast to the relatively small impact of a large enrollment increase in Jamaica's pharmacy training programme, interventions to increase recruitment of pharmacists to the public sector, or improve productivity - through, for example, the use of support staff and/or new technologies - may have much greater impact on reducing this shortage. The model represents an improvement on the HRH planning tools previously used in Jamaica in that it supports the estimation of HRH requirements based directly on measures of population health need

  15. Un análisis estructural de los choques de precios del petróleo en la macroeconomía de Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Roach

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se utilizan modelos de vectores autorregresivos estructurales para examinar el efecto de los choques del precio del petróleo en variables macroeconómicas clave de Jamaica durante el periodo 1997:01 a 2012:06. Los resultados indican que en su mayoría los choques del precio del petróleo no tienen un efecto permanente en la economía de Jamaica. Más aún, los hallazgos plantean que un choque de petróleo derivado de un incremento en la demanda agregada mundial por lo general preced...

  16. Diabetes mellitus in Jamaica: sex differences in burden, risk factors, awareness, treatment and control in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Younger-Coleman, Novie; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall; McFarlane, Shelly; Francis, Damian; Ferguson, Trevor; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana; Wilks, Rainford

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide valid estimates of the burden of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus by sex in Jamaica, a predominantly Black, middle-income and developing country. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2008 examined a nationally representative sample of 2848 Jamaicans aged 15-74. Parameter estimates and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were weighted for non-response as well as age and sex of the source population. Sex differences in risk factors and diabetes prevalence, awareness, treatment and control were estimated in multivariable models. Population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of obesity on diabetes mellitus were estimated in both sexes. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 7.9% (95% CI: 6.7-9.1%), significantly higher in women than men 9.3% vs. 6.4% (P = 0.02) and increasing with age. Seventy-six percentage of persons with diabetes mellitus were aware of their status; urban women and rural men were less likely to be aware. Diabetes control (43% overall) was less common in higher-income men, but more common in higher-income women. Persons without health insurance were less likely to control their diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes risk factors was higher in women than men. Increased waist circumference (≥94 cm [men]/≥80 cm [women]), overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) and low physical activity/inactivity were associated with PAFs for diabetes mellitus of 27%, 37% and 15%, respectively, in men and 77%, 54% and 24%, respectively, in women. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its risk factors is high in Jamaica, especially among women, and national programmes to stem the diabetes mellitus epidemic should take these sex differences into consideration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Science—Improving the value of the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott W.; Hyer, Kenneth; Goldbaum, Elizabeth

    2017-05-05

    IntroductionCongress directed the Federal Government to work with States to restore the Nation’s largest estuary.Chesapeake Bay restoration provides important economic and ecological benefits:18 million people live and work in the Bay watershed and enjoy its benefits.3,600 types of fish, wildlife, and plants underpin the economic value of the Bay ecosystem.Poor water quality and habitat loss threaten restoration and negatively impact the economy.10 Goals to meet by 2025 through the Chesapeake Bay Program, a voluntary partnership.

  18. Meteorological, biological, and hydrographic data collected from Middle Bay Lighthouse in Mobile Bay, AL from 05/23/2005 - 12/31/2013 (NODC Accession 0117376)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the University of South Alabama, the Alabama Department of...

  19. Exploring the environmental effects of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific and Technical Committee [STAC]. Chesapeake Bay Program

    2013-01-01

    On April 11-12, 2012, the Chesapeake Bay Program's Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) convened an expert workshop to investigate the environmental effects of shale gas development in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The purpose of this workshop was to engage scientists from across the nation in a review of the state-of-the-science regarding shale gas...

  20. 75 FR 32209 - North San Pablo Bay Restoration and Reuse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Recycling Program. The purpose of the Project is to create a regional wastewater reuse project to provide... Bureau of Reclamation North San Pablo Bay Restoration and Reuse Project AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation..., and Sonoma County Water Agency (SCWA), acting as project administrator of the North Bay Water Reuse...

  1. Shades of the Past: Experiences of Racial Discrimination among a Sample of University Students in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishtar O. Govia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio informa sobre la prevalencia de experiencias relacionadas con el racismo entre una muestra de conveniencia de 147 estudiantes adultos jóvenes en una universidad pública en la zona urbana de Jamaica . La prevalencia general fue de más del 52 %. Aunque no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las tasas de prevalencia para los estudiantes que se auto-identificaron como Ne - gro y aquellos que se identificaron con él y con cualquier otro grupo racial ( tasas de prevalencia de 59,29 % y 41,67 %, respectivamente ,auto-identifican como Negro se asoció significativamente con la sensación discriminados personalmente por razones de raza , con preocupante en los últimos años acerca de experimentar personalmente la discriminación racial, y con tener que preocuparse en el pasado año sobre los miembros del grupo racial del que experimenta la discriminación racial. Los resultados indicaron que los de la clase media-baja reportaron más alto ( 84 % las tasas de preva - lencia para experimentar la discriminación en cualquiera de las situaciones descritas , que hizo los de la clase media-alta ( 51,55 %. Además , el 96 % de los estudiantes de la clase media-baja sintió que los miembros de su grupo experimentaron discriminación racial en comparación con el 70 % de las personas de la clase media-alta. Se discuten las implicaciones para futuros estudios sobre la preva - lencia de la discriminación racial de los pueblos del Caribe en contextos Negro Caribe mayoritarios.

  2. Implications of Chloride, Boron, and Lithium in Hydrothermal Systems of Jamaica, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, D.

    2012-12-01

    Chloride (Cl) often termed a "relatively conservative element" served as a very useful tracer (pathfinder element) in fluids from hydrothermal systems by comparing its concentration to those of select ions in solution. The concentrations of major ions of three thermal spring water samples: Bath hot springs (BTHS and BTHN), Milk River (MKR), Windsor (WS) and a cold spring water sample-Salt River spring (SR) of Jamaica were plotted against the Cl concentration. Results of chemical analyses, graphical analyses, and hydrogeochemical modeling confirmed three water types: Na-Cl-SO4, Na-Cl, and Ca-Na-Cl. Whereas chloride concentrations at MKR, WS and SR strongly indicate the influence of sea water mixing, the concentrations at MKR and SR are spatially related to a major tectonic feature, the South Coast Fault Zone (SCFZ). A principal component analysis (PCA) performed for the water samples showed a direct correlation between the concentrations of chloride and other conservative elements: boron (B), lithium (Li), bromide (Br), strontium (Sr), arsenic (As), and cesium (Cs). Isotope results (δ18O, δ2H, 3H) of the water samples implied minimal shallow mixing with deep circulating thermal fluids at the Bath site and the predominance of mixing with deep-circulating brines at the WS, MKR, and SR sites. Ionic ratios (Cl/B, Br/Cl, Li/B, have provided further interesting results for these hydrothermal systems including (1) a power series relationship between Li/B and SO4/Cl ratios; (2) the variation of B/Li versus Cl/SO4 concentrations with relatively prolonged water-rock contact time for these waters occurring at depth; and (3) low enthalpy. A discriminant analysis (DA) aided in the delineation of three independent hydrothermal systems based on processes affecting the chemical compositions of the water samples. Calculated chloride convective heat fluxes range between compared to the boron flux range of 3.41 x 104 - 1.63 x 106 Calories/second.

  3. Excess Risk of Maternal Death from Sickle Cell Disease in Jamaica: 1998–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Monika R.; McCaw-Binns, Affette M.; Reid, Marvin E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Decreases in direct maternal deaths in Jamaica have been negated by growing indirect deaths. With sickle cell disease (SCD) a consistent underlying cause, we describe the epidemiology of maternal deaths in this population. Methods Demographic, service delivery and cause specific mortality rates were compared among women with (n = 42) and without SCD (n = 376), and between SCD women who died in 1998–2002 and 2003–7. Results Women with SCD had fewer viable pregnancies (p: 0.02) despite greater access to high risk antenatal care (p: 0.001), and more often died in an intensive care unit (p: 0.002). In the most recent period (2003–7) SCD women achieved more pregnancies (median 2 vs. 3; p: 0.009), made more antenatal visits (mean 3.3 vs. 7.3; p: 0.01) and were more often admitted antenatally (p:<0.0001). The maternal mortality ratio for SCD decedents was 7–11 times higher than the general population, with 41% of deaths attributable to their disorder. Cause specific mortality was higher for cardiovascular complications, gestational hypertension and haemorrhage. Respiratory failure was the leading immediate cause of death. Conclusions Women with SCD experience a significant excess risk of dying in pregnancy and childbirth [MMR: (SCD) 719/100,000, (non SCD) 78/100,000]. MDG5 cannot be realised without improving care for women with SCD. Tertiary services (e.g. ventilator support) are needed at regional centres to improve outcomes in this and other high risk populations. Universal SCD screening in pregnancy in populations of African and Mediterranean descent is needed as are guidelines for managing SCD pregnancies and educating families with SCD. PMID:22039456

  4. Evidence for Tectonism Based on Differential Uplift of the Falmouth Formation of Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrivanek, A.; Dutton, A.; Stemann, T.; Vyverberg, K.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the relative influence of sea-level change and tectonic displacement on the elevations of exposed reef deposits along the coastline of Jamaica. Previous studies disagree about whether or not the northern coastline has been tectonically stable and can be used to infer past sea-level position during the Last Interglacial. We surveyed the maximum elevation of fossil reefs within the Late Pleistocene Falmouth Formation at nine northern and southern sites, and found that peak elevations of this unit vary by several meters between sites. Analysis of exposed reef facies indicates that this observation cannot be entirely explained by variations in reef topography. To estimate the magnitude of tectonic displacement between sites, we combined detailed survey measurements with paleowater depths inferred from uppermost reef facies. The inferred maximum elevation of past sea level position declines by at least 14 meters from Oracabessa to Rio Bueno Harbour, and indicates a clear east-west gradient in uplift along the northern coastline. Maximum Falmouth Formation elevations in the south are lower than those in the north and suggest a pattern of subsidence since its deposition assuming that the uppermost facies are contemporaneous between these two locations. To estimate absolute rates of vertical tectonic displacement since the Last Interglacial, we combined the reconstructed relative sea level position from the elevations and paleowater depth estimates with predictions of peak sea level that account for local glacial isostatic adjustment and the fingerprint of meltwater signals. The observed east-west trend in uplift across the north coast is consistent with the expected sense of tectonic displacement based on the proximity of eastern sites to the inverted Wagwater belt and seismically active Blue Mountain restraining bend. Uplift in the north and subsidence in the south since the Last Interglacial is consistent with tectonic patterns initiated in the Miocene.

  5. Gender Differences in Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Alcohol Use and Misuse in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study sought to determine if there were gender differences in the impact of five psychosocial risk and protective factors for adolescent alcohol use. The five factors considered by the study were family relationships, self-esteem, peer pressure, religious involvement and school performance. Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study which utilized a 96-item self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire captured key demographic and alcohol-related information. It also consisted of three standardized scales: the Cernkovich and Giordano’s Family Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the CAGE questionnaire. Data were collected from students 12−18 years old in three schools in the Kingston and St Andrew area in Jamaica. Results: There were 240 participants in the study, 121 males and 119 females. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between male and female adolescent alcohol use in the last 30 days. There was also no significant difference between male and female adolescent risk of substance abuse. Logistic regression analysis of risk factor for each gender revealed that for males, their family relationship, peer pressure and self-esteem were significant predictors for alcohol use, while for females, peer pressure and school performance were significant predictors for alcohol use. Religious involvement was not found to be a significant protective factor for either gender. Conclusion: Gender differences in risk and protective factors exist among Jamaican adolescents. Further research needs to be done to determine the extent of these differences which need to be considered in the development of prevention and intervention programmes.

  6. Glycaemic Control among Patients with Diabetes in Primary Care Clinics in Jamaica, 1995 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Harris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the quality of care received by patients with diabetes in public primary care clinics in 2012 with that reported in 1995. Methods: Patient records were audited at six randomly selected Type III health centres in the South East Health Region of Jamaica. The 2012 audit data were compared with published data from a similar audit conducted in 1995. Quality of care measures included timely screening tests and counselling of the patients. Fasting and postprandial glucose tests were used to assess glycaemic control. Results: Two hundred and forty-two patient records were analysed in 2012, and 185 in 1995. In 2012, 88% of patients were weighed within the last year compared with 43% in 1995. Advice on physical activity increased from 1% to 60% and on dietary practices from 6% to 79%. No patient had done the HBA1C in 1995 compared to 38% in 2012. In 1995, 66% had blood glucose measured at a laboratory during the last year while in 2012, 60% had a laboratory test and 90% were tested at the clinic by glucometer. Blood pressure control increased from 19% in 1995 to 41% in 2012 (p < 0.001. Poor glucose control was recorded among 61% of patients in 1995 compared with 68% in 2012. Conclusions: There was no improvement in glycaemic control. Health providers and patients must work together to improve patient outcomes. This will involve closer patient monitoring, treatment intensification where indicated, and the adoption of lifestyle practices that can lead to better control.

  7. Hospice or community network? Choices in end-of-life care in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2017-09-01

    Now considered a subspecialty of medicine and nursing, palliative care is a critical aspect of healthcare at the end of life. National and international healthcare agencies typically attribute its slow or haphazard growth in developing countries to various resource constraints. However, this study provides evidence of the substantial and widening gap between policy advocacy and patient choices in end-of-life care. It does so by establishing the incentives and risks that underlie decision-making by patients and providers against the relative scarcity of palliative care and hospices in these countries. Jamaica offers an illustrative case. It shares the socioeconomic conditions and isolated provision of hospice and palliative care that remain prevalent in many developing countries. Empirical information was collected from all Jamaican hospices, along with agency and media reports, for comparative institutional analysis. Financial and infrastructural challenges hamper hospice expansion and integration into formal healthcare systems in developing countries. Yet, other equally vital considerations are too often neglected. These include the high transaction costs of decision-making, which account for limited hospice accessibility, affordability, and efficiency, particularly to underserved populations. Risk and payoff calculations by patients and their families as well as hospices and their providers lead to two strategic options in maximizing hospice value and/or minimizing transaction costs in end-of-life care. Policy formulation and advocacy for hospice and palliative care should match aggregate demand. The socio-cultural milieu of care is critical and should be equally considered. Otherwise, providing and expanding free or subsidized palliative care at the end-of-life stage can become cost-inefficient relative to robust family and grassroots community networks.

