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Sample records for program helps decompose

  1. Profiler - A Fast and Versatile New Program for Decomposing Galaxy Light Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.

    2016-12-01

    I introduce Profiler, a user-friendly program designed to analyse the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. With an intuitive graphical user interface, Profiler can accurately model galaxies of a broad range of morphological types, with various parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat, and Ferrers). In addition to these, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model for disc truncations or anti-truncations, and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: along the disc's major or minor axis. The convolution of (circular or elliptical) models with the point spread function is performed in 2D, and offers a choice between Gaussian, Moffat or a user-provided profile for the point spread function. Profiler is optimised to work with galaxy light profiles obtained from isophotal measurements, which allow for radial gradients in the geometric parameters of the isophotes, and are thus often better at capturing the total light than 2D image-fitting programs. Additionally, the 1D approach is generally less computationally expensive and more stable. I demonstrate Profiler's features by decomposing three case-study galaxies: the cored elliptical galaxy NGC 3348, the nucleated dwarf Seyfert I galaxy Pox 52, and NGC 2549, a double-barred galaxy with an edge-on, truncated disc.

  2. Decomposing the promotional revenue bump for loyalty program members versus nonmembers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, H.J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Loyalty programs lead to a natural split of a firm's customer base into members and nonmembers. To manage both groups effectively, it is essential to know how marketing activities, such as promotions, affect both groups' contributions to revenues. The authors model each group's contribution as the

  3. Do orientation programs help new graduates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Ester; Ovnat, Chaya; Gonen, Ayala; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Mizrahi, Ayala

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for effective orientation programs that are designed to prepare new graduate nurses in providing safe, competent, and effective patient care. However, little is known regarding the overall effectiveness of these programs for nursing graduates. To determine whether the transition of the graduates into their working place included a structured orientation program, and to assess the effectiveness of the program from the graduate's perspective. Cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from four different institutions in Israel. A questionnaire was divided among 100 graduate nurses and had a response rate of 79%. A questionnaire was designed and included closed and open questions. It was evaluated for internal consistency by standardized Cronbach's alpha coefficients (Cronbach's alpha was between 0.91 and 0.96). Only 50.6% of the nurses in the sample reported having a structured orientation program. We found positive significant correlations between having a structured orientation program to adaptation of the graduate nurses to the ward, satisfaction of the graduates on the ward. Positive correlations were also found between support that the graduates received to their satisfaction on the ward. Retention on the ward was highly correlated with having a program, satisfaction, adaptation, and support. We found differences in acclimation indices by religiosity. Different delivery approaches of orientation programs may determine satisfaction of the graduates. A transition program which overlooks individual needs or an informal individual approach may lead to dissatisfaction. A program which is "tailored" to the graduate, by an assigned one-to-one appointment of a preceptor, may lead to satisfaction, which in turn may assure an ongoing supply of competent RNs who will remain in those settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A 'Wild' Idea: Adventure Programs Help Seniors 'Age Successfully'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests techniques for camp directors to help older adults enjoy adventure camping. Discusses sociological and psychological changes accompanying aging. Emphasizes outdoor group activities as ways of helping older adults adjust to aging. Offers tips for adventure program development, staff development, and program evaluation. (TES)

  5. Deserts. Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP). Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY.

    The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…

  6. Temperate Forests. Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP). Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY.

    The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…

  7. Evaluation of a Psychoeducational Program to Help Adolescents Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Claire; Morgan, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Over 20% of a sample of 706 young adolescents identified themselves as experiencing difficulties and being in need of specific help in coping. A psychoeducational Program "Helping Adolescents Cope" was offered to 112 of those. This was adapted, with permission, from the "Coping with Stress Course," devised by Albano et al. (1997). Participants'…

  8. Editors' and Publishers' Handbook for Helping High School Journalism Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Julie E.

    Noting the benefits of high school journalism training, this guidebook familiarizes commercial newspaper editors and publishers with high school journalism programs and publications and helps them become more involved in such programs. Following a look at the positive influence of high school journalism courses on student performance and…

  9. 1930s Program Can Help Schools in 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin J.

    A federal program, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) employed young men during the Great Depression to help conserve natural resources by planting trees and building paths, roads, picnic areas, and parking lots in National Forests and National Parks. The men were supplied lodging at a camp, food, and one dollar a day. They could also take…

  10. Invention Development Program Helps Nurture NCI at Frederick Technologies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Invention Development Fund (IDF) was piloted by the Technology Transfer Center (TTC) in 2014 to facilitate the commercial development of NCI technologies. The IDF received a second round of funding from the NCI Office of the Director and the Office of Budget and Management to establish the Invention Development Program (IDP) for fiscal year 2016. The IDP is using these funds to help advance a second set of inventions.

  11. Effects of a Peer Helping Training Program on Helping Skills and Self-Growth of Peer Helpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Mine; Tezer, Esin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a peer helping training program for university students in Turkey and to examine its effectiveness in improving the helping skills and self-growth of peer helpers. A pre-test, post-test, follow-up-test experimental design, involving a treatment and control group, was carried out with a total sample of 31…

  12. Decomposing Multifractal Crossovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Nagy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physiological processes—such as, the brain's resting-state electrical activity or hemodynamic fluctuations—exhibit scale-free temporal structuring. However, impacts common in biological systems such as, noise, multiple signal generators, or filtering by transport function, result in multimodal scaling that cannot be reliably assessed by standard analytical tools that assume unimodal scaling. Here, we present two methods to identify breakpoints or crossovers in multimodal multifractal scaling functions. These methods incorporate the robust iterative fitting approach of the focus-based multifractal formalism (FMF. The first approach (moment-wise scaling range adaptivity allows for a breakpoint-based adaptive treatment that analyzes segregated scale-invariant ranges. The second method (scaling function decomposition method, SFD is a crossover-based design aimed at decomposing signal constituents from multimodal scaling functions resulting from signal addition or co-sampling, such as, contamination by uncorrelated fractals. We demonstrated that these methods could handle multimodal, mono- or multifractal, and exact or empirical signals alike. Their precision was numerically characterized on ideal signals, and a robust performance was demonstrated on exemplary empirical signals capturing resting-state brain dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, electroencephalography (EEG, and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-BOLD. The NIRS and fMRI-BOLD low-frequency fluctuations were dominated by a multifractal component over an underlying biologically relevant random noise, thus forming a bimodal signal. The crossover between the EEG signal components was found at the boundary between the δ and θ bands, suggesting an independent generator for the multifractal δ rhythm. The robust implementation of the SFD method should be regarded as essential in the seamless processing of large volumes of bimodal f

  13. Decomposing Multifractal Crossovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Mukli, Peter; Herman, Peter; Eke, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Physiological processes—such as, the brain's resting-state electrical activity or hemodynamic fluctuations—exhibit scale-free temporal structuring. However, impacts common in biological systems such as, noise, multiple signal generators, or filtering by transport function, result in multimodal scaling that cannot be reliably assessed by standard analytical tools that assume unimodal scaling. Here, we present two methods to identify breakpoints or crossovers in multimodal multifractal scaling functions. These methods incorporate the robust iterative fitting approach of the focus-based multifractal formalism (FMF). The first approach (moment-wise scaling range adaptivity) allows for a breakpoint-based adaptive treatment that analyzes segregated scale-invariant ranges. The second method (scaling function decomposition method, SFD) is a crossover-based design aimed at decomposing signal constituents from multimodal scaling functions resulting from signal addition or co-sampling, such as, contamination by uncorrelated fractals. We demonstrated that these methods could handle multimodal, mono- or multifractal, and exact or empirical signals alike. Their precision was numerically characterized on ideal signals, and a robust performance was demonstrated on exemplary empirical signals capturing resting-state brain dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electroencephalography (EEG), and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-BOLD). The NIRS and fMRI-BOLD low-frequency fluctuations were dominated by a multifractal component over an underlying biologically relevant random noise, thus forming a bimodal signal. The crossover between the EEG signal components was found at the boundary between the δ and θ bands, suggesting an independent generator for the multifractal δ rhythm. The robust implementation of the SFD method should be regarded as essential in the seamless processing of large volumes of bimodal fMRI-BOLD imaging data for

  14. Decomposable log-linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...

  15. A quest for helpful feedback to programming coursework

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Shun Ha Sylvia; Beaumont, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 National Student Survey (NSS) revealed that 40% of full-time students in England did not think that the feedback on their work has been helpful, even though 66% of these students agreed that the feedback was detailed and 62% of them agreed that the feedback has been prompt. Detailed feedback that is not considered helpful by students means a waste of tutors' time while students continue to struggle with their learning. What do students consider as helpful feedback? What are the quali...

  16. Do microfinance programs help families insure consumption against illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Paul; Levine, David I; Moretti, Enrico

    2009-03-01

    Families in developing countries face enormous financial risks from major illness both in terms of the cost of medical care and the loss in income associated with reduced labor supply and productivity. We test whether access to microfinancial savings and lending institutions helps Indonesian families smooth consumption after declines in adult health. In general, results support the importance of these institutions in helping families to self-insure consumption against health shocks.

  17. A Program Based on Maslow's Hierarchy Helps Students in Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mary Ruth; Saunders, Ron; Watkins, J. Foster

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses the development of an "alternative school" in an urban school system for students having trouble in the regular secondary setting. The program was based upon "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" and is described in detail. The initial assessment of the program produced very positive results.

  18. Using POGIL to Help Students Learn to Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Helen H.; Shepherd, Tricia D.

    2013-01-01

    POGIL has been successfully implemented in a scientific computing course to teach science students how to program in Python. Following POGIL guidelines, the authors have developed guided inquiry activities that lead student teams to discover and understand programming concepts. With each iteration of the scientific computing course, the authors…

  19. Helping Students Test Programs That Have Graphical User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Thornton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Within computer science education, many educators are incorporating software testing activities into regular programming assignments. Tools like JUnit and its relatives make software testing tasks much easier, bringing them into the realm of even introductory students. At the same time, many introductory programming courses are now including graphical interfaces as part of student assignments to improve student interest and engagement. Unfortunately, writing software tests for programs that have significant graphical user interfaces is beyond the skills of typical students (and many educators. This paper presents initial work at combining educationally oriented and open-source tools to create an infrastructure for writing tests for Java programs that have graphical user interfaces. Critically, these tools are intended to be appropriate for introductory (CS1/CS2 student use, and to dovetail with current teaching approaches that incorporate software testing in programming assignments. We also include in our findings our proposed approach to evaluating our techniques.

  20. Towards a Serious Game to Help Students Learn Computer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Muratet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Video games are part of our culture like TV, movies, and books. We believe that this kind of software can be used to increase students' interest in computer science. Video games with other goals than entertainment, serious games, are present, today, in several fields such as education, government, health, defence, industry, civil security, and science. This paper presents a study around a serious game dedicated to strengthening programming skills. Real-Time Strategy, which is a popular game genre, seems to be the most suitable kind of game to support such a serious game. From programming teaching features to video game characteristics, we define a teaching organisation to experiment if a serious game can be adapted to learn programming.

  1. Do Counseling Master's Program Websites Help? Prospective Students' Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Lillian M.; Salgado, Roy; White, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    To see how students understand information about counseling programs from school websites, in January and February, 2012, 43 undergraduates (most women) at a co-educational religious college in the southeastern U. S. obtained website information about accreditation, tuition, and number of hours and faculty on 14 schools in Louisiana. They also…

  2. A Program Based on Maslow's Hierarchy Helps Students in Trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mary Ruth; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes the program at Alabama's Huntsville Alternative School, where severe behavioral problems are dealt with by promoting positive self-concepts in students through acceptance, trust, warmth, concern, firmness, consistency, humor, and the meeting of human needs as identified by Abraham Maslow. (Author/PGD)

  3. Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2013-05-01

    Globally, more than 70% of people with mental illness receive no treatment from health care staff. Evidence suggests that factors increasing the likelihood of treatment avoidance or delay before presenting for care include (1) lack of knowledge to identify features of mental illnesses, (2) ignorance about how to access treatment, (3) prejudice against people who have mental illness, and (4) expectation of discrimination against people diagnosed with mental illness. In this article, we reviewed the evidence on whether large-scale anti-stigma campaigns could lead to increased levels of help seeking.

  4. Working toward Equity: Cribs to Classrooms. Program Helps Teen Moms Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronstadt, Jonathan

    1987-01-01

    Describes a Maryland program for teenage mothers who want to finish school. The three goals of the program are to (1) help the mother get her diploma, (2) provide entry-level vocational skills, and (3) provide child care. (CH)

  5. Mentoring For Success: REU Program That Help Every Student Succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    NSF REU site programs provide remarkable opportunities for students to experience first-hand the challenges and rewards of science research. Because REU positions are relatively scarce, applicant pools are large, and it is easy to fill available positions with students who already have well-developed research skills and proven abilities to excel academically. Advisors bringing REU participants into their labs may see this as the ideal situation. However, using experience and academic record as the primary selection criteria ignores an enormous pool of talented students who have simply never been in a position to show, or discover themselves, what they can do. Reaching this audience requires a shift in strategy: recruiting in ways that reach students who are unaware of REU opportunities; adjusting our selection criteria to look beyond academics and experience, putting as much emphasis on future potential as we do on past performance; finding, or developing, mentors who share this broader vision of working with students; and providing an institutional culture that ensure every student has the kind of multi-node support network that maximizes his or her success. REU programs should be primary tools to developing a deeper and broader science workforce. Achieving that goal will require innovative approaches to finding, recruiting, and mentoring participants.

  6. 77 FR 71609 - Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) Grant Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) Grant Monitoring AGENCY: Office of... following information: Title of Proposed: Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) Grant Monitoring. OMB Approval Number: 2506-0157. Form Numbers: HUD-96011, HUD-2990, HUD-2880, HUD-424-CB, HUD...

  7. Forensic entomology of decomposing humans and their decomposing pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R

    2015-02-01

    Domestic pets are commonly found in the homes of decedents whose deaths are investigated by a medical examiner or coroner. When these pets become trapped with a decomposing decedent they may resort to feeding on the body or succumb to starvation and/or dehydration and begin to decompose as well. In this case report photographic documentation of cases involving pets and decedents were examined from 2009 through the beginning of 2014. This photo review indicated that in many cases the pets were cats and dogs that were trapped with the decedent, died and were discovered in a moderate (bloat to active decay) state of decomposition. In addition three cases involving decomposing humans and their decomposing pets are described as they were processed for time of insect colonization by forensic entomological approach. Differences in timing and species colonizing the human and animal bodies were noted as was the potential for the human or animal derived specimens to contaminate one another at the scene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Successful implementation of Helping Babies Survive and Helping Mothers Survive programs-An Utstein formula for newborn and maternal survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege L Ersdal

    Full Text Available Globally, the burden of deaths and illness is still unacceptably high at the day of birth. Annually, approximately 300.000 women die related to childbirth, 2.7 million babies die within their first month of life, and 2.6 million babies are stillborn. Many of these fatalities could be avoided by basic, but prompt care, if birth attendants around the world had the necessary skills and competencies to manage life-threatening complications around the time of birth. Thus, the innovative Helping Babies Survive (HBS and Helping Mothers Survive (HMS programs emerged to meet the need for more practical, low-cost, and low-tech simulation-based training. This paper provides users of HBS and HMS programs a 10-point list of key implementation steps to create sustained impact, leading to increased survival of mothers and babies. The list evolved through an Utstein consensus process, involving a broad spectrum of international experts within the field, and can be used as a means to guide processes in low-resourced countries. Successful implementation of HBS and HMS training programs require country-led commitment, readiness, and follow-up to create local accountability and ownership. Each country has to identify its own gaps and define realistic service delivery standards and patient outcome goals depending on available financial resources for dissemination and sustainment.

  9. Decomposing change in life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas Romo, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    at all ages, and the second term captures the effect of heterogeneity in the pace of improvement in mortality at different ages. We extend the formula to decompose change in life expectancy into age-specific and cause-specific components, and apply the methods to analyze changes in life expectancy......We extend Nathan Keyfitz's research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates...

  10. Rain Forests. Habitat Ecology Learning Program (H.E.L.P.), Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY.

    The goal of this guide is to address a major environmental dilemma: worldwide habitat destruction and the disappearance of species. This guide is one of six that are included in the Habitat Ecology Learning Program (HELP), a holistic life science curriculum that involves students in an in-depth study of ecology. HELP includes six teaching guides…

  11. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  12. Empowering Adult Learners. NIF Literacy Program Helps ABE Accomplish Human Development Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Issues Forum's Literacy Program uses study circles and group discussion to promote empowerment and enhance adult literacy through civic education. The program has helped the Westonka (Minnesota) Adult Basic Education project accomplish its mission and has expanded the staff's view of adult learning. (SK)

  13. A Collaborative School-Based Mental Health Program that Helps Students Succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgent, Rebecca A.; Featherston, Larry W.; Stegman, Charles E.; Lee, Sang Min

    2009-01-01

    The School-Based Mental Health Program's goals are to identify at-risk children, reduce ineffective functioning of at-risk children, provide social service interventions, increase effective parenting skills, help families access community resources, and support mental health education. The program was designed to develop a comprehensive,…

  14. Effects of the Helping Early Literacy with Practice Strategies (HELPS) on Reading Fluency with Secondary Level Students Attending an Alternative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Holly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the HELPS Program on the reading fluency skills of secondary level students attending an alternative education program using single case design methodology. Participants in this study included one 8th grade student and two 9th grade students attending an alternative education program in…

  15. 76 FR 15991 - HUD's Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 NOFA for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD's Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 NOFA for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program... technical correction to the FY 2010 NOFA for the Self-Help homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP). This... the deadline date for the Self-Help homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) NOFA until April 18, 2011...

  16. Composing and decomposing data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    data types and to define extensible functions on data types in an ad hoc manner. The implementation makes essential use of closed type families in Haskell. The use of closed type families instead of type classes comes with a set of trade-offs, which we review in detail. Finally, we show that our......Wouter Swierstra's data types à la carte is a technique to modularise data type definitions in Haskell. We give an alternative implementation of data types à la carte that offers more flexibility in composing and decomposing data types. To achieve this, we refine the subtyping constraint, which...... is at the centre of data types à la carte. On the one hand this refinement is more general, allowing subtypings that intuitively should hold but were not derivable beforehand. This aspect of our implementation removes previous restrictions on how data types can be combined. On the other hand our refinement is more...

  17. Diabetes Awareness of Low-Income Middle School Students Participating in the Help a Friend, Help Yourself Youth Diabetes Awareness Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroten, Kathryn; Reames, Elizabeth S.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the effectiveness of the LSU AgCenter Help a Friend, Help Yourself youth diabetes education curriculum to increase knowledge and awareness of diabetes and its symptoms in low-income middle school students participating in the Boys and Girls Club after-school program. The curriculum includes four lessons with…

  18. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  19. Help Increase the Peace, A Youth-Focused Program in Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mary Lee; Austad, Carol Shaw; Cota, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated specific attitudes and beliefs, related to the concepts of peace education, of participants in an "Introductory, basic help increase the peace program" (HIPP) workshop. Pre- and post-workshop ratings showed significant differences on two important attitudinal variables: first, the importance of being familiar with the…

  20. Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program: WAsP 11 Help Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) is a PC-program for horizontal and vertical extrapolation of wind climates. The program contains a complete set of models to calculate the effects on the wind of sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations...... of specific wind turbines and wind farms. The WAsP Help Facility includes a Quick Start Tutorial, a User's Guide and a Technical Reference. It further includes descriptions of the Observed Wind Climate Wizard, the WAsP Climate Analyst, the WAsP Map Editor tool, the WAsP Turbine Editor tool, the Air Density...

  1. 75 FR 62849 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program... Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP). This announcement... nonprofit organizations and consortia that have experience in providing self-help housing. Grant funds are...

  2. 76 FR 67759 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program... Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP). This announcement... organizations and consortia that have experience in providing self-help housing. Grant funds are used to...

  3. 77 FR 40892 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program... Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP). This announcement... national and regional nonprofit organizations and consortia to undertake self-help homeownership housing...

  4. 76 FR 48876 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program... Funding Availability (NOFA) for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP). This announcement... nonprofit organizations and consortia that have experience in providing self-help housing. Grant funds are...

  5. Brunei's teacher education programs: insights into students' coping and help-seeking strategies to challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Shahrill, Masitah; Jaidin, Jainatul Halida; Jawawi, Rosmawijah; Mahadi, Mar Aswandi

    2016-01-01

    Brunei started implementing its two main reformed teacher education programs, MTeach and MEd, in 2009. The reasons for these innovations included upgrading the standard of teacher training, increasing teaching effectiveness, and improving the quality of education in the country. The purpose of this study was to determine how student teachers coped with and sought help on the challenging programs. Using an online survey design, 76 randomly selected recent graduate teachers responded appropriately to questionnaires administered to them by email. The obtained quantitative research information included demographic, coping, and help-seeking data, all analyzed by SPSS Version 22. Participants endorsed both the productive and nonproductive coping strategies. In addition, they depended more on peers, teachers and internet sources for help. Four major findings were obtained. First, task-oriented coping was the most important and significant predictor of success on the MTeach and MEd programs. Second, females had a higher likelihood of success compared to males (OR = 22.760, 95 % CI for OR = 12.848-40.320). Third, students who consulted relevant internet resources had higher odds for succeeding compared to those who did not (OR = 2.237, 95 % CI 1.196-4.183). Fourth, less-able students who collaboratively worked with the more-able peers were nearly two times more likely to perform better than those who did not (OR = 1.982, 95 % CI 1.082-3.630). Coping and help-seeking were positively and significantly related to academic achievement on the two Brunei main teacher education programs. Evidence from the present study suggested that vulnerable and at-risk trainee teachers needed appropriate interventions (educational, counseling and psychotherapy) related to effective use of task-oriented coping and seeking help via cooperative learning, internet sources, and teacher consultations,. Further research with interview probes was recommended to gain additional information

  6. Usability and Utility of a Computerized Cognitive-Behavioral Self-Help Program for Public Speaking Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Page; Zimand, Elana; Schmertz, Stefan K.; Ferrer, Mirtha

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the use of a cognitive-behavioral computer-administered self-help program with minimal therapist contact for public speaking anxiety. Participants (N = 10) with social phobia, as measured by a structured clinical interview, completed the self-help program in an open clinical trial. The program was delivered via a CD-ROM during…

  7. Creating a comprehensive customer service program to help convey critical and acute results of radiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towbin, Alexander J; Hall, Seth; Moskovitz, Jay; Johnson, Neil D; Donnelly, Lane F

    2011-01-01

    Communication of acute or critical results between the radiology department and referring clinicians has been a deficiency of many radiology departments. The failure to perform or document these communications can lead to poor patient care, patient safety issues, medical-legal issues, and complaints from referring clinicians. To mitigate these factors, a communication and documentation tool was created and incorporated into our departmental customer service program. This article will describe the implementation of a comprehensive customer service program in a hospital-based radiology department. A comprehensive customer service program was created in the radiology department. Customer service representatives were hired to answer the telephone calls to the radiology reading rooms and to help convey radiology results. The radiologists, referring clinicians, and customer service representatives were then linked via a novel workflow management system. This workflow management system provided tools to help facilitate the communication needs of each group. The number of studies with results conveyed was recorded from the implementation of the workflow management system. Between the implementation of the workflow management system on August 1, 2005, and June 1, 2009, 116,844 radiology results were conveyed to the referring clinicians and documented in the system. This accounts for more than 14% of the 828,516 radiology cases performed in this time frame. We have been successful in creating a comprehensive customer service program to convey and document communication of radiology results. This program has been widely used by the ordering clinicians as well as radiologists since its inception.

  8. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  9. Tomographic Reconstruction Methods for Decomposing Directional Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas; Dong, Yiqiu

    X-ray computed tomography technique has many different practical applications. In this paper, we propose two new reconstruction methods that can decompose objects at the same time. By incorporating direction information, the proposed methods can decompose objects into various directional components...

  10. A comparison of online versus workbook delivery of a self-help positive parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Keown, Louise J

    2014-06-01

    A noninferiority randomized trial design compared the efficacy of two self-help variants of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: an online version and a self-help workbook. We randomly assigned families of 193 children displaying early onset disruptive behavior difficulties to the online (N = 97) or workbook (N = 96) interventions. Parents completed questionnaire measures of child behavior, parenting, child maltreatment risk, personal adjustment and relationship quality at pre- and post-intervention and again at 6-month follow up. The short-term intervention effects of the Triple P Online program were not inferior to the workbook on the primary outcomes of disruptive child behavior and dysfunctional parenting as reported by both mothers and fathers. Both interventions were associated with significant and clinically meaningful declines from pre- to post-intervention in levels of disruptive child behavior, dysfunctional parenting styles, risk of child maltreatment, and inter-parental conflict on both mother and father report measures. Intervention effects were largely maintained at 6-month follow up, thus supporting the use of self-help parenting programs within a comprehensive population-based system of parenting support to reduce child maltreatment and behavioral problems in children.

  11. Effectiveness of a Self Help Cognitive Behavioural Treatment Program for Problem Gamblers: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, T P S; Raylu, N; Lai, W W

    2017-10-14

    The study aimed to strengthen the scarce literature on self-help treatments for Problem Gambling (PG) by comparing the effectiveness of a Self-Help Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (SHCBT) program (n = 23) with a 6-week Waitlist condition (n = 32) in problem gamblers. Participants were community volunteers with gambling problems and were randomly allocated to the Waitlist and treatment conditions. Results showed significant improvements at post-treatment in gambling behaviors including frequency of gambling, average amount gambled per day and PG symptoms as well as a number of gambling correlates including psychological states (e.g., depression, anxiety and stress), gambling cognitions, gambling urges, gambling related self-efficacy, satisfaction with life, and quality of life among those who completed the SHCBT program, when compared with the waitlist condition. The effect size (partial η 2) ranged from .25 to .57 for all assessed outcomes that showed significant improvement from pre- to post-treatment. It was concluded that a self-help CBT program can be beneficial for treating community problem gamblers.

  12. A summer prematriculation program to help students succeed in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stephen D; Apperson, April; Laiken, Nora; Mandel, Jess; Kelly, Carolyn J; Brandl, Katharina

    2018-01-16

    Medical schools with a diverse student body face the challenge of ensuring that all students succeed academically. Many medical schools have implemented prematriculation programs to prepare students from diverse backgrounds; however, evidence on their impact is largely lacking. In this study, we analyzed participants' demographics as well as the impact of the prematriculation program on Year 1 performance. Predictive validity of the program was assessed and compared to other traditional predictors, including grade point average (GPA) and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores and subscores. Linear mixed effect models determined the impact of the prematriculation program, and linear regression analysis assessed the predictive value of the overall score in the prematriculation program and other traditional predictors. Demographics of students participating in the prematriculation program from 2013 to 2015 (n = 75) revealed a significantly higher prevalence of academically disadvantaged students including older students, students with lower GPA and MCAT scores and students of racial and ethnic populations that are underrepresented in medicine, compared to non-participants (n = 293). Participants performed significantly better in Year 1 courses that were covered in the prematriculation program compared to courses that were not covered. The overall performance in the prematriculation program correlated significantly with Year 1 performance and was found to be a strong predictor for Year 1 performance. This study suggests that a prematriculation program can help students to succeed in the first year of medical school. The results have implications for medical schools seeking to implement or evaluate the effectiveness of their prematriculation program.

  13. Development of a Positive Youth Development Program: Helping Parents to Improve Their Parenting Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs is a positive youth development program that attempts to promote holistic development in adolescents in Hong Kong. In the Tier 2 Program of this project, social workers are expected to develop positive youth development programs for adolescents having greater psychosocial needs. They are required to submit proposals that will be evaluated in terms of whether the proposals are evidence based, and appropriate evaluation mechanisms are included. With reference to the literature on parental control processes that Chinese parents may be loose in their behavioral control and they tend to overemphasize academic excellence, it is argued that improvement of the parenting skills of parents of Chinese adolescents is an important area to be addressed. To facilitate social workers to prepare the related proposals, a sample proposal on how to improve the parenting skills of Chinese parents is described, including its conceptual framework, proposed program, and evaluation plan. It is argued that this supportive approach (i.e., preparation of a sample proposal can help social workers to develop quality proposals on positive youth development programs in Hong Kong.

  14. How to implement the Science Fair Self-Help Development Program in schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, D.

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended to act as a working guide for setting up a Science Fair Volunteer Support Committee at your school. The Science Fair Volunteer Support Committee, or SFVSC, is the key component of the Science Fair Self-Help program, which was developed by Sandia National Laboratories and is designed to support a school`s science activities. The SFVSC is a team of parents and community volunteers who work in concert with a school`s teaching staff to assist and manage all areas of a school Science and Engineering Fair. The main advantage of creating such a committee is that it frees the science teachers from the organizational aspects of the fair and lets them concentrate on their job of teaching science. This manual is based on information gained through a Self-Help Development pilot program that was developed by Sandia National Laboratories during the 1991--92 school year at three Albuquerque, NM, middle schools. The manual describes the techniques that were successful in the pilot program and discusses how these techniques might be implemented in other schools. This manual also discusses problems that may be encountered, including suggestions for how they might be resolved.

  15. Decomposability queueing and computer system applications

    CERN Document Server

    Courtois, P J

    1977-01-01

    Decomposability: Queueing and Computer System Applications presents a set of powerful methods for systems analysis. This 10-chapter text covers the theory of nearly completely decomposable systems upon which specific analytic methods are based.The first chapters deal with some of the basic elements of a theory of nearly completely decomposable stochastic matrices, including the Simon-Ando theorems and the perturbation theory. The succeeding chapters are devoted to the analysis of stochastic queuing networks that appear as a type of key model. These chapters also discuss congestion problems in

  16. Evaluation of a DVD-Based Self-Help Program in Highly Socially Anxious Individuals--Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Anna K.; Mehl, Annette; Kiko, Sonja; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Hermann, Christiane; Hoffmann, Torsten; Bohus, Martin; Steil, Regina

    2011-01-01

    High social anxiety is a risk factor for the incidence of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Early diagnosis and intervention may prevent more severe psychiatric courses. Self-help programs may be a convenient, accessible, and effective intervention. This study examined the efficacy of a newly developed self-help program for SAD in individuals with…

  17. Population-level effects of automated smoking cessation help programs: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron; Balmford, James; Benda, Peter

    2013-03-01

    To test the population impact of offering automated smoking cessation interventions via the internet and/or by mobile phone. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with five conditions: offer of (i) minimal intervention control; (ii) QuitCoach personalized tailored internet-delivered advice program; (iii) onQ, an interactive automated text-messaging program; (iv) an integration of both QuitCoach and onQ; and (v) a choice of either alone or the combined program. Australia, via a mix of internet and telephone contacts. A total of 3530 smokers or recent quitters recruited from those interested in quitting, and seeking self-help resources (n = 1335) or cold-contacted from internet panels (n = 2195). The primary outcome was self-report of 6 months sustained abstinence at 7 months post-recruitment. Only 42.5% of those offered one of the interventions took it up to a minimal level. The intervention groups combined had a non-significantly higher 6-month sustained abstinence rate than the control [odds ratio (OR) = 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-2.24] (missing cases treated as smokers), with no differences between the interventions. Among those who used an intervention, there was a significant overall increase in abstinence (OR = 1.95; CI: 1.04-3.67), but not clearly so when analysing only cases with reported outcomes. Success rates were greater among those recruited after seeking information compared to those cold-contacted. Smokers interested in quitting who were assigned randomly to an offer of either the QuitCoach internet-based support program and/or the interactive automated text-messaging program had non-significantly greater odds of quitting for at least 6 months than those randomized to an offer of a simple information website. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Experimental evidence that the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model best describes the evolution of leaf litter decomposability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Prinzing, Andreas; Dong, Ming; Cornwell, William K

    2014-09-01

    Leaf litter decomposability is an important effect trait for ecosystem functioning. However, it is unknown how this effect trait evolved through plant history as a leaf 'afterlife' integrator of the evolution of multiple underlying traits upon which adaptive selection must have acted. Did decomposability evolve in a Brownian fashion without any constraints? Was evolution rapid at first and then slowed? Or was there an underlying mean-reverting process that makes the evolution of extreme trait values unlikely? Here, we test the hypothesis that the evolution of decomposability has undergone certain mean-reverting forces due to strong constraints and trade-offs in the leaf traits that have afterlife effects on litter quality to decomposers. In order to test this, we examined the leaf litter decomposability and seven key leaf traits of 48 tree species in the temperate area of China and fitted them to three evolutionary models: Brownian motion model (BM), Early burst model (EB), and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model (OU). The OU model, which does not allow unlimited trait divergence through time, was the best fit model for leaf litter decomposability and all seven leaf traits. These results support the hypothesis that neither decomposability nor the underlying traits has been able to diverge toward progressively extreme values through evolutionary time. These results have reinforced our understanding of the relationships between leaf litter decomposability and leaf traits in an evolutionary perspective and may be a helpful step toward reconstructing deep-time carbon cycling based on taxonomic composition with more confidence.

  19. Decomposed and non-decomposed bodies retrieved from water: a comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Kukde, Hemant Ghanshyam; Malani, Ajit; Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Borkar, Jaydeo Laxman; Batra, Anil Krishnaram; Meshram, Satin Kalidas

    2013-01-01

    The cause and manner of death in submersion cases are a routine challenge for forensic pathologists as they present considerable diagnostic difficulties. The present study was undertaken with a view to determine the characteristic pattern in bodies retrieved from water. From a total of 6779 medicolegal deaths reported at an Apex Medical Centre, Yeotmal, a rural district of Maharashtra over a 10-year study period, only 110 cases (1.6%) were decomposed and 243 cases (3.6%) were non-decomposed bodies retrieved from water with a rate of 0.6 decomposed body as compared with 1.4 non-decomposed bodies per 100,000 population per year. However, out of total 353 bodies retrieved from water, 31.2% were decomposed and 68.8% non-decomposed. Male predominance was seen in both groups with peak at 31-40 years. The cause and manner of death were ascertained as 89.9% and 82.7%, respectively, in decomposed bodies as compared with 100% and 96.3%, respectively, in non-decomposed bodies. Drowning was the commonest cause of death in both groups with suicide as the commonest manner of death in decomposed bodies in contrast to accidental in non-decomposed bodies. Excessive amount of pleural fluid, aquatic animal activity and mud/vegetation in lower respiratory tract was more commonly encountered in decomposed bodies. However, fine white froth was not seen in any of the cases in contrast to 81% non-decomposed bodies. Bodies were commonly recovered from wells in both groups. Most of the bodies were retrieved in the rainy season followed by summer and winter seasons in both groups.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of the "helping babies breathe" program in a missionary hospital in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Vossius

    Full Text Available The Helping Babies Breathe" (HBB program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH in rural Tanzania.Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW, the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health.Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated.The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness.

  1. [Bibliotherapy as a self-help program for parents of children with externalizing problem behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierfeld, Frauke; Döpfner, Manfred

    2006-09-01

    Externalizing problem behaviour is one of the most frequent and most stable behavioural disorders of childhood and adolescence. The development of applicable alternatives to expensive and restrictedly available treatments becomes increasingly necessary. This pilot study tested bibliotherapy in the form of a manual-assisted self-help programme under minimum contact conditions for parents of children with externalizing problem behaviour. A total of 21 children, aged 6 to 15 years and diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or an Oppositional Defiant Disorder, were recruited from an outpatient population. The bibliotherapy lasted 10 weeks and consisted of working through a self-help book for parents (Wackelpeter und Trotzkopf). Initial clinical interviews and pre- and post-treatment evaluations were included, as well as short weekly telephone contacts (approx. 20 min. per contact) with the parents. The children's externalizing behaviour was significantly reduced during the intervention. The parenting skills were strengthened. The satisfaction of the parents with the program was high. Fewer than 20% of the parents indicated a need for an additional intensive behavioural outpatient treatment at the end of the intervention. Bibliotherapy may be an applicable and effective treatment alternative for children with disruptive behaviour disorders, at least in families with the resources necessary for this kind of intervention. The results have to be replicated within randomized control group trials.

  2. New York City Program Administrators Perceptions of the Helpfulness of Outside Mandated Evaluations on Administrative Decision-Making in ESEA Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Melvin

    Program administrators for 64 Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) programs in New York City were asked to respond to a questionnaire rating scale concerning the helpfulness and quantity of information that had been provided to them by the program evaluators. The rating scale categorized areas of administrative decision making in five…

  3. The impact of universal suicide-prevention programs on the help-seeking attitudes and behaviors of youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Klingbeil, David A; Meller, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    While the ultimate goal of adolescent suicide-prevention efforts is to decrease the incidence of death by suicide, a critical intermediary goal is directing youths toward effective sources of assistance. To comprehensively review the universal prevention literature and examine the effects of universal prevention programs on student's attitudes and behaviors related to help-seeking. We systematically reviewed studies that assessed help-seeking outcomes including prevention efforts utilizing (1) psychoeducational curricula, (2) gatekeeper training, and (3) public service messaging directed at youths. Of the studies reviewed, 17 studies evaluated the help-seeking outcomes. These studies were identified through a range of sources (e.g., searching online databases, examining references of published articles on suicide prevention). The results of this review suggest that suicide-prevention programming has a limited impact on help-seeking behavior. Although there was some evidence that suicide-prevention programs had a positive impact on students' help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, there was also evidence of no effects or iatrogenic effects. Sex and risk status were moderators of program effects on students help-seeking. Caution is warranted when considering which suicidal prevention interventions best optimize the intended goals. The impact on adolescents' help-seeking behavior is a key concern for educators and mental-health professionals.

  4. Top Textbooks on Reserve: Creating, Promoting, and Assessing a Program to Help Meet Students' Need for Affordable Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilary H.; Cotton, Jennifer E. M.

    2017-01-01

    In Fall 2014 the University of Maryland Libraries launched a textbook reserves program to help relieve the burden of high textbook costs on students. Although its initial performance was lackluster, workflow refinements and expanded promotion greatly improved usage, resulting in a tenfold increase in circulation and expansion of the program. This…

  5. On decomposing languages defined by parallel devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we give a method for decomposing subclasses of different families of languages, into other possibly smaller families. This method can be used to produce languages not in a family by using known examples of languages not belonging to other families....

  6. Creating and decomposing vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 58th Annual SAIP Conference, Richards Bay, 8-12 July 2013 Creating and decomposing vector Bessel beams Angela Dudley1,*, Yanming Li2, Thandeka Mhlanga1, Michael Escuti2 and Andrew Forbes1 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South...

  7. Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Matthew Joseph [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-12-05

    In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.

  8. How MBA programs help the wine producers to innovate creating new employments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veissiere Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People love innovation: they are fascinating and usually curious to know how it works. But people love it until it affects them. The biggest obstacle is not technology but it is we humans and the institutions we live in. Both are stubbornly resistant to experimentation and to the change of the routine and the relative corporate organization. During the last fifteen years, a large room has been opened to the technological innovation in the vineyard and in the cellar but the new way to reach the final customer and to keep it loyal have been missed. The customer experience topic and the different gap of the customer satisfaction a producer should monitor and shorten, are rarely developed in the marketing training sessions in the MBA programs. It exists a real gap between the consumer perception and the way in which the wine is promoted. Producers are not aware about the new marketing techniques that should help them to grow and create new jobs on top of the wine production activities.

  9. The effect for Japanese workers of a self-help computerized cognitive behaviour therapy program with a supplement soft drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Nonaka, Yuji; Abe, Keiichi; Adachi, So-Ichiro; Adachi, Shohei; Kuboki, Tomifusa; Nakao, Mutsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Computerized cognitive behaviour therapy (CCBT) programs can provide a useful self-help approach to the treatment of psychological problems. Previous studies have shown that CCBT has moderate effects on depression, insomnia, and anxiety. The present study investigated whether a supplement drink that includes L-carnosine enhances the effect of CCBT on psychological well-being. Eighty-seven participants were randomly allocated to a control group, CCBT, or CCBT with supplement drink. The CCBT and CCBT with supplement drink groups received six weekly self-help CCBT program instalments, which consisted of psycho-education about stress management and coping, behaviour activation, and cognitive restructuring. The CCBT group consumed a bottle of the supplement soft drink every morning through the 6 weeks. This program was delivered by an e-learning system on demand and also included a self-help guidebook. Seventy-two participants completed the program or were assess at the end of the study. ANOVA revealed that there were significant interactions (times × groups) for POMS tension-anxiety and fatigue. The CCBT group showed significantly improved tension-anxiety scores, whereas the CCBT with drink group showed significant improvements on fatigue. The self-help CCBT program reduced the subjective experience of tension-anxiety in this group of workers. The addition of a supplement drink enhanced the effect of CCBT on fatigue, providing one possible approach to enhancement of such programs. This study was registered on September 2, 2016 at UMIN. The registration number is UMIN000023903.

  10. Towards using the chordal graph polytope in learning decomposable models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Studený, Milan; Cussens, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2017), s. 259-281 ISSN 0888-613X. [8th International Conference of Probabilistic Graphical Models. Lugano, 06.09.2016-09.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12010S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : learning decomposable models * integer linear programming * characteristic imset * chordal graph polytope * clutter inequalities * separation problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/studeny-0475614.pdf

  11. Predicting likelihood of seeking help through the employee assistance program among salaried and union hourly employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, W; Grube, J W; Ames, G M

    1998-03-01

    This research investigated belief, social support and background predictors of employee likelihood to use an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) for a drinking problem. An anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered in the home. Bivariate analyses and simultaneous equations path analysis were used to explore a model of EAP use. Survey and ethnographic research were conducted in a unionized heavy machinery manufacturing plant in the central states of the United States. A random sample of 852 hourly and salaried employees was selected. In addition to background variables, measures included: likelihood of going to an EAP for a drinking problem, belief the EAP can help, social support for the EAP from co-workers/others, belief that EAP use will harm employment, and supervisor encourages the EAP for potential drinking problems. Belief in EAP efficacy directly increased the likelihood of going to an EAP. Greater perceived social support and supervisor encouragement increased the likelihood of going to an EAP both directly and indirectly through perceived EAP efficacy. Black and union hourly employees were more likely to say they would use an EAP. Males and those who reported drinking during working hours were less likely to say they would use an EAP for a drinking problem. EAP beliefs and social support have significant effects on likelihood to go to an EAP for a drinking problem. EAPs may wish to focus their efforts on creating an environment where there is social support from coworkers and encouragement from supervisors for using EAP services. Union networks and team members have an important role to play in addition to conventional supervisor intervention.

  12. A note on arbitrarily vertex decomposable graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Marczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G\\ of order \\(n\\ is said to be arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for each sequence \\((n_{1},\\ldots,n_k\\ of positive integers such that \\(n_{1}+\\ldots+n_{k}=n\\ there exists a partition \\((V_{1},\\ldots,V_{k}\\ of the vertex set of \\(G\\ such that for each \\(i \\in \\{1,\\ldots,k\\}\\, \\(V_{i}\\ induces a connected subgraph of \\(G\\ on \\(n_i\\ vertices. In this paper we show that if \\(G\\ is a two-connected graph on \\(n\\ vertices with the independence number at most \\(\\lceil n/2\\rceil\\ and such that the degree sum of any pair of non-adjacent vertices is at least \\(n-3\\, then \\(G\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable. We present another result for connected graphs satisfying a similar condition, where the bound \\(n-3\\ is replaced by \\(n-2\\.

  13. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-11-18

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  14. Optimal decomposable witnesses without the spanning property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarbicki, Gniewomir [Insitute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudzicdzka 5, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    One of the unsolved problems in the characterization of the optimal entanglement witnesses is the existence of optimal witnesses acting on bipartite Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n}=C{sup m} x C{sup n} such that the product vectors obeying =0 do not span H{sub m,n}. So far, the only known examples of such witnesses were found among indecomposable witnesses, one of them being the witness corresponding to the Choi map. However, it remains an open question whether decomposable witnesses exist without the property of spanning. Here we answer this question affirmatively, providing systematic examples of such witnesses. Then, we generalize some of the recently obtained results on the characterization of 2 x n optimal decomposable witnesses [R. Augusiak et al., J. Phys. A 44, 212001 (2011)] to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n} with m,n{>=}3.

  15. Multiple decomposability of probabilities on contractible locally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Definition 3.1). As mentioned before, μ is n-times τ-decomposable iff μ has a representation as (n + 1)-times iterated convolution product. To be allowed to ..... Then the classical version of the equivalence theorem holds: If νi , i ≥ 0, ν, are probabilities and Xi ,i ≥ 0, Y are independent G-valued random variables with ...

  16. Signature wood modifications reveal decomposer community history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Schilling

    Full Text Available Correlating plant litter decay rates with initial tissue traits (e.g. C, N contents is common practice, but in woody litter, predictive relationships are often weak. Variability in predicting wood decomposition is partially due to territorial competition among fungal decomposers that, in turn, have a range of nutritional strategies (rot types and consequences on residues. Given this biotic influence, researchers are increasingly using culture-independent tools in an attempt to link variability more directly to decomposer groups. Our goal was to complement these tools by using certain wood modifications as 'signatures' that provide more functional information about decomposer dominance than density loss. Specifically, we used dilute alkali solubility (DAS; higher for brown rot and lignin:density loss (L:D; higher for white rot to infer rot type (binary and fungal nutritional mode (gradient, respectively. We first determined strength of pattern among 29 fungi of known rot type by correlating DAS and L:D with mass loss in birch and pine. Having shown robust relationships for both techniques above a density loss threshold, we then demonstrated and resolved two issues relevant to species consortia and field trials, 1 spatial patchiness creating gravimetric bias (density bias, and 2 brown rot imprints prior or subsequent to white rot replacement (legacy effects. Finally, we field-tested our methods in a New Zealand Pinus radiata plantation in a paired-plot comparison. Overall, results validate these low-cost techniques that measure the collective histories of decomposer dominance in wood. The L:D measure also showed clear potential in classifying 'rot type' along a spectrum rather than as a traditional binary type (brown versus white rot, as it places the nutritional strategies of wood-degrading fungi on a scale (L:D=0-5, in this case. These information-rich measures of consequence can provide insight into their biological causes, strengthening the

  17. Decomposed Implicit Models of Piecewise - Linear Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brzobohaty

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available The general matrix form of the implicit description of a piecewise-linear (PWL network and the symbolic block diagram of the corresponding circuit model are proposed. Their decomposed forms enable us to determine quite separately the existence of the individual breakpoints of the resultant PWL characteristic and their coordinates using independent network parameters. For the two-diode and three-diode cases all the attainable types of the PWL characteristic are introduced.

  18. Helping families change: The adoption of the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the implementation of the evidence-based Triple P Positive Parenting Program in the Netherlands was examined. Because parenting is associated with the wellbeing of children, parenting programs are developed to address the child problems. Among all developed parenting programs, the

  19. Using Visual Programming and Robots to Help Novices to Overcome Fear of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, R.

