Sample records for program element number

  1. The New Element Curium (Atomic Number 96) (United States)

    Seaborg, G. T.; James, R. A.; Ghiorso, A.


    Two isotopes of the element with atomic number 96 have been produced by the helium-ion bombardment of plutonium. The name curium, symbol Cm, is proposed for element 96. The chemical experiments indicate that the most stable oxidation state of curium is the III state.

  2. Elementary number theory with programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lewinter, Marty


    A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con

  3. Programming the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, I M; Margetts, L


    Many students, engineers, scientists and researchers have benefited from the practical, programming-oriented style of the previous editions of Programming the Finite Element Method, learning how to develop computer programs to solve specific engineering problems using the finite element method. This new fifth edition offers timely revisions that include programs and subroutine libraries fully updated to Fortran 2003, which are freely available online, and provides updated material on advances in parallel computing, thermal stress analysis, plasticity return algorithms, convection boundary c

  4. The Total Number of Parameters in the Finite Element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rectangular finite elements are important in Finite Element Method. This paper establishes a general formula for obtaining the total number of parameters associated with any finite element rectangulation of a domain. This number is also the dimension of the trail space as well as the size of the associated linear system.

  5. The Necessary Number of Elements in a Directional Ring Aerial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Lottrup


    An investigation is made concerning the dependence of the array characteristic of a directional ring aerial on its number of elements. It is shown that an odd number of elements is more favorable than an even number in approximating the array characteristic of a similar ring aerial with infinitely...... of the antenna array is horizontal; the theory for this case is illustrated by a numerical example. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  6. Programming by Numbers -- A Programming Method for Complete Novices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaser, Hugh; Hartel, Pieter H.


    Students often have difficulty with the minutiae of program construction. We introduce the idea of `Programming by Numbers', which breaks some of the programming process down into smaller steps, giving such students a way into the process of Programming in the Small. Programming by Numbers does not

  7. Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Heister, Timo


    Today\\'s large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Forum (United States)

    Wu, H.; Mayeaux, B M.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.


    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, the SRPE has recently released the Space Radiation Tissue Sharing Forum. The Forum provides access to an inventory of investigator-stored tissue samples and enables both NASA SRPE members and NASA-funded investigators to exchange information regarding stored and future radiobiological tissues available for sharing. Registered users may review online data of available tissues, inquire about tissues posted, or request tissues for an upcoming study using an online form. Investigators who have upcoming sacrifices are also encouraged to post the availability of samples using the discussion forum. A brief demo of the forum will be given during the presentation

  9. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs


    Child, Angela R.


    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP reading lessons. This study sought to answer the question: What elements of explicit instruction or instructional moves are included in the five most...

  10. Writing analytic element programs in Python. (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Kelson, Victor A


    The analytic element method is a mesh-free approach for modeling ground water flow at both the local and the regional scale. With the advent of the Python object-oriented programming language, it has become relatively easy to write analytic element programs. In this article, an introduction is given of the basic principles of the analytic element method and of the Python programming language. A simple, yet flexible, object-oriented design is presented for analytic element codes using multiple inheritance. New types of analytic elements may be added without the need for any changes in the existing part of the code. The presented code may be used to model flow to wells (with either a specified discharge or drawdown) and streams (with a specified head). The code may be extended by any hydrogeologist with a healthy appetite for writing computer code to solve more complicated ground water flow problems. Copyright © 2009 The Author(s). Journal Compilation © 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  11. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs (United States)

    Child, Angela R.


    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  12. Elements of an Employee Motivation Program (United States)

    Ward, Ernest H.