  8. Factors Associated With Stress Among Second Year Student Nurses During Clinical Training in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Marleise McBean; Lindo, Jascinth; Bryan, Venise D; Weaver, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the levels of stress among students in the Jamaican clinical setting and describe the perceived contributing factors to this stress. This cross-sectional study of 106secondyear students enrolled at 2 schools of nursing in Jamaica used a 30-item self-administered questionnaire to gather data on levels of stress and contributing factors. Participants were asked to rate the levels of stress experienced (scale: 0-5, where 5 was highest). Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences® Version 19 for Windows®. The response rate was 98% (106/108), and 97.2% were females. The average age of respondents was 23.16 ± 9.01years. The majority of participants were single (78.3%) and resident in Kingston and St. Andrew (61.3%). The level of stress experienced in the clinical setting was rated 3.48 ± 1.3/5; financial difficulties (3.17 ± 1.6/5) and interactions with unit staff (3.15 ± 1.4/5) were rated the greatest contributors to stress. Students experienced fear of harming the patient (50%), and only 24% expressed consistent confidence. Except for the interactions with preceptors (P stress between schools. Students enrolled at 2 nursing schools experienced moderately high levels of stress in the clinical environment. Financial concerns and interaction with ward staff were significant sources of stress. Collaborative strategies to address stress in the clinical areas are imperative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms Among High School Students in Hanover, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi J. Ekundayo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Jamaican adolescents and examine its association with individual and family factors. We used an abbreviated form of the Beck's Depression Inventory II (BDI-II to assess depressive symptoms among 748 students, attending public high schools in the parish of Hanover Jamaica. In the analysis, we classified adolescents with scores in the upper quartile of the depressive symptom score as having depressive symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of depressive symptoms. 14.2% of participants reported depressive symptoms. There was association between engagement in sexual activity [Odds Ratio (OR = 1.61, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02-2.51], parental monitoring of adolescent activity (OR=2.04, 95%CI=1.33 -3.12, maternal affection and support (OR= 4.07, 95%CI= 2.62-6.33, and paternal affection and support (OR= 1.58, 95%CI= 1.05-2.39 with self reported depressive symptoms at the bivariate level. In the final model, depressive symptoms was associated with perceived lack of maternal affection and support (OR= 4.06, 95%CI= 2.61-6.32 and showed marginal association with being sexually experienced (OR= 1.59, 95%CI= 1.00-2.52. As most homes are female-headed, establishing support systems for the mother to take care of their adolescent children may decrease the odds of depressive symptoms. Sexually experienced adolescents may require screening for depression. Further research is required to fully explore all factors that could predispose Jamaican adolescents to depression.

  10. Examining nutrition among a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children living in rural Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Allison; Boyle, Kathryn; McClain, Natalie; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    The period of early childhood, defined as three to five years of age, is an important and distinct stage in childhood development. Changes in dietary patterns and composition of diets are exposing children in developing countries to over-nutrition as well as under-nutrition. To describe the nutritional status, dietary patterns, and socio-economic conditions of three to five-year-old children living in rural Jamaica. A convenience sample of 142 children was recruited over a three-year period. Height and weight measurements were collected. Household dietary patterns and socio-economic indicators were available from a small group (n = 6) of parents. Children experiencing both under-nutrition and over-nutrition were identified. Nine percent (n = 13) could be classified as moderately to severely under-nourished, and 6.9% (n = 10) classified as overweight. Frying was a common cooking method, and fruits and vegetables were eaten often. Economic and political changes may place children in developing countries at risk for over-nutrition as well as under-nutrition. The school setting may be an important place to address nutritional issues. This analysis describes the nutritional status of a sample of three to five-year-old children living in rural Jamaica and provides suggestions for future research.

  11. The role of social factors in the use of licit drugs among university students from one university in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashalee Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación cuantitativa de tipo descriptiva-exploratoria, con diseño transversal que examinó el efecto moderador de ciertos factores socio-culturales en el consumo de drogas licitas entre estudiantes universitarios de una universidad en Kingston, Jamaica. La muestra non probabilistica fue conformada por 335 estudiantes de una universidad especifica de Kingston, Jamaica. Fue elaborado un cuestionario con cinco escalas ya validadas, que interrogaba sobre la influencia del grupo de pares, las relaciones familiares, el entretenimiento, la espiritualidad y el consumo de drogas. Se utilizó el programa SPSS versión 18 para el análisis estadística. Los datos indicaran que los respondientes con uno o mas anmigos que estaban involucrados con el uso de drogas eran 9.5 veces mas disponibles para fumar y dos veces mas para consumir alcole. Los respondientes que tinian baja espiritualidad eran dos veces mas proponientes para fumar y 1.3 veces mas proponientes de consumir alcole. Los datos indicaran haber asociacion significante entre los factores sociales y el consume de drogas licitas.

  12. Isolation and molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes in recreational and domestic water sources from Jamaica, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Cheridah D; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Streete, Don; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Lindo, John F

    2015-09-01

    Free living amoebae (FLA) are amphizoic protozoa that are ubiquitous in nature. Infection with FLA may result in neurological, ocular and skin infections. Exposure to Acanthamoeba occurs frequently through water contact and knowledge of the presence of the organisms in water sources is important in understanding transmission dynamics. The distribution of Acanthamoeba was studied in recreational and domestic water samples collected from across Jamaica. Morphological assessment and polymerase chain reaction revealed Acanthamoeba spp. isolates in 50.6% (42/83) and 17.3% (14/81) of recreational and domestic water, respectively. Sequencing of the DF3 region of the 18S rDNA resulted in the identification of genotypes T3, T4, T5, T10 and T11 corresponding to Acanthamoeba spp: A. griffini, A. triangularis, A. lenticulata, A. culbertsoni and A. hatchetti. Moreover, T4 was the most frequently isolated genotype in both recreational and domestic water. Thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays indicated that most isolates were potentially pathogenic. This is the first report of T3 and T10 genotypes in the Caribbean and the first report of these Acanthamoeba spp. in Jamaican waters. The study shows that there is potential risk of infection to contact wearers who practise poor lens care. Further, Acanthamoeba should be considered as a cause of neurological infections in Jamaica.

  13. Molecular epidemiology and multilocus sequence analysis of potentially zoonotic Giardia spp. from humans and dogs in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mellesia F; Cadogan, Paul; Eytle, Sarah; Copeland, Sonia; Walochnik, Julia; Lindo, John F

    2017-01-01

    Giardia spp. are the causative agents of intestinal infections in a wide variety of mammals including humans and companion animals. Dogs may be reservoirs of zoonotic Giardia spp.; however, the potential for transmission between dogs and humans in Jamaica has not been studied. Conventional PCR was used to screen 285 human and 225 dog stool samples for Giardia targeting the SSU rDNA gene followed by multilocus sequencing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) genes. Prevalence of human infections based on PCR was 6.7 % (19/285) and canine infections 19.6 % (44/225). Nested PCR conducted on all 63 positive samples revealed the exclusive presence of assemblage A in both humans and dogs. Sub-assemblage A-II was responsible for 79.0 % (15/19) and 70.5 % (31/44) of the infections in humans and dogs, respectively, while sub-assemblage A-I was identified at a rate of 15.8 % (3/19) and 29.5 % (13/44) in humans and dogs, respectively. The predominance of a single circulating assemblage among both humans and dogs in Jamaica suggests possible zoonotic transmission of Giardia infections.

  14. Venezuela, Surinam, Jamaica y Uruguay: relevancia de los partidos políticos para la democracia, ayer y hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Adama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El postulado de que los sistemas bipartidistas son más estables es negado por las crisis políticas habidas en Uruguay y Jamaica en las décadas de 1960 y 1970. Los sistemas multipartidistas de Venezuela y Uruguay, en cierto momento histórico, acomodaron la realización de pactos y alianzas políticas aparentemente improbables, que en tiempos de crisis llevaron a la fragmentación del panorama político y a profundas crisis de liderazgo que continúan determinando la sociedad de hoy. Este artículo sostiene la hipótesis de que los sistemas bipartidistas tienen mayor propensión a la estabilidad política debido a que la agregación de demandas se concentra entre dos contendientes principales y a que las posibilidades de pactos políticos se ven limitadas. La hipótesis mencionada será explorada mediante el examen de: 1 la relevancia de los sistemas de partidos para la democratización, en general y en los casos de Jamaica, Uruguay, Surinam y Venezuela; 2 el papel de los partidos en los países mencionados durante y después de las crisis políticas, y su capacidad para re-equilibrarse y ajustarse ante las presiones del cambio social.

  15. A Comparison of Substance Abuse and Mental Illness in Male Offenders in Jamaica and England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Sewell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study sought to determine the prevalence of substance abuse, mental illness, sociodemographics and clinical characteristics of mentally ill offenders. These data were compared to data from the prison population in the United Kingdom. Method: This is a cross-sectional study of male, mentally ill offenders in two prisons in Jamaica, and four prisons in England and Wales. For the Jamaican sample, a psychopathology and forensic survey instrument was developed by the research personnel to extract specific information from the diagnostic interview. Data extraction was done over a one-year period. For the England and Wales sample, the participants were interviewed and assessed using various structured instruments. Results: The results indicate that approximately 18% of persons within the Jamaican prison population under study had a mental illness. Of this number, 57% of these persons had been previously diagnosed with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM IV-TR Axis 1 disorder. Substance abuse was the most frequently diagnosed DSM-IV Axis I disorder within both populations. The prevalence of mental illness found in the Jamaican prison population was approximately four times greater than the rate in the comparison population of England and Wales. Conclusions: There was an over-representation of mentally ill offenders in the Jamaican prison population. This is most likely linked to the lack of appropriate diversion programmes and a forensic mental hospital in Jamaica.

  16. An Integrated Management System (IMS) for JM-1 SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor in Jamaica: experiences in documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, T., E-mail: traceyann.warner02@uwimona.edu.jm [Univ. of West Indies, Mona (Jamaica)

    2014-07-01

    Since the first criticality in March 1984, the Jamaica SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor at the University of the West Indies, Mona located in the department of the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS) has operated for approximately 52% of the lifetime of the existing core configuration. The 20kW pool type research reactor has been primarily used for neutron activation analysis in environmental, agricultural, geochemical, health-related studies and mineral exploration in Jamaica. The involvement of the JM-1 reactor for research and teaching activities has segued into commercial applications which, coupled with the current core conversion programme from HEU to LEU, has demanded the implementation of management systems to satisfy regulatory requirements and assure compliance with internationally defined quality standards. At ICENS, documentation related to the Quality Management System aspect of an Integrated Management System (IMS) is well underway. The quality system will incorporate operational and nuclear safety, training, maintenance, design, utilization, occupational health and safety, quality service, and environmental management for its Nuclear Analytical Laboratory, NAL. The IMS is being designed to meet the requirements of the IAEA GS-R-3 with additional controls from international standards including: ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007. This paper reports on the experiences of the documentation process in a low power reactor facility characterized by limited human resource, where innovative mechanisms of system automation and modeling are included to increase productivity and efficiency. (author)

  17. Eliminating vertically-transmitted HIV/AIDS while improving access to treatment and care for women, children and adolescents in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, C D C; Pierre, R B

    2012-07-01

    To celebrate Jamaica's 50th birthday after receiving independence from Great Britain, we summarize our collaborative published research in the prevention, treatment and care of paediatric, perinatal and adolescent HIV/AIDS in Jamaica. Public access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Jamaica has shown that a "test and treat" strategy associated with "treatment for prevention" works for HIV-infected pregnant women by reducing their HIV-attributable morbidity and mortality and reducing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates to ART and improved collaborative capacity in ART management. Successful transition of HIV-infected children through adolescence into adulthood requires a strong multidisciplinary team approach, including long-term ART management addressing non-adherence, drug resistance and toxicity, treatment failure and limited options for second line and salvage therapy, while attending to their sexual and reproductive health, psychosocial, educational and vocational issues and palliative care. Over the past nine years, Jamaica has made excellent strides to eliminate vertically transmitted HIV/AIDS, while reducing the HIV-attributable morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and in HIV-infected children. Continued successful transition of HIV-infected children through adolescence into adulthood will require a strong multidisciplinary team approach.

  18. "Nostalgia for What Cannot Be": An Interpretive and Social Biography of Stuart Hall's Early Years in Jamaica and England, 1932-1959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about Stuart Hall's intellectual and theoretical contributions especially after the mid-1960s. This interpretive and social biography places Stuart Hall's life from 1932 to 1959 in a socio-historical context, beginning with his childhood in Jamaica and his early years in England. I draw on Hall's own biographical reflections…

  19. Midwives' knowledge and attitudes when encountering Gender-Based Violence in their practice at a maternity-hospital in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitter, Cynthia Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) can have devastating consequences for pregnancy because both mother and child are at risk. Midwives are in a strategic position to identify and empower pregnant women experiencing GBV; however, currently midwives in Jamaica are not required to screen for GBV, neither are they prepared to do so. This study forms the baseline of a larger study designed to improve the capacity of midwives to identify and treat pregnant women experiencing GBV in Jamaica. This specific component assessed midwives' knowledge and attitudes when encountering GBV in their practice in Kingston, Jamaica. A qualitative study design was used. Six practicing midwives were purposely selected to participate in a focus group discussion at the antenatal clinic of a hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. All six respondents said it was very important to screen for GBV among pregnant women in their care. The findings from their report revolved around six themes, namely midwives have suboptimal knowledge, are exposed to women experiencing GBV in pregnancy, lack professional preparedness, report gaps in the institutional framework to guide their practice, are concerned for their safety and security, and are willing to intervene. This study confirmed that midwives are aware of the problem and are willing to intervene but are faced with lack of formal procedures to detect and treat pregnant women who are experiencing GBV. Findings could be used to inform a protocol which is being developed to guide midwives' practice. Findings could also be incorporated in the national strategy to eliminate GBV.

  20. « Russell Banks goes Creole » : A Talk with the Author of The Book of Jamaica and Continental Drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Gyssels et Gaëlle Cooreman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette interview avec Russell Banks, auteur consacré de notamment The Book of Jamaica (1980 et Continental Drift (1985, tous deux traduits en français chez Actes Sud, a été menée le 27 mai 2007 par Kathleen Gyssels et Gaëlle Cooreman (Université d’Anvers. Elles interrogent Banks sur son idée du Great American Novel, son engagement vis-à-vis de la diaspora africaine et ses romans « caribéens », The Book of Jamaica et Continental Drift.This interview with Russell Banks, acknowledged author of The Book of Jamaica (1980 and Continental Drift (1985, amongst others, was conducted on May 27th 2007 by Kathleen Gyssels and Gaëlle Cooreman (University of Antwerp. The main topics included are Banks’ idea of the Great American Novel, his involvement with the African diaspora and his « Caribbean » novels The Book of Jamaica and Continental Drift.

  1. Barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Brien, Natasha; Jones, Nicolette; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Levermore, Kandasi; Marshall, Annecka; Nyblade, Laura; Newman, Peter A

    2017-04-04

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica have the highest HIV prevalence in the Caribbean. There is little information about HIV among transgender women in Jamaica, who are also overrepresented in the Caribbean epidemic. HIV-related stigma is a barrier to HIV testing among Jamaica's general population, yet little is known of MSM and transgender women's HIV testing experiences in Jamaica. We explored perceived barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young MSM and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica. We implemented a community-based research project in collaboration with HIV and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) agencies in Kingston. We held two focus groups, one with young (aged 18-30 years) transgender women (n = 8) and one with young MSM (n = 10). We conducted 53 in-depth individual semi-structured interviews focused on HIV testing experiences with young MSM (n = 20), transgender women (n = 20), and community-based key informants (n = 13). We conducted thematic analysis to identify, analyze, and report themes. Participant narratives revealed social-ecological barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included healthcare provider mistreatment, confidentiality breaches, and HIV-related stigma: these spanned interpersonal, community and structural levels. Healthcare provider discrimination and judgment in HIV testing provision presented barriers to accessing HIV services (e.g. treatment), and resulted in participants hiding their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Confidentiality concerns included: clinic physical arrangements that segregated HIV testing from other health services, fear that healthcare providers would publicly disclose their status, and concerns at LGBT-friendly clinics that peers would discover they were getting tested. HIV-related stigma contributed to fear of testing HIV-positive; this intersected with the stigma of HIV as a "gay" disease. Participants also anticipated healthcare provider

  2. Bayes multiple decision functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting

  3. Willingness to Pay Survey for Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stated preference survey to collect data on households’ use of Chesapeake Bay and its watershed, and of their preferences for a variety of water quality improvements likely to follow from pollution reduction programs.

