WorldWideScience

Sample records for program examined welfare

  1. Race, welfare reform and caseworkers' treatment of welfare recipients: an examination of an alternative service delivery system-the Wisconsin Works (W-2) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how welfare recipients in the Wisconsin Works Program were treated by community-based organizations' caseworkers, as opposed to government agencies, to determine if racial disparities existed. The same racial disparities found with public agencies existed. And CBOs were not providing Blacks with services needed to get off welfare.

  2. General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2017-01-01

    care, whereas permanent exclusion is favoured for other programs, e.g. child allowances given to children in country of origin. These findings support the thesis of program-specific welfare chauvinism and point to a political space for pragmatic adjustments of current EU rules. The article also finds......The article investigates how welfare chauvinism differs across various social benefits and services. The case is Danes’ attitudes towards granting social rights to Eastern European workers. For some programs a clear majority favours giving social rights immediately on arrival, e.g. rights to health...... similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...

  3. Examining the Relationship between Social Capital and Career Success among Welfare to Work Participants in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Green, Dionne Marie

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between social capital and career success among welfare to work participants in a Louisiana program from 2007 to 2009. Based on the high percentage who do not complete the Louisiana STEP program, outcomes from 2007 to 2009 suggest current STEP work activities may not prepare participants for career success and…

  4. Welfare programs that target workforce participation may negatively affect mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Rosen, Zohn; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

    2013-06-01

    During the 1990s reforms to the US welfare system introduced new time limits on people's eligibility to receive public assistance. These limits were developed to encourage welfare recipients to seek employment. Little is known about how such social policy programs may have affected participants' health. We explored whether the Florida Family Transition Program randomized trial, a welfare reform experiment, led to long-term changes in mortality among participants. The Florida program included a 24-36-month time limit for welfare participation, intensive job training, and placement assistance. We linked 3,224 participants from the experiment to 17-18 years of prospective mortality follow-up data and found that participants in the program experienced a 16 percent higher mortality rate than recipients of traditional welfare. If our results are generalizable to national welfare reform efforts, they raise questions about whether the cost savings associated with welfare reform justify the additional loss of life.

  5. State Child Welfare Program Self-Assessment Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundel, Martin; And Others

    This manual provides a systematic method for administrators and child welfare specialists to assess a child welfare service delivery system. The management of child welfare programs is considered within the framework of five management functions: planning, resource development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The manual contains seven…

  6. Conducting Culturally Competent Evaluations of Child Welfare Programs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Fong, Rowena

    2011-01-01

    As the population of the United States has changed over the last two decades, so has the population of children who come to the attention of the child welfare system, resulting in increasing calls for cultural competence in all aspects of child welfare programming and practice. Given the changing demographics among children involved in the child…

  7. Effects of a Social Welfare Program for Health Promotion on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seong-Jin; Chang, Jae Seung; Kong, In Deok

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status is closely associated with an individual?s health status. However, there are few studies examining the role of exercise-training as part of a community-based social welfare program in socially vulnerable groups. Given this, our aim was to measure whether long-term exercise training as a social welfare program affects the prevalence of depressive symptoms, metabolic syndrome and peripheral blood vessel condition among participants with low household income. Meth...

  8. Defense and Welfare Programs: More Linkage Than Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    improving some aspect of quality of life . Traditionally, welfare programs such as Aid to Families with Depen- dent Childern (AFDC) are designed to provide...reasons for enlisting were for educational benefits and to learn a skill . While there is no direct correlation here to welfare recipients, it is logical...provision of supplies and materiel to the Armed Services provides employment for many additional Americans. Servicemen do mature, learn skills and trades

  9. [Transformations and continuities in Canadian social welfare programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Iara

    2007-01-01

    Poor mothers and their families constitute a core dilemma for a social welfare system that aims primarily to encourage and keep workers in the labor force. Public income transfers to these and other marginalized groups may be viewed as disincentives to seek paid work and have been characterized in Canada by stinginess and contradictions since the beginning of the XX century. This paper discusses recent transformations in these programs and their effects on families and individuals. Focusing specifically on poor mothers raising children alone, it argues that many gradual cuts and reshaping these programs have changed the character of the social welfare state in Canada, blocking escape routes from poverty for marginalized groups.

  10. Military as Welfare State: Conditions Leading to the Adoption of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program

    OpenAIRE

    Drury, Madisen B.

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception in 1993, nearly 90,000 high school dropouts have completed the National Guard Youth Challenge Program, a youth diversion program for unemployed high school dropouts. As of 2008, 27 states have partnered with the military to implement this residential program for at-risk youth. There is limited research on this new social welfare program despite its representing a dynamic military-state-welfare relationship. This study examines state-level conditions and looks to answer thr...

  11. American Indian Adoption Program: An Ethnic Approach to Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodluck, Charlotte Tsoi; Eckstein, Florence

    1978-01-01

    Sponsored by the Jewish Family and Children's Service of Phoenix, Arizona, the program places American Indian adoptees with their natural extended families or with families of the same tribe. Personal contacts, publicity, and national child welfare organizations help locate homes. Ensuring the child's tribal inheritance rights is yet to be…

  12. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  13. Welfare and Child Support Program Knowledge Gaps Reduce Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Daniel R.; Cancian, Maria; Nam, Kisun

    2007-01-01

    There is little research on knowledge of the policy rules that could affect individuals, either in general or in evaluations of new programs. The lack of research is surprising, given that knowledge gaps could limit the effectiveness of reforms or lead to incorrect inferences regarding the effects of a policy change. In this article, we use survey…

  14. Effects of a Social Welfare Program for Health Promotion on Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong-Jin; Chang, Jae Seung; Kong, In Deok

    2015-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is closely associated with an individual's health status. However, there are few studies examining the role of exercise-training as part of a community-based social welfare program in socially vulnerable groups. Given this, our aim was to measure whether long-term exercise training as a social welfare program affects the prevalence of depressive symptoms, metabolic syndrome and peripheral blood vessel condition among participants with low household income. Twenty-nine adults and twenty-two older adults were recruited into this study with non-radomized, pre/post-test design. The subjects underwent a combined training consisting of aerobic and muscle strengthening exercises for 6 months or more. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Korean version of Geriatric Depression Scale. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Blood vessel condition was assessed using non-invasive accelerated photoplethysmograph. Mean skeletal muscle mass increased after exercise-training, but body mass index and percent body fat were unchanged. Overall age-specific physical fitness and performance increased markedly among both adult and elderly subjects, respectively. The proportion of depressive symptoms was significantly reduced by 33% after exercise-training among all participants. The prevalence of individuals having metabolic syndrome was significantly reduced by 19.6% and the number of individual components of metabolic syndrome decreased after the exercise intervention. Among components of metabolic syndrome, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol and systolic blood pressure significantly improved. In addition, the proportions of moderate and severe arteriosclerotic progression significantly decreased. Long-term exercise-training as a social welfare program is beneficial for health promotion and effective in simultaneously improving psychological and physiological health

  15. Microfinancing program of City Social Welfare and Development Office: integrated development of beneficiaries in Butuan City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lozano, Emiliana J

    2009-01-01

    The study determined the impact of microfinancing program of the City Social Welfare and Development Office of Butuan City, Philippines on the beneficiaries' social, economic, political, and spiritual development...

  16. Voters’ commitment problem and reforms in welfare programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.; Vis, B.

    2013-01-01

    When will a vote-seeking government pursue unpopular welfare reforms that are likely to cost it votes? Using a game-theoretical model, we show that a government enacts reforms that are unpopular with the median voter during bad economic times, but not during good ones. The key reason is that voters

  17. Voters' commitment problem and reforms in welfare programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.; Vis, B.

    2013-01-01

    When will a vote-seeking government pursue unpopular welfare reforms that are likely to cost it votes? Using a game-theoretical model, we show that a government enacts reforms that are unpopular with the median voter during bad economic times, but not during good ones. The key reason is that voters

  18. Recent Changes in Wisconsin Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 8. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrle, Jennifer; Seefeldt, Kristin; Snyder, Kathleen; McMahon, Pat

    Wisconsin's new welfare program was a dramatic departure from the old income maintenance system of welfare and moved beyond other states' work-based welfare reform programs. This report describes Wisconsin's approach to welfare reform, using data collected in 1999 and 2000 from state and local administrators, direct service providers, and, in some…

  19. The influence of concrete support on child welfare program engagement, progress, and recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Whitney L; Rogers, Tia McGill; Chaffin, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Families living in poverty are significantly more likely to become involved with child welfare services, and consequently, referred to interventions that target abusive and neglectful parenting practices. Program engagement and retention are difficult to achieve, possibly because of the concrete resource insufficiencies that may have contributed to a family's involvement with services in the first place. Various strategies have been used to enhance program completion, such as motivational interventions, monetary incentives, and financial assistance with concrete needs. This study examines the influence of adjunctive concrete support provided by home visitors on families' (N = 1754) engagement, retention, and satisfaction with services as well as parenting outcomes. Using propensity stratification, mixed modeling procedures revealed that increasing concrete support predicted greater engagement, satisfaction, goal attainment, and lower short-term recidivism. Results suggest that adjunctive concrete support is a potentially beneficial strategy for promoting service engagement and satisfaction and increasing short-term child safety.

  20. Examining social work with children and youth in welfare service organizations observed as hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes de Oca, Lis Klovning Hansen

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore social work as it can be observed in the welfare service organizations of Danish municipalities, specifically within the context of social work concerned with the protection of the child at risk. The paper uses the systems theory of Niklas Luh-mann to elaborate...... and explore how social work within the specific frame of child protection care becomes an actual hybrid (Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, 2012). The paper recognizes social work as a social system, the system for help in society (Baecker, 1994) (Nissen, 2010). The paper sets out to explore how structural coupling......, but how do these help-programs interact and are codified within the hands of the social worker, working in the emerging hybrid of child protection care?...

  1. A Cost-Savings Analysis of a Statewide Parenting Education Program in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Erin J.; Corwin, Tyler W.; Hodnett, Rhenda; Faulk, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a cost-savings analysis of the statewide implementation of an evidence-informed parenting education program. Methods: Between the years 2005 and 2008, the state of Louisiana used the Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) to impart parenting skills to child welfare-involved families. Following these families' outcomes…

  2. Encouraging School Enrollment and Attendance among Teenage Parents on Welfare: Early Impacts of Ohio's LEAP Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents interim findings from an impact analysis of Ohio's Learning, Earning, and Parenting (LEAP) Program. LEAP is a statewide program designed to encourage school attendance among pregnant and parenting teens on welfare. Suggests that LEAP has succeeded in its primary short-term goal of increasing the school enrollment and attendance of teen…

  3. Welfare Reform Implementing DOT's Access to Jobs Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Since the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century authorized the Access to Jobs program in June 1998, the Department of Transportation has made several important decisions about the program's...

  4. Barriers to employability among substance dependent and nonsubstance-affected women on federal welfare: implications for program design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; McCrady, Barbara S; Blanchard, Kimberly A; McVeigh, Katharine H; Riordan, Annette; Irwin, Thomas W

    2003-03-01

    This study examined barriers to employability among women meeting criteria for a substance dependence disorder who were identified by routine screening conducted in welfare offices. The characteristics of these women were compared to other women on welfare who did not have a substance use disorder. A sample of 214 substance dependent women on federal welfare were recruited to participate in a substance use disorders welfare demonstration project. An additional 69 nonsubstance-affected women on welfare served as a comparison sample. All participants were assessed in welfare settings through a standardized battery of measures. Substance dependent women reported moderate to severe substance use problems. They also reported significantly higher rates than the women with no substance use disorder of other barriers such as domestic violence, mental health problems, legal problems, child welfare investigations and fewer job skills. Findings raise questions about the likely effectiveness of existing welfare reform services in addressing the needs of substance dependent women.

  5. Teaching Note--Infusing Social Justice into Doctoral Programs of Social Welfare: An Incremental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kimberly D.; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Moylan, Carrie; Garcia, Antonio; Derr, Amelia S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an effort to further infuse social justice education into doctoral programs in social welfare. It articulates the rationale and tactical approaches for aligning mission statements with the operational realities of university contexts. Within 1 school of social work, doctoral students with diverse orientations to social…

  6. Relationships between Stressors and Parenting Attitudes in a Child Welfare Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estefan, Lianne Fuino; Coulter, Martha L.; VandeWeerd, Carla L.; Armstrong, Mary; Gorski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Families involved with child welfare services often experience a range of stressors in addition to maltreatment, including intimate partner violence, substance abuse, and mental health problems. Children in these families are at risk for developing a myriad of problems. Although parenting education programs are among the most routine interventions…

  7. Assessing parent education programs for families involved with child welfare services: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle; Stone, Susan; Lou, Christine; Ling, Jennifer; Claassen, Jennette; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Parent education programs may be offered or mandated at various stages of the child welfare services continuum. However, little is known regarding their efficacy in addressing the parenting problems that bring families to the attention of child welfare services. This article synthesizes outcome data generated from 58 parenting programs with families determined to be at-risk of child maltreatment and/or abusive or neglectful. It places parent education programs within the broader context of research on effective parenting as well as the leading etiological models of child maltreatment to assess the evaluations of these programs with regard to methodological rigor as well as theoretical salience. Practical and theoretical implications are presented along with recommendations for future research.

  8. Public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and referral behaviors for an evidence based parenting program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.

  9. Examining social work with children and youth in welfare service organizations observed as hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes de Oca, Lis Klovning Hansen

    This paper seeks to explore social work as it can be observed in the welfare service organizations of Danish municipalities, specifically within the context of social work concerned with the protection of the child at risk. The paper uses the systems theory of Niklas Luh-mann to elaborate...... within the welfare system of child protection can be said to emerge into a different form than (maybe) other welfare services. The explorative curiosity rises from recognition of the economic systems expansion and dominant semantics within social services, specifically child protection and how social...... and explore how social work within the specific frame of child protection care becomes an actual hybrid (Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, 2012). The paper recognizes social work as a social system, the system for help in society (Baecker, 1994) (Nissen, 2010). The paper sets out to explore how structural coupling...

  10. Child Welfare Involved Parents and Pathways Triple P: Perceptions of Program Acceptability and Appropriateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ericka M; Feely, Megan; Seay, Kristen D; Fedoravicis, Nicole; Kohl, Patricia L

    2016-12-01

    Nearly half of children in the child welfare system have clinically significant behavior problems and are at risk of developing disruptive behavioral disorders. Yet, behavioral parent training interventions, which are the most effective way to treat these problems, are rarely provided to child welfare involved families. As a result, little is known about the acceptability and appropriateness of these parent training interventions with these families. This qualitative study explored implementation outcomes of an evidenced-based parenting intervention, Pathways Triple P, with families in the child welfare system. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents investigated for child maltreatment (n=47); following participation in the Pathways Triple P. Parents were asked about their perceptions of acceptability (program satisfaction) and appropriateness (program fit). Despite the complicated and often chaotic lives common among this vulnerable population, study findings suggest that most parents found the intervention to be useful and relevant. Pathways Triple P's content, structure and materials for parents were key aspects of acceptability and appropriateness. Barriers to participation were also identified separately for parents who did not receive the full dosage of the intervention. Study findings indicate that Pathways Triple P is a promising strategy to improve behavioral health outcomes for maltreated children and increase positive parenting behaviors for child welfare involved parents.

  11. Assessing Effectiveness of a Nonhuman Animal Welfare Education Program for Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare education aims to promote positive relationships between children and animals and thus improve animal welfare, yet few scientific evaluations of these programs exist. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an education program developed by the Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) that included 4 interventions focusing on pets (companion animals), wild animals, farm animals, and general animal rescues. Knowledge, attachment to pets, and attitudes and beliefs about animal minds were assessed at pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest using a questionnaire administered to 1,217 Scottish children aged 7 to 13 years old. Results showed a significant positive impact of the program on knowledge about animals and the Scottish SPCA for all interventions. The pet and farming interventions significantly impacted children's beliefs about animal minds. There were trends toward improvements in a range of other measures. This study highlights the importance of teaching animal welfare education to children for early prevention of animal cruelty, discusses the need to base this education on theory and research to find effective change, and demonstrates how evidence-based practice can inform future education programs.

  12. The California Linkages Program: Doorway to Housing Support for Child Welfare-Involved Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrade, Amy; Simon, James David; Fabella, Danna; Castillo, Lolita; Mejia, Cesar; Shuster, David

    2017-09-01

    Housing instability can complicate parents' efforts to provide for their children. Child welfare service agencies have had difficulty adequately serving parents' housing needs due to limited and constrained funding streams. This article integrates the voices of four important stakeholders to illuminate how an innovative model of service system coordination called Linkages addresses housing needs for child welfare-involved parents eligible for public assistance. Facilitated by Linkages, these parents can receive supportive housing services through programs affiliated with the California public assistance program CalWORKs. Personal narratives reflecting the diverse perspectives of stakeholders in the Linkages collaboration-the statewide program director, a child welfare services coordinator, a CalWORKs caseworker, and a parent program participant-shed light on how the collaboration assists parents in attaining case plan goals, and highlights some of the factors facilitating and hindering effective collaboration between the agencies involved. Stakeholders emphasized the value of flexible service approaches, the intensity of the efforts required, the role of advocacy, and the importance of a shared vision between agencies working together to provide housing supports. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  13. 20 CFR 645.260 - What health and safety provisions apply to participants in Welfare-to-Work programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Requirements § 645.260 What health and safety provisions apply to participants in Welfare-to-Work... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What health and safety provisions apply to participants in Welfare-to-Work programs? 645.260 Section 645.260 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...

  14. The influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age.

  15. The Development of Economic Self-Sufficiency among Former Welfare Recipients: Lessons Learned from Wisconsin's Welfare to Work Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.; Martin, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the US Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, changing the culture of welfare from a system of dependency to one of personal responsibility and economic self-sufficiency through workplace participation. Through the expert views of case managers and area employers of Wisconsin, this research…

  16. Welfare program organization and legitimacy. A comparison of eleven OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada, Inés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between the institutionalisation of the Welfare State (WS and its legitimacy, that is, until what extent the way of organising welfare programs have an impact on citizen’s perceptions of these programs and, hence, on the size and composition of the legitimacy basis of the WS. In order to comply with this objective the paper is organised as follows: first we will present data showing the cross-country variation in support for three main welfare programs (health care, old-age pensions, unemployment benefits; then we will analyse until what extent high levels of legitimacy are achieved through cross-class coalitions or cross-ideology coalitions. Finally we evaluate the impact of different program characteristics on the aggregate level of popular support each program achieves.

    El objetivo principal de este artículo es analizar la relación entre la institucionalización del estado del bienestar (eb y su legitimidad, es decir, hasta qué punto la forma de organizar el eb afecta a las percepciones que los ciudadanos desarrollan sobre el mismo y, de esta manera, modifica el tamaño y composición de sus bases de apoyo. A fin de cumplir con este objetivo el artículo se estructura de la siguiente forma: en primer lugar presentamos un panorama de la variación internacional en las actitudes hacia tres programas de bienestar (sanidad, pensiones y desempleo. Seguidamente estudiaremos de dónde proviene el apoyo extra que algunos programas consiguen, centrándonos específicamente en comprobar si una alta legitimidad se logra mediante la construcción de consensos inter-clases o inter-ideologías. terminaremos evaluando qué características organizativas concretas son las que correlacionan con el nivel de apoyo popular que un programa recibe.

  17. Extended Opportunity Programs and Services and Welfare-to-Work: Self-Sufficiency and Educational Attainment. UCLA Community College Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eddy A.

    2008-01-01

    The citations presented in this article for research and resource materials on community college services and learning activities were selected to provide information regarding Extended Opportunity Program and Services (EOP&S) and Welfare-to-Work program development, implementation, and assessment. This bibliography has broad implications for…

  18. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

  19. Planning for the Transportation Needs of Welfare Participants: Institutional Challenges to Collaborative Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenberg, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    The responsibility for developing transportation programs for welfare participants spans multiple public agencies. Consequently, federal funding programs require that agencies work together to develop a coordinated response to addressing the transportation needs of welfare participants. Based on a survey of transportation, welfare and employment agencies in 19 California counties, this study examines the potential institutional obstacles to successful local collaboration and coordination am...

  20. Promoting Relationship Building and Connection: Adapting an Evidence-Based Parenting Program for Families Involved in the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L; Barkan, Susan E; Sherman, Emma L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Mattos, Leah M

    2012-09-01

    The high needs of youth involved in the child welfare system and the poor long-term outcomes of former foster youth represent a significant systemic challenge. As part of a process to adapt an evidence-based parenting program for a child welfare population, we conducted a series of focus groups with child welfare staff, foster caregivers, and young adults who were involved in the foster system as teens. From these focus groups we learned that, although there is a need for evidence-based parenting programs for families involved in the child welfare setting, one of the significant barriers to program implementation is the lack of meaningful connection between caregivers and youth in their care. We will provide an in-depth discussion on the proposed adaptations to make Staying Connected more relevant for foster families, including the addition of skills training to help overcome some of the barriers to connection. Staying Connected holds the promise of cultivating more supportive home environments that have the capacity to nurture youths' healthy development, including the avoidance of high-risk behaviors.

  1. 13 CFR 126.400 - Who will conduct program examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who will conduct program... PROGRAM Program Examinations § 126.400 Who will conduct program examinations? SBA field staff or others designated by the D/HUB will conduct program examinations. ...

  2. Examining Child Welfare Decisions and Services for Asian-Canadian Versus White-Canadian Children and Families in the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barbara; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Fallon, Barbara; Black, Tara; Trocmé, Nico

    2017-05-01

    Using administrative child welfare data from the Ontario Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (OCANDS), this study compared the profiles of Asian-Canadian and White-Canadian children and families that experienced a case closure after an investigation instead of being transferred to ongoing child protection services (CPS). Child protection investigations involving Asian-Canadian and White-Canadian children and families that were transferred to ongoing CPS presented a different profile of case characteristics and caregiver and child clinical needs. Asian-Canadian children and families received ongoing CPS for over a month longer than White-Canadian children and families and were less likely (odds ratio [ OR] = 0.39) to be reinvestigated for any form of maltreatment-related concerns within 1 year after case closure. It appears that child protection investigations involving Asian-Canadian children and families are less likely to be closed prematurely than White-Canadian children and families, and the child protection system may be meeting the needs of Asian-Canadian communities. Alternatively, it is possible there is unaccounted biases that may be reflective of systemic problem of discriminative practices in the child protection system. Further research is needed to explore this phenomenon.

  3. Annual health examination program, Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, L.; Ladou, J.

    1975-01-01

    A cost analysis of a low-volume multiphasic health testing program is presented. The results indicate that unit costs are similar to those of high-volume automated programs. The comparability in unit cost appears to result from the savings in personnel and space requirements of the smaller program as compared with the larger ones.

  4. Mathematical programming formulations for the examinations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examinations Timetabling Problem (ETP) is the problem of assigning courses to be examined and candidates to time periods and examination rooms while satisfying a set of constraints. Every University has a different set of constraints and structure of examinations. Thus there is no general ETP model for all Universities ...

  5. 20 CFR 645.430 - How does the Welfare-to-Work program relate to the One-Stop system and Workforce Investment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS State Formula Grants Administration § 645.430 How does the Welfare-to-Work program relate to the... partner in the One-Stop system. 20 CFR part 662 describes the roles of such partners in the One-Stop...

  6. Welfare effects of natural disasters in developing countries: an examination using multi-dimensional socio-economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.; Deraniyagala, S.; Mara, V.; Marinova, S.

    2011-12-01

    informal economy and will not register disaster set backs in GDP accounts. The alterations to their lives can include loss of livelihood, loss of key assets such as livestock, loss of property and loss of savings, reduced life expectancy among survivors, increased poverty rates, increased inequality, greater subsequent maternal and child mortality (due to destruction of health care facilities), reduced education attainment (lack of school buildings), increased gender-based violence and psychological ailments. Our study enhances this literature in two ways. Firstly, it examines the effects of disasters on human development and poverty using cross-country econometric analysis with indicators of welfare that go beyond GDP. We aim to search the impact of disasters on human development and absolute poverty. Secondly we use Peak Ground Acceleration for earthquakes, a modified Palmer Drought Severity and Hurricane Energy rather than disaster event occurrence to account for the severity of the disaster.

  7. Corporate social responsibility investment and social objectives : An examination on social welfare investment of chinese state owned enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bo, H.; Li, T.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    We apply the theory of corporate social responsibility to analyse social welfare investment undertaken by Chinese State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). We present a simple theoretical model to illustrate how the presence of social objectives in the firm's objective function changes its investment

  8. Examining Burma's Development: A Research Fellowship Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The program's launch takes advantage of recent governance and societal changes in Burma, which have created an encouraging research environment where ... Internet et les technologies en réseau telles que la téléphonie mobile suscitent des changements économiques et sociaux dans les pays en développement.

  9. Examining the Impact of Afterschool STEM Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthi, Anita; Ballard, Melissa; Noam, Gil G.

    2014-01-01

    Afterschool programs that provide strong science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) learning experiences are making an impact on participating youth not only become excited and engaged in these fields but develop STEM skills and proficiencies, come to value these fields and their contributions to society, and--significantly--begin to see…

  10. Examining Burma's Development: A Research Fellowship Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The program's launch takes advantage of recent governance and societal changes in Burma, which have created an encouraging research environment where research can influence public policy. A sufficient supply of researchers with the capacity and means to conduct quality research is essential to exploit these new ...

  11. Examining Burma's Development: A Research Fellowship Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The program's launch takes advantage of recent governance and societal changes in Burma, which have created an encouraging research environment where research can influence ... The main objective of this competitive research fund is to support applied research in areas vital to achieving long-term food security.

  12. Welfare Eligibility: Programs Treat Indian Tribal Trust Fund Report to Congressional Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report was sought by the Conference Committee on the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, concerned that federal law allows payments from tribal trust funds to be excluded when determining eligibility for welfare benefits to American Indians. Applicable federal laws and eligibility policies were reviewed to determine the…

  13. Voters’ commitment problem and the timing of welfare-program reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.A.; Vis, B.

    2013-01-01

    When will a vote-seeking government pursue unpopular welfare reforms that are likely to cost it votes? Using a game-theoretical model, we show that a government enacts reforms that are unpopular with the median voter during bad economic times, but not during good ones. The key reason is that voters

  14. A Pennsylvania Education-Welfare Collaboration Model for Successful Teen Parent Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawer, Jo Ann; Cromley, Lynn

    The Family Support Act of 1988 presented states with a unique opportunity to address the needs of pregnant and parenting teens. The Pennsylvania Departments of Education and Public Welfare have seized this opportunity and are leading the nation in combining their programmatic and fiscal resources to expand the state's teen parent initiative. The…

  15. Welfare reform and parenting: reasonable expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay; Pittman, Laura D

    2002-01-01

    Although the primary goals of federal welfare reform legislation were to move welfare mothers into the workforce and reduce births outside of marriage, promotion of responsible parenting was also an important underlying theme. Parenting is a complex, multifaceted phenomenon, however, encompassing a wide range of functions related to nurturing, discipline, stimulation, values, activities, and routines. This article provides a framework for assessing the impact of welfare reform on various dimensions of parenting, with the following key findings: Many aspects of life affect parenting and child development, such as parent characteristics, child characteristics, family economic resources, family structure, parental mental health, marital or partner relationships, and the quality of parents' kin and social networks. About two-thirds of states are using federal welfare funds to promote better parenting through programs such as home visits to new parents and parenting classes, but virtually no state parenting programs have been evaluated. Welfare reform appears to have limited effects on parenting. The only dimension of parenting significantly affected by some welfare demonstration programs was parents' choice of child care settings and extracurricular activities for their children. The programs with the greatest positive impact on parenting were those with more generous work supports and more flexible work requirements. Not only did these programs lead to different choices concerning child care and activities for preschool and school-age children, but they also resulted in more stable marriages and less violence between partners, which also could lead to improved parenting. The authors conclude that many important aspects of the connection between welfare reform and parenting have yet to be examined, and that further research is needed to identify the ways states' welfare programs can promote better parenting.

  16. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  17. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  18. Losing the Safety Net: How a Time-Limited Welfare Policy Affects Families at Risk of Reaching Time Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela A.; Hendra, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP), one of the first welfare reform initiatives to include a time limit on the receipt of federal cash assistance with other welfare requirements, on single-mother welfare-receiving families. Using a regression-based subgroup approach, they identified a group of families…

  19. New Lives for Poor Families? Mothers and Young Children Move through Welfare Reform. The Growing Up in Poverty Wave 2 Findings: California, Connecticut, and Florida. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Loeb, Susanna

    This report examines how state welfare-to-work programs have affected young children since the 1996 welfare reform act, which moved millions of women into low-wage jobs. Researchers followed a sample of 948 mothers and young children for 2-4 years after the women entered new welfare programs in California, Connecticut, and Florida. After…

  20. Cost analysis of an exercise program for older women with respect to social welfare and healthcare costs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, L; Rantanen, T; Mäkinen, E; Timonen, T E; Törmäkangas, T; Sulkava, R

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze social welfare and healthcare costs and fall-related healthcare costs after a group-based exercise program. The 10-week exercise program, which started after discharge from the hospital, was designed to improve physical fitness, mood, and functional abilities in frail elderly women. Sixty-eight acutely hospitalized and mobility-impaired women (mean age 83.0, SD 3.9 years) were randomized into either group-based (intervention) or home exercise (control) groups. Information on costs was collected during 1 year after hospital discharge. There were no differences between the intervention and control groups in the mean individual healthcare costs: 4381 euros (SD 3829 euros) vs 3539 euros (SD 3967 euros), P=0.477, in the social welfare costs: 3336 euros (SD 4418 euros) vs 4073 euros (SD 5973 euros), P=0.770, or in the fall-related healthcare costs: 996 euros (SD 2612 euros) vs 306 euros (SD 915), P=0.314, respectively. This exercise intervention, which has earlier proved to be effective in improving physical fitness and mood, did not result in any financial savings in municipal costs. These results serve as a pilot study and further studies are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness of this exercise intervention for elderly people.

  1. Examining the Role of Multicultural Competence in Leadership Program Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining the multicultural competence of leadership educators across a variety of institutions demonstrated variance based on leadership program structure, program elements, and the ways in which diversity was addressed in the program. The Multicultural Competence in Student Affairs-Preliminary 2 (MCSA-P2) scale was used to measure…

  2. Examining the Perceptions of Brand Images Regarding Competing MBA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Timothee; Falgoust, Dexter; Thomas, Kerry, Jr.; Budden, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    In today's economic environment, it is crucial to create a strong, consistent brand image within a graduate business program. This study examines the perceptions that students at Southeastern Louisiana University hold about its MBA program and the MBA programs of its main competitors. A focus group was conducted to identify competitors and factors…

  3. Examining the association between suicidal behaviors and referral for mental health services among children involved in the child welfare system in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Fallon, Barbara

    2018-02-08

    Although various studies have investigated factors associated with mental health service utilization, few studies have examined factors associated with referral for mental health services among maltreated children. The objective of this study was to examine the association between suicidal thoughts and self-harming behavior and referral for mental health services among children involved in the Child Welfare System in Ontario, Canada. Data for this study were obtained from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2013. An estimate 57,798 child maltreatment investigations was analyzed using binary logistic regression with referral for mental health service as the outcome variable. Of the 57,798 cases, 4709 (8.1%), were referred for mental health services. More than seven out of ten maltreated children who engaged in self-harming behavior and two out of three maltreated children who expressed suicidal thoughts were not referred for mental health services. In the multivariate logistic regression model, children who expressed suicidal thoughts had 2.39 times higher odds of being referred for mental health services compared to children with no suicidal thoughts (AOR = 2.39, 99% C.I. 2.05-2.77) and children who engaged in self-harming behavior had 1.44 times higher odds of being referred for mental health services compared to children who did not engage in self-harming behavior (AOR = 1.44, 99% C.I. 1.24-1.67), both after controlling for child demographic characteristics, maltreatment characteristics, and child functioning concerns. Given that referral is the initial step towards mental health service utilization, it is important that child welfare workers receive the necessary training so as to carefully assess and refer children in care who expressed suicidal thoughts or engaged in self-harming behavior for appropriate mental health services. The paper discusses the results and their implications for child welfare policy and practice

  4. A Social Pedagogy Approach to Residential Care: Balancing Education and Placement in the Development of an Innovative Child Welfare Residential Program in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras; Groskleg, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the exploration and development of a residential program of the child welfare authority of Renfrew County in Ontario, Canada. Recognizing that virtually its entire population of youth in care was failing to achieve positive outcomes in education, Renfrew County Family and Children Services embarked on a program development…

  5. Welfare migration

    OpenAIRE

    Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews and discusses major theories and empirical studies about the welfare magnet hypothesis, i.e. whether immigrants are more likely to move to countries with generous welfare systems. Although economic theory predicts that welfare generosity affects the number, composition and location of immigrants, the empirical evidence is rather mixed. We offer possible explanations for the existence of such mixed evidence and highlight that the literature so far has overlooked the presen...