    Ten elements which should be present in an employee motivation program are discussed in the context of achieving increased acceptance of organizational goals. They are: participation, performance measurement, knowledge of results, recognition; attitude measurement, communication, publicity, work assignment, work research, and supervisor motivation…

  13. Elements of programming interviews the insider's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, Adnan; Prakash, Amit


    This is a larger-format version of Elements of Programming Interviews. The language is C++. Specifically, the font size is larger, and the page size is 7"x10" (the regular format uses 6"x9"). The content is identical. Have you ever... Wanted to work at an exciting futuristic company? Struggled with an interview problem that could have been solved in 15 minutes? Wished you could study real-world computing problems? If so, you need to read Elements of Programming Interviews (EPI). EPI is your comprehensive guide to interviewing for software development roles. The core of EPI is a collection of over 250 problems with detailed solutions. The problems are representative of interview questions asked at leading software companies. The problems are illustrated with 200 figures, 300 tested programs, and 150 additional variants. The book begins with a summary of the nontechnical aspects of interviewing, such as strategies for a great interview, common mistakes, perspectives from the other side of the table,...

  14. 40 CFR 145.22 - Elements of a program submission. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of a program submission. 145.22 Section 145.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 145.22 Elements of a...

  15. 40 CFR 271.5 - Elements of a program submission. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of a program submission. 271.5 Section 271.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Authorization § 271.5 Elements of a program submission. (a) Any State that seeks to administer a program under...

  16. 7 CFR 18.4 - Elements of program. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of program. 18.4 Section 18.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN THE STATE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICES § 18.4 Elements of program. A satisfactory program shall include: (a) A statement of policy...

  17. Robotic Surgery Simulator: Elements to Build a Training Program. (United States)

    Tillou, Xavier; Collon, Sylvie; Martin-Francois, Sandrine; Doerfler, Arnaud


    Face, content, and construct validity of robotic surgery simulators were confirmed in the literature by several studies, but elements to build a training program are still lacking. The aim of our study was to validate a progressive training program and to assess according to prior surgical experience the amount of training needed with a robotic simulator to complete the program. Exercises using the Da Vinci Skill Simulator were chosen to ensure progressive learning. A new exercise could only be started if a minimal score of 80% was achieved in the prior one. The number of repetitions to achieve an exercise was not limited. We devised a "performance index" by calculating the ratio of the sum of scores for each exercise over the number of repetitions needed to complete the exercise with at least an 80% score. The study took place at the François Baclesse Cancer Center. Participants all work at the primary care university Hospital located next to the cancer center. A total of 32 surgeons participated in the study- 2 experienced surgeons, 8 junior and 8 senior residents in surgery, 6 registrars, and 6 attending surgeons. There was no difference between junior and senior residents, whereas the registrars had better results (p surgery console in a specific and progressive order enables rapid progress. The level of prior experience in laparoscopic surgery affects outcomes. More advanced laparoscopic expertise seems to slow down learning, surgeons having to "unlearn" to acquire a new technique. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fundamental Elements of Transition Program Design (United States)

    Karmelita, Courtney


    Adult learners require supports and services to help them successfully transition into taking on the demands and expectations of college students. Transition programs have grown in popularity as a means to aid adult learners as they transition to higher education. Unfortunately, previous research on adult learner participation in transition…

  19. Heuristic possibilistic clustering for detecting optimal number of elements in fuzzy clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viattchenin Dmitri A.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of discovering fuzzy clusters with optimal number of elements in heuristic possibilistic clustering. The relational clustering procedure using a parameter that controls cluster sizes is considered and a technique for detecting the optimal number of elements in fuzzy clusters is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is illustrated through numerical examples. Experimental results are discussed and some preliminary conclusions are formulated.

  20. High Resolution Ultrasound Imaging Using Adaptive Beamforming with Reduced Number of Active Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    is proposed. By reducing the number of active sensor elements, an increased resolution can be obtained with the MV beamformer. This observation is directly opposite the well-known relation between the spatial extent of the aperture and the achievable resolution. The investigations are based on Field II...... simulated data using a 128-element transducer with a large spatial extent. The results show that an increased resolution can be obtained, when using only the central part of the transducer compared to using the entire spatial extent. Using the central 32 or 48 elements provides an increased resolution...

  1. Modeling of rolling element bearing mechanics. Computer program user's manual (United States)

    Greenhill, Lyn M.; Merchant, David H.