  4. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. 165.1195 Section 165... Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (a) Location. The Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) includes all navigable waters of the Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and the Humboldt Bay...

  5. Eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowicz, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing to acquire fast reliable data on the nutrient problem in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem are discussed. Pollution effects to phytoplankton blooms during late summer and early fall months are also considered.

  6. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  7. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  8. Constructing Puale Bay field camp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Puale bay is located on the Pacific side of the Alaskan Peninsula across Shelikof Strait from the southern end of Kodiak Island. The weather, although often mild, is...

  9. Population differences in immune marker profiles associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I infection in Japan and Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmann, Brenda M; Breen, Elizabeth C; Stuver, Sherri; Cranston, Beverly; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Falk, Kerstin I; Okayama, Akihiko; Hanchard, Barrie; Mueller, Nancy; Hisada, Michie

    2009-01-01

    The natural history of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) has been shown to differ markedly by geographic area. The differences include contrasting patterns of risk of adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), which may be due in part to differences in host immune response to infection. To characterize variations in host immunity across populations, we compared serologic immune marker patterns in HTLV-I-endemic populations in Japan and Jamaica. We matched 204 participants with archived blood from the Miyazaki Cohort Study (Japan) and the Food Handlers Study (Jamaica)-i.e., 51 HTLV-I-positive (“carriers”) and 51 HTLV-I-negative individuals (“non-carriers”) from each population-by age, sex, and blood collection year. We compared plasma concentrations of markers of T-cell-mediated (antigen-specific) and non-specific immunity using regression models and correlation coefficients. Compared to Jamaican HTLV-I non-carriers, Japanese non-carriers had higher covariate-adjusted mean levels of T-cell activation markers, including antibody to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (reciprocal titer 27 v. 71, respectively, p=0.005), soluble interleukin-2 receptor-α (477 v. 623 pg/mL, p=0.0008) and soluble CD30 (34 v. 46 U/mL, p=0.0001), and lower levels of C-reactive protein (1.1 v. 0.43 μg/mL, p=0.0004). HTLV-I infection was associated with activated T-cell immunity in Jamaicans but with diminished T-cell immunity in Japanese persons. The observed population differences in background and HTLV-I-related host immunity correspond closely to the divergent natural histories of infection observed among HTLV-I carriers in Japan and Jamaica and corroborate a role for host immune status in the contrasting patterns of ATL and HAM/TSP risk. PMID:18989900

  10. La pimienta de Jamaica [Pimenta dioica (L. Merrill, Myrtaceae] en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macía Barco, Manuel Juan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta dioica, allspice, is a neotropical Myrtaceae distributed in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean region. Its área of distribution in México ranges along East and Southeast parts of the country. The main use of its dried fruits is as spice, being sold in Mexican nacional markets as well as exported to Germany, the United States, Jamaica and Great Britain. Most of the harvest comes from trees growing wild in tropical forests, although lately there is a trend to domesticate and cultivate the plant. This paper describes the propagation, domestication, harvesting, processing, marketing and socioeconomic importance of allspice in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México. The fieldwork has been focused on Totonaca indigenous communities from this area. In these communities, allspice has medicinal use, and is used as a condiment for food; other technological and cultural uses have been also recorded. A historical monograph from Casimiro Gómez Ortega is reviewed. It includes information of the history, botany, cultivation and commerce of allspice.Pimenta dioica es una miliacea neotropical de distribución mesoamericana y caribeña. En México vive hacia el este y sudeste. Sus frutos secos se utilizan como condimento, y se trata de un producto del mercado nacional mexicano que también se exporta a Alemania, Estados Unidos, Jamaica y Reino Unido. Aunque la mayoría de la cosecha proviene de la recolección de los frutos en árboles silvestres del bosque tropical, últimamente se tiende a cultivar esta especie en un proceso actual de domesticación. Se exponen datos sobre propagación, domesticación, cosecha, procesado, mercado e importancia socioeconómica de la pimienta de Jamaica en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, a partir de los datos de campo obtenidos principalmente en una comunidad indígena totonaca, en donde se usa como medicinal, en alimentación y en tecnología. Además se reseña una obra de carácter histórico sobre la pimienta de G

  11. Transplantation of benthic species to mitigate impacts of coastal development in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M.H Gayle

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining regional competitiveness and economic viability for Port Bustamante -Kingston Harbour, Jamaica,required improved accessibility to "Post Panamax "(too large to pass through the Panama Canalcontainer vessels.Removal of the northern portion of the shallow coral reef at Rackham ’s Cay,which was partially obstructing the western end of the east ship channel,was proposed.This aesthetically valuable reef was used by local fishermen and comprises part of the declared Palisadoes -Port Royal Protected Area.The proposal to transplant certain of the benthic species was advanced to mitigate loss of viable reef components.Between December 2001 and February 2002,sixty thousand items,consisting of reef building massive and branching corals; gorgonians;urchins (Diadema and Tripneustes spp.and Thalassia meristems were relocated.During dredging,sedimentation rates from suspended solids in the water column were 0.003 g/cm² /day at the control site and 0.008 g/cm² /day at the dredge site.Coral cover in the relocation area increased from 15%to 20%while bare substrate decreased from 27%to 21%.This paper documents the mitigation required;some factors controlling the ecology of Rackham ’s Cay reef;the methodology of the relocation process;and the level of post-dredging survivorship of relocated corals.Political and economic realities of some proposed developments often over-ride ecological considerations. Transplantation of important marine benthic species although time consuming, technically challenging,and expensive,may be one way for developers and ecologists to achieve sometimes disparate goals.This project cost US$1.7 million.The "items "moved were neither unique nor endemic and remain vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic impacts.This project increased public awareness and interest regarding the ecological and economic importance of reef ecosystems.It is anticipated that future coastal and inland developments will benefit from the lessons

  12. Excess Cardiovascular Risk Burden in Jamaican Women Does Not Influence Predicted 10-Year CVD Risk Profiles of Jamaica Adults: An Analysis of the 2007/08 Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Younger, Novie O; Ferguson, Trevor S; Francis, Damian K; Abdulkadri, Abdullahi O; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana M; McFarlane, Shelly R; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette A; Wilks, Rainford J; Anderson, Simon G

    2013-01-01

    Black Caribbean women have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors than their male counterparts. Whether this results in a difference in incident cardiovascular events is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the 10 year World Health Organization/International Society for Hypertension (WHO/ISH) CVD risk score for Jamaica and explore the effect of sex as well as obesity, physical activity and socioeconomic status on these estimates. Data from 40-74 year old participants in the 2007/08 Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey were used. Trained interviewers administered questionnaires and measured anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting glucose and cholesterol. Education and occupation were used to assess socioeconomic status. The Americas B tables were used to estimate the WHO/ISH 10 year CVD risk scores for the population. Weighted prevalence estimates were calculated. Data from 1,432 (450 men, 982 women) participants were analysed, after excluding those with self-reported heart attack and stroke. The women had a higher prevalence of diabetes (19%W;12%M), hypertension (49%W;47%M), hypercholesterolemia (25%W;11%M), obesity (46%W;15%M) and physical inactivity (59%W;29%M). More men smoked (6%W;31%M). There was good agreement between the 10-year cardiovascular risk estimates whether or not cholesterol measurements were utilized for calculation (kappa -0.61). While 90% had a 10 year WHO/ISH CVD risk of less than 10%, approximately 2% of the population or 14,000 persons had a 10 year WHO/ISH CVD risk of ≥30%. As expected CVD risk increased with age but there was no sex difference in CVD risk distribution despite women having a greater risk factor burden. Women with low socioeconomic status had the most adverse CVD risk profile. Despite women having a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors there was no sex difference in 10-year WHO/ISH CVD risk in Jamaican adults.

  13. Violence among youth in Jamaica: a growing public health risk and challenge La violencia en jóvenes de Jamaica: un creciente riesgo y reto de salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delores E. Smith

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En Jamaica, la abrumadora mayoría de los jóvenes son personas bien ajustadas social y emocionalmente. Sin embargo, el aumento vertiginoso de las agresiones y la violencia en la niñez, y la conducta delincuencial entre los jóvenes se han convertido en una gran preocupación para la sociedad y constituyen un grave problema de salud pública. A falta de investigaciones definitivas sobre las causas, las especulaciones apuntan a la frustración, los sentimientos de inadaptabilidad y la falta de autonomía de los jóvenes. El propósito de este artículo es revisar la literatura y describir la información existente relacionada con la violencia en Jamaica y evaluar la plausibilidad de las suposiciones de la población acerca de los factores relacionados con este problema. Según la literatura analizada, hay una convergencia de factores a niveles micro y macro que influyen fuertemente en el comportamiento de los niños y los jóvenes jamaicanos. En este trabajo, estos factores se operacionalizan en tres niveles: el individual, el contexto social proximal (la familia y la escuela y el contexto social distal (i.e., las circunstancias económicas. A partir de la literatura, se concluye que el comportamiento violento de algunos jóvenes jamaicanos puede tener sus raíces en la confluencia de los problemas que abruman a las familias, los niños y los jóvenes. La exposición de los niños a la violencia, tanto en el seno familiar como en la escuela, es particularmente preocupante. Se discuten las implicaciones para las decisiones en políticas.

  14. STUDIES AT OYSTER BAY IN JAMAICA, WEST INDIES. IV. OBSERVATIONS ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND ASEXUAL CYCLE OF PYRODINIUM BAHAMENSE PLATE(1) (2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, R J

    1968-12-01

    The morphology and asexual cycle of the luminescent armoured dinoflagellate, Pyrodinium bahamense Plate, were examined in situ and in vitro. Several previously unreported aspects of the cycle are described. Attempts to induce the formation of these alternate life stages by imposing new conditions were unsuccessful.

  15. A relative Potential Erosion Detection (PED) model for the upper Buff Bay catchment, parish of Portland, Jamaica: A Geographical Information System application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacGillivray, C.M.I.; Donovan, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    This research introduces a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) model that predicts the location and relative susceptibility of humid subtropical hillslopes to sheetwash erosion. The extent of the erosion was based on the conservation potential of the existing vegetation cover. This is an original

  16. Exploration of simultaneous polydrug use: risk and protective factors in undergraduate students in one university, Kingston - Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El policonsumo simultáneo de sustancias psicoactivas en estudiantes de una universidad fue estudiado en Kingston, Jamaica. El estudio fue de diseño transversal, y utilizó la modalidad de encueta para la recolección de datos. Examinamos factores de riesgo y de protección asociados al policonsumo simultáneo en una muestra de 295 estudiantes de pregrado de los departamentos de la salud y de la ciencia médica de la universidad participante. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la estancia continuada con la familia, el apoyo familiar, y el bienestar de los estudiantes son factores de riesgo. Por el contrario, la facilidad del acceso de las drogas y el apoyo emocional se podrían considerar como factores protectores. Estos hallazgos pueden informar programas preventivos, aunque se requiere investigación adicional.

  17. Absence of impact of aerial malathion treatment on Aedes aegypti during a dengue outbreak in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Castle

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available During an outbreak of dengue fever in Jamaica from October to December 1995, a study was carried out to determine the impact of aerial ultra-low volume malathion treatment on adult Aedes aegypti. This was done by monitoring oviposition rates of the vector in three urban communities in Kingston and by exposing caged mosquitoes both directly and indirectly to the aerial malathion treatment. The insecticide was delivered at a rate of 219 mL/ha between 7:10 a.m. and 8:45 a.m. The results of the study clearly showed that the insecticide application was ineffective in interfering with Aedes aegypti oviposition, and adult mosquitoes held in cages inside dwellings were largely unaffected. Consequently, this type of intervention seemed to have little significant impact in arresting or abating dengue transmission.

  18. Blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in donkeys and mules near a secondary lead smelter in Jamaica, 1987-88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowski, S.R.; Gunter, E.W.; Matte, T.D. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    During the course of an investigation into community lead poisoning near a secondary lead smelter in Jamaica, blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels were measured in 8 exposed and 6 (3 Jamaican, 3 US) unexposed donkeys and mules. The blood lead levels of 6 animals in the contaminated area ranged from 7.5 to 33 micrograms/dl (mean = 17.6 micrograms/dl), compared to 1.8 and 2.4 in unexposed Jamaican animals. More striking was the difference in zinc protoporphyrin levels; all 8 exposed donkeys and mules had values between 900 and 1890 micrograms/dl, compared with a range of 34-46 micrograms/dl for 3 Jamaican control donkeys. These findings suggest that zinc protoporphyrin may be a useful method of screening for subclinical lead toxicity in equines.

  19. Control de plagas de la jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. con Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. en Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aragón-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola comprendido entre los meses de julio a diciembre de 2005, se generó en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, una metodología para el control de plagas insectiles que afectan el follaje del cultivo de jamaica. En el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó una parcela ubicada en el mismo municipio, en la que se sembrójamaica criolla -de acuerdo a la tecnología agrícola de la zona- y se controlaron las plagas, realizando cuatro aplicaciones de extracto acuoso de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq., alternándolas con cuatro aplicaciones de jabón neutro. Para verificar la efectividad del tratamiento, los parámetros evaluados fueron: porcentaje de infestación, daños causados por insectos y producción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la parcela a la cual se consideró como testigo, presentó un porcentaje de infestación del 79%; mientras que la parcela que se le aplicó el tratamiento presentó un 21% de infestación. En cuanto a los daños, en la parcela testigo se presentó en promedio 30.08% de daño por planta y la parcela donde se realizó el control sólo 14.89%. La producción en la parcela tratada fue de 793 kg/ha, presentándose un incremento en la producción con respecto al testigo, del 116%. En los tres parámetros evaluados se observó diferencia significativa ( = 0.05 entre tratamientos. Con la aplicación del tratamiento, se evitan los daños a las plantas, observándose un incremento en la producción.