  6. How Welfare and Work Policies Affect Children: A Synthesis of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela A.; Huston, Aletha C.; Duncan, Greg J.; Crosby, Danielle A.; Bos, Johannes M.

    This monograph synthesizes findings from five large-scale studies investigating welfare and employment programs in order to examine the effects on children of key policies: providing financial support for working families, requiring single parents to work, and limiting time on welfare. It identifies program features associated with effects on…

  7. Food Assistance Programs and Outcomes in the Context of Welfare Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Food assistance programs play an important role in meeting the basic needs of low-income households. We consider how the Food Stamp Program (FSP), labor force participation, and food insecurity status affect outcomes of low-income households under different program designs and economic

  8. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions...... about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings – Results showed...... that the Norwegian public is concerned about fish welfare and is willing to pay a price premium for products made from welfare-assured fish. Norwegian consumers do not, however, want to be the only ones paying for fish welfare, as the main responsibility for fish welfare lies with producers and the Government...

  9. AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Tai, Robert; Klopfenstein, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) program was created to enhance the experience of gifted students as they transition from high school to college. "AP: A Critical Examination of the Advanced Placement Program," edited by Philip M. Sadler, Gerhard Sonnert, Robert Tai, and Kirstin Klopfenstein (2010, Harvard Education Press), questions the…

  10. Legislation’s Influence on Judiciarization: Examining the Effects of Statutory Structure and Language on Rates of Court Use in Child Welfare Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campbell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which legislation influences decisions of child welfare workers regarding the referral of cases to court. It studies three Canadian jurisdictions: Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta, each of which takes a different legislative approach to the issue of court involvement in child protection. A critical examination of child welfare statutes in these provinces led to the prediction that rates of court use – or ‘judiciarization’ – would be highest in Quebec, followed by Ontario, and then Alberta. These predictions were then compared with data reflecting actual judiciarization rates in these three provinces for the year 2006. This data contradicted our initial predictions, in that Ontario’s rate of court use for child welfare cases was the highest of the three provinces, followed by Alberta, and then Quebec. Our research results thus suggest that legislation alone does not drive judiciarization in the child welfare context. As such, this paper illuminates the need for further study of the way in which child protection workers understand legislation as influencing their professional responsibilities and choices. Moreover, it indicates that further consideration is needed into how the use of judicial versus extra-judicial institutions might affect child welfare outcomes. Cet article examine la mesure dans laquelle la législation influence les décisions des travailleurs et travailleuses du bien-être de l’enfance quant à soumettre des cas aux tribunaux. On étudie trois territoires canadiens : le Québec, l’Ontario et l’Alberta, dont chacun prend une approche législative différente à la question de la participation des tribunaux dans la protection de l’enfance. Un examen critique des lois sur la protection de l’enfance dans ces provinces a amené à prédire que le taux d’utilisation des tribunaux – ou la «judiciarisation» - serait le plus élevé au Québec, suivi de l’Ontario puis de l

  11. Mothers' Views on Child Care under the JOBS Program and Implications for Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Jan L.; Davis, Liane V.

    1996-01-01

    Explores mothers' perceptions of child care under a job training program and the effects of program participation on their children. Findings suggest that some preschool children benefit from their mothers' participation due to an increase of new learning opportunities for the children and through the mothers' improved parenting abilities. (RJM)

  12. Leadership preparation: an examination of master's degree programs in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, C M

    1994-10-01

    The study was designed to examine the differences between leadership and management and to compare the leadership content in a sample of graduate programs in nursing with those conceptual differences. A review of seven components contained within the National League for Nursing self-study reports of 10 accredited programs in four regions of the country was conducted. Data analysis revealed that leadership, as defined in the literature, was included in most curriculum components in the graduate programs studied. The emphasis in the 10 graduate programs analyzed clearly was leadership development rather than management preparation.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Elderly Health Examination Program: The Example of Hypertension Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Hwa Deng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Health Insurance (NHI and social welfare agencies have implemented the Elderly Health Examination Program (EHEP for years. No study has ever attempted to evaluate whether this program is cost-effective. The purposes of this study were, firstly, to understand the prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension and, secondly, to estimate the cost and effectiveness of the EHEP, focusing on hypertension screening. The data sources were: (1 hypertension and clinical information derived from the 1996 and 1997 EHEP, which was used to generate prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension; and (2 claim data of the NHI that included treatment costs of stroke patients (in-and outpatients. Hypothetical models were used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the hypertension screening program in various conditions. Sensitivity analysis was also employed to evaluate the effect of each estimation indicator on the cost and effectiveness of the hypertension screening program. A total of 28.3% of the elderly population in Kaohsiung (25,174 of 88,812 participated in the 1996 EHEP; 14,915 of them participated in the following 1997 EHEP, with a retention rate of 59.3%. Criteria from the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI (systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure ≥ 160/95mmHg or taking antihypertensive drugs were used; we found that prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension were 24.6% and 6.6%, respectively. Hypertension rates are increasing in the aging process as shown in both prevalence and incidence models. In comparison with non-participants, the prevalence model indicates that each hypertension patient who had attended the EHEP not only saved NT$34,570–34,890 in medical and associated costs, but also increased their lifespan by 128 days. The present findings suggest that the EHEP is a cost-effective program with health and social welfare policy

  14. Welfare Reform and the Role of Tax Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Diane Lim; Weil, Alan

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the often-neglected relationship between welfare reform and tax policy. It sets forth the objectives that underlie welfare reform, then compares expenditure-based and tax-based policy strategies that states and the federal government are taking. The examination suggests that, although they promote the similar broad goals of self-sufficiency and family formation, tax credits such as the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) function differently from expenditure-side programs in s...

  15. An Examination of a University Success Coaching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Marlin

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation builds upon previous coaching research by providing a deep examination of a university success coaching program that uses an International Coach Federation (ICF) coaching framework. The dissertation seeks to identify how ICF coaching compares to the findings of previous research, what training is required to be an ICF coach at a…

  16. Neurolinguistic Programming Examined: Imagery, Sensory Mode, and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Donald K.; Daniell, Jennifer

    1984-01-01

    Tested Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) assumptions by examining intercorrelations among response times of students (N=64) for extracting visual, auditory, and kinesthetic information from alphabetic images. Large positive intercorrelations were obtained, the only outcome not compatible with NLP. Good visualizers were significantly better in…

  17. Low-Income Single Fathers in an African American Community and the Requirements of Welfare Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Examines the impact of state welfare reform policies on the parental involvement of low-income single African American fathers participating in a community-based parenting program (N=40). Results show that welfare policies gave precedence to child support /providing and dismissed fathers' in-kind caregiving. (Author/MKA)

  18. Comparing and contrasting poverty reduction performance of social welfare programs across jurisdictions in Canada using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): an exploratory study of the era of devolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim N; Fan, Lida

    2010-11-01

    In the mid-1990s, the responsibilities to design, implement, and evaluate social welfare programs were transferred from federal to local jurisdictions in many countries of North America and Europe through devolution processes. Devolution has caused the need for a technique to measure and compare the performances of social welfare programs across multiple jurisdictions. This paper utilizes Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for a comparison of poverty reduction performances of jurisdictional social welfare programs across Canadian provinces. From the theoretical perspective, findings of this paper demonstrates that DEA is a promising method to evaluate, compare, and benchmark poverty reduction performance across multiple jurisdictions using multiple inputs and outputs. This paper demonstrates that DEA generates easy to comprehend composite rankings of provincial performances, identifies appropriate benchmarks for each inefficient province, and estimates sources and amounts of improvement needed to make the provinces efficient. From a practical perspective the empirical results presented in this paper indicate that Newfoundland, Prince Edwards Island, and Alberta achieve better efficiency in poverty reduction than other provinces. Policy makers and social administrators of the ineffective provinces across Canada may find benefit in selecting one of the effective provinces as a benchmark for improving their own performance based on similar size and structure of population, size of the budget for social programs, and traditions with administering particular types of social programs. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Basing Turkey Lighting Programs on Broiler Research: A Good Idea? A Comparison of 18 Daylength Effects on Broiler and Turkey Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schwean-Lardner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Daylength used as a management tool has powerful implications on the welfare of both broilers and turkeys. Near-constant light results in many detrimental impacts, including lack of behavioural rhythms and circadian melatonin rhythms. Both are suggestive that sleep fragmentation could result in birds reared on long photoperiods, which can lead to the same negative health and physiological responses as total sleep deprivation. An indirect comparison of the welfare implications of graded levels of daylength on broilers and turkeys clearly indicate that long daylengths depress welfare by increasing mortality, reducing mobility, increasing ocular pathologies and changing behaviour in both species. Furthermore, long daylengths change melatonin secretion patterns and eliminate behavioural and melatonin circadian rhythms, which were measured in broilers in these works. However, feather pecking in turkeys was reduced when birds were exposed to long daylengths. Exactly how much darkness should be included in a management program to maximize welfare will depend on the species, the age of marketing, and in turkeys, bird gender.

  20. Welfare policies and adolescents: exploring the roles of sibling care, maternal work schedules, and economic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Joann; Gennetian, Lisa A

    2011-12-01

    This study uses data from three longitudinal experimental evaluations of US state welfare reform programs to examine whether program-induced changes in families' reliance on sibling care are linked with the effects of welfare programs on selected schooling outcomes of high risk, low-income adolescents. The findings from two of the welfare programs indicate that increased reliance on sibling care was concomitant with unfavorable effects of the programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. In the third welfare program examined, the program did not yield any increases in the use of sibling care or unfavorable effects on adolescent schooling outcomes, suggesting that sibling care is one likely contributor to the negative effects of welfare programs on adolescent schooling outcomes. These findings are discussed in terms of the pattern of the programs' effects on families' income, as well as maternal work on nonstandard schedules, aside from the programs' effects on maternal employment, which play contributory roles in shaping the extent to which welfare programs led to less favorable effects on the schooling outcomes of adolescents with younger siblings.

  1. Impact of a home-based social welfare program on care for palliative patients in the Basque Country (SAIATU Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Emilio Herrera; Nuño-Solinis, Roberto; Idioaga, Gorka Espiau; Flores, Silvia Librada; Hasson, Naomi; Orueta Medía, Juan F

    2013-01-30

    SAIATU is a program of specially trained in-home social assistance and companionship which, since February 2011, has provided support to end-of-life patients, enabling the delivery of better clinical care by healthcare professionals in Osakidetza (Basque Health Service), in Guipúzcoa (Autonomous Community of the Basque Country).In January 2012, a retrospective observational study was carried out, with the aim of describing the characteristics of the service and determining if the new social service and the associated socio-health co-ordination had produced any effect on the use of healthcare resources by end-of-life patients.The results of a comparison of a cohort of cases and controls demonstrated evidence that the program could reduce the use of hospital resources and promote the continuation of living at home, increasing the home-based activity of primary care professionals.The objective of this study is to analyse whether a program of social intervention in palliative care (SAIATU) results in a reduction in the consumption of healthcare resources and cost by end-of-life patients and promotes a shift towards a more community-based model of care. Comparative prospective cohort study, with randomised selection of patients, which will systematically measure patient characteristics and their consumption of resources in the last 30 days of life, with and without the intervention of a social support team trained to provide in-home end-of-life care.For a sample of approximately 150 patients, data regarding the consumption of public healthcare resources, SAIATU activity, home hospitalisation teams, and palliative care will be recorded. Such data will also include information dealing with the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and attending carers, as well as particular characteristics of patient outcomes (Karnofsky Index), and of the outcomes of palliative care received (Palliative Outcome Scale).Ethical approval for the study was given by

  2. Impact of a home-based social welfare program on care for palliative patients in the Basque Country (SAIATU Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Emilio Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SAIATU is a program of specially trained in-home social assistance and companionship which, since February 2011, has provided support to end-of-life patients, enabling the delivery of better clinical care by healthcare professionals in Osakidetza (Basque Health Service, in Guipúzcoa (Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. In January 2012, a retrospective observational study was carried out, with the aim of describing the characteristics of the service and determining if the new social service and the associated socio-health co-ordination had produced any effect on the use of healthcare resources by end-of-life patients. The results of a comparison of a cohort of cases and controls demonstrated evidence that the program could reduce the use of hospital resources and promote the continuation of living at home, increasing the home-based activity of primary care professionals. The objective of this study is to analyse whether a program of social intervention in palliative care (SAIATU results in a reduction in the consumption of healthcare resources and cost by end-of-life patients and promotes a shift towards a more community-based model of care. Method/design Comparative prospective cohort study, with randomised selection of patients, which will systematically measure patient characteristics and their consumption of resources in the last 30 days of life, with and without the intervention of a social support team trained to provide in-home end-of-life care. For a sample of approximately 150 patients, data regarding the consumption of public healthcare resources, SAIATU activity, home hospitalisation teams, and palliative care will be recorded. Such data will also include information dealing with the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and attending carers, as well as particular characteristics of patient outcomes (Karnofsky Index, and of the outcomes of palliative care received (Palliative

  3. The impact of welfare reform on marriage and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P; Gelbach, Jonah B; Hoynes, Hilary W; Zavodny, Madeline

    2004-05-01

    The goal of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act was to end needy parents' dependence on governmental benefits, in part by promoting marriage. The prereform welfare system was widely believed to discourage marriage because it provided benefits primarily to single mothers. However, welfare reform may have actually decreased the incentives to be married by giving women greater financial independence via the program's new emphasis on work. This article uses vital statistics data on marriages and divorces during 1989-2000 to examine the role of welfare reform (state waivers and implementation of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) and other state-level variables on flows into and out of marriage. The results indicate that welfare reform has led to fewer new divorces and fewer new marriages, although the latter result is sensitive to specification and the choice of data.

  4. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  5. Student attitudes regarding the educational value and welfare implications in the use of model eyes and live dogs in teaching practical fundus examination: evaluation of responses from 40 students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Williams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to document student opinions on the educational value and welfare implications of use of artificial model eyes and live dogs in the training of veterinary students in examination of the canine fundus. Forty students who had undertaken a practical class on canine fundoscopy involving both use of artificial model eyes and live dogs were asked to complete a short questionnaire using a Likert scale to gauge their opinion on whether the use of live dogs and artificial eyes was very valuable (scoring 2, valuable (1, a neutral response (0, not particularly valuable (-1 or not at all valuable (-2 and to write a free text response on their views of the educational value and welfare implications of using artificial model eyes or live dogs in training for ophthalmic examination of the canine ocular fundus. Likert responses were 1.84±0.37 for using live greyhounds and 0.58±0.79 for using simulator eyes (p<0.0001. Thematic analysis of the written responses showed that while the artificial eyes were considered somewhat valuable in initial training, the live dogs were significantly preferred for their realism and the opportunity to examine the eye while handling a live animal. In conclusion, while model eyes are valuable initial training in use of the ophthalmoscope for funduscopic examination, students consider that examining the eye in the live dog is significantly more valuable and that the welfare of dogs thus used is not in their view unduly compromised.

  6. Can local voluntary environmental programs "work"? An examination of Fort Collins' (Colorado) climate wise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Samantha; Samantha, Mosier; Fisk, Jonathan; Jonathan, Fisk

    2013-05-01

    Previous research on voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) frequently assesses the effectiveness of federal, state, and third party programs and why organizations seek to join such programs. Yet, research has yet to evaluate the effectiveness or firm motivation relative to local VEPs. Recognizing this gap, our paper examines the structure and organization of Fort Collins' Climate Wise program, a local VEP. Using a variety of sources, we find that the program has successfully met both short- and long-term goals by persistently self-evaluating and seeking outside financial support. Findings from this analysis can aid in understanding and developing local VEPs elsewhere. Specifically, this initial research suggests that local VEPs need to consider local context and available resources when implementing such programs. Furthermore, it is possible for local VEPs to attract a diverse variety of participating firms by avoiding one-size-fits-all participation levels and by establishing a sense of ownership among partners.

  7. Can Local Voluntary Environmental Programs "Work"? An Examination of Fort Collins' (Colorado) Climate Wise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantha, Mosier; Jonathan, Fisk

    2013-05-01

    Previous research on voluntary environmental programs (VEPs) frequently assesses the effectiveness of federal, state, and third party programs and why organizations seek to join such programs. Yet, research has yet to evaluate the effectiveness or firm motivation relative to local VEPs. Recognizing this gap, our paper examines the structure and organization of Fort Collins' Climate Wise program, a local VEP. Using a variety of sources, we find that the program has successfully met both short- and long-term goals by persistently self-evaluating and seeking outside financial support. Findings from this analysis can aid in understanding and developing local VEPs elsewhere. Specifically, this initial research suggests that local VEPs need to consider local context and available resources when implementing such programs. Furthermore, it is possible for local VEPs to attract a diverse variety of participating firms by avoiding one-size-fits-all participation levels and by establishing a sense of ownership among partners.

  8. The Globalization-welfare State Nexus Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Meinhard; Niklas Potrafke

    2011-01-01

    Two hypotheses relate to the globalization-welfare state nexus: The efficiency hypothesis predicts that globalization reduces government sector size and governments’ capacity to finance the welfare state. The compensation hypothesis, in contrast, predicts that globalization induces a higher demand for social insurance which results in an extended welfare state. Empirical evidence on the globalization-welfare state nexus is mixed. We re-examine the evidence by investigating a yearly panel data...

  9. Examining curricular coherence in an exemplary elementary school program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Catherine D

    2008-03-01

    A coherent curriculum is characterized by visible connections between purposes and experiences so that students acknowledge the content's immediate value. This study examined an exemplary elementary physical education curriculum for coherence components. Research questions examined the role of coherence in connecting and engaging students meaningfully in physical education. Observations and interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data in one program for 22 weeks. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. Results described two units, Balls Skills, leading to modified basketball, and Scooter City, a theme-based unit emphasizing student choice and responsibility. Students reported that both units were enjoyable. Although the Balls Skills unit was well planned, taught, and managed, some students commented that the skill and games content was valuable only in basketball. In the Scooter City unit, students identified numerous connections to out-of-school activities that enhanced content value. Comparisons with Beane's coherence criteria suggested that students valued Scooter City based on concrete connections to their lived experiences.

  10. 20 CFR 663.620 - How do the Welfare-to-Work program and the TANF program relate to the One-Stop delivery system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER... describes the roles of such partners in the One-Stop delivery system and applies to the Welfare-to-Work...

  11. Adult Literacy and Welfare Reform: Marginalization, Voice, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheared, Vanessa; McCabe, Jennifer; Umeki, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Examines the interrelationship between the marginal status of the field of adult basic education and those disenfranchised because of their economic standing as a result of welfare in the United States. Deconstructs the phenomenon of marginalization and analyzes its impact on program delivery and recipients of services. (SLD)

  12. The economics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T J; Jackson, E L

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines four examples of animal welfare issues, demonstrating the interactions between welfare and economic principles. Welfare issues associated with purebred companion animals are examined in terms of predicted inherited diseases, highlighting the power of supply and demand in perpetuating traits in pets that compromise their well-being. The livestock industry is presented from the point of view of pig production and the impact that a major disease (pleurisy) has on production and the animals' welfare. The authors investigate the conflicting and complementary demands of animal welfare and economic gains during the transport and slaughter of livestock and poultry. Finally, wildlife species are considered in terms of their prevalence as pests, and the different types of economic analysis that have been conducted to understand the losses caused by these organisms. Also included in this example are decisions made about cost effectiveness and opportunity costs, and regulatory and financial barriers to the development of humane control agents. In conclusion, animal welfare is illustrated as a central factor in the benefits that humans enjoy from the role played by animals in society. There are, however, tradeoffs between optimal animal welfare and meeting the needs of modern human society.

  13. EXPLAINING THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF MEXICAN-IMMIGRANT WELFARE BEHAVIORS: THE IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYMENT-RELATED CULTURAL REPERTOIRES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Bean, Frank D

    2009-06-01

    Social scientists generally seek to explain welfare-related behaviors in terms of economic choice, social structural, or culture of poverty theories. Because such explanations incompletely account for nativity differences in public assistance receipt among those of Mexican origin, this paper draws upon the sociology of migration and culture literatures to develop alternative materialist-based cultural repertoire hypotheses to explain the welfare behaviors of Mexican immigrants. We argue that immigrants from Mexico arrive and work in the United States under circumstances fostering employment-based cultural repertoires that, compared with natives and other immigrant groups, encourage less welfare participation (in part because such repertoires lead to faster welfare exits) and more post-welfare employment, especially in states with relatively more generous welfare-policies. Using individual-level data predating Welfare Reform from multiple panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), merged with state-level information on welfare-benefit levels, we assess these ideas by examining immigrant-group differences in welfare receipt, retention, and transition to employment across locales with varying levels of welfare benefits. Overall, the results are consistent with the notion that cultural repertoires incline Mexican immigrants to utilize welfare not primarily to avoid work, cope with disadvantage, or perpetuate a culture of dependency, but rather mostly to minimize employment discontinuities. This result carries important theoretical and policy implications.

  14. Changing patterns of addiction and public aid receipt: tracking the unintended consequences of welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura A; Wiley, James; Dohan, Daniel; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Jacobs, Laurie M; Henderson, Stuart; Zivot, Matthew

    2006-10-01

    Sharp declines in welfare rolls since the passage of welfare reform legislation have led many to label it a social policy success. Using data from prereform and postreform samples of welfare applicants and recipients, as well as ethnographic data on welfare reform implementation, we examine three hypotheses based on concerns raised during the welfare reform debate about the possible effects of new policies on substance abusers and addicts: First, they would be "scared off," or discouraged from applying to aid by welfare's new requirements surrounding work and treatment. Second, they might be "weeded out," or face discrimination in the application process because of concerns about the difficulty of moving them successfully from welfare to work. Third, they might be "bumped down," or shifted to local aid programs rather than moving from welfare to self-sufficiency. Our empirical analysis finds no evidence of scaring off or weeding out, and some evidence of bumping down. Using ethnographic data, we offer some possible explanations for these findings by placing them in the context of policy change and implementation in the years following welfare reform.

  15. Evaluation of a welfare assessment tool to examine practices for preventing, recognizing, and managing pain at companion-animal veterinary clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Lauren C; Dewey, Cate E; Stone, Elizabeth A; Mosley, Cornelia I; Guerin, Michele T; Niel, Lee

    2017-10-01

    Successful prevention, recognition, and treatment of pain are integral to ensuring veterinary patient welfare. A canine and feline welfare assessment tool, incorporating verbal interviews with veterinarians using open-ended questions, was developed to assess pain management practices that safeguard and improve patient welfare. The tool was evaluated in 30 companion- and mixed-animal veterinary clinics in Ontario in order to assess its reliability, feasibility, and validity, while also benchmarking current practices. Responses were analyzed according to a scoring scheme developed based on published literature and expert opinion. Based on weighted kappa statistics, interview scoring had substantial inter-observer (Kw = 0.83, 0.73) and near-perfect intra-observer (Kw = 0.92) agreement, which suggests that the tool reliably collects information about pain management practices. Interviews were completed at all recruited clinics, which indicates high feasibility for the methods. Validity could not be assessed, as participants were reluctant to share information about analgesic administration from their clinical records. Descriptive results indicated areas for which many veterinarians are acting in accordance with best practices for pain management, such as pre-emptive and post-surgical analgesia for ovariohysterectomy patients, and post-surgical care instructions. Areas that offer opportunity for enhancement were also highlighted, e.g., training veterinary staff to recognize signs of pain and duration of analgesia in ovariohysterectomy patients after discharge. Overall, based on this limited sample, most veterinarians appear to be effectively managing their patients' pain, although areas with opportunity for enhancement were also identified. Further research is needed to assess trends in a broader sample of participants.

  16. EXAMINATION OF TEACHER CANDIDATES’ METAPHORS RELATED TO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    YAYLA, Gamze; DEMİRCİOĞLU, Handan

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine teachercandidates’ metaphors related to teacher education programs. Research sampleconsisted of 230 seniors, who studied programs in Elementary Science andTechnology Education (n=170) and Secondary Mathematics Education (n=60)Departments. The data were collected by means of the teacher candidates’completion of the statement “Teacher education programs are like … because …”.In this research phenomenological research design was used and data wereanalyzed by mea...

  17. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  18. Child Welfare Workers: Who They Are and How They View the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Maristela C.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the characteristics of child welfare caseworkers, their views of the child welfare system, their clients, their agency of employment, and child welfare policies, and whether these views vary according to caseworkers' characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with…

  19. Examining Internationalization in U.S. Counseling Psychology Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Erica J.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Aegisdottir, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather more information about the process of internationalization in U.S. counseling psychology programs. Participants included 26 training directors and 83 doctoral students, representing 32 of the 63 APA-accredited counseling psychology programs. Results suggested that the presence of international training…

  20. Examination of a University-Affiliated Safe Ride Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieck, D. Joseph; Slagle, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A university-affiliated safe ride program was evaluated to determine whether these programs can reduce drunk-driving related costs. Data was collected from 187 safe ride passengers during three nights of operation. Among the passengers, 93% were enrolled at a local University, 31% were younger than 21, and 40% reported a prior alcohol-related…

  1. On the declining health status of welfare caseloads: emerging dilemmas for serving the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura A; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

    2011-01-01

    An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform's potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. The authors examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, they examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. They augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and may need to take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level.

  2. From Support to Self-Sufficiency: How Successful Are Programs in Advancing the Financial Independence and Well-Being of Welfare Recipients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews recent evaluation research findings about welfare recipients from a perspective of support-to-self-sufficiency rather than the welfare-to-work viewpoint that denominates the evaluation literature. Recent research suggests that many families have moved from welfare to work, but few of these families have achieved financial self-sufficiency.…

  3. Oral Anatomy Laboratory Examinations in a Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days.…

  4. Gender-Specific Barriers to Self-Sufficiency among Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries: Implications for Welfare-To-Work Programs and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C

    2011-01-01

    This study examines barriers to economic self-sufficiency among a panel of 219 former Supplemental Security Income (SSI) drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) recipients following elimination of DA&A as an eligibility category for SSI disability benefits. Study participants were comprehensively surveyed at six measurement points following the policy change. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine full-sample and gender-specific barriers to economic self-sufficiency. Results indicate that access to transportation, age, and time are the strongest predictors of achieving self-sufficiency for both men and women leaving the welfare system. Gender-specific barriers are also identified. Future research needs to assess the generalizability of these results to other public assistance recipients.

  5. Gender-Specific Barriers to Self-Sufficiency among Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries: Implications for Welfare-To-Work Programs and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines barriers to economic self-sufficiency among a panel of 219 former Supplemental Security Income (SSI) drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) recipients following elimination of DA&A as an eligibility category for SSI disability benefits. Study participants were comprehensively surveyed at six measurement points following the policy change. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine full-sample and gender-specific barriers to economic self-sufficiency. Results indicate that access to transportation, age, and time are the strongest predictors of achieving self-sufficiency for both men and women leaving the welfare system. Gender-specific barriers are also identified. Future research needs to assess the generalizability of these results to other public assistance recipients. PMID:21625301

  6. Savannah River Restart Peer Evaluation Program final examination report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.P.; Draper, D.G.

    1991-12-01

    During the period of August 13, 1990 through September 6, 1991 the Savannah River Peer Evaluation Program was administered during three distinct phases to 73 certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors, and Shift Technical Engineers assigned to the K Reactor, on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This program was conceived and developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and it's implementation satisfies recommendations made by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. The review identified both strengths and weaknesses of the procedures and personnel.

  7. Savannah River Restart Peer Evaluation Program final examination report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.P.; Draper, D.G.

    1991-12-01

    During the period of August 13, 1990 through September 6, 1991 the Savannah River Peer Evaluation Program was administered during three distinct phases to 73 certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors, and Shift Technical Engineers assigned to the K Reactor, on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This program was conceived and developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and it`s implementation satisfies recommendations made by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. The review identified both strengths and weaknesses of the procedures and personnel.

  8. Examining Community-Engaged Scholarship in Public Administration Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, Katrina Herndon

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to broaden the understanding of the role that academic professions play in shaping the values and attitudes of faculty toward CES. This study explored faculty perceptions regarding the factors that encourage or dissuade them in the pursuit of CES within public administration programs. As a framework for research, a conceptual…

  9. Program Evaluation of "Young at Heart": Examining Elderly Volunteers' Generativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jean Pearson; Reifman, Alan; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2003-01-01

    Elderly volunteers in the Young at Heart child care program (n=14), Meals on Wheels (n=14), other volunteer activities (n=24), and nonvolunteers (n=49) were compared. Although child-care volunteers were expected to score highest in generativity, volunteers in other activities did, followed by Young at Heart volunteers. (Contains 10 references.)…

  10. An examination of program integrity and recidivism of a cognitive-behavioral program for incarcerated youth in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, P.; Overbeek, G.; Brugman, D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined whether the cognitive behavioral program EQUIP for incarcerated youth would reduce recidivism and whether higher levels of program integrity - the extent to which a program is implemented as intended - would strengthen the effectiveness of EQUIP on recidivism. Program

  11. Examining Understandings of Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, Aimee V.; Kallemeyn, Leanne; Phillips, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The importance of parent involvement in children's development and learning is increasingly recognized in the research literature and in federal and state policies; however, no unified definition of parent involvement exists. This study examined different understandings and definitions of parent involvement in a sample of administrators of…

  12. Examining the Small Renewable Energy Power (SREP) Program in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Drupady, Ira Martina [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-11-15

    The Small Renewable Energy Power (SREP) Program was the premier policy mechanism implemented by the national government to promote small-scale renewable electricity in Malaysia from 2001 to 2010. However, it managed meet less than 3 percent of its original goal by 2005. This study investigates what happened. More specifically, using a qualitative semi-structured interview approach with data presented in a narrative format, it answers the following five questions: (1) What are the primary energy policy and security challenges facing Malaysia? (2) What were the drivers behind the SREP in Malaysia? (3) What were the major benefits arising from the SREP? (4) What were the significant challenges to implementation? (5) What lessons or insights does the SREP offer for the study of energy policy design and implementation more generally? We find that the SREP failed to achieve its targets due to capacity caps, a lengthy approval process, lack of monitoring, exclusion of stakeholders, and few (if any) pre-feasibility studies. Other factors explaining its poor performance include opposition from the national utility Tenaga Nasional Berhad and electricity tariffs unmatched with true production costs. - Highlights: > The Small Renewable Energy Power Program aimed to install 500 MW by 2005. > It installed only 12 MW by December 2005. > This study investigates why the SREP failed to achieve its targets.

  13. 49 CFR 452.9 - Elements of a continuous examination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elements of a continuous examination program. 452.9 Section 452.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD... Elements of a continuous examination program. (a) Examinations required by § 452.7 must conform to the...

  14. Examining welfare receipt and mental disorders after a decade of reform and prosperity: analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Burgess, Philip M; Whiteford, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among Australian income support recipients in 2007, and to evaluate whether this has changed over the past 10 years. Analysis of data from the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB), a nationally representative survey of 8841 community-dwelling residents. The data were used to estimate and classify those working-age survey respondents who were income support recipients into categories reflecting major payment types, and to estimate the 12-month prevalence of affective, anxiety and substance use disorders. Data from the 1997 NSMHWB were also used for comparison. The 12-month prevalence of mental disorders among working-age recipients was 34% compared to 20% for non-recipients. Rates of mental disorders were elevated among all categories of income support recipients, including the unemployed, lone parents, partnered parents, and those classified as receiving disability payments. There were limited differences between the results from the two surveys. A marked increase in the prevalence of mental disorders in partnered parent recipients (from 21% in 1997 to 39% in 2007) seemed due to methodological differences in the estimation of income support categories and likely reflected greater accuracy of the 2007 estimate. Income support recipients are much more likely to experience mental disorders than those not receiving payments and there has been little change in the strength of the association between income support receipt and mental disorders over the past decade. Mental disorders represent a substantial barrier to work, community engagement and social participation. A greater focus on mental health in the design and delivery of social policy and services may be an appropriate strategy to promote more positive outcomes in areas such as welfare, employment and social inclusion.