    This report provides the user's manual for the Rolling Element Bearing Analysis System (REBANS) analysis code which determines the quasistatic response to external loads or displacement of three types of high-speed rolling element bearings: angular contact ball bearings, duplex angular contact ball bearings, and cylindrical roller bearings. The model includes the defects of bearing ring and support structure flexibility. It is comprised of two main programs: the Preprocessor for Bearing Analysis (PREBAN) which creates the input files for the main analysis program, and Flexibility Enhanced Rolling Element Bearing Analysis (FEREBA), the main analysis program. This report addresses input instructions for and features of the computer codes. A companion report addresses the theoretical basis for the computer codes. REBANS extends the capabilities of the SHABERTH (Shaft and Bearing Thermal Analysis) code to include race and housing flexibility, including such effects as dead band and preload springs.

  2. Effect of copy number and spacing of the ACGT and GT cis elements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    A variety of cis-acting DNA sequences regulate gene expression from basal promoter. In this study, two .... length and other features besides copy number of the GT element in promoter activation. In one case, where P .... for pea nuclear protein factor GT-1 correlate with sequences required for light-dependent transcriptional ...

  3. The Intelligent Data Understanding Element of NASA's Intelligent Systems Program (United States)

    Coughlan, Joseph C.; Tilton, James C.; Rood, Richard (Technical Monitor)


    Within the NASA Intelligent Systems Program, the Intelligent Data Understanding (IDU) element develops techniques for transforming data into scientific understanding. Automating such tools is critical for space science, space-based earth science, and planetary exploration with onboard scientific data analysis. Intelligent data understanding (IDU) is about extracting meaning from large, diverse science and engineering databases, via autonomous techniques that transform very large datasets into understanding. The earth science community in particular needs new tools for analyzing multi-formatted and geographically distributed datasets and for identifying cause-effect relationships in the complex data. Research within the IDU program element seeks to automate data analysis tasks so that humans can focus on creative hypothesis generation and knowledge synthesis. It may also enable NASA space missions in which autonomous agents must generate knowledge and take actions, and missions where limited bandwidth permits transmission of only the most interesting scientific observations, summaries, and conclusions. Twenty-seven research projects are-currently funded.

  4. Evaluation of a Nonlinear Finite Element Program - ABAQUS. (United States)


    Elastic-plastic material and small deformation Material Properties: A Ramberg - Osgood stress-strain curve was assumed to represent the strain-hardening...NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT PROGRAM - ABAQUS T. Y. Chang S. M. Wang Department of Civil Engineering The University of Akron Akron, Ohio 44325 August 1, 1982... ABAQUS T. Y. Chang S. M. Wang Department of Civil Engineering The University of Akron Akron, Ohio 44325 August 1, 1982 (Revised on March 15, 1983


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of a two-element camber morphing airfoil was investigated at low Reynolds number using the transient SST model in ANSYS FLUENT 14.0 and eN method in XFLR5. The two-element camber morphing concept was employed to morph the baseline airfoil into another airfoil by altering the orientation of mean-line at 35% of the chord to achieve better aerodynamic efficiency. NACA 0012 was selected as baseline airfoil. NACA 23012 was chosen as the test case as it has the camber-line similar to that of the morphed airfoil and as it has the same thickness as that of the baseline airfoil. The simulations were carried out at chord based Reynolds numbers of 2.5×105 and 3.9×105. The aerodynamic force coefficients, aerodynamic efficiency and the location of the transition point of laminar separation bubble over these airfoils were studied for various angles of attack. It was found that the aerodynamic efficiency of the morphed airfoil was 12% higher than that of the target airfoil at 4° angle of attack for Reynolds number of 3.9×105 and 54% rise in aerodynamic performance was noted as Reynolds number was varied from 2.5×105 to 3.9×105. The morphed airfoil exhibited the nature of low Reynolds number airfoil.