  20. High HIV Prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is associated with Social Vulnerability and other Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, JP; Weir, SS; Jones-Cooper, C; Byfield, L; Hobbs, MM; McKnight, I; Cummings, S

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be high in Jamaica. The objective of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence and identify risk factors in order to improve prevention approaches. Methods With the help of influential MSM, an experienced research nurse approached MSM in four parishes to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2007. MSM were interviewed and blood taken for HIV and syphilis tests, and urine taken for gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas testing using transcription-mediated amplification assays. A structured questionnaire was administered by the nurse. Results One third (65 of 201; 32%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 25.2% – 47.9%) of MSM were HIV positive. Prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STI) was: Chlamydia 11%, syphilis 6%, gonorrhea 3.5% and Trichomonas 0%. One third (34%) of MSM identified themselves as being homosexual, 64% as bisexual and 1.5% as heterosexual. HIV positive MSM were significantly more likely to have ever been told by a doctor that they had a STI (48% vs. 27%, OR 2.48 CI 1.21 – 5.04, p=0.01) and to be the receptive sexual partner at last sex (41% vs. 23%, OR 2.41 CI 1.21 – 4.71, p=0.008). MSM who were of low socio-economic status, ever homeless and victims of physical violence were twice as likely to be HIV positive. The majority (60%) of HIV positive MSM had not disclosed their status to their partner and over 50% were not comfortable disclosing their status to anyone. Conclusions The high HIV prevalence among MSM is an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in Jamaica. More effective ways need to be found to reduce the high prevalence of HIV among MSM including measures to reduce their social vulnerability, combat stigma and discrimination and empower them to practice safe sex. PMID:24756602

  1. A Case Study in Caribbean Climate Change: Impacts on Crop Suitability and Small Farmer Vulnerability in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, W. R.; Gamble, D. W.; Popke, J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines some of the implications of climate change for farming in the Caribbean, through an analysis of future crop suitability and a case study of climate variability and agricultural practices in St. Elizabeth Parish, Jamaica. To assess potential changes in Caribbean agriculture, we present results from a water budget model based on a 100-year regional climate projection of temperature and precipitation for the circum-Caribbean basin. We find that future water deficits in the region are climate type-dependent. Savanna climates experience the largest annual changes, while semi-arid environments are greatly impacted in the spring. When the impacts of temperature and precipitation are considered separately, we find that predicted future warming, and the associated increase in evapotranspiration, has a slightly larger climatological effect on crop water need than predicted decreases in precipitation. To illustrate how a changing climate regime may impact agricultural practices, we present results from recent fieldwork in St. Elizabeth Parish, one of the main farming regions on the island of Jamaica. Drawing on data from farmer interviews and a recently-installed weather mesonet, we highlight the ways in which local microclimates influence farmer livelihood strategies and community-level vulnerability. Initial results suggest that farmers are experiencing greater climate variability, and that communities with Savanna and semi-arid type climates may be more susceptible to drought than communities in wetter, higher-elevation microclimates. These changes have enhanced the importance of irrigation technology and water management strategies for successful farming. In this context, we argue, large, well-capitalized farmers may be better able to manage the uncertainties associated with climate change, leading to an uneven landscape of vulnerability across the region.

  2. Angles of repose of the Palisadoes sandspit, Port Royal, Jamaica: Potential for catastrophic submarine landslips during future earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. A.; Hornbach, M.; Mann, P.

    2009-12-01

    Kingston, the most populous city in Jamaica, is located adjacent to the 7th largest natural harbour in the world. Most of Jamaica’s infrastructure is located along Kingston harbor waterfront, including an international airport, the Jamaica Defence Force Coast Guard, the marine port facilities, oil refineries, power generating plants, and a cement company. The Kingston area is an active earthquake zone, making the region highly vulnerable to seismic events, and the area has experienced two of the most damaging earthquakes and tsunamis in the Caribbean: the 1692 and 1907 earthquake of Port Royal and Kingston, respectively. Past studies also indicate long-shore drift changes the shape, character, and depth of the harbour over short (~100 yr) time-scales. Analysis of recently collected 3.5 KHz seismic data within the harbour show very steep surfaces abutting parts of the shoreline. In particular, slope angles of 35 degrees in water depths of approximately 15 metres exist in the Port Royal region of the Harbour. Sediments along these slopes consist of granular material, and therefore may be near a critical angle of repose, and poised for failure. These data has also been corroborated with a more detailed bathymetric data of Kingston harbor that is used to create DEMs and slope angles measurements. This research exposes the levels of vulnerability of the harbour (and city) to slope failure during moderate-to-high magnitude seismic events which recent studies suggest may occur every 50 -100 years. From these observations, we are able to generate tsunami wave models that assess how Kingston Harbor may be impacted by future earthquake-generated slope failure events.

  3. Comorbidity between psychological distress and drug use among patients in treatment centres in Jamaica: implications for policies and programme design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Reid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora la comorbilidad entre los trastornos psicológicos y el uso de drogas entre los pacientes en centros de tratamiento en Jamaica y las posibles implicaciones para la política y el diseño del programa para los centros de tratamiento. El estudio fue de corte transversal y consistió en 56 pacientes adultos de nacionalidad jamaicana, de 18 a 70 años de edad atendidos en los centros de consumo de sustancias a través de tres parroquias. Los participantes completaron un cuestionario que consta de una versión adaptada de la forma de admisión de la EUALC-CICAD; el intrumento-10 Kessler; y la escala de Apgar-familiar. Los resultados indican que el 10.7% de los pacientes fueron clasificados de tener problemas psicológicos muy graves, el 32.1% categorizados con graves dificultades psicológicas. 66.1% tienen un alto funcionamiento familiar percibida, el 16.1% percibe que la disfunción familiar moderada y el 17.9% percibe que la disfunción familiar severa. El tratamiento predominante recibidos a través de los centros de asesoramiento fue 83.9% y el 83.9% de los pacientes informaron estar satisfechos con su tratamiento. En general, los resultados pueden servir como un trampolín hacia un trabajo más grande que se realiza en la zona, con el fin de capturar una imagen más clara de los fenómenos tal como existe en Jamaica.

  4. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and

  5. BOBMEX: The Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, G.S.; Gadgil, S.; Kumar, P.V.H.; Kalsi, S.R.; Madhusoodanan, P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, C.V.K.P.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, L.V.G.; Rao, R.R.; Ravichandran, M.; Reddy, K.G.; Rao, P.Sanjeeva; Sengupta, D.; Sikka, D.R.; Swain, J.; Vinayachandran, P.N.

    , ocean, and their interface to gain deeper insight into some of the processes that govern the variability of organized convection over the bay. Simultaneous time series observations were carried out in the northern and southern Bay of Bengal from ships...

  6. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  7. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  8. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  9. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  10. 77 FR 57107 - Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos, Tillamook, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuges, Coos... conservation plans and environmental assessments (Draft CCP/EAs) for three Oregon refuges-- Bandon Marsh... . Include ``Bandon Marsh, Nestucca Bay, and Siletz Bay draft CCP and EA'' in the subject line of the message...

  11. 33 CFR 100.112 - Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Swim the Bay, Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. 100.112 Section 100.112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI. (a) Regulated area. All waters of the East Passage of Narragansett Bay...

  12. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay..., CA in support of the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone from November 1, 2012 through July 31, 2013.... 1221 et seq.). CALTRANS will sponsor the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone on November 1, 2012...

  13. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  14. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  15. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  16. Jamaican Maritime Security. What are the Capability Gaps that Limit the Jamaica Defence Force in the Execution of its Roles in Maritime Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. PHONE NUMBER (include area code) (U) (U) (U) (U) 76 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by...Introduction Jamaica, the largest of the English speaking Caribbean Islands, is traditionally known for its natural beauty , reggae music, and culture...changes, and other factors would dictate that the assets could not be on station for 24-hour persistent coverage. Additionally, standard operating

  17. Thirty-year trends in incidence and age-distribution of prostate cancer in Kingston and St Andrew, Jamaica, 1978-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T N; Hanchard, B; Waugh, N; McNaughton, D

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the trends in incidence and age-distribution of prostate cancer in Kingston and St Andrew (KSA), Jamaica, over the 30-year period 1978-2007. From published Jamaica Cancer Registry (JCR) data, we extracted age-standardized rates of prostate cancer for the six 5-year reporting periods that comprised the 30-year study span, and from the archived files of the JCR, the patient ages at diagnosis for all prostate cancer cases recorded over the 30-year period were extracted. The results were compared with data from other black populations. The incidence of prostate cancer in KSA, Jamaica, is lower than that in black men in the United States and United Kingdom. The KSA incidence showed a progressive increase since the 1983-1987 reporting period, and the greatest 5-year percentage increases were seen over the period 1983 to 1997. Men in the 60-74-year age group were the commonest contributors to prostate cancer total in all 5-year periods examined, and between 1988 and 2007, there were increases in the proportionate contributions from the 25-59 and 60-74-year age groups, and a decrease in contribution from men aged 75 years and older. The incidence of prostate cancer in KSA, Jamaica, has been progressively increasing since 1983, and there has been a concomitant increase in the proportionate contribution from younger men. Continued increase is likely over the next several years, but KSA currently appears to be a relatively low-risk region for prostate cancer, compared to black populations in developed Western countries.

  18. Midwives’ knowledge and attitudes when encountering Gender-Based Violence in their practice at a maternity-hospital in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Pearl Pitter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gender-based violence (GBV can have devastating consequences for pregnancy because both mother and child are at risk. Midwives are in a strategic position to identify and empower pregnant women experiencing GBV; however, currently midwives in Jamaica are not required to screen for GBV, neither are they prepared to do so. Aim: This study forms the baseline of a larger study designed to improve the capacity of midwives to identify and treat pregnant women experiencing GBV in Jamaica. This specific component assessed midwives’ knowledge and attitudes when encountering GBV in their practice in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: A qualitative study design was used. Six practicing midwives were purposely selected to participate in a focus group discussion at the antenatal clinic of a hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. Results: All six respondents said it was very important to screen for GBV among pregnant women in their care. The findings from their report revolved around six themes, namely midwives have suboptimal knowledge, are exposed to women experiencing GBV in pregnancy, lack professional preparedness, report gaps in the institutional framework to guide their practice, are concerned for their safety and security, and are willing to intervene. Conclusion: This study confirmed that midwives are aware of the problem and are willing to intervene but are faced with lack of formal procedures to detect and treat pregnant women who are experiencing GBV. Findings could be used to inform a protocol which is being developed to guide midwives’ practice. Findings could also be incorporated in the national strategy to eliminate GBV.

  19. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical mixtures of experts system. This system, which we call hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers, is compared to a simple naive Bayes classifier and to using bagging and boosting for combining ...

  20. Cigarette smoking and associated factors among in-school adolescents in Jamaica: comparison of the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys 2000 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted this study to estimate the correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Jamaica 2006 and compare prevalence of smoking and associated factors between 2000 and 2006. Results In 2006, 1854 participated of whom 49.5 were males and 50.5% females. 1752 adolescents, 48.8% male and 51.2% females participated in the 2000 survey. Between 2000 and 2006, the prevalence of smoking among Jamaican school-going adolescents went up slightly from 15.2% to 16.7% but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.22. The perception that smoking is not harmful increased from 10.9% to 15.9% while parental smoking decreased from 39.4% to 35.5%. There was a decrease in the rates of adolescents exposed to tobacco adverts on billboards (p-value = 0.037 and in newspapers/magazine (p-value Conclusion Results from this study indicate smoking was positively associated with male gender, having smoking friends or parents. We observed a slightly non significant increase in the prevalence of smoking between 2000 and 2006 among adolescents in Jamaica. Although there was a decrease in the rates of adolescents exposed to advertisement, the percentage of those who had an item with a tobacco brand logo had increased. The possible impact of the Jamaica's ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco control remains to be observed.

  1. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  2. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  3. Rapid exhumation of Cretaceous arc-rocks along the Blue Mountains restraining bend of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, Jamaica, using thermochronometry from multiple closure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, William J.; Spotila, James A.; Prince, Philip S.; McAleer, Ryan J.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of rapid erosion on kinematic partitioning along transpressional plate margins is not well understood, particularly in highly erosive climates. The Blue Mountains restraining bend (BMRB) of eastern Jamaica, bound to the south by the left-lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF), offers an opportunity to test the effects of highly erosive climatic conditions on a 30-km-wide restraining bend system. No previous thermochronometric data exists in Jamaica to describe the spatial or temporal pattern of rock uplift and how oblique (> 20°) plate motion is partitioned into vertical strain. To define the exhumation history, we measured apatite (n = 10) and zircon (n = 6) (U-Th)/He ages, 40Ar/39Ar (n = 2; amphibole and K-spar) ages, and U/Pb zircon (n = 2) crystallization ages. Late Cretaceous U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages (74–68 Ma) indicate rapid cooling following shallow emplacement of plutons during north-south subduction along the Great Caribbean Arc. Early to middle Miocene zircon helium ages (19–14 Ma) along a vertical transect suggest exhumation and island emergence at ~ 0.2 mm/yr. Older zircon ages 10–15 km to the north (44–35 Ma) imply less rock uplift. Apatite helium ages are young (6–1 Ma) across the entire orogen, suggesting rapid exhumation of the BMRB since the late Miocene. These constraints are consistent with previous reports of restraining bend formation and early emergence of eastern Jamaica. An age-elevation relationship from a vertical transect implies an exhumation rate of 0.8 mm/yr, while calculated closure depths and thermal modeling suggests exhumation as rapid as 2 mm/yr. The rapid rock uplift rates in Jamaica are comparable to the most intense transpressive zones worldwide, despite the relatively slow (5–7 mm/yr) strike-slip rate. We hypothesize highly erosive conditions in Jamaica enable a higher fraction of plate motion to be accommodated by vertical deformation. Thus, strike-slip restraining bends may evolve differently

  4. Rapid exhumation of Cretaceous arc-rocks along the Blue Mountains restraining bend of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, Jamaica, using thermochronometry from multiple closure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, William J.; Spotila, James A.; Prince, Philip S.; McAleer, Ryan J.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of rapid erosion on kinematic partitioning along transpressional plate margins is not well understood, particularly in highly erosive climates. The Blue Mountains restraining bend (BMRB) of eastern Jamaica, bound to the south by the left-lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF), offers an opportunity to test the effects of highly erosive climatic conditions on a 30-km-wide restraining bend system. No previous thermochronometric data exists in Jamaica to describe the spatial or temporal pattern of rock uplift and how oblique (> 20°) plate motion is partitioned into vertical strain. To define the exhumation history, we measured apatite (n = 10) and zircon (n = 6) (U-Th)/He ages, 40Ar/39Ar (n = 2; amphibole and K-spar) ages, and U/Pb zircon (n = 2) crystallization ages. Late Cretaceous U/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages (74-68 Ma) indicate rapid cooling following shallow emplacement of plutons during north-south subduction along the Great Caribbean Arc. Early to middle Miocene zircon helium ages (19-14 Ma) along a vertical transect suggest exhumation and island emergence at 0.2 mm/yr. Older zircon ages 10-15 km to the north (44-35 Ma) imply less rock uplift. Apatite helium ages are young (6-1 Ma) across the entire orogen, suggesting rapid exhumation of the BMRB since the late Miocene. These constraints are consistent with previous reports of restraining bend formation and early emergence of eastern Jamaica. An age-elevation relationship from a vertical transect implies an exhumation rate of 0.8 mm/yr, while calculated closure depths and thermal modeling suggests exhumation as rapid as 2 mm/yr. The rapid rock uplift rates in Jamaica are comparable to the most intense transpressive zones worldwide, despite the relatively slow (5-7 mm/yr) strike-slip rate. We hypothesize highly erosive conditions in Jamaica enable a higher fraction of plate motion to be accommodated by vertical deformation. Thus, strike-slip restraining bends may evolve differently depending on

  5. BayesX: Analyzing Bayesian Structural Additive Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brezger

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been much recent interest in Bayesian inference for generalized additive and related models. The increasing popularity of Bayesian methods for these and other model classes is mainly caused by the introduction of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation techniques which allow realistic modeling of complex problems. This paper describes the capabilities of the free software package BayesX for estimating regression models with structured additive predictor based on MCMC inference. The program extends the capabilities of existing software for semiparametric regression included in S-PLUS, SAS, R or Stata. Many model classes well known from the literature are special cases of the models supported by BayesX. Examples are generalized additive (mixed models, dynamic models, varying coefficient models, geoadditive models, geographically weighted regression and models for space-time regression. BayesX supports the most common distributions for the response variable. For univariate responses these are Gaussian, Binomial, Poisson, Gamma, negative Binomial, zero inflated Poisson and zero inflated negative binomial. For multicategorical responses, both multinomial logit and probit models for unordered categories of the response as well as cumulative threshold models for ordered categories can be estimated. Moreover, BayesX allows the estimation of complex continuous time survival and hazard rate models.