  15. The quality of life of single mothers making the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay; Davis, Elise; Smyth, Paul; McKenzie, Hayley

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the quality of life of single mothers making the mandatory transition from welfare to work. The Australian government purported that the benefits of making this transition would include higher incomes, better social participation, and improved wellbeing. It is currently unknown, however, how single mothers currently engaged in welfare to work programs evaluate their quality of life. Quality of life scores for 334 single mothers engaged in welfare to work in Australia were compared with normative data. Participants reported significantly lower quality of life scores than the general population for all quality of life domains, highlighting the need to carefully examine welfare to work policies to ensure they promote participants' quality of life.

  16. Vaccines and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D B

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination promotes animal welfare by protecting animal health, but it also has other welfare benefits, e.g. recent investigations have looked at the potential of vaccines in immunoneutering such as immunocastration--a humane alternative to the painful traditional methods. Similarly, vaccination can be used during disease outbreaks as a viable alternative to stamping-out, thus avoiding the welfare problems that on-farm mass slaughter can cause. Protecting animal health through vaccination leads to improved animal welfare, and maintaining good welfare ensures that animals can respond successfully to vaccination (as poor welfare can lead to immunosuppression, which can affect the response to vaccination). It is clear that vaccination has tremendous advantages for animal welfare and although the possible side effects of vaccination can have a negative effect on the welfare of some individual animals, the harm caused by these unwanted effects must be weighed against the undoubted benefits for groups of animals.

  17. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  18. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  19. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  20. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    that ethnicization is at once more limited (in that it is unlikely for the most widely discussed issue, welfare) and more pervasive (in that it can arise from local contexts as well as from media). Ethnicization of attitudes is one way in which immigration can influence political life, even when the political agenda...... is to a significant extent shaped by studies of American public opinion, where public opinion on some issues is widely considered 'racialized', i.e. in part based on attitudes toward racial outgroups. The dissertation examines whether by the same token, political attitudes in universal welfare states can become...

  1. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...... universal public interventions and a high degree of employment in the formal labor market for all. The thesis promoted in this paper is, that the Scandinavian welfare regime ought to be highly desirable elsewhere, but unfortunately rather difficult to replicate, because it is premised upon a set...

  2. Getting There From Here: Revitalizing Child Welfare Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, James R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that revitalization of child welfare training is more complex than development of better training curriculum and materials. Reviews factors affecting training and questions the overall concept of child welfare training centers. If child welfare careers become more attractive, training programs will revitalize themselves. (JAC)

  3. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance and to recipients that...

  4. The Child Welfare Profession's Perception of Residential Care for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Larry W.

    2008-01-01

    This research study explored the Child Welfare League of America's (CWLA) perception of residential care for children, as a reflection of the child welfare profession as a whole. A content analysis of CWLA's national conference programs and the journal "Child Welfare" from 1997 to 2006 found that the profession emphasizes family foster care and…

  5. The Colonization of (M)Others in Welfare-to-Work Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Leslie Rebecca; Kilgore, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Argues that welfare reform policies colonize poor mothers. Using ethnographic data of a welfare-to-work educational program, analyzes how colonizing public and governmental discourses about welfare mothers infiltrate the program's educational policy and everyday practices. Asserts that welfare-to-work neither fully colonizes nor fully educates,…

  6. A Subgroup Analysis of Predictors to Certification Examination Success in Differing Principal Preparation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Elaine L.

    This study addresses the factors of Graduate Record Examination scores (GRE), race, gender, and undergraduate grade point average (GPA) as predictors of principal certification examination success at a large urban university. The university has three programs that lead to a masters degree and principal certification. The regular program consists…

  7. INVITED REVIEW: Farm size and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2016-12-01

    Critics of agricultural intensification have argued that the transition from smaller to larger farms has compromised animal welfare. To critically examine evidence relevant to this claim, we reviewed more than 150 publications that examined the relationship between farm size and at least one animal welfare indicator. Although much of this literature focuses on dairy cattle, we also reference other farmed species where appropriate. We found little evidence of any simple relationship, negative or positive, between farm size and animal welfare. Instead, the evidence suggests that larger farms provide some opportunities to improve animal welfare but may also create welfare risks. For example, larger farms permit more specialized and professional management of animal health but can make it more difficult to accommodate outdoor access that some view as integral to animal welfare. Future research should attempt to specify the underlying casual mechanisms by which statistical associations between farm size and indicators of welfare are believed to occur. We also suggest that policy and advocacy efforts aimed at reversing increases in farm size would be better directed toward improving welfare on farms of all sizes.

  8. Maltreatment, Child Welfare, and Recidivism in a Sample of Deep-End Crossover Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; Piquero, Alex R; Bilchik, Shay; Jackowski, Katherine; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Although research has oft-documented a maltreatment-delinquency link, the effect of involvement in-and timing of-child welfare system involvement on offending has received less attention. We examine whether the timing of child welfare involvement has differential effects on recidivism of deep-end juvenile offenders (youth who have been adjudicated delinquent by the court and placed in juvenile justice residential programs). The current study uses a large, diverse sample of 12,955 youth completing juvenile justice residential programs between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013 in Florida (13 % female, 55 % Black, 11 % Hispanic). Additionally, we explore the direct effects of childhood traumatic events on delinquency, as well as their indirect effects through child welfare involvement using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that adverse childhood experiences fail to exert a direct effect on recidivism, but do exhibit a significant indirect effect on recidivism through child welfare involvement, which is itself associated with recidivism. This means that while having exposures to more types of childhood traumatic events does not, in and of itself, increase the likelihood of re-offending, effects of such experiences operate through child welfare placement. Differences in the effects of maltreatment timing and of adverse childhood experiences are observed across sex and race/ethnicity subgroups. Across all racial subgroups, exposures to adverse childhood experiences have a significant effect on the likelihood of child welfare placement, yet child welfare placement exerts a significant effect on recidivism for White and Hispanic youth, but not for Black youth. Only Hispanic female and White male youth with overlapping child welfare and juvenile justice cases (open cases in both systems at the same time during the study period) were more likely to recidivate than their delinquent-only counterpart youth. Crossover status (child welfare and juvenile justice

  9. "PERLE bedside-examination-course for candidates in state examination" - Developing a training program for the third part of medical state examination (oral examination with practical skills).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthaus, Anne; Schmidt, Anita

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the state examination, many students have open questions and a need for advice. Tutors of the Skills Lab PERLE-"Praxis ERfahren und Lernen" (experiencing and learning practical skills) have developed a new course concept to provide support and practical assistance for the examinees. The course aims to familiarize the students with the exam situation in order to gain more confidence. This enables the students to experience a confrontation with the specific situation of the exam in a protected environment. Furthermore, soft skills are utilized and trained. Concept of the course: The course was inspired by the OSCE-model (Objective Structured Clinical Examination), an example for case-based learning and controlling. Acquired knowledge can be revised and extended through the case studies. Experienced tutors provide assistance in discipline-specific competencies, and help in organizational issues such as dress code and behaviour. Evaluation of the course: An evaluation was conducted by the attending participants after every course. Based on this assessment, the course is constantly being developed. In March, April and October 2015 six courses, with a total of 84 participants, took place. Overall 76 completed questionnaires (91%) were analysed. Strengths of the course are a good tutor-participants-ratio with 1:4 (1 Tutor provides guidance for 4 participants), the interactivity of the course, and the high flexibility in responding to the group's needs. Weaknesses are the tight schedule, and the currently not yet performed evaluation before and after the course. In terms of "best practise", this article shows an example of how to offer low-cost and low-threshold preparation for the state examination.

  10. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...... spending measures, and also to a certain extent in some qualitative policy-making patterns. What has emerged can best be described as the ‘supply-side welfare state’ model, and this overall orientation is reflected in many wel-fare state areas. We differ from earlier prognoses of a race to the bottom...... by generous welfare states and disagree with the view that a supply-side orientation equals ‘lean government’ in terms of social expenditure. But convergence implies that the space to maneuver has shrunk for policy-makers. The consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for welfare states are difficult...

  11. Welfare improving product bans

    OpenAIRE

    Doğanoğlu, Uğur Toker; Doganoglu, Ugur Toker; İnceoğlu, Fırat; Inceoglu, Firat

    2010-01-01

    We formulate a model of vertical differentiation to evaluate the welfare effects of removing a low quality product from the market. The mechanism through which a welfare improvement might arise is simple: Once the low quality low cost alternative is banned, entry into the high quality segment becomes more likely. This in turn may lead to a significant reduction in the price of the high quality product. We find that such a ban might improve aggregate welfare when consumers value the higher qua...

  12. Relationship Between Physician Assistant Program Length and Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination Pass Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Thomas P; Salisbury, Helen; Hertelendy, Attila J; Tseng, Tina

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between physician assistant (PA) educational program length and PA programs' 5-year average Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination (PANCE) first-time pass rates. This was a retrospective correlational study that analyzed previously collected data from a nonprobability purposive sample of accredited PA program Web sites. Master's level PA programs (n = 108) in the United States with published average PANCE scores for 5 consecutive classes were included. Provisional and probationary programs were excluded (n = 4). Study data were not normally distributed per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, P = .00. There was no relationship between program length and PANCE pass rates, ρ (108) = -0.04, P = .68. Further analyses examining a possible relationship between program phase length (didactic and clinical) and PANCE pass rates also demonstrated no differences (ρ [107] = -0.05, P = .60 and ρ [107] = 0.02, P = .80, respectively). The results of this study suggest that shorter length PA programs perform similarly to longer programs in preparing students to pass the PANCE. In light of rapid expansion of PA educational programs, educators may want to consider these findings when planning the length of study for new and established programs.

  13. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    or output criteria, as well as through examinations of a structural nature (design or resource-based, or derived from engineering or input criteria. Preference should be given to the former since they are can be better adapted to the different pig categories and management systems. Design criteria, on the other hand, are easier to evaluate and they should integrate animal criteria. Thus, the most correct protocols for on-farm evaluation of pig welfare should involve both animal-based criteria and design criteria. Examples of both criteria are reported herein. In extensive farming which includes (although somewhat improperly outdoor and organic farming, achieving a good level of welfare is one of the declared objectives. However, there are several causes of welfare impairment that can be successfully overcome only if highly professional workers are employed: unfavourable climate, parasitic diseases, intake of plants containing poisons or anti-nutritional factors, high piglet mortality.

  14. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  15. 75 FR 9691 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... competition is an increase in employment in the video programming sector of the economy. The relationship... on Commission precedent in which the Commission has considered certain Regional Sports Networks.... Conversely, when programming is non- replicable and valuable to consumers, such as regional sports...

  16. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts.

  17. A just distribution of burdens? : Attitudes toward the social distribution of taxes in 26 welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosma, F.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Whether people believe that tax burdens are fairly distributed is an important condition for welfare state legitimacy. This article examines how people evaluate this distribution of tax burdens in their country by using latent cluster analysis. We use 2006 International Social Survey Program data

  18. Endorsement of Money Ethic and Protestant Work Ethic among Three Groups of Welfare Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Smith-Brandon, Vancie L.; Tang, Theresa Li-Na

    Endorsement of the money ethic and the Protestant work ethic among past and present welfare recipients was examined in a study of three groups: 164 current recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); 159 individuals receiving AFDC while enrolled in various training programs; and 158 past AFDC recipients who are now employed. The…

  19. Feminism, Voluntarism and the Welfare State: Toward a Feminist Sociological Theory of Social Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Susan A.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews feminist theory and practice, spelling out implications for a feminist theory of social welfare containing both public and private realms. Uses these implications to examine a woman's grassroots voluntary organization that contains possibilities for rethinking societal responses to social welfare needs. (Author/LS)

  20. A Qualitative Approach to Examining Knowledge Sharing in Iran Tax Administration Reform Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shami Zanjanie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine knowledge sharing infrastructure of "Iran Tax Administration Reform Program". The qualitative approach by using case study method was applied in this research. In order to meet the research goal, four infrastructural dimensions of knowledge sharing were studied: leadership & strategy, culture, structure, and information technology. To the authors’ knowledge, this was maybe the first paper which examined knowledge sharing infrastructure in programs environment

  1. A Qualitative Examination of Parent Engagement in a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Emily A; Chuang, Emmeline; Madanat, Hala; Moody, Jamie; Ibarra, Leticia; Ortiz, Kenia; Macias, Karla; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2018-02-01

    Low parent engagement is frequently identified as a barrier to effective implementation of family-based childhood obesity prevention and control programs. A more nuanced understanding of factors affecting parent engagement is important for improving implementation and, ultimately, program efficacy. This qualitative study examined factors influencing parent engagement in a family-based childhood obesity prevention and control program. Semistructured interviews informed by the health belief model and the transtheoretical model were conducted with 22 predominantly Latina mothers following the scheduled conclusion of program activities. Spanish- and English-language interviews were transcribed, translated into English (if Spanish), coded, and summarized using established protocols. Differences between parents who attended at least two thirds of program activities and those who did not were examined. There were no significant demographic differences between parents who did and did not complete two thirds of program activities. Findings indicated that differences in parent engagement may be at least partially explained by differences in parental motivations for participating and in barriers and facilitators, such as children's level of support and enthusiasm for the program. Parents were highly satisfied with the program content and the community health workers who delivered the program. This study adds to emergent literature regarding parents' experiences in family-based childhood obesity prevention and control programs. Potential targets for improving program engagement are discussed.

  2. Pediatric Hospital School Programming: An Examination of Educational Services for Students Who Are Hospitalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Sarah M.; Elam, Megan; Irwin, Mary Kay; Sexton, Karen; McGraw, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to define the current functions and operations of hospital school programs nationwide. A 56-item survey was disseminated to hospital teachers across the country to examine perceptions about their work, programs, and professional practice. Quantitative findings were analyzed using descriptive statistics at the individual…

  3. Examination of Relationships between Participation in School Music Programs of Differing Quality and Standardized Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Memmott, Jenny E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between participation in contrasting school music programs and standardized test scores. Relationships between elementary (third- or fourth-grade) students' academic achievement at comparable schools, but with contrasting music programs as to instructional quality, were…

  4. Examining Inclusion of Evidence-Based Practice on Social Work Training Program Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Traci L.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.; Grady, Melissa D.

    2013-01-01

    Websites represent a visible medium for social work programs to communicate information about social work research, academics, and professional training priorities, including evidence-based practice (EBP). However, few studies have examined the content of social work program websites. This exploratory study aimed to answer the question: Are EBP…

  5. Welfare and self care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Using the case of early childcare institutions in contemporary Denmark, the aim of the article is to show that welfare entails visions of living that are made manifest through the requirements of everyday institutional practices. The main argument is that welfare institutions are designed not onl...

  6. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

     The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Henc...

  7. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  8. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both objecti...

  9. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  10. A Decade of Welfare Reform: What We've Learned About Welfare Usage and Economic Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    The last decade has seen a number of changes in welfare policy, starting with state waivers under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program and culminating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF...

  11. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a) In...

  12. Welfare Dependence and Self-Control: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marc K Chan

    2014-01-01

    We use data from Florida Transition Program, a welfare reform experiment in the 1990s, to estimate a discrete choice dynamic programming model of labor supply and welfare participation with potentially time-inconsistent individuals. The time preference parameters are identified through exclusion restrictions generated by welfare time limits. Around one-fourth of the individuals can be regarded as present-biased, and they exhibit a low degree of naivety. Time-inconsistency reduces income by 15...

  13. 46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 176.650 Section 176.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.650 Alternative Hull...

  14. Examining the Influence of Campus Leadership Programs at a Catholic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Rich; Meents-DeCaigny, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the socially responsible leadership and leadership efficacy scales in the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership (MSL) to examine leadership programs at one Catholic campus, and their influence on socially responsible leadership and leadership efficacy. Examining students that identified as involved in 14 campus leadership…

  15. Welfare reform: challenges for grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) on a growing constituency that may require welfare assistance: grandparents raising grandchildren. A brief review of the demographics of grandparent caregivers is followed by an exploration of welfare reform legislation, including work requirements and the Healthy Marriage Initiative (HMI). The importance of state-level policies in assisting grandparent-headed households, particularly health care, school enrollment, and housing policies, are also discussed. The paper concludes by offering implications for welfare policies in terms of their impact on intergenerational households headed by grandparents.

  16. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  17. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Ben Sassi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability.

  18. Enhancing skin self-examination with imaging: evaluation of a mole-mapping program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, M A; Nguyen, F Q; Martin, R A

    2004-01-01

    To enhance early detection of melanoma with thorough skin self-examination, we have enrolled patients in a mole-mapping program that uses digital imaging of the skin. The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of participation in the mole-mapping program on performance of thorough skin self-examination. The study was carried out by telephone survey of 64 program participants, using self-report to assess impact. Participants were generally satisfied and found the program useful and effective; 97% would recommend it. Almost half (45%) of those who were not performing thorough skin self-examination before participation reported performing it after receiving their images. After participation, a partner such as a spouse or friend was more commonly assisting in these examinations. We also noted a correlation (of borderline statistical significance) between sun protection and performance of self-examination, and differences among different definitions of thorough skin self-examination. Interventions centered around imaging have the potential to substantially enhance and encourage the performance of thorough skin self-examination for the early detection of melanoma.

  19. Race and welfare reform: the Wisconsin Works W-2 experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of welfare reform on African- American and Caucasian welfare recipients in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to determine if there were differences in their experience with employers and private welfare agencies. The study found that despite having higher education levels and higher job training completion rates, African-American welfare recipients did not fare any better than Caucasians in terms of employment. African-American welfare recipients were more likely to be required to take pre-employment tests and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuses (AODA) than were Caucasians.

  20. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergseth, Kathleen J; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) programs have become widespread in the United States and in other countries. These programs are often seen as a viable alternative to traditional retributive processing, especially for minor, and sometimes more serious, forms of delinquency and adult criminality. The programs hold promise for achieving several goals, including increased community and victim involvement, greater satisfaction with the case outcomes, improved offender compliance, increased perceptions of fairness, and even recidivism reduction. Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders. Implications for future research and potential improvements to the RJ model are discussed.

  1. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market......According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...

  2. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  3. Public Views on Welfare Reform and Children in the Current Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake Snell Perry & Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A recent national survey of U.S. adults examined public opinion about welfare reform and measured support for specific policy recommendations. Respondents report ambivalence about the success of welfare reform, though they agree on what the goals of welfare should be and what shape future reforms should take. They favor welfare policies that help…

  4. Examining the Presence of Congregational Programs Focused on Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R

    2016-06-01

    Religious congregations are uniquely poised to provide programs to support survivors of violence against women; yet little is known regarding the prevalence of such programs. In this study, we used data from three waves of the National Congregation Study (N = 3334) to examine change across time in the presence of a congregational program to support survivors of sexual assault or domestic violence. We also explored results among different Christian religious traditions across time. Given the gendered nature of this violence, we also tested whether the (a) gender of the head clergy (i.e., religious leader), and (b) ability of women to serve in congregational leadership roles predicted the presence of programs. As points of comparison, we also examined the total number of congregational social service programs and food programs in particular. Overall, we found different patterns of change across religious traditions for the different programs. Moreover, clergy gender and the ability of women to serve in leadership roles predicted the presence of different types of programs. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research also are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  5. Employment and Welfare Reform in the National Survey of America's Families. Discussion Papers. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprest, Pamela; Wissoker, Douglas

    Data from the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF) in 13 states for 1997 and 1999 was used to study how welfare reform policies, mandated by the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, affected employment of single mothers with children. The states were Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida,…

  6. Do welfare regimes influence the association between disability and self-perceived health? A multilevel analysis of 57 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, Josephine; Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; Romagnoli, Alessia

    2014-09-01

    Disability is usually associated with poorer self-rated health. However, as many people with disabilities do not consider themselves unhealthy, the association may not be as straightforward as it appears. This study examines whether the relationship between disability and self-rated health is dependent on a country's welfare regime. Welfare regimes can play a significant role in securing the needs of disabled people and lessening their social exclusion. However, welfare regimes also label disabled people accordingly, before they become entitled to specific provisions and services. Being given a low status label and being dependent on welfare provisions might trigger a negative self-evaluation of health. Using data from 57 countries of the World Health Survey of 2002-2004, the multilevel regression analyses show that people with a disability tend to rate their health worse than people without any disability. Moreover, the strength of this negative association varies significantly across countries and is affected by a country's welfare regime. The association is the strongest in the various Welfare State regimes (mostly European countries) and the weakest in Informal-Security regimes (Latin-American and Asian countries) and in Insecurity regimes (African countries). Disabled people living in Welfare States regimes tend to rate their health worse than people in other regimes. These findings confirm that welfare regimes play a role in shaping the health perception of disabled people and that processes of labeling may result in unintended and negative consequences of welfare programs. Research on the nexus between disability and self-rated health that neglects this macro-social context of welfare regimes may lead to undifferentiated and even incorrect conclusions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining Variations in Fourth-Grade Children's Participation in School Breakfast and Lunch Programs by Student and Program Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Finney, Christopher J.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Analyses were conducted to examine variations in fourth-grade children's participation in school-breakfast and school-lunch programs by weekday, month, socioeconomic status, absenteeism, gender, and school-breakfast location. Methods: Fourth-grade children were participants in a dietary-reporting validation study during either…

  8. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...

  9. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    approaches, their weaknesses and indicates some possibilities of theoretical integration. Including case studies of patients, nursing home residents, unemployed people, homeless people, and young offenders, from the USA, Denmark, France, Sweden, Canada, and Australia, Power and Welfare is designed...

  10. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare

  11. Examining the effectiveness of micro-enterprise development programs in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Raihani Zainol; Abdullah Al Mamun; Hasannuddin Hassan; Rajennd Muniady

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on socioeconomic development have examined the effect of development initiatives (i.e., access to finance and training) on several socioeconomic indicators (i.e., income, empowerment, asset, quality of life, employment). These studies have focused mostly on the outcomes of specific types of programs offered by specific development organizations. This study however focuses on informal women micro-entrepreneurs’ participation in various development programs available to them an...

  12. Maternal influenza immunization in Malawi: Piloting a maternal influenza immunization program costing tool by examining a prospective program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Pecenka

    Full Text Available This costing study in Malawi is a first evaluation of a Maternal Influenza Immunization Program Costing Tool (Costing Tool for maternal immunization. The tool was designed to help low- and middle-income countries plan for maternal influenza immunization programs that differ from infant vaccination programs because of differences in the target population and potential differences in delivery strategy or venue.This analysis examines the incremental costs of a prospective seasonal maternal influenza immunization program that is added to a successful routine childhood immunization and antenatal care program. The Costing Tool estimates financial and economic costs for different vaccine delivery scenarios for each of the major components of the expanded immunization program.In our base scenario, which specifies a donated single dose pre-filled vaccine formulation, the total financial cost of a program that would reach 2.3 million women is approximately $1.2 million over five years. The economic cost of the program, including the donated vaccine, is $10.4 million over the same period. The financial and economic costs per immunized pregnancy are $0.52 and $4.58, respectively. Other scenarios examine lower vaccine uptake, reaching 1.2 million women, and a vaccine purchased at $2.80 per dose with an alternative presentation.This study estimates the financial and economic costs associated with a prospective maternal influenza immunization program in a low-income country. In some scenarios, the incremental delivery cost of a maternal influenza immunization program may be as low as some estimates of childhood vaccination programs, assuming the routine childhood immunization and antenatal care systems are capable of serving as the platform for an additional vaccination program. However, purchasing influenza vaccines at the prices assumed in this analysis, instead of having them donated, is likely to be challenging for lower-income countries. This result

  13. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  14. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  15. [Combined outpatient alcoholism therapy and occupational rehabilitation on welfare recipients--results of a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, M; Morhart-Klute, V; Nowak, A; Rüster, P; De Christos, S; Pechmann, L; Braunisch, N; Bauder, A; Gebler, M; Löhnert, B; Soyka, M

    2002-08-01

    This study tested the feasibility of outpatient abstinence treatment among alcohol dependent subjects on welfare. Patients had a long history of alcohol dependence and prolonged unemployment. Over a period of six months a total of 250 patients were approached by the social welfare office and asked to participate in the program. The program involved detoxification and a three month combined alcohol treatment and personal job training. Of the 250 persons approached 96 patients (about 40 %) appeared for the initial examination, 19 patients (13 %) finished detoxification and a total of 5 patients completed the program. The majority of a group of patients considered to be highly therapy resistant did not complete the program. Still it was important to demonstrate that a subgroup of patients did successfully complete this program. We consider this pilot project a successful starting point for further development of treatment approaches targeted more specifically at this group of patients.

  16. Introduction to an Open Source Internet-Based Testing Program for Medical Student Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hwan Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author developed a freely available open source internet-based testing program for medical examination. PHP and Java script were used as the programming language and postgreSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux operating system. The system approach was that a super user inputs the items, each school administrator inputs the examinees’ information, and examinees access the system. The examinee’s score is displayed immediately after examination with item analysis. The set-up of the system beginning with installation is described. This may help medical professors to easily adopt an internet-based testing system for medical education.

  17. Introduction to an open source internet-based testing program for medical student examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Hwan

    2009-12-20

    The author developed a freely available open source internet-based testing program for medical examination. PHP and Java script were used as the programming language and postgreSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux operating system. The system approach was that a super user inputs the items, each school administrator inputs the examinees' information, and examinees access the system. The examinee's score is displayed immediately after examination with item analysis. The set-up of the system beginning with installation is described. This may help medical professors to easily adopt an internet-based testing system for medical education.

  18. Using Methodological Triangulation to Examine the Effectiveness of a Mentoring Program for Online Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Michelle; Stewart, Jennifer; Van Gorder, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental mixed methods study, we examined the effectiveness of a faculty-to-faculty mentoring program to increase student success rates in online courses at an American university. Over one semester, 24 faculty mentees worked with 6 faculty mentors on improving course organization and implementing student engagement techniques.…

  19. "School within a School": Examining Implementation Barriers in a Spanish/English Transitional Bilingual Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNicolo, Christina Passos

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ways that general education and bilingual teachers make sense of a Spanish/English transitional bilingual program housed at one elementary school in a Midwestern school district. An in-depth examination of perceptions and attitudes unmasks key factors regarding the implementation and interpretation of bilingual programs…

  20. EXAMINATION OF CONSTRAINTS ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAMS PARTICIPATION TO INDIVIDUALS WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, İsmail; Halil SAROL

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine perceptions of constraints on physical activity participation among people with autism. This qualitative study was conducted on 9 different family of people with autism who participating in physical activity program. The data were collected by using semi - structured interview form. The literature review was done with the purpose of preparing the interview questions and creating ...

  1. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  2. Counseling Medical Students Preparing for Their Licensure Examination: Students Evaluation of the Program's Usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Gerald J.; And Others

    Senior medical students at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences were surveyed regarding the value of a program providing regression based predictions of their individual Day 1, 2, 3, and Total Federation Licensure Examination (FLEX) scores and the probability of passing the FLEX for subsequent Arkansas licensure. The prediction formulas…

  3. Assessment of Primary Representational Systems with Neurolinguistic Programming: Examination of Preliminary Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Fred J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the inconsistent findings of studies on neurolinguistic programing and recommends some areas that should be examined to verify various claims. Discusses methods of assessing client's primary representational systems, including predicate usage and eye movements, and suggests that more reliable methods of assessing PRS must be found. (JAC)

  4. Benefits of Informal Learning Environments: A Focused Examination of STEM-Based Program Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Cameron D.; Austin Stallworth, Chandra; Hailey, Christine; Householder, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines STEM-based informal learning environments for underrepresented students and reports on the aspects of these programs that are beneficial to students. This qualitative study provides a nuanced look into informal learning environments and determines what is unique about these experiences and makes them beneficial for students. We…

  5. Mock and National Examinations Correlations in a Health Information Associate Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Neisa R.

    2013-01-01

    Students enrolled in associate degree programs face social and personal challenges that can affect their learning and assessment skills. Social and personal challenges such as unemployment rates, race, age, and gender may affect their employability. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the mock and national…

  6. Early Language Learning for All: Examination of a Prekindergarten French Program in an Inclusion Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalla, Michele; Peker, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    This preliminary study examined a prekindergarten multimodal French program conducted for students in an inclusion charter school. Due to the age and varied ability levels of the students, media such as video and songs combined with kinesthetic activities served as the primary instructional approach. Data on children's ability to understand and…

  7. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  8. Welfare indicators in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Malin

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern regarding the welfare of laying hens worldwide and there are both ethical and economic reasons for improving their welfare. Although several different welfare indicators are used today, their ability to accurately reflect welfare status is sometimes questioned. This thesis sought to increase knowledge regarding a number of these welfare indicators by investigating whether and to what extent they were affected when layers were exposed to different stressors. Three di...

  9. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  10. Income Inequality and Economic Welfare. A Decomposition Analysis for the Household Sector in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rashida Haq

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses inequality and welfare in Pakistan. The data used is based on "Household Income and Expenditure Surveys" conducted for the years 1979 to 1992-93. To access inequality and welfare across different time periods the data was adjusted for 1992-93 prices (Rs), for the homogeneity of the population adult equivalence scale was used because it is better for examining disparity in economic welfare in a society. For the measurement of welfare Sen's welfare index was applied which, t...

  11. Improving the Welfare of a Zoo-Housed Male Drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis) Aggressive Toward Visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Olga; Vinyoles, Dolors; García-Galea, Eduardo; Maté, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Improving the welfare of nonhuman animals in captivity and maintaining behavioral competence for future conservation purposes is of the highest priority for zoos. The behavior of an aggressive male drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis) was assessed in Barcelona Zoo. The 2-year study presented in this article examined the effects of introducing changes in the exhibit of the drill to improve his welfare by analyzing scan behaviors. First, a partial visual barrier was applied and proved to be insufficient to decrease the long-term stress indicators assessed. Next, a feeding enrichment program was implemented. The results supported the hypothesis that feeding and explorative activities would increase, whereas apathetic and stereotypic behaviors would decrease. However, visitor-directed aggression did not vary, indicating that more profound structural modifications were needed to reduce the negative impact of the agonistic interactions between the drill and the public. The study emphasized the usefulness of environmental enrichment evaluations in assessing captive animal welfare.

  12. Attributes of Candidates Passing the ABS Certifying Examination on the First Attempt-Program Directors׳ Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mohd Raashid; Hulme, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination (CE) is a pivotal event in a surgeon's career development, as it is the last challenge before achieving Board certification. First-time pass rate on the CE is one of the key metrics of surgery residency programs. The overall pass rate on the CE has declined significantly in recent years. The goal of this study was the identification of attributes of general surgery residents that are associated with passing the CE at the first attempt. The modified Delphi process was used to survey general surgery program directors. The study was conducted in 2 rounds in the interest of time available for surgical education research fellowship project. All 259 program directors were contacted in each round of surveys. In all, 49 (19%) responded to the first round and 54 (21%) responded to the second round of survey. The characteristics of a successful resident on CE include confidence, self-motivation, sound knowledge base, strong performance on the Board's training examination (American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination), and mock orals, and good communication skills. Postgraduate years 4 and 5 are the most likely resident levels at which failure could be predicted. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Jobs Taken by Mothers Moving from Welfare to Work and the Effects of Minimum Wages on This Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Peter D.

    The potential effects of raising the minimum wage on the earnings of mothers moving from welfare to work were examined by analyzing the differences that existed in the late 1980s in the various states' minimum wage rates and data from three waves of the Survey of Income and Program Participation for the years 1985-1990 (during which time 13 states…

  14. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries....

  15. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  16. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  17. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...

  18. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    and emphasises the need to explore the relationship between the family and the state ( and the family and the economy) in difefrent wefare states. The paper emphasises that the qualitative difference in the organization of care work are important for understanding the institutional differences for between...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have...