  6. 49 CFR 350.109 - What are the national program elements? (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the national program elements? 350.109... COMMERCIAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 350.109 What are the national program elements? The national program elements include the following five activities: (a) Driver/vehicle inspections...

  7. AlterBBN: A program for calculating the BBN abundances of the elements in alternative cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, Alexandre


    We describe AlterBBN, a public C program for evaluating the abundances of the elements generated by Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). This program enables the user to compute the abundances of the elements in the standard model of cosmology, and additionally provides possibilities to alter the assumptions of the cosmological model in order to study their consequences on the abundances of the elements. In particular the baryon-to-photon ratio and the effective number of neutrinos, as well as the expansion rate and the entropy content of the Universe during BBN can be modified in AlterBBN. Such features allow the user to test the cosmological models by confronting them to BBN constraints. A presentation of the physics of BBN and the features of AlterBBN is provided here under the form of a manual.

  8. Verification of Numerical Programs: From Real Numbers to Floating Point Numbers (United States)

    Goodloe, Alwyn E.; Munoz, Cesar; Kirchner, Florent; Correnson, Loiec


    Numerical algorithms lie at the heart of many safety-critical aerospace systems. The complexity and hybrid nature of these systems often requires the use of interactive theorem provers to verify that these algorithms are logically correct. Usually, proofs involving numerical computations are conducted in the infinitely precise realm of the field of real numbers. However, numerical computations in these algorithms are often implemented using floating point numbers. The use of a finite representation of real numbers introduces uncertainties as to whether the properties veri ed in the theoretical setting hold in practice. This short paper describes work in progress aimed at addressing these concerns. Given a formally proven algorithm, written in the Program Verification System (PVS), the Frama-C suite of tools is used to identify sufficient conditions and verify that under such conditions the rounding errors arising in a C implementation of the algorithm do not affect its correctness. The technique is illustrated using an algorithm for detecting loss of separation among aircraft.

  9. Repetitive elements dynamics in cell identity programming, maintenance and disease

    KAUST Repository

    Bodega, Beatrice


    The days of \\'junk DNA\\' seem to be over. The rapid progress of genomics technologies has been unveiling unexpected mechanisms by which repetitive DNA and in particular transposable elements (TEs) have evolved, becoming key issues in understanding genome structure and function. Indeed, rather than \\'parasites\\', recent findings strongly suggest that TEs may have a positive function by contributing to tissue specific transcriptional programs, in particular as enhancer-like elements and/or modules for regulation of higher order chromatin structure. Further, it appears that during development and aging genomes experience several waves of TEs activation, and this contributes to individual genome shaping during lifetime. Interestingly, TEs activity is major target of epigenomic regulation. These findings are shedding new light on the genome-phenotype relationship and set the premises to help to explain complex disease manifestation, as consequence of TEs activity deregulation.

  10. Names and symbols of the elements with atomic numbers 113, 115, 117 and 118 (IUPAC Recommendations 2016)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öhrström, L.; Reedijk, J.


    A joint IUPAC/IUPAP Working Party (JWP) has confirmed the discovery of the elements with atomic numbers (Z) 113, 115, 117 and 118. In accordance with the 2016 IUPAC guideline for naming new elements, the discoverers were invited to propose names and symbols for the elements. Claims have been

  11. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin


    The NASA Applied Sciences Program works within NASA Earth sciences to leverage investment of satellite and information systems to increase the benefits to society through the widest practical use of NASA research results. Such observations provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as land cover type, vegetation type and health, precipitation, snow, soil moisture, and water levels and radiation. Observations of this type combined with models and analysis enable satellite-based assessment of numerous water resources management activities. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, model results, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. Water resources is one of eight elements in the Applied Sciences Program and it addresses concerns and decision making related to water quantity and water quality. With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands requires using existing resources more efficiently. The potential crises and conflicts arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. but also in many parts of the world. In addition to water availability issues, water quality related