    2016-01-01

    Learning a computer programming language can be an intimidating experience for most novices. At first glance, the lines of code of a programming language can look like a very complex syntax and together with the abstract concepts involved can represent barriers that for some turn into fear...... of coding . This paper presents and instructional design aimed to introduce students to the basic concepts of programming using visual programming alone as well as visual programming to program robots. Furthermore, the instructional design was applied in a case study: an introductory programming course......, surprise and fear. The results are analyzed and discussed in relation to the influence on students’ ability to overcome the barriers mentioned above as well as students’ learning experience....

  20. Predictors of participant retention in a guided online self-help program for university students: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Day, Victor; McGrath, Patrick J

    2013-05-22

    Attrition is a persistent issue in online self-help programs, but limited research is available on reasons for attrition or successful methods for improving participant retention. One potential approach to understanding attrition and retention in such programs is to examine person-related variables (eg, beliefs and attitudes) that influence behavior. Theoretical models, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior, that describe conditions influencing human behavior may provide a useful framework for predicting participant retention in online-based program. We examined predictors of participant retention in a guided online anxiety, depression, and stress self-help program for university students using the theory of planned behavior. We also explored whether age, symptom severity, and type of coaching (ie, email vs phone) affected participant retention. 65 university students with mild to moderate depression, anxiety, and stress were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Participants completed a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior prior to commencing the online-based program and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) during the assessment module of the program. Participant retention was operationalized as the number of program modules completed. Perceived control over completing the online program significantly predicted intention to complete the program (F3,62=6.7; P=.001; adjusted R(2)=.2; standardized beta=.436, P=.001). Age (standardized beta=.319, P=.03) and perceived behavioral control (standardized beta=.295, P=.05) predicted the number of program modules completed (F3,61=3.20, P=.03, adjusted R(2) =.11). Initial level of distress (ie, symptom severity) did not predict participant retention (P=.55). Participants who chose phone-based coaching completed more program modules than participants who chose email-based coaching (Mann-Whitney's U=137; P=.004). Participants' age, level of perceived behavioral control, and choice of interaction

  1. Developing Culturally Sensitive Parent Education Programs for Immigrant Families: The Helping Youth Succeed Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zha Blong Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process by which the Helping Youth Succeed (HYS curriculum was developed for Cambodian, Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese immigrants in the United States to help address and minimize conflicts between immigrant parents and their adolescent children. A detailed explanation of this model is provided to encourage the development of additional culturally specific parent education curricula for other immigrant/refugee groups and/or diversepopulations.

  2. Family Assessment/Treatment/Evaluation Methods Integrated for Helping Teen Suicide Attempters/Families in Short Term Psychiatric Hospitalization Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Suzanne

    The assessment process can be integrated with treatment and evaluation for helping teenage suicide attempters and families in short term psychiatric hospitalization programs. The method is an extremely efficient way for the therapist to work within a given time constraint. During family assessment sufficient information can be gathered to…

  3. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  4. CD4+ T Cell Help Confers a Cytotoxic T Cell Effector Program Including Coinhibitory Receptor Downregulation and Increased Tissue Invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrends, Tomasz; Spanjaard, Aldo; Pilzecker, Bas; Bąbała, Nikolina; Bovens, Astrid; Xiao, Yanling; Jacobs, Heinz; Borst, Jannie

    2017-11-21

    CD4+ T cells optimize the cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response in magnitude and quality, by unknown molecular mechanisms. We here present the transcriptomic changes in CTLs resulting from CD4+ T cell help after anti-cancer vaccination or virus infection. The gene expression signatures revealed that CD4+ T cell help during priming optimized CTLs in expression of cytotoxic effector molecules and many other functions that ensured efficacy of CTLs throughout their life cycle. Key features included downregulation of PD-1 and other coinhibitory receptors that impede CTL activity, and increased motility and migration capacities. "Helped" CTLs acquired chemokine receptors that helped them reach their tumor target tissue and metalloprotease activity that enabled them to invade into tumor tissue. A very large part of the "help" program was instilled in CD8+ T cells via CD27 costimulation. The help program thus enhances specific CTL effector functions in response to vaccination or a virus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Helping families change: The adoption of the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis the implementation of the evidence-based Triple P Positive Parenting Program in the Netherlands was examined. Because parenting is associated with the wellbeing of children, parenting programs are developed to address the child problems. Among all developed parenting programs, the Behavioral Family Interventions (BFI) have the strongest empirical evidence. The aim of Triple P is to prevent and offer treatment for mild and severe behavioral, emotional and developmental problems ...

  6. Implementation of an after-school obesity prevention program: helping young children toward improved health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura; Burbage, Michelle; Woodson, Kenneth D; Swoboda, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Obesity prevention programs that are delivered in after-school programs are needed as a focus on curriculum can make it difficult to include this health programming during the school day. The current study examined the implementation of 2 pilot programs in different after-school programs for young children. There were 36 children in the intervention groups and 18 children in comparison groups. Children learned about healthy eating and increasing involvement in physical activity. Lessons were based on the Traffic Light Diet. Results indicated improvement in children's reports of their eating habits. Activity levels improved in 1 school, but not in the other. Parents and children were satisfied with the program and children demonstrated good knowledge of the interventions to promote healthy eating. Future studies should include larger sample sizes and evaluation of the effectiveness of different components of the intervention. Nurses can play a key role in disseminating information and designing and leading after-school programs to improve child knowledge about healthy eating and exercise. Nursing students may also benefit from assisting with conducting these types of programs to improve their experience in health prevention programming.

  7. The effectiveness of school mental health literacy programs to address knowledge, attitudes and help seeking among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Hayden, Jill A; Kutcher, Stan; Zygmunt, Austin; McGrath, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Conduct a systematic review for the effectiveness of school mental health literacy programs to enhance knowledge, reduce stigmatizing attitudes and improve help-seeking behaviours among youth (12-25 years of age). Reviewers independently searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, grey literature and reference lists of included studies. They reached a consensus on the included studies, and rated the risk of bias of each study. Studies that reported three outcomes: knowledge acquisition, stigmatizing attitudes and help-seeking behaviours; and were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs, quasi-experimental studies, and controlled-before-and-after studies, were eligible. This review resulted in 27 articles including 5 RCTs, 13 quasi-experimental studies, and 9 controlled-before-and-after studies. Whereas most included studies claimed school-based mental health literacy programs improve knowledge, attitudes and help-seeking behaviour, 17 studies met criteria for high risk of bias, 10 studies for moderate risk of bias, and no studies for low risk of bias. Common limitations included the lack of randomization, control for confounding factors, validated measures and report on attrition in most studies. The overall quality of the evidence for knowledge and help-seeking behaviour outcomes was very low, and low for the attitude outcome. Research into school-based mental health literacy is still in its infancy and there is insufficient evidence to claim for positive impact of school mental health literacy programs on knowledge improvement, attitudinal change or help-seeking behaviour. Future research should focus on methods to appropriately determine the evidence of effectiveness on school-based mental health literacy programs, considering the values of both RCTs and other research designs in this approach. Educators should consider the strengths and weaknesses of current mental health literacy programs to inform decisions regarding possible

  8. Decomposing Cross-Country Differences in Skills:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Rosdahl, Anders

    2017-01-01

    among Finns with high school and less than high school education. The Finnish average score is pulled substantially downwards as a consequence of the low numeracy skill level among older Finns, which is consistent with an increase in the quantity or quality of Finnish education over time, relative......This paper performs multivariate analysis of skill differences in the Nordic countries as assessed by OECD’s PIACC survey of adults aged 16-65. We decompose the differences in average skills between Finland and each of the three Scandinavian countries into a component that is due to different skill...

  9. How to Help Unemployed Find Jobs Quickly : Experimental Evidence from a Mandatory Activation Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graversen, B.K.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates how a mandatory activation program in Denmark affects the job finding rate of unemployed workers.The activation program was introduced in an experimental setting where about half of the workers who became unemployed in the period from November 2005 to March 2006 were randomly

  10. A High School Program in Human Ecology: Helping Everyone Live Productively. Student Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandywine School District, Claymont, DE.

    The program's goal is to provide high school students an opportunity to become an active force in the advancement of the human condition and to develop positive attitudes to improve their effectiveness in dealing with their environment. The student handbook consists of eight chapters, including an introduction to the program in chapter I. Chapter…

  11. Bystander intervention and litter control: Evaluation of an appeal-to-help program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet H. Christensen

    1981-01-01

    Managers of public recreation areas are concerned about increases in vandalism and disregard for regulations and the rights of others by some users. Other than the litter incentive program, none of the approaches for reducing violations have been evaluated or proved effective. The present study evaluated a program to increase involvement of campers in the management of...

  12. The Meyerhoff Way: How the Meyerhoff Scholarship Program Helps Black Students Succeed in the Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle-McAllister, Kathy; Sto Domingo, Mariano R; Carrillo, Amy

    2011-02-01

    The Meyerhoff Scholarship Program (MSP) is widely recognized for its comprehensive approach of integrating students into the science community. The supports provided by the program aim to develop students, primarily Blacks, into scientists by offering them academic, social, and professional opportunities to achieve their academic and career goals. The current study allowed for a rich understanding of the perceptions of current Meyerhoff students and Meyerhoff alumni about how the program works. Three groups of MSP students were included in the study: 1) new Meyerhoff students participating in Summer Bridge (n=45), 2) currently enrolled Meyerhoff students (n=92), and 3) graduates of the MSP who were currently enrolled in STEM graduate studies or had completed an advanced STEM degree (n=19). Students described the importance of several key aspects of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program: financial support, the Summer Bridge Program, formation of Meyerhoff identity, belonging to the Meyerhoff family, and developing networks - all of which serve to integrate students both academically and socially.

  13. How can schools help youth increase physical activity? An economic analysis comparing school-based programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Wu, Shinyi; Cohen, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    For optimal health, physical activity should be an integral and routine part of daily life. Youth spend a significant amount of time at school yet rarely achieve the recommended 60 min of moderate and vigorous physical activity in physical education (PE) classes or recess. This study assessed the following types of school-based opportunities to improve physical activity for youth: after-school programs, before-school programs, PE classes, extended-day PE, and short physical activity breaks during the school day. An economic analysis conducted in 2013 compared school-based approaches to increasing physical activity. Analysis factors included costs, reach, effects on physical activity gains, cost-effectiveness, and other potentially augmenting benefits. Two programs were significantly superior in terms of reach and cost per student: (1) extending the school day with mandatory PE participation and (2) offering short (10-minute) physical activity breaks during regular classroom hours. After-school program costs per student are high and the programs have a smaller reach, but they offer benefits (such as childcare) that may justify their higher costs. Before-school programs did not appear feasible. Incorporating short physical activity breaks into the existing school day would be a cost-effective way to increase school-based activity. This type of program is inexpensive and has broad reach. Inserting activity breaks throughout the day is appropriate, especially when youth are otherwise largely sedentary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Help Wanted: American Drone Program Needs Multifaceted Support to be Effective

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, S

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. drone program in Pakistan faces strong resistance in Pakistan. Because the program solely seeks to eliminate terrorist groups and leaders through bombing campaigns, with no built in social support, the local population’s anti-American sentiment has reached the highest level in history. This angry mood against U.S. drone programs is spreading throughout the Islamic world. To counter this anti-American sentiment, and increase the drone program’s effectiveness, the U.S. must invest in m...

  15. New Utah program helps curb runaway costs associated with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Take steps to address chronic pain now. Why? Because it's costing the United States 120 billion dollars per year, and much of this expense is due to patients bouncing from clinician to clinician without ever finding relief. Some healthcare organizations and individual practitioners successfully address the problem by taking a multidisciplinary approach to care and equipping patients with strategies to help them take charge.

  16. Helping Children Succeed after Divorce: Building a Community-based Program in a Rural County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane E.

    2000-01-01

    A court-mandated parent education course aimed at reducing effects of divorce on children was evaluated by 1,400 participants over 5 years. Most respondents highly recommended the course and said it helped them become aware of their children's point of view and how to prevent long-term emotional problems. (SK)

  17. Acceptance and efficacy of a guided internet self-help treatment program for obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Isabelle; Crépin, Christelle; Rouget, Patrick; Lam, Tony; Van der Linden, Martial; Golay, Alain

    2011-03-04

    A significant percentage of obese patients suffer from binge eating disorder (BED), with negative consequences on psychological health, quality of life, weight loss treatment and maintenance. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), delivered in traditional or self-help format, is effective in reducing BED symptoms. To improve dissemination, a self-help treatment program composed of eleven CBT based modules was implemented on the Internet and evaluated in a population of adult obese patients with BED. Forty-two obese BED patients wait-listed for a multi-disciplinary obesity treatment took part in the study. Twenty-two patients completing the six-month online guided self-help treatment program were compared to a control group of twenty patients without intervention. Both groups were evaluated before and after six months of Internet self-help treatment or waiting list. A follow-up evaluation was carried out six months later. Participants in the online self-help treatment program showed higher binge eating abstinence rates, lower EDE-Q shape and weight concerns, and improved TFEQ disinhibition of eating and hunger scores compared to the control group. They also scored better on psychological health and quality of life measures after intervention, and gains were maintained at follow-up. No effect was found regarding BMI. The number of modules completed was correlated with a better quality of life improvement at post evaluation. Participants rated the program as useful and easy to use. The Internet seems to be a valuable tool for disseminating CBT for BED obese patients. Acceptance of new technology was good in this population. Further research is needed with a larger sample to corroborate these results.

  18. Helping War Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Incarcerated Individuals' Role in Therapeutic Animal Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Gennifer

    2016-05-01

    A grassroots movement of nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations is creating programs in which incarcerated individuals train rescued shelter dogs as therapeutic canines for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Driven in part by reports of Veterans not receiving adequate treatment for PTSD, the programs are the latest iteration of prison-based animal programs and are founded on the principles of animal therapy and healing powers of animals. The far-reaching and deleterious collateral consequences of PTSD create social and economic burdens on the country; providing beneficial interventions for Veterans is a pressing social problem. Without oversight, a patchwork of agencies has developed that provides Veterans with dogs with varying levels of training and differing abilities. To best serve the needs of Veterans, the programs need regulation and standardized methods of training. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(5), 49-57.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. How the CATCH eat smart program helps implement the USDA regulations in school cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Mitchell, Paul; Dwyer, Johanna; Elder, John; Clesi, Ann; Snyder, Patricia

    2003-08-01

    This article describes the implementation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National School Lunch Program (NSLP) standards in school lunch menus in 56 intervention and 20 control schools from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) 5 years after the main trial, compared with 12 schools previously unexposed to CATCH. School food service personnel completed questionnaires to assess CATCH guideline implementation, demographic data, behavioral constructs, training, program material use, and participation in competing programs. Five days of menus and recipes were collected from school cafeteria staff, averaged, and compared to USDA School Meal Initiative (SMI) standards. Significant differences between intervention and unexposed schools were found for training and knowledge of CATCH and in mean percentage energy from fat and carbohydrates. Intervention schools most closely met USDA SMI recommendations for fat. Thus, the CATCH Eat Smart Program assisted school cafeterias in meeting USDA guidelines 5 years postimplementation.

  20. A Mentoring Program to Help Junior Faculty Members Achieve Scholarship Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy launched the Bill and Karen Campbell Faculty Mentoring Program (CMP) in 2006 to support scholarship-intensive junior faculty members. This report describes the origin, expectations, principles, and best practices that led to the introduction of the program, reviews the operational methods chosen for its implementation, provides information about its successes, and analyzes its strengths and limitations. PMID:24672062

  1. A mentoring program to help junior faculty members achieve scholarship success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Harold

    2014-03-12

    The University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy launched the Bill and Karen Campbell Faculty Mentoring Program (CMP) in 2006 to support scholarship-intensive junior faculty members. This report describes the origin, expectations, principles, and best practices that led to the introduction of the program, reviews the operational methods chosen for its implementation, provides information about its successes, and analyzes its strengths and limitations.

  2. Help Wanted: American Drone Program Needs Multifaceted Support to be Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. drone program in Pakistan faces strong resistance in Pakistan. Because the program solely seeks to eliminate terrorist groups and leaders through bombing campaigns, with no built in social support, the local population’s anti-American sentiment has reached the highest level in history. This angry mood against U.S. drone programs is spreading throughout the Islamic world. To counter this anti-American sentiment, and increase the drone program’s effectiveness, the U.S. must invest in multifaceted, socio-economic support efforts to educate the population and rebuild the gratuity, trust, and commitment of Pakistan’s people to the “War on Terror.”

  3. A Case Study of Mentor-to-mentee Program to Help African American Males Graduate from High School

    OpenAIRE

    Peter P. KIRIAKIDIS; Mary E. JENKINS-WILLIAMS

    2015-01-01

    The problem at the research site, which was one high school within a school district located in northeastern U.S., was that the dropout rate of African American high school males was very high. A mentor-to-mentee program had been implemented to help students graduate from high school at the research site. The experiences of young African American males who participated in a mentor-to-mentee program and graduated from high school had not been examined via a case study. The research questions w...

  4. Can Parents Treat their Anxious Child using CBT? A Brief Report of a Self-Help Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Christiansen, Bianca Munkebo; Walczak, Monika Anna

    2016-01-01

    , and Cool Kids manuals for parents and children. The sample consisted of 20 families, and 17 completed treatment. Results: After treatment, intent-to-treat analyses indicated that 65% of the children were free of all anxiety disorders. The corresponding figure for completers was 76.5%. Conclusion: Our...... results suggest that parent-based self-help groups focusing on transfer of control may be a cost-effective way of providing treatment to children with moderate anxiety......Objective: We developed and tested a self-help program with minimal therapist involvement for parents of anxious children. Method: The program focused on transfer of control from therapist to parents of children with moderate anxiety, and consisted of two therapist-led workshops, a Facebook group...

  5. Stereotype Threat-Based Diversity Programming: Helping Students While Empowering and Respecting Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artze-Vega, Isis; Richardson, Leslie; Traxler, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    As college student populations grow increasingly diverse, centers for teaching and learning are often charged with promoting inclusive teaching practices. Yet faculty cite many affective barriers to diversity training, and we often preach to the choir. These challenges led us to seek alternate routes for diversity programming, and stereotype…

  6. Helping people with a mental illness obtain work: the Health Optimisation Program for Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, David; Crosse, Caroline; Morgain, Dea; McDowell, Caitlin; Rossell, Susan; Thomas, Neil; Phillipou, Andrea; Gilbert, Monica; Moore, Gaye; Fossey, Ellie; Harvey, Carol

    2016-08-01

    Inclusion in work and education remains problematic for many people with a mental illness. We describe a structured programme - the Health Optimisation Program for Employment - that supported people with a mental illness to gain employment or commence studies. Twenty hours of the Health Optimisation Program for Employment were delivered to 600 individuals. Participants were asked to complete an evaluation survey encompassing vocational status and ratings of self-efficacy. Of the 364 participants who completed the baseline assessment, 168 responded to the evaluation survey 6 months after the delivery of the Health Optimisation Program for Employment. Of these, 21.5% had started a new job, while a further 42.8% were either volunteering or studying. Satisfaction with the programme was high and self-efficacy ratings improved significantly over the short term only. The Health Optimisation Program for Employment requires further evaluation using rigorous scientific methodology but these initial results are encouraging in terms of vocational attainment for people with a mental illness, in the Australian context. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  7. An Extension Education Program to Help Local Governments with Flood Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Gretchen; Allred, Shorna; LoGiudice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Education is an important tool to increase the capacity of local government officials for community flood adaptation. To address flood adaptation and post-flood stream management in municipalities, Cornell Cooperative Extension and collaborators developed an educational program to increase municipal officials' knowledge about how to work…

  8. Easing the Transfer of Students from College to University Programs: How Can Learning Outcomes Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Irene; Coyle, James; Leslie, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, students are seeking transfer from college to university educational programs. This challenges universities to assess the effectiveness of transfer policies and also challenges colleges to prepare students for continued education. This paper reviews the various transfer procedures used by Canadian universities, barriers experienced…

  9. When Program Notes Don't Help: Music Descriptions and Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2010-01-01

    The widespread practice of including program notes for classical concerts assumes that extramusical information affects musical experience, but the psychological mechanisms underlying this process are little understood. In this study, 16 people without formal musical training heard excerpts from Beethoven String Quartets prefaced by either a…

  10. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  11. Extension's Efforts to Help Kids Be SAFE: Evaluation of a Statewide Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Adrienne; Norton, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation reported in this article examined the effectiveness of a statewide bullying prevention program, Be SAFE. Be SAFE involves use of a positive youth development approach to influence peer groups rather than individual bullies or victims. Through the use of pre- and postprogram questionnaires, we found increases in youths' knowledge of…

  12. Supporting Knowledge Transfer through Decomposable Reasoning Artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, William A.; May, Richard A.; Turner, Alan E.

    2007-01-03

    Technology to support knowledge transfer and cooperative inquiry must offer its users the ability to effectively interpret knowledge structures produced by collaborators. Communicating the reasoning processes that underlie a finding is one method for enhancing interpretation, and can result in more effective evaluation and application of shared knowledge. In knowledge management tools, interpretation is aided by creating knowledge artifacts that can expose their provenance to scrutiny and that can be transformed into diverse representations that suit their consumers’ perspectives and preferences. We outline the information management needs of inquiring communities characterized by hypothesis generation tasks, and propose a model for communication, based in theories of hermeneutics, semiotics, and abduction, in which knowledge structures can be decomposed into the lower-level reasoning artifacts that produced them. We then present a proof-of-concept implementation for an environment to support the capture and communication of analytic products, with emphasis on the domain of intelligence analysis.

  13. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny E

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler "to speak," [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter "to repeat," [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer "to adore," [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire "to drink," [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French inflectional verbal

  14. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lopez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioural experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler ‘to speak’, [parl-]; b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter ‘to repeat’, [répét-] and [répèt-]; c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer ‘to adore’, [ador-] and [adOr-]; and d. idiosyncratic (boire ‘to drink’, [boi-] and [buv-]. For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-] have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-], suggesting that they share a single abstract and underspecified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of

  15. DCMDSM: a DICOM decomposed storage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaris, Alexandre; Härder, Theo; von Wangenheim, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    To design, build, and evaluate a storage model able to manage heterogeneous digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images. The model must be simple, but flexible enough to accommodate variable content without structural modifications; must be effective on answering query/retrieval operations according to the DICOM standard; and must provide performance gains on querying/retrieving content to justify its adoption by image-related projects. The proposal adapts the original decomposed storage model, incorporating structural and organizational characteristics present in DICOM image files. Tag values are stored according to their data types/domains, in a schema built on top of a standard relational database management system (RDBMS). Evaluation includes storing heterogeneous DICOM images, querying metadata using a variable number of predicates, and retrieving full-content images for different hierarchical levels. When compared to a well established DICOM image archive, the proposal is 0.6-7.2 times slower in storing content; however, in querying individual tags, it is about 48.0% faster. In querying groups of tags, DICOM decomposed storage model (DCMDSM) is outperformed in scenarios with a large number of tags and low selectivity (being 66.5% slower); however, when the number of tags is balanced with better selectivity predicates, the performance gains are up to 79.1%. In executing full-content retrieval, in turn, the proposal is about 48.3% faster. DCMDSM is a model built for the storage of heterogeneous DICOM content, based on a straightforward database design. The results obtained through its evaluation attest its suitability as a storage layer for projects where DICOM images are stored once, and queried/retrieved whenever necessary. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children’s Kindergarten Adjustment: The REDI Parent Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.; Nix, Robert L.; Mathis, Erin T.

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games, interactive stories, and guided pretend play to use with their children. To evaluate impact, 200 4-year-old children in Head Start REDI classrooms were randomly assigned to REDI-P or a comparison condition (mail-home math games). Beyond the effects of the classroom program, REDI-P promoted significant improvements in child literacy skills, academic performance, self-directed learning, and social competence, demonstrating the utility of the approach in promoting gains in cognitive and social-emotional skills evident after the transition into kindergarten. PMID:26494108

  17. Can wide consultation help with setting priorities for large-scale biodiversity monitoring programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Boivin

    Full Text Available Climate and other global change phenomena affecting biodiversity require monitoring to track ecosystem changes and guide policy and management actions. Designing a biodiversity monitoring program is a difficult task that requires making decisions that often lack consensus due to budgetary constrains. As monitoring programs require long-term investment, they also require strong and continuing support from all interested parties. As such, stakeholder consultation is key to identify priorities and make sound design decisions that have as much support as possible. Here, we present the results of a consultation conducted to serve as an aid for designing a large-scale biodiversity monitoring program for the province of Québec (Canada. The consultation took the form of a survey with 13 discrete choices involving tradeoffs in respect to design priorities and 10 demographic questions (e.g., age, profession. The survey was sent to thousands of individuals having expected interests and knowledge about biodiversity and was completed by 621 participants. Overall, consensuses were few and it appeared difficult to create a design fulfilling the priorities of the majority. Most participants wanted 1 a monitoring design covering the entire territory and focusing on natural habitats; 2 a focus on species related to ecosystem services, on threatened and on invasive species. The only demographic characteristic that was related to the type of prioritization was the declared level of knowledge in biodiversity (null to high, but even then the influence was quite small.

  18. Easing the burden of stress. A stress management program can help eldercare professionals cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R P

    1991-01-01

    Healthcare professionals in general, and those who care for the elderly in particular, must cope with a number of stressors in the working environment. Moreover, because care givers tend to put others' needs before their own, they often place an added burden of stress on themselves. Eldercare professionals must often forego the reward of finding a cure for their patients. In addition, the persons they care for can sometimes become overly dependent, depressed, unappreciative, self-centered, and demanding. The daily effort to deflect or diffuse this negative energy can take its toll on care givers, leading to coping deficiencies that themselves increase workplace tension and stress. Not only individuals, but entire departments can develop dysfunctional reactions to stress. To break this vicious cycle and improve workplace morale, facilities can implement stress management programs. As part of such a program, supervisors and managers identify stressors in the environment and suggest ways to alleviate or eliminate their effects. Once morale improves, coordinators should shift the program's focus to maintaining employee morale.

  19. Nutrient profiling can help identify foods of good nutritional quality for their price: a validation study with linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Ferguson, Elaine L; Drewnowski, Adam; Darmon, Nicole

    2008-06-01

    Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient content. They may help identify foods with a good nutritional quality for their price. This hypothesis was tested using diet modeling with linear programming. Analyses were undertaken using food intake data from the nationally representative French INCA (enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) survey and its associated food composition and price database. For each food, a nutrient profile score was defined as the ratio between the previously published nutrient density score (NDS) and the limited nutrient score (LIM); a nutritional quality for price indicator was developed and calculated from the relationship between its NDS:LIM and energy cost (in euro/100 kcal). We developed linear programming models to design diets that fulfilled increasing levels of nutritional constraints at a minimal cost. The median NDS:LIM values of foods selected in modeled diets increased as the levels of nutritional constraints increased (P = 0.005). In addition, the proportion of foods with a good nutritional quality for price indicator was higher (P linear programming and the nutrient profiling approaches indicates that nutrient profiling can help identify foods of good nutritional quality for their price. Linear programming is a useful tool for testing nutrient profiling systems and validating the concept of nutrient profiling.

  20. Investment in HIV/AIDS programs: Does it help strengthen health systems in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufman Joan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing debate about whether the scaled-up investment in HIV/AIDS programs is strengthening or weakening the fragile health systems of many developing countries. This article examines and assesses the evidence and proposes ways forward. Discussion Considerably increased resources have been brought into countries for HIV/AIDS programs by major Global Health Initiatives. Among the positive impacts are the increased awareness of and priority given to public health by governments. In addition, services to people living with HIV/AIDS have rapidly expanded. In many countries infrastructure and laboratories have been strengthened, and in some, primary health care services have been improved. The effect of AIDS on the health work force has been lessened by the provision of antiretroviral treatment to HIV-infected health care workers, by training, and, to an extent, by task-shifting. However, there are reports of concerns, too – among them, a temporal association between increasing AIDS funding and stagnant reproductive health funding, and accusations that scarce personnel are siphoned off from other health care services by offers of better-paying jobs in HIV/AIDS programs. Unfortunately, there is limited hard evidence of these health system impacts. Because service delivery for AIDS has not yet reached a level that could conceivably be considered "as close to Universal Access as possible," countries and development partners must maintain the momentum of investment in HIV/AIDS programs. At the same time, it should be recognized that global action for health is even more underfunded than is the response to the HIV epidemic. The real issue is therefore not whether to fund AIDS or health systems, but how to increase funding for both. Summary The evidence is mixed – mostly positive but some negative – as to the impact on health systems of the scaled-up responses to HIV/AIDS driven primarily by global health partnerships

  1. A Guided Online and Mobile Self-Help Program for Individuals With Eating Disorders: An Iterative Engagement and Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Martina; Dimopoulos, Christina N; Flaschberger, Edith; Saffran, Kristina; Kruger, Jenna F; Garlock, Lindsay; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, Craig B; Jones, Megan

    2016-01-11

    engagement. This study identified salient usability and engagement features associated with participant motivation to use the Healthy Body Image Program and ultimately helped improve the program prior to its implementation. This research demonstrates that improvements in usability and engagement can be achieved by testing and adjusting intervention design and content prior to program launch. The results are consistent with related research and reinforce the need for further research to identify usage patterns and effective means for reducing dropout. Digital health research should include usability studies prior to efficacy trials to help create more user-friendly programs that have a higher likelihood of "real-world" adoption.

  2. Community Health Workers Versus Nurses as Counselors or Case Managers in a Self-Help Diabetes Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kim B; Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Hochang B; Nguyen, Tam; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David

    2016-06-01

    To confirm the effectiveness of community health workers' involvement as counselors or case managers in a self-help diabetes management program in 2009 to 2014. Our open-label, randomized controlled trial determined the effectiveness of a self-help intervention among Korean Americans aged 35 to 80 years in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. We measured and analyzed physiological and psychobehavioral health outcomes of the community health worker-counseled (n = 54) and registered nurse (RN)-counseled (n = 51) intervention groups in comparison with the control group (n = 104). The community health workers' performance was comparable to that of the RNs for both psychobehavioral outcomes (e.g., self-efficacy, quality of life) and physiological outcomes. The community health worker-counseled group showed hemoglobin A1C reductions from baseline (-1.2%, -1.5%, -1.3%, and -1.6%, at months 3, 6, 9, and 12, respectively), all of which were greater than reductions in the RN-counseled (-0.7%, -0.9%, -0.9%, and -1.0%) or the control (-0.5%, -0.5%, -0.6%, and -0.7%) groups. Community health workers performed as well as or better than nurses as counselors or case managers in a self-help diabetes management program in a Korean American community.

  3. Structured Parallel Programming: How Informatics Can Help Overcome the Software Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmar Burkhart

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-the-art programming of parallel computers is far from being successful. The main challenge today is, therefore, the development of techniques and tools that improve programmers' productivity. Programmability, portability, and reusability are key issues to be solved. In this article we shall report about our ongoing efforts in this direction. After a short discussion of the software dilemma found today, we shall present the Basel approach. We shall summarize our algorithm description methodology and discuss the basic concepts of the proposed skeleton language. An algorithmic example and comments on implementation aspects will explain our work in more detail. We shall summarize the current state of the implementation and conclude with a discussion of related work.

  4. The Analysis of Heterogeneous Text Documents with the Help of the Computer Program NUD*IST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Plaß

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a current research project we discuss the use of the computer program NUD*IST for the analysis and archiving of qualitative documents. Our project examines the social evaluation of spectacular criminal offenses and we identify, digitize and analyze documents from the entire 20th century. Since public and scientific discourses are examined, the data of the project are extraordinarily heterogeneous: scientific publications, court records, newspaper reports, and administrative documents. We want to show how to transfer general questions into a systematic categorization with the assistance of NUD*IST. Apart from the functions, possibilities and limitations of the application of NUD*IST, concrete work procedures and difficulties encountered are described. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003211

  5. Promoting dietary change among state health employees in Arkansas through a worksite wellness program: the Healthy Employee Lifestyle Program (HELP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Amanda Philyaw; Phillips, Martha M; Cornell, Carol E; Mays, Glen; Adams, Becky

    2009-10-01

    Maintaining a healthy and productive workforce is essential for employers in public and private sectors. Poor nutrition and obesity contribute to chronic diseases and influence health care costs and productivity. Research indicates that eating a healthy diet is associated with lower body mass index and reduced risk for developing chronic disease. The Arkansas Department of Health implemented the Healthy Employee Lifestyle Program to encourage wellness among state health employees. During the pilot year, participants completed a health risk assessment at baseline and again after 1 year that assessed diet and physical activity, other health risk factors, and readiness to make behavioral changes. Participants were encouraged to eat healthfully, participate in regular exercise, report health behaviors using a Web-based reporting system, accumulate points for healthy behaviors, and redeem points for incentives. Differences in participants' (n = 214) reported dietary behaviors between baseline and follow-up were assessed using chi2 analyses and tests of symmetry. Consumption of sweets/desserts, fats, protein, grains, processed meats, and dairy did not differ significantly from baseline to follow-up. However, at follow-up more participants reported eating 3 or more fruits and vegetables per day than at baseline and being in the action and maintenance stages of readiness to change for eating 5 or more fruits and vegetables per day and for eating a diet low in fat. Further study is needed to examine physical activity and other health risk factors to determine whether the program merits a broader dissemination.

  6. A Study of Decomposer and Related Functions on Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Hooshmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Decomposer functions in algebraic structures are studied in many recent papers. They have close relations to factorization by two subsets. Also, idempotent endomorphisms form a class of (strong decomposer functions in groups. Now, if the algebraic structure is a group, then by introducing a type of local homomorphisms we obtain several properties and equivalent conditions for many classes of decomposer functions and get a new result regarding to factorization of a group by its two subsets. Moreover, we prove existence of (two-sided decomposer type functions in non-simple groups

  7. Decomposing the misery index: A dynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. Cohen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The misery index (the unweighted sum of unemployment and inflation rates was probably the first attempt to develop a single statistic to measure the level of a population’s economic malaise. In this letter, we develop a dynamic approach to decompose the misery index using two basic relations of modern macroeconomics: the expectations-augmented Phillips curve and Okun’s law. Our reformulation of the misery index is closer in spirit to Okun’s idea. However, we are able to offer an improved version of the index, mainly based on output and unemployment. Specifically, this new Okun’s index measures the level of economic discomfort as a function of three key factors: (1 the misery index in the previous period; (2 the output gap in growth rate terms; and (3 cyclical unemployment. This dynamic approach differs substantially from the standard one utilised to develop the misery index, and allow us to obtain an index with five main interesting features: (1 it focuses on output, unemployment and inflation; (2 it considers only objective variables; (3 it allows a distinction between short-run and long-run phenomena; (4 it places more importance on output and unemployment rather than inflation; and (5 it weights recessions more than expansions.

  8. Helping patients with diabetes: resources from the National Diabetes Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Philip T

    2012-01-01

    To familiarize pharmacists with the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) and to demonstrate the value of NDEP materials in the care of patients with diabetes. The NDEP website (www.ndep.nih.gov) and PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). NDEP is a collaboration between the National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and many organization partners. Since 1997, a large number of materials have been created by NDEP using an evidence-based, expert- and patient-reviewed approach to development. Materials are nonbranded and reflect current medical knowledge and practice. Educational materials are available for persons at risk for diabetes, those with diabetes, family members of persons with diabetes, employers, and professionals. The Pharmacy, Podiatry, Optometry, and Dentistry (PPOD) workgroup of NDEP promotes the value of pharmacists and other professionals in diabetes education and management. Resources are available to educate about the value of the PPOD professionals. NDEP provides evidence-based, high-quality educational materials that pharmacists will find useful in the counseling of persons with diabetes.

  9. Engaging adolescents in a computer-based weight management program: avatars and virtual coaches could help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRouge, Cynthia; Dickhut, Kathryn; Lisetti, Christine; Sangameswaran, Savitha; Malasanos, Toree

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the potential ability of animated avatars (a digital representation of the user) and virtual agents (a digital representation of a coach, buddy, or teacher) to deliver computer-based interventions for adolescents' chronic weight management. An exploration of the acceptance and desire of teens to interact with avatars and virtual agents for self-management and behavioral modification was undertaken. The utilized approach was inspired by community-based participatory research. Data was collected from 2 phases: Phase 1) focus groups with teens, provider interviews, parent interviews; and Phase 2) mid-range prototype assessment by teens and providers. Data from all stakeholder groups expressed great interest in avatars and virtual agents assisting self-management efforts. Adolescents felt the avatars and virtual agents could: 1) reinforce guidance and support, 2) fit within their lifestyle, and 3) help set future goals, particularly after witnessing the effect of their current behavior(s) on the projected physical appearance (external and internal organs) of avatars. Teens wanted 2 virtual characters: a virtual agent to act as a coach or teacher and an avatar (extension of themselves) to serve as a "buddy" for empathic support and guidance and as a surrogate for rewards. Preferred modalities for use include both mobile devices to accommodate access and desktop to accommodate preferences for maximum screen real estate to support virtualization of functions that are more contemplative and complex (e.g., goal setting). Adolescents expressed a desire for limited co-user access, which they could regulate. Data revealed certain barriers and facilitators that could affect adoption and use. The current study extends the support of teens, parents, and providers for adding avatars or virtual agents to traditional computer-based interactions. Data supports the desire for a personal relationship with a virtual character in support of previous studies. The

  10. Emotionally Troubled Teens' Help-Seeking Behaviors: An Evaluation of Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.; Ossege, Julianne; King, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Many school-based suicide prevention programs do not show a positive impact on help-seeking behaviors among emotionally troubled teens despite their being at high risk for suicide. This study is a secondary analysis of the Surviving the Teens® program evaluation to determine its effect on help-seeking behaviors among troubled youth. Results showed…

  11. Effect of combining a health program with a microfinance-based self-help group on health behaviors and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Kermode, M; Annear, P L

    2015-11-01

    Women's participation in microfinance-based self-help groups (SHGs) and the resultant social capital may provide a basis to address the gap in health attainment for poor women and their children. We investigated the effect of combining a health program designed to improve health behaviours and outcomes with a microfinance-based SHG program. A mixed method study was conducted among 34 villages selected from three blocks or district subdivisions of India; one in Gujarat, two in Karnataka. A set of 17 villages representing new health program areas were pair-matched with 17 comparison villages. Two rounds of surveys were conducted with a total of 472 respondents, followed by 17 key informant interviews and 17 focus group discussions. Compared to a matched comparison group, women in SHGs that received the health program had higher odds of delivering their babies in an institution (OR: 5.08, 95% CI 1.21-21.35), feeding colostrum to their newborn (OR: 2.83, 95% CI 1.02-5.57), and having a toilet at home (OR: 1.53, 95% CI 0.76-3.09). However, while the change was in the expected direction, there was no statistically significant reduction in diarrhoea among children in the intervention community (OR: 0.86, 95% CI 0.42-1.76), and the hypothesis that the health program would result in decreased out-pocket expenditures on treatment was not supported. Our study found evidence that health programs implemented with microfinance-based SHGs is associated with improved health behaviours. With broad population coverage of SHGs and the social capital produced by their activities, microfinance-based SHGs may provide an avenue for addressing the health needs of poor women. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert [Edgewood, NM; Pickard, Paul S [Albuquerque, NM; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E [Albuquerque, NM; Gelbard, Fred [Albuquerque, NM; Lenard, Roger X [Edgewood, NM

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  13. Global change effects on a mechanistic decomposer food web model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, L.D.J.; Berg, M.P.; Morrien, E.; Kooi, B.W.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Global change may affect the structure and functioning of decomposer food webs through qualitative changes in freshly fallen litter. We analyzed the predicted effects of a changing environment on a dynamic model of a donor-controlled natural decomposer ecosystem near Wekerom, the Netherlands. This

  14. Cost analysis of large-scale implementation of the 'Helping Babies Breathe' newborn resuscitation-training program in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sumona; Arlington, Lauren; Brenan, Shelby; Kairuki, Allan Kaijunga; Meda, Amunga Robson; Isangula, Kahabi G; Mponzi, Victor; Bishanga, Dunstan; Thomas, Erica; Msemo, Georgina; Azayo, Mary; Molinier, Alice; Nelson, Brett D

    2016-12-01

    Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) has become the gold standard globally for training birth-attendants in neonatal resuscitation in low-resource settings in efforts to reduce early newborn asphyxia and mortality. The purpose of this study was to do a first-ever activity-based cost-analysis of at-scale HBB program implementation and initial follow-up in a large region of Tanzania and evaluate costs of national scale-up as one component of a multi-method external evaluation of the implementation of HBB at scale in Tanzania. We used activity-based costing to examine budget expense data during the two-month implementation and follow-up of HBB in one of the target regions. Activity-cost centers included administrative, initial training (including resuscitation equipment), and follow-up training expenses. Sensitivity analysis was utilized to project cost scenarios incurred to achieve countrywide expansion of the program across all mainland regions of Tanzania and to model costs of program maintenance over one and five years following initiation. Total costs for the Mbeya Region were $202,240, with the highest proportion due to initial training and equipment (45.2%), followed by central program administration (37.2%), and follow-up visits (17.6%). Within Mbeya, 49 training sessions were undertaken, involving the training of 1,341 health providers from 336 health facilities in eight districts. To similarly expand the HBB program across the 25 regions of mainland Tanzania, the total economic cost is projected to be around $4,000,000 (around $600 per facility). Following sensitivity analyses, the estimated total for all Tanzania initial rollout lies between $2,934,793 to $4,309,595. In order to maintain the program nationally under the current model, it is estimated it would cost $2,019,115 for a further one year and $5,640,794 for a further five years of ongoing program support. HBB implementation is a relatively low-cost intervention with potential for high impact on perinatal

  15. Helping Citizens Help Themselves : Neighborhood Improvement Programs and the Impact of Social Networks, Trust, and Norms on Neighborhood-Oriented Forms of Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveldt, H.T.

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between social capital and neighborhood-oriented forms of participation within the context of an innovative Dutch neighborhood improvement program. On the basis of a survey among 307 residents, the author studies the link between three dimensions of social

  16. ?You Think You?re Helping Them, But They?re Helping You Too?: Experiences of Scottish Male Young Offenders Participating in a Dog Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca J. Leonardi; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Gill McIvor; Sarah-Jane Vick

    2017-01-01

    Interaction with animals can be beneficial to humans and animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) are increasingly popular in a range of contexts. Dog training programs (DTPs) are the most popular form of AAI in custodial contexts; prisoners often have multiple needs and DTPs seem to facilitate a diverse range of positive outcomes, including improvements in well-being, behavior, and offending behavior. However, evidence on the efficacy of prison-based DTPs is still limited and these evaluations o...

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of the “Helping Babies Breathe” Program in a Missionary Hospital in Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossius, Corinna; Lotto, Editha; Lyanga, Sara; Mduma, Estomih; Msemo, Georgina; Perlman, Jeffrey; Ersdal, Hege L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Helping Babies Breathe” (HBB) program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH) in rural Tanzania. Methods Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health. Findings Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY) averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide) 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated. Conclusion The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness. PMID:25006802

  18. A Blended Professional Development Program to Help a Teacher Learn to Provide One-to-One Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belland, Brian R.; Burdo, Ryan; Gu, Jiangyue

    2015-04-01

    Argumentation is central to instruction centered on socio-scientific issues (Sadler & Donnelly in International Journal of Science Education, 28(12), 1463-1488, 2006. doi: 10.1080/09500690600708717). Teachers can play a big role in helping students engage in argumentation and solve authentic scientific problems. To do so, they need to learn one-to-one scaffolding—dynamic support to help students accomplish tasks that they could not complete unaided. This study explores a middle school science teacher's provision of one-to-one scaffolding during a problem-based learning unit, in which students argued about how to optimize the water quality of their local river. The blended professional development program incorporated three 1.5-h seminars, one 8-h workshop, and 4 weeks of online education activities. Data sources were video of three small groups per period, and what students typed in response to prompts from computer-based argumentation scaffolds. Results indicated that the teacher provided one-to-one scaffolding on a par with inquiry-oriented teachers described in the literature.

  19. Initial Findings from a Novel School-Based Program, EMPATHY, Which May Help Reduce Depression and Suicidality in Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Silverstone

    Full Text Available We describe initial pilot findings from a novel school-based approach to reduce youth depression and suicidality, the Empowering a Multimodal Pathway Towards Healthy Youth (EMPATHY program. Here we present the findings from the pilot cohort of 3,244 youth aged 11-18 (Grades 6-12. They were screened for depression, suicidality, anxiety, use of drugs, alcohol, or tobacco (DAT, quality-of-life, and self-esteem. Additionally, all students in Grades 7 and 8 (mean ages 12.3 and 13.3 respectively also received an 8-session cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT based program designed to increase resiliency to depression. Following screening there were rapid interventions for the 125 students (3.9% who were identified as being actively suicidal, as well as for another 378 students (11.7% who were felt to be at higher-risk of self-harm based on a combination of scores from all the scales. The intervention consisted of an interview with the student and their family followed by offering a guided internet-based CBT program. Results from the 2,790 students who completed scales at both baseline and 12-week follow-up showed significant decreases in depression and suicidality. Importantly, there was a marked decrease in the number of students who were actively suicidal (from n=125 at baseline to n=30 at 12-weeks. Of the 503 students offered the CBT program 163 (32% took part, and this group had significantly lower depression scores compared to those who didn't take part. There were no improvements in self-esteem, quality-of-life, or the number of students using DAT. Only 60 students (2% of total screened required external referral during the 24-weeks following study initiation. These results suggest that a multimodal school-based program may provide an effective and pragmatic approach to help reduce youth depression and suicidality. Further research is required to determine longer-term efficacy, reproducibility, and key program elements.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  20. "You Think You're Helping Them, But They're Helping You Too": Experiences of Scottish Male Young Offenders Participating in a Dog Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rebecca J; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; McIvor, Gill; Vick, Sarah-Jane

    2017-08-22

    Interaction with animals can be beneficial to humans and animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) are increasingly popular in a range of contexts. Dog training programs (DTPs) are the most popular form of AAI in custodial contexts; prisoners often have multiple needs and DTPs seem to facilitate a diverse range of positive outcomes, including improvements in well-being, behavior, and offending behavior. However, evidence on the efficacy of prison-based DTPs is still limited and these evaluations often lack detail or methodological rigor. We examined the experiences of male young offenders (N = 70) using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted following completion of a DTP. The themes that emerged indicated a broad range of inter-related experiences and positive outcomes. The most prevalent theme related to their experiences with Dogs (including feelings and attitudes), and there were perceived improvements categorized as: Positive Effects (including mood and well-being), Motivation, Charitable Purpose, Self-Efficacy, Improved Skills, Impulsivity, and Emotional Management. These themes mapped well onto outcomes previously identified in research on DTPs, and to the program's core aims of improving behavior, educational engagement, employability, and well-being. The diversity and nature of these themes indicates that DTPs have considerable potential to engage and benefit those individuals with multiple needs, such as young offenders, and ultimately to achieve positive long-term outcomes with significant social, health, and economic impact.