  19. Fish welfare and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunet, P; Øverli, Ø; Douxfils, J; Bernardini, G; Kestemont, P; Baron, D

    2012-02-01

    There is a considerable public and scientific debate concerning welfare of fish in aquaculture. In this review, we will consider fish welfare as an integration of physiological, behavioral, and cognitive/emotional responses, all of which are essentially adaptative responses to stressful situations. An overview of fish welfare in this context suggests that understanding will rely on knowledge of all components of allostatic responses to stress and environmental perturbations. The development of genomic technologies provides new approaches to this task, exemplified by how genome-wide analysis of genetic structures and corresponding expression patterns can lead to the discovery of new aspects of adaptative responses. We will illustrate how the genomic approach may give rise to new biomarkers for fish welfare and also increase our understanding of the interaction between physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses. In a first part, we present data on expression of candidate genes selected a priori. This is a common avenue to develop molecular biomarkers capable of diagnosing a stress condition at its earliest onset, in order to allow quick corrective intervention in an aquaculture setting. However, most of these studies address isolated physiological functions and stress responses that may not be truly indicative of animal welfare, and there is only rudimentary understanding of genes related to possible cognitive and emotional responses in fish. We also present an overview on transcriptomic analysis related to the effect of aquaculture stressors, environmental changes (temperature, salinity, hypoxia), or concerning specific behavioral patterns. These studies illustrate the potential of genomic approaches to characterize the complexity of the molecular mechanisms which underlies not only physiological but also behavioral responses in relation to fish welfare. Thirdly, we address proteomic studies on biological responses to stressors such as salinity change and

  20. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  1. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  2. 20 CFR 638.521 - Student welfare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... association, to be run by an elected student government for the benefit of all students and with the help of a... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Student welfare association. 638.521 Section... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.521 Student welfare...

  3. Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

  4. On Minorities in Science: Examining the Role of Mentorship Programs in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. D.; Birt, L.; Frink, K.; Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.

    2010-12-01

    Broadening participation of minorities in STEM related fields has been the topic of interest in recent years. Many questions about the effectiveness of federally funded programs dedicated to increasing diversity remain unanswered. Evaluating the success of mentorship programs is an important step toward ensuring that under-represented minorities successfully navigate STEM related-disciplines to meet their academic and professional career goals. The Minorities Striving to Pursue Higher Degrees in Earth Sciences Professional Development Program ( MS PHD’S will be examined as a case study to determine the effectiveness of mentorship as a mechanism for increasing diversity in STEM fields. The Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success in Earth System Science (MS PHD'S) initiative was developed for underrepresented minorities with the overall purpose of facilitating increased participation in Earth System Science. In this paper, we present information on 1) the role MS PHD’S plays in the socio-academic development of minority students, 2) the extent to which resources that are made available to minority students (e.g., establishment of mentee-mentor relationships, peer-to-peer relationships, and professional networking opportunities) aid in their intellectual growth and development, and 3) the current status of the program and its’ participants as an indicator of success of the program (e.g., number of individuals who have successfully completed the program and number of internships, fellowships, and postdocs received). This information highlights our current status and our understanding of the challenges minority students face across different disciplines, stages of academic career, institutions, and cultural norms. We discuss how to evaluate appropriate measures of success to increase diversity in STEM fields. Finally, we provide suggestions on how creating synergies among and within existing mentoring programs can promote sustainability of

  5. The Theater High Altitude Area Defense program: an interim examination of its acquisition strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, James W.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis is an examination of the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) program's implementation of the User Operational Evaluation System (UOES) acquisition strategy. The Missile Defense Act of 1991 imposed significant schedule risk on THAAD's development, necessitating the UOES strategy. The UOES risk management issues are analyzed using DOD's risk management guidance. This guidance incorporates some current methods, applica...

  6. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. United States Medical Licensing Examination and American Board of Pediatrics Certification Examination Results: Does the Residency Program Contribute to Trainee Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Thomas R; Olson, Brad G; Nelsen, Elizabeth; Beck Dallaghan, Gary L; Kennedy, Gloria A; Botash, Ann

    2017-09-01

    To determine whether training site or prior examinee performance on the US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 and step 2 might predict pass rates on the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) certifying examination. Data from graduates of pediatric residency programs completing the ABP certifying examination between 2009 and 2013 were obtained. For each, results of the initial ABP certifying examination were obtained, as well as results on National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) step 1 and step 2 examinations. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to nest first-time ABP results within training programs to isolate program contribution to ABP results while controlling for USMLE step 1 and step 2 scores. Stepwise linear regression was then used to determine which of these examinations was a better predictor of ABP results. A total of 1110 graduates of 15 programs had complete testing results and were subject to analysis. Mean ABP scores for these programs ranged from 186.13 to 214.32. The hierarchical linear model suggested that the interaction of step 1 and 2 scores predicted ABP performance (F[1,1007.70] = 6.44, P = .011). By conducting a multilevel model by training program, both USMLE step examinations predicted first-time ABP results (b = .002, t = 2.54, P = .011). Linear regression analyses indicated that step 2 results were a better predictor of ABP performance than step 1 or a combination of the two USMLE scores. Performance on the USMLE examinations, especially step 2, predicts performance on the ABP certifying examination. The contribution of training site to ABP performance was statistically significant, though contributed modestly to the effect compared with prior USMLE scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The welfare states of Scandinavia have been regarded as pioneers of gender equality, but structural barriers to women’s participation in the labour market may inadvertently discriminate against women and create opportunity costs delimiting women’s career choices. Family policies are defined...

  9. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    ) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work...

  10. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  11. Unequal Welfare States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Soede; J.C. Vrooman; P.M. Ferraresi; G. Segre

    2004-01-01

    The financial sustainability of the ageing welfare states in Europe has become a key policy issue recently. This study highlights a different aspect of the ageing process, namely its potential impact on income distributions. Since older people usually live on a lower income, their growing share

  12. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...

  13. Examining Sense of Community among Medical Professionals in an Online Graduate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye O. Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the number of online degree programs continues to grow, one of the greatest challenges is developing a sense of community among learners who do not convene at the same time and place. This study examined the sense of community among medical professionals in an online graduate program for healthcare professionals. We took the sample from a fully online program delivered jointly by a state university and a local children's hospital in the Midwest. We administered Rovai's Classroom Community Survey with 11 additional demographic questions. We also utilized online interviews to further explore students’ understanding of sense of community. A bi-factor model was fitted to the online sense of community survey data. Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA we identified potential group differences. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically in a recursive and iterative process. Study results suggested that a dominant factor existed: sense of community with two sub-domain factors including sense of learning and sense of connectedness. No significant differences in sense of community with regard to gender, native language, or area of medical practice were detected. However, results showed a difference in sense of community between the three courses examined. This study is the first to examine the sense of community among online medical professionals. Since our findings are in contrast to those of previous studies, this opens the door to additional studies around the possible differences between the community characteristics and needs of medical professionals as online students.

  14. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates...

  15. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a...

  16. EXAMINATION OF CONSTRAINTS ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAMS PARTICIPATION TO INDIVIDUALS WITH AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail AYDIN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine perceptions of constraints on physical activity participation among people with autism. This qualitative study was conducted on 9 different family of people with autism who participating in physical activity program. The data were collected by using semi - structured interview form. The literature review was done with the purpose of preparing the interview questions and creating conceptual framework. A semi - structured form was developed that consists of 7 items and 7 themes. The data were collected by using face to face interview methods. The descriptive analyses were used to analyze the collected data. The analysis indicated that the most important co nstraints were the economical factors on physical activity participation. The most important reason for this occurring was the lack of such programs in the public schools or in institutions. In addition to, this services carried by only the private sector was the other important factor that affected this reason. Analysis also revealed that central government policies of individuals with autism was insufficient for the participation in such programs in the state (government contact and also does not meet t heir needs. As a result, economic difficulties of individuals with autism to participate in physical activity programs was considered the most important constraints. However, it can be concluded that state (government policies were inadequate that in the social life of individuals with autism use their potential in educational activities that support participation in physical activity programs .

  17. A STUDY OF THE REQUIRED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING PROGRAM IN PUBLIC COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS HELD BY CESPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima de Souza Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With a view to standardizing the contents offered to future Accounting professionals, the Federal Accounting Council (CFC elaborated the National Proposal for Undergraduate Accountancy Program Contents. Thus, the curriculum that Higher Education Institutions (HEI adopt serves as an ally for students’ professional conquests. Stability and favorable job conditions attract many people to the dispute for a public function, with a growing Braz ilian public competitive examination market. According to the National Association for Protection and Support to Public Competitive Examinations (Anpac, between 2003 and 2009, the number of public servants in the executive power with a higher education degree in Brazil increased by 26%. The aim of this study was to confront the CFC’s suggested knowledge with the contents required during tests applied in public competitive examinations for Accountancy professionals. The intent is to identify what Public Accounting knowledge is demanded from candidates for the public career. Through a documentary research, 561 calls from public competitive examinations exclusively for Accountancy professionals were selected for the study sample. They were classified according to the proposed program contents, the test questions by the Center for Selection and Event Promotion (Cespe, between 2000 and 2009. In conclusion, the most frequent required Public Accounting areas are contents related to Public Equity and Budget. The results demonstrate that the CFC’s suggested content is in line with the knowledge required from candidates for public functions.

  18. Transformations of the Danish Field of Welfare Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jan Thorhauge

    2017-01-01

    a set of welfare professions, each of which provides a specific subset of welfare benefits, or services. These professionals - agents of the Danish field of welfare work – make up the population of the analysis: teachers, social workers, occupational therapists, social educators, nurses, librarians......Relations of dominance between fields are paramount to field analysis, yet such relations often elude objectification. This chapter explores such relations, by examining how the Danish field of welfare work adapts and responds to interventions originating in the political field, the bureaucratic...... field and the field of education. These structural responses are observed through series of geometric data analyses at between 1980 and 2013; exploring whether dominant bureaucratic and political interventions affect the capital structure of the field of welfare work. The Danish welfare state maintains...

  19. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing evidence on welfare dependence among immigrants in Denmark and to produce new evidence with focus on the most recent years. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a broad descriptive/analytical approach with multivariate...... estimation on the impact on welfare dependence from individual background factors. Findings – The main finding is the importance of aggregate low unemployment for immigrants to assimilate out of welfare dependence. Fairly small effects are reported from policy changes intending to influence the economic...... is the finding, at a disaggregate level, of how changes in immigration policy and cyclical changes interact, influencing the assimilation into or out of dependence on cash benefit programs....

  20. Characteristics of Young Parents Investigated and Opened for Ongoing Services in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Ma, Jennifer; Black, Tara; Wekerle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a national child welfare dataset to examine the profile of young parents who are the subject of maltreatment-related investigation and to identify which factors determine service provision from the child welfare system at the conclusion of the investigation. Specifically, it examines how workers in the child welfare system decide…

  1. The refinement of a cultural standardized patient examination for a general surgery residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Maria B J; Deptula, Peter; Morihara, Sarah; Jackson, David S

    2014-01-01

    Recent articles have documented the importance of cultural competency in surgery. Surgical residency programs have used the Objective Structured Clinical Examinations or cultural standardized patient examinations as a training tool. Past studies evaluating cultural competency have noted the importance of including an observational (control) arm, which would allow for a more objective assessment of a resident's competency in this area. The purpose of our article is to present the results of a follow-up study to a pilot cultural standardized patient examination for surgery residents. All first-year surgery residents were required to participate in the videotaped cultural SP examination as part of the general surgery residency curriculum. Two measures were used to assess resident performance. On the day of the examination, the Cross-Cultural Care Survey was administered. The examination was assessed by the residents themselves, faculty observers, and standardized patients, using a written checklist that was developed to evaluate residents on all 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. The current study includes 20 first-year surgery residents from academic years 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013. The examination of pretest differences in groups found that students born outside of the United States had significantly higher scores on attitude (t = -2.68, df = 18, p = 0.02), but no statistically significant differences were found in skillfulness or knowledge or in the overall rating scale. For the overall rating scale, change from pretest to posttest was statistically significant (t = -2.25, df = 18, p = 0.04). Further analysis revealed that students who were born in the United States demonstrated a significant increase in ratings (t = -3.08, df = 10, p = 0.01) whereas students who were not born in the United States showed little change (t = -0.35, df = 7, p = 0.74). These results show that the means in attitude scales changed little for all

  2. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  3. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  4. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  5. Social Welfare, the Neo-Conservative Turn and Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Michele S.

    2004-01-01

    This essay examines the educational opportunities of people in poverty who receive social welfare assistance. The dominant political theory underlying social policy (including education policy) in the United States has evolved from 1960s and 1970s welfare liberalism into 1980s and 1990s style neo-conservatism -- a theory that embraces principles…

  6. Welfare regimes and the incentives to work and get educated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Tselios, Vassilis

    This paper examines whether differences in welfare regimes shape the incentives to work and get educated. Using microeconomic data for more than 100 ON European individuals, we show that welfare regimes make a difference for wages and education. First, people-based and household-based effects

  7. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  8. The Welfare Economics of Land Use Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Cheshire; Stephen Sheppard

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical methodology for the evaluation of the benefits and costs of land use planning. The technique is applied in the context of the Town and Country Planning System of the UK, and examines the gross and net benefits of land use regulation and their distribution across income groups. The results show that the welfare and distributional impacts can be large.

  9. Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

  10. Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a…

  11. Welfare reform and interstate migration of poor families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Gordon F; Graefe, Deborah Roempke; St Pierre, Tanja

    2005-08-01

    The thesis of this study is that as a result of increased inequalities in welfare rules, the 1996 welfare reform act not only enhanced incentives for poor families to move but also (and perhaps more important) created disincentives for them to stay in "race to the bottom" states. In testing this thesis, we evaluated the mediating and moderating roles of state economic development and family structure. We merged data from three main sources: the 1996-1999 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the Urban Institute's Welfare Rules Database, and state economic data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Modeling both destination (pull) and departure (push) effects of welfare policy measures and selected covariates in a nested discrete-time event-history migration analysis, we found robust support for the thesis that stringency in state welfare-eligibility and behavior-related rules stimulated interstate out-migration of poor families in the United States. However poor families were not drawn to states with relatively more-lenient welfare rules, although stringency in state welfare dollar benefits inhibited in-migration and state unemployment patterns may have conditioned the migration effects of welfare-reform rules on the choice of destination. Single mothers were not more directly affected by welfare-eligibility and behavior-related rules than were poor married couples.

  12. Examining the Factors Associated with Paid Employment of Clients Enrolled in First Episode of Psychosis Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S. Dewa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders. For a significant portion of individuals who suffer from this disorder, onset occurs in young adulthood, arresting important social and educational development that is necessary for future successful labor force participation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature about clients enrolled in first episode psychosis programs and psychosocial outcomes by examining the factors associated with paid employment among young adults who have experienced their first psychotic episodes. In this paper, we consider the association of socioeconomic factors to employment. Our results suggest that in addition to treatment, socioeconomic factors such as receipt of public disability benefits and educational attainment are associated with employment status. These results can help to inform future directions for the enhancement of psychosocial programs in FEP models to promote paid employment.

  13. Experimental Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals, which have to be used”. In this context, animal welfare and well-being have been referred to the concept of refinement. In the present review, general principles relating to experimental animal welfare will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(1.000: -

  14. Social Welfare Expenditures and Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of social welfare expenditures on infant mortality (deaths younger than age 1 per 1,000 live births) across 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data are obtained from various sources including the OECD, World Health Organization, and World Bank. The findings indicate that among three social welfare expenditure measures for families, the expenditures on family cash allowances are predicted to reduce infant mortality. However, the other two measures-the expenditures on parental and maternity leave and expenditures on family services-have no significant effects on infant mortality.

  15. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  16. Inequality and Social Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Yitzhaki, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a review of part of the literature on inequality and social welfare, with a special focus on the Gini index. The paper first presents the extended Gini index used for measuring inequality, as well as the source decomposition of the Gini used to analyze how changes in income and consumption sources affect overall inequality. The paper then provides a wide range of policy applications of the source decomposition of the extended Gini index, including techniques for analyzing ...

  17. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region. Pol...... focusing on outcomes or causal links tend to suggest that legacies prevail, but there is (nearly) consensus that Confucianism exercises great influence in the whole region....

  18. A pilot study examining the effects of faculty incivility on nursing program satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Todd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncivil behavior in the classroom threatens the teaching-learning process. Research to date has focused on nursing student incivility in academia with little research examining the faculty role associated with incivility. Due to the lack of research examining faculty incivility toward nursing students, additional research in this area is indicated. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of faculty incivility on nursing students′ satisfaction with their Bachelor of Science Nursing (BSN nursing program in a rural Southeastern state. Quantitative data was collected via surveys. Research questions included: (1 What percentage of senior nursing students report experiencing faculty incivility? (2 What is the relationship between faculty incivility and nursing students′ ratings of program satisfaction? (3 In what educational settings does perceived incivility toward nursing students occur? (4 How do nursing students respond to perceived faculty incivility? The results of this survey revealed that 35.3% of students had at least one nursing instructor that put them down or was condescending toward them during their educational experience. Furthermore, 20.7% reported that two or more faculty put them down or were condescending toward them. Collectively, the pilot study revealed that over half of the participants reported faculty behaving in a way that was perceived as uncivil. Incivility in the nursing profession has been an on-going problem. The high number (over half of participating students reporting that they perceived that at least one nursing instructor had put them down or was condescending toward them during their educational experience raises additional concerns for the level of civility in nursing programs and the role modeling that is presented to students. It is imperative that nursing faculty and students interact professionally and establish effective communication patterns.

  19. The fiscal impact of EU immigration on the tax-financed welfare state: Testing the ‘welfare burden’ thesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2017-01-01

    of administrative data, consisting of repeated cross sections of 100% of the EU population residing in Denmark. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution to the Danish welfare state over the long time span examined and thus reject the ‘welfare burden’ thesis for the crucial case...

  20. Universal Design and Welfare Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynn, Rudolph

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the background for the increased interest for and use of welfare technology. It discusses current definitions of welfare technology and suggests a typology of this technology based on the different definitions. It compares the definitions with that of assistive technology and endeavors to draw a clearer limit between them, in particular related to possibilities to utilize the principle of universal design on welfare technology. The issue of operationalization requirements of universal design to welfare technology through standardization is also discussed. Finally, the paper suggests what elements should be part of a new definition of welfare technology.

  1. Animal Welfare: Data from an Online Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Paola; Baldinelli, Chiara; Iulietto, Maria F; Goga, Beniamino T Cenci

    2015-11-02

    This paper analyses data obtained from an online survey related to animal welfare and religious slaughter topics. The questionnaire was conducted with the purpose of examining the purchase behaviour of a group of consumers (with different religious orientation) and their views on animal protection and ritual slaughter. The main results of the consultation were two. The first evidenced the respondents' great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens concerning this issue. The second was the demand for a more transparent labelling of animal products, which would also reflect animal welfare and the slaughter method used. These results are in contrast with marketing analysis, which finds that consumers want to only receive positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers, the higher is the risk to alarm them.

  2. Animal welfare: data from an online consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sechi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses data obtained from an online survey related to animal welfare and religious slaughter topics. The questionnaire was conducted with the purpose of examining the purchase behaviour of a group of consumers (with different religious orientation and their views on animal protection and ritual slaughter. The main results of the consultation were two. The first evidenced the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens concerning this issue. The second was the demand for a more transparent labelling of animal products, which would also reflect animal welfare and the slaughter method used. These results are in contrast with marketing analysis, which finds that consumers want to only receive positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers, the higher is the risk to alarm them.

  3. Community health changes under welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This comparative case study examined changes in community health under New Jersey welfare reform policy implementation (1994-2001). The boundaries of these case descriptions were directed by Milii's ecological framework for policy studies. The separate cases consist of descriptions of changes in social climate and health indicators within Camden, Essex, and Hudson counties in New Jersey. Data analysis revealed a greater public health challenge in these counties than the state as a whole. A large increase in the numbers of low income and uninsured in the population may begin in 2004, 2 years following the 5-year lifetime limit of the receipt of welfare benefits. A growing uninsured population would place additional burdens on the abilities of safety net providers to meet health care needs of vulnerable populations. If left unchanged, these wider effects of the New Jersey welfare reform policy would have negative implications for improving quality of care.

  4. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    . Social policies are no longer regarded as a burden on economies, but rather as investment in human capital. Hence, we are now beyond neo-liberalism. Secondly, the widespread welfare reforms in Europe must be distinguished according to welfare regime. Thus, the paper discusses welfare reform within five...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...... of benefits and an increase in risks and coverage. Therefore, the remainder of the paper discusses in more detail particular welfare reforms within each of the five welfare regimes. It is concluded that problems of welfare state development differ within the different regimes, but a strong commitment...

  5. We Develop Welfare Together - Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Helle; Carlsbæk, Poul Hornshøj

    Abstract – ATBH 8 Author/presenter information Poul Carlsbæk, POCA@phmetropol.dk, Denmark, Metropolitan University College Helle Flindt, hefl@phmetropol.dk , Denmark, Metropolitan University College Presentation title We Develop Welfare Together - Locally Description for the conference program...... years  Former Information Manager in municipalities and Senior Executive Consultant in a Danish consultant firm and in a IT-firm's innovative department  Volunteer in e.g. DJØF (association for layers and economists) and DN (society for nature conservation) Helle Flindt:  Occupational Therapist......, societies etc. to join the activities. Theese two examples of new demand rely on the frontline public employees. They have the closest contact with the citizens, which contain valuable knowledge, great innovation potential and have a sense of ownership in the implementing process. Through a 10 week...

  6. Housing and Child Welfare: Emerging Evidence and Implications for Scaling up Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J; Farrell, Anne F; Marcal, Katherine E; Chung, Saras; Hovmand, Peter S

    2017-09-01

    Inadequate housing threatens family stability in communities across the United States. This study reviews emerging evidence on housing interventions in the context of scale-up for the child welfare system. In child welfare, scale-up refers to the extent to which fully implemented interventions sustainably alleviate family separations associated with housing instability. It incorporates multiple aspects beyond traditional measures of effectiveness including costs, potential reach, local capacities for implementation, and fit within broader social services. The framework further encompasses everyday circumstances faced by service providers, program administrators, and policymakers who allocate resources under conditions of scarcity and uncertainty. The review of current housing interventions reveals a number of systemic constraints for scale-up in child welfare. Reliance on rental assistance programs limits capacity to address demand, while current practices that target the most vulnerable families may inadvertently diminish effectiveness of the intervention and increase overall demand. Alternative approaches that focus on homelessness prevention and early intervention must be tested in conjunction with community initiatives to increase accessibility of affordable housing. By examining system performance over time, the scalability framework provides an opportunity for more efficient coordination of housing services within and outside of the child welfare system. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  7. 46 CFR 71.50-15 - Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hull examination. If the vessel is already participating in the program or if a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) is used during the program, the preliminary exam step may be omitted. Once you complete... underwater survey portion of the examination process, you may receive credit for a period of time such that...

  8. 46 CFR 115.620 - Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hull examination. If the vessel is already participating in the program or if a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) is used during the program, the preliminary exam step may be omitted. Once you complete... underwater survey portion of the examination process, you may receive credit for a period of time such that...

  9. Doing the hard work where it's easiest? Examining the relationships between urban greening programs and social and ecological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter H. Locke; J. Morgan. Grove

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the performance of formal programs associated with tree plantings in Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD to understand the relationships between the implementation of urban greening programs and the social and ecological characteristics of a city. Previous research has examined variations in patterns of existing and possible tree canopy cover...

  10. Medical Knowledge Assessment by Hematology and Medical Oncology In-Training Examinations Are Better Than Program Director Assessments at Predicting Subspecialty Certification Examination Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collichio, Frances A; Hess, Brian J; Muchmore, Elaine A; Duhigg, Lauren; Lipner, Rebecca S; Haist, Steven; Hawley, Janine L; Morrison, Carol A; Clayton, Charles P; Raymond, Marilyn J; Kayoumi, Karen M; Gitlin, Scott D

    2017-09-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System requires training programs to demonstrate that fellows are achieving competence in medical knowledge (MK), as part of a global assessment of clinical competency. Passing American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification examinations is recognized as a metric of MK competency. This study examines several in-training MK assessment approaches and their ability to predict performance on the ABIM Hematology or Medical Oncology Certification Examinations. Results of a Hematology In-Service Examination (ISE) and an Oncology In-Training Examination (ITE), program director (PD) ratings, demographic variables, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE), and ABIM Internal Medicine (IM) Certification Examination were compared. Stepwise multiple regression and logistic regression analyses evaluated these assessment approaches as predictors of performance on the Hematology or Medical Oncology Certification Examinations. Hematology ISE scores were the strongest predictor of Hematology Certification Examination scores (β = 0.41) (passing odds ratio [OR], 1.012; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.008-1.015), and the Oncology ITE scores were the strongest predictor of Medical Oncology Certification Examination scores (β = 0.45) (passing OR, 1.013; 95 % CI, 1.011-1.016). PD rating of MK was the weakest predictor of Medical Oncology Certification Examination scores (β = 0.07) and was not significantly predictive of Hematology Certification Examination scores. Hematology and Oncology ITEs are better predictors of certification examination performance than PD ratings of MK, reinforcing the effectiveness of ITEs for competency-based assessment of MK.

  11. The Devil Is in the Details: Examining the Evidence for "Proven" School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Allison Gruner; Murphy-Graham, Erin; Petrosino, Anthony; Chrismer, Sara Schwartz; Weiss, Carol H.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to promote evidence-based practice, government officials, researchers, and program developers have developed lists of model programs in the prevention field. This article reviews the evidence used by seven best-practice lists to select five model prevention programs. The authors' examination of this research raises questions about the…

  12. Examining the Feasibility and Acceptability of a Motivational Interviewing Early Intervention Program to Prevent High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Rogelberg, Sandra; Terry, John David; Lutz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes Aspire, a new motivational interviewing (MI) early intervention program designed to prevent dropout among students repeating the ninth grade, and then examines the feasibility and acceptability of this program through a mixed-methods approach. The Aspire program is a nine-lesson curriculum grounded in MI with an emphasis on…

  13. Examining the Effect of Social Values Education Program Being Applied to Nursery School Students upon Acquiring Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsaglam, Özkan; Ömeroglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to develop Social Values Education Program aimed at nursery school students and examine the effect of Social Values Education Program upon the social skill acquisition of nursery school students. The effect of the education program that was developed within the scope of the study upon the social skill…

  14. Examining Predictors of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Program Use among Secondary School Students in the Compass Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Katelyn M.; Patte, Karen A.; Leatherdale, Scott T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Many Canadian schools offer breakfast programs; however, students' engagement in these programs is low, while breakfast skipping is highly prevalent among youth. This study examined whether the availability of breakfast programs supports adolescents' regular breakfast eating, and identified characteristics of breakfast skippers who are…

  15. An Examination of an Iconic Trap-Neuter-Return Program: The Newburyport, Massachusetts Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Spehar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of trap-neuter-return (TNR as a humane alternative to the lethal management of free-roaming cats has been on the rise for several decades in the United States; however a relative paucity of data from TNR programs exists. An iconic community-wide TNR effort; initiated in 1992 and renowned for having eliminated hundreds of free-roaming cats from the Newburyport; Massachusetts waterfront; is cited repeatedly; yet few details appear in the literature. Although the presence of feline population data was quite limited; a detailed narrative emerged from an examination of contemporaneous reports; extant TNR program documents; and stakeholder testimony. Available evidence indicates that an estimated 300 free-roaming cats were essentially unmanaged prior to the commencement of the TNR program; a quick reduction of up to one-third of the cats on the waterfront was attributed to the adoption of sociable cats and kittens; the elimination of the remaining population; over a 17-year period; was ascribed to attrition. These findings illuminate the potential effectiveness of TNR as a management practice; as well as call attention to the need for broad adoption of systematic data collection and assessment protocols.

  16. Examining the effectiveness of micro-enterprise development programs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Raihani Zainol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on socioeconomic development have examined the effect of development initiatives (i.e., access to finance and training on several socioeconomic indicators (i.e., income, empowerment, asset, quality of life, employment. These studies have focused mostly on the outcomes of specific types of programs offered by specific development organizations. This study however focuses on informal women micro-entrepreneurs’ participation in various development programs available to them and their influence on entrepreneurial competencies, human capital development, competitive advantages, economic vulnerability, supportive environment, and performance of micro-enterprises. This cross-sectional study adopted the purposive random sampling method and collected data from 384 informal women entrepreneurs from the local markets in different districts of Kelantan, Malaysia. The findings show that the development program participants have relatively higher levels of entrepreneurial competencies, human capital development, and higher levels of enterprise performance compared to non-participants. It is also noted that the level of economic vulnerability is relatively low among participants compared to non-participants. However, these findings contradict most of the earlier studies that show a significant positive impact of micro-credit on socio-economic wellbeing, as the difference in entrepreneurial competencies, human capital development, economic vulnerability, and performance of micro-enterprises among participants and non-participants in this study is not statistically significant. However, findings reported significantly higher levels of competitive advantages, and better supportive environment among the participants compared to the non-participants. Development organizations should therefore focus on expanding their outreach to spread the positive effects of their development programs towards uplifting the economic condition of low and middle

  17. Predictors of attrition for a sexual assault forensic examiner (SAFE) blended learning training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Resko, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Participant attrition is a major concern for online continuing education health care courses. The current study sought to understand what factors predicted health care professionals completing the online component of a sexual assault forensic examiner (SAFE) blended learning training program (12-week online course and 2-day in-person clinical skills workshop). The study used a Web-based survey to examine participant characteristics, motivation, and external barriers that may influence training completion. Hierarchical logistic regression was utilized to examine the predictors of training completion, while the Cox proportional hazards (Cox PH) regression model helped determine the factors associated with the timing of participant attrition. Results show that 79.3% of the enrolled professionals completed the online component. The study also found that clinicians who work in rural communities and those who were interested in a 2-day clinical skills workshop were more likely to complete the online course. In terms of when attrition occurred, we found that participants who were motivated by the 2-day clinical workshop, those who worked in a rural community, and participants interested in the training program because of its online nature were more likely to complete more of the online course. Blending an online course with a brief in-person clinical component may serve as a motivator for completing an online course because it provides the opportunity to develop clinical skills while receiving immediate feedback. Participant attrition appears to be less of a concern for rural clinicians because this modality can reduce their barriers to accessing continuing education. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  18. Can physical therapists deliver a pain coping skills program? An examination of training processes and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Christina; Lewis, Prudence; Bennell, Kim L; Ahamed, Yasmin; Crough, Denae; Jull, Gwendolen A; Kenardy, Justin; Nicholas, Michael K; Keefe, Francis J

    2014-10-01

    Physical therapists are well established as providers of treatments for common, painful, and disabling conditions, such as knee osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, they are well placed to deliver treatments that integrate physical and psychosocial elements. Attention is usually given to outcomes of such programs, but few studies have examined the processes and outcomes of training physical therapists to deliver such treatments. The aim of this study was to describe the processes in training physical therapists: (1) to deliver a standardized pain coping skills treatment and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of that training. This study was an analysis of data relating to therapist performance in a randomized clinical trial. Eleven physical therapists were trained to deliver a 10-session pain coping skills training program for people with knee OA as part of a randomized controlled trial (N=222). The initial training was provided in a workshop format and included extensive, ongoing supervision by a psychologist and rigorous use of well-defined performance criteria to assess competence. Adherence to the program, ratings of performance, and use of advanced skills were all measured against these criteria in a sample (n=74, 10%) of the audio recordings of the intervention sessions. Overall, the physical therapists achieved a very high standard of treatment delivery, with 96.6% adherence to the program and mean performance ratings all in the satisfactory range. These results were maintained throughout the intervention and across all sessions. Only 10% of the delivered sessions were analyzed, and the physical therapists who took part in the study were a self-selected group. This study demonstrated that a systematic approach to training and accrediting physical therapists to deliver a standardized pain coping skills program can result in high and sustained levels of adherence to the program. Training fidelity was achieved in this group of motivated clinicians, but the supervision

  19. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Will voters punish the government for cutting back welfare state entitlements? The comparative literature on the welfare state suggests that the answer is yes. Unless governments are effectively employing strategies of blame avoidance, retrenchment leads to vote loss. Because a large majority...... of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...