  12. Modified Delphi Consensus to Suggest Key Elements of Stepping On Falls Prevention Program. (United States)

    Mahoney, Jane E; Clemson, Lindy; Schlotthauer, Amy; Mack, Karin A; Shea, Terry; Gobel, Vicki; Cech, Sandy


    Falls among older adults result in substantial morbidity and mortality. Community-based programs have been shown to decrease the rate of falls. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded a research study to determine how to successfully disseminate the evidence-based fall prevention program (Stepping On) in the community setting. As the first step for this study, a panel of subject matter experts was convened to suggest which parts of the Stepping On fall prevention program were considered key elements, which could not be modified by implementers. Older adult fall prevention experts from the US, Canada, and Australia participated in a modified Delphi technique process to suggest key program elements of Stepping On. Forty-four experts were invited to ensure that the panel of experts would consist of equal numbers of physical therapists, occupational therapists, geriatricians, exercise scientists, and public health researchers. Consensus was determined by percent of agreement among panelists. A Rasch analysis of item fit was conducted to explore the degree of diversity and/or homogeneity of responses across our panelists. The Rasch analysis of the 19 panelists using fit statistics shows there was a reasonable and sufficient range of diverse perspectives (Infit MnSQ 1.01, Z score -0.1, Outfit MnSQ 0.96, Z score -0.2 with a separation of 4.89). Consensus was achieved that these elements were key: 17 of 18 adult learning elements, 11 of 22 programming, 12 of 15 exercise, 7 of 8 upgrading exercises, 2 of 4 peer co-leader's role, and all of the home visits, booster sessions, group leader's role, and background and training of group leader elements. The top five key elements were: (1) use plain language, (2) develop trust, (3) engage people in what is meaningful and contextual for them, (4) train participants for cues in self-monitoring quality of exercises, and (5) group leader learns about exercises and understands how to progress them. The Delphi

  13. Generalization techniques to reduce the number of volume elements for terrain effect calculations in fully analytical gravitational modelling (United States)

    Benedek, Judit; Papp, Gábor; Kalmár, János


    Beyond rectangular prism polyhedron, as a discrete volume element, can also be used to model the density distribution inside 3D geological structures. The calculation of the closed formulae given for the gravitational potential and its higher-order derivatives, however, needs twice more runtime than that of the rectangular prism computations. Although the more detailed the better principle is generally accepted it is basically true only for errorless data. As soon as errors are present any forward gravitational calculation from the model is only a possible realization of the true force field on the significance level determined by the errors. So if one really considers the reliability of input data used in the calculations then sometimes the "less" can be equivalent to the "more" in statistical sense. As a consequence the processing time of the related complex formulae can be significantly reduced by the optimization of the number of volume elements based on the accuracy estimates of the input data. New algorithms are proposed to minimize the number of model elements defined both in local and in global coordinate systems. Common gravity field modelling programs generate optimized models for every computation points (dynamic approach), whereas the static approach provides only one optimized model for all. Based on the static approach two different algorithms were developed. The grid-based algorithm starts with the maximum resolution polyhedral model defined by 3-3 points of each grid cell and generates a new polyhedral surface defined by points selected from the grid. The other algorithm is more general; it works also for irregularly distributed data (scattered points) connected by triangulation. Beyond the description of the optimization schemes some applications of these algorithms in regional and local gravity field modelling are presented too. The efficiency of the static approaches may provide even more than 90% reduction in computation time in favourable

  14. Acquisition Program Transition Workshops: An Element of the DSMC Program Manager Mission Assistance Capability (United States)


    Acquisition Sustainment =Decision Point =Milestone Review =Decision Point if PDR is not conducted before Milestone B ProgramA B Initiation) C IOC FOC...workshop deteriorating into a social event. 5.4 Further Detail Appendix A, Module 0, contains detailed planning elements for the pre-workshop agenda...brief Joint Charter, Issues and Actions PMs Establish Workshop Action Items Figure 5-1 Workshop Participants— More Attendees Means Program Socialization

  15. Modeling of the number of stubble stuck elements after abrasive jet machining-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pietnicki