  6. Rural health in Jamaica: examining and refining the predictive factors of good health status of rural residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Paul A; McGrowder, Donovan A

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is mainly concentrated in rural areas. Rural populations also generally experience excessive deficiencies in healthcare access, social services, and other goods and services needed for healthy living. This study investigated the health status and determining factors of Jamaican rural residents in order to provide healthcare practitioners and policy makers with research findings to assist in effectively addressing health in rural Jamaica. The current research used a sub-sample of 15 260 respondents. The sub-sample was taken from a national cross-sectional study of 25 018 respondents from the 14 parishes of the island. The survey from which the present study is drawn used a stratified random probability sampling technique to draw the 25 018 respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to provide background information on the demographic characteristics of the sub-sample population. The model will be established using logistic regression using statistically significant (p health (n = 2554), 82.8% (n = 12 285) reported good health and 5.9% (n = 873) reported private health insurance coverage. The model used had statistically significant predictive power (model chi2 = 15939.9, p goodness of fit, chi2 = 14.46, p = 0.71). It was found that 85.1% (n = 4738) of the data were correctly classified. Of those with good health, 97.2% (n = 4387) were correctly classified, while of those with poor health, 38.6% (n = 451) were correctly classified. Some 12 factors can be used to predict the health status of rural residents in Jamaica with chi2(28) = 1595.03, p health status. An examination of the predictors revealed that the six most influential in descending order were: health insurance coverage (Wald statistic = 492.556; OR = 0.044, 95% CI: 0.033-0.058, p good health, and the 12 factors accounted for 38% of the variability in good health. Of the 12 factors, ownership of health insurance was the most significant and this is negatively associated with good health status

  7. The status of coral reefs and associated fishes and invertebrates of commercial importance in Pedro Bank, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Bruckner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The coral reefs located off the north coast of the Jamaican mainland are some of the best and most studied reefs in the world. Coral reefs of Pedro Bank, Jamaica were assessed in March, 2012 as part of the KSLOF Global Reef Expedition using a modified Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA protocol. The main objectives were to: 1 characterize the distribution, structure and health of coral reefs; and 2 evaluate the population status of commercially important reef fishes and invertebrates. This work was conducted to assist in characterizing coral reef habitats within and outside a proposed fishery reserve, and identify other possible conservation zones. Within 20 reefs, live coral cover ranged from 4.9% to 19.2%. Coral communities were dominated by small corals (esp. Agaricia, Porites and Siderastrea although many sites had high abundances of large colonies of Montastraea annularis and M. faveolata, and these were generally in good condition. A single area, within the proposed fishery reserve, had extensive Acropora cervicornis thickets, and several shallow locations had small, but recovering A. palmata stands. Macroalgal cover at all sites was relatively low, with only three sites having greater than 30% cover; crustose coralline algae (CCA was high, with eight sites exceeding 20% cover. Fish biomass at all sites near the Cays was low, with a dominance of herbivores (parrotfish and surgeonfish and a near absence of groupers, snappers and other commercially important species. While parrotfish were the most abundant fish, these were all extremely small (mean size= 12cm; <4% over 29cm, and they were dominated by red band parrotfish (Sparisoma aurofrenatum followed by striped parrotfish (Scarus iseri. While coral communities remain in better condition than most coastal reefs in Jamaica, intense fishing pressure using fish traps (main target species: surgeonfish and hookah/spear fishing (main target: parrotfish is of grave concern to the

  8. Educational Health Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Findings from Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor S. Ferguson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesSocioeconomic disparities in health have emerged as an important area in public health, but studies from Afro-Caribbean populations are uncommon. In this study, we report on educational health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity, among Jamaican adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007–2008. Trained research staff administered questionnaires and obtained measurements of blood pressure, anthropometrics, glucose and cholesterol. CVD risk factors were defined by internationally accepted cut-points. Educational level was classified as primary or lower, junior secondary, full secondary, and post-secondary. Educational disparities were assessed using age-adjusted or age-specific prevalence ratios and prevalence differences obtained from Poisson regression models. Post-secondary education was used as the reference category for all comparisons. Analyses were weighted for complex survey design to yield nationally representative estimates.ResultsThe sample included 678 men and 1,553 women with mean age of 39.4 years. The effect of education on CVD risk factors differed between men and women and by age group among women. Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher among men with less education, with prevalence differences ranging from 6.9 to 7.4 percentage points (p < 0.05 for each group. Prevalence ratios for diabetes among men ranged from 3.3 to 3.5 but were not statistically significant. Age-specific prevalence of hypertension was generally higher among the less educated women, with statistically significant prevalence differences ranging from 6.0 to 45.6 percentage points and prevalence ratios ranging from 2.5 to 4.3. Similarly, estimates for obesity and hypercholesterolemia suggested that prevalence was higher among the less educated younger women (25–39 years and among more educated older

  9. RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Data Points - Rehoboth Bay, Delaware Algae Mapping with Single Beam Acoustics: June 12 - 16, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs(DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  10. 1992 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  11. 2000 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  12. 1988 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  13. 2000 Benthic and Landcover Characterization of Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St Coix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  14. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Project Locations, San Francisco CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  15. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund Map Service, San Francisco CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund is a competitive grant program that is helping implement TMDLs to improve water quality, protect wetlands, and...

  16. NOAA Office for Coastal Management RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Benthic Habitat Data, Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, 2000 (NODC Accession 0089461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs (DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  17. Adolescent health screening practices by physicians in Jamaica Prácticas de examen sistemático de la salud de los adolescentes por parte de los médicos en Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Harrison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review Jamaican physicians' adolescent health screening practices by determining their frequency in areas of biomedical, psychological, social, and educational health; the factors that influence these practices; and physicians' perceived level of self-efficacy and their awareness of screening tools and guidelines. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to general practitioners, family medicine specialists, and pediatricians in Jamaica. The primary outcome variable was the frequency of physician screening for a range of biomedical, psychosocial, and educational developmental issues in the majority (> 50% of adolescent patients. Bivariate analyses were performed to determine differences between professional groups. RESULTS: The response rate was 32.3% (n = 213, with 209 responders being suitable for further analysis. The sample comprised 48.8% general practitioners, 33.0% family medicine specialists, and 18.2% pediatricians. Physicians more often screened for biomedical risks than for psychosocial risks, with very low frequencies of screening for psychosocial issues such as mood, suicidal ideation, sexual orientation, and safety concerns. Physicians reported high levels of confidence in discussing most psychosocial issues with adolescent patients. Time limitation and an insufficient knowledge base were the main factors identified as influencing screening practices. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest unsatisfactory frequency of adolescent health screening by Jamaican physicians, in particular for psychosocial factors. The primary factors identified by physicians as influencing their screening practices have potential for improvement through continued medical education.OBJETIVO: Analizar las prácticas de examen sistemático de la salud de los adolescentes por parte de los médicos de Jamaica mediante la determinación de la frecuencia con la que llevan a cabo reconocimientos sistemáticos de salud en las áreas biomédica, psicol

  18. “Trench Town Rock”: Reggae Music, Landscape Inscription, and the Making of Place in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevon Rhiney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines place inscriptions in Trench Town, Jamaica, and explores the ways these are used to reinforce, shape, or challenge dominant images of this inner-city community. On one hand, Trench Town is like many of its neighbouring communities, characterised by high levels of poverty, unemployment, political and gang violence, derelict buildings, and overcrowded homes. On the other hand, Trench Town is iconic and unique as it is recognised worldwide for being the birth place of reggae music and home to a number of well-known reggae artists including reggae superstar Bob Marley. Today, Trench Town’s landscape is filled with inscriptions reminiscent of its rich cultural past. Linked to this is a conscious effort by its residents to identify themselves with reggae music and to recapture and sustain the positive legacies that have made the community popular. This is manifested in the numerous murals, statues, and graffiti seen throughout the community evoking past images of reggae music icons such as Marley and Tosh alongside renowned black leaders such as Marcus Garvey. These inscriptions are conceived as texts and are seen as part of a broader discourse on issues relating to urban spatial identity, commoditisation, exclusion, struggle, resistance, and change.

  19. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perceval S. Bahado-Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years. The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3, while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3 and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2 had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Determinants of adequate follow-up of an abnormal Papanicolaou result among Jamaican women in Portland, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su Jin; Saroha, Ekta; Knight, Jeremy; Roofe, Michele; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Among Jamaican women, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality but factors that facilitate follow-up of women receiving abnormal Pap smear results are not known. We examined whether socio-demographic factors, factors reported by the women, and assistance received for follow-up facilitate adequate follow-up of abnormal Pap smears. Methods One hundred-and-twenty-one women who had abnormal Pap results during June 1998–September 2005 in Portland, Jamaica were interviewed to identify determinants of adequate follow-up. Chi-square, t-test and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify determinants. Results Only half of the women in this sample sought adequate follow-up. These women had a lower number of surviving children, higher monthly income, and perceived the cost of services to be inexpensive. Advice about the timing of the follow-up activity and the next step to take by the healthcare workers were significant determinants of adequate follow-up. Women who received advice on the timing of follow-up were almost six times (adjusted OR: 5.99, 95% CI: 1.17, 30.66, p<0.05) more likely to seek adequate follow-up after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions Perceived low cost of services as well as assistance provided by healthcare workers regarding follow-up action helps to facilitate adequate follow-up of abnormal Pap smear results. PMID:20688592

  1. "Do you think your main partner has other sex partners?" A simple question provides insight into sexual risk in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Sharon S; Figueroa, J Peter; Byfield, Lovette L; Scott, Marion A; Hobbs, Marcia M; Edwards, Jessie E; Duncan, Jacqueline P

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the association between a simple measure of sexual partner concurrency and sexually transmitted infection (STI) we conducted a cross-sectional population-based household survey (n = 1795) and targeted surveys of people at venues where people meet sexual partners (n = 1580) to ask about sexual behaviour. Persons interviewed at venues were tested for HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. We compared the association between STI and reporting a partner had other partners. More women than men reported their main partner had other partners. Thirteen percent of all women in the population-based survey and 14.4% in the targeted survey reported having one partner in the past 12 months and that partner had additional partners. STI prevalence was significantly associated with reporting a partner had other partners (36.8% vs. 30.2%; prevalence ratio [PR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 1.4). Construction of complete sexual networks is costly and not routinely feasible. We recommend adding a question to cross-sectional surveys used to monitor sexual behaviour about whether the respondent believes his or her partner has other sexual partners. Although subject to bias, the question was useful in Jamaica to identify a group of women with only one sexual partner at increased risk of infection. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. The prevalence and associated demographic factors of dementia from a cross-sectional community survey in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neita, Susanne M; Abel, Wendel D; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; James, Kenneth; Gibson, Roger C

    2014-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional community survey, the authors aimed to estimate the prevalence of dementia among a sample of older Jamaicans and to identify associated demographic factors. From February to July 2010, persons of age ≥60 years were randomly selected from two communities in Kingston, Jamaica and screened with the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE). All MMSE-positive participants and an equal number of matched MMSE-negative participants underwent definitive diagnostic evaluation for dementia using the Clinical and Diagnostic Assessment Procedure for Dementia. Subsequently derived MMSE sensitivity and specificity measures from the subsample were used to estimate the overall prevalence of dementia (primary outcome). Chi square, Fisher's Exact, Exact, Spearman's correlation and t-tests were used to explore associations of dementia with age, gender, educational level and socioeconomic status. Statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Two hundred participants were recruited. Age-standardized prevalence rates of dementia were 5.07% (standardized to the Jamaican population) and 5.32% (standardized to the West Europe population). Dementia was more prevalent among older persons (Spearman's rho = 0.31; p < 0.001); no other significant associations were found. Dementia prevalence found in this study is lower than figures from previous Caribbean reports. The older persons are disproportionately affected. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Biochemical characteristics of organic matter in a guano concretion of late miocene or pliocene age from manchester parish in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Adrian; Hanson, Richard E; Johnson, Toni; Robinson, Claion; Annells, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    The biogeochemical fate of organic matter (OM) entering soils is an important issue that must be examined to better understand its roles in nitrogen cycling and as a natural modulator of soil-atmospheric carbon fluxes. Despite these critical roles, there are uncertainties in estimating the contribution of this feedback mechanism due in part to a lack of molecular-level information regarding the origin and labile and refractory inventories of OM in soils. In this study, we used a multi-analytical approach to determine molecular-level information for the occurrence and stabilization of OM in a bird guano concretion of the Late Miocene or Pliocene age in Jamaica. We determined the specific organic structures persisting in the concretion and the possible contribution of fossil organic matter to the OM pool in modern environments. Our results indicate that aliphatic species, presumably of a highly polymethylenic nature [(CH2)n], may significantly contribute to the stable soil-C pool. Although not as significant, proteins and carbohydrates were also enriched in the sample, further suggesting that fossil organic matter may contribute to carbon and nitrogen pools in present day soil organic matter.

  4. Biochemical Characteristics of Organic Matter in a Guano Concretion of Late Miocene or Pliocene Age from Manchester Parish in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Spence

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biogeochemical fate of organic matter (OM entering soils is an important issue that must be examined to better understand its roles in nitrogen cycling and as a natural modulator of soil-atmospheric carbon fluxes. Despite these critical roles, there are uncertainties in estimating the contribution of this feedback mechanism due in part to a lack of molecular-level information regarding the origin and labile and refractory inventories of OM in soils. In this study, we used a multi-analytical approach to determine molecular-level information for the occurrence and stabilization of OM in a bird guano concretion of the Late Miocene or Pliocene age in Jamaica. We determined the specific organic structures persisting in the concretion and the possible contribution of fossil organic matter to the OM pool in modern environments. Our results indicate that aliphatic species, presumably of a highly polymethylenic nature [(CH 2 n ], may significantly contribute to the stable soil-C pool. Although not as significant, proteins and carbohydrates were also enriched in the sample, further suggesting that fossil organic matter may contribute to carbon and nitrogen pools in present day soil organic matter.