  20. Depression among women on welfare: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Mary Clare; Blome, Juliana; English, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    In the "work-first" welfare policy environment embodied in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, situational and personal barriers to employment have received increasing scrutiny from researchers, policy makers, and program administrators. Depression has generated a great deal of concern as a potential barrier to job attainment and retention among welfare recipients. This paper reviews the literature on the prevalence of depression in recent studies of welfare recipients. Starting in the late 1980s, many researchers incorporated reliable and comparable measures of major depression and depressive symptoms into their studies of welfare recipients. These investigations show that rates of depression are high, as is the presence of symptoms. The relevance of this problem for welfare administrators and other professionals is discussed.

  1. Examining relational empowerment for elementary school students in a yPAR program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Collins, Charles; Ellison, Erin Rose

    2014-06-01

    This paper joins relational empowerment, youth empowerment, and Bridging Multiple Worlds frameworks to examine forms of relational empowerment for children in two intermediary institutions-school and a youth participatory action research after-school program (yPAR ASP). Participants were twelve children, most of whom were Latina/o and from im/migrant families, enrolled in a yPAR ASP for 2 years. A mixed-method approach was utilized; we analyzed children's interviews, self-defined goals, and their social networks to examine their experiences of relational empowerment. We conclude that children experienced each of the five relational empowerment factors-collaborative competence, bridging social divisions, facilitating others' empowerment, mobilizing networks, and passing on a legacy-in the yPAR ASP setting, and some factors in school. These experiences, however, were more pronounced in the yPAR ASP setting. Additionally, social network analyses revealed that a small but meaningful percentage of actors bridged worlds, especially home and family, but by year 2, also school and the yPAR ASP. Finally, most helpers for school-based goals came from school, but a sizable number came from family, friends, and home worlds, and by year 2, also came from the yPAR ASP. Implications range from theoretical to methodological development, including the use of social network analysis as a tool to descriptively examine relational power in context.

  2. Social Welfare in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Koen

    of China’s economic growth, the long and midterm sustainability of its economic development model and the implications thereof for social stability and political legitimacy. An immediate priority has been to formulate and implement a response to mitigate the disruptive effects of the transition to a market...... to meet China’s social challenges. In this paper, I provide a summary of the academic literature on post-reform development of the welfare system. I will give an overview of its most salient problems, initiatives and their preliminary outcomes. Finally, I will present some concluding remarks and provide...

  3. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    the member states of the European Community from 1958 onward. That story holds that the political priority given to the CAP, as well as its long-term stability, resides in a basic devil's bargain between French agriculture and German industry. In Farmers on Welfare, a landmark new account of the making...... on extensive archival research from a variety of political actors across the Community, she illustrates how and why this supranational farm regime was created in the 1960s, and also provides us with a detailed narrative history of how national and European administrations gradually learned about this kind...

  4. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...

  5. Disentangling the 'New Liberal Dilemma': on the relation between general welfare redistribution preferences and welfare chauvinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; van Oorschot, W.

    2012-01-01

    In the present ‘Age of Migration’, public policy as well as social scientists are puzzled by the ‘New Liberal Dilemma’ (Newton, 2007) of finding popular support for welfare programs that have been installed in times of cultural homogeneity. In this article, we are interested in the question of

  6. Examination of heavy-ion collisions using EPOS model in the frame of BES program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Maria

    2017-08-01

    EPOS is a generator which allows one to simulate various types of collisions of divers systems with different initial parameters. It considers the parton-based Gribov-Regge theory. So far the EPOS model has been used to describe higher collision energies obtained with RHIC or LHCy data. On the other hand, there is another program under investigation: Beam Energy Scan conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The beams of gold ions are collided at energies such as √sNN - 7:7; 11:5; 19:6; 27; 39, and 62.4 GeV in order to collect and analyze data needed in examination of QGP Phase Diagram. The EPOS model could become a useful tool in such studies. Simulated with EPOS data will be verified using elliptic flow analyses and two-particles femtoscopic correlations, which allow one to measure the size of sources determined by newly created particle.

  7. Evaluation of breast self-examination program using Health Belief Model in female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Moodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Due to the role of breast self-examination (BSE in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting student knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard. This study was conducted to evaluation BSE education in female University students using Health Belief Model. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 243 female students were selected using multi-stage randomized sampling in 2008. The data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire (43 questions before intervention and one week after intervention. The intervention program was consisted of one educational session lasting 120 minutes by lecturing and showing a film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5 using statistical paired t-test and ANOVA at the significant level of α = 0.05. Results: 243 female students aged 20.6 ± 2.8 years old were studied. Implementing the educational program resulted in increased knowledge and HBM (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and barrier scores in the students (p ≤ 0.01. Significant increases were also observed in knowledge and perceived benefit after the educational program (p ≤ 0.05. ANOVA statistical test showed significant difference in perceived benefit score in students of different universities (p = 0.05. Conclusions: Due to the positive effects of education on increasing knowledge and attitude of university students about BSE, the efficacy of the HBM in BSE education for female students was confirmed.

  8. A prospective examination of disease management program use by complex cardiac outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely, Shannon; Reid, Robert D; Oh, Paul; Ross, Heather; Stewart, Donna E; Grace, Sherry L

    2012-01-01

    The use of disease management programs (DMPs) by patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with improved outcomes. Although rates of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) use are well established, less is known about other DMPs. The objectives of this study were to describe the degree of DMP utilization by CVD outpatients, and examine factors related to use. This study represents a secondary analysis of a larger prospective cohort study. In hospital, 2635 CVD inpatients from 11 hospitals in Ontario Canada completed a survey that assessed factors affecting DMP utilization. One year later, 1803 participants completed a mailed survey that assessed DMP utilization. One thousand seventy-three (59.5%) participants reported using at least 1 DMP. Overall, 951 (52.7%) reported participating in cardiac rehabilitation, and among participants with a comorbid indication, 212 (41.2%) reported attending a diabetes education centre, 28 (25.9%) attended stroke rehabilitation, 35 (12.9%) used a heart failure clinic, and 13 (11.7%) attended a smoking cessation program. A multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that compared with no DMP use, participants that attended 1 or multiple programs were younger, married, diagnosed with a myocardial infarction, less likely to have had a percutaneous coronary intervention and had higher perceptions of personal control over their heart condition. There were few differences between participants that used 1 vs multiple DMPs, however, having diabetes or comorbid stroke significantly increased the likelihood of multiple DMP use. Approximately 40% of CVD outpatients do not access DMPs. An integrated approach to vascular disease management appears warranted. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  10. Factors influencing moisture analysis in the 3013 destructive examination surveillance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scogin, J. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    Thermogravimetric analysis of a solid sample with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) of the evolved gas is used in the destructive examination (DE) portion of the Integrated Surveillance Program to quantify the moisture content of the material stored in a 3013 container. As with any measurement determined from a small sample, the collection, storage, transportation, and handling of the sample can affect its ability to represent the properties of the bulk material. During the course of the DE program, questions have periodically arisen concerning the ability of the moisture sample to reflect reliably the actual moisture content of the entire material stored in the 3013 container. Most concerns are related to the ability to collect a representative sample and to preserve the moisture content of the sample between collection and analysis. Recent delays in analysis caused by maintenance issues with the TGA-MS instrument presented a unique opportunity to document and quantify the effects various factors have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. This report will use recent data to document the effects that current sample collection and handling practices have on the TGA-MS moisture measurement. Some suggestions will be made which could improve the current sample collection and handling practices for the TGA-MS moisture measurement so that the analytical results more accurately reflect the moisture content of the material stored in the 3013 container.

  11. The Examination of a Pullout STEM Program for Urban Upper Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Daniel L.; Eckhoff, Angela; Stewart, Craig O.; Chappell, Shanan; Hathcock, Stephanie

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a pullout STEM program (STARBASE) makes reading and math scores decrease and examine its impact on urban fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students' attitudes and perceptions regarding STEM education and careers. We employed a mixed-methods, case study approach that involved two published and one indigenous instrument composed of Likert scales, semantic differential scales, and open-ended items, along with structured interviews. Results indicate that it is possible for reading, math, and social studies scores to be unaffected when implementing a STEM pullout program, as adjusted trends (for ethnicity and socioeconomic status) are not statistically different from those of non-STARBASE school divisions in the area. Additionally, the Black/White achievement gap, as measured by standardized test scores, was substantially closed over the last decade within STARBASE schools. Quantitative measures revealed few differences in student attitudes from pre- to posttest. Student qualitative responses were overwhelmingly positive. Students wanted more STARBASE time in the regular school year. Students, particularly Black students, also wanted an increase in career education opportunities. Implications regarding curricular changes aimed at STEM education and model adoption are addressed.

  12. Natural Disasters, Household Welfare, and Resilience: Evidence from Rural Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arouri, Mohamed; Nguyen, Cuong; Youssef, Adel Ben

    2015-01-01

    The study uses commune fixed-effects regressions to estimate the effect of natural disasters on welfare and poverty of rural households in Vietnam, and subsequently examines household and community...

  13. The Welfare Effects of Price Advertising with Basket Shopping: Structural Estimates from Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines welfare effects of the informative price advertising in the supermarket retail industry, using structural estimation approaches and individual scanner data. Supermarket retailers use promotions (advertised price cuts) to announce sales as a competing instrument...... promotion intensities are socially excessive. Moreover, the welfare implications are determined by the two opposite effects of price advertising: (1) the informing and therefore welfare-improving effect, and (2) the welfare-harming effect that higher transportation costs incur when promotions are used...

  14. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare coalition. Non...

  15. MICROCREDIT, MICROENTERPRISES AND SOCIAL WELFARE OF THE RURAL POOR IN NORTH-EASTERN TRINIDAD: AN EVALUATION OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Esnard-Flavius

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between microcredit, microenterprises, and the social welfare of the rural poor in north-eastern Trinidad. Guided by the main propositions of social capital theory, the researchers held 45 semi-structured interviews with active participants/clients within a case study research design. The data showed that access to microcredit through Helping Others Prosper Economically (HOPE positively affected their microenterprises and social welfare, though marginally. Findings also revealed that fragmented social relations within the network, conflict, distrust, and the loose structure of the program limited the impact of their access to microcredit on social welfare as well as the financial potential of the lending organisation, that is, HOPE. It is the contention of this paper, therefore, that such questionable social relations dynamics 'hijack' the promise of collective social networks as exercised through goodwill and resource building. Implications of this study and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Child well-being in an era of welfare reform: the sensitivity of transitions in development to policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela; Duncan, Greg J; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the age-specific pattern of effects of welfare policies on child achievement. Drawing from 7 random-assignment welfare and antipoverty evaluations that provided more than 30,000 observations of children's achievement, this study found that times of developmental transition are the only periods sensitive to the changes in families brought about by these policies. More specifically, small positive effects of welfare and antipoverty policies were found for children making the transition into middle childhood, and small negative effects of these same policies were found for children making the transition out of middle childhood and into early adolescence. Effects were robust across various program groupings and could not be attributed to family characteristics that differ for children of different ages. This research informs the understanding of how changes in employment and income for low-income parents affect development across childhood. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare.

  18. Shrinking the Public Safety Net or Helping the Poor Play by the Rules? The Changes in the State-Level Policies That Affected Low-Income Families with Children in the Welfare Reform Era: 1994-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratani, Yumiko; Lu, Hsien-Hen; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the claimed success of the 1996 Welfare Reform, little research using multivariate regression has examined changes in multiple public safety-net programs. Thus, we still do not know whether public safety-net programs for the poor have shrunk or increased nationwide, along with the sharp declines in cash assistance. Using state-level data…

  19. A Descriptive Survey of Anesthesiology Residency Simulation Programs: How Are Programs Preparing Residents for the New American Board of Anesthesiology APPLIED Certification Examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Robert S; Chen, Fei; Arora, Harendra; Martinelli, Susan M; Zvara, David A; Stiegler, Marjorie P

    2017-09-01

    Anesthesiology residency programs may need new simulation-based programs to prepare residents for the new Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) component of the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) Primary Certification process. The design of such programs may require significant resources, including faculty time, expertise, and funding, as are currently needed for structured oral examination (SOE) preparation. This survey analyzed the current state of US-based anesthesiology residency programs regarding simulation-based educational programming for SOE and OSCE preparation. An online survey was distributed to every anesthesiology residency program director in the United States. The survey included 15 to 46 questions, depending on each respondent's answers. The survey queried current practices and future plans regarding resident preparation specifically for the ABA APPLIED examination, with emphasis on the OSCE. Descriptive statistics were summarized. χ and Fisher exact tests were used to test the differences in proportions across groups. Spearman rank correlation was used to examine the association between ordinal variables. The responding 66 programs (49%) were a representative sample of all anesthesiology residencies (N = 136) in terms of geographical location (χ P = .58). There was a low response rate from small programs that have 12 or fewer clinical anesthesia residents. Ninety-one percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 84%-95%) of responders agreed that it is the responsibility of the program to specifically prepare residents for primary certification, and most agreed that it is important to practice SOEs (94%; 95% CI, 88%-97%) and OSCEs (89%; 95% CI, 83%-94%). While 100% of respondents reported providing mock SOEs, only 31% (95% CI, 24%-40%) of respondents provided mock OSCE experiences. Of those without an OSCE program, 75% (95% CI, 64%-83%) reported plans to start one. The most common reasons for not having an OSCE program already in place

  20. Programmatic approaches to assessing and improving animal welfare in zoos and aquariums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Joseph C E

    2009-11-01

    There continues to be intense public, professional, and scientific focus on the welfare of animals in zoos and aquariums, but implementing welfare assessment tools consistently throughout this community remains challenging. Indirect measures can be used to assess "welfare potential"-the potential that animals will experience good welfare based on the care that they are provided with. Zoos and aquariums focus on welfare potential with their continued commitment to develop animal care guidelines (e.g. Animal Care Manuals) that can play a role within institutional accreditation or certification. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums Animal Welfare Committee has been pursuing approaches to maximize welfare potential by developing the concept of an integrated welfare approach or framework-an attempt to identify recommended animal care programs (e.g. enrichment, nutrition, veterinary care, research, and animal training programs) and their programmatic components. Objectively assessing the influence that animal care recommendations have on the welfare of individual animals is important to determine the efficacy of programmatic approaches. The future of welfare assessment within zoos and aquariums will include population-level evaluations-tracking emerging trends in health and behavior that come from both formal and informal institutional animal reports. Sharing this information, and performing meta-analyses of the data using epidemiological approaches, will become easier with advances in technology and database management software. Identifying welfare "red/green flags" throughout captive populations will provide direction for more focused assessments that will ultimately inform the design of more effective animal care programs.

  1. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we...

  2. Robotics for social welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández Cossío

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Supported by developments in the field of social robotics, virtual worlds and ICT tools it is possible to build new solutions in health and welfare. Two projects are described in this article. They are intended to improve efficiency and quality of current therapeutic procedures. The ESTIMULO project improves emotional and cognitive status of people with dementia using a reactive pet-robot. The ELDERTOY project modifies the classical concept from the toy industry to develop a new solution for the aged people. ELDERTOY involves a double purpose, fun and therapeutic. In a complementary way, these projects aim to be an example of the breaking of the technology gap both of seniors and of people with disabilities. Therefore, the ultimate goal is to promote and adapt scientific and technological knowledge to be applied to improve significantly the standard of quality of life in society.

  3. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    relevant objects of study. Innovation strategy and research traditionally regards innovation as a set of phases. The purpose of this paper is to enhance ‘phase’ models by adding to them a ‘driver’ model which may provide an appropriate strategy for studying and supporting the innovation potential...... of routines), and iii) purposes (i.e. values and visions). The model can assist the acknowledgment of initiatives that hold a potential for innovation, but risk being overlooked by phase models. The model points to the necessity to anchor innovation strategies in existing knowledge, routines, and values......Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...

  4. Prospects for a European Animal Welfare Label from the German Perspective: Supply Chain Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabell Franz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Government of Germany as well as the European Commission are discussing the establishment of an animal welfare label. This label should enable consumers to make a conscious purchasing decision on animal welfare products. Various studies show that many consumers (in Germany around 20 % prefer products produced under animal friendly conditions. However, the supply of such products is limited. The following study examines the source of this discrepancy by way of an action-based analytical approach and identifies different barriers within the supply chain that prevent the establishment of a market segment for animal welfare products. Although consumer demand will be decisive for long-term success, first of all the stakeholders of the supply chain must be convinced. If the stakeholders are not prepared to participate in an animal welfare program the diffusion phase can take a very long time or even fail. This study presents such supply chain barriers and interprets them in the light of neo-institutionalism.

  5. Effects of Educating Local Government Officers and Healthcare and Welfare Professionals in Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hirayasu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health issue. In Japan, local governments are responsible for suicide prevention, and local government officers are therefore expected to act as gatekeepers for suicide prevention. In this study, through a questionnaire survey, the authors examined the current knowledge and attitudes concerning suicide prevention among local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals, and the effects of providing suicide prevention education on their knowledge of and attitudes toward suicide and its prevention. One hundred eighty-three local government officers and 432 healthcare/welfare professionals completed the survey before and after a single education session. Before the session, the local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals showed mainly positive attitudes toward suicide prevention efforts, with little difference between the two groups. After the training, knowledge and attitudes were further improved for most questionnaire items. Respondents with one or more experiences of suicide prevention training showed significantly more knowledge and positive attitudes before the training than those with no such experience. Moreover, knowledge of depression and having a sympathetic attitude were found to be especially associated with the overall attitude that “suicide can be prevented”. Training in suicide prevention was shown to be effective in promoting appropriate knowledge and attitudes among local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals who are gatekeepers for preventing suicide. Our findings confirm the importance of suicide prevention education, and will contribute to creating a standard educational program on suicide prevention in Japan.

  6. The Relationship between Physical Therapist Assistant Faculty Characteristics and Program Outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Malorie Kosht

    2009-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of published literature regarding the correlation between faculty characteristics and outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (NPTE-PTA). Purpose. To determine if there was a relationship between faculty characteristics in PTA educational programs and program outcomes…

  7. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Examination of Community Art Education Programs in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ryan; Kim, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted comparative cross-cultural research to examine a select group of the available and more noteworthy art education organizations and their programs after observing significant differences in the community art education programs offered in Tucson, Arizona, and Anyang, South Korea. The study reports several major differences…

  8. 46 CFR 176.620 - Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... program, or if a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) is used during the program, the preliminary exam step may... condition. If only divers are used for the underwater survey portion of the examination process, you may... every five years, with no more than three years between any two AHEs. The OCMI may waive an underwater...

  9. Community College First-Year Experience Programs: Examining Student Access, Experience, and Success from the Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Gil, Nancy; Zerquera, Desiree D.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines community college first-year experience programs using critical race theory and ecological theory. The study draws on diverse students' experiences with access, support, and long-term success within community colleges to assess how these programs foster student success, as told through the voices of student participants.

  10. Relations between Prestige Rankings of Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs and Scores on the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, James M.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between "U.S. News and World Report" 2008 rankings of clinical psychology doctoral programs and scores earned by graduates on the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP). For the top 25 programs, relationship between ranking and EPPP scores was not significant, r[subscript s] = -0.28. EPPP scores…

  11. An Examination of How Knowledgeable and Skilled Elementary Principals Lead Special Education Programs in Alabama: Four Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Richard Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased the importance of having principals who are not only effective leaders of general education programs but knowledgeable and skilled in special education and able to effectively lead special education programs. The researcher examined four principals of elementary schools (i.e., kindergarten through…

  12. Diversity Inclusion in 4-H Youth Programs: Examining the Perceptions among West Virginia 4-H Youth Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVergne, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here sought to examine the perceptions of 4-H youth professionals towards diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. A majority of professionals positively reported that there are benefits for youth of color and youth with disabilities in 4-H youth programs. Respondents indicated that the lack of information about 4-H youth…

  13. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test methods focusing particularly on bulk electrical test methods that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As nuclear power plants consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it is important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program, however, is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB, however, is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other nondestructive examination (NDE) tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. Assessment of cable integrity is further complicated in many cases by vendor’s use of dissimilar material for jacket and insulation. Frequently the jacket will degrade more rapidly than the underlying insulation. Although this can serve as an early alert to cable damage, direct test of the cable insulation without violating the protective jacket becomes problematic. This report addresses the range of bulk electrical NDE cable tests that are or could be practically implemented in a field-test situation with a particular focus on frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). The FDR test method offers numerous advantages

  14. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of welfare reform on marriage and divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne P. Bitler; Jonah B. Gelbach; Hilary W. Hoynes; ZAVODNY, Madeline

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) was to end the dependency of needy parents on government benefits, in part by promoting marriage. The pre-reform welfare system was widely believed to discourage marriage because it primarily provided benefits to single mothers. However, welfare reform may have actually decreased the incentives to be married by giving women greater financial independence via the program's new emphasis on work. This p...

  16. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  17. Dietary nitrogen and fish welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conceicao, L.E.C.; Aragao, C.; Dias, J.; Costas, B.; Terova, G.; Martins, C.I.; Tort, L.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when

  18. Governance Strategies and Welfare Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Using an original dataset from the Vietnamese catfish sector, we study the impact of vertical coordination options on household welfare and the implications of different stages of vertical coordination for the success of the whole sector. The welfare gain from contract farming and employment...

  19. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  20. A description of Medical Examiner prescription-related deaths and prescription drug monitoring program data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Roneet; Petro, Sean; Lee, Oren; Lucas, Jonathan; Stuck, Amy; Vilke, Gary M; Castillo, Edward M

    2016-03-01

    The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention have declared prescription drug abuse an epidemic in the United States. However, demographic data correlating prescription-related deaths with actual prescriptions written is not well described. The purpose of this study is to compare toxicology reports on autopsy for prescription-related deaths with Prescription Drug Monitor Program (PDMP) data. This is a retrospective analysis comparing 2013 San Diego Medical Examiner data on 254 unintentional prescription-related deaths obtained for 12 months before death with data from the California PDMP. Data were analyzed on age, sex, whether there was information on the PDMP, types and quantities of prescribed medications, number of pharmacies and providers involved, and whether there was a match between the Medical Examiner toxicology report and data from the PDMP. In 2013, there were 254 unintentional prescription-related deaths; 186 patients (73%) had PDMP data 12 months before death. Ingesting prescription medications with illicit drugs, alcohol, and/or over-the-counter medications accounted for 40% of the unintentional deaths. Opioids were responsible for the majority of single medication deaths (36; 70.6%). The average number of prescriptions was 23.5 per patient, and the average patient used 3 pharmacies and had 4.5 providers. Chronic prescription use was found in 68.8% of patients with PDMP data. The PDMP data highlight important patterns that can provide valuable insight to clinicians making decisions regarding types and amounts of medications they prescribe. Although there is no guaranteed solution to prevent prescription-related deaths, PDMP data can be useful to prevent coprescribing and medication interaction and by following best clinical practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Welfare Economic Dogmas: A Reply to Sagoff

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cookson

    1996-01-01

    This article examines Sagoff's criticisms of 'Four Dogmas of Environmental Economics' (Environmental Values, Winter 1994) and argues that none of them are fatal. Many of the criticisms appear to rest on general misunderstandings about welfare economics. One misunderstanding is that transaction costs are theoretically indistinguishable from regular production costs. The theoretical distinction is that transaction costs vary under alternative policies and institutions whereas production costs a...

  2. Lifestyle change influences on GERD in Japan: a study of participants in a health examination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Kouichi; Mihara, Syuuichi; Marubayashi, Toru; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Yutaka

    2011-10-01

    Though gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been a prevalent disease in Western countries, the incidence of GERD has only just started to increase in Japan. The aim of this study was to determine which lifestyle factors may be associated with GERD in Japan. A total of 2,853 participants who took part in a health examination program between July 2004 and March 2005 were enrolled. GERD symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Carlsson-Dent self-administered questionnaire (QUEST). The GERD group consisted of participants with a QUEST score ≥6 and/or endoscopic findings. The GERD group was divided into asymptomatic ERD (erosive reflux disease with no symptoms), symptomatic ERD (erosive reflux disease with symptoms) and NERD (non-erosive reflux disease) groups. Associated factors for these diseases were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. GERD was diagnosed in 667 (23.4%) participants. Among the subjects placed in the GERD group, asymptomatic ERD, symptomatic ERD and NERD were diagnosed in 232 (8.1%), 91 (3.2%) and 344 (12.1%) participants, respectively. Factors associated with GERD included a high BMI (body mass index), hiatus hernia, fewer hours of sleep, lack of exercise, and drinking green tea. Relationships between lifestyle, gender and GERD were investigated in the present study. Both lifestyle improvements and consideration of gender differences can be used to help prevent GERD development.

  3. Medication-Assisted Treatment Improves Child Permanency Outcomes for Opioid-Using Families in the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martin T; Wilfong, Jordan; Huebner, Ruth A; Posze, Lynn; Willauer, Tina

    2016-12-01

    Parents who use opioids and are involved in the child welfare system are less likely to retain custody of their children than parents who use other drugs. No previous studies have described medication-assisted treatment (MAT) utilization and child permanency outcomes for this population. The Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Team (START) model is a child welfare-based intervention focused on families with co-occurring substance use and child abuse / neglect issues. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of MAT utilization among parents in the START program with a history of opioid use, and compared child outcomes for families who received MAT services to those who did not. Of the 596 individuals with a history of opioid use in the START program, 55 (9.2%) received MAT. Receipt of MAT services did not differ by gender, age, county of residence, or drug use, though individuals who identified as White were more likely to participate in MAT. In a multiple logistic regression model, additional months of MAT increased the odds of parents retaining custody of their children. To address barriers to MAT, results-focused educational interventions may be needed for the child welfare workforce, as well as programs to improve collaboration and decision-making between the child welfare workforce, court personnel, and drug addiction treatment providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparing Welfare and Other Low-Income Adults for Work and Better Jobs: A Report on Low-Income Students Enrolled in Colleges and the Start-Up of WorkFirst Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia. Education Div.

    This is a report on Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges' assistance of low-income adults under the state's welfare reform initiative, WorkFirst. Current and former welfare students attending community and technical colleges comprise 9% of all college student enrollments. Combining work and training leads to higher wages.…

  5. A Qualitative Examination of Challenges Influencing Doctoral Students in an Online Doctoral Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate the challenges faced by students in completion of an online doctoral program at the University of Liverpool, Online Doctoral Business Administration program. We analyse the responses of 91 doctoral students in an online DBA program. Based on the exploratory qualitative study themes were developed…

  6. Farm workers’ perception of animal welfare – A Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals depends on development in production systems, economic drivers and regulation but also human factors – such as farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare, management strategies, communication, knowledge and training. In this study I have examined the perception of animal...... welfare among farm workers employed at five different Danish farms (pig, dairy cattle and mink). The methodology employed ethnographic field studies during daily work at the farms and qualitative interviews with 23 farm workers, of which some are of Danish nationality and others from other countries....

  7. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects related to (perceived) overpopulation of wildlife

  8. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  9. An examination of science teachers' learning in a laboratory-based professional development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, Melissa Lynn

    Professional development generally refers to the collection of activities that systematically increase teachers' knowledge of academic subjects and advance teachers' understanding of instructional strategies. Given the complexity of the reform initiatives for science education in the United States of America as set forth by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996), professional development might provide a bridge for aligning teacher practice with national standards (Loucks-Horsley, 1995). However, the current model of professional growth, focused largely on expanding a repertoire of skills, is not adequate (Little, 1993). Understanding teacher learning theory and utilizing research on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) could be the differentiating factor for science teacher professional development; if utilized in design and evaluation, they may promote both knowing science in context and knowing how to tailor science learning to the needs of students (Shulman, 1987). The purpose of this study was to investigate how the Laboratory Science Teacher Professional Development Program (LSTPD), a three year professional development model that immerses teachers in learning science content through inquiry, impacts teachers' learning and classroom practice. It first aimed to analyze teacher learning and PCK; second, it examined their views on professional development; and third, whether they anticipate adapting their practice to include facets of their laboratory experience. Participants were teachers in their second or third year of participation in LSTPD. The study followed a qualitative case study design and made use of in-depth interviews and observations to examine teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practice. The study drew on a constructivist framework. Findings demonstrated that teachers' understanding of content, inquiry, and science as a living enterprise were greatly increased, and that

  10. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...... (with at least three members) and its participation constraint if and only if the aggregate income to that coalition is always maximized. An impossibility result demonstrates that there is no welfare maximizing allocation method in which agents' individual incomes monotonically increase in society...

  11. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless......This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  12. Skill level, Cognitive Ability, Unemployment and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of that workers may not be ableto estimate their true costs of acquiring skills. Consequently, too fewworkers may acquire skills. This allows for the possibility that subsidizingeducation is welfare improving. Furthermore, if the presence of skill......-biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....

  13. An Examination of the Feasibility of Integrating Motivational Interviewing Techniques into FCS Cooperative Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunovich, Heidi Liss; Ellis, Sarah; Spangler, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Demonstrating program impact through behavior change is critical for the continued success of Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) Cooperative Extension programming. However, the literature suggests that simply providing information to participants does not necessarily lead to behavior change. This study pilot tested the integration of Motivational…

  14. Does Teaching Experience Matter? Examining Biology Teachers' Prior Knowledge for Teaching in an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Abell, Sandra K.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Brown, Patrick L.; Lankford, Deanna M.; Volkmann, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative certification programs (ACPs) have been proposed as a viable way to address teacher shortages, yet we know little about how teacher knowledge develops within such programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate prior knowledge for teaching among students entering an ACP, comparing individuals with teaching experience to those…

  15. Examining the Need for Chinese Language Programs in Mid-Atlantic Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhey, Ruth Ann Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Public education reform designed for K-12 and higher education exists to transform teaching and learning within the United States in order to graduate today's student. One specific initiative on the federal, state, and local levels is the implementation of Chinese language programs. Some of the Chinese language programs in the K-12 education…

  16. Examining the Association between the "Imagination Library" Early Childhood Literacy Program and Kindergarten Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Shahin; Bush, Andrew J.; Sell, Marie; Imig, Doug

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated participation in the "Imagination Library" early childhood literacy enrichment program and children's pre-literacy and pre-numeracy skills at kindergarten entry in an urban school district. Previous studies have demonstrated that program participation is associated with greater early childhood reading practices.…

  17. Recidivism, Disciplinary History, and Institutional Adjustment: A Quantitative Study Examining Correctional Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamer, Eric, Sr.

    2012-01-01

    Establishing college-degree programs for prison inmates is an evidence-based effective instructional strategy in reducing recidivism. Evaluating academic arenas as a resource to improve behavior and levels of functioning within correctional facilities is a necessary component of inmate academic programs. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  18. Recruitment Strategies Aiming to Attract Females into Undergraduate Engineering Programs: Examining Their Role and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstine, Julie Anne

    2013-01-01

    By 2009, the percentage of women who graduated with general undergraduate degrees had increased to almost 58% of all students who completed 4-year degree programs (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009a). These percentages, however, have not been reflected in the enrollment rates of females into undergraduate engineering programs. In…

  19. Examining Relationships among Choice, Affect, and Engagement in Summer STEM Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beymer, Patrick N; Rosenberg, Joshua M; Schmidt, Jennifer A; Naftzger, Neil J

    2018-01-22

    Out-of-school time programs focused on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) have proliferated recently because they are seen as having potential to appeal to youth and enhance STEM interest. Although such programs are not mandatory, youth are not always involved in making the choice about their participation and it is unclear whether youth's involvement in the choice to attend impacts their program experiences. Using data collected from experience sampling, traditional surveys, and video recordings, we explore relationships among youth's choice to attend out-of-school time programs (measured through a pre-survey) and their experience of affect (i.e., youth experience sampling ratings of happiness and excitement) and engagement (i.e., youth experience sampling ratings of concentration and effort) during program activities. Data were collected from a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 10-16 year old youth (n = 203; 50% female) enrolled in nine different summer STEM programs targeting underserved youth. Multilevel analysis indicated that choice and affect are independently and positively associated with momentary engagement. Though choice to enroll was a significant predictor of momentary engagement, positive affective experiences during the program may compensate for any decrements to engagement associated with lack of choice. Together, these findings have implications for researchers, parents, and educators and administrators of out-of-school time programming.