    Full Text Available Sticking of abrasive grains into the surface is the effect of abrasive jet machining processing. For prosthetic works burnt the clay, it may deteriorate the quality of metal-clay connection. Parameters of sandblasting have the significant influence on the amount of stubble elements stuck into the base. The aim of the research is examining possibilities of applying neuron networks for modeling this process. Examples were sandblasted using alternating parameters (pressure of working factor, angle of sandblasting, size of grains. As a next the amount of stubble elements stuck into the base were calculated. Study results allowed to work out a set of 180 standardized teaching patterns. Next, a group of 150 randomly selected neuron networks was submitted to teaching process. The aim was to select net architecture with the highest adjustment for discussed issue. Finally, a MLP (Multi Layer Perception was chosen. Training process of the net involved presentation of process entrance parameters to the net, followed by presentation of researched proportional partaking of stuck elements. In following training cycles the error was decreasing systematically. After finishing the training, the average medium error between the real measurement and the one anticipated by the net was about 5 per cent. Additional number of abrasive jet machining processing was done to verification experiments. As the study shows, designed artificial neuron net stimulates real dependencies appearing during abrasive jet machining-processing in a proper way and can be used for estimating proportional part of grains stuck into base after this processing. It turns out that this phenomenon can be modeled, and its model can be used in a practical way without using mathematical or physical equations.


    Sternick, Marcelo Back; Dallacosta, Darlan; Bento, Daniela Águida; do Reis, Marcelo Lemos


    To analyze the rigidity of a platform-type external fixator assembly, according to different numbers of pins on each clamp. Computer simulation on a large-sized Cromus dynamic external fixator (Baumer SA) was performed using a finite element method, in accordance with the standard ASTM F1541. The models were generated with approximately 450,000 quadratic tetrahedral elements. Assemblies with two, three and four Schanz pins of 5.5 mm in diameter in each clamp were compared. Every model was subjected to a maximum force of 200 N, divided into 10 sub-steps. For the components, the behavior of the material was assumed to be linear, elastic, isotropic and homogeneous. For each model, the rigidity of the assembly and the Von Mises stress distribution were evaluated. The rigidity of the system was 307.6 N/mm for two pins, 369.0 N/mm for three and 437.9 N/mm for four. The results showed that four Schanz pins in each clamp promoted rigidity that was 19% greater than in the configuration with three pins and 42% greater than with two pins. Higher tension occurred in configurations with fewer pins. In the models analyzed, the maximum tension occurred on the surface of the pin, close to the fixation area.

  17. Crystallization of Supercooled Liquid Elements Induced by Superclusters Containing Magic Atom Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Tournier


    Full Text Available A few experiments have detected icosahedral superclusters in undercooled liquids. These superclusters survive above the crystal melting temperature Tm because all their surface atoms have the same fusion heat as their core atoms, and are melted by liquid homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation in their core, depending on superheating time and temperature. They act as heterogeneous growth nuclei of crystallized phase at a temperature Tc of the undercooled melt. They contribute to the critical barrier reduction, which becomes smaller than that of crystals containing the same atom number n. After strong superheating, the undercooling rate is still limited because the nucleation of 13-atom superclusters always reduces this barrier, and increases Tc above a homogeneous nucleation temperature equal to Tm/3 in liquid elements. After weak superheating, the most stable superclusters containing n = 13, 55, 147, 309 and 561 atoms survive or melt and determine Tc during undercooling, depending on n and sample volume. The experimental nucleation temperatures Tc of 32 liquid elements and the supercluster melting temperatures are predicted with sample volumes varying by 18 orders of magnitude. The classical Gibbs free energy change is used, adding an enthalpy saving related to the Laplace pressure change associated with supercluster formation, which is quantified for n = 13 and 55.