  5. The prevalence of major potential drug-drug interactions at a University health centre pharmacy in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy-Dixon T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify major potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs on prescriptions filled at the University Health Centre Pharmacy, Mona Campus, Jamaica. Methods: This investigation utilised a cross-sectional analysis on all prescriptions with more than one drug that were filled at the Health Centre Pharmacy between November 2012 and February 2013. Potential DDIs were identified using the online Drug Interactions Checker database of Drugs.com. Results: During the period of the study, a total of 2814 prescriptions were analysed for potential DDIs. The prevalence of potential DDIs found during the study period was 49.82%. Major potential DDIs accounted for 4.7 % of the total number of interactions detected, while moderate potential DDIs and minor potential DDIs were 80.8 % and 14.5 % respectively. The three most frequently occurring major potential DDIs were amlodipine and simvastatin (n=46, amiloride and losartan (n=27 and amiloride and lisinopril (n=16. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the need for educational initiatives to ensure that physicians and pharmacists collaborate in an effort to minimise the risks to the patients. These interactions are avoidable for the most part, as the use of online tools can facilitate the selection of therapeutic alternatives or guide decisions for closer patient monitoring and thus reduce the risks of adverse events.

  6. Extraction, processing, and storage effects on curcuminoids and oleoresin yields from Curcuma longa L. grown in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cheryl E; Hibbert, Sheridan L; Bailey-Shaw, Yvonne A; Williams, Lawrence A D; Mitchell, Sylvia; Garraway, Eric

    2008-05-28

    Aromatic diarylheptanoid compounds from Curcuma longa Linn grown in Jamaica were quantified by UV-vis spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses. The oleoresin yields from ethanolic extracts were quantified and evaluated with regard to the effects of the type of postharvesting process and the type of extraction method conducted on the plant material. Fresh samples that were hot solvent extracted provided the highest oleoresin yields of 15.7% +/- 0.4 ( n = 3), and the lowest oleoresin yields of 7.8% +/- 0.2 ( n = 3) were from the dried milled samples that were cold solvent extracted. Data from the ASTA spectrophotometer assay confirmed that dried samples contained the highest curcuminoid content of 55.5% +/- 2.2 ( n = 6) at the fifth month of storage, and the fresh samples showed a curcuminoid content of 47.1% +/- 6.4 ( n = 6) at the third month of storage. A modified HPLC analysis was used to quantify curcumin content. Data from the HPLC analysis confirmed that the dried treated, hot extracted, room temperature stored samples had the highest curcumin content of 24.3%. A novel high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provided a chemical fingerprint of the C. longa with the use of a commercial curcumin standard.

  7. Modeling the impact of bay breeze circulations on nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughner, C. P.; Tzortziou, M.; Pickering, K. E.; Duffy, M.; Satam, C.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric gases and aerosols are deposited into watersheds and estuarine waters contributing to water quality degradation and affecting estuarine and coastal biogeochemical processes. Pollution that is deposited onto land can be transported into storm drains, groundwater, streams, and rivers where it is eventually transported into near-shore waters. Air quality models, which simulate the chemical transformation, atmospheric transport, and deposition of pollutants onto land and surface waters, can play an integral role in forecasting water quality, preparing water quality regulations and providing information on the sources of nutrients and pollutants for advanced estuarine biogeochemical models. Previous studies have found that Chesapeake Bay breezes cause localized areas of high air pollution concentrations and that model simulations with horizontal resolutions coarser than about 5 km are not able to capture bay breeze circulations. Here, we investigate the importance of capturing bay breeze circulations with high resolution model simulations (horizontal resolution of 1.33 km) to accurately simulate the spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen deposition into the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Nitrogen deposition into the watershed from air quality model simulations are compared with observed wet deposition and estimated dry deposition rates from the National Acid Deposition Program (NADP) and the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET), respectively. The model simulation is conducted for the months of June and July 2011. Two concurrent air and water quality field campaigns, DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and GeoCAPE-CBODAQ (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events-Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic Campaign with DISCOVER-AQ), were conducted in July 2011, and data obtained from these field experiments are used to evaluate the model simulations.

  8. Chesapeake Bay recovery and factors affecting trends: Long-termmonitoring, indicators, and insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the outcome of restoration efforts is the only way to identify the status of a recovery and the most effective management strategies. In this paper, we discuss Chesapeake Bay and watershed recovery and factors influencing water quality trends. For over 30 years, the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership’s long-term tidal and watershed water quality monitoring networks have measured physical, chemical and biological parameters throughout the bay and its surrounding watershed underpinning an adaptive management process to drive ecosystem recovery. There are many natural and anthropogenic factors operating and interacting to affect the watershed and bay water quality recovery responses to management actions. Across habitats and indicators, the bay and its watershed continue to express a diverse spatial and temporal fabric of multiscale conditions, stressors and trends that show a range of health conditions and impairments, as well as evidence of progress and degradation. Recurrent independent reviews of the monitoring program have driven a culture of continued adaptation of the monitoring networks to reflect ever evolving management information needs. The adherence to bay and watershed-wide consistent monitoring protocols provides monitoring data supporting analyses and development of scientific syntheses that underpin indicator and model development, regulatory assessments, targeting of management actions, evaluation of management effectiveness, and directing of priorities and policies.

  9. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gohn, Gregory S.; Horton, J. Wright

    2015-10-28

    About 35 million years ago, during late Eocene time, a 2-mile-wide asteroid or comet smashed into Earth in what is now the lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. The oceanic impact vaporized, melted, fractured, and (or) displaced the target rocks and sediments and sent billions of tons of water, sediments, and rocks into the air. Glassy particles of solidified melt rock rained down as far away as Texas and the Caribbean. Models suggest that even up to 50 miles away the velocity of the intensely hot air blast was greater than 1,500 miles per hour, and ground shaking was equivalent to an earthquake greater than magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. Large tsunamis affected most of the North Atlantic basin. The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is among the 20 largest known impact structures on Earth.

  10. Bayes reconstruction of missing teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sporring, Jon; Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff

    2008-01-01

     We propose a method for restoring the surface of tooth crowns in a 3D model of a human denture, so that the pose and anatomical features of the tooth will work well for chewing. This is achieved by including information about the position and anatomy of the other teeth in the mouth. Our system...... contains two major parts: A statistical model of a selection of tooth shapes and a reconstruction of missing data. We use a training set consisting of 3D scans of dental cast models obtained with a laser scanner, and we have build a model of the shape variability of the teeth, their neighbors...... regularization of the log-likelihood estimate based on differential geometrical properties of teeth surfaces, and we show general conditions under which this may be considered a Bayes prior.Finally we use Bayes method to propose the reconstruction of missing data, for e.g. finding the most probable shape...

  11. Influenza in Bristol Bay, 1919

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Gilson deValpine

    2015-01-01

    The 1918 influenza pandemic has been blamed for as many as 50 million deaths worldwide. Like all major disasters, the full story of the pandemic includes smaller, less noted episodes that have not attracted historical attention. The story of the 1919 wave of the influenza pandemic in Bristol Bay Alaska is one such lost episode. It is an important story because the most accessible accounts—the Congressional Record and t...

  12. Zooplankton Biomass Data from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska 2010-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes zooplankton biomass from Prince William Sound, Icy Bay and Yakutat Bay, Alaska. Zooplankton were sampled with a ring net (0.6 m diameter with...

  13. [Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.

  14. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Linear dimension reduction and Bayes classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Odell, P. L.; Coberly, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    An explicit expression for a compression matrix T of smallest possible left dimension K consistent with preserving the n variate normal Bayes assignment of X to a given one of a finite number of populations and the K variate Bayes assignment of TX to that population was developed. The Bayes population assignment of X and TX were shown to be equivalent for a compression matrix T explicitly calculated as a function of the means and covariances of the given populations.

  16. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    include Perry, Pembrook, Edmunds, Dennyville, Whiting and Trescott (See Figure 1). Located entirely in the United States at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy ...Quoddy Region because of the softer sediments in that area. Some are harvested within the bay itself, although to a much lesser extent. Lobsters are...earthquake of an intensity VIII occurring in the Bay of Fundy approximately 35 miles west of the site. Closer to the site an earthquake of intensity VII

  17. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is effective...

  18. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay... of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule is...

  19. Internalizing stigma associated with mental illness: findings from a general population survey in Jamaica Interiorización del estigma asociado con las enfermedades mentales: resultados de una encuesta en población general en Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Carl Gibson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The culture of stigma associated with mental illness is particularly intense when persons who are normally victims of that stigmatization (mentally ill persons and their family members themselves act negatively toward others whom they associate with mental illness. We attempt to determine the extent of this internalization and assimilation of stigmatizing attitudes, cognitions, and behaviors in persons who are at risk for such stigmatization in Jamaica. METHODS: Data from a 2006 national survey on mental health were analyzed. Demographic variables, the presence or absence of mental illness in respondents and in their family members, and responses pertaining to behaviors and attitudes toward mentally ill persons were examined. Subsamples (respondents with mental illness, respondents with a family member with mental illness, respondents with neither were compared using the chi-square test. RESULTS: Respondents with family members with mental illness were less likely to demonstrate a number of different manifestations of stigmatization than others (P = 0.009-0.019. Respondents with mental illness showed no difference in the demonstration of a number of different manifestations of stigmatization from other respondents (P = 0.069-0.515. CONCLUSIONS: The small number of mentally ill respondents resulted in low statistical power for demonstrating differences between that subgroup and other respondents. The significantly more positive attitudes and behavior of respondents with family members with mental illness suggest that some benefit may be gained by creating more opportunities for the general public to interact with persons with mental illness.OBJETIVOS:La cultura del estigma asociado con las enfermedades mentales es especialmente intensa cuando las mismas personas que normalmente son víctimas de la estigmatización (personas con enfermedades mentales y los miembros de su familia actúan de forma negativa hacia otras personas a las que

  20. Application of Sediment Trend Analysis in the Examination of Sediment Transport Dynamics of Missisquoi Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, M. P.; Manley, P.; Singer, J.; Manley, T.; McLaren, P.

    2013-12-01

    Missisquoi Bay is located between Vermont and Quebec in the northeast sector of the Restricted Arm of Lake Champlain. The average depth of the Bay is slightly less than 3 meters with a surface area covering 77.5 km2. The Bay receives water from eastern and western catchment basins, most notably via the Missisquoi, Rock, and Pike Rivers. Circulation within Missisquoi Bay has been altered by the construction of railroad causeways in the late 19th century and highway construction in the early 20th century. Over the past several decades there have also been changes in land-use practices, including the intensification of agriculture, increased animal husbandry, and urbanization. As a consequence of construction and changing land use, loadings of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Bay have increased seasonal oxygen depletion causing eutrophication. Since monitoring began in 1992, Missisquoi Bay has displayed the highest mean total phosphorus concentrations and chlorophyll a concentrations in Lake Champlain. Various efforts have taken place to reduce nutrient loading to Missisquoi Bay, but persistent release of phosphorus from bottom sediments will continue to delay for decades the recovery from nutrient diversion. To better understand the causes and timing of eutrophication in Missisquoi Bay, one component of a 5-year integrated VT EPSCoR - RACC program included an examination of N and P loadings and their distribution throughout the Bay. Internal circulation patterns are also being studied. To determine the pattern of net sediment transport and determine sediment behavior (erosion and accretion), a Sediment Trend Analysis (STA) was performed using 369 grab samples collected in the Bay. Grain size distributions for the surface sediment samples were determined using a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 particle size analyzer. Sediment maps showing the proportion of gravel, sand, and mud show that near major river distributaries sand-sized sediment was dominant with muds becoming more

  1. Dosimetry of irradiated foods and extraction of polyminerals from herbs and seasonings (Guajillo chili, oregano, jamaica, arnica, and camomile); Dosimetria de alimentos irradiados y extraccion de poliminerales de hierbas y condimentos (Chile guajillo, oregano, jamaica, arnica y manzanilla)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda C, S.; Gomez B, C. [Estudiante de la Facultad de Quimica, UNAM (Mexico); Calderon, T.; Cruz Z, E. [Depto. de Quimica Agricola-Geologia-Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Nowadays, in developed countries the irradiation technology is a process used in food treatments for sterilization and diminishing of the microbiological charge, as well as to extend the storage life. In Mexico, the food irradiation, spices and seasonings has been officially approved since 1995, recognizing as an adequate technological process for foods. Taking advantage of knowledge about solids and due to the natural growth of the spices, herbs, etc. these contain minerals which can providing important information of its radiological history, moreover these type of materials do not degrade them preserving by long time periods. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of poly minerals in foods, such as oregano, guajillo chili, jamaica, arnica and camomile is presented. For obtaining the poly mineral, the samples were treated with an ethanol-water solution, in constant stirring during 12 hours at room temperature depending on the sample under treatment. It was used oxygenated water and distilled for washing and acetone for achieving a good drying. The minerals were processed by gamma radiation in the Nuclear Sciences Institute of the UNAM. The brilliance curves of spices and herbs, using a Tl reader of Harshaw 3500 were obtained, the emissions are located between 60 and 350 Centigrade. Previously the extraction of poly mineral was realized and they were divided in same parts for doses between 2 and 10 KGy, this last value according to the Mexican Official Standard considering a fraction without irradiating as reference. The identification of the mineral fraction by diffraction will complement the composition information. We are grateful to the donation of seasonings samples provided by the Tres Villas Natural Seasonings enterprise, Toluca plant, State of Mexico and the Academic Exchange Office at UNAM. (Author)

  2. Guinea Factors, Slave Sales, and the Profits of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in Late Eighteenth-Century Jamaica:The Case of John Tailyour

    OpenAIRE

    Radburn, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In 1783 Scottish native John Tailyour arrived in Jamaica, where he hoped to make his fortune after a string of failed business ventures in North America. Fifteen years later he retired as a rich man. His newfound wealth came in large part from his career as a “Guinea factor,” a merchant who sold captive Africans from newly arrived slave ships. During his years as a Guinea factor, Tailyour sold 17,295 Africans into slavery through a traumatizing process that channeled captives to different buy...

  3. Cambios en contenido de compuestos fenólicos y color de extractos de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa) sometidos a calentamiento con energía de microondas

    OpenAIRE

    Hid Cadena, Rebeca; Bautista Ortín, Ana Belén; Ortega Regules, Ana E.; Welti Chanes, Jorge S.; Lozada Ramírez, J. Daniel; Anaya de Parrodi, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se realizó la extracción acuosa de compuestos fenólicos, principalmente antocianinas, provenientes de cálices de jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa). El extracto fue calentado por microondas a diferentes temperaturas (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 y 80°C) durante 20 min, tomando una alícuota cada 5 min. En el extracto con y sin calentamiento se determinó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y los parámetros colorimétricos. Para el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales se observaron pérdida...