  20. Turning Policy into Practice: Examining the Relationship between Policy, Research, and Program Development in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Catherine; Jennings, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between policy, research, and program development in mathematics teacher education. In particular, it considers the influences of policy and research along with social, economic, and cultural factors in the conceptualization and development of an undergraduate mathematics teacher education program in…

  1. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  2. Transfers, Taxes, and Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Haveman, Robert; Scolex, John Karl

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need inability of past administrations to pass any welfare reform and gives an overview of an antipoverty policy. Shows that the poverty problem goes beyond tax reform and includes education, crime and violence.

  3. Connecting Hispanic Women in Baltimore to the Mercy Medical Center Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners/Forensic Nurse Examiners Program: A Preliminary Assessment of Service Utilization and Community Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Margaret; Fitzgerald, Sheila; Holbrook, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence and gender-based violence represent a major public health problem causing significant negative mental, physical, and social outcomes for victims. The rapidly growing population of Hispanic women in Baltimore are both more vulnerable to sexual assault and less able to access postassault services. In an effort to assess service utilization and community awareness of the Mercy Medical Center Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners/Forensic Nurse Examiners Program, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 2,322 women who were seen by the program between 2010 and 2013 and found that only 2.5% of the women were identified as Hispanic, about half of what Baltimore City demographic data would predict. This exploratory pilot project, augmented by key informant interviews, reveals that Hispanic women are underutilizing sexual assault services. Multiple barriers exist for Hispanic women in obtaining victim services, including lack of awareness within the community that the services exist, cultural factors, language barriers, lack of awareness of legal rights, and a fear of deportation.

  4. Examining Sustainability Factors for Organizations that Adopted Stanford’s Chronic Disease Self-Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Michiyo; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, funds were received to replicate Stanford’s Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) among eldercare providers in Honolulu. This case study, conducted 1 year after the close of the initial 3-year replication grant, explored factors for sustaining the delivery of CDSMP, with an aim to create guidelines for cultivating sustainability. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with one representative from each of eight eldercare agencies, with the representative specified by the agency. Representatives discussed the presence and strength (low, medium, or high) of sustainability factors, including readiness, champions, technical assistance, perceived fit of CDSMP with their agency, CDSMP modifiability, perceived benefits of CDSMP, and other. Only three of the eight agencies (38%) were still offering CDSMP by the end of 2010. Agencies who sustained CDSMP rated higher on all sustainability factors compared to those that did not sustain the program. Additional factors identified by representatives as important were funding and ongoing access to pools of elders from which to recruit program participants. When replicating evidence-based programs, sustainability factors must be consciously nurtured. For example, readiness must be cultivated, multiple champions must be developed, agencies must be helped to modify the program to best fit their clientele, evaluation findings demonstrating program benefit should be shared, and linkages to funding may be needed. PMID:25964896

  5. Welfare systems, ageing and work: an OECD perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Visco

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the scale of the demographic problem facing OECD economies and the labour market trends among older workers, considering the macroeconomic implications of welfare provision for ageing on living standards and fiscal balances. The nature and the scale of incentives for early retirement are then discussed, concluding that welfare systems in OECD countries will come under increasing pressure as the share of public pension payments on total welfare outlays could rise dramatically over the coming decades. The paper illustrates some of the recent OECD recommendations for responding to the challenges posed by ageing societies in the context of diverse social welfare systems and concludes that policies are urgently needed in a number of countries to pursue two fundamental objectives: increasing the average number of years individuals spend active in the labour force and raising the sources of provision for an adequate retirement income.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF WEB-BASED EXAMINATION SYSTEM USING OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMMING MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    ABASS, Olalere A.; OLAJIDE, Samuel A.; SAMUEL, Babafemi O.

    2017-01-01

    The traditional method of assessment (examination) is often characterized by examination questions leakages, human errors during marking of scripts and recording of scores. The technological advancement in the field of computer science has necessitated the need for computer usage in majorly all areas of human life and endeavors, education sector not excluded. This work, Web-based Examination System (WES) was, therefore, born out of the will to stymie the problems plaguing the conventional (pa...

  7. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  8. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are ma...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  9. Development of Web-Based Examination System Using Open Source Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Olalere A.; Olajide, Samuel A.; Samuel, Babafemi O.

    2017-01-01

    The traditional method of assessment (examination) is often characterized by examination questions leakages, human errors during marking of scripts and recording of scores. The technological advancement in the field of computer science has necessitated the need for computer usage in majorly all areas of human life and endeavors, education sector…

  10. Examination and Implementation of a Proposal for a Ph.D. Program in Administrative Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    recommendation; and the Graduate Management Admission Test ( GMAT ) scores or the Graduate Record Examination Test (GRE). Non-native English students must...personal essays; letters of recommendation; and the G.aduate Management Admission Test ( GMAT ) scores or the Graduate Record Examination Test (GRE

  11. Examining ethics - developing a comprehensive exam for a bioethics master's program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Toby; Stoddard, Hugh; Labrecque, Cory Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Assessing mastery of bioethics in a graduate program requires careful attention not simply to the content knowledge and skill development of students but also to the principles of sound assessment processes. In this article, we describe the rationale, development process, and features of the comprehensive exam we created as a culminating experience of a master's program in bioethics. The exam became the students' opportunity to demonstrate the way they were able to integrate course, textual, and practical knowledge gained throughout the experience of the program. Additionally, the exam assessed students' proficiency in the field of bioethics and their ability to critically and constructively analyze bioethical issues. In this article, we offer tips to other exam creators regarding our experiences with question and answer development, scoring of the exam, and relationships between coursework and exam preparation and completion. We also include a sample rubric for others to see how we determined which student answers were satisfactory.

  12. An empirical examination among Canadian teachers of determinants of the need for employees' assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron; Schwartz, Hanit

    2002-06-01

    The goal of this study was to propose and test a model of the determinants of the need for employees' assistance programs. The research model proposed six independent variables related to employees' assistance programs: organizational support, personal coping, negative spillover, occupational commitment, job satisfaction, and tenure. The model proposed that the relationship between the independent variables and the need for employees' assistance programs was not direct but was mediated by work-nonwork conflict and job stress. Questionnaires were mailed to employees of a school district in western Canada, and 300 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 42%. The research model received modest support from the data. Some of the fit indices were not as strong as expected. On the other hand, the conceptual model was supported.

  13. Examining the Permanence of the Effect of an Empathy Program for the Acquisition of Empathy Skills on Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedim Bal, Pervin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the permanence of the effect of an Empathy Training Program, administered 8 months ago on gifted adolescents studying in 6th and 7th grades. The sample of this study consisted of 60 students with IQ scores of above 130 and studied in Enderun Gifted Children Center. Bryant's Empathy Scale for Children was administered to…

  14. Examining Intercultural Growth for Business Students in Short-Term Study Abroad Programs: Too Good to Be True?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullekson, Nicole L.; Tucker, Mary L.; Coombs, Garth, Jr.; Wright, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in ethnocentrism, intercultural communication apprehension, international awareness and activities were examined in business students participating in a 16-day consulting program abroad and compared to a control group of students at the home university. Anticipated changes in the study abroad students were found; however, when compared to…

  15. Examination of Student, Program, and Institutional Support Characteristics That Relate to PGA Golf Management Students' Intent to Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The examination of student (entry characteristics, academic performance, career goals, and interaction with peers and faculty), program (programmatic interventions, academic major, and learning communities), and institutional support characteristics (financial aid and residence) that relate to cohort intent to persist are studied among 490 PGA…

  16. Examining the Efficacy of a Brief Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (Brief MBSR) Program on Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Possemato, Kyle; Cheon, Sanghyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine potential psychological health benefits of participating in a brief (5-week) mindfulness-based stress reduction (brief MBSR) program integrated into an academic course. Participants: Participants were 119 undergraduate students (treatment: "n" = 72; control: "n" = 47) enrolled…

  17. Head Start Program Quality: Examination of Classroom Quality and Parent Involvement in Predicting Children's Vocabulary, Literacy, and Mathematics Achievement Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoli; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; Korfmacher, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Guided by a developmental-ecological framework and Head Start's two-generational approach, this study examined two dimensions of Head Start program quality, classroom quality and parent involvement and their unique and interactive contribution to children's vocabulary, literacy, and mathematics skills growth from the beginning of Head Start…

  18. Set up for Success: An Examination of the Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program's Mentoring Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyre, Dwuena Cene

    2011-01-01

    Often, individuals are set up to fail. However, effective mentoring can set individuals up to succeed. This nonexperimental cross-sectional, predictive study examines the Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program's mentoring component. Specific focus is placed on faculty mentor competency and its impact on McNair student intent to…

  19. 46 CFR 71.50-27 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program options: Divers or underwater remotely operated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Divers or underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV). 71.50-27 Section 71.50-27 Shipping COAST GUARD...-27 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program options: Divers or underwater remotely operated vehicle.... (b) You may use an underwater ROV to conduct the underwater survey. The underwater ROV operating team...

  20. Examination of Sign Language Education According to the Opinions of Members from a Basic Sign Language Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav

    2016-01-01

    Being hearing impaired limits one's ability to communicate in that it affects all areas of development, particularly speech. One of the methods the hearing impaired use to communicate is sign language. This study, a descriptive study, intends to examine the opinions of individuals who had enrolled in a sign language certification program by using…

  1. Factors Related to Outcome in a School-Based Intensive Mental Health Program: An Examination of Nonresponders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne K.; Roberts, Michael C.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Nyre, Joseph E.; Randall, Camille J.; Puddy, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    We examined factors related to treatment responders (n = 35) and nonresponders (n = 16) in a group of 51 children admitted to the Intensive Mental Health Program (IMHP). Children's response to treatment was coded based on their functioning at intake and discharge using total CAFAS scores. Demographic variables, length of treatment, number of…

  2. Prompting All Students to Learn: Examining Dynamic Assessment of Special Needs and Typical Students in a Prekindergarten Inclusive French Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalla, Michele; Peker, Hilal

    2017-01-01

    This study examined a teacher's prompting strategies and the use of dynamic assessment (DA) in an inclusive prekindergarten French program. Prior research has shown that DA is an effective method to assess both foreign language learning and first language development for typically developing students and for students with special needs, as well as…

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF WEB-BASED EXAMINATION SYSTEM USING OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMMING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalere A. ABASS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method of assessment (examination is often characterized by examination questions leakages, human errors during marking of scripts and recording of scores. The technological advancement in the field of computer science has necessitated the need for computer usage in majorly all areas of human life and endeavors, education sector not excluded. This work, Web-based Examination System (WES was, therefore, born out of the will to stymie the problems plaguing the conventional (paper-based examination system by providing a campus-wide service for e-assessment devoid of irregularities and generally fair to examinees and equally enhances instant feedback. This system developed using combination of CSS, HTML, PHP SQL MySQL and Dreamweaver is capable of reducing proportion of workload on examination, grading and reviewing on the part of examiners. Thus, the system enables the release of examination results in record time and without error. WES can serve as an effective solution for mass education evaluation and offers many novel features that cannot be implemented in paper-based systems, such as real time data collection, management and analysis, distributed and interactive assessment towards promoting distance education.

  4. Welfare Reform & the Health of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Kimberly Danae Cauley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This dissertation explores the relationship between welfare reform and the health of single mothers with less than a high school diploma or GED (LESMS) by addressing six research questions: (1) what impact did welfare reform have on the health insurance coverage of LESMS, (2) what impact did welfare reform have on the annual medical provider contact of LESMS, (3) what impact did welfare reform have on the health outcomes of LESMS, (4) what impact did welfare reform have on the fede...

  5. The Labor Supply Effects of Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    Will welfare reform increase unemployment and reduce wages? The answer depends in part on how much welfare reform increases labor supply. This paper considers the labor supply effects of the welfare reforms that have occurred since 1993, when President Clinton entered office with a promise to "end welfare as we know it." The paper reviews previous estimates, and provides new estimates, of how many additional labor force participants have entered the labor force due to welfare reform. I estima...

  6. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  7. Improving Scientific Inquiry for Social Work in South Korea: The Center for Social Welfare Research at Yonsei University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Choi, Soochan; Kim, Yujin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines current social issues and welfare needs in South Korea and discusses societal efforts to respond to these needs through social welfare systems nationwide. It also reviews how social work scholars, major contributors to the creation of a Korean welfare state, have contributed to the conditions of social work practice by…

  8. Do driver training programs reduce crashes and traffic violations? — A critical examination of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C. Peck

    2011-03-01

    There is no evidence or reason to believe that merely lengthening the number of hours on the road will increase effectiveness. Programs directed toward attitude change and risk taking better address the underlying cause of the elevated crash risk of young drivers but these behaviors are notoriously resistant to modification in young people.

  9. Examining science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the context of a professional development program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongsopawiro, Dirk Soenario

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of science teachers during a professional development program. This research intended to help us understand why and how teachers make their classroom decisions as they teach science. The main questions in this study were: What is

  10. Examining Students' Perceptions of Globalization and Study Abroad Programs at HBCUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stevon; Bukenya, James O.; Thomas, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore students' perceptions of globalization and the study abroad programs at HBCUs (historically black colleges and universities). Recent statistics reveal that in spite of the current growth in the number of US students receiving academic credit for their overseas academic experience, less than one percent of…

  11. Re-Examination of Traditional Admissions Criteria in Predicting Academic Success in a Counselor Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Gregory T.; Lawrence, Christopher; Coaston, Susannah C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate the validity of traditional admissions criteria--UGPA and GRE scores--in predicting academic success for students admitted to a counselor education program in the United States. In contrast to prior research, we also included the newer GRE-Analytical Writing scores in our analyses. In general, we found…

  12. Examining the Preliminary Efficacy of a Dating Violence Prevention Program for Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Guerra, Jessica E.; Cummings, Amanda A.; Pino, Karen; Becerra, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a dating violence (DV) prevention program for Cuban American adolescents ("JOVEN"/YOUTH: "Juntos Opuestos a la Violence Entre Novios"/Together Against Dating Violence). A randomized-controlled experimental design with a delayed condition was used to evaluate…

  13. Competency-Based Education in Three Pilot Programs: Examining Implementation and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Lewis, Matthew W.; Santibanez, Lucrecia; Faxon-Mills, Susannah; Rudnick, Mollie; Stecher, Brian M.; Hamilton, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation created the Project Mastery grant program to support competency-based education initiatives in large school systems that serve a high proportion of disadvantaged youth. Competency-based education meets students where they are academically, provides students with opportunities for choice, and awards…

  14. Worksite health promotion program participation: a study to examine the determinants of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Examination of Individual Differences in Participation in Outplacement Program Activities after a Job Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowan, Mary A.; Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship among age, gender, and race relative to participation in self-awareness, action-oriented, and training activities after a job loss. Main effects were found for gender and for Age x Employment status. Implications of the study for outplacement programs, along with study limitations and future research directions, are…

  16. Curricular Abstinence: Examining Human Sexuality Training in School Counselor Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behun, Richard Joseph; Cerrito, Julie A.; Delmonico, David L.; Campenni, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Professional school counselors (PSCs; N = 486) rated their level of perceived preparedness acquired in their school counselor preparation program with respect to knowledge, skills, and self-awareness of five human sexuality domains (behavior, health, morality, identity, violence) across grade level (elementary vs. secondary) and three human…

  17. New Teacher Perceptions of Inclusive Practices: An Examination of Contemporary Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleas, Eleftherios Kyprianos

    2015-01-01

    This article details a sequential explanatory mixed-method study into the perceptions of 44 new teachers regarding inclusive practices from their teacher education program, as well as their relative intent to utilize them in their practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the self-perceived capacity of the next generation of teachers…

  18. A Dynamical Systems Theory Examination of Social Connections in Outdoor Recreation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental time period in which social connections are an important aspect to fostering positive growth and identity. Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) programs are strategically positioned to help in this developmental process because of the novel social environment, however, little is known about how these types of social…

  19. An Examination of Job Skills Posted on Internet Databases: Implications for Information Systems Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Liu, Lai C.; Koong, Kai S.; Lu, June

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 300 information technology job postings in two Internet databases identified the following skill categories: programming languages (Java, C/C++, and Visual Basic were most frequent); website development (57% sought SQL and HTML skills); databases (nearly 50% required Oracle); networks (only Windows NT or wide-area/local-area networks);…

  20. An Examination of the Humane Values Education Program on a Group of Science High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmac, Bulent; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan; Eksi, Halil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out whether the humane values education program has produced any changes on the students' level of humane values. The research was conducted with the first- and second-grade students in Konya Meram Science High School in the 2006-2007 academic year. Thirty students participated in the study. Half of the…

  1. Services used by perinatal substance-users with child welfare involvement: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann Kenneth J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use during pregnancy often leads to involvement in the child welfare system, resulting in multiple social service systems and service providers working with families to achieve successful child welfare outcomes. The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI is a care coordination program developed to work with perinatal substance-users to optimize opportunities for reunification and promote permanency for substance-exposed infants. This paper describes services used by VIP-RI participants and child welfare outcomes. Methods Data collected during the first four years of VIP-RI were used to identify characteristics of program participants, services received, and child welfare outcomes: closed child welfare cases, reunification with biological mothers and identified infant permanent placements. Descriptive Results Medical and financial services were associated with positive child welfare outcomes. Medical services included family planning, pre- and post-natal care and HIV test counseling. Financial services included assistance with obtaining entitlement benefits and receiving tangible support such as food and clothing. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest services that address basic family needs were related to positive child welfare outcomes. The provision of basic services, such as health care and financial assistance through entitlement benefits and tangible donations, may help to establish a foundation so mothers can concentrate on recovery and parenting skills. Identification of services for perinatal substance users that are associated with more successful child welfare outcomes has implications for the child welfare system, treatment providers, courts and families.

  2. Predicting successful dental examinations for children with autism spectrum disorder in the context of a dental desensitization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Travis; Chim, Amelia; Sheller, Barbara L; McKinney, Christy M; Scott, JoAnna M

    2017-07-01

    The authors evaluated the effectiveness of a dental desensitization program for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and determined characteristics associated with a successful dental examination. The authors performed a retrospective review of clinical behavioral data and previsit questionnaires for 168 children with ASD who attended a university-based dental desensitization program. Data elements included demographic, treatment, and behavioral characteristics. The primary outcome was receiving a minimal threshold examination (MTE) while seated in a dental chair. An MTE was achieved for 77.4% of all children within 1 to 2 visits and 87.5% in 5 visits or less. Several factors predicted a successful dental examination: ability to be involved in group activities (relative risk [RR], 1.18; P = .02), ability to communicate verbally (RR, 1.17; P dental care for children with ASD. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Horvath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  4. [Application of objective structured clinical examination system in pediatric dental education for 8-year-program and 5-year-program students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Jiang, Yang; Zhou, Zhi-Fei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-02-01

    To explore a more comprehensive and objective method for dental students examination, and improve the quality of pediatric dental education. Fifteen 8-year-program students and 30 5-year-program dental students from School of Stomatology, the Fourth Military Medical University were enrolled in this study. Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), traditional diadactic test and questionnaires were carried out in all students. The scores of the two testing methods between students in 2 groups were compared using SPSS 11.5 software package. The average score of OSCE for 8-year-program students was significantly higher than that of 5-year-program students. In contrast, the traditional test score of 8-year-program students was significantly lower than that of 5-year-program students. Most students accepted OSCE and approved the evaluation system combining OSCE with traditional test. As a comprehensive, objective and effective evaluation system, OSCE is helpful for students to master knowledge and improve clinical ability.

  5. Native American Indian child welfare system change: implementation of a culturally appropriate practice model across three tribal child welfare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Maria; Iannone, Mary A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are 565 federally recognized tribes in the United States who are independent sovereign nations. These tribes have varying capacities to manage and administer child welfare programs. Most provide some type of child welfare service to the children and families within their tribal land. However, there are no national resources to document the number of children in foster care or the extent of abuse and neglect in the families served by tribal child welfare agencies. Information is only known about those Native American/Alaska Native families and children who are reported to state child protection agencies. Native American children represented 0.9% of all children in the United States in the late 1990s, but they comprised 3.1% of the substitute care population in state-run child welfare systems (Morrison, et al., 2010). Incident rates of child welfare referrals, substantiated referrals, and foster care placement among Native American children and families are relatively high compared to other ethnic groups (Earle & Cross, 2001) but precise interpretation of Native American status is difficult due to variations in child welfare reporting systems (Magruder & Shaw, 2008).

  6. ENHANCING BPK RI’S AUDIT DESIGN FOR PEOPLE’S WELFARE: A PRACTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Kadek Suartama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2016-2020 Strategic Plan of BPK RI necessitates audits to be conducted to advance people’s welfare at the greatest extent possible as a reflection of growing maturity of BPK RI as an accountability organization. This would require BPK RI to be able to examine and evaluate whether government’s development programs under RPJMN have achieved the desired outcomes or impact of increasing people’s welfare. This paper aimed to find a practical approach to enhance BPK RI’s audit design in order to be able to contribute to the optimization of people’s welfare as required under the new vision of Renstra 2016- 2020. The authors use their experience on the recent formulation of ‘BPK RI’s Audit Policy 2016- 2020’ (Kebijakan Pemeriksaan 2016-2020, in which the authors are actively involved. The authors also use reviews of existing audit design and study on relevant theoretical and academic literatures that provide the overarching study framework. The study concluded that BPK audits should be designed toward national development programs in RPJMN 2015-2019 which correlate directly with or possessing great leverage in the achievement of welfare indicators. KEYWORDS Welfare, Audit Design, Planning, RPJMN ABSTRAK Renstra BPK 2016-2020 mensyaratkan pemeriksaan-pemeriksaan BPK dilaksanakan sedemikian rupa sehingga dapat mendorong terwujudnya pembangunan untuk sebesar-besar kemakmuran rakyat sebagai refleksi dari peningkatan kematangan BPK. Pemeriksaan BPK diharapkan mampu menilai dan mengevaluasi apakah program-program pembangunan yang didesain atau ditetapkan dalam RPJMN telah mencapai outcome maupun dampak yang diinginkan yaitu meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mencari pendekatan praktis untuk memperkuat desain audit BPK agar dapat berperan untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan rakyat seperti yang disyaratkan dalam Rentstra 2016-2020. Penulis menggunakan pengalaman profesional dalam membangun formula Kebijakan

  7. Report Examines U.S. Federal Earth Science Education and Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-08-01

    A new report that looks at 25 U.S. federal Earth science education and training programs found that they provide a wide range of opportunities for students and the interested public and help prepare students for Earth science careers. However, the programs—which range from elementary school opportunities to postdoctoral fellowships—could benefit from better networking among the programs and from incorporating rigorous assessments to determine their success. According to the 9 August report issued by a committee of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC), Earth science education in general should improve the pathway to move students along from education to the workforce and should redouble efforts to attract and retain women and underrepresented minorities.

  8. Examining the Effectiveness of a Case Management Program for Custodial Grandparent Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenora Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have identified complex needs of custodial grandparent families and lack of access to needed resources such as housing, financial and legal assistance, and health care. Case management links these families with needed services while helping them develop skills to promote their health and well-being. This paper describes a case management program for custodial grandparent families using a nurse-social worker case management team. data were collected from 50 grandparents and 33 children using surveys and semi-structured instruments. Physical and mental health outcomes were measured using Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF 12 to measure the perceived quality of health for grandparents and the Child Behavior Checklist to measure the emotional and behavioral functioning of grandchildren. Grandparents more positively perceived their mental health after participating in the program. Perceptions about physical health were generally the same before and after the program. Grandparents' reported that many grandchildren had emotional and behavioral problems in the clinical range. These findings highlight the need for further research on the mental health needs of children being parented by grandparents as well as determining effective models and interventions to minimize adverse effects of parenting on grandparents.

  9. Examination of Lifestyle Behaviors and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in University Students Enrolled in Kinesiology Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, Gina M; Lutsch, Andrea; Connors, Kimberly E; Shearer, Jane; Brown, Haley C; Ash, Garrett; Pescatello, Linda S; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Barfield, Whitney; Dubis, Gabriel; Houmard, Joseph A; Hoffman, Eric P; Hittel, Dustin S

    2016-04-01

    Preventing physical inactivity and weight gain during college is critical in decreasing lifelong obesity and associated disease risk. As such, we sought to compare cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors between college students enrolled in kinesiology and non-kinesiology degree programs to assess whether health and exercise degree programs may influence health behaviors and associated disease risk outcomes. Anthropometrics, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and HbA1c%, blood pressure, and peak oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) were assessed in 247 healthy college students. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA) was calculated using glucose and insulin levels. Self-reported physical activity from the Paffenbarger questionnaire was collected to estimate the average caloric expenditure due to different types of physical activities. Despite no significant differences in body mass index or waist circumference between groups, kinesiology majors presented with ∼20% lower fasting insulin levels and HOMA (p = 0.01; p Kinesiology majors reported increased weekly participation in vigorous-intensity sport and leisure activities and, on average, engaged in >300 metabolic equivalent-h·wk, whereas non-kinesiology majors engaged in kinesiology degree programs display improved healthy behaviors and associated outcomes (parameters of glucose homeostasis). Practical outcomes of this research indicate that implementing components of a comprehensive kinesiology curriculum encourages improved health behaviors and associated cardiometabolic risk factors.

  10. Examining Student Feedback in Writing Assessment: Validation Inquiry in a Writing Placement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Kristen M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the use of student feedback as support in a validation study of university writing placement practices. Using interviews with seventeen incoming first year students, this study examined student experiences constructing and submitting writing portfolios as opposed to taking a timed essay test. Also, this study…

  11. Summer Study-Abroad Program as Experiential Learning: Examining Similarities and Differences in International Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Kenneth J.; Garland, Michelle E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the study-abroad experience enhances intercultural communication competence. This study used Bennett's (1986, 1993) model of ethnorelative typology of acceptance, adaptation, and integration to explore intercultural communication competency. Central to intercultural communication competency is intercultural sensitivity and…

  12. Examining the Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Preschool Curriculum: The REDI Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford DeRousie, Rebecca M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an evidence-based preschool curriculum (Head Start REDI) was sustained by 20 teachers during the year following a randomized controlled efficacy trial, when teachers were no longer required by the research project to implement the curriculum. Two quantitative measures of sustainability (teacher ratings, REDI…

  13. 46 CFR 176.630 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conducting the hull examination; (b) The name of the participating diving contractor and underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) company accepted by the OCMI under § 176.650 of this part; (c) The name and... damage, underwater body cleanliness (if known), and the anticipated draft of the vessel at the time of...

  14. Examining the Literature to Reveal the Nature of Community EE/ESD Programs and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Olivia M.

    2018-01-01

    Interest in community environmental education (EE) and community education for sustainable development (ESD) is increasing, as evidenced by the increase in studies examining community EE/ESD approaches and NAAEE's current development of the Community EE Guidelines for Excellence. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to: (1) provide a review of…

  15. USAGE OF ANKI SPECIALISED PROGRAM APPLICATION DURING FUTURE BORDER GUARD OFFICERS’ INDEPENDENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING FOR PASSING STATE EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor H. Bloshchynskyi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Usage of Anki specialised program application during cadets’ independent foreign language professional training at the National Academy of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine named after Bohdan Khmelnytskyi who study on specialty «State border security and protection» according to the first (bachelor level of training of higher education for passing state examinations has been revealed in the article. Special attention is given to working out of teaching material (vocabulary decks and cards for the future border guard officers` training according to the following sections of Anki program: studying of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, word combinations, expressions for interviewing of foreign citizens, etc.

  16. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    the welfare State and other realms of life, such as their family and neighborhood, threatening to take away their children (to crime, to prison, to foster families or to the divorced partner, etc). The paper conceptualizes immobility and confinement as embedded in the contrary; a continuous spatial placement......The paper is a short presentation of a central theme in my PhD thesis, which revolves around the way the welfare State is approached as dangerous by parents struggling to keep their family from falling apart. The thesis is an excavation of the risks and dangers they navigate in relation to both...

  17. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  18. Welfare State Changes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that welfare states ensure a certain level of social protection affecting levels of well-being and the extent of inequalities in society. Changes within crucial domains of social policy, such as education, health, or social protection, have, therefore, a major effect upon...... individuals’ opportunities. In this article I compare the effects of these changes in two countries from the mid-1980s to the financial crisis of 2008. Portugal that was a latecomer in welfare state development and Denmark was at the forefront of de-commodification and universalization of social rights...

  19. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore......Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...

  20. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  1. "Does e-Commerce Always Increase Social Welfare in the Long Run?"

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We examine the effect of electronic commerce ("e-commerce") on social welfare, in the framework of conventional spatial competition models. We consider the case where both conventional and electronic retailers coexist in equilibrium. We show that e-commerce does not necessarily increase social welfare in the long run. In particular, when electronic retailers have clear cost advantage over conventional retailers, then the advent of e-commerce is shown to reduce social welfare.

  2. Defining Eligible Families in Public Housing and Welfare: the Traditions, Values, and Legalities of Family Form

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Charlotte Charlene

    2002-01-01

    DEFINING ELIGIBLE FAMILIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING AND WELFARE:THE TRADITIONS, VALUES, AND LEGALITIES OF FAMILY FORM By:Charlotte C. Johnson This paper examines how the definition of family, within Federal public housing and welfare policy, corresponds with changes in family patterns in America from 1950 to 2000. The definition of family as used to determine welfare eligibility is extremely important not only for how it defines recipients of cash aid but also because of how it af...

  3. Identity and Ideology: Welfare Managers' Understanding of "Self-Sufficiency" in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackuelyn Towne-Roese

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using telephone interviews with 100 welfare-to-work program managers in North Carolina, we examine the ways in which manager identities shape the perceptions of challenges and barriers to achieving client self-sufficiency and the ways in which these managers would make changes to the welfare-to-work program. Drawing from Watkins-Hayes (2009 and (author citation, we find that manager identities are distinct in the ways in which they talk about the program and clients. Social work managers focus on challenges and barriers that are out of the control of the client, such as the economy, and the ways in which they can help clients. Efficiency engineers stress the importance of agency standards and meeting benchmarks to make clients self-sufficient. Conflicted managers however are caught between helping clients and policing them for not meeting agency standards, similar to Lipsky's street-level bureaucrats. We find that manager identities coincide with perceptions of challenges and barriers in relation to clients’ inability to achieve self-sufficiency and with the changes that managers would make to the program in North Carolina.

  4. Graduate Student Placement: An Examination of Experience and Career Barriers in a Student Affairs Professional Preparation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative descriptive study examined the job placement success and challenges of graduate students in a higher education and student affairs professional preparation program at a mid-size public institution in the U.S. Specifically, this study investigated the impact of curricular standards in the form of supervised practice (i.e., internships and graduate assistantships on the job placement rate of recent alumni. In addition, perceived barriers in the job search process were investigated and examined comparatively by gender. Findings suggest that current curricular standards may not be sufficient for successful placement and that men and women do not differ significantly with respect to perceived barriers in their job search process. Implications for practice include a re-evaluation of curricular standards for student affairs professional preparation programs and a greater understanding of what factors and barriers contribute to successful graduate student placement.

  5. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  6. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagebiel Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas

  7. Context Matters for Social-Emotional Learning: Examining Variation in Program Impact by Dimensions of School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E; McClowry, Sandee G

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines whether three dimensions of school climate-leadership, accountability, and safety/respect-moderated the impacts of the INSIGHTS program on students' social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Twenty-two urban schools and N = 435 low-income racial/ethnic minority students were enrolled in the study and received intervention services across the course of 2 years, in both kindergarten and first grade. Intervention effects on math and reading achievement were larger for students enrolled in schools with lower overall levels of leadership, accountability, and safety/respect at baseline. Program impacts on disruptive behaviors were greater in schools with lower levels of accountability at baseline; impacts on sustained attention were greater in schools with lower levels of safety/respect at baseline. Implications for Social-Emotional Learning program implementation, replication, and scale-up are discussed.

  8. From Crisis to De-escalation: An Examination of Politics in a U.S. High School Steroid Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Brennan K; Winsley, Kathryn; Fuller, Rhema D; Hutchinson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Preventing the use of performance enhancing drugs in sport has long been a concern for policymakers. In the United States, amidst national attention the state of Texas constructed the country's largest steroid testing program for high school athletes. However, resource allocation steadily declined until the program was defunded in 2015. Using escalation of commitment theory as a framework, this conceptual paper examines the critical, but less studied, role of politics and de-escalation behavior that directed this distinct sport situation. By combining policy and media documents with the academic literature, this paper allows for a greater understanding of how the steroid testing program was formulated and implemented, which may influence how policymakers address steroids among amateur athletes in the future. This paper also offers new opportunities for future research by highlighting a new sport context in which escalation of commitment theory applies and specifically noting the significant role politics can play in escalation or de-escalation decision making.