  18. Effectiveness and Successful Program Elements of SOAR’s Afterschool Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Johnson


    Full Text Available Project SOAR provided after-school programs that afforded expanded learning opportunities to help students succeed in local public schools and to contribute to the general welfare of the community. Program components focused on building students’ academic skills and positive attitudes, aided by teachers, mentors, parent education, and local agencies. Instructional programs were conducted to help reduce drug use and violence. Activities included academic assistance, technology training, mentoring, service learning projects, and education in life skills and the arts. Parent involvement was encouraged. Behavioral and academic outcomes—especially at the high school level—were analyzed to determine program effectiveness regarding academic achievement, dropout rates, and rates and frequency of suspensions. Successful program elements and strategies are noted.

  19. A study of flow patterns for staggered cylinders at low Reynolds number by spectral element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Li-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Lin; Ye, Jian-Zhi [National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China)


    This study investigates the pattern of flow past two staggered array cylinders using the spectral element method by varying the distance between the cylinders and the angle of incidence (α) at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 100-800). Six flow patterns are identified as Shear layer reattachment (SLR), Induced separation (IS), Vortex impingement (VI), Synchronized vortex shedding (SVS), Vortex pairing and enveloping (VPE), and Vortex pairing splitting and enveloping (VPSE). These flow patterns can be transformed from one to another by changing the distance between the cylinders, the angle of incidence, or Re. SLR, IS and VI flow patterns appear in regimes with small angles of incidence (i.e., α ≤ 30° ) and hold only a single von Karman vortex shedding in a wake with one shedding frequency. SVS, VPE and VPSE flow patterns appear in regimes with large angles of incidence (i.e., 30° ≤ α ≤ 50° ) and present two synchronized von Karman vortices. Quantitative analyses and physical interpretation are also conducted to determine the generation mechanisms of the said flow patterns.

  20. MP Salsa: a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 1--theoretical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.


    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.

  1. Can Cutbacks Leave School Programs Viable? ERIC Digest, Number 106. (United States)

    Weber, James

    Most public schools, out of financial necessity, have had to reduce costs while maintaining facilities and essential programs and remaining accountable for student outcomes. School downsizing can mean making painful decisions about program elimination and staff layoffs. This digest offers suggestions for using downsizing to some…

  2. National Waste Terminal Storage Program: critical element management concept. Volume I. Management summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    CEM is oriented towards identifying, quantifying and curtailing probable impediments to a program originating from both the internal and external program environments. Critical elements are defined as events, trends or conditions that could generate potential uncertainties in the program. The critical elements are broken down into components against which management action is initiated.

  3. 40 CFR 501.11 - Elements of a sludge management program submission. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elements of a sludge management program submission. 501.11 Section 501.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Programs § 501.11 Elements of a sludge management program submission. (a) Any State that seeks to...

  4. Program Manager, Volume 21, Number 5, September-October 1992 (United States)


    Management " originally stressed thinking about the forces that affect not simply at the most senior layers by Henry Fayol . Although manage - the destiny of...following the same principles that analytical ability, memory and judg- Program Manager 31 September-October 1992 ment, but strong interpersonal skills...34September-October 1992 PROGRAM%J MANAGER im Journal of the Defense Systems Management College Bar Code Management The Acquisition Officer at War

  5. Winter population numbers [Fort Niobrara NWR fenced animal program (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set is for winter population numbers for bison, elk and longhorn from January 1st of the calendar year and is part of the Fort Niobrara Fenced Animal...

  6. Meeting Youth Needs with Community Programs. ERIC Digest, Number 86. (United States)

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    Rather than viewing youth as an isolated and alienated subculture, it is more useful to view the needs of youth as largely determined by where and how they live, and to recognize that they differ from one another just as adults do. Professionals and volunteers in community youth programs need to understand how the youth they work with experience…

  7. Prenatal programming of nephron number and blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M. F.; Nauta, J.

    A low nephron number has been advocated to explain the association between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and hypertension in later life. IUGR not only leads to a low birth weight but is also hypothesized to reprogram nephrogenesis, which results in a low nephron endowment. Several methods

  8. 49 CFR 452.9 - Elements of a continuous examination program. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elements of a continuous examination program. 452.9 Section 452.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) COAST GUARD... Elements of a continuous examination program. (a) Examinations required by § 452.7 must conform to the...