  1. An evaluation study of a gender-specific smoking cessation program to help Hong Kong Chinese women quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Wan, Zoe Siu Fung; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-09-29

    There is a lack of population-based smoking cessation interventions targeting woman smokers in Hong Kong, and in Asia generally. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a gender-specific smoking cessation program for female smokers in Hong Kong. To evaluate the effectiveness of the service, a total of 457 eligible smokers were recruited. After the baseline questionnaire had been completed, a cessation counseling intervention was given by a trained counselor according to the stage of readiness to quit. Self-reported seven-day point prevalence of abstinence and reduction of cigarette consumption (≥50 %) and self-efficacy in rejecting tobacco were documented at one week and at two, three and six months. The 7-day point prevalence quit rate was 28.4 % (130/457), and 21.9 % (100/457) had reduced their cigarette consumption by at least 50 % at the six-month follow-up. The average daily cigarette consumption was reduced from 8.3 at baseline to 6.3 at six months. Moreover, both internal and external stimuli of anti-smoking self-efficacy increased from baseline to six months. The study provides some evidence for the effectiveness of the gender-specific smoking cessation program for female smokers. Furthermore, helping smokers to improve their self-efficacy in resisting both internal and external stimuli of tobacco use can be a way of enhancing the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention.

  2. Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral Self-Help Program on Emotional Problems for People with Acquired Hearing Loss: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a cognitive-behavioral self-help program was effective in improving depressed mood and anxiety in people with acquired deafness. Participants were 45 persons with acquired deafness, randomly allocated to the Cognitive-Behavioral Self-help (CBS) group or the Waiting List Control (WLC) group. Depression…

  3. Getting Help with Child Care Expenses. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies. Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannarelli, Linda; Adelman, Sarah; Schmidt, Stefanie

    As part of the "Assessing the New Federalism" project monitoring and assessing the devolution of social programs from the federal to the state and local levels, this study explored how much help employed families get with child care expenses and the types of help they receive. The analysis is based on data from the 1997 and 1999 National…

  4. “You Think You’re Helping Them, But They’re Helping You Too”: Experiences of Scottish Male Young Offenders Participating in a Dog Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Leonardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Interaction with animals can be beneficial to humans and animal-assisted interventions (AAIs are increasingly popular in a range of contexts. Dog training programs (DTPs are the most popular form of AAI in custodial contexts; prisoners often have multiple needs and DTPs seem to facilitate a diverse range of positive outcomes, including improvements in well-being, behavior, and offending behavior. However, evidence on the efficacy of prison-based DTPs is still limited and these evaluations often lack detail or methodological rigor. We examined the experiences of male young offenders (N = 70 using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted following completion of a DTP. The themes that emerged indicated a broad range of inter-related experiences and positive outcomes. The most prevalent theme related to their experiences with Dogs (including feelings and attitudes, and there were perceived improvements categorized as: Positive Effects (including mood and well-being, Motivation, Charitable Purpose, Self-Efficacy, Improved Skills, Impulsivity, and Emotional Management. These themes mapped well onto outcomes previously identified in research on DTPs, and to the program’s core aims of improving behavior, educational engagement, employability, and well-being. The diversity and nature of these themes indicates that DTPs have considerable potential to engage and benefit those individuals with multiple needs, such as young offenders, and ultimately to achieve positive long-term outcomes with significant social, health, and economic impact.

  5. Effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program and a computerized structured writing intervention on depressed mood for HIV-infected people: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, V.; van Emmerik, A.; Garnefski, N.; Schroevers, M.J.; Lo-Fo-Wong, D.; Empelen, P.; Dusseldorp, E.; Witlox, R.; Maes, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine whether low-resource, cost-effective intervention programs can be effective in improving depressed mood in people with HIV. The efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral self-help program (CBS) and a computerized structured writing intervention (SWI)

  6. A Bridge to Active Learning: A Summer Bridge Program Helps Students Maximize Their Active-Learning Experiences and the Active-Learning Experiences of Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katelyn M.; Ashley, Michael; Brownell, Sara E.

    2017-01-01

    National calls to improve student academic success in college have sparked the development of bridge programs designed to help students transition from high school to college. We designed a 2-week Summer Bridge program that taught introductory biology content in an active-learning way. Through a set of exploratory interviews, we unexpectedly…

  7. Effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program and a computerized structured writing intervention on depressed mood for HIV-infected people : A pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Vivian; van Emmerik, Arnold; Garnefski, Nadia; Schroevers, Maya J.; Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah; van Empelen, Pepijn; Dusseldorp, Elise; Witlox, Robert; Maes, Stan

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine whether low-resource, cost-effective intervention programs can be effective in improving depressed mood in people with HIV. The efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral self-help program (CBS) and a computerized structured writing intervention (SWI)

  8. Help me, help me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Joyce

    2017-10-01

    Disruptive vocalization and resisting personal care is a problem for staff in most skilled nursing facilities. Often these behaviors result in the resident being treated with antipsychotics. The Namaste Care program which takes place in a calm environment and offers a loving touch approach to care, has been successful in eliminating these behaviors. The room or space where Namaste Care takes place is as free from disruption as possible and as the resident is welcomed into the room, the calming music and scent of lavender surrounds them. In this case report, the resident stopped crying out as soon as she entered the room. This resident also became comfortable with being touched when touch was offered in a slow, loving manner. Much to the delight of staff this had a "trickle down" effect as the resident stopped resisting care even when she was out of the Namaste Care room. The result was that this resident's last year of life was filled with loving care until she took her last breath.

  9. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently...... conjectured by Baudon et al. that every undirected graph admits a decomposition into at most three locally irregular graphs, except for a well-characterized set of indecomposable graphs. We herein consider an oriented version of this conjecture. Namely, can every oriented graph be decomposed into at most...... three locally irregular oriented graphs, i.e. whose adjacent vertices have distinct outdegrees? We start by supporting this conjecture by verifying it for several classes of oriented graphs. We then prove a weaker version of this conjecture. Namely, we prove that every oriented graph can be decomposed...

  11. Alcohol e-Help: study protocol for a web-based self-help program to reduce alcohol use in adults with drinking patterns considered harmful, hazardous or suggestive of dependence in middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael P; Tiburcio, Marcela; Martinez, Nora; Ambekar, Atul; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Wenger, Andreas; Monezi Andrade, André Luiz; Padruchny, Dzianis; Osipchik, Sergey; Gehring, Elise; Poznyak, Vladimir; Rekve, Dag; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2017-09-17

    Given the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e-health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web-based self-help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the internet-based self-help intervention to reduce alcohol use. Two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) with follow-up 6 months after randomization. Community samples in middle-income countries. People aged 18+, with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of 8+ indicating hazardous alcohol consumption. Offer of an internet-based self-help intervention, 'Alcohol e-Health', compared with a 'waiting list' control group. The intervention, adapted from a previous program with evidence of effectiveness in a high-income country, consists of modules to reduce or entirely stop drinking. The primary outcome measure is change in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score assessed at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include self-reported the numbers of standard drinks and alcohol-free days in a typical week during the past 6 months, and cessation of harmful or hazardous drinking (AUDIT < 8). Data analysis will be by intention-to-treat, using analysis of covariance to test if program participants will experience a greater reduction in their AUDIT score than controls at follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be analysed by (generalized) linear mixed models. Complier average causal effect and baseline observations carried forward will be used in sensitivity analyses. If the Alcohol e-Health program is found to be effective, the potential public health impact of its expansion into countries with underdeveloped alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatment systems world-wide is considerable. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Decomposing demographic change into direct vs. compositional components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W.; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    We present and prove a formula for decomposing change in a population average into two components. One component captures the effect of direct change in the characteristic of interest, and the other captures the effect of compositional change. The decomposition is applied to time derivatives of a...... is also presented. Other examples concern global life expectancy and the growth rate of the population of the world.......We present and prove a formula for decomposing change in a population average into two components. One component captures the effect of direct change in the characteristic of interest, and the other captures the effect of compositional change. The decomposition is applied to time derivatives...

  13. After School: Connecting Children at Risk with Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors--An RWJF National Program. Program Results Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "After School: Connecting Children at Risk With Responsible Adults to Help Reduce Youth Substance Abuse and Other Health-Compromising Behaviors (After School)" helped develop intermediary organizations in Boston, Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to create citywide systems of after-school programs. The…

  14. Decomposing changes in life expectancy: Compression versus shifting mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Ebeling, Marcus; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Shifting and compression of mortality have been studied through two components of mortality: modal age at death and variability of the age at death. These two components inform us about the timing and age patterns of mortality respectively. The aim of this study is to decompose changes in life...

  15. Decomposing graphs into a constant number of locally irregular subgraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Merker, Martin; Thomassen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    A graph is locally irregular if no two adjacent vertices have the same degree. The irregular chromatic index χirr′(G) of a graph G is the smallest number of locally irregular subgraphs needed to edge-decompose G. Not all graphs have such a decomposition, but Baudon, Bensmail, Przybyło, and Woźnia...

  16. Natural manganese deposits as catalyst for decomposing hydrogen peroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.H.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking water companies (are intending to) implement advanced oxidation processes (AOP) in their treatment schemes to increase the barrier against organic micropollutants (OMPs). It is necessary to decompose the excessive hydrogen peroxide after applying AOP to avoid negative effects in the

  17. Allelopathic effects of Juglone and decomposed walnut leaf juice on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, effects of juglone and decomposed walnut leaf juice on muskmelon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Beith Alpha) seed germination percentage and postgermination seedling growth were investigated. Decomposition was carried out by keeping the leaves in distilled water.

  18. A (de)composable theory of rhythm perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.

    1992-01-01

    A definition is given of expectancy of events projected into the future by a complex temporal sequence. The definition can be decomposed into basic expectancy components projected by each time interval implicit in the sequence. A preliminary formulation of these basic curves is proposed and the

  19. Decomposing preference shifts for meat and fish in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Burrell, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The changing preferences of Dutch consumers for meat and fish are investigated using a switching almost ideal demand system. Structural change in demand between January 1994 and May 1998 is decomposed into underlying trends, temporarily irreversible preference shifts triggered by the BSE crisis of

  20. Catalytic activities of zeolite compounds for decomposing aqueous ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Ai; Kitayama, Mikito; Ohta, Yoshio

    2013-12-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP), chemical oxidation using aqueous ozone in the presence of appropriate catalysts to generate highly reactive oxygen species, offers an attractive option for removing poorly biodegradable pollutants. Using the commercial zeolite powders with various Si/Al ratios and crystal structures, their catalytic activities for decomposing aqueous ozone were evaluated by continuously flowing ozone to water containing the zeolite powders. The hydrophilic zeolites (low Si/Al ratio) with alkali cations in the crystal structures were found to possess high catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. The hydrophobic zeolite compounds (high Si/Al ratio) were found to absorb ozone very well, but to have no catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. Their catalytic activities were also evaluated by using the fixed bed column method. When alkali cations were removed by acid rinsing or substituted by alkali-earth cations, the catalytic activities was significantly deteriorated. These results suggest that the metal cations on the crystal surface of the hydrophilic zeolite would play a key role for catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a cognitive behavioral self-help program on depressed mood for people with acquired chronic physical impairments : A pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian; Schroevers, Maya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Aim was to examine whether a new cognitive-behavioral self-help intervention program was effective in improving depressed mood in people with acquired chronic physical impairments. Methods: Participants were 32 persons with acquired chronic physical impairments and depressive symptoms,

  2. How trained volunteers can improve the quality of hospital care for older patients. A qualitative evaluation within the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas Steunenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full text beschikbaar met HU-account. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a mixed-methods design, the added value of a trained Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) volunteer to the quality of hospital care in the Netherlands. The trained volunteers daily stimulate older patients, at risk

  3. How trained volunteers can improve the quality of hospital care for older patients. A qualitative evaluation within the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steunenberg, Bas; van der Mast, Roos; Strijbos, Marije J.; Inouye, Sharon K.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, using a mixed-methods design, the added value of a trained Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) volunteer to the quality of hospital care in the Netherlands. The trained volunteers daily stimulate older patients, at risk of a delirium, to eat, to drink, and to

  4. Persons with Multiple Disabilities Exercise Adaptive Response Schemes with the Help of Technology-Based Programs: Three Single-Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The present three single-case studies assessed the effectiveness of technology-based programs to help three persons with multiple disabilities exercise adaptive response schemes independently. The response schemes included (a) left and right head movements for a man who kept his head increasingly static on his wheelchair's headrest (Study I), (b)…

  5. A Web-Disseminated Self-Help and Peer Support Program Could Fill Gaps in Mental Health Care: Lessons From a Consumer Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernecker, Samantha L; Banschback, Kaitlin; Santorelli, Gennarina D; Constantino, Michael J

    2017-01-19

    Self-guided mental health interventions that are disseminated via the Web have the potential to circumvent barriers to treatment and improve public mental health. However, self-guided interventions often fail to attract consumers and suffer from user nonadherence. Uptake of novel interventions could be improved by consulting consumers from the beginning of the development process in order to assess their interest and their preferences. Interventions can then be tailored using this feedback to optimize appeal. The aim of our study was to determine the level of public interest in a new mental health intervention that incorporates elements of self-help and peer counseling and that is disseminated via a Web-based training course; to identify predictors of interest in the program; and to identify consumer preferences for features of Web-based courses and peer support programs. We surveyed consumers via Amazon's Mechanical Turk to estimate interest in the self-help and peer support program. We assessed associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and interest in the program, and we obtained feedback on desired features of the program. Overall, 63.9% (378/592) of respondents said that they would try the program; interest was lower but still substantial among those who were not willing or able to access traditional mental health services. Female gender, lower income, and openness to using psychotherapy were the most consistent predictors of interest in the program. The majority of respondents, although not all, preferred romantic partners or close friends as peer counselors and would be most likely to access the program if the training course were accessed on a stand-alone website. In general, respondents valued training in active listening skills. In light of the apparent public interest in this program, Web-disseminated self-help and peer support interventions have enormous potential to fill gaps in mental health care. The results of this survey can be

  6. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation did not help low income Hispanic women in Texas meet the dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmers, Angela; Chen, Tzu-An; Dave, Jayna M; Thompson, Deborah; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-05-01

    Low-income Hispanic women are at greater risk for dietary deficiencies and obesity. We assessed the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation and dietary intake among 661 Hispanic women aged 26-44 years living in Texas. Cross-sectional data was collected using standard methods. Analysis of variance and logistic regression examined the influence of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program on diet after adjusting for household characteristics, body mass index, and food security status. Most women did not meet recommended dietary guidelines. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants consumed higher amounts of total sugars, sweets-desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages than Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program nonparticipants. High sodium intakes and low dairy consumption were observed in both groups. Only 27% of low-income eligible women received Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits. Low-income Hispanic women participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program reported less healthful dietary patterns than nonparticipants. This may contribute to the increased obesity prevalence and related comorbidities observed in this population. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program should play an important role in enhancing the overall dietary quality of low-income households. Policy initiatives such as limiting the purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages and education to enable women to reduce consumption of high sodium processed foods deserve consideration as means to improve the dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants. Effective measures are needed to increase Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation rates among Hispanics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Afterschool Programs: Making a Difference in America's Communities by Improving Academic Achievement, Keeping Kids Safe and Helping Working Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 2-page resource describes the benefits of afterschool programs for children, youth, and families, including evidence of improved school attendance and engagement learning, improved test scores and grades, and students at greatest risk showing the greatest gains. Additional benefits of afterschool programs include keeping kids safe, healthy,…

  8. Can After-School Programs Help Level the Academic Playing Field for Disadvantaged Youth? Equity Matters. Research Review No. 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    As schools struggle to meet federal achievement standards, after-school programs are increasingly viewed as a potential source of academic support for youth at risk of school failure. The hope among youth advocates and policymakers is that after-school programs can partially compensate for the inequities that plague the nation's schools and play a…

  9. Should Programs Designed to Help IPV Survivors Screen for Mental Health-Related Problems: Voices From the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Catherine A; Delaney, Matthew J; Lindsey, Leslie; Whalley, Anna; Murry-Drobot, Olliette; Gayle Beck, J

    2016-05-12

    Qualitative responses that 187 service providers gave to a question assessing whether agencies designed to help intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors should screen for mental health-related problems were analyzed using a version of the concept mapping approach. Nine central clusters emerged from the data analysis, which can be linked to three underlying themes: how the identification of mental health-related problems (i.e., labeling) could be misused when working with IPV survivors, ways screening can be appropriately used to help IPV survivors, and barriers that prevent screening. Findings highlight the importance of trauma-informed approaches across all aspects of service delivery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Implementing an evidence-based parenting program in community agencies: what helps and what gets in the way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary-Eden, Veronica; Lee, Catherine M

    2012-11-01

    Adoption of evidence-based programs for families by community agencies requires an understanding of variables that influence implementation. Managers and service providers from 64 community agencies reported on variables that affected the implementation of Triple P, an evidence-based parenting program. Both types of stakeholders reported adequate office resources; over half the managers and over two-thirds of service providers reported adequate training. Adequate office resources and positive agency characteristics, including organizational climate, were associated with higher program usage. Service providers' reports of the variables impacted their individual adherence rates; managers had broader perspectives of the quality of implementation in their organizations.

  11. Facilitating mental health help-seeking by young adults with a dedicated online program: a feasibility study of Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauer, Sylvia D; Buhagiar, Kerrie; Blake, Victoria; Cotton, Sue; Sanci, Lena

    2017-07-09

    To explore the feasibility of a dedicated online youth mental health help-seeking intervention and to evaluate using a randomised controlled trial (RCT) study design in order to identify any modifications needed before commencement of the full-scale RCT. A pilot RCT with 1:1 randomisation to either the intervention or comparison arm. An online study conducted Australia-wide. 18-25 year olds living in Australia were recruited via social media. Link is a dedicated online mental health help-seeking navigation tool that matches user's mental health issues, severity and service-type preferences (online, phone and face-to-face) with appropriate youth-friendly services. The comparison arm was usual help-seeking strategies with a link to Google.com. The primary outcome was the number of acceptability and feasibility criteria successfully met. Intervention and study design acceptability and feasibility were assessed by nine criteria. Secondary outcomes, via online surveys (at baseline, 1 week and 1 month) measured service use, help-seeking intentions, psychological distress, barriers to help-seeking, attitudes towards mental health help-seeking, mental health literacy, satisfaction and trust. Fifty-one participants were randomised (intervention: n=24; comparison: n=27). Three out of four of the intervention and two out of five of the study design criteria were met. Unmet criteria could be addressed by modifications to the study design. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that Link was useful to participants and may have increased their positive experiences towards help-seeking. There were no observable differences between arms in any outcome measures and no harms were detected. Generally, the Link intervention and study design were acceptable and feasible with modifications suggested for the four out of nine unmet criteria. The main trial will hence have shorter surveys and a simpler recruitment process, use positive affect as the primary outcome and will not link to

  12. The Soul's Legacy: A Program Designed to Help Prepare Senior Adults Cope With End-of-Life Existential Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Current innovative psychological therapies have made great progress in addressing existential suffering in dying patients but are often begun to late in the end-of-life process and often ignore religion, which for many is a major component in the meaning-making process. Therefore, this article explores how chaplains (who are familiar with various religious traditions without promoting them) can help prepare senior adults effectively cope with inevitable end-of-life existential issues. The project described in this article provides tools for chaplains to address the real issues that terrify us all, but particularly the elderly: death, isolation, and meaninglessness. It is proposed that the addition of a spiritual will or legacy of the soul added to end-of-life planning can help ameliorate existential suffering at life's end.

  13. Characteristics of Three Decomposer Accelerators on Maize Straw Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUANG En-jun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to make sure the effect of straw decomposer accelerators on the maize straws in Northeast of China, mesh bag method was used to determine the decomposition characteristics of maize straw biomass amount and nutrition release regularity in one year. The results showed that after 100 days, decomposition rates of maize straws biomass amount were between 57.1%-64.1%. The highest decomposition rate of 64.1% was the treatment with the 3rd decomposer accelerator. The nutrition release rates of N, P and K were 35.1%-57.2%, 44.2%-59.6%,and 77.4%-89.7% at the end of period, respectively. And the 3rd decomposer accelerator treatment had a better effect on the release rate of P and K. All treatments had the same trend of organic C mineralization rate which increased with the time extending, at last the organic C min-eralization rate was between 65.3% and 69.1%. The results showed the 3rd decomposition accelerator had better effect than others.

  14. A look at a community coming together to meet the needs of older adults: an evaluation of the neighbors Helping Neighbors program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickey, Rebecca; Kelley-Gillespie, Nancy; Farley, O William

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Neighbors Helping Neighbors program. The study included surveys of 49 community-residing older adults and 26 community volunteers. Results showed that older adults perceived their quality of life to have improved after receiving social and environmental services; volunteers felt that their contributions to the program had made a significant difference in their community. This exploratory, descriptive study is only a beginning effort, but it holds great promise for suggesting ways to address the needs of the burgeoning aging population in our society.

  15. Does a self-referral counselling program reach doctors in need of help? A comparison with the general Norwegian doctor workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gude Tore

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doctors have a relatively high degree of emotional distress, but seek help to a lesser degree and at a later stage than other academic groups. This can be deleterious for themselves and for their patients. Prevention programs have therefore been developed but it is unclear to what extent they reach doctors in need of help. This study describes doctors who participated in a self-referrral, easily accessible, stress relieving, counselling program in Norway, and compares them with a nationwide sample of Norwegian doctors. Methods Two hundred and twenty seven (94% of the doctors, 117 women and 110 men, who came to the resort centre Villa Sana, Modum, Norway, between August 2003 and July 2005, agreed to participate in the study. Socio-demographic data, reasons for and ways of help-seeking, sick-leave, symptoms of depression and anxiety, job stress and burnout were assessed by self-reporting questionnaires. Results Forty-nine percent of the Sana doctors were emotionally exhausted (Maslach compared with 25% of all Norwegian doctors. However, they did not differ on empathy and working capacity, the other two dimensions in Maslach's burnout inventory. Seventy-three percent of the Sana doctors could be in need of treatment for depression or anxiety based on their symptom distress scores, compared with 14% of men and 18% of women doctors in Norway. Twenty-one percent of the Sana doctors had a history of suicidal thoughts, including how to commit the act, as compared to 10% of Norwegian doctors in general. Conclusion Sana doctors displayed a higher degree of emotional exhaustion, symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as job related stress, compared with all Norwegian doctors. This may indicate that the program at Villa Sana to a large extent reaches doctors in need of help. The counselling intervention can help doctors to evaluate their professional and private situation, and, when necessary, enhance motivation for seeking adequate

  16. Does a self-referral counselling program reach doctors in need of help? A comparison with the general Norwegian doctor workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rø, Karin E Isaksson; Gude, Tore; Aasland, Olaf G

    2007-03-16

    Doctors have a relatively high degree of emotional distress, but seek help to a lesser degree and at a later stage than other academic groups. This can be deleterious for themselves and for their patients. Prevention programs have therefore been developed but it is unclear to what extent they reach doctors in need of help. This study describes doctors who participated in a self-referrral, easily accessible, stress relieving, counselling program in Norway, and compares them with a nationwide sample of Norwegian doctors. Two hundred and twenty seven (94%) of the doctors, 117 women and 110 men, who came to the resort centre Villa Sana, Modum, Norway, between August 2003 and July 2005, agreed to participate in the study. Socio-demographic data, reasons for and ways of help-seeking, sick-leave, symptoms of depression and anxiety, job stress and burnout were assessed by self-reporting questionnaires. Forty-nine percent of the Sana doctors were emotionally exhausted (Maslach) compared with 25% of all Norwegian doctors. However, they did not differ on empathy and working capacity, the other two dimensions in Maslach's burnout inventory. Seventy-three percent of the Sana doctors could be in need of treatment for depression or anxiety based on their symptom distress scores, compared with 14% of men and 18% of women doctors in Norway. Twenty-one percent of the Sana doctors had a history of suicidal thoughts, including how to commit the act, as compared to 10% of Norwegian doctors in general. Sana doctors displayed a higher degree of emotional exhaustion, symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as job related stress, compared with all Norwegian doctors. This may indicate that the program at Villa Sana to a large extent reaches doctors in need of help. The counselling intervention can help doctors to evaluate their professional and private situation, and, when necessary, enhance motivation for seeking adequate treatment.

  17. Don't Hate, Just Mediate: Understanding the Impact of a Conflict Mediation Program on Adolescents' Experiences with Conflict, Safety and Help Seeking in Urban Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Conflict, bullying and harassment are serious concerns in our public schools. This kind of school violence threatens not only students' health and safety, but also their ability to learn and have positive, educational experiences. Numerous individual and environmental factors contribute to students' decisions about how to respond to conflict or seek help for these problems. Conflict mediation is one type of program that has received widespread support and adoption; however, the results of man...

  18. Yoga Helps Put the Pieces Back Together: A Qualitative Exploration of a Community-Based Yoga Program for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Amanda J.; Yamauchi, Yayoi; Pires, Lanie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Objective. A qualitative research methods approach was used to explore the experiences of participants in an ongoing community-based yoga program developed for cancer survivors and their support persons. Methods. 25 participants took part in a series of semistructured focus groups following a seven-week yoga program and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a process of inductive thematic analysis. Results. The group was comprised of 20 cancer survivors, who were diagnosed on average 25.40 (20.85) months earlier, and five support persons. Participants had completed the yoga program an average of 3.35 (3.66) times previously and attended approximately 1.64 (0.70) of three possible focus groups. Four key themes were identified: (1) safety and shared understanding; (2) cancer-specific yoga instruction; (3) benefits of yoga participation; (4) mechanisms of yoga practice. Conclusions. Qualitative research provides unique and in-depth insight into the yoga experience. Specifically, cancer survivors and support persons participating in a community-based yoga program discussed their experiences of change over time and were acutely aware of the beneficial effects of yoga on their physical, psychological, and social well-being. Further, participants were able to articulate the mechanisms they perceived as underpinning the relationship between yoga and improved well-being as they developed their yoga practice. PMID:27974899

  19. Yoga Helps Put the Pieces Back Together: A Qualitative Exploration of a Community-Based Yoga Program for Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Mackenzie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A qualitative research methods approach was used to explore the experiences of participants in an ongoing community-based yoga program developed for cancer survivors and their support persons. Methods. 25 participants took part in a series of semistructured focus groups following a seven-week yoga program and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a process of inductive thematic analysis. Results. The group was comprised of 20 cancer survivors, who were diagnosed on average 25.40 (20.85 months earlier, and five support persons. Participants had completed the yoga program an average of 3.35 (3.66 times previously and attended approximately 1.64 (0.70 of three possible focus groups. Four key themes were identified: (1 safety and shared understanding; (2 cancer-specific yoga instruction; (3 benefits of yoga participation; (4 mechanisms of yoga practice. Conclusions. Qualitative research provides unique and in-depth insight into the yoga experience. Specifically, cancer survivors and support persons participating in a community-based yoga program discussed their experiences of change over time and were acutely aware of the beneficial effects of yoga on their physical, psychological, and social well-being. Further, participants were able to articulate the mechanisms they perceived as underpinning the relationship between yoga and improved well-being as they developed their yoga practice.

  20. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children's Kindergarten Adjustment: The Research-Based Developmentally Informed Parent Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.; Nix, Robert L.; Mathis, Erin T.

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games,…

  1. Can Architects Help Transform Public Education? What the Sarasota County Civic School Building Program (1955-1960) Teaches Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    The Sarasota County School Building Program 1955-1960 is revisited through a detailed examination of how architects and educators collaborated to design an innovative group of public schools that provided opportunities for the transformation of learning space. This multi-dimensioned examination is grounded in an historical contextualization of the…

  2. Instruction to Help Young Children Develop Language and Literacy Skills: The Roles of Program Design and Instructional Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Barbara; Vadasy, Patricia; Smolkowski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the kinds of instructional activities that young children need to develop basic language and literacy skills based on recent research and program evaluations. This includes approaches to develop alphabetic understanding, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and oral language. Activities and materials from the Pre-kindergarten…

  3. Students Helping Students: Evaluating a Pilot Program of Peer Teaching for an Undergraduate Course in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Paul A.; Love Green, Jennifer K.; Illerbrun, Sara L.; Holness, Duncan A.; Illerbrun, Samantha J.; Haus, Kara A.; Poirier, Sylvianne M.; Sveinson, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on…

  4. Students helping students: Evaluating a pilot program of peer teaching for an undergraduate course in human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love Green, Jennifer K.; Illerbrun, Sara L.; Holness, Duncan A.; Illerbrun, Samantha J.; Haus, Kara A.; Poirier, Sylvianne M.; Sveinson, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on the number of peer teaching sessions they attended: nonattendees (0 sessions), infrequently attended (1‐3 sessions), and frequently attended (≥ 4 sessions). After controlling for academic preparedness [i.e., admission grade point average (AGPA)] using an analysis of covariance, the final grades of frequent attendees were significantly higher than those of nonattendees (P = 0.025) and infrequent attendees (P = 0.015). A multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative independent contribution of several variables in predicting the final grade. The results suggest that frequent attendance (β = 0.245, P = 0.007) and AGPA (β = 0.555, P student (β = −0.217, P = 0.006) was a significant negative predictor. Collectively, these results suggest that attending a certain number of sessions may be required to gain a noticeable benefit from the program, and that first‐year students (particularly those with a lower level of academic preparedness) would likely stand to benefit from maximally using the program. End‐of‐semester surveys and reports indicate that the program had several additional benefits, both to the students taking the course and to the students who served as program leaders. Anat Sci Educ 9: 132–142. © 2015 The Authors. Anatomical Sciences Education published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of the American Association of Anatomists. PMID:26060978

  5. Students helping students: Evaluating a pilot program of peer teaching for an undergraduate course in human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Paul A; Love Green, Jennifer K; Illerbrun, Sara L; Holness, Duncan A; Illerbrun, Samantha J; Haus, Kara A; Poirier, Sylvianne M; Sveinson, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    The educational literature generally suggests that supplemental instruction (SI) is effective in improving academic performance in traditionally difficult courses. A pilot program of peer teaching based on the SI model was implemented for an undergraduate course in human anatomy. Students in the course were stratified into three groups based on the number of peer teaching sessions they attended: nonattendees (0 sessions), infrequently attended (1-3 sessions), and frequently attended (≥ 4 sessions). After controlling for academic preparedness [i.e., admission grade point average (AGPA)] using an analysis of covariance, the final grades of frequent attendees were significantly higher than those of nonattendees (P = 0.025) and infrequent attendees (P = 0.015). A multiple regression analysis was performed to estimate the relative independent contribution of several variables in predicting the final grade. The results suggest that frequent attendance (β = 0.245, P = 0.007) and AGPA (β = 0.555, P < 0.001) were significant positive predictors, while being a first-year student (β = -0.217, P = 0.006) was a significant negative predictor. Collectively, these results suggest that attending a certain number of sessions may be required to gain a noticeable benefit from the program, and that first-year students (particularly those with a lower level of academic preparedness) would likely stand to benefit from maximally using the program. End-of-semester surveys and reports indicate that the program had several additional benefits, both to the students taking the course and to the students who served as program leaders. Published 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Improving surgical resident's performance in the American Board of Surgery in Training Examination (ABSITE)--do review courses help? The program directors' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggarshe, Deepa; Mittal, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of the 80-hour week compounded by the need for the current trainee to be well versed technically with the newer developments in surgery has resulted in limited time for didactic education. Commercial American Board of Surgery in Training examination (ABSITE) review courses are flourishing and may seem to be filling the gap in didactic education. This study ascertained the opinion of the general surgery program directors across the country on the role of the review courses in the ABSITE performance of a surgical resident. A questionnaire was designed and sent out to all program directors using online survey. Sixty-five of 242 program directors completed the questionnaire. Fifty-seven percent belonged to university-based surgical residency programs. Seventy-two percent used ABSITE performance as a measure while evaluating the resident for promotion. Although 60% agreed that review courses help the performance of the residents, 80% did not have any institutional or regional review courses. Ninety percent allowed their residents to attend commercial review courses but 60% did not reimburse them. Program directors do feel that ABSITE by itself is important in evaluating the progression of surgical residents and has a correlation with the boards' pass percentile. Due to the limited hours available for didactics in current surgical residency, intensive review course over a 2- to 3-day period may help the surgical residents to perform better. In the current economy, review courses offered by a consortium of programs geared toward improving ABSITE performance and conducted by the surgical faculty may be of essence. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Helping Teens Cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jami I.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)

  8. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children's Kindergarten Adjustment: The Research-Based Developmentally Informed Parent Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L; Welsh, Janet A; Heinrichs, Brenda S; Nix, Robert L; Mathis, Erin T

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games, interactive stories, and guided pretend play to use with their children. To evaluate impact, two hundred 4-year-old children in Head Start REDI classrooms were randomly assigned to REDI-P or a comparison condition (mail-home math games). Beyond the effects of the classroom program, REDI-P promoted significant improvements in child literacy skills, academic performance, self-directed learning, and social competence, demonstrating the utility of the approach in promoting gains in cognitive and social-emotional skills evident after the transition into kindergarten. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. An innovative lab-based training program to help patient groups understand their disease and the research process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow "trainees" to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians.

  10. An innovative lab-based training program to help patient groups understand their disease and the research process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Marion; Hammond, Constance; Karlin, David G

    2015-02-01

    Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow "trainees" to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians.

  11. An Innovative Lab-Based Training Program to Help Patient Groups Understand Their Disease and the Research Process

    OpenAIRE

    Marion Mathieu; Constance Hammond; Karlin, David G.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow " trainees " to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French p...

  12. Long-Term Learning in a Short-Term Study Abroad Program: "Are We Really Truly Helping the Community?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Penelope; Purtzer, Mary Anne

    2015-01-01

    To discover long-term learning outcomes in a short-term study abroad program. Students worked directly with community members to identify health issues, implement educational workshops addressing those issues, and evaluate health outcomes. This is a qualitative, descriptive study. Thematic analysis was conducted using a written questionnaire completed one or more years postimmersion. The sample was 41 nursing students who participated in a 10-day immersion experience in remote Honduras. Four themes emerged revealing evidence of long-term learning. Three of these themes, Embracing Other, Gaining Cultural Competencies, and Experiencing an Ethnocentric Shift, are supported in the literature. The fourth theme, Negotiating Ethical Dilemmas, offers a new finding. Although educators have questioned ethical consequences of study abroad programs, there is a paucity of literature indicating that students are the ones doing the questioning. Implications for educators and community members alike include facilitating dialog about collective worldviews related to global health ethics when designing study abroad programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Help LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Carreras,R; Lehmann,P

    1988-01-01

    première partie: Help LEP ou le tunnel de l'infini- pièce radiophonique intéréssant sur l'origine de la matière deuxième partie: Help LEP débat; suite à cette pièce interview avec 3 physiciens du Cern sur le projet LEP et le but du Cern qui est la recherche fondamentale

  14. Functional diversity of microbial decomposers facilitates plant coexistence in a plant–microbe–soil feedback model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takeshi Miki; Masayuki Ushio; Shin Fukui; Michio Kondoh; Simon A. Levin

    2010-01-01

    .... However, the role of microbial decomposers in PSF function is often overlooked, and it remains unclear whether decomposers reinforce or weaken litter-mediated plant control over nutrient cycling...

  15. Materials study supporting thermochemical hydrogen cycle sulfuric acid decomposer design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael S.

    Increasing global climate change has been driven by greenhouse gases emissions originating from the combustion of fossil fuels. Clean burning hydrogen has the potential to replace much of the fossil fuels used today reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. The sulfur iodine and hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles coupled with high temperature heat from advanced nuclear reactors have shown promise for economical large-scale hydrogen fuel stock production. Both of these cycles employ a step to decompose sulfuric acid to sulfur dioxide. This decomposition step occurs at high temperatures in the range of 825°C to 926°C dependent on the catalysis used. Successful commercial implementation of these technologies is dependent upon the development of suitable materials for use in the highly corrosive environments created by the decomposition products. Boron treated diamond film was a potential candidate for use in decomposer process equipment based on earlier studies concluding good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. However, little information was available relating the interactions of diamond and diamond films with sulfuric acid at temperatures greater than 350°C. A laboratory scale sulfuric acid decomposer simulator was constructed at the Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The simulator was capable of producing the temperatures and corrosive environments that process equipment would be exposed to for industrialization of the sulfur iodide or hybrid sulfur thermochemical cycles. A series of boron treated synthetic diamonds were tested in the simulator to determine corrosion resistances and suitability for use in thermochemical process equipment. These studies were performed at twenty four hour durations at temperatures between 600°C to 926°C. Other materials, including natural diamond, synthetic diamond treated with titanium, silicon carbide, quartz, aluminum nitride, and Inconel

  16. Decomposing Borel functions using the Shore-Slaman join theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Jayne and Rogers proved that every function from an analytic space into a separable metric space is decomposable into countably many continuous functions with closed domains if and only if the preimage of each $F_\\sigma$ set under it is again $F_\\sigma$. Many researchers conjectured that the Jayne-Rogers theorem can be generalized to all finite levels of Borel functions. In this paper, by using the Shore-Slaman join theorem on the Turing degrees, we show the following variant of the Jayne-Rog...

  17. Does embedding an ICT certification help align tertiary programs with industry?: A study of CCNA workplace perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Rajendran

    Full Text Available In the last decade there has been an international drive to determine the needs of the ICT industry and skills required by graduates. The intention is to ensure tertiary education is aligned with industry and to suitably prepare students for employment. Among the various initiatives, embedding of industry certification training is one method commonly used to help achieve this. This paper first looks at the literature on industry alignment and the embedding of ICT certifications. It then gives an overview of the changes in the networking courses taught at Wintec over the last ten years. A study of workplace perceptions of the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA courses at this institute is also described, with conclusions drawn about the effectiveness of embedding this certification. In particular the paper investigates how well the courses meet the needs of the ICT industry in the Hamilton/Waikato region. CCNA course topics that are found to be most useful in the workplace are highlighted, as well as the perceived value of the courses for new employees, employers and for people in their career.

  18. Addressing holistic health and work empowerment through a body-mind-spirit intervention program among helping professionals in continuous education: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Sing, Cheuk Yan; Wong, Venus P Y

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a body-mind-spirit (BMS) intervention program in improving the holistic well-being and work empowerment among helping professionals in continuous education. Forty-four helping professionals, who were in their first-year part-time postgraduate study, participated in the present study. All participants attended a 3-day BMS intervention program which emphasized a holistic approach to health and well-being. Ratings on their levels of physical distress, daily functioning, affect, spirituality, and psychological empowerment at work were compared before and immediately after the intervention. Participants reported significantly lower levels of negative affect and physical distress, and were less spiritually disoriented after the intervention. Enhanced levels of daily functioning, positive affect, spiritual resilience, and tranquility were also reported. Results also suggested that participants were empowered at work, and specifically felt more able to make an impact on work outcomes. The 3-day BMS intervention program produced a positive and measurable effect on participants' holistic well-being and empowerment at work. Educators in related fields could incorporate holistic practices into the curriculum to better prepare the future practitioners, leading to better outcomes both to the professionals themselves and their clients or patients.

  19. Functional diversity of terrestrial microbial decomposers and their substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Fromin, Nathalie; Barantal, Sandra

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and biogeochemical processes gained much interest in light of the rapidly decreasing biodiversity worldwide. In this article, we discuss the current status, challenges and prospects of functional concepts to plant litter diversity and microbial decomposer diversity. We also evaluate whether these concepts permit a better understanding of how biodiversity is linked to litter decomposition as a key ecosystem process influencing carbon and nutrient cycles. Based on a literature survey, we show that plant litter and microbial diversity matters for decomposition, but that considering numbers of taxonomic units appears overall as little relevant and less useful than functional diversity. However, despite easily available functional litter traits and the well-established theoretical framework for functional litter diversity, the impact of functional litter diversity on decomposition is not yet well enough explored. Defining functional diversity of microorganisms remains one of the biggest challenges for functional approaches to microbial diversity. Recent developments in microarray and metagenomics technology offer promising possibilities in the assessment of the functional structure of microbial communities. This might allow significant progress in measuring functional microbial diversity and ultimately in our ability to predict consequences of biodiversity loss in the decomposer system for biogeochemical processes. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical Analysis on Thermochemical Characteristics of a Hydrogen Iodine Decomposer in Sulfur-Iodine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Shin, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. S.; Choi, J. H. [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, to develop optimum decomposition reactor of HI to apply hydrogen process in thermochemical VHTR-SI cycle, operating characteristics of the HI decomposition reaction were investigated using the CFD code as a commercial program. Several factors, such as hydrogen production, heat of reaction, and temperature distribution, were studied to compare the device performance with that expected for device development. The CFD analysis for HI decomposition simulation was performed by applying the actual operation conditions and HI decomposer design. The hydrogen production depended on the STV ratio. In this study, predicted hydrogen production was 1.12, 1.99, and 3.10 mol/h for STV ratios of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5, respectively. The hydrogen production at an STV ratio of 0.5 was higher than that at 0.3 by 2 mol/h. The inner temperature of the HI decomposer was studied in the form of contour images at ITC 1-5.

  1. Trend Prediction and Decomposed Driving Factors of Carbon Emissions in Jiangsu Province during 2015–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Tang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the economic and energy consumption statistics in Jiangsu Province, we combined the GM (1, 1 grey model and polynomial regression to forecast carbon emissions. Historical and projected emissions were decomposed using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI approach to assess the relative contribution of different factors to emission variability. The results showed that carbon emissions will continue to increase in Jiangsu province during 2015–2020 period and cumulative carbon emissions will increase by 39.5487 million tons within the forecast period. The growth of gross domestic product (GDP per capita plays the greatest positive role in driving carbon emission growth. Furthermore, the improvement of energy usage efficiency is the primary factor responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Factors of population, industry structure adjustment and the optimization of fuel mix also help to reduce carbon emissions. Based on the LMDI analysis, we provide some advice for policy-makers in Jiangsu and other provinces in China.

  2. The applications of a higher-dimensional Lie algebra and its decomposed subalgebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang; Zhang, Yufeng

    2009-01-15

    With the help of invertible linear transformations and the known Lie algebras, a higher-dimensional 6 x 6 matrix Lie algebra smu(6) is constructed. It follows a type of new loop algebra is presented. By using a (2 + 1)-dimensional partial-differential equation hierarchy we obtain the integrable coupling of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KN integrable hierarchy, then its corresponding Hamiltonian structure is worked out by employing the quadratic-form identity. Furthermore, a higher-dimensional Lie algebra denoted by E, is given by decomposing the Lie algebra smu(6), then a discrete lattice integrable coupling system is produced. A remarkable feature of the Lie algebras smu(6) and E is used to directly construct integrable couplings.

  3. Bacterial succession on decomposing leaf litter exhibits a specific occurrence pattern of cellulolytic taxa and potential decomposers of fungal mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tláskal, Vojtěch; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-11-01

    The decomposition of dead plant biomass contributes to the carbon cycle and is one of the key processes in temperate forests. While fungi in litter decomposition drive the chemical changes occurring in litter, the bacterial community appears to be important as well, especially later in the decomposition process when its abundance increases. In this paper, we describe the bacterial community composition in live Quercus petraea leaves and during the subsequent two years of litter decomposition. Members of the classes Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria and the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant throughout the experiment. Bacteria present in the oak phyllosphere were rapidly replaced by other taxa after leaf senescence. There were dynamic successive changes in community composition, in which the early-stage (months 2-4), mid-stage (months 6-8) and late-stage (months 10-24) decomposer communities could be distinguished, and the diversity increased with time. Bacteria associated with dead fungal mycelium were important during initial decomposition, with sequence relative abundances of up to 40% of the total bacterial community in months 2 and 4 when the highest fungal biomass was observed. Cellulose-decomposing bacteria were less frequent, with abundance ranging from 4% to 15%. The bacterial community dynamics reflects changes in the availability of possible resources either of the plant or microbial origin. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Decomposing the Differences in Cancer Mortality between Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Wensink, Maarten Jan; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    mortality. Preliminary results suggest that diagnosis at a later stage could be the only reason why Danes suffer higher mortality from breast cancer. Later stage diagnosis explains 37% of the difference in mortality from lung cancer. Higher mortality from lung cancer is observed at each stage in Denmark......Cancer survival tends to be lower in Denmark than in comparable countries like Sweden. It has been suggested that this difference can be partly explained by higher tobacco use by Danes than Swedes and a more adverse stage at diagnosis distribution. In this paper, we aim to decompose the difference...... in cancer mortality between Denmark and Sweden by their differences in 1) age composition at diagnosis, 2) stage composition at diagnosis and 3) the force of mortality by age and stage. This procedure allows quantification of the contribution of each of these factors to the overall difference in cancer...

  5. Comparison of bacterial communities in leachate from decomposing bovine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We obtained a total of 110,442 reads from the triplicate samples of various sampling time points (total of 15 samples, and found that the phylum Firmicutes was dominant at most sampling times. Differences in the bacterial communities at the various time points were observed among the triplicate samples. The bacterial communities sampled at 4 months showed the most different compositions. The genera Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in all of the samples obtained after 3 months. Bacillaceae, Clostridium, and Clostridiales were found to be predominant after 4 months in the leachate from one carcass, whereas Planococcaceae was found to be a dominant in samples obtained at the first and second months from the other two carcasses. The results showed that potentially pathogenic microbes such as Clostridium derived from bovine leachate could dominate the soil environment of a burial site. Conclusion Our results indicated that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of a decomposing bovine shifted continuously during the experimental period, with significant changes detected after 4 months of burial.

  6. Thermally decomposed ricebran oil as a diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, O. A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Ricebran oil; a non edible oil, was thermally decomposed using different loads of calcium oxide as catalyst. The fuel properties of the cracked product were evaluated as compared to those of diesel fuel. The considered properties included the calorific value, flash point, viscosity, pour point, distillation characteristics, cetane number in addition to some other fuel properties. The results had shown that the fuel properties of the decomposed oil were quite similar to those of standard diesel fuel. The calorific value was 80-90% that of diesel fuel and the viscosity was sligthy higher. The prepared fuel was advantageous over diesel fuel as the former was completely free from sulfur, which on fuel combustion produces corrosive gases of sulfur oxides.

    Aceite de germen de arroz, un aceite no comestible, fue descompuesto térmicamente usando diferentes cantidades de óxido cálcico como catalizador. Las propiedades combustibles del producto craqueado fueron evaluadas comparándolas con las del gasóleo. Las propiedades consideradas incluyeron el poder calorífico, punto de inflamación, viscosidad, temperatura de fluidez crítica, características de destilación, número de cetano y otras propiedades de los combustibles. Los resultados han mostrado que las propiedades combustibles del aceite descompuesto fueron bastantes similares a la de los gasóleos estándar. El poder calorífico fue del 80-90% de la del gasóleo y la viscosidad ligeramente mayor. El combustible preparado fue ventajoso sobre el gasóleo ya que el primero estaba completamente libre de sulfuro, el cual produce en la combustión del carburante gases corrosivos de óxido de azufre.