  9. Examining the response programming function of the Quiet Eye: Do tougher shots need a quieter eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters-Symons, Rosanna; Wilson, Mark; Klostermann, Andre; Vine, Samuel

    2017-10-23

    Support for the proposition that the Quiet Eye (QE) duration reflects a period of response programming (including task parameterisation) has come from research showing that an increase in task difficulty is associated with increases in QE duration. Here, we build on previous research by manipulating three elements of task difficulty that correspond with different parameters of golf-putting performance; force production, impact quality and target line. Longer QE durations were found for more complex iterations of the task and furthermore, more sensitive analyses of the QE duration suggest that the early QE proportion (prior to movement initiation) is closely related to force production and impact quality. However, these increases in QE do not seem functional in terms of supporting improved performance. Further research is needed to explore QE's relationship with performance under conditions of increased difficulty.

  10. Examining the Sensory Profiles of At-Risk Youth Participating in a Pre-employment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Kwan Shea Ph.D., OTR/L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to use Dunn’s model of sensory processing to investigate the sensory profiles of youth participating in a community-based occupational therapy pre-employment program. The youth participants had been involved in the juvenile justice system and were placed on probation. The studyanalyzed data from the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP questionnaires (Brown & Dunn, 2002 completed by 79 youth participants. Analysis of the participants’ scores on the AASP showed statistically significant differences from the norm in two quadrants; the delinquent youth scored lower in Sensation Seeking and higher in Sensation Avoiding. The delinquent youth participants demonstrated a high prevalence of atypical sensory processing patterns. Implications for further investigation and practice are discussed.

  11. From work to welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Liversage, Anika

    2017-01-01

    Using a mixed methods approach, this article examines gendered patterns of employment and of unemployment benefit uptake among Turkish marriage migrants in Denmark. The results show that men use co-ethnic networks to access entry positions. Subsequent eligibility for unemployment benefits enable...... these men to search for better jobs. Women enter employment more slowly and tell of such entry being related to entering the unemployment insurance system, enabling them to periodically conform to gendered expectations as homemakers. Pakistani marriage migrants display similar patterns, indicating...

  12. Examining mixing methods in an evaluation of a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzner, Anne; Lawrenz, Frances P; Thao, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Three different methods were used in an evaluation of a smoking cessation study: surveys, focus groups, and phenomenological interviews. The results of each method were analyzed separately and then combined using both a pragmatic and dialectic stance to examine the effects of different approaches to mixing methods. Results show that the further apart the methods are philosophically, the more diverse the findings. Comparisons of decision maker opinions and costs of the different methods are provided along with recommendations for evaluators' uses of different methods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future...

  14. Dietary nitrogen and fish welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Luis E C; Aragão, Cláudia; Dias, Jorge; Costas, Benjamín; Terova, Genciana; Martins, Catarina; Tort, Lluis

    2012-02-01

    Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations are used to feed fish. In addition, it intends to evaluate the current possibilities, and future prospects, of using improved dietary nitrogen formulations to help fish coping with predictable stressful periods. Both metabolomic and genomic evidence show that stressful husbandry conditions affect AA metabolism in fish and may bring an increase in the requirement of indispensable AA. Supplementation in arginine and leucine, but also eventually in lysine, methionine, threonine and glutamine, may have an important role in enhancing the innate immune system. Tryptophan, as precursor for serotonin, modulates aggressive behaviour and feed intake in fish. Bioactive peptides may bring important advances in immunocompetence, disease control and other aspects of welfare of cultured fish. Fishmeal replacement may reduce immune competence, and the full nutritional potential of plant-protein ingredients is attained only after the removal or inactivation of some antinutritional factors. This review shows that AA metabolism is affected when fish are under stress, and this together with sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations may affect fish welfare. Furthermore, improved dietary nitrogen formulations may help fish coping with predictable stressful events.

  15. Social Welfare Activism in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marie Juul

    , this interest tends to focus on secular organisations and institutions, overlooking religious ones, although these make up a large part of Jordanian civil society. Particularly interesting are the country's many Muslim social welfare organisations, engaged in activities such as education, health care...

  16. Measuring Welfare of Productive Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn the last few decades an increasing number of economists have contributed to new methods of welfare (or utility) measurement. As set out in this journal (Tinbergen, 1985) three groups of economists have been active in this field since 1968, initially relatively independently; an

  17. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  18. STRESS AND ANIMAL-WELFARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEPKEMA, PR; KOOLHAAS, JM

    When individual vertebrates loose grip on their life conditions stress symptoms appear and their welfare becomes problematic. Present day research supports the view that stress can originate when an organism experiences a substantial reduction of predictability and/or controllability (P/C) of

  19. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future of the wel......This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future...... to be of particular importance: (1) A civic order of worth, defining individualism and welfare consumerism as the big problems while emphasizing the need for every citizen to mentally step out of their selfish state of mind and care more for others and society as such. (2) A domestic order of worth stating...... of worth stating welfare dependency to be one of the big problems and stressing the need for individual responsibility and for giving structural incentives for such behaviour....

  20. Intercultural Health Care and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen har fokus på undervisning, planlægning, udvikling og evaluering af et internationalt tværfagligt valgfag Intercultural Health Care and Welfare, der udbydes på Det Sundhedsfaglige og Teknologiske Fakultet på Professionshøjskolen Metropol. Ifølge den tysk-amerikanske professor Iris Varner og...

  1. Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Colin

    1999-01-01

    An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

  2. Trained-user opinion about Welfare Quality measures and integrated scoring of dairy cattle welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaf, S.; Ampe, B.; Winckler, C.

    2017-01-01

    conducted an online survey to examine whether trained users' opinions of the WQ protocol for dairy cattle correspond with the integrated scores (criteria, principles, and overall categorization) calculated according to the WQ protocol. First, the trained users' scores (n = 8–15) for reliability and validity...... important by trained users (e.g., measures relating to drinkers) had the highest influence on the WQ overall welfare categorization. Conversely, measures rated as most important by the trained users (e.g., lameness and mortality) had a lower effect on the WQ overall category. In addition, trained users were...... asked to allocate criterion and overall welfare scores to 7 focal herds selected from the database (n = 491 herds). Data on all WQ measures for these focal herds relative to all other herds in the database were provided. The degree to which expert scores corresponded to each other, the systematic...

  3. The insights of health and welfare professionals on hurdles that impede economic evaluations of welfare interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J; Plaete, J; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Annemans, L; Simoens, S

    2017-08-01

    Four hurdles associated with economic evaluations in welfare interventions were identified and discussed in a previous published literature review. These hurdles include (i) 'Ignoring the impact of condition-specific outcomes', (ii) 'Ignoring the impact of QoL externalities', (iii) 'Calculation of costs from a too narrow perspective' and (iv) 'The lack of well-described & standardized interventions'. This study aims to determine how healthcare providers and social workers experience and deal with these hurdles in practice and what solutions or new insights they would suggest. Twenty-two professionals of welfare interventions carried out in Flanders, were interviewed about the four described hurdles using a semi-structured interview. A thematic framework was developed to enable the qualitative analysis. The analysis of the semi-structured interviews was facilitated through the use of the software program QRS NVivo 10. The interviews revealed a clear need to tackle these hurdles. The interviewees confirmed that further study of condition-specific outcomes in economic evaluations are needed, especially in the field of mental health and stress. The proposed dimensions for the condition-specific questionnaires varied however between the groups of interviewees (i.e. general practitioners vs social workers). With respect to QoL externalities, the interviewees confirmed that welfare interventions have an impact on the social environment of the patient (friends and family). There was however no consensus on how this impact of QoL externalities should be taken into account in welfare interventions. Professionals also suggested that besides health care costs, the impact of welfare interventions on work productivity, the patients' social life and other items should be incorporated. Standardization appears to be of limited added value for most of the interviewees because they need a certain degree of freedom to interpret the intervention. Furthermore, the target population of

  4. The Animal Welfare Act, USDA, & research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, V Wensley

    2003-03-01

    In the above discussion, the concept and evolution of IACUC oversight of research facility animal care and use programs and common USDA citations concerning these programs was reviewed. The majority of USDA citations are program-related and involve both IACUC and veterinary care functions. Common IACUC-related citations concern inadequacies involving required information in protocols (such as rationales for the species and numbers used and descriptions of the procedures proposed), searches for alternatives to painful or distressful procedures, and minimization of pain and distress. Common veterinary care citations concern inadequacies involving veterinary care facilities, daily observation of the animals, and veterinary care itself (e.g., maintaining inadequate records or using expired medications). IACUC's are advised to ensure that their program records are comprehensive enough to demonstrate that their facility's animal care and use program complies with the AWA and USDA regulations. The overall ongoing success of self-regulation in the research industry is acknowledged, and APHIS's current concentration on the recognition and alleviation of distress, as well as pain, is noted. In the future, APHIS will continue in its oversight role as IACUC programs continue to evolve in their awareness and application of the advances in pain and distress recognition and management. Together, we will continue to work for the benefit of the animals used in research, whose welfare is so important to the quality of that very research.

  5. Examining the Sustainability of an Evidence-Based Preschool Curriculum: The REDI Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford DeRousie, Rebecca M.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an evidence-based preschool curriculum (Head Start REDI) was sustained by 20 teachers during the year following a randomized controlled efficacy trial, when teachers were no longer required by the research project to implement the curriculum. Two quantitative measures of sustainability (teacher ratings, REDI coach ratings) and a qualitative measure (teacher interview) were collected and compared. Sustainability varied by the specific curriculum component, with higher rates of sustainability for the social-emotional component (Preschool PATHS) than for the language and literacy components. Estimates of sustainability were affected by the method of measurement, with REDI coach ratings and qualitative teacher interviews more closely aligned than teacher ratings. Responses from qualitative interviews identified the main factors that teachers thought affected sustainability. Teacher responses suggest that efforts to promote sustainability are best targeted at reducing barriers, such as competing demands, rather than simply highlighting the benefits of the new curriculum. PMID:22408287

  6. Examining DNA fingerprinting as an epidemiology tool in the tuberculosis program in the Northwest Territories, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Case

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis (TB is an important public health problem in the Northwest Territories (NWT, particularly among Canadian Aboriginal people. Objective. To analyse the transmission patterns of tuberculosis among the population living in the NWT, a territorial jurisdiction located within Northern Canada. Methods. This population-based retrospective study examined the DNA fingerprints of all laboratory confirmed cases of TB in the NWT, Canada, between 1990 and 2009. An isolate of each lab-confirmed case had genotyping done using IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. DNA patterns were assigned to each DNA fingerprint, and indistinguishable fingerprints patterns were assigned a cluster. Social network analysis (SNA was used to examine direct linkages among cases determined through conventional contact tracing (CCT, their DNA fingerprint and home community. Results. Of the 225 lab-confirmed cases identified, the study was limited to 195 subjects due to DNA fingerprinting data availability. The mean age of the cases was 43.8 years (±22.6 and 120 (61.5% males. The Dene (First Nations encompassed 120 of the cases (87.7%, 8 cases (4.1% were Inuit, 2 cases (1.0% were Metis, 7 cases (3.6% were Immigrants and 1 case had unknown ethnicity. One hundred and eighty six (95.4% subjects were clustered, resulting in 8 clusters. Trend analysis showed significant relationships between with risk factors for unemployment (p=0.020, geographic location (p≤0.001 and homelessness (p≤0.001. Other significant risk factors included excessive alcohol consumption, prior infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and prior contact with a case of TB. Conclusions. This study demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting and SNA can be additional epidemiological tools, along with CCT method, to determine transmission patterns of TB.

  7. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfare...... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....

  8. Understanding and addressing racial/ethnic disproportionality in the front end of the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterling, Kathy Lemon; D'Andrade, Amy; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disproportionality in the child welfare system is a complicated social problem that is receiving increasing amounts of attention from researchers and practitioners. This review of the literature examines disproportionality in the front-end of the child welfare system and interventions that may address it. While none of the interventions had evidence suggesting that they reduced disproportionality in child welfare front-end processes, some of the interventions may improve child welfare case processes related to disproportionality and outcomes for families of color.

  9. The Fiscal Impact of EU Immigration on the Universalistic Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    Are inclusive welfare states compatible with free movement of people? For long the nexus between immigration and the welfare state has been perceived as fragile or even unsustainable. In this paper, we examine the fiscal impact of European Union (EU) immigration on the universalistic, tax...... on the December 31st of each year between 2002 and 2013, we analyse EU citizens’ contribution to and consumption of welfare benefits, in order to research the evolution of net fiscal contribution to the welfare state over a long time span. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution...... to the Danish welfare state. Not only have EU citizens paid their way through the welfare system. They have also made a considerable contribution to its fiscal sustainability....

  10. The Fiscal Impact of EU Immigration on the Universalistic Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    Are inclusive welfare states compatible with free movement of people? For long the nexus between immigration and the welfare state has been perceived as fragile or even unsustainable. In this paper, we examine the fiscal impact of European Union (EU) immigration on the universalistic, tax-financed...... on the December 31st of each year between 2002 and 2013, we analyse EU citizens’ contribution to and consumption of welfare benefits, in order to research the evolution of net fiscal contribution to the welfare state over a long time span. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution...... to the Danish welfare state. Not only have EU citizens paid their way through the welfare system. They have also made a considerable contribution to its fiscal sustainability....

  11. Training Program for Cardiology Residents to Perform Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Examination with Portable Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Vicente N; Mancuso, Frederico J N; Campos, Orlando; De Paola, Angelo A; Carvalho, Antonio C; Moises, Valdir A

    2015-10-01

    Training requirements for general cardiologists without echocardiographic expertise to perform focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) with portable devices have not yet been defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate a training program to instruct cardiology residents to perform FCU with a hand-carried device (HCD) in different clinical settings. Twelve cardiology residents were subjected to a 50-question test, 4 lectures on basic echocardiography and imaging interpretation, the supervised interpretation of 50 echocardiograms and performance of 30 exams using HCD. After this period, they repeated the written test and were administered a practical test comprising 30 exams each (360 patients) in different clinical settings. They reported on 15 parameters and a final diagnosis; their findings were compared to the HCD exam of a specialist in echocardiography. The proportion of correct answers on the theoretical test was higher after training (86%) than before (51%; P = 0.001). The agreement was substantial among the 15 parameters analyzed (kappa ranging from 0.615 to 0.891; P < 0.001). The percentage of correct interpretation was lower for abnormal (75%) than normal (95%) items, for valve abnormalities (85%) compared to other items (92%) and for graded scale (87%) than for dichotomous (95%) items (P < 0.0001, for all). For the final diagnoses, the kappa value was higher than 0.941 (P < 0.001; 95% CI [0.914, 0.955]). The training proposed enabled residents to perform FCU with HCD, and their findings were in good agreement with those of a cardiologist specialized in echocardiography. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Reinhard C.; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology—animal welfare—has not been approached through systematic assessment...... and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals...... months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs...

  13. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal ...

  14. Welfarism and extra-welfarism: a critical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Viegas Seixas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rules and principles for guiding decision-making in the health care sector have been debated for decades. Here, we present a critical appraisal of the two most important paradigms in this respect: welfarism and extra-welfarism. While the former deals with the maximization of the overall sum of individual utilities as its primary outcome, the latter has been focusing on the maximization of the overall health status. We argue that welfarism has three main problems: (1 its central idea of overall sum of individual utilities does not capture societal values decisively relevant in the context of health; (2 the use of the Potential Pareto Improvement brings an unresolvable separation between efficiency and equity; and (3 individual utility may not be a good measure in the health sector, given that individuals might value things that diminish their overall health. In turn, the extra-welfarist approach is criticized regarding four main limitations: (1 the advocated expansion of the evaluative space, moving from utility to health, may have represented in reality a narrowing of it; (2 it operates using non-explicit considerations of equity; (3 it still holds the issue of “inability to desire” of unprivileged people being considered the best judges of weighing the criteria used to building the health measures; and (4 there is controversial empirical evidence about society members’ values that support its assumptions. Overall, both paradigms show significant weaknesses, but the debate has still been within the realm of welfare economics, and even the new approaches to resource allocation in health care systems appear to be unable to escape from these boundaries.

  15. Multidisciplinary approaches and assessment techniques to better understand and enhance zoo nonhuman animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is a complex concept that encompasses an animal's biological functioning, emotional states, and opportunities to experience a natural life, including the performance of natural behaviors. Further, animal welfare can be viewed as quality of life from the perspective of the animal and thus must consider the animal's subjective experiences. Therefore, assessing and enhancing animal welfare should include multidisciplinary, scientific ventures that strive to create a complete picture of how animals' bodies and minds respond to both aversive and pleasant situations. Practical assessment of animal welfare should include outcome-based measures from the animal that provide information about the individual's welfare as well as resource-based measures that can help identify causes of or risk factors for poor welfare. Increasingly, scientists are examining the emotional states of animals as well as the impact of pain, pleasure, and consciousness on animal welfare. This article discusses approaches such as preference testing, instrumental learning, examination of space and resource use, and qualitative assessments of animal welfare that might be useful and practical for assessing and enhancing welfare in zoo settings.

  16. Social Welfare Policy and Public Assistance for Low-Income Substance Abusers: The Impact of 1996 Welfare Reform Legislation on the Economic Security of Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C

    2008-01-01

    Prior to January 1, 1997, individuals with drug- or alcohol-related disabilities could qualify for federal public assistance through the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. During the welfare reforms of the Clinton administration, this policy was changed resulting in lost income and health care benefits for many low-income substance abusers. This paper examines the historical underpinnings to the elimination of drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) as qualifying impairments for SSI disability payments. Following this, empirical evidence is presented on the effect this policy change had on the subsequent economic security of former SSI DA&A beneficiaries. Findings indicate that study participants that lost SSI benefits suffered increased economic hardship following the policy change. These findings have important implications for future social welfare policymaking decisions.

  17. Health and welfare of organic livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal health and welfare are important principles of organic animal husbandry. In the Netherlands organic animal husbandry has proven to perform better than the conventional sector on many aspects of animal welfare. The Dutch organic animal husbandry sector has recognised animal health and welfare

  18. Come cambia il modello di welfare europeo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2006-01-01

    European welfare states are changing. All countries are witnessing demographic changes, and are experiencing the impact of globalization. These changes, it is expected, will have repercussions for the various welfare states. Against this background, this paper looks at how the welfare states in E...

  19. Is competition between regions welfare increasing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.C. (Gerhard); Stauvermann, P.J. (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    It is generally assumed that competition increases welfare. The main idea behind this assumption is that competition in a market is the best incentive mechanism to produce efficient market outcomes. This is good for social welfare and therefore stimulating competition is welfare increasing.

  20. Examining neural correlates of skill acquisition in a complex videogame training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika S Prakash

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of complex skills is a universal feature of human behavior that has been conceptualized as a process that starts with intense resource dependency, requires effortful cognitive control, and ends in relative automaticity on the multi-faceted task. The present study examined the effects of different theoretically-based training strategies on cortical recruitment during acquisition of complex videogame skills. Seventy-five participants were recruited and assigned to one of three training groups: Fixed Emphasis Training (FET, in which participants practiced the game, Hybrid Variable Priority Training (HVT, in which participants practiced using a combination of part-task training and variable priority training, or a Control group that received limited game play. After 30 hours of training, game data indicated a significant advantage for the two training groups relative to the control group. The HVT group demonstrated enhanced benefits of training, as indexed by an improvement in overall game score and a reduction in cortical recruitment post-training. Specifically, while both groups demonstrated a significant reduction of activation in attentional control areas, namely the right middle frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, participants in the control group continued to engage these areas post-training, suggesting a sustained reliance on attentional regions during challenging task demands. The HVT group showed a further reduction in neural resources post-training compared to the FET group in these cognitive control regions, along with reduced activation in the motor and sensory cortices and the posteromedial cortex. Findings suggest that training, specifically one that emphasizes cognitive flexibility can reduce the attentional demands of a complex cognitive task, along with reduced reliance on the motor network.

  1. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  2. Slipping into and out of welfare: the case of cocoa farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of falling into and out of welfare between cocoa seasons was examined using panel data sets collected in two waves from 366 cocoa farming households in Southwestern, Nigeria. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics and the Markovian Model Analysis. The welfare status were decomposed into ...

  3. Decision support system for overall welfare assessment in pregnant sows. B. Validation by expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of a model that is embedded in a computer-based decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows in housing and management systems. The so-called SOWEL (SOw WELfare) model was constructed using a formalized procedure to identify and weight

  4. Governmental Disability Welfare Expenditure and National Economic Growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to describe the welfare expenditure for people with disabilities and examine its relation to national economic growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan. We analyzed data mainly from the information of population with disabilities, disability welfare expenditure and national economic growth and gross national…

  5. Pediatric Health Assessments of Young Children in Child Welfare by Placement Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Arnold-Clark, Janet S.; McDaniel, Dawn; Xie, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To describe health-related problems across placement types (unrelated foster, kin foster, in-home with birth parent); to examine the association of placement and demographic/child welfare variables (child gender, age, race/ethnicity; caregiver language; type of maltreatment, and length of time receiving services from child welfare)…

  6. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties: Retention Among Child Welfare-Involved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods: Twenty-five…

  7. Christian Feminism in Action: Kate Cocks's Social Welfare Work in South Australia, 1900-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trethewey, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Utilizing a biographical approach and network analysis, this article examines one South Australian woman's life of public and Methodist social welfare service in the post-suffrage era. It is argued that although Kate Cocks (1875-1954) viewed her welfare work as "a God-given mission", as "practical Christian service", personal…

  8. Welfare state reform and in-work poverty in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Snel (Erik); J. de Boom (Jan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes the development of in-work poverty in the Netherlands from 1996 until 2005 and examines whether in-work poverty is related to recent social security and welfare state reforms (a new ideology of an ‘activating welfare state’ and numerous policy measures to reduce the

  9. Caregivers' Endorsement of Barriers to Mental Health Services for Children and Youth in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrana, Margarita; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the three most common types of caregivers in the child welfare system (birth parents, relative caregivers, and foster parents), an active child welfare case, caregivers' endorsement of barriers to mental health services and mental health service use by caregivers for the children under their care. The…

  10. Welfare Reform, Work-Family Tradeoffs, and Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Andrew S.; Scott, Ellen K.; Edin, Kathryn; Hunter, Vicki

    2004-01-01

    Welfare reform and related policy changes have altered the context in which welfare-reliant women make choices about employment and family care. Using data from longitudinal qualitative interviews, we examined women's experiences of work-family tradeoffs and how they think their employment affected their children. Women identified multiple…

  11. The effects of social and political openness on the welfare state in 18 OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, F.

    2008-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between globalisation and the welfare state tend to focus on the effects of economic dimensions of globalisation, the extent to which a country is part of the world market. Globalisation also has social and political dimensions and the effects of these on welfare

  12. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Pedersen, John Storm

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is...... blindness, in order to test the legitimacy of the welfare state´s provision of welfare services at the beginning of this century. We propose a new paradigm to improve the welfare state´s legitimacy. Our case is considered critical....

  13. Staff development and employee welfare practices and their effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staff development and employee welfare are valuable assets in an organization since an organization's primary aims are productivity and profitability. Every organization primarily needs committed and dedicated staff that will help the organization to meet its tactical and strategic objectives. The study examines whether staff ...

  14. Welfare Attitudes and Social Expenditure: Do Regimes Shape Public Opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Tor Georg

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the link between regime types, social expenditure, and welfare attitudes. By employing data on 19 countries taken from the World Values Survey, the main aim is to see to what degree the institutions of a country affect the attitudes of its citizens. According to Esping-Andersen ("The three worlds of welfare…

  15. Regional welfare disparities and regional economic growth in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Huy Hoang,

    2009-01-01

    This study had multiple objectives. First, it aimed at examining regional inequality in several welfare variables, such as health and education during the 1998-2004 period, and per capita income over time from 1990 to 2006. The first objective of the study was to gain a better understanding about

  16. Animal rights and welfare advocacy for enhanced food security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tropical conditions of the Nigerian environment favours domestic and wild animal production. It, therefore, not only offers ample investment opportunities in the livestock sub-sector of the economy, but also guarantees food security for the nation. This study examined basic animal welfare rights, and ascertained selected ...

  17. Facilitating Attitudinal Learning in an Animal Behaviour and Welfare MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2017-01-01

    This case study examines the design and facilitation of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) that focused on attitudinal learning about the topic of animal behaviour and welfare. Findings showed that a team of instructors worked together collaboratively towards realising learning goals and found the experience rewarding. While learners had mixed…

  18. Cognitive bias test as a tool for accessing fish welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wojtas

    2015-12-01

    Difference in behaviour during the cognitive bias test suggests that fish cognitive bias can be affected by living conditions. Therefore this type of test should be taken to consideration as a tool in further fish welfare studies. It can be especially useful in studies concerning influence of living conditions that cannot be examined in direct way for example by preference test.

  19. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  20. Examining long-term effects of Cuídate-a sexual risk reduction program in Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, Antonia M; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther C; Ronis, David L

    2010-05-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a safer sex program (Cuídate) on sexual behavior, use of condoms, and use of other contraceptives among Mexican youth 48 months after the intervention. A total of 708 or 85% of those who participated in the original randomized control study (n = 829) were assessed in the 48-month follow-up. Each participant completed a questionnaire on sexual behavior. Findings indicated that adolescents who participated in the Cuídate program were more likely to be older at first sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-2.12; P sexual partners were not significant. Gender did not moderate any intervention effects. Social desirability moderated the effect of the intervention on age at first sex. Results demonstrate the efficacy of Cuídate among Mexican adolescents. Future research, policy, and practice efforts should be directed at sustaining safe sex practices across adolescents' developmental and relationship trajectory.

  1. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  2. The ethics of fish welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J C

    2009-12-01

    The topic of fish welfare in the context of commercial fisheries is a difficult one. From traditionally anthropocentric or human-centred perspectives, fishes are simply objects for humans to use as they see fit. When it is argued that anthropocentrism is arbitrary, it may appear that a strong animal rights position is the only recourse, with the result that humans ought not to use animals in the first place, if it is at all possible. It can be argued that both positions fail to view human beings as part of the natural world. If human beings are viewed as part of the world from which they live, then it has to be asked what it means to be respectful of the animals which humans use and from which they live. From this perspective, concern for the welfare of the fishes humans eat is simply what should be expected from humans as good citizens in the community of living creatures.

  3. Rescaling Welfare Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad Thorgaard, Camilla; Vinter, Henrik

    The report is a contribution to the research project ”Rescaling of Social Welfare Policies: a comparative study on the path towards multilevel governance in Europe”, which is coordinated by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research. The report is a background paper for the project....... It provides background information for understanding the rescaling process in Denmark. The report has a three-fold purpose. First, it describes the contextual conditions within which the rescaling process occurs. Second, it describes the institutional settings in terms of territorial responsibilities...... and competences, identifying the relevant actors involved in policy design, management and delivery. Third, it describes the rescaling process that has occurred in Denmark since the 1980s; it focuses on four policy areas: social assistance and local politics against poverty, employment policy, elder care...

  4. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...... the past quarter of a decade. The third section then concentrates on the differences between Denmark, Sweden and Norway in which social housing is, our was originally, embedded in a universal welfare policy targeting the general level of housing quality for the entire population. Differences stand out...... of the governance model of social housing policy in which the housing associations are conceived of as 'dialogue partners' in the local housing policy, expected to create solutions to, rather than produce problems in social housing areas. The reform testifies to the strategic ability of the Danish social housing...

  5. Post-Communist Welfare Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerami, Alfio; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    countries and across social policy domains. By providing a broad overview based on a theoretical foundation and drawing on recent empirical evidence, Post-Communist Welfare Pathways offers a comprehensive, state-of-the-art account of the progress that has been made since 1989, and the main challenges...... does so by bringing together the leading experts on the subject worldwide. The editors' theoretically well-informed and analytically illuminating and innovative approach to the study of welfare state (self-) transformation, which casts new light on the evolution of domestic and supranational social...... with a stellar line-up of authors that is theoretically sophisticated and empirically rich as it provides insights into the dynamics of change in Central and Eastern European countries since the Fall of the Berlin Wall. The book shows that there are no simple explanations of the transformation of CEECs' social...

  6. The Tyranny Puzzle in Welfare Economics: An empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Fleurbaey; Cowell, Frank A.; Bertil Tungodden

    2010-01-01

    We address a puzzle in welfare economics - the possibility that rational people may be simultaneously against two apparently con‡icting forms of "tyranny." In fact the two types of tyranny can be reconciled but at the possible cost of con‡ict with other standard welfare principles. We examine whether such con‡icts do arise using a questionnaire-experimental study. Our study shows that both tyrannies are rejected by a majority of the parti- cipants, and in many cases also pose a practical prob...

  7. Asian Pacific Islander Community Based Organizations and Welfare Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Marcos

    2000-01-01

    This paper will examine these issues based on a review of the existing literature and the analysis of a survey of forty-eight Los Angeles based API CBOs. The paper is organized into five sections. Section I provides an overview of API CBOs, describing their growth over the last two decades, the scope of services they provide and recent shifts in organizational service and constituency focus. Section II addresses efforts by CBOs under welfare reform to provide effective welfare-to-work and o...

  8. Emigration and welfare in an economy with foreign capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S

    1998-08-01

    Discussion of the brain drain problem in the 1970s sparked considerable theoretical research upon the effects of emigration. In many cases, it has been determined that emigration reduces the level of welfare of the remaining residents in the source country, regardless of whether or not human capital is exported. In an economy producing traded and non-traded goods. Rivera-Batiz demonstrated that the level of welfare of the remaining residents declines as a consequence of emigration or at most remains unchanged. This paper generalizes the Rivera-Batiz model in another direction to examine the effects of emigration upon the welfare of remaining residents when foreign capital is employed in the economy. In contrast to other earlier studies, it is found that emigration improves the welfare of remaining residents if both they and the migrants have identical preferences and factor endowments. The author also compares the welfare implications of remittance flows back to the source country when they are used to finance consumption and when they are used to finance capital accumulation.

  9. [Effectiveness and feasibility of a strategy for increasing participation in the Japanese Stomach Cancer Examination programs by incorporating serum pepsinogen tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, M; Kikuchi, S; Arisue, T; Fukao, A

    1998-04-01

    The number of people examined in "the Japanese Stomach Cancer Examination" programs under "Health Services Law for the Aged" has not increased, and a strategy is needed to increase participation in the programs. We have thought out a plan to persuade people to the programs by using serum pepsinogen tests without changing the framework of the programs. The plan is as follows: The subjects are those who undergo phlebotomy in "the General Health Examination" programs and who do not undergo the Stomach Examination programs. Serum pepsinogen levels are measured using the sera and those with high risk for stomach cancer are persuaded to attend "the Stomach Examination" programs. To estimate the effect of the plan, we asked several local governments to complete a questionnaire on the numbers of subjects. The ratio of the number of the subjects in the plan to the number of screenees in recent Stomach Examination programs was 0.61. An increase of about 15% was expected in screenees of the Stomach Examination Programs, if 40% of the subjects in the plan were diagnosed as high risk and 60% of the high risk subjects attended the Stomach Examination programs. From the economical stand point, it was expected that detection rate would increase and that the plan did not raise the cost for detecting a patient with stomach cancer. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of those who would be the subjects of the plan. Eighty-two percent of the subjects answered that they would attend the Stomach Examination programs, if they were told that their risk of stomach cancer was high by the serum pepsinogen tests. These results seem to suggest that more people would participate in cancer examination programs when informed that their risk for cancer is high as determined by blood tests.

  10. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  11. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    schemes - collective and individual - supplementing public schemes is well documented, scant attention has focused on more recent developments in other areas of the welfare state. This article shows how the multi-tiered welfare state spread in the 2000s to policies for families, the unemployed...... and the sick. Although Denmark still offers universal coverage in core welfare state areas, the increased use of occupational and fiscal welfare as well as changes in public schemes has gradually transformed the nation into a multi-tiered welfare state that is more dualistic and individualistic...