  4. Policy implications of medical tourism development in destination countries: revisiting and revising an existing framework by examining the case of Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Ormond, Meghann

    2015-07-04

    Medical tourism is now targeted by many hospitals and governments worldwide for further growth and investment. Southeast Asia provides what is perhaps the best documented example of medical tourism development and promotion on a regional scale, but interest in the practice is growing in locations where it is not yet established. Numerous governments and private hospitals in the Caribbean have recently identified medical tourism as a priority for economic development. We explore here the projects, activities, and outlooks surrounding medical tourism and their anticipated economic and health sector policy implications in the Caribbean country of Jamaica. Specifically, we apply Pocock and Phua's previously-published conceptual framework of policy implications raised by medical tourism to explore its relevance in this new context and to identify additional considerations raised by the Jamaican context. Employing case study methodology, we conducted six weeks of qualitative fieldwork in Jamaica between October 2012 and July 2013. Semi-structured interviews with health, tourism, and trade sector stakeholders, on-site visits to health and tourism infrastructure, and reflexive journaling were all used to collect a comprehensive dataset of how medical tourism in Jamaica is being developed. Our analytic strategy involved organizing our data within Pocock and Phua's framework to identify overlapping and divergent issues. Many of the issues identified in Pocock and Phua's policy implications framework are echoed in the planning and development of medical tourism in Jamaica. However, a number of additional implications, such as the involvement of international development agencies in facilitating interest in the sector, cyclical mobility of international health human resources, and the significance of health insurance portability in driving the growth of international hospital accreditation, arise from this new context and further enrich the original framework. The framework

  5. La pimienta de Jamaica [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merrill, Myrtaceae] en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México)

    OpenAIRE

    Macía Barco, Manuel Juan

    1998-01-01

    Pimenta dioica, allspice, is a neotropical Myrtaceae distributed in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean region. Its área of distribution in México ranges along East and Southeast parts of the country. The main use of its dried fruits is as spice, being sold in Mexican nacional markets as well as exported to Germany, the United States, Jamaica and Great Britain. Most of the harvest comes from trees growing wild in tropical forests, although lately there is a trend to domesticate and cultivate the pl...

  6. Investigation of Tidal Power, Cobscook Bay, Maine. Environmental Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Nevertheless, some worms are harvested in Cobscook Bay . Lobsters are also found in Cobscook Bay , although not in sufficient numbers to support a...ring-billed gull, sanderling, black-bellied plover, semipalmated plover, least sandpiper and dowitcher. Cobscook Bay (and Bay of Fundy in general...tidal power development in the upper Bay of Fundy . Circulation between Cobscook Bay and the Gulf of Maine will be reduced resulting in decreased

  7. How Do Jamaica's Unattached Youth View Their Career Prospects and Life Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Terrill F.; Hull, Darrell M.; Fearon, Danielle D.; Williams, Lincoln O.; Tindigarukayo, Jimmy K.

    2012-01-01

    How do unattached Jamaican youth regard their educational and employment prospects? We investigate perceptions by out-of-school, unattached youth, ages 14-24, who are neither employed nor attending training program. From a human capital theoretical perspective, and based on surveys of Jamaican youth, we explore the prevalence and variability of…

  8. Endorsing Empowerment? A Critical Comparative Study of Peace Education in Jamaica and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call-Cummings, Meagan; Hook, Margaret Remstad

    2015-01-01

    Is empowering peace education primarily about providing individuals with skills to respond to violence they experience and capabilities to enhance their own lives? Or is inspiring social transformation to alter forms of injustice that contribute to violence an equally valid and important dimension of an empowering peace education program? This…

  9. Mass, black carbon and elemental composition of PM{sub 2.5} at an industrial site in Kingston, Jamaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Johan, E-mail: johan.boman@chem.gu.se; Gaita, Samuel M.

    2015-11-15

    An estimated three million premature deaths yearly can be attributed to ambient particulate pollution, a majority of them in low and middle income countries. The rapid increase in the vehicle fleet in urban areas of the Caribbean countries have experienced contributes to the bad urban air quality. In this study aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than, or equal to, 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected over 24 h at a site along Spanish Town Road, one of the main commuter roads in Kingston, Jamaica. The study was aimed at determining the mass, black carbon and elemental composition of PM{sub 2.5} in Kingston. Although lead in the gasoline was phased out in the year 2000, up to 5000 ppm of sulfur is still allowed in the diesel, leading to an extensive secondary particle formation. PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected using a Mini-vol sampler between 12 December 2013 and 21 March 2014 and analyzed for trace elements using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility at Lund University, Sweden. Concentrations of Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. Elemental concentrations showed a high temporal variation and the average PM{sub 2.5} concentration (44 μg m{sup −3}) is higher than the air quality standards that apply in the European Union (25 μg m{sup −3}) and in the USA (12 μg m{sup −3}). From this we can conclude that the air quality in the area is severely influenced by PM{sub 2.5} pollution and that there is a need to develop plans for improving the air quality in Kingston city.

  10. Mass, black carbon and elemental composition of PM2.5 at an industrial site in Kingston, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Johan; Gaita, Samuel M.

    2015-11-01

    An estimated three million premature deaths yearly can be attributed to ambient particulate pollution, a majority of them in low and middle income countries. The rapid increase in the vehicle fleet in urban areas of the Caribbean countries have experienced contributes to the bad urban air quality. In this study aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than, or equal to, 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected over 24 h at a site along Spanish Town Road, one of the main commuter roads in Kingston, Jamaica. The study was aimed at determining the mass, black carbon and elemental composition of PM2.5 in Kingston. Although lead in the gasoline was phased out in the year 2000, up to 5000 ppm of sulfur is still allowed in the diesel, leading to an extensive secondary particle formation. PM2.5 samples were collected using a Mini-vol sampler between 12 December 2013 and 21 March 2014 and analyzed for trace elements using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility at Lund University, Sweden. Concentrations of Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. Elemental concentrations showed a high temporal variation and the average PM2.5 concentration (44 μg m-3) is higher than the air quality standards that apply in the European Union (25 μg m-3) and in the USA (12 μg m-3). From this we can conclude that the air quality in the area is severely influenced by PM2.5 pollution and that there is a need to develop plans for improving the air quality in Kingston city.

  11. Establishment of an HIV/sexually transmitted disease programme and prevalence of infection among incarcerated men in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, K; Kerrigan, D; Figueroa, J P; Reese, R; Gaydos, C A; Bennett, L; Bloomfield, B; Plunkett, L; Maru, C; Ellen, J M

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the establishment of an HIV testing and treatment programme in the Jamaican correctional system and to estimate the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) among adult incarcerated men in this country. A demonstration project was implemented by the Jamaican Department of Correctional Services and Ministry of Health in the nation’s largest correctional centre. All inmates were offered HIV and syphilis testing, and a subset was offered chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis testing. Cross-sectional data from the project were reviewed to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV/STD. HIV test acceptance was 63% for voluntary testers (n = 1200). The prevalence of HIV was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.33–4.64) (n = 1017) and the prevalence syphilis was 0.7% (95% CI 0.29–1.49) (n = 967). Among the subset tested (n = 396) the prevalence of chlamydia was 2.5% (95% CI 1.22–4.49) and for trichomoniasis it was 1.8% (95% CI 0.01–3.60), but no cases of gonorrhoea were detected (n = 396). The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher at 25% (95% CI 13.64–39.60) for persons located in a separate section where individuals labelled as men who have sex with men (MSM) are separated. HIV/STD testing is important and feasible in Jamaica. A special focus should be placed on providing services to inmates labelled as MSM. Other Caribbean nations may also benefit from similar programmes. PMID:20089997

  12. Factors Affecting the Choice and Desire to Exclusively Breastfeed in Jamaica: A Cross-Sectional Study at 6 Weeks Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Abigail; Fletcher-Groves, Shani; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana; Thame, Minerva

    2016-05-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding rates (EBRs) may be influenced by sociodemographic and sociocultural factors, including maternal age, socioeconomic status, education, and breastfeeding knowledge. The EBR in Jamaica has been low and declining, leaving a need for better determination of the specific local contributory factors. This study aimed to better elucidate the factors that influence mothers exclusively breastfeeding, including antenatal intentions to breastfeed, mothers' knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding, and mothers' infant feeding practices in general, inclusive of breastfeeding, formula feeding, and complementary feeding. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a 52-item interviewer-administered questionnaire with mothers attending their 6-week postnatal clinic visit. Sociodemographic data were collected on all participants as well as data regarding participants' breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Statistical analyses were done using χ(2) tests, t tests, and risk analyses. Two hundred participants were interviewed; the mean ± SD age of participants was 26.2 ± 6.46 years (range, 15-46 years). The EBR in this study sample was 32%. Sociodemographic factors, including maternal age and socioeconomic status, as well as antenatal and postnatal breastfeeding sessions, did not significantly affect the likelihood of exclusively breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum. The only factor significantly associated with the EBR was mothers' belief that exclusively breastfeeding was able to ensure infant satiety. Antenatal and postnatal breastfeeding sessions should place more emphasis on dispelling maternal myths and misperceptions regarding signs of satiety and hunger in infants and reinforcing the knowledge that breast milk alone is sufficient for the first 6 months of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Associations between neighborhood effects and physical activity, obesity, and diabetes: The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Myrie, Colette Andrea; Theall, Katherine P; Younger, Novie O; Mabile, Emily A; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Francis, Damian K; McFarlane, Shelly R; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana M; Wilks, Rainford J

    2015-09-01

    To examine the impact of neighborhood disorder, perceived neighborhood safety, and availability of recreational facilities on prevalence of physical activity (PA), obesity, and diabetes mellitus (DM). Multilevel analyses were conducted among 2,848 respondents from the 2007-08 Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey. Neighborhood effects were based on aggregated interviewer responses to systematic social observation questions. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were created to assess the relationship between neighborhood indicators and DM and the modifiable risk factors PA and overweight/obesity. There was significant clustering in PA levels of 20 minutes at least once per week (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 10.7%), low/no PA (ICC = 7.22%), diabetes (ICC = 5.44%), and obesity (ICC = 3.33%) across neighborhoods. Greater levels of neighborhood disorder, home disorder, and counterintuitively recreational space availability were associated with higher levels of low/no PA among women. There was significant interaction by sex between neighborhood infrastructure and overweight/obesity with a significant association in men (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.28) but not women (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.95, 1.07). Differences in PA and obesity-related outcomes among Jamaicans may be partially explained by characteristics of the neighborhood environment and differ by sex. Future studies must be conducted to determine the mechanistic pathways through which the neighborhood environment may impact such outcomes to better inform prevention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors following sevoflurane use in pediatric patients for day case surgery, Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gooden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Emergence delirium is a distressing complication of the use of sevoflurane for general anesthesia. This study sought to determine the incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors in patients at a specialist pediatric hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study including pediatric patients aged 3-10 years, ASA I and II, undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane for elective day-case procedures. Data collected included patients' level of anxiety pre-operatively using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale, surgery performed, anesthetic duration and analgesics administered. Postoperatively, patients were assessed for emergence delirium, defined as agitation with non-purposeful movement, restlessness or thrashing; inconsolability and unresponsiveness to nursing and/or parental presence. The need for pharmacological treatment and post-operative complications related to emergence delirium episodes were also noted. Results: One hundred and forty-five (145 children were included, with emergence delirium occurring in 28 (19.3%. Emergence delirium episodes had a mean duration of 6.9±7.8 min, required pharmacologic intervention in 19 (67.8% children and were associated with a prolonged recovery time (49.4±11.9 versus 29.7± 10.8 min for non-agitated children; p<0.001. Factors positively associated with emergence delirium included younger age (p = 0.01, OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.6 and moderate and severe anxiety prior to induction (p <0.001, OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-13.0. Complications of emergence delirium included intravenous line removal (n = 1, and surgical site bleeding (n = 3. Conclusion: Children of younger age with greater preoperative anxiety are at increased risk of developing emergence delirium following general anesthesia with sevoflurane. The overall incidence of emergence delirium was 19%.

  15. Prevention of sickle cell disease: observations on females with the sickle cell trait from the Manchester project, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Karlene; Gibson, Felicea; Gardner, Ruth-Ann; Serjeant, Beryl; Serjeant, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    Screening for haemoglobin genotype was offered to senior school students in Manchester parish in south central Jamaica to test whether this knowledge would influence choice of partner and reduce births with sickle cell disease. Over six academic years, 15,539 students, aged mostly 15-19 years, were screened with voluntary compliance rising from 56 to 92 % over this period. All subjects were given permanent genotype cards and carriers of abnormal genes were offered counselling which explained the reproductive options but avoided recommendations. Prior to screening, all had been offered illustrated lectures on the genetics and clinical features of sickle cell disease. The current study, confined to females with the sickle cell trait, interviewed 763/845 (90.3 %) subjects seeking to assess retention of this knowledge and their response to subsequent boyfriends. Of those interviewed, 42 subjects were excluded (38 emigrated, one died, three received incorrect genotype cards) leaving 721 with complete information. Knowledge of genotype was retained in 95 %, the outcome of future offspring correctly recalled in 91 %, and haemoglobin genotype cards were still possessed by 89 %. A current 'boyfriend' was acknowledged in 403 (56 %) of whom the partner's genotype was known in 88 (74 determined by the project laboratory; 14 by other laboratories) and unknown in 315 (78 %). Offers of free blood tests to all these partners were accepted by only 14 (4 %). Seventeen (2.4 %) were married but the husbands genotype was known in only five (four AA, one AS) of these. Most subjects retain knowledge of their genotype and of its significance for having affected children but the reluctance of partners to be tested was a major obstacle.

  16. Galveston Bay Area : Land Barrier preliminary design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berchum, E.C.; de Vries, P.A.L.; de Kort, R.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    The Galveston Bay Area is under significant risk from hurricane induced flooding. Ever since Hurricane Ike caused billions of damage back in 2008, the option of closing off the Galveston Bay from the Gulf of Mexico was investigated. This report, commissioned by Texas A&M University in Galveston,

  17. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  18. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical

  19. Traditional Fisheries of Antongil Bay, Madagascar | Doukakis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar's marine fisheries provide revenue and sustenance for the island nation. Antongil Bay, the largest shallow-water bay along Madagascar's eastern coast, harbors significant marine resources and is heavily utilized by traditional, artisanal (shark-fin) and industrial fisheries. Mean hourly catch rates are just under 1 ...

  20. Comprehensive characterization report on Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; White, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Winter Quarters Bay is a small embayment located adjacent to the United States largest base in Antarctica, McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station, which is managed by the National Science Foundation`s Office of Polar Programs, was constructed in 1955, has been in constant use since that time, and has a population of about 1,000 persons during the summer and about 250 people for the winter. The bay offers shelter for ships and an ice dock is used during January and February to off load fuel and cargo. During earlier times, trash from the McMurdo Station was piled on the steep shoreline of the bay, doused with several thousand gallons of fuel and ignited. That practice has ceased and the site has been regraded to cover the waste. The bottom of the bay is littered with drums, equipment, tanks, tires, all sorts of metal objects, cables, etc., especially the southeastern side where dumping took place. The sediments are gravel in some places yet fine and fluid at other sites with coarse particles intermixed. The original benthic community is not well recorded but significant ecological changes have occurred. Sediments are contaminated with PCBs, metals, and hydrocarbon fuels. This report summarizes available information on Winter Quarters Bay and was originally intended to be used by workshop participants to become familiar with the bay prior to becoming updated with unpublished data by various Antarctic investigators. The proposed workshop was to assist the National Science Foundation in determining whether and how the bay should be remediated and to develop an integrated research plan if additional data were needed. However, plans changed, the workshop was never conducted, but the briefing report was prepared. Most of this report reviews and summarizes other published data. The only new data are those from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory`s investigation into the distribution of organic contaminants in the bay and sediment toxicity testing.