  7. Multimodal guided self-help exercise program to prevent speech, swallowing, and shoulder problems among head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Rinkel, Rico N P M; Aalders, Ijke J; de Goede, Cees J T; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H F; Langendijk, Johannes A; Witte, Birgit I; Leemans, C Rene; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2014-03-06

    During a 6-week course of (chemo)radiation many head and neck cancer patients have to endure radiotherapy-induced toxicity, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent them from having speech, swallowing, and shoulder problems during and after treatment. Our goal was to investigate the feasibility of a multimodal guided self-help exercise program entitled Head Matters during (chemo)radiation in head and neck cancer patients. Head and neck cancer patients treated with primary (chemo)radiation or after surgery were asked to perform Head Matters at home. This prophylactic exercise program, offered in three different formats, aims to reduce the risk of developing speech, swallowing, shoulder problems, and a stiff neck. Weekly coaching was provided by a speech and swallowing therapist. Patients filled out a diary to keep track of their exercise activity. To gain insight into possible barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence, reports of weekly coaching sessions were analyzed by 2 coders independently. Of 41 eligible patients, 34 patients were willing to participate (83% uptake). Of participating patients, 21 patients completed the program (64% adherence rate). The majority of participants (58%) had a moderate to high level of exercise performance. Exercise performance level was not significantly associated with age (P=.50), gender (P=.42), tumor subsite (P=1.00) or tumor stage (P=.20), treatment modality (P=.72), or Head Matters format (Web-based or paper) (P=1.00). Based on patients' diaries and weekly coaching sessions, patients' perceived barriers to exercise were a decreased physical condition, treatment-related barriers, emotional problems, lack of motivation, social barriers, and technical problems. Patients' perceived facilitators included an increased physical condition, feeling motivated, and social and technical facilitators. Head

  8. Implementing Competency-Based Medical Education in a Postgraduate Family Medicine Residency Training Program: A Stepwise Approach, Facilitating Factors, and Processes or Steps That Would Have Been Helpful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Karen; Griffiths, Jane

    2016-05-01

    In 2009-2010, the postgraduate residency training program at the Department of Family Medicine, Queen's University, wrestled with the practicalities of competency-based medical education (CBME) implementation when its accrediting body, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, introduced the competency-based Triple C curriculum. The authors used a stepwise approach to implement CMBE; the steps were to (1) identify objectives, (2) identify competencies, (3) map objectives and competencies to learning experiences and assessment processes, (4) plan learning experiences, (5) develop an assessment system, (6) collect and interpret data, (7) adjust individual residents' training programs, and (8) distribute decisions to stakeholders. The authors also note overarching processes, costs, and facil itating factors and processes or steps that would have been helpful for CBME implementation. Early outcomes are encouraging. Residents are being directly observed more often with increased documented feedback about performance based on explicit competency standards (24,000 data points for 150 residents from 2013 to 2015). These multiple observations are being collated in a way that is allowing the identification of patterns of performance, red flags, and competency development trajectory. Outliers are being identified earlier, resulting in earlier individualized modification of their residency training program. The authors will continue to provide and refine faculty development, are developing an entrustable professional activity field note app for handheld devices, and are undertaking research to explore what facilitates learners' competency development, what increases assessors' confidence in making competence decisions, and whether residents are better trained as a result of CBME implementation.

  9. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ibrahim

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group.This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP (n = 122 or the usual care (n = 146 groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL.An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI revealed that the Co-HELP participants' mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001 compared to the usual care group.This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction of several diabetes risk

  10. Helping individuals to help themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, Lyndel; Croker, Helen

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is a serious and increasing health issue. Approximately two-thirds of adults in the UK are now overweight or obese. Recent public health reports firmly reinforce the importance of engaging individuals to look after their health, including their weight. They also spell out the need for individuals to be supported more actively, on many levels, to enable this 'engagement'. Meanwhile, national surveys indicate that approximately two-thirds of adults are concerned about weight control, with one-third actively trying to lose weight. This finding is hardly surprising considering current weight statistics, plus the plethora of popular diets on offer. Weight-loss methods include diet clubs, diet books, exercise, meal replacements, advice from healthcare professionals and following a self-styled diet. Obesity is a multi-factorial problem, and losing weight and, in particular, maintaining weight loss is difficult and often elusive. It is argued that the modern obesogenic or 'toxic' environment has essentially taken body-weight control from an instinctive 'survival' process to one that needs sustained cognitive and skill-based control. The evidence suggests that health professionals can help individuals achieve longer-term weight control by supporting them in making sustainable lifestyle changes using a range of behavioural techniques. These techniques include: assessing readiness to change; self-monitoring; realistic goal setting; dietary change; increased physical activity; stimulus control; cognitive restructuring; relapse management; establishing ongoing support. Consistently working in a client-centred way is also being increasingly advocated and incorporated into practice to help motivate and encourage, rather than hinder, the individual's progress.

  11. Decomposing ability of filamentous fungi on litter is involved in a subtropical mixed forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fuqiang; Tian, Xingjun; Fan, Xiaoxu; He, Xingbing

    2010-01-01

    The abilities of 10 filamentous fungi, isolated from Pinus massoniana-Liquidambar formasana mixed forest (PLF), to decompose fresh, fallen needle and leaf litter were studied with pure-culture tests. The results showed that all fungi except Mucor sp. and Chaetomium bostrychodes could drive mass loss of L. formasana leaf litter significantly more than that of P. massoniasa. Mass loss of litter in the first 5 wk of the study was higher than that in the last 5 wk. The decomposition rate was negatively correlated to the original lignin/nitrogen (L/N) and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N) ratios. Based on the mass loss of litter (W), carbohydrate (C) and lignin (L), and the mutual relationship between L/W and L/C ratio, we concluded that Mucor sp. had the lowest decomposing ability on P. Massoniana and L. formasana litter and that it could not use lignin. The Chaetomium bostrychodes were lignin and carbohydrate decomposers but preferred lignin. Trichoderma sp. 1 and Cladosporium herbarum were carbohydrate-decomposing fungi. Trichoderma sp. 2, Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria sp. and Penicillium sp. 2 were able to decompose lignin and carbohydrate but preferred carbohydrate and had high ability to decompose litter. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. 1 were able to decompose lignin and carbohydrate only in the early phase of the study. The decomposing ability of fungi varied even within genus. No direct relationship was found between the frequency of isolation and the decomposing ability of fungi.

  12. Transformation rules for decomposing heterogeneous data into triples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjay Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the vision of a dataspace system, it requires a flexible, powerful and versatile data model that is able to represent a highly heterogeneous mix of data such as databases, web pages, XML, deep web, and files. In literature, the triple model was found a suitable candidate for a dataspace system, and able to represent structured, semi-structured and unstructured data into a single model. A triple model is based on the decomposition theory, and represents variety of data into a collection of triples. In this paper, we have proposed a decomposition algorithm for expressing various heterogeneous data models into the triple model. This algorithm is based on the decomposition theory of the triple model. By applying the decomposition algorithm, we have proposed a set of transformation rules for the existing data models. The transformation rules have been categorized for structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data models. These rules are able to decompose most of the existing data models into the triple model. We have empirically verified the algorithm as well as the transformation rules on different data sets having different data models.

  13. Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in child vaccination: results from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Edel; Walsh, Brendan; O'Neill, Ciaran

    2014-06-05

    There is limited knowledge of the extent of or factors underlying inequalities in uptake of childhood vaccination in Ireland. This paper aims to measure and decompose socioeconomic inequalities in childhood vaccination in the Republic of Ireland. The analysis was performed using data from the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland survey, a nationally representative survey of the carers of over 11,000 nine-month old babies collected in 2008 and 2009. Multivariate analysis was conducted to explore the child and parental factors, including socioeconomic factors that were associated with non-vaccination of children. A concentration index was calculated to measure inequality in childhood vaccination. Subsequent decomposition analysis identified key factors underpinning observed inequalities. Overall the results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in childhood vaccination in the Republic of Ireland. Concentration indices of vaccination (CI=-0.19) show a substantial pro-rich gradient. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that a substantial proportion of the inequality is explained by household level variables such as socioeconomic status, household structure, income and entitlement to publicly funded care (29.9%, 24% 30.6% and 12.9% respectively). Substantial differences are also observed between children of Irish mothers and immigrant mothers from developing countries. Vaccination was less likely in lower than in higher income households. Access to publicly funded services was an important factor in explaining inequalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in childhood obesity: evidence from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brendan; Cullinan, John

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify and decompose the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. The analysis is performed using data from the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland survey, a nationally representative survey of 8568 nine-year-old children conducted in 2007 and 2008. We estimate concentration indices to quantify the extent of the socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity and undertake a subsequent decomposition analysis to pinpoint the key factors underpinning the observed inequalities. Overall the results confirm a strong socioeconomic gradient in childhood obesity in the Republic of Ireland. Concentration indices of obesity (CI=-0.168) and overweight/obese (CI=-0.057) show that the gradient is more pronounced in obese children, while results from the decomposition analysis suggest that the majority of the inequality in childhood obesity is explained by parental level variables. Our findings suggest that addressing childhood obesity inequalities requires coordinated policy responses at both the child and parental level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Decomposing phylogenetic entropy into α, β and γ components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Maud A; Mouillot, David

    2011-04-23

    Measuring the phylogenetic diversity of communities has become a key issue for biogeography and conservation. However, most diversity indices that rely on interspecies phylogenetic distances may increase with species loss and thus violate the principle of weak monotonicity. Moreover, most published phylogenetic diversity indices ignore the abundance distribution along phylogenetic trees, even though lineage abundances are crucial components of biodiversity. The recently introduced concept of phylogenetic entropy overcomes these limitations, but has not been decomposed across scales, i.e. into α, β and γ components. A full understanding of mechanisms sustaining biological diversity within and between communities needs such decomposition. Here, we propose an additive decomposition framework for estimating α, β and γ components of phylogenetic entropy. Based on simulated trees, we demonstrate its robustness to phylogenetic tree shape and species richness. Our decomposition fulfils the requirements of both independence between components and weak monotonicity. Finally, our decomposition can also be adapted to the partitioning of functional diversity across different scales with the same desirable properties.

  16. Nonmonotone systems decomposable into monotone systems with negative feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, G. A.; Smith, H. L.; Sontag, E. D.

    Motivated by the work of Angeli and Sontag [Monotone control systems, IEEE Trans. Automat. Control 48 (2003) 1684-1698] and Enciso and Sontag [On the global attractivity of abstract dynamical systems satisfying a small gain hypothesis, with applications to biological delay systems, Discrete Continuous Dynamical Systems, to appear] in control theory, we show that certain finite and infinite dimensional semi-dynamical systems with "negative feedback" can be decomposed into a monotone "open-loop" system with "inputs" and a decreasing "output" function. The original system is reconstituted by "plugging the output into the input". Employing a technique of Gouzé [A criterion of global convergence to equilibrium for differential systems with an application to Lotka-Volterra systems, Rapport de Recherche 894, INRIA] and Cosner [Comparison principles for systems that embed in cooperative systems, with applications to diffusive Lotka-Volterra models, Dynam. Cont., Discrete Impulsive Systems 3 (1997) 283-303] of imbedding the system into a larger symmetric monotone system, we are able to obtain information on the asymptotic behavior of solutions, including existence of positively invariant sets and global convergence.

  17. Communities of fungi in decomposed wood of oak and pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (103 species and Basidiomycota (19 species. Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (90 species and Basidiomycota (29 species. In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37% occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.

  18. Measurement of functional capacity requirements to aid in development of an occupation-specific rehabilitation training program to help firefighters with cardiac disease safely return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jenny; Roberts, Joanne; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Bartlett, Charles

    2009-03-15

    We designed a study to measure the functional capacity requirements of firefighters to aid in the development of an occupation-specific training program in cardiac rehabilitation; 23 healthy male firefighters with no history of heart disease completed a fire and rescue obstacle course that simulated 7 common firefighting tasks. They wore complete personal protective equipment and portable metabolic instruments that included a data collection mask. We monitored each subject's oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and working heart rate, then calculated age-predicted maximum heart rates (220 - age) and training target heart rates (85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). During performance of the obstacle course, the subjects' mean working heart rates and peak heart rates were higher than the calculated training target heart rates (t(22) = 5.69 [working vs target, p <0.001] and t(22) = 15.14 [peak vs target, p <0.001]). These findings, with mean results for peak VO(2) (3,447 ml/min) and metabolic equivalents (11.9 METs), show that our subjects' functional capacity greatly exceeded that typically attained by patients in traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs (5 to 8 METs). In conclusion, our results indicate the need for intense, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training that will help firefighters safely return to work after a cardiac event.

  19. Mastering of musical rhythm by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that regular listening to specially selected music develops children’s cognitive abilities. Musical influence optimizes many important functions of brain: increases mental workability; accelerates processing of information; improves short term memory. Besides, sensitivity of visual and hearing analyzers strengthens, as well as regulation of arbitrary movements; indicators of verbal and non verbal intellect improve. Purpose: to determine peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings. Material: the categories of the tested children: children of age - 4-5 and 5-6 years with speech disorders and healthy pre-school age children. Children of 4-5 years’ age composed: main group (n=12, control group (n=16; group of healthy children (n=24. For assessment of verbal thinking and rhythm-motor (or dance abilities we used complex of tests of constantly increasing difficulty. Results: we found that under influence of dance-correcting exercises activation of rhythm-motor abilities and development of cognitive functions happened in children. We also found main functional peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children. It was determined that by the end of pedagogic experiment, main groups of children approached to groups of healthy peers by all tested characteristics. Conclusions: it is recommended to include correcting components (fit ball - dance gymnastic, tales-therapy, logo-rhythm trainings, and game fitness in trainings by choreographic program.

  20. Decomposer diversity and identity influence plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Reich, Peter B; Isbell, Forest

    2012-10-01

    Plant productivity and other ecosystem functions often increase with plant diversity at a local scale. Alongside various plant-centered explanations for this pattern, there is accumulating evidence that multi-trophic interactions shape this relationship. Here, we investigated for the first time if plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning are mediated or driven by decomposer animal diversity and identity using a double-diversity microcosm experiment. We show that many ecosystem processes and ecosystem multifunctionality (herbaceous shoot biomass production, litter removal, and N uptake) were affected by both plant and decomposer diversity, with ecosystem process rates often being maximal at intermediate to high plant and decomposer diversity and minimal at both low plant and decomposer diversity. Decomposers relaxed interspecific plant competition by enlarging chemical (increased N uptake and surface-litter decomposition) and spatial (increasing deep-root biomass) habitat space and by promoting plant complementarity. Anecic earthworms and isopods functioned as key decomposers; although decomposer diversity effects did not solely rely on these two decomposer species, positive plant net biodiversity and complementarity effects only occurred in the absence of isopods and the presence of anecic earthworms. Using a structural equation model, we explained 76% of the variance in plant complementarity, identified direct and indirect effect paths, and showed that the presence of key decomposers accounted for approximately three-quarters of the explained variance. We conclude that decomposer animals have been underappreciated as contributing agents of plant diversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Elevated decomposer performance at high plant diversity found in previous experiments likely positively feeds back to plant performance, thus contributing to the positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  1. Nematophagous fungi from decomposing cattle faeces in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumell, Carlos Alfredo; Fernández, Alicia Silvina; Fusé, Luis Alberto; Rodríguez, Manuela; Sagüés, María Federica; Iglesias, Lucía Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants by use of nematophagous fungi would become part of any livestock parasite integral control system. Identifying autochthonous species that could then be selected for mass production is an important phase in the practical use of biological control. To search for nematophagous fungi with potential use as biological control agents against gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina. Decomposing cattle faeces sampled in different locations were incubated in water agar 2% with Panagrellus sp. The developed nematophagous fungi were transferred to new water agar 2% plates and then to corn meal agar plates in order to carry out their identification. Fungal diversity and richness were also assessed. Seventeen species from nine genera of nematophagous fungi were found. Twelve species were nematode-trapping fungi and three species plus two fungi identified to genus level corresponded to endoparasitic fungi. Arthrobotrys conoides, Arthrobotrys oligospora, Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium doedycoides, Arthrobotrys robusta and Drechmeria coniospora were the most frequently isolated species overall in the whole study (6.6%, 5.7%, 5.7%, 5.7%, 4.7% and 4.7%, respectively) although other species were more frequently recorded at local levels such as Arthrobotrys pyriformis (18.8%). Only A. conoides has been previously isolated from ruminant faecal samples in Argentina. Five nematode-trapping fungal species are mentioned for the first time in the Americas D. flagrans and A. conoides, both identified in the present study, are among the most promising ones as biological control agents against gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Limited transfer of nitrogen between wood decomposing and ectomycorrhizal mycelia when studied in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallander, Håkan; Lindahl, Björn D.; Nilsson, Lars Ola

    2006-01-01

    Transfer of 15N between interacting mycelia of a wood-decomposing fungus (Hypholoma fasciculare) and an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tomentellopsis submollis) was studied in a mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest. The amount of 15N transferred from the wood decomposer to the ectomycorrhizal fungus...

  3. Can reduce--the effects of chat-counseling and web-based self-help, web-based self-help alone and a waiting list control program on cannabis use in problematic cannabis users: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael P; Haug, Severin; Wenger, Andreas; Berg, Oliver; Sullivan, Robin; Beck, Thilo; Stark, Lars

    2013-11-14

    In European countries, including Switzerland, as well as in many states worldwide, cannabis is the most widely used psychoactive substance after alcohol and tobacco. Although approximately one in ten users develop serious problems of dependency, only a minority attends outpatient addiction counseling centers. The offer of a combined web-based self-help and chat counseling treatment could potentially also reach those users who hesitate to approach such treatment centers and help them to reduce their cannabis use. This paper presents the protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial that will test the effectiveness of a web-based self-help intervention in combination with, or independent of, tailored chat counseling compared to a waiting list in reducing or enabling the abstention from cannabis use in problematic users. The primary outcome will be the weekly quantity of cannabis used. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of days per week on which cannabis is used, the severity of cannabis use disorder, the severity of cannabis dependence, cannabis withdrawal symptoms, cannabis craving, the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other non-cannabis illicit drugs, changes in mental health symptoms, and treatment retention. The self-help intervention will consist of 8 modules designed to reduce cannabis use based on the principles of motivational interviewing, self-control practices, and methods of cognitive behavioral therapy. The two additional individual chat-counseling sessions in the additional chat condition will be based on the same therapy approaches and tailored to participants' self-help information data and personal problems. The predictive validity of participants' baseline characteristics on treatment retention and outcomes will be explored. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of online self-help therapy in combination or without chat counseling in reducing or enabling the

  4. Mexican American Women’s Perspectives on a Culturally Adapted Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M.; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)—a low-cost minimal intervention—has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Post-treatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: 1) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, 2) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women’s treatment engagement and success, and 3) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women’s experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer support. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings. PMID:26462112

  5. Inconsistent impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Schädler, Martin

    2011-02-01

    The intensive discussion on the importance of biodiversity for the stability of essential processes in ecosystems has prompted a multitude of studies since the middle of the last century. Nevertheless, research has been extremely biased by focusing on the producer level, while studies on the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of ecosystem functions are lacking. Here, we investigate the impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability (reliability) of three important aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions: primary productivity (shoot and root biomass), litter decomposition, and herbivore infestation. For this, we analyzed the results of three laboratory experiments manipulating decomposer diversity (1-3 species) in comparison to decomposer-free treatments in terms of variability of the measured variables. Decomposer diversity often significantly but inconsistently affected the stability of all aboveground and belowground ecosystem functions investigated in the present study. While primary productivity was mainly destabilized, litter decomposition and aphid infestation were essentially stabilized by increasing decomposer diversity. However, impacts of decomposer diversity varied between plant community and fertility treatments. There was no general effect of the presence of decomposers on stability and no trend toward weaker effects in fertilized communities and legume communities. This indicates that impacts of decomposers are based on more than effects on nutrient availability. Although inconsistent impacts complicate the estimation of consequences of belowground diversity loss, underpinning mechanisms of the observed patterns are discussed. Impacts of decomposer diversity on the stability of essential ecosystem functions differed between plant communities of varying composition and fertility, implicating that human-induced changes of biodiversity and land-use management might have unpredictable effects on the processes mankind relies on

  6. HELP! Problems in executing a pragmatic, randomized, stepped wedge trial on the Hospital Elder Life Program to prevent delirium in older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Noor; van Stel, Henk F; Ettema, Roelof G; van der Mast, Roos C; Inouye, Sharon K; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2017-05-17

    A pragmatic, stepped wedge trial design can be an appealing design to evaluate complex interventions in real-life settings. However, there are certain pitfalls that need to be considered. This paper reports on the experiences and lessons learned from the conduct of a cluster randomized, stepped wedge trial evaluating the effect of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) in a Dutch hospital setting to prevent older patients from developing delirium. We evaluated our trial which was conducted in eight departments in two hospitals in hospitalized patients aged 70 years or older who were at risk for delirium by reflecting on the assumptions that we had and on what we intended to accomplish when we started, as compared to what we actually realized in the different phases of our study. Lessons learned on the design, the timeline, the enrollment of eligible patients and the use of routinely collected data are provided accompanied by recommendations to address challenges. The start of the trial was delayed which caused subsequent time schedule problems. The requirement for individual informed consent for a quality improvement project made the inclusion more prone to selection bias. Most units experienced major difficulties in including patients, leading to excluding two of the eight units from participation. This resulted in failing to include a similar number of patients in the control condition versus the intervention condition. Data on outcomes routinely collected in the electronic patient records were not accessible during the study, and appeared to be often missing during analyses. The stepped wedge, cluster randomized trial poses specific risks in the design and execution of research in real-life settings of which researchers should be aware to prevent negative consequences impacting the validity of their results. Valid conclusions on the effectiveness of the HELP in the Dutch hospital setting are hampered by the limited quantity and quality of routine clinical data

  7. Vorvida: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of Internet-based self-help program for the reduction of alcohol consumption for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Jördis M; Meyer, Björn; Topp, Janine; Daubmann, Anne; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2016-01-29

    Problem drinking is an important global health concern, causing premature mortality and morbidity. Only few problem drinkers seek professional care, unfortunately, because of multiple barriers such as insufficient change motivation, fear of stigmatization or limited access to care. The aim of this study will be to examine the effectiveness of a novel Internet intervention termed Vorvida, which was developed based on established cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques with the aim of reducing problematic alcohol consumption. A two-arm randomized control trial (RCT) will be conducted to determine whether using Vorvida results in greater reductions in self-reported problem drinking, compared with a care-as-usual/waitlist (CAU/WL) control group. There will be a baseline assessment (t0) and follow-up assessments after three (t1) and six months (t2). Inclusion criteria will be: minimum age of 18, an average consumption of alcohol >24/12 g (men/women) per day and an AUDIT-C score ≥ 3, as well as informed consent. Participants will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition at a ratio of 1:1. Recruitment, informed consent, randomization and assessment will be Internet-based. Primary outcome will be change in self-reported alcohol consumption between t0 and t1. Secondary outcomes will be self-reported drinking behavior, expectancies of effects of alcohol use, abstinence and relapse tendencies, self-efficacy and motivation to change. This study is expected to establish the extent to which a novel Internet intervention could contribute to reducing problem drinking among adults with mild to severe alcohol use disorders who may or may not seek or access a traditional treatments. Potentially, this program could be an effective and efficient tool to help reduce problem drinking on a population level because a great number of users can be reached simultaneously without adding burden to treating clinicians. German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS

  8. Simulation of a Heat Transfer between Gases in SO3 Decomposer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, T.H.; Lee, K.Y.; Kim, Y. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing hydrogen production process called thermochemical SI(Sulfur Iodine) cycle utilizing the heat from the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) with outlet coolant temperature up to 950 .deg. C, which is considered as an efficient reactor for the hydrogen production. The sulfur trioxide decomposer is one of the key components in SI cycle, because the sulfur trioxide is decomposed into sulfur dioxide and oxygen by a heat transferred from the helium gas. In this paper, the sulfur-trioxide decomposer was simulated with a chemical process simulator. A standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger model in the simulator was chosen for the simulation

  9. Decomposing economic disparities in risky sexual behaviors among people who inject drugs in Tehran: Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Mehdi; Sharifi, Hamid; Noroozi, Alireza; Rezaei, Fatemah; Bazrafshan, Mohammad Rafi; Armoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, no previous study has systematically assessed the role of economic status in risky sexual behavior among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran. In this study, we used Blinder-Oaxaca (BO) decomposition to explore the contribution of economic status to inequality in unprotected sex among PWID in Tehran and to decompose it into its determinants. Behavioral surveys among PWID were conducted in Tehran, the capital city of Iran, from November 2016 to April 2017. We employed a cross-sectional design and snowball sampling methodology. We constructed the asset index (weighted by the first principal component analysis factor) using socioeconomic data and then divided the variable into 3 tertiles. We used the BO method to decompose the economic inequality in unprotected sex. Of the 520 recruited individuals, 20 were missing data for variables used to define their economic status, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Not having access to harm reduction programs was the largest factor contributing to the economic disparity in unprotected sex, accounting for 5.5 percentage points of the 21.4% discrepancy. Of the unadjusted total economic disparity in unprotected sex, 52% was unexplained by observable characteristics included in the regression model. The difference in the prevalence of unprotected sex between the high-income and low-income groups was 25%. Increasing needle syringe program coverage and improving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge are essential for efforts to eliminate inequalities in HIV risk behaviors among PWID.

  10. Decomposing developmental differences in probabilistic feedback learning: A combined performance and heart-rate analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K.; Jansen, B.R.J.; Griffioen, E.S.; van der Molen, M.W.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning on the basis of outcome feedback shows pronounced developmental changes, however, much is still unknown about its underlying processes. In the current study, we aimed at decomposing how value updating, feedback monitoring and executing behavioral control contribute to children's

  11. Conversion efficiency in the shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius), fed on decomposed mangrove leaves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Ramadhas, V.

    Feeding experiments were carried out with Metapenaeus monoceros using mangrove leaves at different stages of decomposition, in combination with rice bran. Maximum conversion efficiency was found in shrimps fed completely decomposed mangrove leaves...

  12. [Effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Wan; Xu, Xiu-Hong; Li, Hong-Tao

    2011-10-01

    Taking the cow dung and straw as composting raw materials, effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost was investigated with the traditional culture method and PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the microbiological inocula showed a more rapid rate of temperature elevation at the start of composting and prolonged the time of high-temperature process and increased the number of microbial. The DGGE map of cellulose-decomposing strain compost was different from natural compost, the succession of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain was faster than natural compost. Sequence comparison revealed that the Pseudomonas sp. of bacterial appeared at the initial stage and Acinetobacter sp., Flavobacteria were existed at the high-temperature process in natural compost; while Arthrobacter sp. was appeared at the high-temperature process in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Bacillus sp. was dominant species at middle and later stage in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Eimeriidae of fungal appeared in compost materials, Aspergillus and thermophilic fungi were dominant species at the high-temperature process in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Ascomycota appeared at middle and later stage in natural compost; while Basidiomycetes in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Aspergillus was found throughout the process. This result suggested that the microbiological inocula were able to facilitate the bacterial microbial diversity of the compost; reduced the fungal microbial diversity of the compost. The aims of this study were to provide a scientific basis to the diversity of microbial community by monitoring the dynamics of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain compost and represent an important step towards the understanding of microbiological inocula and its function in the degradation process of compost.

  13. Decomposing a planar graph into an independent set and a 3-degenerate graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by O. V. Borodin in 1976 that the vertex set of every planar graph can be decomposed into an independent set and a set inducing a 3-degenerate graph. (C) 2001 Academic Press.......We prove the conjecture made by O. V. Borodin in 1976 that the vertex set of every planar graph can be decomposed into an independent set and a set inducing a 3-degenerate graph. (C) 2001 Academic Press....

  14. Decomposing a planar graph into an independent set and a 3-degenerate graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by O.V.Borodin in 1976 that the vertex set of every planar graph can be decomposed into an independent set and aset inducing a $3$-degenerate graph.......We prove the conjecture made by O.V.Borodin in 1976 that the vertex set of every planar graph can be decomposed into an independent set and aset inducing a $3$-degenerate graph....

  15. Internet-based information and self-help program for parents of children with burns: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefin Sveen

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: We believe that this program will offer parents of children with burns information and support, decrease symptoms of stress, and that parents will perceive the program as useful. If the program is found to be beneficial, it could be implemented in burn care as it is accessible and cost-effective.

  16. Multimodal Guided Self-Help Exercise Program to Prevent Speech, Swallowing, and Shoulder Problems Among Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Feasibility Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Rinkel, Rico N. P. M; Aalders, IJke J; de Goede, Cees J. T; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H. F; Langendijk, Johannes A; Witte, Birgit I; Leemans, C. Rene; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2014-01-01

    .... Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent them from having speech, swallowing, and shoulder problems during and after treatment. Objective...

  17. Youth Governance: How and Why It Can Help Out-of-School Time Programs Involve At-Risk Youth. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2008-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Lillian; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta

    2008-01-01

    Out-of-school time programs provide intervention and prevention services to young people who are deemed "at-risk" with the goal of improving their social, emotional, and academic development. However, research indicates that children and youth who are most "at-risk" are less likely to participate in out-of-school time programs, and do so less…

  18. Helping Hand: The Salin Kaalaman Tungo sa Kaunlaran Extension Program of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Among the Beneficiaries of the Pilot Centers in Sta. Mesa, Manila, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junnette B. Hasco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the four-fold functions of State Universities and Colleges in accordance by their mandates was to provide assistance to communities; this was achieved thru conducting different skills and development trainings in partnership with Local Government Units (LGU’s. This study was conducted to assess the current Extension program of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP. Some 74 beneficiaries from the 23 centers of Sta. Mesa, Manila were identified through the use of purposive sampling. The data gathering made use of aided surveys. Weighted Mean and Pearson Product Moment of Correlation was used to treat and process statistical data. Findings revealed that the Extension Services conducted by the PUP Salin Kaalaman Tungo sa Kaunlaran Extension Program (SALIN were highly effective regarding Information Dissemination, Staff and Officials, Trainings and Programs, Trainers and Speakers, Programs, Accommodation and Venue and the personal impact of the Extension Program to the Beneficiaries. Satisfaction rating on the extension program was also high. Further, this study found out that as respondents are satisfied with the implementation of SALIN, the greater the chance of positive assessment on the effectiveness of the project. The study also disclosed problems and recommendations identified by the respondents. In addressing the research gaps, this study further identified recommendations to enhance capabilities of program implementers such as better execution in the delivery of extension services, fund sourcing and forging linkages or networking.

  19. MicroCT detection of gunshot residue in fresh and decomposed firearm wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Giovanni; Amagliani, Alessandro; Giraudo, Chiara; Fais, Paolo; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Montisci, Massimo; Feltrin, Giampietro; Viel, Guido; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2012-05-01

    Gunshot residue (GSR) evidence may be altered or obscured by after-death events such as putrefaction, autolysis, and/or damage by animals. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the amount and differential distribution of GSR utilizing microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis of fresh and decomposed gunshot wounds. A total of 60 experimental shootings at three different firing distances (5, 15, and 30 cm) were performed on human calves surgically amputated for medical reasons. Thirty specimens (10 for each tested distance) were immediately formalin-fixed, while the other 30 specimens were enclosed in a cowshed for 15 days, before formalin fixation (air temperature ranging from 11°C to 38°C). MicroCT analysis with three-dimensional image reconstruction detected GSR particles in all the investigated entrance wounds. In fresh specimens, GSR was concentrated on the skin surface around the entrance hole and in the epidermis and dermis layers around the cavity, while in decomposed specimens, the high density particles were detected only in the dermis layer. No GSR was detected in exit wounds of both fresh and decomposed specimens regardless of the tested firing distance. Statistical analysis demonstrated that also in decomposed wounds the amount of GSR roughly correlated with the distance from which the gun was fired, exhibiting, however, a higher variability than in fresh samples. The obtained results suggest that microCT analysis can be a valid screening tool for differentiating decomposed entrance and exit gunshot wounds.

  20. Carbon and nitrogen status of decomposing roots in three adjacent coniferous plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyeob Jeong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the carbon (C and nitrogen (N status of decomposing roots in three adjacent plantations consisting of one deciduous (larch: Larix leptolepis and two evergreen (red pine: Pinus densiflora; rigitaeda pine: P. rigitaeda species planted in the same year (1963 under similar site conditions. The mass loss rates and C and N status of three diameter classes of roots (UF < 2 mm, F 2-5 mm, CF 5-10 mm in diameter were examined in the upper 15 cm of the mineral soil using in situ buried root bags for 496 days.The remaining mass of decomposing roots was significantly higher for larch (69.0% than for red pine (59.6% or rigitaeda pine (59.1% over 496 days. The mass loss rates of decomposing roots did not differ significantly among the three root diameter classes, but the C and N status of decomposing roots was affected by the tree species. The larch roots showed low C concentrations but high N concentrations, C and N remaining compared to the pine roots over the study period. The results indicate that the substrate quality indicators of roots were not attributed to the mass loss rates, C and N status of decomposing roots in three coniferous tree species grown under similar environmental conditions.

  1. Multimodal guided self-help exercise program to prevent speech, swallowing, and shoulder problems among head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, I.C.; van Uden-Kraan, C.F.; Rinkel, R.N.; Aalders, I.J.; de Goede, C.J.T.; de Bree, R.; Doornaert, P.; Rietveld, D.H.F.; Langendijk, J.A.; Witte, B.I.; Leemans, C.R.; de Leeuw, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: During a 6-week course of (chemo)radiation many head and neck cancer patients have to endure radiotherapy-induced toxicity, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent

  2. Multimodal Guided Self-Help Exercise Program to Prevent Speech, Swallowing, and Shoulder Problems Among Head and Neck Cancer Patients : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Ingrid C.; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Rinkel, Rico N. P. M.; Aalders, IJke J.; de Goede, Cees J. T.; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H. F.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Witte, Birgit I.; Leemans, C. Rene; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    Background: During a 6-week course of (chemo) radiation many head and neck cancer patients have to endure radiotherapy-induced toxicity, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent

  3. The Role of Food Assistance Programs and Employment Circumstances in Helping Households with Children Avoid Hunger. Discussion Paper No. 1280-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Nader S.; Yazbeck, Myra

    2004-01-01

    Households with children in the United States are more likely to experience food insecurity than households with no children. However, households with children are less likely to experience hunger. This finding suggests that food insecure households with children may be drawing on personal and/or public resources to help them avoid hunger. In this…

  4. Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe July 2014 Print this issue Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile En español Send us your comments A carefully structured, moderate physical activity program helped vulnerable older people maintain their mobility. ...

  5. Into the decomposed body-forensic digital autopsy using multislice-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, M J; Yen, K; Schweitzer, W; Vock, P; Ozdoba, C; Dirnhofer, R

    2003-07-08

    It is impossible to obtain a representative anatomical documentation of an entire body using classical X-ray methods, they subsume three-dimensional bodies into a two-dimensional level. We used the novel multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) technique in order to evaluate a case of homicide with putrefaction of the corpse before performing a classical forensic autopsy. This non-invasive method showed gaseous distension of the decomposing organs and tissues in detail as well as a complex fracture of the calvarium. MSCT also proved useful in screening for foreign matter in decomposing bodies, and full-body scanning took only a few minutes. In conclusion, we believe postmortem MSCT imaging is an excellent vizualisation tool with great potential for forensic documentation and evaluation of decomposed bodies.

  6. Short-term responses of decomposers and vegetation to stump removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataja-aho, S.

    2011-07-01

    Stump removal has become a common practice to produce raw material for bioenergy production. It was hypothesized that stump removal is an extensive and more intense disturbance for forest ecosystems (soil decomposer organisms and vegetation) compared to traditional site preparation after clear cutting. Therefore, the effects of stump harvesting on forest soil decomposers, vegetation and nutrient dynamics in undisturbed patches of the forest soil and in exposed mineral soil were compared to the effects of the traditional site preparation method, mounding. Nematodes and enchytraeids were the only decomposer groups that were directly affected (negatively) by the stump removal. Regardless of the treatment, the abundances of most of the decomposer groups were consistently lower in the exposed mineral soil than in the intact forest soil. There was 2-3 times more exposed mineral soil in stump removal sites compared to mounding sites. When this was taken into account, the decomposer community was negatively affected by the stump removal at the forest stand level. However, the greater soil disturbance at the stump harvesting sites enhanced CO{sub 2} production, net nitrogen mineralisation and nitrification. The increased N availability and the changes in microclimate due to the disturbance probably explained the vegetation increase at the stump harvested sites. Planted Norway spruce seedlings grew faster during the first two growing periods at the stump removal sites than at the mounding sites. The seedlings had high and similar ectomycorrhizal colonization rate in both treatments. In the short-term, it is probably not the resources removed in the stumps themselves, but the degree and amount of soil disturbance during the stump harvesting procedure that affects the decomposer community and its function in the clear-felled stands. (orig.)

  7. Commercializing Defense Technologies and Helping Defense Firms Succeed in Commercial Markets: A Report on the Objectives, Activities, and Accomplishments of the TAP-IN Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technology Access for Product Innovation (TAP-IN), the largest technology deployment project funded by TRP, was competitively selected through a national solicitation for proposals. TAP-IN was created to help companies access and apply defense technologies and help defense-dependent companies enter new commercial markets. Defense technologies included technologies developed by DoD, DOE, NASA, and their contractors. TAP-IN was structured to provide region-based technology access services that were able to draw on technology resources nationwide. TAP-IN provided expert assistance in all stages of the commercialization process from concept through prototype design to capital sourcing and marketing strategy. TAP-IN helped companies locate new technology, identify business partners, secure financing, develop ideas for new products, identify new markets, license technology, solve technical problems, and develop company-specific applications of federal technology. TAP-IN leveraged NASA's existing commercial technology network to create an integrated national network of organizations that assisted companies in every state. In addition to NASA's six regional technology transfer centers (RTTCs), TAP-IN included business and technology development organizations in every state, the Industrial Designers Society of America, and the Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC).

  8. Helping concerned family members of individuals with substance use and concurrent disorders: An evaluation of a family member-oriented treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denomme, William James; Benhanoh, Orry

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing body of research demonstrating that families of individuals with substance use and concurrent disorders (SUCD) experience a wide range of biopsychosocial problems that significantly impedes their quality of life and health. However, there has been a relative lack of treatment programs primarily focused on improving the well-being and quality of life of these family members. The current study assessed the efficacy of such a program at reducing stress, increasing perceived social support from family and friends, and increasing general, dyadic, and self-rated family functioning within these concerned family members. A sample of 125 family members of individuals with SUCDs was recruited, of which 97 participated in the treatment program and 28 were used as the comparison group. Results indicated that the treatment program significantly reduced stress, increased perceived social support from family and friends, and increased general, dyadic and self-rated family functioning. A perceived personal benefits questionnaire demonstrated that participants had a better understanding of SUCDs, better coping capabilities in regard to emotional difficulties, adopted stronger coping methods, participated in more leisure activities, and improved their relationship with the individual with a SUCD. The results of the current study further demonstrate the need to implement more of these family-member oriented psycho-educational treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Continuous selections of multivalued maps with non-convex non-closed decomposable values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstonogov, A. A.

    1996-06-01

    A class of multivalued maps with non-convex non-closed decomposable values is distinguished, and theorems are proved on the existence of continuous selections for such maps. This class contains multivalued maps whose values are extreme points of continuous multivalued maps with closed convex decomposable values in a Banach space of Bochner-integrable functions. The proofs are based on the Baire category theorem. It is known that the set of extreme points of a closed convex set is in general not closed. Hence the results or paper answer the question of the existence of continuous selections for multivalued maps with non-convex non-closed values.

  10. An initial study of insect succession on decomposing rabbit carrions in Harare, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mabika, Nyasha; Masendu, Ron; Mawera, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate insects visiting sun exposed and shaded decomposing rabbit carcasses and to establish the relationship between insects and carcasses which may be of forensic importance in Harare. Methods: Two rabbits weighing 2.3 kg and 2.5 kg were killed by sharp blows on the head. One was exposed to the sun while the other was placed under shade. The carcasses were allowed to decompose and insects were collected twice a day for the first week and thereafter once a day up to the...

  11. Mechanism and Application of Carbon Nanotube Sensors in SF6 Decomposed Production Detection: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Gui, Yingang; Tang, Ju

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have aroused extensive attentions as a new category of gas sensor materials owing to their outstanding performance for detecting specific gas among a variety of ones through diverse gas responses. This review summarizes the adsorption mechanism of CNTs and their properties related to the detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposed gases that generated in gas insulation switchgear (GIS) of power system. Their performances as sensors of both experimental analysis and theoretical calculation for various kinds of decomposed gases are summarized, and the further research trend on CNTs in the detection of SF6 decomposition components is also put forward.

  12. Help Seeking and Receiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Arie

    Although social psychology has always had an interest in helping behavior, only recently has the full complexity of helping relations begun to be researched. Help seeking and receiving in the educational setting raise many issues regarding the use and effectiveness of the help itself. Central to all helping relations is the seeking/receiving…

  13. Relationships between the Family Environment and School-Based Obesity Prevention Efforts: Can School Programs Help Adolescents Who Are Most in Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in…

  14. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part III--Practitioners and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, David; Martinez, David; Aenchbacher, Amy; Aiello, Rocco; Doyle, Mike; Hilgenbrinck, Linda; Busse, Sean; Cappuccio, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In Part III of the feature, physical educators and adapted physical educators offer current best practices as models of implementation for readers. Contributions included are: (1) Answer to the Dear Colleague Letter from the Anchorage School District's Adapted Sport Program (David Poulin); (2) Georgia's Adapted Physical Educators Response to the…

  15. Preliminary Effectiveness of Surviving the Teens[R] Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on Adolescents' Suicidality and Self-Efficacy in Performing Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…

  16. Chart Your Own Future: How Your Individualized Education Program (IEP) Can Help. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets. PHP-c113

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Although high school students cannot control every aspect of their school education, they do have the power to make changes in their education program. As they influence major parts of their IEP, they gain more freedom and more control over what happens to them. This action sheet describes three steps for high school students to consider in taking…

  17. Self-decomposable Fibrous Bridging Additives for Temporary Cementitious Fracture Sealers in EGS Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.; Kisslinger, K.; Iverson, B.; Bour, D.

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluates compatibility of a self-degradable temporary fracture sealer with the drilling mud and plugging and self-degrading performance of different fibers to be used in combination with the sealer. The sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash (SSASC) cementitious sealer must plug fractures at 85oC to allow continuous well drilling and it must degrade and leave the fractures open for water at later times when exposed to temperatures above 200oC. The sealer showed good compatibility with the mud. Even the blend of 80/20 vol.% of sealer/mud reached a compressive strength of more than 2000 psi set as one of the material criteria, mostly due to the additional activation of the slag and Class C fly ash by the alkaline ingredient present in the drilling fluid. In contrast, the drilling fluid was detrimental to the compressive strength development in conventional Class G well cement, so that it failed to meet this criterion. Among several organic fibers tested both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-and nylon-based fibers showed adequate plugging of the sealer in slot nozzles of 1-in. wide x 6-in. long x 0.08 in. and 0.24 in. high under pressures up to 700 psi. PVA fibers displayed better compressive toughness and self-degrading properties than nylon. The compressive toughness of sealers made by adding 1.0 wt% 6 mm-length PVA and 0.5 wt% 19 mm-length PVA was 9.5-fold higher than that of a non-bridged sealer. One factor governing the development of such high toughness was an excellent adherence of PVA to the SSASC cement. The alkali-catalyzed self-decomposition of PVA at 200°C led to the morphological transformation of the material from a fibrous structure to a microscale flake-like structure that helped the desirable conversion of the sealer into small fragments. In contrast, nylon’s decomposition provided a reticular network structure in the self-degraded sealer resulting in bigger fragments compared against the sealer with PVA. The PVA fiber has a high

  18. Helping Parents to Help Children Develop as Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, John

    1987-01-01

    Argues that parents can help their children take more pleasure in writing and thus build their confidence and competence in mastering composition skills. Describes the Parents-as-Tutors Program and some of its methods, which include teaching the student to edit message, punctuation, and spelling. (AEW)

  19. Improvement of upper limb’s condition of women with post mastectomy syndrome with the help of problem-oriented program of physical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briskin Y.A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine effectiveness of problem-oriented program of women’s physical rehabilitation with post mastectomy syndrome in improvement of upper limb’s functional state. Material: 50 women with early symptoms of post mastectomy syndrome at stationary rehabilitation stage, who underwent radical mastectomy by Madden were involved in the research. Testing of movement amplitude in shoulder joint, swelling of upper limb and muscular strength of hand’s flexors was conducted on 2 nd day after surgery and at the end of stationary rehabilitation period (12-14 th day. Results: Main means of the authors’ program were: general and special physical exercises; static and dynamic breathing exercises; breathing through preloaded lips, controlled coughing, autogenic drainage, manual pressing, manual vibration; post-isometric relaxation; elements of labor therapy; lymphatic drainage massage and self massage; topical talks; consultations; auto training. The trainings were conducted individually 2-3 times a day; 20-30 minutes every session. The patients’ independent trainings included: fulfillment of therapeutic positions, self-massage, relaxation exercises and auto-training. Conclusions: application of problem-oriented physical rehabilitation program facilitates improvement of upper limb’s functional potentials of women with post mastectomy syndrome.

  20. DC Analysis of an Ideal Diode Network Using Its Decomposed Piecevise-Linear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kolka

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method of finding the operating points in circuits containing ideal diodes which utilizes the decomposed form of the state model of an one-dimensional piecewise-linear (PWL system is developed. The universal procedure shown gives all the existing solutions quite automatically.

  1. The chemical convergence and decomposer control hypotheses explain solid cattle manure decomposition in production grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Lantinga, Egbert A.; Brussaard, Lijbert; Goede, de Ron G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, we reported for the first time that home field advantage (HFA) of litter decomposition also exists in agricultural production systems, in addition to earlier reports from natural ecosystems. Here, we provide evidence that adaptation of the soil decomposer community to differences in the

  2. Screening of Cultivatable Indigenous Fungi which Responsible for Decomposing of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to screen potentials indigenous fungi for rapid decomposing of rice straw. Sevenisolates of dominant fungi were isolated from the burying rice straw on the 2.5 cm soil depth after 30 days incubationon the paddy fields. Five dominant isolates were tested for their potential to decompose rice straw by assessingtheir value of decreasing C/N ratio and dry weight of rice straw. Fungal inoculums treatments were arranged in aCompletely Randomized Design with four replications. The results showed that the dominant cultivable fungi thatisolated from decomposed rice straw were Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Aspergillus sp., and Penicilliumsp. Among the tested fungi, Trichoderma sp. had the biggest ability to decompose rice straw compared to othersindigenous fungi. The C/N ratio was reduced to 39.47 from an initial value of 73.33 of control treatment in 10 days ofbiodegradation process in laboratory scale, thus showing the potential of indigenous Trichoderma sp. for use inlarge-scale composting of rice straw.