  12. DIFFERENTIATION OF WELFARE OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN POLAND IN 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Hanusik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in focus was the material welfare of households. In particular, there were analysed the level and differentiation of the welfare of rural households in 2012, after more than twenty years of developing of market economy in Poland. In addition, there was examined the relationship between income, consumer spending and household equipment and the level and differentiation of measures of the welfare distinguished by the criterion of the main sources of income of households groups. In the study both econometrical and statistical analysis was used. The study was based on primarily source of information coming from the panel study of household budgets conducted by the Central Statistical Office, as well as the data contained in the statistical yearbooks of the Republic of Poland.

  13. Welfare State and globalisation of the economic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João ABRANTES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A “welfare State” is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization. This article examines the concept of welfare state in the context of legislation adopted in recent years in Portugal that wants to "provide greater flexibility" of the labour market. This article discusses the crisis and the future of the Social State that is also, according to my view, an act of citizenship, a way of expressing our concern with the actual status of the welfare State.

  14. Religious slaughter and animal welfare: data from an online consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baldinelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two are the main results of the online survey, which was conducted with the purpose to examine the purchase behavior of a group of consumers and their views on animal welfare and religious slaughter. First result is the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens about this issue. Second is the demand for a more transparent labeling of animal products, which would be also concerning animal welfare and slaughter method used. These results are in conflict with marketing analysis, which find that consumers want to receive only positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers the higher risk to alarm them.

  15. Trade, Transparency, and Welfare in the Asia Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutomo Abe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that trade in the region would increase by 11 percent and global welfare would expand by USD 406 billion by raising transparency to the average in the region. Most of the increase in welfare would take place in member economies undertaking reform. Among the reformers, the gross domestic product (GDP of Vietnam, Thailand, Russia, and the Philippines would increase by approximately 20 percent. The benefits to Malaysia and China would also be substantial with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption.

  16. [30 years animal welfare legislation: what has been achieved?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, A

    2008-09-01

    The contribution deals with history and effects of the Swiss animal welfare legislation of 1978. Special descriptions concern the development and increasing dissemination of animal friendly housing systems for cattle, swine, rabbits and poultry, the realization of the prohibition of the usual cages for laying hens until the end of 1991 and the development of aviary systems, the examination and improvement of many housing systems and equipment for farm animals, adaptations of many enclosures for wild animals in zoos and circuses, improvements in animal experimentation and also in housing of companion animals. The new animal welfare law of 2005 and the animal welfare ordinance of 2008 filled loopholes in the legislation. Animal friendly housing forms may also have economic advantages.

  17. 45 CFR 260.74 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the application of the Federal time-limit provisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the...

  18. Leveraging the World Cup: Mega Sporting Events, Human Rights Risk, and Worker Welfare Reform in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath Ganji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Qatar will realize its decades-long drive to host a mega sporting event when, in 2022, the opening ceremony of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup commences. By that time, the Qatari government will have invested at least $200 billion in real estate and development projects, employing anywhere between 500,000 and 1.5 million foreign workers to do so. The scale of these preparations is staggering — and not necessarily positive. Between 2010 and 2013, more than 1,200 labor migrants working in Qatar’s construction sector died, with another 4,000 deaths projected by the start of the event. Foreign workers are subject to conditions of forced labor, human trafficking, and indefinite detention. Advocacy groups cite deplorable living and working conditions, coupled with lax legal protections for workers, as the main culprits. Absent significant improvements in worker welfare, Qatar’s World Cup will be remembered as a human rights tragedy.This article examines whether it is possible for Qatar’s World Cup to forge a different legacy, as an agent of change on behalf of worker welfare reform. In examining the issue, the article takes a two-fold approach. First, it locates the policy problem of worker welfare abuses in the context of the migration life cycle. The migration life cycle represents the range of activities that mediate the relationship between an individual migrant and the labor migration system — from the time the migrant first considers working overseas to his employment abroad to his eventual return to the home country. An understanding of worker welfare abuses in Qatar does not begin or end with reports of migrant deaths. A much broader pattern of abuse exists that, if ignored, will undermine effective policy responses.Second, the article frames worker welfare as a matter that lies at the intersection of business and human rights. Mega events are large-scale, internationally recognized activities

  19. The Social Welfare Practice and Research Center at the Chinese University of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2009-01-01

    The organization and research programs of the Social Welfare Practice and Research Centre (SWPRC) at the Chinese University of Hong Kong are outlined. There are five regular research programs (Family and Group Practice Research Centre, Human Behavior and the Social Environment Research Program, Mutual Aid and Social Capital Research Program,…

  20. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

    2012-02-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near

  1. In pursuit of peak animal welfare; the need to prioritize the meaningful over the measurable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Jake S

    2017-12-01

    Despite the diversity of animal welfare definitions, most recognise the centrality of the feelings of animals which are currently impossible to measure directly. As a result, animal welfare assessment is heavily reliant upon the indirect measurement of factors that either affect what animals feel, or are effected by how they feel. Physiological and health orientated measures have emerged as popular metrics for assessing welfare because they are quantifiable, can effect and be affected by how animals feel and have merits regardless of their relationship to the feelings of animals. However, their popularity in animal welfare assessment has led to them having a disproportionate influence on animal management to the detriment of animal welfare in numerous instances. Here, the case is made that a tension exists between management that prioritizes aspects of care reflecting popular animal welfare metrics such as those relating to physical health, and management that emphasizes psychological wellbeing. By re-examining the relative merits of physical and psychological priorities in animal management, an alternate animal welfare paradigm emerges less tied to traditional welfare metrics. This paradigm theorizes about the possibility for an optimal animal welfare state to exist where managed animal populations provided essential psychological outlets but protected from key physical stressors routinely experienced in the wild, might experience higher levels of welfare than wild populations would routinely experience. The proposition that optimal animal welfare could theoretically be achieved in well managed and well designed captive environments challenges a widely held ethical perspective that captivity is inherently bad for animal welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. "To Be a Scientist Sometimes You Have to Break Down Stuff about Animals": Examining the Normative Scientific Practices of a Summer Herpetological Program for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine Marie

    2016-01-01

    When studying informal science programs, researchers often overlook the opportunities enabled and constrained in each program and the practices reinforced for participants. In this case study, I examined the normative scientific practices reinforced in one-week-long "Herpetology" (the study of reptiles and amphibians) program for…

  3. Implications of the foresight report for animal-welfare education and research: what are veterinary colleges teaching today about animal welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, Janver D

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges' Foresight Project final report, Envisioning the Future of Veterinary Medical Education. Points of concern and recommendations specifically regarding animal-welfare education that surfaced in the final report are discussed. Also included is a summary of how six veterinary colleges are presently addressing animal welfare in their education and research programs.

  4. Examining the types and payments of the disabilities of the insurants in the national farmers' health insurance program in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hung-Hao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to the considerable body of literature concerning the disabilities of the general population, little information exists pertaining to the disabilities of the farm population. Focusing on the disability issue to the insurants in the Farmers' Health Insurance (FHI program in Taiwan, this paper examines the associations among socio-demographic characteristics, insured factors, and the introduction of the national health insurance program, as well as the types and payments of disabilities among the insurants. Methods A unique dataset containing 1,594,439 insurants in 2008 was used in this research. A logistic regression model was estimated for the likelihood of received disability payments. By focusing on the recipients, a disability payment and a disability type equation were estimated using the ordinary least squares method and a multinomial logistic model, respectively, to investigate the effects of the exogenous factors on their received payments and the likelihood of having different types of disabilities. Results Age and different job categories are significantly associated with the likelihood of receiving disability payments. Compared to those under age 45, the likelihood is higher among recipients aged 85 and above (the odds ratio is 8.04. Compared to hired workers, the odds ratios for self-employed and spouses of farm operators who were not members of farmers' associations are 0.97 and 0.85, respectively. In addition, older insurants are more likely to have eye problems; few differences in disability types are related to insured job categories. Conclusions Results indicate that older farmers are more likely to receive disability payments, but the likelihood is not much different among insurants of various job categories. Among all of the selected types of disability, a highest likelihood is found for eye disability. In addition, the introduction of the national health insurance program decreases the

  5. A Social Network Analysis of 140 Community-Academic Partnerships for Health: Examining the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Zeno E; Ahmed, Syed M; Maurana, Cheryl A; DeFino, Mia C; Brewer, Devon D

    2015-08-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) provides an important, underutilized approach to evaluating Community Academic Partnerships for Health (CAPHs). This study examines administrative data from 140 CAPHs funded by the Healthier Wisconsin Partnership Program (HWPP). Funder data was normalized to maximize number of interconnections between funded projects and 318 non-redundant community partner organizations in a dual mode analysis, examining the period from 2003-2013.Two strategic planning periods, 2003-2008 vs. 2009-2014, allowed temporal comparison. Connectivity of the network was largely unchanged over time, with most projects and partner organizations connected to a single large component in both time periods. Inter-partner ties formed in HWPP projects were transient. Most community partners were only involved in projects during one strategic time period. Community organizations participating in both time periods were involved in significantly more projects during the first time period than partners participating in the first time period only (Cohen's d = 0.93). This approach represents a significant step toward using objective (non-survey) data for large clusters of health partnerships and has implications for translational science in community settings. Considerations for government, funders, and communities are offered. Examining partnerships within health priority areas, orphaned projects, and faculty ties to these networks are areas for future research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Environmental Sustainability based on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The paper argues that the Scandinavian countries have some traditions of equity and social welfare, which are essential for reaching a truly environmentally sustainable society. But for the highly polluting Denmark, this would require a dramatic change in the political visions. Maintaining...... the present low birth rate is one condition necessary, environmentally better technology is another, and finally a saturation with material consumption, which is required. The latter is in line with people's quest for more leisure time rather than more consumption, but unfortunately counteracted by government...

  7. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge......Our paper is based on an ongoing research project about ‘genericism’ in Danish professional education. We critically discuss the concept of 'generic skills' and argue that the ability to act professionally and reflective, even in changing contexts, should foremost be based on extensive knowledge...

  8. Exploring Bullying Perpetration and Victimization Among Adolescent Girls in the Child Welfare System: Bully-Only, Victim-Only, Bully-Victim, and Noninvolved Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzing, Paul R; Auslander, Wendy F; Ratliff, G Allen; Gerke, Donald R; Edmond, Tonya; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2017-03-01

    Childhood abuse is a common experience for youth in the child welfare system, increasing their risk of bullying perpetration and victimization. Little research exists that has examined the rates of bullying perpetration and victimization for child welfare-involved adolescent girls. The study addressed the following aims: (a) to generate frequency estimates of physical, nonphysical, and relational forms of bullying perpetration and victimization; (b) to identify the frequency of bully-only, victim-only, bully-victim, and noninvolved roles; and (c) to identify risk and protective factors that correlate with these bullying role types. Participants were 236 girls (12-19 years) in the child welfare system from a Midwestern urban area. Participants were referred to the study to join a trauma-focused group program. Seventy-five percent of the total sample were youth of color, with the remaining 25% identifying as White, non-Hispanic. Data were collected through baseline surveys that assessed childhood abuse, bullying perpetration and victimization, posttraumatic stress, substance misuse, aggression-related beliefs and self-efficacy, placement type, placement instability, and mental health service use. Child welfare-involved adolescent girls were found to assume all four major role types: bully-only (6.4%, n = 15), victim-only (20.3%, n = 48), bully-victim (44.1%, n = 104), and nonvictims (29.2%, n = 69). The bully-victim rate was approximately 7 times higher than the rate found in a nationally representative sample of non-child welfare-involved youth. The current study identified posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, anger self-efficacy, and alcohol use as significant correlates of bullying roles. The identification of a substantially higher rate of bully-victims has important practice implications, suggesting child welfare and school systems adopt trauma-informed systems of care. Bully-victims are very likely traumatized children who are in need of effective

  9. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  10. Welfare Economics: A Story of Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore that, despite severe challenges, welfare economics still exists. This descriptive study is conducted through some specific time line developments in this field. Economists are divided over the veracity and survival of the welfare economics. Welfare economics emphasizes on the optimum resource and goods allocation with the objective of better living standard, materialistic gains, social welfare and ethical decisions. It origins back to the political economics and utilitarianism. Adam Smith, Irving Fisher and Pareto contributed significantly towards it. During 1930 to 1940, American and British approaches were developed. Many economists tried to explore the relationship between level of income and happiness. Amartya Sen gave the comparative approach and Tinbergen pioneered the theory of equity. Contemporarily the futuristic restoration of welfare economics is on trial and hopes are alive. This study may be useful to understand the transitional and survival process of welfare economics.

  11. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS.

  12. Measuring zoo animal welfare: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sonya P; Broom, Donald M

    2009-11-01

    The assessment of animal welfare relates to investigations of how animals try to cope with their environment, and how easy or how difficult it is for them to do so. The use of rigorous scientific methods to assess this has grown over the past few decades, and so our understanding of the needs of animals has improved during this time. Much of the work in the field of animal welfare has been conducted on farm animals, but it is important to consider how the methods and approaches used in assessing farm animal welfare have been, and can be, adapted and applied to the measurement of welfare in animals in other domains, such as in zoos. This is beneficial to our understanding of both the theoretical knowledge, and the practicability of methods. In this article, some of the commonly-used methods for measuring animal welfare will be discussed, as well as some practical considerations in assessing the welfare of zoo animals.

  13. Preservice Teacher Preparation in International Contexts: A Case-Study Examination of the International Student Teacher Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Jacob

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the teacher preparation experiences of preservice teachers in six international contexts: China, Fiji, Kiribati, Mexico, Samoa, and Tonga. More specifically, it looks at the value-added components in an international teacher education program, with an emphasis on effective teaching and employability. Theoretically the study is based on Straus and Corbin’s (1998a substantive grounded theory and Patton’s (1997 Theory of Action Framework. Verbal and non-verbal forms of feedback were identified as essential aspects of the international preservice training experience. Cultural diversity, teaching English as a second language, collaboration, and exposure to a different educational system were identified among several components as advantages to individuals who conduct their preservice teacher training in international settings.

  14. Self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness in middle school children: examination of a pedometer intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Dana; Cowan, Patricia; Graff, Carolyn; Perlow, Michael; Rice, Pamela; Richey, Phyllis; Sanchez, Zoila

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity in children has been associated with a number of health benefits. Unfortunately, physical inactivity continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self-efficacy levels, physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body composition (relative body mass index [RBMI]) and to determine whether a school-based pedometer intervention program would improve those variables. The sample consisted of 116 rural 11- to 13-year-old students. Weakly positive correlations between self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness and weakly correlated inverse relationships between self-efficacy, physical activity, aerobic fitness and RBMI were found. There was no statistical significance between the intervention and control group when analyzing outcome variables. These findings suggest that those with optimal RBMI levels have higher self-efficacy, physical activity and aerobic fitness levels. Although not statistically significant, the intervention group had greater improvements in mean self-efficacy scores, aerobic fitness levels, and RBMI. © 2014.

  15. Examining the influence of noncognitive variables on the intention of minority baccalaureate nursing students to complete their program of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dena Batykefer

    2013-01-01

    Retention of minority baccalaureate nursing students is imperative to resolving the absence of minority representation within the nursing profession and to aid in the elimination of health disparities among minority health care recipients. Improving minority nursing student retention requires a closer examination of the impact of noncognitive variables that contribute to attrition. This study explored the predictive value of select noncognitive variables on the intention of minority baccalaureate nursing students to complete their degree. A survey was sent to 1,519 students enrolled in generic, prelicensure baccalaureate nursing programs in the North Carolina University System. Unique data characteristics required the use of both parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses. The regression model included variables of age, race, gender, academic development, faculty interaction, peer interaction, hours worked, and faculty concern and accounted for 29% of the variation in student intention to complete their degree. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Geographies of medicalized welfare: Spatial analysis of supplemental security income in the U.S., 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sandy

    2016-07-01

    In the post-1996 welfare reform period in the U.S., disability assistance has become a significant source of government aid for low-income residents as other forms of public support have faced considerable reductions and restrictions. In order to qualify for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) - a means-tested assistance program that provides income stipends to qualified residents - working-age individuals with disabilities must have little income and resources, and procure medical documentation that confirms that they are unable to work due to a disability. The result of rising SSI enrollment in the face of cutbacks to other government programs is the increasing medicalization of welfare, whereby receipt of welfare benefits is contingent on a medical diagnosis of disability. Using county-level data from the American Community Survey and the Social Security Administration, this paper examines the changing spatial patterns of SSI participation of the working-age population in 2000 and 2010 across the U.S. in addition to the interconnections between disability, welfare, and poverty. Results from spatial analyses illustrate geographic variation in SSI prevalence, with distinctive spatial clusters of higher than average SSI participation in the southeast and Appalachian regions of the U.S. and in northern California. Multiple linear regression model results reveal that SSI participation is significantly correlated with disability, poverty, race, family type, and level of education in both 2000 and 2010. The findings suggest that spatial concentrations of disability, poverty, and underemployment persist in largely rural areas. The discussion explores the potential social and economic implications of long-term SSI clustering on localities and residents, and points to future research directions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Animal learning and training: implications for animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Sabrina I C A

    2012-09-01

    Exotic animals are housed in a variety of settings, from pets at home, as display animals housed in wildlife centers and zoos, to those kept for interactive and outreach programs. The behavioral management program and medical care are major parts of an excellent animal care program. Because animals learn all the time, albeit through different mechanisms, animals are almost always "in training." Understanding animal learning when caring for and treating animals can greatly improve their welfare during experiences that are often related to involuntary procedures and where animals have little control over living conditions or procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining the Effects of Two Computer Programming Learning Strategies: Self-Explanation versus Reading Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study described here explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on learning the computer programming language JavaScript. Students’ test performance and perceptions of effectiveness toward the two strategies were examined. An online interactive tutorial instruction implementing worked-examples and multimedia learning principles was developed for this study. Participants were 147 high school students (ages 14 to 18 of a computer introductory course in six periods which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 78; n = 69 of three periods each. The two groups alternated learning strategies to learn five lessons. Students’ prerequisite knowledge of XHTML and motivation to learn computer programming languages were measured before starting the tutorial. Students largely expressed their preference toward self-explanation over reading questions and answers. They thought self-explanation incurred much more work yet was more effective. However, the two learning strategies did not have differential effects on students’ test performance. The seeming discrepancy arising from students’ preferred strategy and their test performance was discussed in the areas of familiar versus new strategy, difficulty of learning materials and testing method, and experimental duration.

  19. Welfare Effects of Food Miles Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Caputo, Vincenzina; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Canavari, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the consumer welfare effects of two generic food miles labels: carbon dioxide (CO2) emission label and number of miles label. Using data from a choice experiment, our results generally suggest that a mandatory labeling policy for either type of label would have a positive welfare effect on both informed and uninformed consumers. However, a label informing consumers about the number of miles the food product has travelled provides greater positive welfare effects than a label infor...

  20. Race, Debt and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Pitcher, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this article I explore how the figure of debt illuminates the racial politics of welfare in neoliberal Britain. I begin by giving a reading of the simultaneous unfolding of post-war race politics and the Beveridgean welfare state, and then turn to consider the interpellative appeal of neoliberal debt to minoritiSed subjects who have, in certain respects, been de facto excluded from prevailing models of welfare citizenship. In particular, this article considers the ways in which household d...

  1. Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarberg Karl-Erik

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999 are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so.

  2. Changes in the Welfare of an Injured Working Farm Dog Assessed Using the Five Domains Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Littlewood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present structured, systematic and comprehensive welfare evaluation of an injured working farm dog using the Five Domains Model is of interest in its own right. It is also an example for others wanting to apply the Model to welfare evaluations in different species and contexts. Six stages of a fictitious scenario involving the dog are considered: (1 its on-farm circumstances before one hind leg is injured; (2 its entanglement in barbed wire, cutting it free and transporting it to a veterinary clinic; (3 the initial veterinary examination and overnight stay; (4 amputation of the limb and immediate post-operative recovery; (5 its first four weeks after rehoming to a lifestyle block; and (6 its subsequent life as an amputee and pet. Not all features of the scenario represent average-to-good practice; indeed, some have been selected to indicate poor practice. It is shown how the Model can draw attention to areas of animal welfare concern and, importantly, to how welfare enhancement may be impeded or facilitated. Also illustrated is how the welfare implications of a sequence of events can be traced and evaluated, and, in relation to specific situations, how the degrees of welfare compromise and enhancement may be graded. In addition, the choice of a companion animal, contrasting its welfare status as a working dog and pet, and considering its treatment in a veterinary clinical setting, help to highlight various welfare impacts of some practices. By focussing attention on welfare problems, the Model can guide the implementation of remedies, including ways of promoting positive welfare states. Finally, wider applications of the Five Domains Model are noted: by enabling both negative and positive welfare-relevant experiences to be graded, the Model can be applied to quality of life assessments and end-of-life decisions and, with particular regard to negative experiences, the Model can also help to strengthen expert witness testimony during

  3. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  4. Social inequalities in 'sickness': European welfare states and non-employment among the chronically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked 'sickness'-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more favourable general rates of non-employment. Hence, regarding sickness, welfare resources appear to trump welfare disincentives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Deprivation and Social Support in Mental Health of Welfare Recipients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Takahiro; Mizutani, Seiko; Yamada, Soshiro

    2016-04-01

    Although many Western studies examining the mental health of welfare recipients exist, Japanese welfare recipients have been overlooked. This study investigated mental health among welfare recipients in Japan and relations with a sense of deprivation of life's necessities and social support. Participants (n = 305) completed the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Proportional Deprivation Index, and a social support scale. Participants' GHQ-12 scores exceeded those of the general public, as 54.9% scored above the cut-off, suggesting poorer mental health among welfare recipients than the general population. Proportional Deprivation Index and emotional support from relatives and friends were associated with GHQ-12 scores. These results suggest that while chronic deprivation is associated with poorer mental health among welfare recipients, receiving emotional support may help cope with distress and maintain mental health. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. CHILD WELFARE AGENCY TIES TO PROVIDERS AND SCHOOLS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT USE BY ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline; Haynes, Lindsey E.; Lee, I-Heng; Bai, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Policy makers and advocates are increasingly encouraging child-serving organizations to work together. The current study examined how child welfare agency ties with substance abuse treatment providers and schools correlated with substance abuse treatment for adolescents receiving child protective services. A sample of adolescents with substance use risk was extracted from a national survey of families engaged with child welfare. Logistic regressions with adjustments for complex survey design used child welfare agency ties to substance abuse treatment providers and schools to predict treatment. As expected, adolescents were more likely to report treatment when child protective services and substance abuse treatment were in the same agency and when child welfare agency directors reported joint planning with schools. However, child welfare agency agreements with substance abuse treatment providers were negatively associated with treatment. This unexpected finding implies that agencies may sometimes cooperate to address problems as well as to improve service utilization. PMID:20870374

  7. An Analysis of Education Expenditures in the Welfare State in the Post 1980 Period in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düriye Toprak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The welfare state that had become stronger gradually in the post-2nd World War has been in the process of restructuring after the 1980 period as a result of globalisation and neo-liberal policies. Social welfare state has had responsibilities in different fields ranging from health to education and from social security to poverty reduction. In Turkey, the education expenditures may be accepted as social expenditures contributing to general social welfare of the society. The goal of this study is to explain the social welfare state briefly, to review the methodological approaches to social expenditures in the context of the social welfare state, and to examine and compare the level of education expenditures in Turkey and some other countries.

  8. Comparative assessment of environmental welfare issues associated with the satellite power system (SPS) and alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, E.P.; Senew, M.J.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1980-04-01

    Environmental deterioration can affect an individual's health, safety, and welfare (examples of welfare effects include reduced crop yield, loss of property, and interference with other activities). This study identifies sources of environmental deterioration and associated welfare effects from two mature electric power generation systems (combustion of coal and light water nuclear reactors) and compares these with those expected from a conceptual satellite power system. Each activity within the energy pathway for each power system is examined to determine the potential welfare effects it imposes on a community. The severities of these effects are compared. On the basis of this comparison and the state of knowledge concerning specific environmental impacts and welfare effects, key environmental issues are identified for subsequent, in-depth analyses.

  9. Welfare reform, family support, and child development: perspectives from policy analysis and developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knitzer, J; Yoshikawa, H; Cauthen, N K; Aber, J L

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the implications of recent welfare-related policy change for the well-being of children in low-income families, and for research investigating child development processes and outcomes. It provides an overview of current welfare-related policies and explores the implications for developmental researchers. The article also synthesizes early findings from research, highlighting both overall impacts and the more nuanced evidence that while families are transitioning off welfare, only a small number are transitioning out of poverty, and a subgroup of families at risk are not faring well. It then examines, from a theoretical and methodological framework, what developmental psychopathology might bring to the study of welfare-related impacts on children in the context of this complex and changing policy landscape, and what welfare researchers might bring to the field of developmental psychopathology. The article concludes with broad recommendations for both research and policy.

  10. From the front lines of welfare reform: an analysis of social worker and welfare recipient attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Heather E

    2004-12-01

    Social workers and welfare recipients operate within the same institutional framework and share a working and/or lived knowledge of poverty, but they occupy different social and economic positions. To gain a better understanding of intergroup attitudes, the author compared how social workers and welfare recipients explain poverty and perceive the welfare system. The results highlight important similarities and differences between the two groups. Although the author did not find differences for individualistic attributions, welfare recipients regarded prejudice as playing a greater role in causing poverty than did social workers. Welfare recipients also expressed stronger support for increased welfare funding and progressive welfare policies than did social workers. The author discussed implications for strengthening interclass alliances, particularly the relationship between social service providers and welfare recipients.

  11. Welfare reform and child care options for low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon L; Caspary, Gretchen L; Gauthier, Christiane A

    2002-01-01

    For the changes under welfare reform to positively affect children, the gains that mothers make from employment must lead to improvements in children's daily settings at home, in child care, at school, or in the community. This article focuses on the role child care can play in promoting the development of, and life opportunities for, low-income children. Key observations include: Total federal and state funding for child care for welfare and working poor families has increased dramatically since welfare reform, from $2.8 billion in 1995 to $8.0 billion in 2000. The majority of welfare mothers tend to rely on informal child care arrangements when first participating in welfare-to-work programs, but as they move off welfare and into more stable jobs, they are more likely to choose a center or a family child care home. Although children from poor households stand to benefit the most from high-quality care, they are less likely to be enrolled in high-quality programs than are children from affluent families, partly due to uneven access to high-quality options in their neighborhoods. Less than one-quarter of all eligible families use child care subsidies, and usage varies widely across states and local areas reflecting various barriers to access and scarcity of quality center-based care. The authors conclude that to achieve welfare reform's ultimate goal of breaking the cycle of intergenerational poverty and dependence on government benefits, welfare-to-work programs should promote learning and development among children in welfare and working poor families by increasing access to high-quality child care in low-income neighborhoods.

  12. Retirement income policies and welfare state retrenchment: A comparative study of Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bouma, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of welfare state retrenchment on the retirement income system in Canada during the years 1980-2000. In order to provide perspective on the Canadian experience, this study also examined the effects of retrenchment on the pension systems in the Netherlands and Sweden. The theoretical foundation for this study was supported by Esping-Andersen's (1990) welfare-state regime typology (liberal, conservative and social-democratic). To address retre...

  13. Examining the Impact of a University-driven Exercise Programming Event on End-of-semester Stress in Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschel, Tessa L; Young, John C; Navalta, James W

    2017-01-01

    Stress levels in university students peak during the final exam period. An inverse association exists between Physical Activity (PA) and poor mental health. UNLV has created Fitness4Finals (F4F), an event novel in its approach to academic stress reduction by incorporating both physical activity and mental relaxation. To our knowledge, a university-driven programming event aimed at reducing physiological and psychological stress among students approaching final exams had never been studied. Therefore, the aims of this research were to 1) examine the influence of F4F on physiological stress and perceived psychological stress (PPS) and 2) to examine the relationship between physiological stress and PPS. Fifteen full-time university students were recruited to participate in their choice of one of two groups: F4F or control (NonF4F). Pre-F4F and post-F4F measures of physiological stress, measured by salivary cortisol, and perceived psychological stress, measured by survey were collected. The F4F event was held the week prior to final examinations. Participants in the F4F group engaged in one F4F activity per day for the duration of the 3-day event. Results of the repeated measures MANOVA indicated nonsignificant interaction (p = .864) between F4F participation, physiological stress and PPS. PPS and cortisol were not correlated at the onset of the study (r = -0.18, p = 0.48) or at the last sampling period (r = 0.097, p = 0.73). Preemptive elevated levels of PA in the F4F group may have influenced results. Qualitative data indicates a unanimous perceived reduction in stress from F4F participation. While the physiological measures of stress in the present study were not significantly different, the perceived stress reduction reported by F4F participants is influential. Further investigation with improvements in timing and measurement tools is warranted.

  14. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving...... consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital....

  15. Popular Support for Welfare State Reforms: On Welfare State Preferences and Welfare State Reforms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raven (Judith)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this research is to better understand what is meant by general support for the welfare state. At the start of this study, I observed an alleged discrepancy between people’s preferences and welfare state policies. Whereas on the one hand various studies demonstrate that public

  16. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Harris

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005–2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. We examined the effects of whether or not a veterinarian was included in the inspection team, type of inspection, licence status of the zoo and membership of a zoo association on the inspectors’ assessments of animal welfare standards in five areas that approximate to the Five Freedoms. At least 11% of full licence inspections did not comply with the legal requirement for two inspectors. The inspectors’ reports were unclear as to how animal welfare was assessed, whether all animals or only a sub-sample had been inspected, and were based predominantly on welfare inputs rather than outcomes. Of 9,024 animal welfare assessments across the 192 zoos, 7,511 (83% were graded as meeting the standards, 782 (9% as substandard and the rest were not graded. Of the 192 zoos, 47 (24% were assessed as meeting all the animal welfare standards. Membership of a zoo association was not associated with a higher overall assessment of animal welfare standards, and specialist collections such as Farm Parks and Other Bird collections performed least well. We recommend a number of changes to the inspection process that should lead to greater clarity in the assessment of animal welfare in British zoos.

  17. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Chris; Harris, Stephen

    2012-09-28

    We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005-2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. We examined the effects of whether or not a veterinarian was included in the inspection team, type of inspection, licence status of the zoo and membership of a zoo association on the inspectors' assessments of animal welfare standards in five areas that approximate to the Five Freedoms. At least 11% of full licence inspections did not comply with the legal requirement for two inspectors. The inspectors' reports were unclear as to how animal welfare was assessed, whether all animals or only a sub-sample had been inspected, and were based predominantly on welfare inputs rather than outcomes. Of 9,024 animal welfare assessments across the 192 zoos, 7,511 (83%) were graded as meeting the standards, 782 (9%) as substandard and the rest were not graded. Of the 192 zoos, 47 (24%) were assessed as meeting all the animal welfare standards. Membership of a zoo association was not associated with a higher overall assessment of animal welfare standards, and specialist collections such as Farm Parks and Other Bird collections performed least well. We recommend a number of changes to the inspection process that should lead to greater clarity in the assessment of animal welfare in British zoos.

  18. The Relationship Between Mental Representations of Welfare Recipients and Attitudes Toward Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Dotsch, Ron; Cooley, Erin; Payne, B Keith

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  19. The relationship between mental representations of welfare recipients and attitudes toward welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown-Iannuzzi, J.L.; Dotsch, R.; Cooley, E.; Payne, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have argued that opposition to welfare is, in part, driven by stereotypes of African Americans. This argument assumes that when individuals think about welfare, they spontaneously think about Black recipients. We investigated people's mental representations of welfare recipients. In Studies

  20. The impact of welfare reform on methadone treatment: policy lessons from service providers in New York city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Ellen; Young, Rebecca; Magura, Stephen; Staines, Graham L

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the impact of recent changes in welfare policy on public assistance recipients who are in methadone maintenance treatment, from the perspective of methadone service providers. Data were collected between late 2000 and early 2002, and included in-depth interviews with 11 providers from three methadone treatment programs in New York city, contextual interviews with three welfare agency personnel and three patient advocates, and participant-observation in trainings and clinical meetings related to vocational services and public assistance for methadone patients. Because service providers are front-line implementers of new welfare regulations, their experiences, and insights should be consulted by policymakers as welfare policy continues to evolve.