  1. Biomass and Carbon Stocks of Sofala Bay Mangrove Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A. Sitoe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves could be key ecosystems in strategies addressing the mitigation of climate changes through carbon storage. However, little is known regarding the carbon stocks of these ecosystems, particularly below-ground. This study was carried out in the mangrove forests of Sofala Bay, Central Mozambique, with the aim of quantifying carbon stocks of live and dead plant and soil components. The methods followed the procedures developed by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR for mangrove forests. In this study, we developed a general allometric equation to estimate individual tree biomass and soil carbon content (up to 100 cm depth. We estimated the carbon in the whole mangrove ecosystem of Sofala Bay, including dead trees, wood debris, herbaceous, pneumatophores, litter and soil. The general allometric equation for live trees derived was [Above-ground tree dry weight (kg = 3.254 × exp(0.065 × DBH], root mean square error (RMSE = 4.244, and coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.89. The average total carbon storage of Sofala Bay mangrove was 218.5 Mg·ha−1, of which around 73% are stored in the soil. Mangrove conservation has the potential for REDD+ programs, especially in regions like Mozambique, which contains extensive mangrove areas with high deforestation and degradation rates.

  2. Efficient implementation of MrBayes on multi-GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Xia, Hongju; Zhou, Jianfu; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Gang

    2013-06-01

    MrBayes, using Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC or (MC)(3)), is a popular program for Bayesian inference. As a leading method of using DNA data to infer phylogeny, the (MC)(3) Bayesian algorithm and its improved and parallel versions are now not fast enough for biologists to analyze massive real-world DNA data. Recently, graphics processor unit (GPU) has shown its power as a coprocessor (or rather, an accelerator) in many fields. This article describes an efficient implementation a(MC)(3) (aMCMCMC) for MrBayes (MC)(3) on compute unified device architecture. By dynamically adjusting the task granularity to adapt to input data size and hardware configuration, it makes full use of GPU cores with different data sets. An adaptive method is also developed to split and combine DNA sequences to make full use of a large number of GPU cards. Furthermore, a new "node-by-node" task scheduling strategy is developed to improve concurrency, and several optimizing methods are used to reduce extra overhead. Experimental results show that a(MC)(3) achieves up to 63× speedup over serial MrBayes on a single machine with one GPU card, and up to 170× speedup with four GPU cards, and up to 478× speedup with a 32-node GPU cluster. a(MC)(3) is dramatically faster than all the previous (MC)(3) algorithms and scales well to large GPU clusters.

  3. High prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders among persons seeking treatment for HIV and other STIs in Jamaica: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford Jarrett, Sharlene; De La Haye, Winston; Miller, Zahra; Figueroa, J Peter; Duncan, Jacqueline; Harvey, Kevin

    2017-10-03

    This cross-sectional study explored the range of psychiatric and substance use disorders and unmet need for mental health care among 84 HIV-positive and 44 HIV-negative public clinic attendees in Jamaica. We used a brief interviewer-administered diagnostic tool, the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire. Two-thirds (65.6%) screened positive for at least one psychiatric disorder; 30.5% screened positive for multiple disorders. The most common disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (41.4%), alcohol abuse (22.7%), and depressive disorders (21.9%). One in fourteen (7.1%) participants with at least one diagnosis received care in the last 6 months. Adjusting for age and sex, PTSD was associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment (AOR = 5.32), anxiety disorders (AOR = 5.82), depression (AOR = 4.29), and suicidal ideation (AOR = 8.17). Psychiatric and substance use disorders, particularly PTSD, were common among STI/HIV clinic attendees in Jamaica. Such clinics may be efficient places to screen, identify, and treat patients with psychiatric disorders in low- and middle- income countries.

  4. Recent Results from Daya Bay

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment observed electron antineutrino disappearance associated with $\\theta_{13}$ with a significance better than $5\\sigma$ in 2012. The final two of eight antineutrino detectors were installed in the summer of 2012. Including the 404 days of data collected with the full detector configuration resulted in a 3.6 times increase of statistics over the previous result with the 6-AD configuration. With improvements of the systematic uncertainties and better estimation of backgrounds, Daya Bay has measured $\\sin^22\\theta_{13} = 0.084\\pm0.005$ and $|\\Delta m^2_{ee}|=2.42^{+0.10}_{-0.11}\\times 10^{-3}$~eV$^2$. This is the most precise measurement of $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to date and the most precise measurement of of $|\\Delta m^2_{ee}|$ via electron antineutrino disappearance. Several other analysis results are presented, including an independent measurement of $\\theta_{13}$ using inverse-beta decays associated with neutron capture on hydrogen, a measurement of reactor antineutrino fl...

  5. A comparative analysis of the health status of men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years in Jamaica: Are there differences across municipalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Bourne

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1990, the number of older men (60+ years in Jamaica has increased to in excess of 100 000, while there are 30 000 men aged 73+ years. This is despite the fact that men have higher mortality and morbidity rates than women and seek medical treatment less frequently than women.There exists, however, a dearth in literature regarding this phenomenon and, therefore, this study has endeavoured to reduce this gap.Objectives: The aims of this study were to, (1 model the health status of men aged 60–72 years in Jamaica, (2 model the health status of men aged 73+ years in Jamaica and (3 examine the disparity in health status of the two groups in order to ascertain the factors that influence the good health status of elderly men.Method: A sample of 1432 men aged 60+ years were extracted from a survey of 25 018 Jamaicans.Secondly, a sub-sample of 633 men aged 73+ years was extracted from the 1432 men aged over 60.The data from which those samples were extracted is called the Jamaica survey of living conditions(JSLC. The JSLC began in 1988 from a model of the World Bank’s Living conditions survey and is a nationally cross-sectional probability sample. The current study used descriptive statistics to provide background information on the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample and logistic regressions were utilised to examine the factors that predict good health of men aged 60–72 years and men aged 73+ years in Jamaica.Results: The average age of the sample of men aged 60+ years was 71.14 years (SD = 5.64 yearsand 78.5 years for the sample of men aged 73+ years (SD = 7.97 years. Approximately 63% of men aged 60–72 years indicated that their health was good compared to 53.3% for men aged 73+ years.Rural men recorded the least health status across the age cohorts. With regard to predictors of good health, the same factors were found to determine approximately 27% of the variability in good health. Ownership of health insurance

  6. MARS: a cabled observatory testbed in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M.; Massion, G.; Raybould, K.; Bellingham, J.; Paull, C.

    2003-04-01

    With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) will be installing a deep-sea observatory in Monterey Bay, California, that will serve as a test bed for a future regional-scale cabled observatory. Monterey Bay offers a variety of active processes for scientific inquiry, including a very productive zone of ocean upwelling, a seismically active strand of the San Andreas fault system, cold seeps, and a very dynamic submarine canyon. The MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cable will extend more than 60 km offshore to an instrument node at a depth of approximately 1.2 km. Extension cords can be run by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) from the cable node up to several kilometers away in order to provide greater flexibility in siting instruments. The observatory will be serviced using ROVs and will serve as a test bed for developing new sensors, instruments systems, experiment protocols, and mobile platforms for which submarine cables will provide power and two-way communications. In addition to serving as a test bed for instrumentation and platforms, the MARS project will demonstrate models for how to operate, service, and manage a community facility of this sort. In cooperation with our outreach partner, the Monterey Bay Aquarium, we will be examining ways to exploit the full potential of deep-sea observatories for student education and public information. We will also be preparing a proposal to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) to provide a nearby drill hole for connecting bore-hole experiments to the MARS cable, thereby accelerating the development of new tools for probing Earth beneath the oceans.

  7. The effectiveness of international development assistance from American organizations to deaf communities in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy T

    American organizations bringing assistance to deaf people in developing countries unintentionally create relationships of dependency or oppression rather than relationships of support. Using qualitative methods, the author examined the effectiveness of development assistance provided to the Jamaican Deaf community by two American churches, one American nongovernmental organization, and one U.S. federal agency. Documents were reviewed and observations were made. Interviews were conducted with more than 60 deaf and hearing people involved with the American organizations, the Jamaican organizations, and deaf Jamaican beneficiaries. The author concludes that the Jamaican Deaf community was often excluded in planning, designing, or evaluating programs, and was unsatisfied with the American assistance it received. Results also indicate that the American organizations were poorly prepared to work with the Deaf community. Suggestions for American organizations wishing to strengthen and empower deaf people through development assistance in developing countries are proposed.

  8. 19 CFR 7.11 - Guantanamo Bay Naval Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. 7.11 Section 7.11... TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.11 Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. Articles of foreign origin may enter the area (both land and water) of the Guantanamo Bay...

  9. The State of Latino Education in the San Francisco Bay Area: A Crisis in Student Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Mario

    A study examined educational attainment among Latino students in the six-county San Francisco Bay Area. California's Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program results for 1998-99 were used to assess student achievement in reading and mathematics for grades 4, 7, and 10. Data were also collected on enrollment, dropout rates, percentage of…

  10. Trace metal concentrations in zooplankton from the eastern Arabian Sea and western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rejomon, G.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, K.K.C.; Pillai, N

    Trace metal contents in zooplankton samples were estimated as a part of the Marine Research-Living Resource program at 24 stations in the Bay of Bengal (November, 2002) and 29 stations in the Arabian Sea (September-October, 2003) during the Cruises...

  11. Changes to habitats over time in Narragansett Bay and setting management targets using BCG approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compare changes in the distributions of seagrass, benthic, macroalgal, saltmarsh, and shellfish habitat in Narragansett Bay (U.S.A.) since the 1700s to changes in stressors and management decisions over the same time period, and describe a method that management programs can u...

  12. 75 FR 26226 - Executive Order 13508 Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration Section 203 Final Coordinated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...), established a Federal Leadership Committee, chaired by EPA, and including senior representatives from the... programs and projects to guide efforts to protect and restore the Chesapeake Bay. The draft strategy was... May 12, 2009 (74 FR 23099, May 15, 2009), required a Federal Leadership Committee composed of seven...

  13. Networked but No System: Educational Innovation among Bay Area Jewish Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin Ross, Renee

    2017-01-01

    A widely read article from this journal explores innovative Jewish educational programs, initiatives, and organizations, arguing that these share a comdmitment to being "learner-centered" and recommending that a system be created to foster collaboration among them (Woocher, 2012). Using five San Francisco Bay Area-based…

  14. Galveston Bay Foundation Receives Second Place Gulf Guardian Award in the Civic/Non Profit Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (July 30, 2015) The Gulf of Mexico Program recently announced Galveston Bay Foundation (GBF) will receive a Second Place 2015 Gulf Guardian Award in the Civic/Non Profit Category. The awards ceremony will be held on July 30, 2015, at the Te

  15. Plan of Study for the Tidal Power Study, Cobscook Bay, Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Cobscook Bay Pennamaquan River Hardscrabble River Dennys River Orange River An important part of the study’s Water Quality Program will be investigating the...4.)N) DMS / *.- NSIMIO 111 4/ A 3 4. ’ "~ .\\ \\ ’~ FELII FLLNSEMPTYING I111111A l(IIIPE ASli ~tg /~, \\ ~ SATES AND LOCK IIELPI I LOCK ~ I ~ N~ 4 116 1

  16. THz identification and Bayes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2017-05-01

    THz Identification is a developing technology. Sensing in the THz range potentially gives opportunity for short range radar sensing because THz waves can better penetrate through obscured atmosphere, such as fog, than visible light. The lower scattering of THz as opposed to the visible light results also in significantly better imaging than in IR spectrum. A much higher contrast can be achieved in medical trans-illumination applications than with X-rays or visible light. The same THz radiation qualities produce better tomographical images from hard surfaces, e.g. ceramics. This effect comes from the delay in time of reflected THz pulses detection. For special or commercial applications alike, the industrial quality control of defects is facilitated with a lower cost. The effectiveness of THz wave measurements is increased with computational methods. One of them is Bayes modeling. Examples of this kind of mathematical modeling are considered.

  17. Caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in Kingston, Jamaica Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los cuidadores hacia la diarrea infantil y la deshidratación en Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lela Rose Bachrach

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of caregivers in Kingston, Jamaica, regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in order to determine if limited caregiver knowledge about the prevention and treatment of diarrhea and dehydration puts children at increased risk of presenting at the hospital for these concerns. Methods. The study was an observational case-control study conducted between February 1997 and May 1997 at Bustamante Hospital for Children in Kingston. Convenience sampling was used and data were collected by face-to-face interviews with two groups of caregivers of children under 5 years of age. One group (n = 117 presented with children with acute gastroenteritis, and the other group (n = 98 presented with acute concerns unrelated to gastroenteritis. While 197 of the 215 caregivers interviewed were the mother of a child, there were also 9 guardians, 5 fathers, and 4 grandmothers in the sample. Results. The mean caregiver age, level of education, and socioeconomic status were similar for the two groups. The caregivers in the gastroenteritis group were more likely to present with younger children and to have less convenient access to running water or a refrigerator. Children of caregivers who had never heard of oral rehydration therapy were at increased risk of presenting with gastroenteritis and dehydration (odds ratio [OR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-11.7, as were children of caregivers with low knowledge scores about the prevention and treatment of diarrhea and dehydration (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.8. Another independent risk factor was a caregiver's poor sense of self-reliance in managing a child's diarrhea (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9. Conclusions. These findings highlight a need to enhance educational efforts that will empower caregivers to protect their children from diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality.Objetivos. Estudiar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los cuidadores hacia la

  18. A pollution history of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, E.D.; Hodge, V.; Koide, M.; Griffin, J.; Gamble, E.; Bricker, O.P.; Matisoff, G.; Holdren, G.R.; Braun, R.

    1978-01-01

    Present day anthropogenic fluxes of some heavy metals to central Chesapeake Bay appear to be intermediate to those of the southern California coastal region and those of Narragansett Bay. The natural fluxes, however, are in general higher. On the bases of Pb-210 and Pu-239 + 240 geochronologies and of the time changes in interstitial water compositions, there is a mixing of the upper 30 or so centimeters of the sediments in the mid-Chesapeake Bay area through bioturbation by burrowing mollusks and polychaetes. Coal, coke and charcoal levels reach one percent or more by dry weight in the deposits, primarily as a consequence of coal mining operations. ?? 1978.

  19. Meteorological and hydrographic data collected from Meaher Park in Mobile Bay, Alabama, Gulf of Mexico from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0141139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the Alabama Department of Conservation and Mobile County to provide real-time...

  20. 78 FR 14185 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... in Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska with planned towed transit into Captains Bay, Unalaska Island...