  3. Food Preference of Fresh-Water Invertebrates - Comparing Fresh and Decomposed Angiosperm and a Filamentous Alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornijow, R.; Gulati, R.D.; Ozimek, T.

    1995-01-01

    1. Fresh and decomposed Mougeotia sp. (a filamentous green alga) and Elodea nuttallii (a vascular plant) were offered as food to three species of aquatic macroinvertebrates (Lymnnea peregra, Asellus meridianus and Endochironomus albipennis) to test: (i) if filamentous algae are preferred to aquatic

  4. Natural manganese deposits as catalyst for decomposing hydrogen peroxide (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.H.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking water companies more and more implement Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) in their treatment schemes to increase the barrier against organic micropollutants (OMPs). It is necessary to decompose the excessive hydrogen peroxide after applying AOP to avoid negative effects in the following,

  5. Experimental evidence that the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model best describes the evolution of leaf litter decomposability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Xu; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Zhao, W.; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Prinzing, A.; Dong, Ming; Cornwell, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf litter decomposability is an important effect trait for ecosystem functioning. However, it is unknown how this effect trait evolved through plant history as a leaf 'afterlife' integrator of the evolution of multiple underlying traits upon which adaptive selection must have acted. Did

  6. Effects of different levels of decomposed poultry manure on yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... the Vegetable Evaluation and Research Station, Anse Boileau,. Mahe, Seychelles on soil classified as sandy to evaluate the effects of different levels of decomposed poultry manure on yield of musk- melon. The variety of muskmelon used was Hales Best. It is com- monly grown by farmers and shows good ...

  7. The plant cell wall--decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Eastwood; Dimitrios Floudas; Manfred Binder; Andrzej Majcherczyk; Patrick Schneider; Andrea Aerts; Fred O. Asiegbu; Scott E. Baker; Kerrie Barry; Mika Bendiksby; Melanie Blumentritt; Pedro M. Coutinho; Dan Cullen; Ronald P. de Vries; Allen Gathman; Barry Goodell; Bernard Henrissat; Katarina Ihrmark; Havard Kauserud; Annegret Kohler; Kurt LaButti; Alla Lapidus; Jose L. Lavin; Yong-Hwan Lee; Erika Lindquist; Walt Lilly; Susan Lucas; Emmanuelle Morin; Claude Murat; Jose A. Oguiza; Jongsun Park; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Robert Riley; Anna Rosling; Asaf Salamov; Olaf Schmidt; Jeremy Schmutz; Inger Skrede; Jan Stenlid; Ad Wiebenga; Xinfeng Xie; Ursula Kues; David S. Hibbett; Dirk Hoffmeister; Nils Hogberg; Francis Martin; Igor V. Grigoriev; Sarah C. Watkinson

    2011-01-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicelluloses from wood, residual lignin contributing up to 30% of forest soil carbon, and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy where both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the “dry rot” fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution...

  8. Novel view on predicting acute toxicity: Decomposing toxicity data in species vulnerability and chemical potency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.T.; Posthuma, L.; Zwart, D.D.; van de Meent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical risk assessment usually applies empirical methods to predict toxicant effects on different species. We propose a more mechanism-oriented approach, and introduce a method to decompose toxicity data in a contribution from the chemical (potency) and from the exposed species (vulnerability). We

  9. Effects of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Nghia, T.T.; Ut, V.N.; Scheffer, M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of different concentrations of decomposing Rhizophora apiculata leaves and their leachates on larvae of the shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditions. Shrimp mortality was highly dependent on the concentration of oxygen in the water, which in turn was strongly

  10. FLORA: A framework for decomposing software architecture to introduce local recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan; Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet

    The decomposition of software architecture into modular units is usually driven by the required quality concerns. In this paper we focus on the impact of local recovery concern on the decomposition of the software system. For achieving local recovery, the system needs to be decomposed into separate

  11. Gaze Fluctuations Are Not Additively Decomposable: Reply to Bogartz and Staub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.; Mirman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work interpreted single-lognormal fits to inter-gaze distance (i.e., "gaze steps") histograms as evidence of multiplicativity and hence interactions across scales in visual cognition. Bogartz and Staub (2012) proposed that gaze steps are additively decomposable into fixations and saccades, matching the histograms better and…

  12. Burn or rot: leaf traits explain why flammability and decomposability are decoupled across species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootemaat, S.; Wright, I.J.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Cornwell, W.K.

    2015-01-01

    In fireprone ecosystems, two important alternative fates for leaves are burning in a wildfire (when alive or as litter) or they get consumed (as litter) by decomposers. The influence of leaf traits on litter decomposition rate is reasonably well understood. In contrast, less is known about the

  13. An optimality framework to predict decomposer carbon-use efficiency trends along stoichiometric gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Capek, P.; Mooshammer, M.; Lindahl, B.; Richter, A.; Santruckova, H.

    2016-12-01

    Litter and soil organic matter decomposers feed on substrates with much wider C:N and C:P ratios then their own cellular composition, raising the question as to how they can adapt their metabolism to such a chronic stoichiometric imbalance. Here we propose an optimality framework to address this question, based on the hypothesis that carbon-use efficiency (CUE) can be optimally adjusted to maximize the decomposer growth rate. When nutrients are abundant, increasing CUE improves decomposer growth rate, at the expense of higher nutrient demand. However, when nutrients are scarce, increased nutrient demand driven by high CUE can trigger nutrient limitation and inhibit growth. An intermediate, `optimal' CUE ensures balanced growth at the verge of nutrient limitation. We derive a simple analytical equation that links this optimal CUE to organic substrate and decomposer biomass C:N and C:P ratios, and to the rate of inorganic nutrient supply (e.g., fertilization). This equation allows formulating two specific hypotheses: i) decomposer CUE should increase with widening organic substrate C:N and C:P ratios with a scaling exponent between 0 (with abundant inorganic nutrients) and -1 (scarce inorganic nutrients), and ii) CUE should increase with increasing inorganic nutrient supply, for a given organic substrate stoichiometry. These hypotheses are tested using a new database encompassing nearly 2000 estimates of CUE from about 160 studies, spanning aquatic and terrestrial decomposers of litter and more stabilized organic matter. The theoretical predictions are largely confirmed by our data analysis, except for the lack of fertilization effects on terrestrial decomposer CUE. While stoichiometric drivers constrain the general trends in CUE, the relatively large variability in CUE estimates suggests that other factors could be at play as well. For example, temperature is often cited as a potential driver of CUE, but we only found limited evidence of temperature effects

  14. Colimitation of decomposition by substrate and decomposers – a comparison of model formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reichstein

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM is limited by both the available substrate and the active decomposer community. The understanding of this colimitation strongly affects the understanding of feedbacks of soil carbon to global warming and its consequences. This study compares different formulations of soil organic matter (SOM decomposition. We compiled formulations from literature into groups according to the representation of decomposer biomass on the SOM decomposition rate a non-explicit (substrate only, b linear, and c non-linear. By varying the SOM decomposition equation in a basic simplified decomposition model, we analyzed the following questions. Is the priming effect represented? Under which conditions is SOM accumulation limited? And, how does steady state SOM stocks scale with amount of fresh organic matter (FOM litter inputs? While formulations (a did not represent the priming effect, with formulations (b steady state SOM stocks were independent of amount of litter input. Further, with several formulations (c there was an offset of SOM that was not decomposed when no fresh OM was supplied. The finding that a part of the SOM is not decomposed on exhaust of FOM supply supports the hypothesis of carbon stabilization in deep soil by the absence of energy-rich fresh organic matter. Different representations of colimitation of decomposition by substrate and decomposers in SOM decomposition models resulted in qualitatively different long-term behaviour. A collaborative effort by modellers and experimentalists is required to identify formulations that are more or less suitable to represent the most important drivers of long term carbon storage.

  15. Helping Parents Help the Slow Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnemuende, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Parents of struggling learners are often unsure of how to assist their children at home. The author provides useful strategies and tips for principals to help parents support and encourage their children who are slow learners.

  16. The Role of Regular Eating and Self-Monitoring in the Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa: A Pilot Study of an Online Guided Self-Help CBT Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Sarah; Maguire, Sarah; Surgenor, Lois; Donnelly, Brooke; Miceska, Blagica; Fromholtz, Kirsty; Russell, Janice; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-06-26

    Background: Despite cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) being regarded as the first-line treatment option for bulimia nervosa (BN), barriers such as its time-consuming and expensive nature limit patient access. In order to broaden treatment availability and affordability, the efficacy and convenience of CBT could be improved through the use of online treatments and selective emphasis on its most 'potent' components of which behavioural techniques form the focus. Method: Twenty-six individuals with BN were enrolled in an online CBT-based self-help programme and 17 completed four weeks of regular eating and food-monitoring using the online Food Diary tool. Participants were contacted for a weekly check-in phone call and had their bulimic symptom severity assessed at five time points (baseline and weeks 1-4). Results: There was a significant decrease in the frequency of self-reported objective binge episodes, associated loss of control and objective binge days reported between pre- and post-treatment measures. Significant improvements were also observed in most subscales of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Conclusion: This study provides encouraging preliminary evidence of the potential of behavioural techniques of online CBT in the treatment of BN. Online therapy with this focus is potentially a viable and practical form of treatment delivery in this illness group. These preliminary findings support the need for larger studies using control groups.

  17. The Role of Regular Eating and Self-Monitoring in the Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa: A Pilot Study of an Online Guided Self-Help CBT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Sarah; Maguire, Sarah; Surgenor, Lois; Donnelly, Brooke; Miceska, Blagica; Fromholtz, Kirsty; Russell, Janice; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) being regarded as the first-line treatment option for bulimia nervosa (BN), barriers such as its time-consuming and expensive nature limit patient access. In order to broaden treatment availability and affordability, the efficacy and convenience of CBT could be improved through the use of online treatments and selective emphasis on its most ‘potent’ components of which behavioural techniques form the focus. Method: Twenty-six individuals with BN were enrolled in an online CBT-based self-help programme and 17 completed four weeks of regular eating and food-monitoring using the online Food Diary tool. Participants were contacted for a weekly check-in phone call and had their bulimic symptom severity assessed at five time points (baseline and weeks 1–4). Results: There was a significant decrease in the frequency of self-reported objective binge episodes, associated loss of control and objective binge days reported between pre- and post-treatment measures. Significant improvements were also observed in most subscales of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Conclusion: This study provides encouraging preliminary evidence of the potential of behavioural techniques of online CBT in the treatment of BN. Online therapy with this focus is potentially a viable and practical form of treatment delivery in this illness group. These preliminary findings support the need for larger studies using control groups. PMID:28672851

  18. The Role of Regular Eating and Self-Monitoring in the Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa: A Pilot Study of an Online Guided Self-Help CBT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Barakat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT being regarded as the first-line treatment option for bulimia nervosa (BN, barriers such as its time-consuming and expensive nature limit patient access. In order to broaden treatment availability and affordability, the efficacy and convenience of CBT could be improved through the use of online treatments and selective emphasis on its most ‘potent’ components of which behavioural techniques form the focus. Method: Twenty-six individuals with BN were enrolled in an online CBT-based self-help programme and 17 completed four weeks of regular eating and food-monitoring using the online Food Diary tool. Participants were contacted for a weekly check-in phone call and had their bulimic symptom severity assessed at five time points (baseline and weeks 1–4. Results: There was a significant decrease in the frequency of self-reported objective binge episodes, associated loss of control and objective binge days reported between pre- and post-treatment measures. Significant improvements were also observed in most subscales of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Conclusion: This study provides encouraging preliminary evidence of the potential of behavioural techniques of online CBT in the treatment of BN. Online therapy with this focus is potentially a viable and practical form of treatment delivery in this illness group. These preliminary findings support the need for larger studies using control groups.

  19. (Asynchronous availabilities of N and P regulate the activity and structure of the microbial decomposer community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eFanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P availability both control microbial decomposers and litter decomposition. However, these two key nutrients show distinct release patterns from decomposing litter and are unlikely available at the same time in most ecosystems. Little is known about how temporal differences in N and P availability affect decomposers and litter decomposition, which may be particularly critical for tropical rainforests growing on old and nutrient-impoverished soils. Here we used three chemically contrasted leaf litter substrates and cellulose paper as a widely accessible substrate containing no nutrients to test the effects of temporal differences in N and P availability in a microcosm experiment under fully controlled conditions. We measured substrate mass loss, microbial activity (by substrate induced respiration, SIR as well as microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acids, PLFAs in the litter and the underlying soil throughout the initial stages of decomposition. We generally found a stronger stimulation of substrate mass loss and microbial respiration, especially for cellulose, with simultaneous NP addition compared to a temporally separated N and P addition. However, litter types with a relatively high N to P availability responded more to initial P than N addition and vice versa. A third litter species showed no response to fertilization regardless of the sequence of addition, likely due to strong C limitation. Microbial community structure in the litter was strongly influenced by the fertilization sequence. In particular, the fungi to bacteria ratio increased following N addition alone, a shift that was reversed with complementary P addition. Opposite to the litter layer microorganisms, the soil microbial community structure was more strongly influenced by the identity of the decomposing substrate than by fertilization treatments, reinforcing the idea that C availability can strongly constrain decomposer

  20. Compulsion of a linear equation system to the development of analytic formulas for the sumsof some finite series with the help of special computer programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenev Vladimir Stepanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a convincing system of mathematical reasoning allowing us to pass over the stages of recurrent formulas as well as the induction methods in the process of developing analytic formulas using computer programs. The article elaborates the ideas on how to make the computer derive analytic formulas. The author offers us a generalization consisting in using the method of summing up to the more wide range of series, as well as finding approximate specific solutions to some differential equations and summarizations, which can occur, for example, in finite element method. The suggested method of summing the degrees with the coefficient is generalized to:a The total formulas for the powers degrees of real numbers which are not the rational numbers. This will lead to approximate results.b The representation of sums is connected to the solutions of certain differential equations (Cauchy problem, where we can obtain the partial equations in the form of power series with rational coefficients.

  1. Root-induced decomposer growth and plant N uptake are not positively associated among a set of grassland plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saj, S.; Mikola, J.; Ekelund, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    It is known that plant species can induce development of different soil decomposer communities and that they differ in their influence on organic matter decomposition and N mineralization in soil. However, no study has so far assessed whether these two observations are related to each other. Based...... on the hypothesis that root-induced growth of soil decomposers leads to accelerated decomposition of SOM and increased plant N availability in soil, we predicted that (1) among a set of grassland plants the abundance of soil decomposers in the plant rhizosphere is positively associated with plant N uptake from soil...... organic matter. To test this, we established grassland microcosms consisting of two plant individuals, a natural soil decomposer community and 15N-labelled plant litter as organic N source, and compared the rhizosphere decomposer communities and litter-N uptake of a grass Holcus lanatus, an herb Plantago...

  2. Helping Underachievers Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Joycelyn G.; Parish, Thomas S.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews successful attempts to help students who perform below their potential. Argues that effective measures for helping underachieving students include: teachers believing in their students, and making the classroom a place which provides love, belonging, power, fun, and freedom. (RS)

  3. Help for the Caregiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chosen to help where the caregiver needs it. Education and Information Coping Skills Counseling Family Meetings Home Care Help Hospice Care for the Cancer Patient Caregivers have a very hard job and it's ...

  4. La Lecture de textes scientifiques rediges dans une langue etrangere enseignee a l'aide de manuels programes (Reading of Scientific Texts Edited in a Foreign Language, Taught with the Help of Programmed Textbooks)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaasch, Hans-W.

    1977-01-01

    The article discusses programmed instruction in reading a foreign language to provide students in a specialized discipline with tools they need to understand specialized texts. Recent studies indicate the validity of teaching for reading comprehension only. Two examples of programs in scientific Dutch are attached. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  5. Modeling of the Sulfuric Acid and Sulfur Trioxide Decomposer using Aspen Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong Un; Park, G. C. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. S.; Yoo, T. H.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, Y. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A hydrogen production system using VHTR, which was combined with a Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle, is a good candidate for massive hydrogen production. It is being investigated for Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) project in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The SI thermo-chemical cycle is a good promise for the economical and eco-friendly hydrogen production. In SI cycle, the decomposition of a sulfuric acid is main concern for the material corrosion and mechanical stress on high temperature and pressure operation condition. KAERI has designed and constructed a small-scale gas loop that included sulfuric acid experimental facilities as a secondary loop. The main objectives of the loop are to monitor and validate the performances of NHDD component such as the Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) and sulfuric acid decomposer. In this paper, we discussed the results of the modeling of the sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide decomposer using Aspen plus process simulator

  6. HOW DO DEGRADABLE/BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC MATERIALS DECOMPOSE IN HOME COMPOSTING ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Vaverková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about biodegradability of polymeric (biodegradable/degradable materials advertised as 100%-degradable or certified as compostable, which may be a part of biodegradable waste, in home composting conditions. It describes an experiment that took place in home wooden compost bins and contained 9 samples that are commonly available in retail chains in the Czech Republic and Poland. The experiment lasted for the period of 12 weeks. Based on the results thereof it can be concluded that polyethylene samples with additive (samples 2, 4, 7 have not decomposed, their color has not changed and that no degradation or physical changes have occurred. Samples 1, 3 and 5 certified as compostable have not decomposed. Sample 6 exhibited the highest decomposition rate. Samples 8, 9 (tableware exhibited high degree of decomposition. The main conclusion from this study is that degradable/biodegradable plastics or plastics certified as compostable are not suitable for home composting.

  7. Decomposing series-parallel graphs into paths of length 3 and triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series-parallel gra......An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series......-parallel graphs. We also present a 2-edge-connected non-planar graph that can be embedded on the torus and admits no decomposition into paths of length 3 and triangles....

  8. Kill the song—steal the show: what does distinguish predicative metaphors from decomposable idioms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillies, Stéphanie; Declercq, Christelle

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the semantic processing difference between decomposable idioms and novel predicative metaphors. It was hypothesized that idiom comprehension results from the retrieval of a figurative meaning stored in memory, that metaphor comprehension requires a sense creation process and that this process difference affects the processing time of idiomatic and metaphoric expressions. In the first experiment, participants read sentences containing decomposable idioms, predicative metaphors or control expressions and performed a lexical decision task on figurative targets presented 0, 350, and 500 ms, or 750 after reading. Results demonstrated that idiomatic expressions were processed sooner than metaphoric ones. In the second experiment, participants were asked to assess the meaningfulness of idiomatic, metaphoric and literal expressions after reading a verb prime that belongs to the target phrase (identity priming). The results showed that verb identity priming was stronger for idiomatic expressions than for metaphor ones, indicating different mental representations.

  9. A domain decomposed finite element method for solving Darcian velocity in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yifan; Wu, Jichun; Xue, Yuqun; Xie, Chunhong; Ji, Haifeng

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a domain decomposed finite element method (DDFEM) for groundwater flow velocity simulation, which can effectively and efficiently deal with arbitrarily oriented or intersected material interfaces in heterogeneous porous media. The main idea of this problem is to employ domain decompose technique to break the velocity problem down to subproblems by material interfaces, thereby achieving high accuracy at interface nodes and improving the velocity computation efficiency. By solving the global flow field by FEM before velocity computation, this method can capture the global information of the whole study region so as to ensure the subproblem solution accuracy by Yeh's model. After one subproblem has been solved, the DDFEM employs refraction law to obtain the Dirichlet boundary velocities of the adjacent subdomains. Numerical examples have been done to demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of the proposed method. Comparison between the DDFEM and two classical methods shows that the DDFEM can indeed save much computational cost, while achieving high accuracy.

  10. A helping hand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Inger Plaisier; Peggy Schyns

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Hulp geboden   The help provided to people with a care need is about to undergo major changes in the Netherlands. People who need help will be expected to rely more on help from members of their network. What are the opportunities for informal carers and volunteers, and where

  11. Decomposed energy management of a multi-source fuel cell vehicle using Energetic Macroscopic Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Castaings, Ali; Lhomme, Walter; Trigui, Rochdi; Bouscayrol, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Energy management of multi-sources vehicles is a complex task. The higher the number of sources becomes, the higher the complexity is. In this study, a decomposed energy management strategy is used for a vehicle fed by three energy sources: a fuel-cell, a battery and Supercapacitors (SCs). The decomposition allows simplifying the synthesis of the Energy Management Strategy. A comparison with a fuel cell (alone) vehicle is performed by simulation. By imposing a constant current to the fuel-cel...

  12. Approach to calculate normal modes by decomposing the dyadic Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenhai; Yue, Wencheng; Yao, Peijun; Lu, Yonghua; Liu, Wen

    2014-11-03

    Normal mode is a very fundamental notion in quantum and classical optics. In this paper, we present a method to calculate normal modes by decomposing dyadic Green's function, where the modes are excited by dipoles. The modes obtained by our method can be directly normalized and their degeneracies can be easily removed. This method can be applied to many theoretical descriptions of cavity electrodynamics and is of interest to nanophotonics.

  13. Mechanism and Application of Carbon Nanotube Sensors in SF6 Decomposed Production Detection: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Gui, Yingang; Tang, Ju

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have aroused extensive attentions as a new category of gas sensor materials owing to their outstanding performance for detecting specific gas among a variety of ones through diverse gas responses. This review summarizes the adsorption mechanism of CNTs and their properties related to the detection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposed gases that generated in gas insulation switchgear (GIS) of power system. Their performances as sensors of both experimental analysis a...

  14. Different pathways but same result? Comparing chemistry and biological effects of burned and decomposed litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; El-Gawad, Ahmed M. Abd; Sarker, Tushar Chandra; Cesarano, Gaspare; Saulino, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio; Castro Rego, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. Here, we tested the chemical convergence hypothesis (i.e. materials with different initial chemistry tend to converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances) for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition of 63 organic materials - 7 litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C - as assessed by 13C NMR. We used litter water extracts (5% dw) as treatments in bioassays on plant (Lepidium sativum) and fungal (Aspergillus niger) growth, and a washed quartz sand amended with litter materials (0.5 % dw) to assess heterotrophic respiration by CO2 flux chamber. We observed different molecular variations for materials either burning (i.e. a sharp increase of aromatic C and a decrease of most other fractions above 200 °C) or decomposing (i.e. early increase of alkyl, methoxyl and N-alkyl C and decrease of O-alkyl and di-O-alkyl C fractions). Soil respiration and fungal growth progressively decreased with litter age and temperature. Plant growth underwent an inhibitory effect by untreated litter, more and less rapidly released over decomposing and burning materials, respectively. Correlation analysis between NMR and bioassay data showed that opposite responses for soil respiration and fungi, compared to plants, are related to essentially the same C molecular types. Our findings suggest a functional convergence of decomposed and burnt organic substrates, emerging from the balance between the bioavailability of labile C sources and the presence of recalcitrant and pyrogenic compounds, oppositely affecting different trophic levels.

  15. [Negative perceptions of the risks associated with gaming in young adolescents: An exploratory study to help thinking about a prevention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, C; Phan, O

    2017-07-01

    . To promote life skills, and given that girls often report more negative consequences than boys, it seems important to include these skills in prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. An initial study of insect succession on decomposing rabbit carrions in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabika, Nyasha; Masendu, Ron; Mawera, Gilbert

    2014-07-01

    To investigate insects visiting sun exposed and shaded decomposing rabbit carcasses and to establish the relationship between insects and carcasses which may be of forensic importance in Harare. Two rabbits weighing 2.3 kg and 2.5 kg were killed by sharp blows on the head. One was exposed to the sun while the other was placed under shade. The carcasses were allowed to decompose and insects were collected twice a day for the first week and thereafter once a day up to the end of the 7 weeks. Maggots were also collected from the decomposing carcasses and reared. Five dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Phoridae and Drosophilidae) were identified from the sun-exposed carcass. Species collected included Lucilia cuprina (L. cuprina), Chrysomya albiceps (C. albiceps), Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp. and Drosophila sp. Four families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae) were identified from the shaded carcass. Representatives of these families included L. cuprina, C. albiceps, Musca domestica, and Hydrotaea sp. Three Coleopteran families (Histeridae, Cleridae and Dermestidae) were identified from both carcasses. The observed species were Saprinus sp., Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes sp. Formicidae (Hymenoptera) was represented by only one species (Pheidole sp.). Flies which emerged from the rearing units were L. cuprina, Lucilia sp., C. albiceps, Sarcophaga sp. and Sepsis sp.). Of the dipteran species collected during the study, L. cuprina and C. albiceps could be important for further forensic studies since they were collected from the carcasses and also observed from the rearing units.

  17. Estimating biological elementary flux modes that decompose a flux distribution by the minimal branching property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Elementary flux mode (EFM) is a useful tool in constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. The property that every flux distribution can be decomposed as a weighted sum of EFMs allows certain applications of EFMs to studying flux distributions. The existence of biologically infea...... knowledge, which facilitates interpretation. Comparison of the methods applied to a complex flux distribution in Lactococcus lactis similarly showed the advantages of MBD. The minimal branching EFM concept underlying MBD should be useful in other applications.......MOTIVATION: Elementary flux mode (EFM) is a useful tool in constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. The property that every flux distribution can be decomposed as a weighted sum of EFMs allows certain applications of EFMs to studying flux distributions. The existence of biologically......, i.e. minimal branching. RESULTS: We developed the concept of minimal branching EFM and derived the minimal branching decomposition (MBD) to decompose flux distributions. Testing in the core Escherichia coli metabolic network indicated that MBD can distinguish branches at branch points and greatly...

  18. Ecotoxicological impact of the fungicide tebuconazole on an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrod, Jochen P; Bundschuh, Mirco; Feckler, Alexander; Englert, Dominic; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    Leaf litter breakdown is a fundamental process in aquatic ecosystems that is realized by microbial decomposers and invertebrate detritivores. Although this process may be adversely affected by fungicides, among other factors, no test design exists to assess combined effects on such decomposer-detritivore systems. Hence, the present study assessed effects of the model fungicide tebuconazole (65 µg/L) on the conditioning of leaf material (by characterizing the associated microbial community) as well as the combined effects (i.e., direct toxicity and food quality-related effects (=indirect)) on the energy processing of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum using a five-week semistatic test design. Gammarids exposed to tebuconazole produced significantly less feces (≈ 20%), which in turn significantly increased their assimilation (≈ 30%). Moreover, a significantly reduced lipid content (≈ 20%) indicated lower physiological fitness. The conditioning process was altered as well, which was indicated by a significantly reduced fungal biomass (≈ 40%) and sporulation (≈ 30%) associated with the leaf material. These results suggest that tebuconazole affects both components of the investigated decomposer-detritivore system. However, adverse effects on the level of detritivores cannot be explicitly attributed to direct or indirect pathways. Nevertheless, as the endpoints assessed are directly related to leaf litter breakdown and associated energy transfer processes, the protectiveness of environmental risk assessment for this ecosystem function may be more realistically assessed in future studies by using this or comparable test designs. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  19. Sisters Helping Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Madeleine E.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the philosophy, organization, and management of a mentoring program for African American girls. It is based on a program sponsored by the Wheeler Avenue Baptist Church in Houston (Texas). This program matches between 25 and 50 young women with Christian women mentors. The program emphasizes Christian values,…

  20. Helping Our Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Sophie

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Ikaiyurluki Mikelnguut (Helping Our Children) project in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska where trained natural helpers are helping Yup'ik Eskimo villagers to cope with crisis situations--notably teenage suicide and drug and alcohol abuse. (Author/BB)

  1. Helping Friends and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chapter Join our online community Helping Friends and Family Part of living well with Alzheimer’s is adjusting to your “new normal” and helping family and friends do the same. Knowing what to ...

  2. Decomposing certain equipartite graphs into sunlet graphs of length 2p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolape D. Akwu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For any integer r≥3, we define the sunlet graph of order 2r, denoted L2r, as the graph consisting of a cycle of length r together with r pendant vertices, each adjacent to exactly one vertex of the cycle. In this paper, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for decomposing the lexicographic product of the complete graph and the complete graph minus a 1-factor, with complement of the complete graph Km, (that is Kn⊗K̄m and Kn−I⊗K̄m, respectively into sunlet graphs of order twice a prime.

  3. Design of the Decomposed State Model of an One-Dimensional Piecewise-Linear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kolka

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Present paper deals with the problem of automatic design of the implicit state model (in its decomposed parametric form of any one-dimensional piecewise-linear (PWL system. This model consists of the internal and the external parts which provides the possibility to find the model parameters, i.e. to solve separately the two main problems of an one-dimensional PWL model design: (i existence of the individual breakpoints of the resultant PWL characteristic (determined by the internal block; (ii setting of the breakpoint co-ordinates (determined by the external block.

  4. Multi-Temporal Decomposed Wind and Load Power Models for Electric Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Karim, Noha

    electricity market rules capable of providing the right incentives to manage uncertainties and of differentiating various technologies according to the rate at which they can respond to ever changing conditions. Given the overall need for modeling uncertainties in electric energy systems, we consider in this thesis the problem of multi-temporal modeling of wind and demand power, in particular. Historic data is used to derive prediction models for several future time horizons. Short-term prediction models derived can be used for look-ahead economic dispatch and unit commitment, while the long-term annual predictive models can be used for investment planning. As expected, the accuracy of such predictive models depends on the time horizons over which the predictions are made, as well as on the nature of uncertain signals. It is shown that predictive models obtained using the same general modeling approaches result in different accuracy for wind than for demand power. In what follows, we introduce several models which have qualitatively different patterns, ranging from hourly to annual. We first transform historic time-stamped data into the Fourier Transform (Fr) representation. The frequency domain data representation is used to decompose the wind and load power signals and to derive predictive models relevant for short-term and long-term predictions using extracted spectral techniques. The short-term results are interpreted next as a Linear Prediction Coding Model (LPC) and its accuracy is analyzed. Next, a new Markov-Based Sensitivity Model (MBSM) for short term prediction has been proposed and the dispatched costs of uncertainties for different predictive models with comparisons have been developed. Moreover, the Discrete Markov Process (DMP) representation is applied to help assess probabilities of most likely short-, medium- and long-term states and the related multi-temporal risks. In addition, this thesis discusses operational impacts of wind power integration in

  5. Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima Invasion Alters Decomposer Fauna and Plant Litter Decomposition in a Temperate Xerophytic Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camilo Bedano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant invasions may alter the soil system by changing litter quality and quantity, thereby affecting soil community and ecosystem processes. We investigated the effect of Tamarix ramosissima invasion on the decomposer fauna and litter decomposition process, as well as the importance of litter quality in decomposition. Litter decomposition and decomposer communities were evaluated in two monospecific saltcedar forests and two native forests in Argentina, in litterbags containing either local litter (saltcedar or dominant native species or a control litter. Saltcedar invasion produced an increase in Collembola, Acari, and total mesofauna abundance, regardless of the litter type. Control litter decomposition was higher in the native forest than in the saltcedar forest, showing that increased abundance of decomposer fauna does not necessarily accelerate decomposition processes. Local litter decomposition was not different between forests, suggesting that decomposer fauna of both ecosystems is adapted to efficiently decompose the autochthonous litter. Our results suggest that the introduction of a resource with higher quality than the local one has a negative effect on decomposition in both ecosystems, which is more pronounced in the invaded forest than in the native forest. This finding stresses the low plasticity of saltcedar decomposer community to adapt to short-term environmental changes.

  6. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Stress (Video) Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress How Can I Help My Child Cope With Divorce? Relax & Unwind Center Worry Less in 3 Steps Five Steps for Fighting Stress Worrying About War - for Kids Stress What Stresses ...

  7. Help for Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. You can also go to the website ... MedlinePlus website also has lists of directories and organizations that can help in identifying a health practitioner. ...

  8. Self-assembly of Silver Nanoparticles and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes on Decomposed GaAs Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, S. H.; Revathy, K. P.; Gard, F.; Mesli, A.; George, A. K.; Bartringer, J.; Mamor, M.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2010-11-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy complemented by Photoluminescence and Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction has been used to study self-assembly of silver nanoparticles and multiwall carbon nanotubes on thermally decomposed GaAs (100) surfaces. It has been shown that the decomposition leads to the formation of arsenic plate-like structures. Multiwall carbon nanotubes spin coated on the decomposed surfaces were mostly found to occupy the depressions between the plates and formed boundaries. While direct casting of silver nanoparticles is found to induce microdroplets. Annealing at 300°C was observed to contract the microdroplets into combined structures consisting of silver spots surrounded by silver rings. Moreover, casting of colloidal suspension consists of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles is observed to cause the formation of 2D compact islands. Depending on the multiwall carbon nanotubes diameter, GaAs/multiwall carbon nanotubes/silver system exhibited photoluminescence with varying strength. Such assembly provides a possible bottom up facile way of roughness controlled fabrication of plasmonic systems on GaAs surfaces.

  9. Experimentally simulated global warming and nitrogen enrichment effects on microbial litter decomposers in a marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Sabine; Gessner, Mark O

    2011-02-01

    Atmospheric warming and increased nitrogen deposition can lead to changes of microbial communities with possible consequences for biogeochemical processes. We used an enclosure facility in a freshwater marsh to assess the effects on microbes associated with decomposing plant litter under conditions of simulated climate warming and pulsed nitrogen supply. Standard batches of litter were placed in coarse-mesh and fine-mesh bags and submerged in a series of heated, nitrogen-enriched, and control enclosures. They were retrieved later and analyzed for a range of microbial parameters. Fingerprinting profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that simulated global warming induced a shift in bacterial community structure. In addition, warming reduced fungal biomass, whereas bacterial biomass was unaffected. The mesh size of the litter bags and sampling date also had an influence on bacterial community structure, with the apparent number of dominant genotypes increasing from spring to summer. Microbial respiration was unaffected by any treatment, and nitrogen enrichment had no clear effect on any of the microbial parameters considered. Overall, these results suggest that microbes associated with decomposing plant litter in nutrient-rich freshwater marshes are resistant to extra nitrogen supplies but are likely to respond to temperature increases projected for this century.

  10. Shared processing of perception and imagery of music in decomposed EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rebecca S; Desain, Peter; Farquhar, Jason

    2013-04-15

    The current work investigates the brain activation shared between perception and imagery of music as measured with electroencephalography (EEG). Meta-analyses of four separate EEG experiments are presented, each focusing on perception and imagination of musical sound, with differing levels of stimulus complexity. Imagination and perception of simple accented metronome trains, as manifested in the clock illusion, as well as monophonic melodies are discussed, as well as more complex rhythmic patterns and ecologically natural music stimuli. By decomposing the data with principal component analysis (PCA), similar component distributions are found to explain most of the variance in each experiment. All data sets show a fronto-central and a more central component as the largest sources of variance, fitting with projections seen for the network of areas contributing to the N1/P2 complex. We expanded on these results using tensor decomposition. This allows us to add in the tasks to find shared activation, but does not make assumptions of independence or orthogonality and calculates the relative strengths of these components for each task. The components found in the PCA were shown to be further decomposable into parts that load primarily on to the perception or imagery task, or both, thereby adding more detail. It is shown that the frontal and central components have multiple parts that are differentially active during perception and imagination. A number of possible interpretations of these results are discussed, taking into account the different stimulus materials and measurement conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Decomposing Socioeconomic Inequality Determinants in Suicide Deaths in Iran: A Concentration Index Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisani, Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Moradi, Ghobad; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2017-05-01

    It is recognized that socioeconomic status (SES) has a significant impact on health and wellbeing; however, the effect of SES on suicide is contested. This study explored the effect of SES in suicide deaths and decomposed inequality into its determinants to calculate relative contributions. Through a cross-sectional study, 546 suicide deaths and 6,818 suicide attempts from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014 in Ilam Province, Western Iran were explored. Inequality was measured by the absolute concentration index (ACI) and decomposed contributions were identified. All analyses were performed using STATA ver. 11.2 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA). The overall ACI for suicide deaths was -0.352 (95% confidence interval, -0.389 to -0.301). According to the results, 9.8% of socioeconomic inequality in suicide deaths was due to addiction in attempters. ACI ranged from -0.34 to -0.03 in 2010-2014, showing that inequality in suicide deaths declined over time. Findings showed suicide deaths were distributed among the study population unequally, and our results confirmed a gap between advantaged and disadvantaged attempters in terms of death. Socioeconomic inequalities in suicide deaths tended to diminish over time, as suicide attempts progressed in Ilam Province.

  12. Mycorrhiza-mediated competition between plants and decomposers drives soil carbon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Turner, Benjamin L; Finzi, Adrien C

    2014-01-23

    Soil contains more carbon than the atmosphere and vegetation combined. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the accumulation and stability of soil carbon is critical to predicting the Earth's future climate. Recent studies suggest that decomposition of soil organic matter is often limited by nitrogen availability to microbes and that plants, via their fungal symbionts, compete directly with free-living decomposers for nitrogen. Ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal (EEM) fungi produce nitrogen-degrading enzymes, allowing them greater access to organic nitrogen sources than arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. This leads to the theoretical prediction that soil carbon storage is greater in ecosystems dominated by EEM fungi than in those dominated by AM fungi. Using global data sets, we show that soil in ecosystems dominated by EEM-associated plants contains 70% more carbon per unit nitrogen than soil in ecosystems dominated by AM-associated plants. The effect of mycorrhizal type on soil carbon is independent of, and of far larger consequence than, the effects of net primary production, temperature, precipitation and soil clay content. Hence the effect of mycorrhizal type on soil carbon content holds at the global scale. This finding links the functional traits of mycorrhizal fungi to carbon storage at ecosystem-to-global scales, suggesting that plant-decomposer competition for nutrients exerts a fundamental control over the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  13. [Determination of polymorphic DNA sequences STR-PCR in decomposed human tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecka-Pazik, Dorota; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the possibility of DNA profiling obtained from soft tissues influenced by the decomposition process: heart, kidney, liver collected during autopsy. As a control DNA, profile from blood was determined. DNA was extracted by the phenol-chloroform method. Amplification was performed with the use of the GenePrintSTR Multiplex (CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01) system, Promega and AmpF[symbol: see text]STR Identifier, Applied Biosystems. PCR products of the CTT system were separated by electrophoresis on denaturing polyacrylamide gels and visualized by silver staining. The 16 loci of AmpF[symbol: see text]STR Identifier products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis on an ABI PRISM 310 sequencer. The results from both methods were compared. Electrophoresis of the CTT products showed clear results for DNA extracted from blood and decomposed tissues, particularly from the heart and kidney. The capillary electrophoresis method gave a positive signal for all 16 loci of AmpF[symbol: see text]STR Identifier for DNA extracted from heart, kidney and blood. Worse results similar to the manual method were obtained for DNA extracted from the liver. The soft tissues, also decomposed by putrefaction can be a useful source of genomic DNA in personal identification and paternity testing.

  14. Changes in Organic, Inorganic contents, Carbon Nitrogen ratio in decomposing Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata leaves on tidal mudf lats in Hajambro creek, Indus delta, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Farooqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf decomposition of Avicennia marina (Forskal Vierh in Denkschr and Rhizophora mucronata (Poiret was studied in situ using litterbag s in Hajambro creek, Indus delta. A single exponential model was presented, which best described the rate of decomposition for both the species. The rate of decomposition was species specific, A. marina leaves decomposed slower than the R. mucronata (p<0.001. The time in days required for 50% loss of the initial dry mass (t1/2 was 49.55 days for the A. marina and 44.43 days in case of R. mucronata. The organic content in the leaves was high initially but decresed gradually during decomposition, which is negatively correlated with inorganic contents. This study will help in the management and conservation of mangrove ecosystem of Hajambro creek, Indus delta, Pakistan.

  15. Tips for Helping a Person With Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-04

    This podcast gives suggestions for helping a person with diabetes manage the disease.  Created: 10/4/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/6/2007.

  16. Comparing chemistry and bioactivity of burned versus decomposed plant litter: different pathways but same result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; Abd El-Gawad, Ahmed M; Cesarano, Gaspare; Sarker, Tushar C; Saulino, Luigi; Lanzotti, Virginia; Saracino, Antonio; Rego, Francisco C; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2017-10-24

    Litter burning and biological decomposition are oxidative processes co-occurring in many terrestrial ecosystems, producing organic matter with different chemical properties and differently affecting plant growth and soil microbial activity. We tested the chemical convergence hypothesis i.e. materials with different initial chemistry converge towards a common profile, with similar biological effects, as the oxidative process advances, for burning and decomposition. We compared the molecular composition, assessed by (13) C NMR, of 7 plant litter types either fresh, decomposed for 30, 90, 180 days in a microcosms incubation experiment, or heated at 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 °C for thirty minutes. We used litter water extracts (5% dw) as treatments in bioassays on plant (Lepidium sativum) and fungal (Aspergillus niger) growth, and a washed quartz sand amended with litter (0.5% dw) to assess heterotrophic respiration by flux chamber (i.e. μg of CO2 released per g of added litter per day). We observed different molecular variations for materials either burning (i.e. a sharp increase of aromatic C and a decrease of other fractions above 200 °C) or decomposing (i.e. early increase of alkyl, methoxyl and N-alkyl C and decrease of O-alkyl and di-O-alkyl C fractions). Soil respiration and fungal growth decreased with litter age and heating severity, down to 20% relative to fresh litter. Plant was inhibited on fresh litter (on average 13% of the control), but recovered on aged (180 days) and heated (30 minutes at 500°C) materials, up to 126% and 63% of the control, respectively. Correlation between the intensity of (13) C NMR signals in litter spectra and bioassay results showed that O-alkyl, methoxyl, and aromatic C fractions are crucial to understand organic matter effects, with plant response negatively affected by labile C but positively associated to lignification and pyrogenic C. The pattern of association of soil respiration and fungal growth to these C fractions was

  17. Double decomposition: decomposing the variance in subcomponents of male extra-pair reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losdat, Sylvain; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M

    2015-09-01

    1. Extra-pair reproductive success (EPRS) is a key component of male fitness in socially monogamous systems and could cause selection on female extra-pair reproduction if extra-pair offspring (EPO) inherit high value for EPRS from their successful extra-pair fathers. However, EPRS is itself a composite trait that can be fully decomposed into subcomponents of variation, each of which can be further decomposed into genetic and environmental variances. However, such decompositions have not been implemented in wild populations, impeding evolutionary inference. 2. We first show that EPRS can be decomposed into the product of three life-history subcomponents: the number of broods available to a focal male to sire EPO, the male's probability of siring an EPO in an available brood and the number of offspring in available broods. This decomposition of EPRS facilitates estimation from field data because all subcomponents can be quantified from paternity data without need to quantify extra-pair matings. Our decomposition also highlights that the number of available broods, and hence population structure and demography, might contribute substantially to variance in male EPRS and fitness. 3. We then used 20 years of complete genetic paternity and pedigree data from wild song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to partition variance in each of the three subcomponents of EPRS, and thereby estimate their additive genetic variance and heritability conditioned on effects of male coefficient of inbreeding, age and social status. 4. All three subcomponents of EPRS showed some degree of within-male repeatability, reflecting combined permanent environmental and genetic effects. Number of available broods and offspring per brood showed low additive genetic variances. The estimated additive genetic variance in extra-pair siring probability was larger, although the 95% credible interval still converged towards zero. Siring probability also showed inbreeding depression and increased with male age

  18. Peat decomposability in managed organic soils in relation to land use, organic matter composition and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bader

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic soils comprise a large yet fragile carbon (C store in the global C cycle. Drainage, necessary for agriculture and forestry, triggers rapid decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM, typically increasing in the order forest < grassland < cropland. However, there is also large variation in decomposition due to differences in hydrological conditions, climate and specific management. Here we studied the role of SOM composition on peat decomposability in a variety of differently managed drained organic soils. We collected a total of 560 samples from 21 organic cropland, grassland and forest soils in Switzerland, monitored their CO2 emission rates in lab incubation experiments over 6 months at two temperatures (10 and 20 °C and related them to various soil characteristics, including bulk density, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC content and elemental ratios (C / N, H / C and O / C. CO2 release ranged from 6 to 195 mg CO2-C g−1 SOC at 10 °C and from 12 to 423 mg g−1 at 20 °C. This variation occurring under controlled conditions suggests that besides soil water regime, weather and management, SOM composition may be an underestimated factor that determines CO2 fluxes measured in field experiments. However, correlations between the investigated chemical SOM characteristics and CO2 emissions were weak. The latter also did not show a dependence on land-use type, although peat under forest was decomposed the least. High CO2 emissions in some topsoils were probably related to the accrual of labile crop residues. A comparison with published CO2 rates from incubated mineral soils indicated no difference in SOM decomposability between these soil classes, suggesting that accumulation of recent, labile plant materials that presumably account for most of the evolved CO2 is not systematically different between mineral and organic soils. In our data set, temperature sensitivity of decomposition (Q10 on average 2.57

  19. Free to Help

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Timmermans; A. de Boer; C. van Campen; M.M.Y. de Klerk; J.S.J. de Wit; I Woittiez

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Vrij om te helpen. Anyone combining paid work with caring for relatives or close friends who need lots of help will quickly run out of time. It is even possible that they will become overburdened due to the effort of combining tasks. For this reason, the government is

  20. Stretching: Does It Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  1. Helping You Age Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to keep family relationships and friendships over time. Exercise can also help prevent depression or lift your mood. Stay active and involved in life. Talk to your physician if you are feeling depressed. Teeth & ... Lungs: Regular aerobic exercise keeps lung capacity up. Smoking leads to chronic ...

  2. Open Journal Systems Help

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring a Blind Peer Review. Open Journal Systems Help. Journal Home > Editorial Process > Editor's Role > Submission Summary. Submission Summary. The Summary page for each submission is used by the Editor to manage the submission files and its associated metadata or indexing information.

  3. Profile: parents help themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G E

    1981-01-01

    A short account is given of a voluntary organization, PACE, formed by parents of young handicapped children in Leeds. PACE provides friendship and help to other parents, arranges the toy library, riding for the disabled and other activities for the children. It also raises money that is needed for special projects.

  4. Ayudele! [Help Him!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Maria Gutierrez, Comp.; Almance, Sofia, Comp.

    Written in Spanish and English, the booklet briefly discusses what parents can do to help their child learn at school. The booklet briefly notes the importance of getting enough sleep; eating breakfast; praising the child; developing the five senses; visiting the doctor; having a home and garden; talking, listening, and reading to the child;…

  5. Helping Adults to Spell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Catherine

    This book presents a range of strategies for adult literacy tutors and offers a wealth of practical advice on teaching spelling within the context of writing. Chapters 1-3 offer basic information on talking with the student about spelling, finding out how the student spells and helping the student to see himself/herself as a "good" speller, and…

  6. The plant cell wall-decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel C; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O; Baker, Scott E; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M; Cullen, Dan; de Vries, Ronald P; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hävard; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José L; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José A; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kües, Ursula; Hibbett, David S; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Högberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V; Watkinson, Sarah C

    2011-08-05

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood--residual lignin contributing up to 30% of forest soil carbon--and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the "dry rot" fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota.

  7. Diversity and dynamics of the microbial community on decomposing wheat straw during mushroom compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhong, Yaohua; Yang, Shida; Zhang, Weixin; Xu, Meiqing; Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

    2014-10-01

    The development of communities of three important composting players including actinobacteria, fungi and clostridia was explored during the composting of wheat straw for mushroom production. The results revealed the presence of highly diversified actinobacteria and fungal communities during the composting process. The diversity of the fungal community, however, sharply decreased in the mature compost. Furthermore, an apparent succession of both actinobacteria and fungi with intensive changes in the composition of communities was demonstrated during composting. Notably, cellulolytic actinomycetal and fungal genera represented by Thermopolyspora, Microbispora and Humicola were highly enriched in the mature compost. Analysis of the key cellulolytic genes revealed their prevalence at different composting stages including several novel glycoside hydrolase family 48 exocellulase lineages. The community of cellulolytic microbiota also changed substantially over time. The prevalence of the diversified cellulolytic microorganisms holds the great potential of mining novel lignocellulose decomposing enzymes from this specific ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The plant cell wall decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, Daniel C.; Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Schneider, Patrick; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Baker, Scott E.; Barry, Kerrie; Bendiksby, Mika; Blumentritt, Melanie; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Vries, Ronald P. de; Gathman, Allen; Goodell, Barry; Henrissat, Bernard; Ihrmark, Katarina; Kauserud, Hä; vard,; Kohler, Annegret; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lavin, José; L.; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lindquist, Erika; Lilly, Walt; Lucas, Susan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Oguiza, José; A.; Park, Jongsun; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Riley, Robert; Rosling, Anna; Salamov, Asaf; Schmidt, Olaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Skrede, Inger; Stenlid, Jan; Wiebenga, Ad; Xie, Xinfeng; Kü; es, Ursula; Hibbett, David S.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hö; gberg, Nils; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Watkinson, Sarah C.

    2011-05-01

    Brown rot decay removes cellulose and hemicellulose from wood?residual lignin contributing up to 30percent of forest soil carbon?and is derived from an ancestral white rot saprotrophy in which both lignin and cellulose are decomposed. Comparative and functional genomics of the ?dry rot? fungus Serpula lacrymans, derived from forest ancestors, demonstrated that the evolution of both ectomycorrhizal biotrophy and brown rot saprotrophy were accompanied by reductions and losses in specific protein families, suggesting adaptation to an intercellular interaction with plant tissue. Transcriptome and proteome analysis also identified differences in wood decomposition in S. lacrymans relative to the brown rot Postia placenta. Furthermore, fungal nutritional mode diversification suggests that the boreal forest biome originated via genetic coevolution of above- and below-ground biota

  9. Long-term stabilization of organic solar cells using hydroperoxide decomposers as additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkovic, Vida; Engmann, Sebastian; Tsierkezos, Nikos; Hoppe, Harald; Madsen, Morten; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Ritter, Uwe; Gobsch, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Stability of organic solar cells (OPV) remains a big problem on the way to their commercialization. Different approaches are being investigated: development of intrinsically more photochemically stable materials, optimization of encapsulation, and implementation of getter and UV blocking layers. In this study, we investigate stabilization of OPV devices using hydroperoxide decomposers as stabilizing additives. A set of five commercially available additives of organophosphorus, organosulfur, Ni chelate, and blocked thiol type are compared, ternary blended into the active layer, under exposure to aging under ISOS-3 degradation conditions. Improvements in long-term performance of OPV devices were observed upon stabilization with Advapak NEO-1120, lifetime was prolonged by a factor of 1.7, and accumulated power generation increased by a factor of 1.4. The stabilizing mechanisms are discussed using spectroscopic and microscopic measurements.

  10. Decomposing highly edge-connected graphs into homomorphic copies of a fixed tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    2016-01-01

    far this conjecture has only been verified for paths, stars, and a family of bistars. We prove a weaker version of the Tree Decomposition Conjecture, where we require the subgraphs in the decomposition to be isomorphic to graphs that can be obtained from T by vertex-identifications. We call......The Tree Decomposition Conjecture by Barát and Thomassen states that for every tree T there exists a natural number k(T) such that the following holds: If G is a k(T)-edge-connected simple graph with size divisible by the size of T, then G can be edge-decomposed into subgraphs isomorphic to T. So...... such a subgraph a homomorphic copy of T. This implies the Tree Decomposition Conjecture under the additional constraint that the girth of G is greater than the diameter of T. As an application, we verify the Tree Decomposition Conjecture for all trees of diameter at most 4....

  11. Decomposing race and gender differences in underweight and obesity in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Stacey, Nicholas; Wang, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Using data from the National Income Dynamics Study, we document differentials in both underweight and obesity across race and gender in post-Apartheid South Africa. Using a nonlinear decomposition method, we decompose these differences across gender within race and then across race within gender. Less than one third of the differences in obesity and underweight across gender are explained by differences in covariates. In contrast, at least 70% of the obesity differences across race are explained by differences in covariates. Behavioral variables such as smoking and exercise explain the largest part of the bodyweight differentials across gender. For bodyweight differentials across race within gender, however, socioeconomic status and background variables have the largest explanatory power for obesity differentials, while background variables play the key role in explaining the underweight differentials. These results indicate that eradicating obesity and underweight differentials will require targeting policies to specific groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel view on predicting acute toxicity: decomposing toxicity data in species vulnerability and chemical potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Tjalling; Posthuma, Leo; de Zwart, Dick; van de Meent, Dik

    2007-07-01

    Chemical risk assessment usually applies empirical methods to predict toxicant effects on different species. We propose a more mechanism-oriented approach, and introduce a method to decompose toxicity data in a contribution from the chemical (potency) and from the exposed species (vulnerability). We use a database for acute aquatic toxicity, and focus on some well-defined chemical classes. Potency is strongly related to hydrophobicity and vulnerability differences between species are small for narcotic compounds. Potencies show less relation with hydrophobicity and interspecies differences are larger for organophosphate- and carbamate insecticides. Photosynthesis inhibitors generally act narcotic to animals, but were more potent for algae. Using these potencies and vulnerabilities, acute toxicity values were well predicted by the proposed approach (within a factor of 3-6). The proposed approach has potential for predicting toxicity for untested species-compound combinations; however, there is a need for a better definition of 'mode of action' in ecotoxicology.

  13. Synthesis of Graphene-Based Sensors and Application on Detecting SF6 Decomposing Products: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based materials have aroused enormous focus on a wide range of engineering fields because of their unique structure. One of the most promising applications is gas adsorption and sensing. In electrical engineering, graphene-based sensors are also employed as detecting devices to estimate the operation status of gas insulated switchgear (GIS. This paper reviews the main synthesis methods of graphene, gas adsorption, and sensing mechanism of its based sensors, as well as their applications in detecting SF6 decomposing products, such as SO2, H2S, SO2F2, and SOF2, in GIS. Both theoretical and experimental researches on gas response of graphene-based sensors to these typical gases are summarized. Finally, the future research trend about graphene synthesis technique and relevant perspective are also given.

  14. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Decomposed Sliding Mode Control of the Drive with Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and Flexible Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A decomposed sliding mode control of the drive with an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor and flexible coupling is presented. Decomposition exploits principles of vector control to divide motor into channel for control of magnetic flux and channel for control of torque separately. Sliding mode control principles are exploited to keep demanded value of magnetic flux and to control load angle in the presence of vibration modes and external disturbances. To obtain continues voltage as a control variable a smoothing integrator follows signum function in both channels. As a modification the switching governed by signum function is replaced by the high gain including rearrangement of the control system block diagram. The simulations indicate that the control system yields the desired robustness and further investigations are recommended.

  16. May Ingestion of Leachate from Decomposed Corpses Cause Appendicitis? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Domingues-Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The general consensus is that appendicitis is basically provoked by fecaliths or lymphoid hyperplasic obstruction. Several studies based on histological diagnosis have not confirmed this hypothesis. On the contrary, obstruction has been proved in only a minority of cases. Diverse infections by parasites, bacteria, fungus, and noninfective agents have been associated with appendicitis in the medical literature. We describe a firefighter, who ingested a small quantity of leachate from decomposing corpses while working and developed enteritis a few hours later, which lasted several days and evolved to appendicitis. This case raises the possibility that the high quantity of bacteria concentration present in the leachate could have provoked enteritis and the subsequent appendicitis due to a direct effect of the bacteria on the appendix.

  17. Contrasting patterns of litterfall seasonality and seasonal changes in litter decomposability in a tropical rainforest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S. A.; Valdez-Ramirez, V.; Congdon, R. A.; Williams, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    The seasonality of litter inputs in forests has important implications for understanding ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. We quantified the drivers of seasonality in litterfall and leaf decomposability using plots throughout the Australian wet tropical region. Litter fell mostly in the summer (wet, warm) months in the region, but other peaks occurred throughout the year. Litterfall seasonality was modelled well with the level of deciduousness of the site (plots with more deciduous species had lower seasonality than evergreen plots), temperature (higher seasonality in the uplands), disturbance (lower seasonality with more early secondary species) and soil fertility (higher seasonality with higher N : P/P limitation) (SL total litterfall model 1 = deciduousness + soil N : P + early secondary sp.: r2 = 0.63, n = 30; model 2 = temperature + early secondary sp. + soil N : P: r2 = 0.54, n = 30; SL leaf = temperature + early secondary sp. + rainfall seasonality: r2 = 0.39, n = 30). Leaf litter decomposability was lower in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by higher phenolic concentrations in the dry, with the difference exacerbated particularly by lower dry season moisture. Our results are contrary to the global trend for tropical rainforests; in that seasonality of litterfall input was generally higher in wetter, cooler, evergreen forests, compared to generally drier, warmer, semi-deciduous sites that had more uniform monthly inputs. We consider this due to more diverse litter shedding patterns in semi-deciduous and raingreen rainforest sites, and an important consideration for ecosystem modellers. Seasonal changes in litter quality are likely to have impacts on decomposition and biogeochemical cycles in these forests due to the litter that falls in the dry season being more recalcitrant to decay.

  18. Drivers of inter-year variability of plant production and decomposers across contrasting island ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, David A; Jonsson, Micael; Kalela-Brundin, Maarit; Lagerström, Anna; Bardgett, Richard D; Yeates, Gregor W; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Despite the likely importance of inter-year dynamics of plant production and consumer biota for driving community- and ecosystem-level processes, very few studies have explored how and why these dynamics vary across contrasting ecosystems. We utilized a well-characterized system of 30 lake islands in the boreal forest zone of northern Sweden across which soil fertility and productivity vary considerably, with larger islands being more fertile and productive than smaller ones. In this system we assessed the inter-year dynamics of several measures of plant production and the soil microbial community (primary consumers in the decomposer food web) for each of nine years, and soil microfaunal groups (secondary and tertiary consumers) for each of six of those years. We found that, for measures of plant production and each of the three consumer trophic levels, inter-year dynamics were strongly affected by island size. Further, many variables were strongly affected by island size (and thus bottom-up regulation by soil fertility and resources) in some years, but not in other years, most likely due to inter-year variation in climatic conditions. For each of the plant and microbial variables for which we had nine years of data, we also determined the inter-year coefficient of variation (CV), an inverse measure of stability. We found that CVs of some measures of plant productivity were greater on large islands, whereas those of other measures were greater on smaller islands; CVs of microbial variables were unresponsive to island size. We also found that the effects of island size on the temporal dynamics of some variables were related to inter-year variability of macroclimatic variables. As such, our results show that the inter-year dynamics of both plant productivity and decomposer biota across each of three trophic levels, as well as the inter-year stability of plant productivity, differ greatly across contrasting ecosystems, with potentially important but largely overlooked

  19. Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, B.

    2009-04-01

    Climatic effects on decomposing litter and substrate chemistry along climatological gradients. B. Berg, Dipartimento Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Complesso Universitario, Monte San Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy and Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland. Studies of several processes, using climatic gradients do provide new information as compared with studies at e.g. a single site. Decomposition of plant litter in such gradients give response in decomposition rates to natural climate conditions. Thus Scots pine needle litter incubated in a climate gradient with annual average temperature (AVGT) ranging from -0.5 to 6.8oC had a highly significant increase in initial mass-loss rate with R2 = 0.591 (p<0.001) and a 5o increase in temperature doubled the mass-loss rate. As a contrast - needle litter of Norway spruce incubated in the same transect had no significant response to climate and for initial litter a 5o increase increased mass-loss rate c. 6%. For more decomposed Scots pine litter we could see that the effect of temperature on mass-loss rate gradually decreased until it disappeared. Long-term decomposition studies revealed differences in litter decomposition patterns along a gradient, even for the same type of litter. This could be followed by using an asymptotic function that gave, (i) a measure a maximum level of decomposition, (ii) the initial decomposition rate. Over a gradient the calculated maximum level of decomposition decreased with increasing AVGT. Other gradient studies revealed an effect of AVGT on litter chemical composition. Pine needle litter from stands under different climate conditions had nutrient concentrations related to AVGT. Thus N, P, K, and S were positively related to AVGT and Mn negatively, all of them significantly. This information may be used to explain the changing pattern in decomposition over the gradient.

  20. EDU-HelpDesk

    OpenAIRE

    Vicent Ripoll, Ignacio de Loyola

    2017-01-01

    EDU - HelpDesk és una aplicació destinada a gestionar les incidències TIC d'un centre educatiu. Pretén comunicar al coordinador TIC les possibles avaries o errors informàtics que un professor o el personal d'administració i serveis es pot trobar, per tal que aquest les pugui solucionar de manera àgil i efectiva. A més a més, l'aplicació permet consultar un historial de totes les incidències o avaries que s'han produït en el centre. EDU - HelpDesk es una aplicación destinada a gestionar la...

  1. To what extent could performance-based schemes help increase the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT programs in resource-limited settings? a summary of the published evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabis François

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-limited settings, HIV/AIDS remains a serious threat to the social and physical well-being of women of childbearing age, pregnant women, mothers and infants. Discussion In sub-Saharan African countries with high prevalence rates, pediatric HIV/AIDS acquired through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT can in largely be prevented by using well-established biomedical interventions. Logistical and socio-cultural barriers continue, however, to undermine the successful prevention of MTCT (PMTCT. In this paper, we review reports on maternal, neonatal and child health, as well as HIV care and treatment services that look at program incentives. Summary These studies suggest that comprehensive PMTCT strategies aiming to maximize health-worker motivation in developing countries must involve a mix of both financial and non-financial incentives. The establishment of robust ethical and regulatory standards in public-sector HIV care centers could reduce barriers to PMTCT service provision in sub-Saharan Africa and help them in achieving universal PMTCT targets.

  2. Leaf traits capture the effects of land use changes and climate on litter decomposability of grasslands across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Garnier, Eric; Joffre, Richard; Kazakou, Elena; Quested, Helen; Grigulis, Karl; Lavorel, Sandra; Ansquer, Pauline; Castro, Helena; Cruz, Pablo; Dolezal, Jirí; Eriksson, Ove; Freitas, Helena; Golodets, Carly; Jouany, Claire; Kigel, Jaime; Kleyer, Michael; Lehsten, Veiko; Leps, Jan; Meier, Tonia; Pakeman, Robin; Papadimitriou, Maria; Papanastasis, Vasilios P; Quétier, Fabien; Robson, Matt; Sternberg, Marcelo; Theau, Jean-Pierre; Thébault, Aurélie; Zarovali, Maria

    2009-03-01

    Land use and climate changes induce shifts in plant functional diversity and community structure, thereby modifying ecosystem processes. This is particularly true for litter decomposition, an essential process in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. In this study, we asked whether changes in functional traits of living leaves in response to changes in land use and climate were related to rates of litter potential decomposition, hereafter denoted litter decomposability, across a range of 10 contrasting sites. To disentangle the different control factors on litter decomposition, we conducted a microcosm experiment to determine the decomposability under standard conditions of litters collected in herbaceous communities from Europe and Israel. We tested how environmental factors (disturbance and climate) affected functional traits of living leaves and how these traits then modified litter quality and subsequent litter decomposability. Litter decomposability appeared proximately linked to initial litter quality, with particularly clear negative correlations with lignin-dependent indices (litter lignin concentr tion, lignin:nitrogen ratio, and fiber component). Litter quality was directly related to community-weighted mean traits. Lignin-dependent indices of litter quality were positively correlated with community-weighted mean leaf dry matter content (LDMC), and negatively correlated with community-weighted mean leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC). Consequently, litter decomposability was correlated negatively with community-weighted mean LDMC, and positively with community-weighted mean LNC. Environmental factors (disturbance and climate) influenced community-weighted mean traits. Plant communities experiencing less frequent or less intense disturbance exhibited higher community-weighted mean LDMC, and therefore higher litter lignin content and slower litter decomposability. LDMC therefore appears as a powerful marker of both changes in land use and of the

  3. Physical Dimensions of Counseling: Perspective for the Helping Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilyer, James C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The effects of physical fitness programs on graduate students suggest that these programs can improve physiological functioning. Intense, systematic physical fitness programs, when delivered in a helping relationship, help improve self-concept, reduce depression, anxiety, somatic complaints, tension, and fatigue, reduce the effect of fear, and…

  4. Molecular sexing of tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and Sotalia fluviatilis using samples from biopsy darting and decomposed carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée A. Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the zinc-finger sex chromosome-linked genes Zfx/Zfy and the sex-determining region Y (Sry genes for gender determination of biopsy samples from marine and riverine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and S. fluviatilis. We also evaluated the performance of these genes with decomposed carcasses, for which sexing cannot rely on the direct examination of the reproductive tract. Both systems proved reliable for sexing 46 fresh and decomposed samples, making them especially useful when biopsy darting is coupled with photo-identification studies.

  5. Help on the Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, college and university auxiliary services departments are turning to text messaging types of technologies to move a host of programs and offerings into the mobile environment. A July 2007 study by Youth Trends indicated that 95 percent of college freshmen come to school with a cell phone or other handheld device, and 78 percent of them…

  6. Mutual help in SETIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, F.; Frisch, D. H.

    1985-06-01

    Techniques to establish communication between earth and extraterrestrial intelligent beings are examined analytically, emphasizing that the success of searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETIs) depends on the selection by both sender and receiver of one of a few mutually helpful SETI strategies. An equation for estimating the probability that an SETI will result in the recognition of an ETI signal is developed, and numerical results for various SETI strategies are presented in tables. A minimum approach employing 10 40-m 20-kW dish antennas for a 30-yr SETI in a 2500-light-year disk is proposed.

  7. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  8. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  9. Technology for helping people

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    The first THE Port hackathon problem-solving workshop was held at CERN from 31 October to 2 November in the framework of the 60th anniversary celebrations. The aim of the event was to develop technological projects that can help to solve the day-to-day needs of people living in areas of the planet that experience conflicts or natural disasters.   Collage of shots from THE Port hackathon. Credit: THE Port association The event was dedicated to humanitarian and social topics inspired by members of non-governmental organisations‬. “There is plenty of room for technology to help in humanitarian fields. That’s why we came up with the idea of bringing people together to work on these topics,” explains Ines Knäpper, Project Manager of THE Port hackathon. “We started six months ago setting up THE Port association.* The success of the event was only possible because of the joint effort of a team of roughly twenty people. They were inspired by the aim...

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Pseudomonas spp. Strains That Efficiently Decompose Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa M. Furmanczyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their particular properties, detergents are widely used in household cleaning products, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in agriculture as adjuvants tailoring the features of pesticides or other crop protection agents. The continuously growing use of these various products means that water soluble detergents have become one of the most problematic groups of pollutants for the aquatic and terrestrial environments. Thus it is important to identify bacteria having the ability to survive in the presence of large quantities of detergent and efficiently decompose it to non-surface active compounds. In this study, we used peaty soil sampled from a surface flow constructed wetland in a wastewater treatment plant to isolate bacteria that degrade sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. We identified and initially characterized 36 Pseudomonas spp. strains that varied significantly in their ability to use SDS as their sole carbon source. Five isolates having the closest taxonomic relationship to the Pseudomonas jessenii subgroup appeared to be the most efficient SDS degraders, decomposing from 80 to 100% of the SDS present in an initial concentration 1 g/L in less than 24 h. These isolates exhibited significant differences in degree of SDS degradation, their resistance to high detergent concentration (ranging from 2.5 g/L up to 10 g/L or higher, and in chemotaxis toward SDS on a plate test. Mass spectrometry revealed several SDS degradation products, 1-dodecanol being dominant; however, traces of dodecanal, 2-dodecanol, and 3-dodecanol were also observed, but no dodecanoic acid. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography revealed that all of the selected isolates possessed alkylsulfatase-like activity. Three isolates, AP3_10, AP3_20, and AP3_22, showed a single band on native PAGE zymography, that could be the result of alkylsulfatase activity, whereas for isolates AP3_16 and AP3_19 two bands were observed. Moreover, the AP3_22 strain exhibited a band

  11. Teacher Help-Seeking Beliefs and Help-Seeking Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Makara Fuller, Kara; Karabenick, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Teachers work within a network of teachers at their school whose members can be an important source of advice and help, yet they must seek help from their colleagues in order to benefit from this network. This study employs social network analysis to examine how help-seeking patterns among teachers are related to teachers’ curricular domain, years of experience, and gender. Additionally, we examined how help-seeking beliefs (instrumental, expedient, and perceived threat) are related to help-s...

  12. Helping prostitutes in Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah-afari, A

    1988-01-01

    The effort to combat AIDS Ghana, which has 334 reported cases of AIDS as of June 1988, is led by both a full time AIDS director from the Ministry of Health and the Technical Committee on AIDS. This report focuses on the 2 programs in the capital Accra that try to stop the spread of AIDS by working with the prostitute population, and programs by the Technical Committee on AIDS to combat AIDS in rural areas. One was developed by the Family Health International (FHI) and the other was developed by the Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG). FHI's pilot project starts by educating volunteer prostitute "leaders" (a title given those enrolled) about AIDS, protective barrier methods of contraception, and common types of misinformation. All participants were encouraged to give up prostitution, and those who didn't became "leaders" who were in charged of both educating 10 other prostitutes and supplying them with the free condoms supplied by FHI. The program even checks the willingness of those enrolled to practice safe sex by having men pose as customers to see if the prostitutes are offering condoms to sexual partners and/or using spermicides. These men do not have sex with the women, but they do pay them for their time. PPAG's AIDS prevention program takes a different approach. This program tries to provide prostitutes with an alternative source of income. When prostitutes were polled about reasons for selecting their profession, most replied that they entered it during a period of economic hardship and were desperate for income. The PPAG provides these women with capital to start feasible small businesses. The highest incidence of AIDS is in eastern Ghana where many who left during hard times went to areas with a higher incidence of AIDS (i.e. the Ivory Coast), and then returned to be taken care of by family when stricken ill. The Technical Committee set up a home care project that treats patients at home and thus allows district health staff to monitor the

  13. Species-specific effects of live roots and shoot litter on soil decomposer abundances do not forecast plant litter-nitrogen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saj, Stéphane; Mikola, Juha; Ekelund, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Plant species produce litter of varying quality and differ in the quality and quantity of compounds they release from live roots, which both can induce different decomposer growth in the soil. To test whether differences in decomposer growth can forecast the amount of N species acquire from plant...... microbes and their protozoan and nematode feeders, and to link decomposer growth and plant nutrient uptake, we measured the amount of N taken up by plants from the added litter. We hypothesised that those species that induce the highest growth of microbes, and especially that of microbial feeders......-specific ability of plants to induce decomposer growth....

  14. Decomposing the time-frequency representation of EEG using non-negative matrix and multi-way factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate how non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) can be used to decompose the inter trial phase coherence (ITPC) of multi-channel EEG to yield a unique decomposition of time-frequency signatures present in various degrees in the recording channels. The NMF optimization is easily...

  15. Decomposing the Triple-Helix synergy into the regional innovation systems of Norway: Firm data and patent networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strand, Ø.; Ivanova, I.; Leydesdorff, L.

    The Triple Helix model of university-industry-government relations allows us to use mutual information among geographical, sectorial, and size distribution of firms to measure synergy at various geographical scales in a nation. In this paper we decompose the synergy in Triple Helix relations and

  16. Understanding E-Learning Adoption among Brazilian Universities: An Application of the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Luiz Miguel Renda; Okazaki, Shintaro

    2013-01-01

    This study sheds light on the organizational dimensions underlying e-learning adoption among Brazilian universities. We propose an organizational e-learning adoption model based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior (TPB). A series of hypotheses are posited with regard to the relationships among the proposed constructs. The model is…

  17. Leaf traits capture the effects of land use changes and climate on litter decomposability of grasslands across Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortunel, C.; Garnier, E.; Joffre, R.; Kazakou, E.; Quested, H.; Grigulis, K.; Lavorel, S.; Ansquer, P.; Castro, H.; Cruz, P.; Doležal, Jiří; Eriksson, O.; Freitas, H.; Golodets, C.; Jouany, C.; Kigel, J.; Kleyer, M.; Lehsten, V.; Lepš, J.; Meier, T.; Pakeman, R.; Papadimitriou, M.; Papanastasis, V. P.; Quétier, F.; Robson, M.; Sternberg, M.; Theau, J.-P.; Thébault, A.; Zarovali, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2009), s. 598-611 ISSN 0012-9658 Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK2-2001-000356 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : litter decomposability * disturbance * leaf traits Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2009

  18. Decomposing change in life expectancy : A bouquet of formulas in honor of Nathan Keyfitz's 90th birthday

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaupel, JW; Romo, VC

    We extend Nathan Keyfitz research on continuous change in life expectancy over time by presenting and proving a new formula for decomposing such change. The formula separates change in life expectancy over time into two terms. The first term captures the general effect of reduction in death rates at

  19. Using Mid Infrared Spectroscopy to Predict the Decomposability of Soil Organic Matter Stored in Arctic Tundra Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The large amounts of organic matter stored in permafrost-region soils are preserved in a relatively undecomposed state by the cold and wet environmental conditions limiting decomposer activity. With pending climate changes and the potential for warming of Arctic soils, there is a need to better unde...

  20. A domain-decomposed multi-model plasma simulation of collisionless magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, I. A. M.; Shumlak, U.; Ho, A.; Miller, S. T.

    2017-10-01

    Collisionless magnetic reconnection is a process relevant to many areas of plasma physics in which energy stored in magnetic fields within highly conductive plasmas is rapidly converted into kinetic and thermal energy. Both in natural phenomena such as solar flares and terrestrial aurora as well as in magnetic confinement fusion experiments, the reconnection process is observed on timescales much shorter than those predicted by a resistive MHD model. As a result, this topic is an active area of research in which plasma models with varying fidelity have been tested in order to understand the proper physics explaining the reconnection process. In this research, a hybrid multi-model simulation employing the Hall-MHD and two-fluid plasma models on a decomposed domain is used to study this problem. The simulation is set up using the WARPXM code developed at the University of Washington, which uses a discontinuous Galerkin Runge-Kutta finite element algorithm and implements boundary conditions between models in the domain to couple their variable sets. The goal of the current work is to determine the parameter regimes most appropriate for each model to maintain sufficient physical fidelity over the whole domain while minimizing computational expense. This work is supported by a Grant from US AFOSR.

  1. Contrasting effects of elevated temperature and invertebrate grazing regulate multispecies interactions between decomposer fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Donald A'Bear

    Full Text Available Predicting the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on species interactions and ecosystem processes is among the primary aims of community ecologists. The composition of saprotrophic fungal communities is a consequence of competitive mycelial interactions, and a major determinant of woodland decomposition and nutrient cycling rates. Elevation of atmospheric temperature is predicted to drive changes in fungal community development. Top-down regulation of mycelial growth is an important determinant of, and moderator of temperature-driven changes to, two-species interaction outcomes. This study explores the interactive effects of a 4 °C temperature increase and soil invertebrate (collembola or woodlice grazing on multispecies interactions between cord-forming basidiomycete fungi emerging from colonised beech (Fagus sylvatica wood blocks. The fungal dominance hierarchy at ambient temperature (16 °C; Phanerochaete velutina > Resinicium bicolor > Hypholoma fasciculare was altered by elevated temperature (20 °C; R. bicolor > P. velutina > H. fasciculare in ungrazed systems. Warming promoted the competitive ability of the fungal species (R. bicolor that was preferentially grazed by all invertebrate species. As a consequence, grazing prevented the effect of temperature on fungal community development and maintained a multispecies assemblage. Decomposition of fungal-colonised wood was stimulated by warming, with implications for increased CO2 efflux from woodland soil. Analogous to aboveground plant communities, increasing complexity of biotic and abiotic interactions appears to be important in buffering climate change effects on soil decomposers.

  2. Cellulose utilization in forest litter and soil: identification of bacterial and fungal decomposers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stursová, Martina; Zifčáková, Lucia; Leigh, Mary Beth; Burgess, Robert; Baldrian, Petr

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter decomposition in the globally widespread coniferous forests has an important role in the carbon cycle, and cellulose decomposition is especially important in this respect because cellulose is the most abundant polysaccharide in plant litter. Cellulose decomposition was 10 times faster in the fungi-dominated litter of Picea abies forest than in the bacteria-dominated soil. In the soil, the added (13)C-labelled cellulose was the main source of microbial respiration and was preferentially accumulated in the fungal biomass and cellulose induced fungal proliferation. In contrast, in the litter, bacterial biomass showed higher labelling after (13)C-cellulose addition and bacterial biomass increased. While 80% of the total community was represented by 104-106 bacterial and 33-59 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 80% of the cellulolytic communities of bacteria and fungi were only composed of 8-18 highly abundant OTUs. Both the total and (13)C-labelled communities differed substantially between the litter and soil. Cellulolytic bacteria in the acidic topsoil included Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria, whereas these typically found in neutral soils were absent. Most fungal cellulose decomposers belonged to Ascomycota; cellulolytic Basidiomycota were mainly represented by the yeasts Trichosporon and Cryptococcus. Several bacteria and fungi demonstrated here to derive their carbon from cellulose were previously not recognized as cellulolytic. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tláskal, Vojtech; Zrustová, Petra; Vrška, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-11-08

    Dead wood represents an important pool of organic matter in forests and is one of the sources of soil formation. It has been shown to harbour diverse communities of bacteria, but their roles in this habitat are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the bacterial communities in the dead wood of Abies alba, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in a temperate natural forest in Central Europe. An analysis of environmental factors showed that decomposing time along with pH and water content were the strongest drivers of community composition. Bacterial biomass positively correlated with N content and increased with decomposition along with the concurrent decrease in the fungal/bacterial biomass ratio. Rhizobiales and Acidobacteriales were abundant bacterial orders throughout the whole decay process, but many bacterial taxa were specific either for young ( decomposition, bacterial genera able to fix N2 and to use simple C1 compounds (e.g. Yersinia and Methylomonas) were frequent, while wood in advanced decay was rich in taxa typical of forest soils (e.g. Bradyrhizobium and Rhodoplanes). Although the bacterial contribution to dead wood turnover remains unclear, the community composition appears to reflect the changing conditions of the substrate and suggests broad metabolic capacities of its members. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Decomposing the space of protein quaternary structures with the interface fragment pair library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Zhao, Yilin; Wu, Yinghao

    2015-01-16

    The physical interactions between proteins constitute the basis of protein quaternary structures. They dominate many biological processes in living cells. Deciphering the structural features of interacting proteins is essential to understand their cellular functions. Similar to the space of protein tertiary structures in which discrete patterns are clearly observed on fold or sub-fold motif levels, it has been found that the space of protein quaternary structures is highly degenerate due to the packing of compact secondary structure elements at interfaces. Therefore, it is necessary to further decompose the protein quaternary structural space into a more local representation. Here we constructed an interface fragment pair library from the current structure database of protein complexes. After structural-based clustering, we found that more than 90% of these interface fragment pairs can be represented by a limited number of highly abundant motifs. These motifs were further used to guide complex assembly. A large-scale benchmark test shows that the native-like binding is highly likely in the structural ensemble of modeled protein complexes that were built through the library. Our study therefore presents supportive evidences that the space of protein quaternary structures can be represented by the combination of a small set of secondary-structure-based packing at binding interfaces. Finally, after future improvements such as adding sequence profiles, we expect this new library will be useful to predict structures of unknown protein-protein interactions.

  5. High-throughput nucleotide sequence analysis of diverse bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The leachate generated by the decomposition of animal carcass has been implicated as an environmental contaminant surrounding the burial site. High-throughput nucleotide sequencing was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in leachates from the decomposition of pig carcasses. We acquired 51,230 reads from six different samples (1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 14 week-old carcasses and found that sequences representing the phylum Firmicutes predominated. The diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in the leachate was the highest at 6 weeks, in contrast to those at 2 and 14 weeks. The relative abundance of Firmicutes was reduced, while the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria increased from 3–6 weeks. The representation of phyla was restored after 14 weeks. However, the community structures between the samples taken at 1–2 and 14 weeks differed at the bacterial classification level. The trend in pH was similar to the changes seen in bacterial communities, indicating that the pH of the leachate could be related to the shift in the microbial community. The results indicate that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of decomposing pig carcasses shifted continuously during the study period and might be influenced by the burial site.

  6. Peroxynitrite does not decompose to singlet oxygen (1ΔgO2) and nitroxyl (NO−)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Glaucia R.; Di Mascio, Paolo; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Augusto, Ohara; Briviba, Karlis; Sies, Helmut; Maurer, Patrick; Röthlisberger, Ursula; Herold, Susanna; Koppenol, Willem H.

    2000-01-01

    According to Khan et al. [Khan, A. U., Kovacic, D., Kolbanovskiy, A., Desai, M., Frenkel, K. & Geacintov, N. E. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2984–2989], peroxynitrite (ONOO−) decomposes after protonation to singlet oxygen (1ΔgO2) and singlet oxonitrate (nitroxyl, 1NO−) in high yield. They claimed to have observed nitrosyl hemoglobin from the reaction of NO− with methemoglobin; however, contamination with hydrogen peroxide gave rise to ferryl hemoglobin, the spectrum of which was mistakenly assigned to nitrosyl hemoglobin. We have carried out UV–visible and EPR experiments with methemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide-free peroxynitrite and find that no NO− is formed. With this peroxynitrite preparation, no light emission from singlet oxygen at 1270 nm is observed, nor is singlet oxygen chemically trapped; however, singlet oxygen was trapped when hydrogen peroxide was also present, as previously described [Di Mascio, P., Bechara, E. J. H., Medeiros, M. H. G., Briviba, K. & Sies, H. (1994) FEBS Lett. 355, 287–289]. Quantum mechanical and thermodynamic calculations show that formation of the postulated intermediate, a cyclic form of peroxynitrous acid (trioxazetidine), and the products 1NO− and 1ΔgO2 requires Gibbs energies of ca. +415 kJ⋅mol−1 and ca. +180 kJ⋅mol−1, respectively. Our results show that the results of Khan et al. are best explained by interference from contaminating hydrogen peroxide left from the synthesis of peroxynitrite. PMID:10973492

  7. Annual Production of Decomposer Fungi Associated With Standing-Dead Litter of Typha angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsowski, B. M.; Collins, M. D.; Tarry, D.; Francoeur, S. N.; Neely, R. K.; Kuehn, K. A.

    2005-05-01

    Microbial decomposition of standing-dead plant litter is an important process in wetlands dominated by emergent macrophytes. We determined the annual fungal biomass (ergosterol) and production (14C-acetate incorporation) associated with decaying standing litter (leaves and shoots) of the emergent macrophyte Typha angustifolia in small lake littoral wetland in southeastern Michigan. Mean annual detrital mass of standing-dead leaf and shoot litter was 656±238 g/m2 (range 284-873) and 1184±280 g/m2 (range 522-1525), respectively, during study period. Mean annual fungal biomass associated with decaying standing litter was 46 and 15 g/m2 for leaves and shoots, respectively. Annual fungal biomass production associated with leaves and shoots was 168 and 78 g/m2, respectively, with maximum production /m2 occurring during the summer season. These production estimates account for diel periodicity in water availability and the consequent periodicity in microbial activities that are characteristic of the standing litter environment. A partial organic matter budget constructed for this littoral wetland indicates that 9.4% of the annual aboveground production of T. angustifolia went into the production of fungal biomass. These results provide additional evidence indicating considerable carbon flow from emergent plant matter to fungal decomposers while in the standing-decay phase.

  8. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAM KEERTI VERMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soni KK, Pyasi A, Verma RK. 2011. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 136-144. The present study aim on isolation and identification of fungi associated with decomposition of litter of sal forest in central India. Season wise successional changes in litter mycoflora were determined for four main seasons of the year namely, March-May, June-August, September-November and December-February. Fungi like Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were associated with litter decomposition throughout the year, while Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, Curvularia indica, and C. lunata were recorded in three seasons. Some fungi including ectomycorrhiza forming occur only in the rainy season (June-August these are Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus fallax, Calvatia elata, Colletotrichum dematium, Corticium rolfsii, Mycena roseus, Periconia minutissima, Russula emetica, Scleroderma bovista, S. geaster, S. verrucosum, Scopulariopsis alba and four sterile fungi. Fungi like Alternaria citri, Gleocladium virens, Helicosporium phragmitis and Pithomyces cortarum were rarely recorded only in one season.

  9. High-quality AlN grown on a thermally decomposed sapphire surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, S.; Knauer, A.; Brunner, F.; Mogilatenko, A.; Zeimer, U.; Weyers, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study we show how to realize a self-assembled nano-patterned sapphire surface on 2 inch diameter epi-ready wafer and the subsequent AlN overgrowth both in the same metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial process. For this purpose in-situ annealing in H2 environment was applied prior to AlN growth to thermally decompose the c-plane oriented sapphire surface. By proper AlN overgrowth management misoriented grains that start to grow on non c-plane oriented facets of the roughened sapphire surface could be overcome. We achieved crack-free, atomically flat AlN layers of 3.5 μm thickness. The layers show excellent material quality homogeneously over the whole wafer as proved by the full width at half maximum of X-ray measured ω-rocking curves of 120 arcsec to 160 arcsec for the 002 reflection and 440 arcsec to 550 arcsec for the 302 reflection. The threading dislocation density is 2 ∗ 109 cm-2 which shows that the annealing and overgrowth process investigated in this work leads to cost-efficient AlN templates for UV LED devices.

  10. Adsorption performance of Rh decorated SWCNT upon SF6 decomposed components based on DFT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Dong, Xingchen; Chen, Dachang; Tang, Ju

    2017-10-01

    Transition metal decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) applied in the field of gas adsorption and storage have in recent years accepted considerable attentions because of their superior adsorbing performance. In electrical engineering, they are employed as adsorbents to remove the decomposed products of SF6 caused by partial discharge, for guaranteeing the insulation status of gas insulation switchgear (GIS). In this paper, Rh doped SWCNT is introduced to investigate its adsorption properties towards typical gases of SF6 based on density functional theory (DFT) method. Both single and double molecules adsorbing systems were performed to investigate the adsorption ability of proposed material. Results indicate that Rh-CNT, which has strong interaction with defined gas molecules, is a promising material for SF6 decompositions adsorption especially SO2 and SOF2 that exhibit topmost sensitivity to the modified surface. Therefore, we suggest the Rh-CNT to be an adsorbent to be applied in GIS for guaranteeing the operation state of such devices and even to be exploited as gas sensor to evaluate the insulation state of the power system. Our calculations would provide experimentalist with a first insight into physicochemical properties of this material.

  11. Decomposable quantum-dots/DNA nanosphere for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of extracellular respiring bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Junlin; Zhou, Shungui; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Junhua; Yang, Guiqin; Tang, Jia

    2018-02-15

    Extracellular respiring bacteria (ERB) are a group of bacteria capable of transferring electrons to extracellular acceptors and have important application in environmental remediation. In this study, a decomposable quantum-dots (QDs)/DNA nanosphere probe was developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of ERB. The QDs/DNA nanosphere was self-assembled from QDs-streptavidin conjugate (QDs-SA) and Y-shaped DNA nanostructure that is constructed based on toehold-mediated strand displacement. It can release numerous fluorescent QDs-SA in immunomagnetic separation (IMS)-based immunoassay via simple biotin displacement, which remarkably amplifies the signal of antigen-antibody recognizing event. This QDs/DNA-nanosphere-based IMS-fluorescent immunoassay is ultrasensitive for model ERB Shewanella oneidensis, showing a wide detection range between 1.0 cfu/mL and 1.0 × 108 cfu/mL with a low detection limit of 1.37 cfu/mL. Moreover, the proposed IMS-fluorescent immunoassay exhibits high specificity, acceptable reproducibility and stability. Furthermore, the proposed method shows acceptable recovery (92.4-101.4%) for detection of S. oneidensis spiked in river water samples. The proposed IMS-fluorescent immunoassay advances an intelligent strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive quantitation of low-abundance analyte and thus holds promising potential in food, medical and environmental applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Particle Communication and Domain Neighbor Coupling: Scalable Domain Decomposed Algorithms for Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M. J.; Brantley, P. S.

    2015-01-20

    In order to run Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on new supercomputers with hundreds of thousands or millions of processors, care must be taken to implement scalable algorithms. This means that the algorithms must continue to perform well as the processor count increases. In this paper, we examine the scalability of:(1) globally resolving the particle locations on the correct processor, (2) deciding that particle streaming communication has finished, and (3) efficiently coupling neighbor domains together with different replication levels. We have run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on up to 221 = 2,097,152 MPI processes on the IBM BG/Q Sequoia supercomputer and observed scalable results that agree with our theoretical predictions. These calculations were carefully constructed to have the same amount of work on every processor, i.e. the calculation is already load balanced. We also examine load imbalanced calculations where each domain’s replication level is proportional to its particle workload. In this case we show how to efficiently couple together adjacent domains to maintain within workgroup load balance and minimize memory usage.

  13. The Effect of Visual and Etymological Treatments on Learning Decomposable Idioms among EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study endeavors to investigate the impact of visual and etymological treatments on learning idioms among English language learners. Seventy-nine intermediate students at Rooz Academy Language School in Babol were selected from among a total number of 116 learners based on their performances on the Longman complete course for the TOEFL test to fulfill the purpose of the study. The students were then assigned into three experimental groups. Initially, a pre-test of idiomatic expressions including 48 idiomatic items was administered to the participants in all groups. During the instructional period, the groups were taught a group of abnormally decomposable idioms through different treatments, namely, visual, etymological, and a combination of visual-etymological elaboration. At the end of the instructional period, the participants in all groups were given a posttest which was the same as the pretest. The design of this study is quasi-experimental. The data obtained was analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis. The results of data analysis revealed that the etymological treatment was more effective than visual aids on learning idioms among intermediate English language learners. However, the visual-etymological treatment was the most effective one. The findings of this study have implications for EFL teachers, students, and materials developers.

  14. A decomposable silica-based antibacterial coating for percutaneous titanium implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Xiangwei; Sun, Guanyang; Li, Dehua; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    Although percutaneous titanium implants have become one of the best choices as retainers in the facial defects, peri-implantitis still occurs at a significant rate. This unwanted complication occurs due to adhesion of bacteria and subsequent biofilm formation. To solve this problem, we have developed a novel antibiotic nanodelivery system based on self-decomposable silica nanoparticles. In this study, silica-gentamycin (SG) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated using an innovative one-pot solution. The nanoparticles were incorporated within a gelatin matrix and cross-linked on microarc-oxidized titanium. To characterize the SG nanoparticles, their particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, in vitro drug release, and decomposition process were sequentially evaluated. The antibacterial properties against the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, including bacterial viability, antibacterial rate, and bacteria morphology, were analyzed using SG-loaded titanium specimens. Any possible influence of released gentamycin on the viability of human fibroblasts, which are the main component of soft tissues, was investigated. SG nanoparticles from the antibacterial titanium coating continuously released gentamycin and inhibited S. aureus growth. In vitro investigation showed that the obtained nanodelivery system has good biocompatibility. Therefore, this design can be further investigated as a method to prevent infection around percutaneous implants.

  15. Utility of forensic detection of rabies virus in decomposed exhumed dog carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Markotter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This report describes four suspected rabies cases in domestic dogs that were involved inhuman exposures. In all these cases, the animals were buried for substantial times beforerabies testing was performed. Animal rabies is endemic in South Africa and domestic dogsare the main vector for transmission to humans. Diagnosis of rabies in humans is complicated,and diagnosis in the animal vector can provide circumstantial evidence to support clinicaldiagnosis of rabies in humans. The gold standard diagnostic method, fluorescent antibodytest (FAT, only delivers reliable results when performed on fresh brain material and thereforedecomposed samples are rarely submitted for diagnostic testing. Severely decomposed brainmaterial was tested for the presence of rabies virus genomic material using a quantitativereal-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (q-real-time RT-PCR assaywhen conventional molecular methods were unsuccessful. This may be a useful tool in theinvestigation of cases where the opportunity to sample the suspected animals post mortem wasforfeited and which would not be possible with conventional testing methodologies becauseof the decomposition of the material.

  16. Using SF6 Decomposed Component Analysis for the Diagnosis of Partial Discharge Severity Initiated by Free Metal Particle Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition characteristics of a SF6 gas-insulated medium were used to diagnose the partial discharge (PD severity in DC gas-insulated equipment (DC-GIE. First, the PD characteristics of the whole process were studied from the initial PD to the breakdown initiated by a free metal particle defect. The average discharge magnitude in a second was used to characterize the PD severity and the PD was divided into three levels: mild PD, medium PD, and dangerous PD. Second, two kinds of voltage in each of the above PD levels were selected for the decomposition experiments of SF6. Results show that the negative DC-PD in these six experiments decomposes the SF6 gas and generates five stable decomposed components, namely, CF4, CO2, SO2F2, SOF2, and SO2. The concentrations and concentration ratios of the SF6 decomposed components can be associated with the PD severity. A minimum-redundancy-maximum-relevance (mRMR-based feature selection algorithm was used to sort the concentrations and concentration ratios of the SF6 decomposed components. Back propagation neural network (BPNN and support vector machine (SVM algorithms were used to diagnose the PD severity. The use of C(CO2/CT1, C(CF4/C(SO2, C(CO2/C(SOF2, and C(CF4/C(CO2 shows good performance in diagnosing PD severity. This finding serves as a foundation in using the SF6 decomposed component analysis (DCA method to diagnose the insulation faults in DC-GIE and assess its insulation status.

  17. PPARC: Grid technology helps astronomers keep pace with the Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Intelligent Agent" computer programs are roaming the Internet and watching the skies. These programs, using Grid computing technology, will help astronomers detect some of the most dramatic events in the universe, such as massive supernova explosions (1 page).

  18. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P

    2011-08-01

    The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input-output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  19. Decomposing variation in dairy profitability: the impact of output, inputs, prices, labour and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILSON, P.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The UK dairy sector has undergone considerable structural change in recent years, with a decrease in the number of producers accompanied by an increased average herd size and increased concentrate use and milk yields. One of the key drivers to producers remaining in the industry is the profitability of their herds. The current paper adopts a holistic approach to decomposing the variation in dairy profitability through an analysis of net margin data explained by physical input–output measures, milk price variation, labour utilization and managerial behaviours and characteristics. Data are drawn from the Farm Business Survey (FBS) for England in 2007/08 for 228 dairy enterprises. Average yields are 7100 litres/cow/yr, from a herd size of 110 cows that use 0·56 forage ha/cow/yr and 43·2 labour h/cow/yr. An average milk price of 22·57 pence per litre (ppl) produced milk output of £1602/cow/yr, which after accounting for calf sales, herd replacements and quota leasing costs, gave an average dairy output of £1516/cow/yr. After total costs of £1464/cow/yr this left an economic return of £52/cow/yr (0·73 ppl) net margin profit. There is wide variation in performance, with the most profitable (as measured by net margin per cow) quartile of producers achieving 2000 litres/cow/yr more than the least profitable quartile, returning a net margin of £335/cow/yr compared to a loss of £361/cow/yr for the least profitable. The most profitable producers operate larger, higher yielding herds and achieve a greater milk price for their output. In addition, a significantly greater number of the most profitable producers undertake financial benchmarking within their businesses and operate specialist dairy farms. When examining the full data set, the most profitable enterprises included significantly greater numbers of organic producers. The most profitable tend to have a greater reliance on independent technical advice, but this finding is not statistically significant

  20. Decomposing metaphor processing at the cognitive and neural level through functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini, Valentina; Gentili, Claudio; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bertinetto, Pier Marco; Pietrini, Pietro

    2011-10-10

    Prior neuroimaging studies on metaphor comprehension have tended to focus on the role of the right hemisphere, without reaching consensus and leaving aside the functional architecture of this process. The present work aimed to break down metaphor comprehension into its functional components. The study rationale is two-fold: on the one hand, the large-scale network model as emerging in cognitive neuroscience led us to a consideration of metaphor as supported by a distributed and bilateral network; on the other hand, we based on the accounts of figurative language put forward in pragmatics and cognitive science to postulate a decomposition of such a network into multiple sub-systems. During scanning, participants implicitly processed metaphorical (familiar and unfamiliar) and non-metaphorical passages, while being explicitly involved in an adjective matching task to be performed after reading the target passages. Several regions showed greater activity to metaphors as compared to non-metaphors, including left and right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and anterior cingulate. This pattern of activations, markedly bilateral, can be decomposed into circumscribed functional sub-systems mediating different aspects of metaphor resolution, as foreseen in the pragmatic and cognitive literature: (a) the conceptual/pragmatic machinery in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus, which supports the integration of linguistic material and world knowledge in context; (b) the attentional component in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal areas, which is set to monitor and filter for the relevant aspects of context and for the appropriate meanings; (c) the Theory of Mind system along the right superior temporal sulcus, which deals with the recognition of speakers' communicative intentions and is more extensively activated by unfamiliar metaphors. The results have several implications for the field of neuropragmatics

  1. Ecological Dynamics of Two Distinct Viruses Infecting Marine Eukaryotic Decomposer Thraustochytrids (Labyrinthulomycetes, Stramenopiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitake Takao

    Full Text Available Thraustochytrids are cosmopolitan osmotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms that are considered as important decomposers in coastal ecosystems. However, because of a lack of estimation method for each genus or systematic group of them, relatively little is known about their ecology in situ. Previously, we reported two distinct types of virus infecting thraustochytrids (AuRNAV: reported as SssRNAV, and SmDNAV suggesting they have wide distributions in the host-virus systems of coastal environments. Here we conducted a field survey from 2004 through 2005 to show the fluctuation pattern of thraustochytrids and their viruses in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. During the field survey, we monitored the dynamics of the two types of thraustochytrid-infecting virus: small viruses causing lysis of Aurantiochytrium sp. NIBH N1-27 (identified as AuRNAV and the large viruses of Sicyoidochytrium minutum NBRC 102975 (similar to SmDNAV in physiology and morphology. Fluctuation patterns of the two distinct types of virus were different from each other. This may reflect the difference in the preference of organic substrates; i.e., it may be likely the host of AuRNAV (Aurantiochytrium sp. increases utilizing algal dead bodies or feeble cells as the virus shows a large increase in abundance following raphidophyte blooms; whereas, the trophic nutrient supply for S. minutum may primarily depend on other constantly-supplied organic compounds because it did not show any significant change in abundance throughout the survey. Further study concerning the population composition of thraustochytrids and their viruses may demonstrate the microbial ecology (especially concerning the detrital food web of marine environments.

  2. Sensitivity of laccase activity to the fungicide tebuconazole in decomposing litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, J; Rossi, F; Gerphagnon, M; Mallet, C

    2017-04-15

    The present study investigates the sensitivity of laccase activity to the fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ) in order to seek for new functional toxicity descriptors in aquatic microbial communities associated to decomposing litter. With this aim, we analyzed the sensitivity of laccase from the different microbial components (fungi and bacteria growing separately and in co-existence), as well as that of their corresponding enzyme fractions (cell bound and diffusible), forming microbial communities in Alnus glutinosa leaves. Results show that fungi are pivotal for laccase activity in leaves and that their activity is repressed when they co-exist with bacteria. The sensitivity of laccase activity to the TBZ was only detectable in leaves colonized by fungi separately (Alatospora acuminata populations), but absent in those colonized by bacteria separately and/or mixed fungi plus bacteria. Specifically, the increase of TBZ concentration enhances laccase activity in Alatospora acuminata populations but decreases ergosterol concentration as well as the amount of 18S RNA gene copies. This activity response suggests a detoxification mechanism employed by the fungus in order to reduce TBZ toxicity. Besides, enzyme fractioning showed that laccase activity in the cell bound fraction (76% of the total activity) was sensitive to the fungicide, but not that in the diffusible fraction (24% of total activity). Hence, TBZ would influence laccase activity in the presence of fungal cells but not in enzymes already synthesized in the extracellular space. The present study highlights the importance of the biological complexity level (i. e. population, community, ecosystem) when seeking for appropriate functional ecotoxicity descriptors in aquatic microbial communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological Dynamics of Two Distinct Viruses Infecting Marine Eukaryotic Decomposer Thraustochytrids (Labyrinthulomycetes, Stramenopiles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Yoshitake; Tomaru, Yuji; Nagasaki, Keizo; Honda, Daiske

    2015-01-01

    Thraustochytrids are cosmopolitan osmotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms that are considered as important decomposers in coastal ecosystems. However, because of a lack of estimation method for each genus or systematic group of them, relatively little is known about their ecology in situ. Previously, we reported two distinct types of virus infecting thraustochytrids (AuRNAV: reported as SssRNAV, and SmDNAV) suggesting they have wide distributions in the host-virus systems of coastal environments. Here we conducted a field survey from 2004 through 2005 to show the fluctuation pattern of thraustochytrids and their viruses in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. During the field survey, we monitored the dynamics of the two types of thraustochytrid-infecting virus: small viruses causing lysis of Aurantiochytrium sp. NIBH N1-27 (identified as AuRNAV) and the large viruses of Sicyoidochytrium minutum NBRC 102975 (similar to SmDNAV in physiology and morphology). Fluctuation patterns of the two distinct types of virus were different from each other. This may reflect the difference in the preference of organic substrates; i.e., it may be likely the host of AuRNAV (Aurantiochytrium sp.) increases utilizing algal dead bodies or feeble cells as the virus shows a large increase in abundance following raphidophyte blooms; whereas, the trophic nutrient supply for S. minutum may primarily depend on other constantly-supplied organic compounds because it did not show any significant change in abundance throughout the survey. Further study concerning the population composition of thraustochytrids and their viruses may demonstrate the microbial ecology (especially concerning the detrital food web) of marine environments.

  4. Decomposing the land-use specific response of plant functional traits along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Veronika; Kohler, Marina; Niedrist, Georg; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Frenck, Georg

    2017-12-01

    Environmental conditions affect functional trait variability within communities and thus shape ecosystem properties. With the ability of plants to adapt morphologically and physiologically to changing abiotic conditions, gradient analysis was shown to be a suitable tool to identify the drivers which determine trait values. Apart from direct environmental drivers and indirect gradients such as elevation, also anthropogenic effects (e.g. irrigation, grazing) can influence trait variability. Our aim was to assess the interactive effects of different environmental drivers on major plant traits and to investigate how these are modulated within two different land-use types (hay meadow vs. pasture). An elevational gradient spanning 1000m was decomposed into its underlying direct components (temperature, water input, length of growing season) for the investigation of gradual responses of five prominent functional traits (aboveground dry weight (AGDW), vegetative height (VegHt), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC)) for key species from two functional groups (grasses, forbs) in the two land-use/management regimes. The present study revealed that the detailed analysis of single direct gradients provides substantial additional information on trait response which remains hidden or is even reversed if only indirect gradients such as elevation are analysed. However, trait response to the combination of the three direct gradients aligned surprisingly well with trait response to the indirect gradient underpinning the adequate representation of temperature, water input and length of growing season by elevation. The response of traits significantly depended on the management regime and corresponding intensity which was shown to play an overriding role and constrained and attenuated response ranges of traits to climatic gradients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional and Structural Succession of Soil Microbial Communities below Decomposing Human Cadavers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Cobaugh

    Full Text Available The ecological succession of microbes during cadaver decomposition has garnered interest in both basic and applied research contexts (e.g. community assembly and dynamics; forensic indicator of time since death. Yet current understanding of microbial ecology during decomposition is almost entirely based on plant litter. We know very little about microbes recycling carcass-derived organic matter despite the unique decomposition processes. Our objective was to quantify the taxonomic and functional succession of microbial populations in soils below decomposing cadavers, testing the hypotheses that a periods of increased activity during decomposition are associated with particular taxa; and b human-associated taxa are introduced to soils, but do not persist outside their host. We collected soils from beneath four cadavers throughout decomposition, and analyzed soil chemistry, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. As expected, decomposition resulted in pulses of soil C and nutrients (particularly ammonia and stimulated microbial activity. There was no change in total bacterial abundances, however we observed distinct changes in both function and community composition. During active decay (7 - 12 days postmortem, respiration and biomass production rates were high: the community was dominated by Proteobacteria (increased from 15.0 to 26.1% relative abundance and Firmicutes (increased from 1.0 to 29.0%, with reduced Acidobacteria abundances (decreased from 30.4 to 9.8%. Once decay rates slowed (10 - 23 d postmortem, respiration was elevated, but biomass production rates dropped dramatically; this community with low growth efficiency was dominated by Firmicutes (increased to 50.9% and other anaerobic taxa. Human-associated bacteria, including the obligately anaerobic Bacteroides, were detected at high concentrations in soil throughout decomposition, up to 198 d postmortem. Our results revealed the pattern of functional and compositional

  6. Treatment of post harvest residues with cellulose decomposing preparations I. Effect on grain yield from wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Milev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. During 2010 – 2013 an experiment was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute with the aim to find out what is the effect of stubble cellulose decomposition products (microbial-based or other on the grain yield from winter wheat. The crop was grown in a stationary field trial in crop rotation with three spring crops – bean, maize and sunflower. Three cellulose decomposition products, Bactofil С, Nutri-Life Accelerate (NLA and Amalgerol premium were tested against the background of plots without mineral fertilizers treatment. The post harvest residue was chopped with the equipment of the harvester combine to suitable pieces and evenly spread on the soil surface. The above cellulose decomposition products were applied by sprinkling the area of the stubble in autumn, one month before sowing of wheat. The norm of the working solution was 400 l/ha, and the doses of the respective products were according to the recommendations of the manufacturers. Immediately after sprinkling the post harvest residue from the previous crops, it was incorporated in soil using disking soil tillage machines. On the basis of the averaged 4-year results, the following conclusions were drawn: the cellulose decomposition products Bactopfil C and NLA had well expressed positive effect on grain yield (relatively expressed, the increase varied from 7.0 to 18.0%; the structural components of yield and 1000 grain weight; the conditions of application of the cellulose decomposition products; the initial soil moisture and the moisture of the plant residues themselves in particular, were very important for the efficiency of the preparations; the nature of the tested cellulose decomposers makes them suitable for organic agriculture where the short-term immobilization of nutrients (especially the nitrogen-containing ones is a common and typical process.

  7. The Tools That Help Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamertsfelder, Jacob O.

    2017-01-01

    There are many tools that systems engineers use in today's space programs. In my time in the Commercial Crew Program I sought to improve one of the vital tools for the verification and validation team. This was my main project but only a small part of what I have done in the department. I have also had the chance to learn from the best and see actual hardware, this real world experience will help me be a better aerospace engineer when I enter the workforce. I look forward to seeing the Commercial Crew Program progress to launch.

  8. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children’s skin health.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  9. We Want to Help!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombino, D. F.

    1997-05-01

    The D.M.S.O. is the only full-time optical solar observatory in the Sunshine State. Its instruments are made available on a NO CHARGE basis to deserving Central Florida amateur astronomers, undergraduate students at nearby Stetson University and other local colleges. We are privately owned and completely independent of federal funding. Our research is supported through small, individual and corporate donations (mainly equipment) and the voluntary manpower of trained amateur solar observers. The D.M.S.O. is an affiliate of the Museum of Art & Sciences, Daytona Beach, and maintains ties with the Department of Physics and Computer Sciences at Stetson University in DeLand. Daily solar observations are made in while-light, H-alpha and calcium II K-line wavelengths using University grade Day-Star filters in conjunction with a long focus 15cm refractor and two 12 cm refractors. Particular attention is given to the morphology of sunspots, plage, flares, prominence and other features. Our results are reported to the Solar Sections of the B.A.A. (England), A.L.P.O. (U.S.A.) and SONNE, (Germany). Our East coast location enables us to record photospheric and chromospheric activity well in advance of West coast observatories: an obvious advantage. Numerous lakes at our site provides us with exceptional seeing -- at times approaching one arc/sec. Future plans call for high resolution CCD/video solar patrol monitoring, simultaneously in three wavelengths at 15 second intervals. This and other projects, including establishing a web page, will be undertaken in cooperation with the Computer Sciences Institute at Stetson University. We do no have all the answers, but we may have the solution to your problems. We welcome the opportunity to discuss your needs and our future cooperative goals. We need each other and we want to help! Please leave your card and feel free to contact me at the above address. Our E-mail address is NLTsolar@aol.com, if you prefer.

  10. Help Helps, but Only so Much: Research on Help Seeking with Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Help seeking is an important process in self-regulated learning (SRL). It may influence learning with intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), because many ITSs provide help, often at the student's request. The Help Tutor was a tutor agent that gave in-context, real-time feedback on students' help-seeking behavior, as they were learning with an ITS.…

  11. Did you get any help? A post-hoc secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of psychoeducation for patients with antisocial personality disorder in outpatient substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Schrøder, Sidsel; Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten

    2017-01-09

    People in treatment for substance use disorder commonly have comorbid personality disorders, including antisocial personality disorder. Little is known about treatments that specifically address comorbid antisocial personality disorder. Self-rated help received for antisocial personality disorder was assessed during follow-ups at 3, 9 and 15 months post-randomization of a randomized trial of psychoeducation for people with comorbid substance use and antisocial personality disorder (n = 175). Randomization to psychoeducation was associated with increased perceived help for antisocial personality disorder. Perceived help for antisocial personality disorder was in turn associated with more days abstinent and higher treatment satisfaction at the 3-month follow-up, and reduced risk of dropping out of treatment after the 3-month follow-up, and perceived help mediated the effects of random assignment on days abstinent at 3-month. Brief psychoeducation for antisocial personality disorder increased patients' self-rated help for antisocial personality disorder in substance abuse treatment, and reporting having received help for antisocial personality disorder was in turn associated with better short-term outcomes, e.g., days abstinent, dropout from treatment and treatment satisfaction. ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN67266318 , retrospectively registered 17/7/2012.

  12. Distribution and enzymatic activity of heterotrophic bacteria decomposing selected macromolecular compounds in a Baltic Sea sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgórska, B.; Mudryk, Z. J.

    2003-03-01

    The potential capability to decompose macromolecular compounds, and the level of extracellular enzyme activities were determined in heterotrophic bacteria isolated from a sandy beach in Sopot on the Southern Baltic Sea coast. Individual isolates were capable of hydrolysing a wide spectrum of organic macromolecular compounds. Lipids, gelatine, and DNA were hydrolyzed most efficiently. Only a very small percentage of strains were able to decompose cellulose, and no pectinolytic bacteria were found. Except for starch-hydrolysis, no significant differences in the intensity of organic compound decomposition were recorded between horizontal and vertical profiles of the studied beach. Of all the studied extracellular enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, esterase lipase, and leucine acrylaminidase were most active; in contrast, the activity α-fucosidase, α-galactosidase and β-glucouronidase was the weakest. The level of extracellular enzyme activity was similar in both sand layers.

  13. Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2013-11-07

    Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination.

  14. A quantification method for heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers and its application on 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodigast, Maria; Mutzel, Anke; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2017-03-01

    Methylglyoxal forms oligomeric compounds in the atmospheric aqueous particle phase, which could establish a significant contribution to the formation of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). Thus far, no suitable method for the quantification of methylglyoxal oligomers is available despite the great effort spent for structure elucidation. In the present study a simplified method was developed to quantify heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers as a sum parameter. The method is based on the thermal decomposition of oligomers into methylglyoxal monomers. Formed methylglyoxal monomers were detected using PFBHA (o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride) derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The method development was focused on the heating time (varied between 15 and 48 h), pH during the heating process (pH = 1-7), and heating temperature (50, 100 °C). The optimised values of these method parameters are presented. The developed method was applied to quantify heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers formed during the OH-radical oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) in the Leipzig aerosol chamber (LEipziger AerosolKammer, LEAK). Oligomer formation was investigated as a function of seed particle acidity and relative humidity. A fraction of heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers of up to 8 % in the produced organic particle mass was found, highlighting the importance of those oligomers formed solely by methylglyoxal for SOA formation. Overall, the present study provides a new and suitable method for quantification of heat-decomposable methylglyoxal oligomers in the aqueous particle phase.

  15. Modelling the dissipation and leaching of two herbicides in decomposing mulch of crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Sohaib; Iqbal, Akhtar; Lafolie, François; Recous, Sylvie; Benoit, Pierre; Garnier, Patricia

    2013-04-01

    greater leaching from mulch than S-metolachlor because of its lower adsorption coefficients to organic mulch. Moreover, simulated results showed a much faster degradation of glyphosate but greater non-extractable residue formation for S-metolachlor. Keywords: Mulch; Pesticides; Transport; Degradation; Modeling; Pastis-mulch References Findeling, A., Garnier, P., Coppens, F., Lafolie, F., Recous, S., 2007. Modelling water, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in soil covered with decomposing mulch. European Journal of Soil Science 58, 196-206. Lashermes, G., Zhang, Y., Houot, S., Barriuso, E., Steyer, J.P., Patureau, D., Garnier, P., 2013. A model coupling organic carbon and organic pollutant dynamics during composting. Journal of Environmental Quality. In Press.

  16. Measuring and decomposing inequity in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko Alexandra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, interest in the study of inequalities in health has not stopped at quantifying their magnitude; explaining the sources of inequalities has also become of great importance. This paper measures socioeconomic inequalities in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand, and the contributions of different population subgroups to those inequalities. Methods The Health and Welfare Survey 2003 conducted by the Thai National Statistical Office with 37,202 adult respondents is used for the analysis. The health outcomes of interest derive from three self-reported morbidity and two self-assessed health questions. Socioeconomic status is measured by adult-equivalent monthly income per household member. The concentration index (CI of ill health is used as a measure of socioeconomic health inequalities, and is subsequently decomposed into contributing factors. Results The CIs reveal inequality gradients disadvantageous to the poor for both self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand. The magnitudes of these inequalities were higher for the self-assessed health outcomes than for the self-reported morbidity outcomes. Age and sex played significant roles in accounting for the inequality in reported chronic illness (33.7 percent of the total inequality observed, hospital admission (27.8 percent, and self-assessed deterioration of health compared to a year ago (31.9 percent. The effect of being female and aged 60 years or older was by far the strongest demographic determinant of inequality across all five types of health outcome. Having a low socioeconomic status as measured by income quintile, education and work status were the main contributors disadvantaging the poor in self-rated health compared to a year ago (47.1 percent and self-assessed health compared to peers (47.4 percent. Residence in the rural Northeast and rural North were the main regional contributors to inequality in self

  17. Familiarity breeds dissent: Reliability analyses for British-English idioms on measures of familiarity, meaning, literality, and decomposability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A; Bull, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    To date, there have been several attempts made to build a database of normative data for English idiomatic expressions (e.g., Libben & Titone, 2008; Titone & Connine, 1994), however, there has been some discussion in the literature as to the validity and reliability of the data obtained, particularly for decomposability ratings. Our work aimed to address these issues by looking at ratings from native and non-native speakers and to extend the deeper investigation and analysis of decomposability to other aspects of idiomatic expressions, namely familiarly, meaning and literality. Poor reliability was observed on all types of ratings, suggesting that rather than decomposability being a special case, individual variability plays a large role in how participants rate idiomatic phrases in general. Ratings from native and non-native speakers were positively correlated and an analysis of covariance found that once familiarity with an idiom was accounted for, most of the differences between native and non-native ratings were not significant. Overall, the results suggest that individual experience with idioms plays an important role in how they are perceived and this should be taken into account when selecting stimuli for experimental studies. Furthermore, the results are suggestive of the inability of speakers to inhibit the figurative meanings for idioms that they are highly familiar with. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Classification for dimethylarsenate-decomposing bacteria using a restrict fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Watarai, Hiroshi; Ueda, Kazumasa

    2004-01-01

    A new monitoring system for bacterial communities involving dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) decomposition was provided by combining the MPN (Most Probable Number) method and RFLP (restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis). The abundance of DMAA decomposing bacteria was estimated by the MPN method using a bacterial culture medium, which included DMAA as the sole carbon source, indicating bacterial cell densities of 1700 cells/ml in Lake Kahokugata and 330 cells/ml in Lake Kibagata. After isolating the dominant bacteria using agar plates, the isolates were classified into some genotype groups by RFLP analysis using 16S rDNA sequences. Classification of the RFLP analysis indicated that 14 isolates of Lake Kahokugata were classified into 6 types, which included 2 dominant types related to genus Pseudomonas, while 8 isolates of Lake Kibagata displayed 6 types including one or two isolates. Moreover, the RFLP types were unique for each lake, suggesting that DMAA decomposing bacteria were specific for the aquatic environment related to the arsenic cycle. The activities of DMAA decomposition mostly matched with the RFLP type category of the isolates. Accordingly, combining the MPN method with the RFLP analysis will play an important role in elucidating the distributions and dynamics of the DMAA-decomposing bacterial community.

  19. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... you can increase acceptance by helping to stop bullying of children with TS. Bullying doesn’t just ...

  20. Cholesky decomposed density matrices in Laplace transform Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clin, Lucien Cyril

    2012-06-04

    The evaluation of correlation energies in the canonical formulation of second order Moeller-Plesset Perturbation Theory (MP2) is limited to systems of about 100 atoms, due to the method's steep O(N{sup 5}) scaling. In order to extend the method's applicability to larger systems, it is therefore imperative to develop alternative formulations that allow for efficient scaling reduction. One such approach is the Laplace transform formalism introduced by Almloef and Haeser, with which MP2 can be expressed in the basis of atom-centered orbitals (AO-MP2), whose local character allows to take advantage of the short range of correlation effects. The overall scaling can thus be reduced through the application of integral pre-selection schemes to discard all numerically irrelevant contributions to the energy. This dissertation is concerned with the study of Cholesky decomposed pseudo-density (CDD) matrices within this AO-MP2 scheme. For technical reasons, namely, the AO-MP2 implementation of Doser et al. is restricted to the evaluation of the opposite spin component of MP2, and is thus bound to the empirical scaled opposite spin parametrization procedure. Applying a Cholesky decomposition to the occurring pseudo-density matrices, the same spin component required for full MP2 energies is naturally included in the resulting CDD-MP2 method, whereby the ab initio character is restored. The investigation of the CDD-approach was further motivated by the fact that the orbitals generated by the decomposition are localized (for electronically non-delocalized systems), and thus allow for the pre-selection of only numerically significant integrals. However, although it could be shown on simple systems that the method does in principle scale linearly, its application to even moderately sized systems with large basis sets is yet hampered by severe technical and numerical difficulties, which are analysed and discussed in detail. Another closely related project has been to extend

  1. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  2. Osteoporosis Treatment: Medications Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis treatment: Medications can help Osteoporosis treatment may involve medication along with lifestyle change. Get answers to some of the most common questions about osteoporosis treatment. By ...

  3. Up from Dependency: A New National Public Assistance Strategy. Supplement 3: A Self-Help Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Martin; And Others

    Self-help among low-income people is vitally important. In no area is self-help more important than in overcoming poverty's burdens and energizing the escape from poverty. This document comprises an inventory of self-help and mutual-help programs that feature active involvement of members of the low-income population. The programs in this…

  4. STR analysis of human DNA from maggots fed on decomposing bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gachuiri Njau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

  5. An Extended Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict the Usage Intention of the Electric Car: A Multi-Group Comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ingrid Moons; Patrick De Pelsmacker

    2015-01-01

      An Extended Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) is developed that integrates emotions towards car driving and electric cars as well as car driving habits of the DTPB, and is empirically validated in a Belgian sample (n = 1023...

  6. How does litter quality and site heterogeneity interact on decomposer food webs of a semi-natural forest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Christensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    in gaps. Taxonomic diversity of nematodes increased during decomposition and functional diversity of nematodes followed a pattern often encountered, i.e. opportunistic bacterial-feeders were gradually replaced by fungal-feeders and slower growing bacterial-feeders while predators and omnivors peaked......The relative importance of litter quality and site heterogeneity on population dynamics of decomposer food webs was investigated in a semi-natural mixed deciduous forest in Denmark. Litterbags containing beech or ash leaves were placed in four plots. Plots were located within gaps and under closed...

  7. Enzymatic Strategies and Carbon Use Efficiency of a Litter-Decomposing Fungus Grown on Maize Leaves, Stems, and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Gainvors-Claisse, Angélique; Recous, Sylvie; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms can control the soil cycles of carbon (C), and depending on their C-use efficiency (CUE), these microorganisms either contribute to C stabilization in soil or produce CO2 when decomposing organic matter. However, little is known regarding the enzyme investment of microbial decomposers and the effects on their CUE. Our objective was to elucidate the strategies of litter-decomposing fungi as a function of litter quality. Fungal biosynthesis and respiration were accounted for by quantifying the investment in enzyme synthesis and enzyme efficiency. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown on the leaves, stems, and roots of maize over 126 days in controlled conditions. We periodically measured the fungal biomass, enzyme activity, and chemical composition of the remaining litter and continuously measured the evolved C-CO2. The CUE observed for the maize litter was highest in the leaves (0.63), intermediate in the roots (0.40), and lowest in the stems (0.38). However, the enzyme efficiency and investment in enzyme synthesis did not follow the same pattern. The amount of litter C decomposed per mole of C-acquiring hydrolase activity was 354 μg C in the leaves, 246 μg C in the roots, and 1541 μg C in the stems (enzyme efficiency: stems > leaves > roots). The fungus exhibited the highest investment in C-acquiring enzyme when grown on the roots and produced 40-80% less enzyme activity when grown on the stems and leaves (investment in enzymes: roots > leaves > stems). The CUE was dependent on the initial availability and replenishment of the soluble substrate fraction with the degradation products. The production of these compounds was either limited because of the low enzyme efficiency, which occurred in the roots, or because of the low investments in enzyme synthesis, which occurred in the stems. Fungal biosynthesis relied on the ability of the fungus to invest in enzyme synthesis and the efficient interactions between the enzymes and

  8. Enzymatic strategies and carbon use efficiency of a litter-decomposing fungus grown on maize leaves, stems and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenaëlle Lashermes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms can control the soil cycles of carbon (C, and depending on their C-use efficiency (CUE, these microorganisms either contribute to C stabilization in soil or produce CO2 when decomposing organic matter. However, little is known regarding the enzyme investment of microbial decomposers and the effects on their CUE. Our objective was to elucidate the strategies of litter-decomposing fungi as a function of litter quality. Fungal biosynthesis and respiration were accounted for by quantifying the investment in enzyme synthesis and enzyme efficiency. The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was grown on the leaves, stems and roots of maize over 126 days in controlled conditions. We periodically measured the fungal biomass, enzyme activity, and chemical composition of the remaining litter and continuously measured the evolved C-CO2. The CUE observed for the maize litter was highest in the leaves (0.63, intermediate in the roots (0.40, and lowest in the stems (0.38. However, the enzyme efficiency and investment in enzyme synthesis did not follow the same pattern. The amount of litter C decomposed per mole of C-acquiring hydrolase activity was 354 µg C in the leaves, 246 µg C in the roots, and 1541 µg C in the stems (enzyme efficiency: stems > leaves > roots. The fungus exhibited the highest investment in C-acquiring enzyme when grown on the roots and produced 40-80% less enzyme activity when grown on the stems and leaves (investment in enzymes: roots > leaves > stems. The CUE was dependent on the initial availability and replenishment of the soluble substrate fraction with the degradation products. The production of these compounds was either limited because of the low enzyme efficiency, which occurred in the roots, or because of the low investments in enzyme synthesis, which occurred in the stems. Fungal biosynthesis relied on the ability of the fungus to invest in enzyme synthesis and the efficient interactions between the

  9. 76 FR 80377 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Self-Help Homeownership...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP... from Ms. Pollard. Title of Proposal: Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP). OMB Approval... self-help homeownership housing programs. SHOP funds are appropriated by Congress, generally annually...

  10. Help! A simple method for getting back-up help to the reference desk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Furuta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the "net send" command, native to Windows XP, librarians at the University of California, Riverside created a "help button" for the reference desk. The simple script file sends a message to librarians' workstations in their offices and logs the date and time of use. This paper describes that program.

  11. The Great String Revival: For Decades, School String Programs Have Been Overshadowed by Bands and Choirs. Many Teachers Say It's Time to Change that--And They've Got Lots of Ideas about What You Can Do to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Dave

    2008-01-01

    According to the Austin-based Amati Foundation (a nonprofit group that supports programs for the stringed arts), over the past several decades the number of public school districts offering instruction for violin, viola, and cello has plummeted, from as high as 80 percent in 1960 to less than 19 percent today. Lack of public funding for stringed…

  12. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Leer en Español: La Marihuana ...

  13. Household hazardous waste disposal project. Metro toxicant program report number 1d. SLEUTH (strategies and lessons to eliminate unused toxicants: help) - Educational activities on the disposal of household hazardous waste. Final report 1981-82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyckman, C.; Luboff, C.; Smith-Greathouse, L.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents a number of educational activities for students in the elementary and secondary grades that will help them understand the issues related to, and the best disposal options for hazardous household wastes. Teachers are provided with a series of illustrated lessons and quizzes, problem solving exercises, and role playing games. The projects are designed to define terms and concepts for understanding hazardous wastes, provide information on disposal systems available in King County, indicate problems with current disposal practices, and discuss personal responsibility for proper waste disposal.

  14. Pthreads vs MPI Parallel Performance of Angular-Domain Decomposed S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Barnett, D.A.

    2000-05-07

    Two programming models for parallelizing the Angular Domain Decomposition (ADD) of the discrete ordinates (S{sub n}) approximation of the neutron transport equation are examined. These are the shared memory model based on the POSIX threads (Pthreads) standard, and the message passing model based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard. These standard libraries are available on most multiprocessor platforms thus making the resulting parallel codes widely portable. The question is: on a fixed platform, and for a particular code solving a given test problem, which of the two programming models delivers better parallel performance? Such comparison is possible on Symmetric Multi-Processors (SMP) architectures in which several CPUs physically share a common memory, and in addition are capable of emulating message passing functionality. Implementation of the two-dimensional,(S{sub n}), Arbitrarily High Order Transport (AHOT) code for solving neutron transport problems using these two parallelization models is described. Measured parallel performance of each model on the COMPAQ AlphaServer 8400 and the SGI Origin 2000 platforms is described, and comparison of the observed speedup for the two programming models is reported. For the case presented in this paper it appears that the MPI implementation scales better than the Pthreads implementation on both platforms.

  15. Collective helping and bystander effects in coevolving helping networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Keun; Park, Hyunggyu

    2010-06-01

    We study collective helping behavior and bystander effects in a coevolving helping network model. A node and a link of the network represents an agent who renders or receives help and a friendly relation between agents, respectively. A helping trial of an agent depends on relations with other involved agents and its result (success or failure) updates the relation between the helper and the recipient. We study the network link dynamics and its steady states analytically and numerically. The full phase diagram is presented with various kinds of active and inactive phases and the nature of phase transitions are explored. We find various interesting bystander effects, consistent with the field study results, of which the underlying mechanism is proposed.

  16. Do psychological factors help to reduce body mass in obesity or is it vice versa? Selected psychological aspects and effectiveness of the weight-loss program in the obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bąk-Sosnowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ, the Emotional State Questionnaire (ESQ, and the Q-Sort Social Functioning Questionnaire. The cognitive appraisal, emotional state and social functioning of the study group changed significantly (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, as compared with individuals with no body mass reduction, had an early obesity onset, i.e. at the age of <10 years old (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a 15% reduction, had a later obesity onset, i.e. between the ages of 20 and 30 (P<0.001 and between 50 and 60 (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, compared with individuals with no mass reduction, had previously experienced the jojo effect (P<0.001 and had successfully lost weight (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a15% reduction, had a history of unsuccessful attempts at reducing body mass (P<0.001. We conclude that the attitude of obese patients towards a weight-loss program is not a deciding factor for its effectiveness. As body mass reduces, the attitude improves.

  17. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; John, Katharina; Arida, Gertrudo; Auge, Harald; Brandl, Roland; Horgan, Finbarr G.; Hotes, Stefan; Marquez, Leonardo; Radermacher, Nico; Settele, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Schädler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil) on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices. PMID:26225556

  18. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schmidt

    Full Text Available Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices.

  19. Application of supercritical water to decompose brominated epoxy resin and environmental friendly recovery of metals from waste memory module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-02-03

    Waste Memory Modules (WMMs), a particular kind of waste printed circuit board (WPCB), contain a high amount of brominated epoxy resin (BER), which may bring a series of environmental and health problems. On the other hand, metals like gold and copper are very valuable and are important to recover from WMMs. In the present study, an effective and environmental friendly method using supercritical water (SCW) to decompose BER and recover metals from WMMs was developed instead of hydrometallurgy or pyrometallurgy simultaneously. Experiments were conducted under external-catalyst-free conditions with temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 °C, pressures from 25 to 40 MPa, and reaction times from 120 to 360 min in a semibatch-type reactor. The results showed that BER could be quickly and efficiently decomposed under SCW condition, and the mechanism was possibly free radical reaction. After the SCW treatments, the glass fibers and metal foils in the solid residue could be easily liberated and recovered, respectively. The metal recovery rate reached 99.80%. The optimal parameters were determined as 495 °C, 33 MPa, and 305 min on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM). This study provides an efficient and environmental friendly approach for WMMs recycling compared with electrolysis, pyrometallurgy, and hydrometallurgy.

  20. Physicians' acceptance of electronic medical records exchange: an extension of the decomposed TPB model with institutional trust and perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) exchange improves clinical quality and reduces medical costs. However, few studies address the antecedent factors of physicians' intentions to use EMR exchange. Based on institutional trust and perceived risk integrated with the decomposed theory of planned behavior (TPB) model, we propose a theoretical model to explain the intention of physicians to use an EMR exchange system. We conducted a field survey in Taiwan to collect data from physicians who had experience using the EMR exchange systems. A valid sample of 191 responses was collected for data analysis. To test the proposed research model, we employed structural equation modeling using the partial least squares method. The study findings show that the following five factors have a significant influence on the physicians' intentions to use EMR exchange systems: (a) attitude; (b) subjective norm; (c) perceived behavior control; (d) institutional trust; and (e) perceived risk. These five factors are predictable by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and compatibility, interpersonal and governmental influence, facilitating conditions and self-efficacy, situational normality and structural assurance, and institutional trust, respectively. The results also indicate that institutional trust and perceived risk integrated with the decomposed TPB model improve the prediction of physician's intentions to use EMR exchange. The results of this study indicate that our research model effectively predicts the intention of physicians to use EMR exchange, and provides valuable implications for academics and practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding physicians' acceptance of the Medline system for practicing evidence-based medicine: a decomposed TPB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shin-Yuan; Ku, Yi-Cheng; Chien, Jui-Chi

    2012-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) supports physicians in their improvement of clinical quality and enhances hospitals' improvement of patient safety. Many health care institutions implement information systems to support physicians practicing EBM. However, studies exploring the antecedent factors of physicians' usage intention of information systems facilitating EBM practice are rare. Hence this study proposed a research model based on the decomposed theory of the planned behavior model (decomposed TPB) to investigate the factors influencing physicians' acceptance of the Medline system. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to collect data from physicians with experience in using the Medline system. A valid sample of 224 physicians was collected for data analysis. Structural equation modeling using the partial least squares (PLS) method with bootstrap estimate was used to test the research model. The findings of this study show that a physician's usage intention is significantly influenced by three factors, i.e. attitude, the subjective norm, and perceived behavior control. Furthermore, these three factors can be predicted by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, interpersonal influence, personal innovativeness in IT and self-efficacy, respectively. The results of this study indicate that our research model provides an effective prediction of the intention of physicians to use the Medline system and provides valuable implications for academics and practitioners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can organic matter hide from decomposers in the labyrinth of soil aggregates? Micro-engineered Soil Chips challenging foraging fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Edith C.; Aleklett, Kristin; Arellano Caicedo, Carlos G.; Bengtsson, Martin; Micaela Mafla Endara, Paola; Ohlsson, Pelle

    2017-04-01

    From the point of view of microorganisms, the soil environment is an enormously complex labyrinth with paths and dead-end streets, where resources and shelters are unevenly distributed. We study foraging strategies of soil organisms, especially fungi, and the possibility of physio-spatial stabilization of organic matter by "hiding" in occluded soil spaces. We manipulate growth habitat microstructure with lab-on-a-chip techniques, where we designed complex environments with channels and obstacle at dimensions of the size of hyphae, and construct them in the transparent, gas-permeable polymer PDMS. We fill those with different nutrient solutions or combine with mineral nutrient gradients, and inoculate them with soil organisms. We analyze organisms and substrates with microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and analytical chemistry. We compared different soil litter decomposers and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus for their ability to forage through complex air-gap structures and attempt to classify them into functional traits concerning their mycelium directionality, space-exploring approach and ability to grow through acute angles and narrow constrictions. We identified structures which are very difficult to penetrate for most species, and compounds located behind such features may thus be spatially unavailable for decomposers. We discuss our approach in comparison to soil pore space tomographic analyses and findings we made in the pore space of colonized wood biochar.

  3. There's no place like home? An exploration of the mechanisms behind plant litter-decomposer affinity in terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Amy T; Vivanco, Lucía; González-Arzac, Adelia; Pérez, Luis I

    2014-08-08

    Litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems is an important first step for carbon and nutrient cycling, as senescent plant material is degraded and consequently incorporated, along with microbial products, into soil organic matter. The identification of litter affinity effects, whereby decomposition is accelerated in its home environment (home-field advantage, HFA), highlights the importance of plant-soil interactions that have consequences for biogeochemical cycling. While not universal, these affinity effects have been identified in a range of ecosystems, particularly in forests without disturbance. The optimization of the local decomposer community to degrade a particular combination of litter traits is the most oft-cited explanation for HFA effects, but the ways in which this specialized community can develop are only beginning to be understood. We explore ways in which HFA, or more broadly litter affinity effects, could arise in terrestrial ecosystems. Plant-herbivore interactions, microbial symbiosis, legacies from phyllosphere communities and attractors of specific soil fauna could contribute to spatially defined affinity effects for litter decomposition. Pyrosequencing soil communities and functional linkages of soil fauna provide great promise in advancing our mechanistic understanding of these interactions, and could lead to a greater appreciation of the role of litter-decomposer affinity in the maintenance of soil functional diversity. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Decomposing of Socioeconomic Inequality in Mental Health: A Cross-Sectional Study into Female-Headed Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisani, Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Connection between socioeconomic statuses and mental health has been reported already. Accordingly, mental health asymmetrically is distributed in society; therefore, people with disadvantaged condition suffer from inconsistent burden of mental disorders. In this study, we aimed to understand the determinants of socioeconomic inequality of mental health in the female-headed households and decomposed contributions of socioeconomic determinants in mental health. In this cross-sectional study, 787 female-headed households were enrolled using systematic random sampling in 2014. Data were taken from the household assets survey and a self-administered 28 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) as a screening tool for detection of possible cases of mental disorders. Inequality was measured by concentration index (CI) and as decomposing contribution in inequality. All analyses were performed by standard statistical software Stata 11.2. The overall CI for mental health in the female-headed households was -0.049 (95% CI: -0.072, 0.025). The highly positive contributors for inequality in mental health in the female-headed households were age (34%) and poor household economic status (22%). Socioeconomic inequalities exist in mental health into female-headed households and mental health problems more prevalent in women with lower socioeconomic status.

  5. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  6. Effects of a Prosocial Televised Example on Children's Helping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprafkin, Joyce N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The possibility that regularly broadcast entertainment television programs can facilitate prosocial behavior in children was investigated. First graders exposed to prosocial altruistic episodes demonstrated more helping behaviors in a real-life context than control children did. (GO)

  7. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Use Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Ages & Stages Listen ...

  8. Yoga May Help Ease Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167586.html Yoga May Help Ease Depression It's not a cure-all but has great ... studies suggest that practicing yoga may also ease depression. But the leader of a session on yoga ...

  9. Perceptions of Helpfulness of Teachers in Didactic Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, Randall M.; Cox, Jane A.; Brown, Steven R.; West, Erin M.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-five novice counselors completed a Q sort that assessed their perceptions of what was most helpful about teachers of didactic classes in their master's degree program. Participants perceived teachers who used a contextual teaching pedagogy and had an authentic, empathic, and compassionate way of being as helpful to their learning.

  10. Healthier students are better learners: high-quality, strategically planned, and effectively coordinated school health programs must be a fundamental mission of schools to help close the achievement gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To discuss implications for educational policy and practice relevant to closing the achievement gap based on the literature review and synthesis presented in 7 articles of the October 2011 special issue of the Journal of School Health. Implications for closing the achievement gap are drawn from analyses of current literature. During the past several decades, school reform efforts to close the achievement gap have focused on various strategies, yielding very limited progress. Educationally relevant health disparities influence students' motivation and ability to learn, but reducing these disparities has been largely overlooked as an element of an overall strategy for closing the achievement gap. If these health problems are not addressed, the educational benefits of other school reform efforts will be jeopardized. Healthier students are better learners. School health programs and services that are evidence based, strategically planned to influence academic achievement, and effectively coordinated warrant validation as a cohesive school improvement initiative for closing the achievement gap. National, state, and local responsibilities for supporting school health are outlined, including shared strategies; leadership from the U.S. Department of Education; policy development; guidance, technical assistance, and professional development; accountability and data and software systems; and a research agenda. To date, the U.S. Department of Education has not provided leadership for integrating evidence-based, strategically planned, and effectively coordinated school health programs and services into the fundamental mission of schools. Now is an opportune time for change. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  11. Social support perceptions of Turkish people with schizophrenia: What helps and what doesn't help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanci, Nuray A; Gök, Ali Can; Yıldırım, Büşra; Borhan, Nilsu

    2017-11-01

    Social support is an important facilitator of the quality of life for people with schizophrenia. This study examines what is perceived as helpful and unhelpful support from the members of the natural social networks by 32 Turkish people with schizophrenia. Semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis were used to examine what is perceived as helpful and unhelpful support. The findings suggested that instrumental, emotional and socialization supports were the general categories that capture the perceptions of support. Intrusion and belittling/rejection appeared as unhelpful. It is important to take these perceptions into account in providing psychoeducation to families and in designing psychosocial intervention programs.

  12. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  13. Helping Teachers Help Themselves: Professional Development That Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Tannehill, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    For school administrators to facilitate impactful teacher professional development, a shift in thinking that goes beyond the acquisition of new skills and knowledge to helping teachers rethink their practice is required. Based on review of the professional development literature and our own continued observations of professional development, this…

  14. Search Results Help - Water | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available. Search Results Help explains how to navigate the search results page and describes the data presented.

  15. A Kohonen-like decomposition method for the Euclidean traveling salesman problem-KNIES/spl I.bar/DECOMPOSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, N; Altinel, I K; Oommen, J

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the classical heuristic algorithms of operations research, there have also been several approaches based on artificial neural networks for solving the traveling salesman problem. Their efficiency, however, decreases as the problem size (number of cities) increases. A technique to reduce the complexity of a large-scale traveling salesman problem (TSP) instance is to decompose or partition it into smaller subproblems. We introduce an all-neural decomposition heuristic that is based on a recent self-organizing map called KNIES, which has been successfully implemented for solving both the Euclidean traveling salesman problem and the Euclidean Hamiltonian path problem. Our solution for the Euclidean TSP proceeds by solving the Euclidean HPP for the subproblems, and then patching these solutions together. No such all-neural solution has ever been reported.

  16. Origin of pingo-like features on the Beaufort Sea shelf and their possible relationship to decomposing methane gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W.; Dallimore, S.R.; Blasco, S.M.; Lorenson, T.D.; Melling, H.; Medioli, B.E.; Nixon, F.M.; McLaughlin, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic shelf is currently undergoing dramatic thermal changes caused by the continued warming associated with Holocene sea level rise. During this transgression, comparatively warm waters have flooded over cold permafrost areas of the Arctic Shelf. A thermal pulse of more than 10??C is still propagating down into the submerged sediment and may be decomposing gas hydrate as well as permafrost. A search for gas venting on the Arctic seafloor focused on pingo-like-features (PLFs) on the Beaufort Sea Shelf because they may be a direct consequence of gas hydrate decomposition at depth. Vibracores collected from eight PLFs had systematically elevated methane concentrations. ROV observations revealed streams of methane-rich gas bubbles coming from the crests of PLFs. We offer a scenario of how PLFs may be growing offshore as a result of gas pressure associated with gas hydrate decomposition. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Litter type affects the activity of aerobic decomposers in a boreal peatland more than site nutrient and water table regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Straková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are carbon (C storage ecosystems sustained by a high water table (WT. High WT creates anoxic conditions that suppress the activity of aerobic decomposers and provide conditions for peat accumulation. Peatland function can be dramatically affected by WT drawdown caused by climate and/or land-use change. Aerobic decomposers are directly affected by WT drawdown through environmental factors such as increased oxygenation and nutrient availability. Additionally, they are indirectly affected via changes in plant community composition and litter quality. We studied the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of WT drawdown on aerobic decomposer activity in plant litter at two stages of decomposition (incubated in the field for 1 or 2 years. We did this by profiling 11 extracellular enzymes involved in the mineralization of organic C, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and sulphur. Our study sites represented a three-stage chronosequence from pristine to short-term (years and long-term (decades WT drawdown conditions under two nutrient regimes (bog and fen. The litter types included reflected the prevalent vegetation: Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, shrubs and trees.

    Litter type was the main factor shaping microbial activity patterns and explained about 30 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Overall, enzyme activities were higher in vascular plant litters compared to Sphagnum litters, and the allocation of enzyme activities towards C or nutrient acquisition was related to the initial litter quality (chemical composition. Direct effects of WT regime, site nutrient regime and litter decomposition stage (length of incubation period summed to only about 40 % of the litter type effect. WT regime alone explained about 5 % of the variation in enzyme activities and activity allocation. Generally, enzyme activity increased following the long-term WT drawdown and the activity allocation turned from P

  18. Comparison of insect species associated with decomposing remains recovered inside dwellings and outdoors on the island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, M L

    1991-05-01

    A comparison of insects collected from 35 cases of decomposing remains on the island of Oahu, Hawaiian Islands (14 from indoor situations and 21 from outdoors), yielded a total of 22 species of insects in 3 orders and 12 families. Of these, five species were recovered in both indoor and outdoor situations. Remains recovered indoors had a greater variety of Diptera larvae associated with them, while remains discovered outdoors had a greater variety of Coleoptera species present. Some species of insects were restricted to remains discovered indoors, while others were found only associated with remains in outdoor situations. Knowledge of the species of insects associated with different habitats may serve to provide information concerning the history of the remains.

  19. Stoichiometric imbalances between terrestrial decomposer communities and their resources: mechanisms and implications of microbial adaptations to their resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eMooshammer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial microbial decomposer communities thrive on a wide range of organic matter types that rarely ever meet their elemental demands. In this review we synthesize the current state-of-the-art of microbial adaptations to resource stoichiometry, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the interactions between heterotrophic microbial communities and their chemical environment. The stoichiometric imbalance between microbial communities and their organic substrates generally decreases from wood to leaf litter and further to topsoil and subsoil organic matter. Microbial communities can respond to these imbalances in four ways: first, they adapt their biomass composition towards their resource in a non-homeostatic behaviour. Such changes are, however, only moderate, and occur mainly because of changes in microbial community structure and less so due to cellular storage of elements in excess. Second, microbial communities can mobilize resources that meet their elemental demand by producing specific extracellular enzymes, which, in turn, is restricted by the C and N requirement for enzyme production itself. Third, microbes can regulate their element use efficiencies (ratio of element invested in growth over total element uptake, such that they release elements in excess depending on their demand (e.g., respiration and N mineralization. Fourth, diazotrophic bacteria and saprotrophic fungi may trigger the input of external N and P to decomposer communities. Theoretical considerations show that adjustments in element use efficiencies may be the most important mechanism by which microbes regulate their biomass stoichiometry. This review summarizes different views on how microbes cope with imbalanced supply of C, N and P, thereby providing a framework for integrating and linking microbial adaptation to resource imbalances to ecosystem scale fluxes across scales and ecosystems.

  20. How do physicochemical properties influence the toxicity of silver nanoparticles on freshwater decomposers of plant litter in streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Daniela; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2017-06-01

    AgNP physicochemical properties may affect AgNP toxicity, but their effects on plant litter decomposition and the species driving this key ecosystem process in freshwaters have been poorly investigated. We assessed the impacts of AgNPs with different size and surface coating (100nm PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone)-dispersant, 50-60nm and 35nm uncoated) on freshwater decomposers of leaf litter by exposing leaf associated microbial assemblages to increasing concentrations of AgNPs (up to 200mgL-1) and of AgNO3 (up to 25mgL-1). We further conducted a feeding preference experiment with a common invertebrate shredder, Limnephilus sp., which was allowed to feed on microbially-colonized leaves previously exposed to AgNPs and AgNO3. Leaf decomposition and microbial activity and diversity were inhibited when exposed to increased concentrations of 100nm AgNPs (≥25mgL-1), while microbial activity was stimulated by exposure to 35nm AgNPs (≥100mgL-1). Invertebrate shredders preferred leaves exposed to 35nm AgNPs (25mgL-1) and avoided leaves exposed to AgNO3 (≥2mgL-1). Results from the characterization of AgNPs by dynamic light scattering revealed that AgNps with PVP-dispersant were more stable than the uncoated AgNPs. Our results highlight the importance of considering the physicochemical properties of NPs when assessing their toxicity to litter decomposers in freshwaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in depressive symptoms among the elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjian; Yang, Jinjuan; Gao, Jianmin; Zhou, Zhongliang; Zhang, Tao; Ren, Jianping; Li, Yanli; Qian, Yuyan; Lai, Sha; Chen, Gang

    2016-12-01

    Accelerated population ageing brings about unprecedented challenges to the health system in China. This study aimed to measure the prevalence and the income-related inequality of depressive symptoms, and also identify the determinants of depressive symptom inequality among the elderly in China. Data were drawn from the second wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Depressive symptoms were assessed with a 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), which was preselected in CHARLS. The concentration index was used to measure the magnitude of income-related inequality in depressive symptoms. A decomposition analysis, based on the logit model, was employed to quantify the contribution of each determinant to total inequality. More than 32.55% of the elderly in China had depressive symptoms. Women had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than men. The overall concentration index of depressive symptoms was -0.0645 among the elderly, indicating that depressive symptoms are more concentrated among the elderly who lived in economically disadvantaged situations, favoring the rich. Income was found to have the largest percentage of contribution to overall inequality, followed by residents' location and educational attainment. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the elderly was considerably high in China. There was also a pro-rich inequality in depressive symptoms amongst elderly Chinese. It is suggested that some form of policy and intervention strategies, such as establishing the urban-rural integrated medical insurance scheme, enhancing the medical assistance system, and promoting health education programs, is required to alleviate inequitable distribution of depressive symptoms.

  2. Decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in depressive symptoms among the elderly in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerated population ageing brings about unprecedented challenges to the health system in China. This study aimed to measure the prevalence and the income-related inequality of depressive symptoms, and also identify the determinants of depressive symptom inequality among the elderly in China. Methods Data were drawn from the second wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale (CES-D, which was preselected in CHARLS. The concentration index was used to measure the magnitude of income-related inequality in depressive symptoms. A decomposition analysis, based on the logit model, was employed to quantify the contribution of each determinant to total inequality. Results More than 32.55% of the elderly in China had depressive symptoms. Women had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than men. The overall concentration index of depressive symptoms was -0.0645 among the elderly, indicating that depressive symptoms are more concentrated among the elderly who lived in economically disadvantaged situations, favoring the rich. Income was found to have the largest percentage of contribution to overall inequality, followed by residents’ location and educational attainment. Conclusion The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the elderly was considerably high in China. There was also a pro-rich inequality in depressive symptoms amongst elderly Chinese. It is suggested that some form of policy and intervention strategies, such as establishing the urban-rural integrated medical insurance scheme, enhancing the medical assistance system, and promoting health education programs, is required to alleviate inequitable distribution of depressive symptoms.

  3. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  4. Helping Teachers Love Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lynn T.

    1995-01-01

    Examines three reasons teachers leave their profession and approaches for helping them to love their work. Suggests that when teachers feel challenged, in control of their lives, and have a sense of belonging, their needs have been met. Then they can become the adult attachment figure that children must have in order to have their own needs…

  5. Helping Kids Deal with Bullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... methods and still want to speak to the bullying child's parents, it's best to do so in a context ... can help kids learn how to deal with bullying if it happens. For some parents, it may be tempting to tell a kid ...

  6. Helping fans to get fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    A health and weight loss programme supported by nurses and delivered by professional football clubs in Scotland has been hailed a success in helping men to lose weight sustainably. It uses participants love of football to motivate them to make healthy lifestyle changes.

  7. Scholarship can help ideas flourish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-03-09

    Scholarships from the Florence Nightingale Foundation are providing nurses with the financial means to put innovative ideas into practice. Nurses from all four countries of the UK can apply for leadership, travel and research scholarships to support their career development and help improve patient care.

  8. Unpaid help: who does what?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Peggy Schyns

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Informele hulp: wie doet er wat? There is currently a great deal of interest in the Netherlands in people’s reliance on their own networks in times of need. What can people do for each other when someone needs help because of health problems? And what are they already

  9. Dynamic Hypertext Catalogues: Helping Users to Help Themselves

    OpenAIRE

    Milosavljevic, Maria; Oberlander, Jon

    1998-01-01

    Electronic hypertext catalogues provide an important channel for information provision. However, static hypertext documents cannot be dynamically adapted to help the user find what he/she is looking for. We demonstrate that natural language generation techniques can be used to produce tailored hypertext documents, and we focus on two key benefits of the resulting DYNAMIC HYPERTEXT. First, documents can be tailored more precisely to an individual’s needs and background, thus aiding the search ...

  10. Simulating propagation of decomposed elastic waves using low-rank approximate mixed-domain integral operators for heterogeneous transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Jiubing

    2014-08-05

    In elastic imaging, the extrapolated vector fields are decomposed into pure wave modes, such that the imaging condition produces interpretable images, which characterize reflectivity of different reflection types. Conventionally, wavefield decomposition in anisotropic media is costly as the operators involved is dependent on the velocity, and thus not stationary. In this abstract, we propose an efficient approach to directly extrapolate the decomposed elastic waves using lowrank approximate mixed space/wavenumber domain integral operators for heterogeneous transverse isotropic (TI) media. The low-rank approximation is, thus, applied to the pseudospectral extrapolation and decomposition at the same time. The pseudo-spectral implementation also allows for relatively large time steps in which the low-rank approximation is applied. Synthetic examples show that it can yield dispersionfree extrapolation of the decomposed quasi-P (qP) and quasi- SV (qSV) modes, which can be used for imaging, as well as the total elastic wavefields.

  11. LOGO Helps Remove Children's Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lovett

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the philosophy behind LOGO and presents several examples of how it has been adapted for use with physically and mentally handicapped and learning disabled children to promote academic and social development through computer programing. (MBR)

  12. 76 FR 61111 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Self- Help Homeownership... electronic submission of responses. The Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) is authorized by..., geographically diverse basis through the provision of self-help homeownership housing programs. SHOP funds are...

  13. Community structure and estimated contribution of primary consumers (Nematodes and Copepods) of decomposing plant litter (Juncus roemerianus and Rhizophora mangle) in South Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, J.W.; Cefalu, R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the meiofauna associated with decomposing leaf litter from two species of coastal marshland plants: the black needle rush, Juncus roemerianus and the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The following aspects were investigated: (1) types of meiofauna present, especially nematodes; (2) changes in meiofaunal community structures with regard to season, station location, and type of plant litter; (3) amount of nematode and copepod biomass present on the decomposing plant litter; and (4) an estimation of the possible role of the nematodes in the decomposition process. 28 references, 5 figures, 9 tables. (ACR)

  14. Nematode diversity in soil from a field trial with decomposing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 protein

    OpenAIRE

    H. W. Karuri; R. L. Amata; N. O. Amugune; C. N. Waturu

    2013-01-01

    The quality of decomposing plant materials may affect the soil community structure. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of decomposing Bt cotton and its isoline on soil nematode diversity. Bt cotton (06Z604D), isoline (99M03) and HART 89M (local non-Bt cotton cultivar) were planted for two seasons in a completely randomized block design in a confined field trial at Mwea, Kenya. After harvest the plant material was incorporated into soil and the nematode diversity was determined. ...

  15. Why humans might help strangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Jayne Raihani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans regularly help strangers, even when interactions are apparently unobserved and unlikely to be repeated. Such situations have been simulated in the laboratory using anonymous one-shot games (e.g. prisoner's dilemma where the payoff matrices used make helping biologically altruistic. As in real-life, participants often cooperate in the lab in these one-shot games with non-relatives, despite that fact that helping is under negative selection under these circumstances. Two broad explanations for such behavior prevail. The 'big mistake' or 'mismatch' theorists argue that behavior is constrained by psychological mechanisms that evolved predominantly in the context of repeated interactions with known individuals. In contrast, the cultural group selection theorists posit that humans have been selected to cooperate in anonymous one-shot interactions due to strong between-group competition, which creates interdependence among in-group members. We present these two hypotheses before discussing alternative routes by which humans could increase their direct fitness by cooperating with strangers under natural conditions. In doing so, we explain why the standard lab games do not capture real-life in various important aspects. First, asymmetries in the cost of perceptual errors regarding the context of the interaction (one-shot versus repeated; anonymous versus public might have selected for strategies that minimize the chance of making costly behavioral errors. Second, helping strangers might be a successful strategy for identifying other cooperative individuals in the population, where partner choice can turn strangers into interaction partners. Third, in many real-world situations individuals are able to parcel investments such that a one-shot interaction is turned into a repeated game of many decisions. Finally, in contrast to the assumptions of the prisoner's dilemma model, it is possible that benefits of cooperation follow a non-linear function of

  16. L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grauwe, Sophie; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Willems, Roel M; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g., wegleggen "put aside." Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1) speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). In non-native (L2) speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e., non-decompositional) processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g., omvallen "fall down") were preceded by their stem (e.g., vallen "fall") with a lag of 4-6 words ("primed"); the other half (e.g., inslapen "fall asleep") were not ("unprimed"). L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both region of interest analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2) in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically.

  17. L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eDe Grauwe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this fMRI long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g. wegleggen ‘put aside’. Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1 speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG. In non-native (L2 speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: Some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e. non-decompositional processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g. omvallen ‘fall down’ were preceded by their stem (e.g. vallen ‘fall’ with a lag of 4 to 6 words (‘primed’; the other half (e.g. inslapen ‘fall asleep’ were not (‘unprimed’. L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both ROI analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2 in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically.

  18. Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  19. Mexican press tour helps raise public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In an effort to increase public awareness in Japan of global population and reproductive health issues, 5 Japanese journalists from Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK), Kyodo News, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, and FM Hokkaido traveled with a JOICFP team in Mexico for 12 days in October 1988. It is hoped that, following their experience in Mexico, the journalists will help to create favorable public opinion in Japan toward development assistance in population. The UNFPA Mexico office, the Japanese embassy, JICA, central and local ministries of health, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Mexico City and rural areas were visited during the tour. Specific sites and programs visited include a NGO in Catemaco, Veracruz state, a junior high school sexuality education program funded by the Packard Foundation, a community guest house for child deliveries in Puebla State, and a MEXFAM clinic funded by the owner of a towel factory. As a result of the study tour, an 8-minute program was aired on NHK, featuring an interview with the director of MEXFAM. The journalists learned from the tour.

  20. Utility Green Pricing Programs: A Statistical Analysis of Program Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Olson, S.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-02-01

    This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs.

  1. A point model for the design of a sulfur trioxide decomposer for the SI cycle and comparison with a CFD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, You Ho; Lee, Jeong Ik; No, Hee Cheon [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea)

    2010-06-15

    Operating under the harsh environment with the significant energy consumption, the sulfur trioxide decomposer is one of the most important components, yet challenging tasks for the designers of an efficient SI cycle. We developed a point model to provide important guidelines for designers of a sulfur trioxide decomposer through estimating outlet physical quantities, such as outlet decomposition ratio, outlet temperature, and pressure drop of a sulfur trioxide decomposer. Then, results of the point model were compared to independent predictions obtained using a CFD model over a wide range of conditions with good agreement. The model indicates that decomposition ratio is a function of the representative non-dimensional design parameter and inlet flow composition. As inlet flow composition rarely affects outlet decomposition ratio, we found out that outlet decomposition ratio can be approximated solely as a function of the non-dimensional design parameter. We demonstrated that the model can provide general guidelines for designers of a sulfur trioxide decomposer to achieve a target decomposition ratio with an economical design. It turns out that an increase in operating pressure and catalyst surface area leads to an increase in outlet decomposition ratio while the reverse is true for an increase in mass flow rate. (author)

  2. Gas Sensitivity and Sensing Mechanism Studies on Au-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Detecting SF6 Decomposed Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis to SF6 decomposed component gases is an efficient diagnostic approach to detect the partial discharge in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS for the purpose of accessing the operating state of power equipment. This paper applied the Au-doped TiO2 nanotube array sensor (Au-TiO2 NTAs to detect SF6 decomposed components. The electrochemical constant potential method was adopted in the Au-TiO2 NTAs’ fabrication, and a series of experiments were conducted to test the characteristic SF6 decomposed gases for a thorough investigation of sensing performances. The sensing characteristic curves of intrinsic and Au-doped TiO2 NTAs were compared to study the mechanism of the gas sensing response. The results indicated that the doped Au could change the TiO2 nanotube arrays’ performances of gas sensing selectivity in SF6 decomposed components, as well as reducing the working temperature of TiO2 NTAs.

  3. Nitrogen release from decomposing residues of leguminous cover crops and their effect on maize yield on depleted soils of Bukoba District, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baijukya, F.P.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen release patterns from decomposing shoot residues of Tephrosia candida, Crotalaria grahamiana, Mucuna pruriens, Macrotyloma axillare, Macroptillium atropurpureum and Desmodium intortum were studied in the laboratory for a period of 22 weeks in a sandy clay soil and 10 weeks in a clay soil

  4. Evaluation of the infectivity and the persistence of Trichinella patagoniensis in muscle tissue of decomposing guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Ilgová, J; Cardillo, N; Ercole, M; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Kašný, M; Ribicich, M

    2017-01-01

    Trichinella patagoniensis, a new species of Trichinella, is widespread in Argentina. The success of parasite transmission depends, among other factors, on the resistance of L1 larvae present in the muscle tissue (ML) of dead hosts undergoing the decomposition process in different environmental conditions. The aim of the present work was to study the infectivity of T. patagoniensis muscle larvae in Cavia porcellus and the capability of the parasite to survive in decomposed muscle tissue of guinea pigs subjected to different environmental conditions. Thirty-two female Ssi:AL guinea pigs were orally inoculated with 2000 ML of T. patagoniensis (ISS2311). All the animals were sacrificed 42 days post-infection. Twenty-six animals were eviscerated, and carcasses were placed on the surface of soil inside plastic boxes that were exposed to environmental conditions in the summer 2014-2015 and autumn of 2015 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Carcasses from six animals were placed into a plastic box inside the refrigerator at a temperature of 4 °C. The muscle tissue samples from the carcasses were examined weekly for the presence of larvae, and the infectivity of recovered ML was tested in BALB/c mice. Our results showed for the first time the ability of T. patagoniensis to complete its life cycle in guinea pigs, thus serving as a potential natural host. Also, larvae of T. patagoniensis remained infective in muscle tissue for several weeks while undergoing decomposition under different environmental conditions.

  5. A Modified Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour Model to Analyze User Intention towards Distance-Based Electronic Toll Collection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chung Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a modified decomposed theory of planned behaviour model (DTPB that integrates satisfaction and trust into the original DTPB model to explore what kind of factors affect the user intention towards distance-based electronic toll collection (ETC services. The proposed model is empirically tested by using data collected from a questionnaire survey with a computer assisted telephone interview system. Empirical analysis is carried out in three stages that combine confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling (SEM, and Bayesian network: (1 examination of reliability and validity of the measurement model; (2 analysis of structural model; (3 prediction of the probability of user intention change based on rigorous framework of SEM. The results confirm that the satisfaction and trust have positive effects on the behaviour intention, also validating that five constructs have indirect effects on the behaviour intention through attitude and perceived behaviour control. Compatibility is the most important influence factor, followed by perceived usefulness, facilitating conditions, self-efficacy, and perceived ease of use. The findings of this study identify potential improvements for ETC operator, such as contributing to the society to enhance the company image and trust of enterprise with charity activities, and simultaneously upgrading the information platform of website, software, and Apps.

  6. Decomposing V2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... comparative Germanic syntax. Amsterdam: Benjamins. pp. 3-40. Chomsky, N. 2000. Minimalist inquiries: the framework. In R. Martin, D. Michaels and Juan. Uriagereka (eds). Step by step. Essays on minimalist syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp.89-155. Chomsky, N. 2001.

  7. Decomposing Nekrasov decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A. [ITEP,25 Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Institute for Information Transmission Problems,19-1 Bolshoy Karetniy, Moscow, 127051 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,31 Kashirskoe highway, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Zenkevich, Y. [ITEP,25 Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,31 Kashirskoe highway, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences,6a Prospekt 60-letiya Oktyabrya, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-16

    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions — this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition — into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair “interaction” is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  8. Thermogenesis in decomposing carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Mikac, Katarina M; Wallman, James F

    2013-09-10

    It is of fundamental importance in forensic entomology that the factors controlling carcass temperatures during decomposition are thoroughly understood. The thermal environment to which fly larvae are exposed is the primary influence on their growth rate, and hence affects any estimate of minimum time since death using such specimens in homicide investigations. To date, much of the entomological research on maggot masses has focused on their elevation of carcass temperatures, with very little focus on the bacteria associated with larval activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the heat associated with decay and the types of bacteria present during the decomposition of a carcass, both in the presence and in the absence of maggots. Three treatments were imposed: fresh, frozen and maggot-infested, each consisting of five replicate pig carcasses. Temperature measurements and bacterial swabs were taken from the gastro-intestinal region of each pig and temperatures and bacterial communities compared between treatments. All carcasses reached average maximum temperatures above 32 °C in a temperature controlled room set at 23 °C. Treatment had no statistically significant effect on the temperatures recorded in each carcass but did significantly affect the community structure of the bacteria. However, bacterial community structure varied across time. This study suggests that bacterial metabolism plays a significant role in carcass thermogenesis, and that maggot masses, while contributing to localised heating within the carcass, may have less of a role in elevating carcass temperatures than previously assumed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  10. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    /V fitting produces better results than the method that is based on just the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient and the zero-bias conductance. We then combine the two methods to develop a new method to obtain two-level information. However, while this new two-level method achieves better agreement...... with the actual transmission of the molecule, cooperative quantum effects between all of the levels of the molecule means that oligo-level information may not be experimentally available. We do, however, see that when the two single-level methods produce parameters that are similar, there is an improved...... likelihood that these parameters are representative for the molecule. We will continue by exploring the current through multi-path molecules. We note that for most of the molecules of this study, the current exhibit coherence effects between linkers to the same electrode. To explore how this coherence...

  11. Quality or decomposer efficiency – which is most important in the temperature response of litter decomposition? A modelling study using the GLUE methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Å. M. Wetterstedt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We still lack full mechanistic understanding of how the temperature history affects the future decomposition rate of litter and soil organic matter. To explore that, we used the GLUE modelling framework together with the Q-model and data from a needle litter incubation experiment to compare a differential temperature response of litter qualities to a temperature-dependent decomposer efficiency. The needle litter incubation was a full factorial design with the initial and final temperatures 5, 15 and 25 °C. Samples were moved from the initial to the final temperature when approximately 12% of the initial carbon had been respired and the experiment terminated when an additional 12% had been lost. We used four variations of the Q-model; the litter was described as having one or two initial quality values and the decomposer efficiency was either fixed or allowed to vary with temperature. All variations were calibrated with good fits to the data subsets with equal initial and final temperatures. Evaluation against temperature shift subsets also showed good results, except just after the change in temperature where all variations predicted a smaller response than observed. The effects of having one or two initial litter quality values (fixed decomposer efficiency on end-of-experiment litter quality and respiration were marginal. Letting decomposer efficiency vary with temperature resulted in a decrease in efficiency between 5 and 15 °C but no change between 15 and 25 °C and in substantial differences in litter quality at the end of the initial incubation in response to incubation temperature. The temperature response of decomposition through temperature dependent decomposer efficiency proved, therefore, to be more important than the differential response to different substrate qualities. These results suggests that it may be important to consider other factors (e.g. microbial efficiency, changing substrate composition than the temperature

  12. Apprenticeship Programs Expand with Help of Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The apprenticeship system, long considered an educational relic by some educators and policy makers, is gaining new attention as a model for improving job skills and meeting national college-completion goals. A number of states and community and technical colleges are working to strengthen and expand apprenticeship opportunities. They offer…

  13. Reminder card helps patients remember OCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Organon has developed the Reminder Card to help women patients remember their regular intake of oral contraceptive (OC) pills. About 50% of women take birth control pills as prescribed, 25% miss a pill per month, and 25% miss two or more pills in the same time frame. The plastic card, about the size and shape of a credit card, contains a microchip timer. Reminder cards are available to providers who use the Starter Kits issued by the company for new-start patients on the Mircette OC. When patients begin their first pack of pills, they select the time of day they prefer to have the Reminder Card emit its tiny beep. The time is set into the microchip timer and the card is programmed to sound automatically at the pre-set time each day for the next three months. The direction for using the Reminder Card is outlined.

  14. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Piotti

    Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the

  15. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the

  16. The Self-help Online against Suicidal thoughts (SOS) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlmann, Charlotte; Madsen, Trine; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicidal thoughts are common, causing distress for millions of people all over the world. However, people with suicidal thoughts might not access support due to financial restraints, stigma or a lack of available treatment offers. Self-help programs provided online could overcome...... these barriers, and previous efforts show promising results in terms of reducing suicidal thoughts. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an online self-help intervention in reducing suicidal thoughts among people at risk of suicide. The Danish Self-help Online against Suicidal thoughts (SOS) trial...... to the intervention condition (N = 219) or the control condition (N = 219). The intervention condition consists of a 6-week, Internet-based self-help therapy intervention. The format of the intervention is self-help, but the participants can be guided by the trial manager. The control condition consists of a waiting...

  17. Homosexuality: how therapists can help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassir Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders in 1974. Before that, for more than a century, homosexuality and bisexuality were assumed to be mental illnesses. Studies have shown that there is no difference between homosexual and heterosexual individuals with regard to psychological functioning. However, an effect of stress related to stigmatisation was observed in the cases of homosexuality. Such kind of stress may increase the risk of suicide attempts, substance abuse, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, and emotional distress. Findings of researches have suggested that there is a need for better education and training of mental health practitioners in this area. Therefore, in the present paper, few cases of homosexuality are discussed in the context of effect of stigmatisation and aspects of intimate relationships in these individuals. Further, the role of psychologists/professionals as therapists in providing their help to homosexual clients has also been presented.

  18. REACHING THE COMPUTING HELP DESK

    CERN Multimedia

    Miguel Marquina

    2000-01-01

    You may find it useful to glue the information below, e.g. near/at your computer, for those occasions when access to computer services is not possible. It presents the way to contact the Computing Help Desk (hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues). Do not hesitate to contact us (by email to User.Relations@cern.ch) for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Your contact for general computing problems or queriesPhone number:(+41 22 76) 78888Opening Hours:From Monday to Friday 8:30-17:30Email:Helpdesk@cern.chWeb:http://consult.cern.ch/service/helpdeskMiguel MarquinaIT Division/UserSupport

  19. REACHING THE COMPUTING HELP DESK

    CERN Multimedia

    Miguel MARQUINA; Roger WOOLNOUGH; IT/User Support

    1999-01-01

    The way to contact the Computing Help Desk (also known as 'UCO' and hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues) has been streamlined in order to facilitate access to it. A new telephone line and email address have been set: Phone number: 78888Email: Helpdesk@cern.chhopefully easier to remember. Both entries are operational since last December. The previous number and email address remain valid and have been turned into aliases of the above. However we encourage using the latter at your convenience from now on. For additional information please see the article published at the CERN Computing Newsletter 233:http://consult.cern.ch/cnl/233/art_uco.htmlDo not hesitate to contact us (by email to User.Relations@cern.ch) for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Nicole Cremel, Miguel Marquina, Roger WoolnoughIT/UserSupport

  20. Teaching Programming with Scratch

    OpenAIRE

    MIHALIČ, PETRA

    2014-01-01

    There are quite a few good programing languages and environments for teaching kids how to program. They help beginners learn basic programming constructs usually with help of interactive environment. In this thesis I will describe and compare a few of those languages and environments. Scratch is a language and programming environment that is also intended for learning programming using blocks that make writing complicated instructions easier and reduce beginners' difficulties with syntax erro...

  1. How can we help students appreciate physics education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Ling; Zaki, Eman; Schmidt, Jason; Woolston, Don

    2004-03-01

    Helping students appreciate physics education is a formidable task, considering that many students struggle to pass introductory physics courses. Numerous efforts have been made for this undertaking because it is an important step leading to successful learning. In an out-of-classroom academic program, the Supplemental Instruction (SI) Program, we have used the approach, INSPIRE (inquiry, network, skillfulness, perseverance, intuition, reasoning, and effort), to help more students value their experiences in these courses. The method basically includes key elements outlined by experts in physics education [1]. Student responses have been encouraging. Having undergraduates as facilitators in the program is advantageous in promoting principles of physics education. Their training emphasizes tenacity, resourcefulness, understanding, support, and teamwork, i.e. TRUST. We present the organization and focus of the SI Program, and discuss how these improve learning atmosphere and facilitate learning. [1] Edward F. Redish et al, Am J. Phys. 66(3), March 1998.

  2. Coupled high-throughput functional screening and next generation sequencing for identification of plant polymer decomposing enzymes in metagenomic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari eNyyssönen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in sequencing technologies generate new predictions and hypotheses about the functional roles of environmental microorganisms. Yet, until we can test these predictions at a scale that matches our ability to generate them, most of them will remain as hypotheses. Function-based mining of metagenomic libraries can provide direct linkages between genes, metabolic traits and microbial taxa and thus bridge this gap between sequence data generation and functional predictions. Here we developed high-throughput screening assays for function-based characterization of activities involved in plant polymer decomposition from environmental metagenomic libraries. The multiplexed assays use fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, combine automated liquid handling and use a genetically modified expression host to enable simultaneous screening of 12,160 clones for 14 activities in a total of 170,240 reactions. Using this platform we identified 374 (0.26 % cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin, starch, phosphate and protein hydrolyzing clones from fosmid libraries prepared from decomposing leaf litter. Sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform, followed by assembly and gene prediction of a subset of 95 fosmid clones, identified a broad range of bacterial phyla, including Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, multiple Proteobacteria sub-phyla in addition to some Fungi. Carbohydrate-active enzyme genes from 20 different glycoside hydrolase families were detected. Using tetranucleotide frequency binning of fosmid sequences, multiple enzyme activities from distinct fosmids were linked, demonstrating how biochemically-confirmed functional traits in environmental metagenomes may be attributed to groups of specific organisms. Overall, our results demonstrate how functional screening of metagenomic libraries can be used to connect microbial functionality to community composition and, as a result, complement large-scale metagenomic sequencing efforts.

  3. Environmental safety to decomposer invertebrates of azadirachtin (neem) as a systemic insecticide in trees to control emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzweiser, David; Thompson, Dean; Grimalt, Susana; Chartrand, Derek; Good, Kevin; Scarr, Taylor

    2011-09-01

    The non-target effects of an azadirachtin-based systemic insecticide used for control of wood-boring insect pests in trees were assessed on litter-dwelling earthworms, leaf-shredding aquatic insects, and microbial communities in terrestrial and aquatic microcosms. The insecticide was injected into the trunks of ash trees at a rate of 0.2 gazadirachtin cm(-1) tree diameter in early summer. At the time of senescence, foliar concentrations in most (65%) leaves where at or below detection (trees at senescence were added to microcosms and responses by test organisms were compared to those in microcosms containing leaves from non-treated ash trees (controls). No significant reductions were detected among earthworm survival, leaf consumption rates, growth rates, or cocoon production, aquatic insect survival and leaf consumption rates, and among terrestrial and aquatic microbial decomposition of leaf material in comparison to controls. In a further set of microcosm tests containing leaves from intentional high-dose trees, the only significant, adverse effect detected was a reduction in microbial decomposition of leaf material, and only at the highest test concentration (∼6 mg kg(-1)). Results indicated no significant adverse effects on litter-dwelling earthworms or leaf-shredding aquatic insects at concentrations up to at least 30 × the expected field concentrations at operational rates, and at 6 × expected field concentrations for adverse effects on microbial decomposition. We conclude that when azadirachtin is used as a systemic insecticide in trees for control of insect pests such as the invasive wood-boring beetle, emerald ash borer, resultant foliar concentrations in senescent leaf material are likely to pose little risk of harm to decomposer invertebrates. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Key issues in decomposing fMRI during naturalistic and continuous music experience with independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Fengyu; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Alluri, Vinoo; Sipola, Tuomo; Burunat, Iballa; Toiviainen, Petri; Nandi, Asoke K; Brattico, Elvira; Ristaniemi, Tapani

    2014-02-15

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been often used to decompose fMRI data mostly for the resting-state, block and event-related designs due to its outstanding advantage. For fMRI data during free-listening experiences, only a few exploratory studies applied ICA. For processing the fMRI data elicited by 512-s modern tango, a FFT based band-pass filter was used to further pre-process the fMRI data to remove sources of no interest and noise. Then, a fast model order selection method was applied to estimate the number of sources. Next, both individual ICA and group ICA were performed. Subsequently, ICA components whose temporal courses were significantly correlated with musical features were selected. Finally, for individual ICA, common components across majority of participants were found by diffusion map and spectral clustering. The extracted spatial maps (by the new ICA approach) common across most participants evidenced slightly right-lateralized activity within and surrounding the auditory cortices. Meanwhile, they were found associated with the musical features. Compared with the conventional ICA approach, more participants were found to have the common spatial maps extracted by the new ICA approach. Conventional model order selection methods underestimated the true number of sources in the conventionally pre-processed fMRI data for the individual ICA. Pre-processing the fMRI data by using a reasonable band-pass digital filter can greatly benefit the following model order selection and ICA with fMRI data by naturalistic paradigms. Diffusion map and spectral clustering are straightforward tools to find common ICA spatial maps. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Decomposing the causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality among urban and rural populations in China: a new decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaoli; Coyte, Peter C; Zhao, Hongzhong

    2017-07-18

    In recent decades, China has experienced tremendous economic growth and also witnessed growing socioeconomic-related health inequality. The study aims to explore the potential causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality in urban and rural areas of China over the past two decades. This study used six waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 to 2006. The recentered influence function (RIF) regression decomposition method was employed to decompose socioeconomic-related health inequality in China. Health status was derived from self-rated health (SRH) scores. The analyses were conducted on urban and rural samples separately. We found that the average level of health status declined from 1989 to 2006 for both urban and rural populations. Average health scores were greater for the rural population compared with those for the urban population. We also found that there exists pro-rich health inequality in China. While income and secondary education were the main factors to reduce health inequality, older people, unhealthy lifestyles and a poor home environment increased inequality. Health insurance had the opposite effects on health inequality for urban and rural populations, resulting in lower inequality for urban populations and higher inequality for their rural counterparts. These findings suggest that an effective way to reduce socioeconomic-related health inequality is not only to increase income and improve access to health care services, but also to focus on improvements in the lifestyles and the home environment. Specifically, for rural populations, it is particularly important to improve the design of health insurance and implement a more comprehensive insurance package that can effectively target the rural poor. Moreover, it is necessary to comprehensively promote the flush toilets and tap water in rural areas. For urban populations, in addition to promoting universal secondary education, healthy lifestyles should be promoted

  6. Decomposing neural synchrony: toward an explanation for near-zero phase-lag in cortical oscillatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasimhan Rajagovindan

    Full Text Available Synchronized oscillation in cortical networks has been suggested as a mechanism for diverse functions ranging from perceptual binding to memory formation to sensorimotor integration. Concomitant with synchronization is the occurrence of near-zero phase-lag often observed between network components. Recent theories have considered the importance of this phenomenon in establishing an effective communication framework among neuronal ensembles.Two factors, among possibly others, can be hypothesized to contribute to the near-zero phase-lag relationship: (1 positively correlated common input with no significant relative time delay and (2 bidirectional interaction. Thus far, no empirical test of these hypotheses has been possible for lack of means to tease apart the specific causes underlying the observed synchrony. In this work simulation examples were first used to illustrate the ideas. A quantitative method that decomposes the statistical interdependence between two cortical areas into a feed-forward, a feed-back and a common-input component was then introduced and applied to test the hypotheses on multichannel local field potential recordings from two behaving monkeys.The near-zero phase-lag phenomenon is important in the study of large-scale oscillatory networks. A rigorous mathematical theorem is used for the first time to empirically examine the factors that contribute to this phenomenon. Given the critical role that oscillatory activity is likely to play in the regulation of biological processes at all levels, the significance of the proposed method may extend beyond systems neuroscience, the level at which the present analysis is conceived and performed.

  7. Health information technology: help or hindrance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchersid, Terry

    2014-07-01

    The practice of medicine in general and nephrology in particular grows increasingly complex with each passing year. In parallel with this trend, the purchasers of health care are slowly shifting the reimbursement paradigm from one based on rewarding transactions, or work performed, to one that rewards value delivered. Within this context, the health-care value equation is broadly defined as quality divided by costs. Health information technology has been widely recognized as 1 of the foundations for delivering better care at lower costs. As the largest purchaser of health care in the world, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has deployed a series of interrelated programs designed to spur the adoption and utilization of health information technology. This review examines our known collective experience in the practice of nephrology to date with several of these programs and attempts to answer the following question: Is health information technology helping or hindering the delivery of value to the nation's health-care system? Through this review, it was concluded overall that the effect of health information technology appears positive; however, it cannot be objectively determined because of the infancy of its utilization in the practice of medicine. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Helping You Help Me: The Role of Diagnostic (In)congruence in the Helping Process within Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Colin M.; Pillemer, Julianna; Amabile, Teresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Through an inductive, multi-method field study at a major design firm, we investigated the helping process in project work and how that process affects the success of a helping episode, as perceived by help-givers and/or -receivers. We used daily diary entries and weekly interviews from four project teams, and a separate sample of critical incident interviews, to induce process models of successful and unsuccessful helping episodes. We found that, in unsuccessful episodes, help-givers and -re...

  9. Our young sistas need help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCounte, A

    1998-05-01

    The Black Women's Health Project, part of the Black Coalition on AIDS in San Francisco, has surveyed young women to determine why they choose risky behaviors that put them at risk for HIV and other STDs, and unplanned pregnancies. Twenty-nine girls participated in a series of focus groups and discussions. The girls had basic questions about how AIDS is transmitted and questions related to self-esteem. The girls discussed a number of scenarios designed to make them understand that their risky behaviors are dangerous. The findings suggest that self-esteem is a problem for young women. Young black women need to learn to practice safe sex, negotiate sexual relationships, and protect themselves. The groups also recommend mentoring programs and workshops.

  10. Reference manual for the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Rachel A.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides technical information and programming guidance for the maintenance and future development of the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk. Help Desk is an expert system that operates within the EXSYSTM expert system shell, and is used to determine first approximations of thermal capacity for spacecraft and instruments. The five analyses supported in Help Desk are: (1) surface area required for a radiating surface, (2) equilibrium temperature of a surface, (3) enclosure temperature and heat loads for a defined position in orbit, (4) enclosure temperature and heat loads over a complete orbit and, (5) selection of appropriate surface properties. The two geometries supported by Help Desk are a single flat plate and a rectangular box enclosure. The technical information includes the mathematical approach and analytical derivations used in the analyses such as: radiation heat balance, view factor calculation, and orbit determination with coordinate transformation. The programming guide for developers describes techniques for enhancement of Help Desk. Examples are provided showing the addition of new features, user interface development and enhancement, and external program interfaces.

  11. Help Seeking in English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Barbara; Madden, Mary Catherine

    2010-01-01

    An examination of literature on the issue of help seeking (HS) has revealed a common theme: students will not always ask for help, even when they are aware that help is needed. The purpose of this action research study was to examine HS and help avoidance in the context of setting tasks in two types of English language-learning environment: a…

  12. Helping Students Deal with Computer Issues in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Kepner, Henry S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The special responsibility of the social studies program is to help students understand the personal and social issues related to computer technology. Students must understand how computer technology influences us in our roles as consumers, workers, citizens, and family members. Curriculum materials dealing with these topics need to be developed.…

  13. Evaluate Your EAP: Can It Help Support Employee Rights Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katherine C.

    1997-01-01

    Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are emerging as an efficient way to address employee rights, particularly in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Family and Medical Leave Act. Well-managed EAPs help maintain a healthy, motivated, productive workforce, show effort to provide reasonable accommodation of employee needs, and may…

  14. Student Activism Seventies Style Helps Small Town Get Health Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Mercy Hardie

    1979-01-01

    Student health professionals, working as assistants to communities with serious health care problems, helped develop the Shuqualak health center in an area with the highest infant mortality rate in the United States. Describes the Community Technical Assistance Program and the history of the Shuqualak project. (SB)

  15. College Students Rarely Seek Help Despite Serious Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Sharma, Eva; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD) and aspects of the help-seeking process among a high-risk sample of 946 students at one large public university were assessed in personal interviews during the first three years of college. After statistically adjusting for purposive sampling, an estimated 46.8%wt of all third-year students met DSM-IV criteria for SUD involving alcohol and/or marijuana at least once. Of 548 SUD cases, 3.6% perceived a need for help with substance use problems; 16.4% were encouraged by someone else to seek help. Help-seeking was rare among SUD cases (8.8%), but significantly elevated among individuals who perceived a need (90.0%) or experienced social pressures from parents (32.5%), friends (34.2%), or another person (58.3%). Resources accessed for help included educational programs (38%), health professionals (27%), and twelve-step programs (19%). College students have high rates of substance use problems but rarely recognize a need for treatment or seek help. Results highlight the opportunity for early intervention with college students with SUD. PMID:19553064

  16. Release of phytotoxins by decomposing roots of Pennisetum typhoides (Borm. f. Staff et Hubb., their effect on soil fungi and succeeding crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Kanaujia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The roots of Pennisetum typhoides decomposing in normal field conditions, in sterilized soil inoculated with 15 rhizosphere fungi and in field soil maintained at various moisture levels produced vanillic acid. 3-4-dihydroxy benzoic acid and hydroxy cinnamic acid. These acids proved toxic to the rhizosphere fungi and seeds and seedlings of certain crop plants. Out of 15 rhizosphere fungal species inoculated to the soil only 6 could induce the release of toxins, moreover, the phytotoxic substances were detected from the washing of the roots collected only on the 30th day. The moisture range which showed liberation of toxins was 20-70 per cent. The time of liberation of acids in different set s varied. These were, however, frequently liberated from washings collected from roots decomposed for 15. 30 and 45 days.

  17. Project helps build sexual responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endris, A

    1993-10-01

    Program activities are described for the Youth Counseling Services and Family Planning Education Project, established in 1990 by the Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia. The project operates out of two locations and has five staff and a doctor who visits two times a week. Thus far 5300 adolescents have received contraception and about 500 youth have received medical consultations. Services include counseling, films about adolescent sexuality and contraceptive methods, booklets on family life education and contraception, and a drama group that does community outreach. Services aim to treat and prevent sexually transmitted diseases an AIDS, to improve reproductive health, and to provide family planning services. Services are a joint effort of staff, community, school teachers, and youth that aims to break down cultural barriers that prevent use of services. Material for films and theater comes from locally written or prepared materials. For example a teenager wrote the play "Yetwatwa Chorka" about adolescent pregnancy. Another radio dramatization has a plot relating to the conflict between traditional and modern values. The drama troupe also does radio dialogues about contraception and family issues and makes advertisements about condoms and HIV transmission. The producer director of media outreach is reported to be well known for his role in the productions. The centers are considered popular and more outreach is planned for out of school youth.

  18. Method for determining the photocatalytic potential of portland cement mortar containing TiO2 for decomposing the pollutant nitrogen monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle M. Bonato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic materials can minimize atmospheric pollution by decomposing certain organic and inorganic pollutants using sunlight as an energy source. In this paper, the development of a methodology to measure the photocatalytic potential of mortar containing TiO2 nanoparticles is reported. The results indicate that up to 40% of NOx can be degraded by Portland cement mortar containing 30-50% of TiO2, which validates the method developed for evaluating the photocatalytic potential of materials.

  19. Performance Analysis of Fission and Surface Source Iteration Method for Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Whole-Core Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Yu Gwon; Oh, Yoo Min; Park, Hyang Kyu; Park, Kang Soon; Cho, Nam Zin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, two issues in the FSS iteration method, i.e., the waiting time for surface source data and the variance biases in local tallies are investigated for the domain decomposed, 3-D continuous-energy whole-core calculation. The fission sources are provided as usual, while the surface sources are provided by banking MC particles crossing local domain boundaries. The surface sources serve as boundary conditions for nonoverlapping local problems, so that each local problem can be solved independently. In this paper, two issues in the FSS iteration are investigated. One is quantifying the waiting time of processors to receive surface source data. By using nonblocking communication, 'time penalty' to wait for the arrival of the surface source data is reduced. The other important issue is underestimation of the sample variance of the tally because of additional inter-iteration correlations in surface sources. From the numerical results on a 3-D whole-core test problem, it is observed that the time penalty is negligible in the FSS iteration method and that the real variances of both pin powers and assembly powers are estimated by the HB method. For those purposes, three cases; Case 1 (1 local domain), Case 2 (4 local domains), Case 3 (16 local domains) are tested. For both Cases 2 and 3, the time penalties for waiting are negligible compared to the source-tracking times. However, for finer divisions of local domains, the loss of parallel efficiency caused by the different number of sources for local domains in symmetric locations becomes larger due to the stochastic errors in source distributions. For all test cases, the HB method very well estimates the real variances of local tallies. However, it is also noted that the real variances of local tallies estimated by the HB method show slightly smaller than the real variances obtained from 30 independent batch runs and the deviations become larger for finer divisions of local domains. The batch size used

  20. Amyloid Plaque in the Human Brain Can Decompose from Aβ(1-40/1-42) by Spontaneous Nonenzymatic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brian; Friedrich, Michael; Raftery, Mark; Truscott, Roger

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of long-lived proteins in the body is an important aspect of aging, and much of the breakdown is due to the intrinsic instability of particular amino acids. In this study, peptides were examined to discover if spontaneous nonenzymatic reactions could be responsible for the composition of Alzheimer's (AD) plaque in the human brain. The great majority of AD plaque consists of N-terminally truncated versions of Aβ(1-40/1-42), with the most abundant peptide commencing with Glu (residue 3 in Aβ1-40/1-42) that is present as pyroGlu. Several Asp residues are racemized in Aβ plaque, with residue 1 being predominantly l-isoAsp and peptide bond cleavage next to Ser 8 is also evident. In peptides, loss of the two N-terminal amino acids as a diketopiperazine was demonstrated at pH 7. For the Aβ N-terminal hexapeptide, AspAlaGluPheArgHis, this resulted in the removal of AspAla diketopiperazine and the generation of Glu as the new N-terminal residue. The Glu cyclized readily to pyroGlu. This pathway was altered significantly by zinc, which promoted pyroGlu formation but decreased AspAla diketopiperazine release. Zinc also facilitated cleavage on the N-terminal side of Ser 8. Racemization of the original N-terminal Asp to l-isoAsp was also detected and loss of one amino acid from the N-terminus. These data are therefore entirely consistent with plaque in the human brain forming from deposition of Aβ(1-40/1-42) and, over time, decomposing spontaneously. Since amyloid plaque is present in the human brain for years prior to the onset of AD, gradual spontaneous changes to the polypeptides within it will alter its properties and those of the oligomers that can diffuse from it. Such incremental changes in composition may therefore contribute to the origin of AD-associated cytotoxicity.