  9. 36 CFR 1223.14 - What elements must a vital records program include? (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What elements must a vital... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT MANAGING VITAL RECORDS § 1223.14 What elements must a vital records program include? To achieve compliance with this section, an agency's vital records program must...

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.330 - What are the elements of an acceptable prepayment audit program? (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the elements of... Approved Program § 102-118.330 What are the elements of an acceptable prepayment audit program? An... before payment; (b) Comply with the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901, et seq.); (c) Allow for your...

  11. 49 CFR 192.911 - What are the elements of an integrity management program? (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the elements of an integrity management... Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.911 What are the elements of an integrity management program? An operator's initial integrity management program begins with a framework (see § 192.907) and...

  12. 01010000 01001100 01000001 01011001: Play Elements in Computer Programming (United States)

    Breslin, Samantha


    This article explores the role of play in human interaction with computers in the context of computer programming. The author considers many facets of programming including the literary practice of coding, the abstract design of programs, and more mundane activities such as testing, debugging, and hacking. She discusses how these incorporate the…

  13. FY11_EOM_August_Number of Life Insurance Policies by Program by State (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Number of life insurance policies for each administered life insurance program listed by state. Data is current as of 08/31/11. All programs are closed to new issues...

  14. Large number of ultraconserved elements were already present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor.

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianli


    Stephen (2008) identified 13,736 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in placental mammals and investigated their evolution in opossum, chicken, frog, and fugu. They found that there was a massive expansion of UCEs during tetrapod evolution and the substitution rate in UCEs showed a significant decline in tetrapods compared with fugu, suggesting they were exapted in tetrapods. They considered it unlikely that these elements are ancient but evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes. In this study, we investigated the evolution of UCEs in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark and show that nearly half the UCEs were present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. The substitution rate in UCEs is higher in fugu than in elephant shark, and approximately one-third of ancient UCEs have diverged beyond recognition in teleost fishes. These data indicate that UCEs have evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes, which may have implications for their vast diversity and evolutionary success.

  15. Phase 1 user instruction manual. A geological formation - drill string dynamic interaction finite element program (GEODYN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinianow, M.A.; Rotelli, R.L. Jr.; Baird, J.A.


    User instructions for the GEODYN Interactive Finite Element Computer Program are presented. The program is capable of performing the analysis of the three-dimensional transient dynamic response of a Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bit - Bit Sub arising from the intermittent contact of the bit with the downhole rock formations. The program accommodates non-linear, time dependent, loading and boundary conditions.

  16. Geological formation - drill string dynamic interaction finite-element program (GEODYN). Phase 1. Theoretical description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, J.A.; Apostal, M.C.; Rotelli, R.L. Jr.; Tinianow, M.A.; Wormley, D.N.


    The Theoretical Description for the GEODYN interactive finite-element computer program is presented. The program is capable of performing the analysis of the three-dimensional transient dynamic response of a Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bit-Bit Sub arising from the intermittent contact of the bit with the downhole rock formations. The program accommodates nonlinear, time-dependent, loading and boundary conditions.

  17. An Interactive Preprocessor Program with Graphics for a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Code. (United States)

    Hamilton, Claude Hayden, III

    The development and capabilities of an interactive preprocessor program with graphics for an existing three-dimensional finite element code is presented. This preprocessor program, EDGAP3D, is designed to be used in conjunction with the Texas Three Dimensional Grain Analysis Program (TXCAP3D). The code presented in this research is capable of the…

  18. Steps to a HealthierUS Cooperative Agreement Program: foundational elements for program evaluation planning, implementation, and use of findings. (United States)

    MacDonald, Goldie; Garcia, Danyael; Zaza, Stephanie; Schooley, Michael; Compton, Don; Bryant, Terry; Bagnol, Lulu; Edgerly, Cathy; Haverkate, Rick


    The Steps to a HealthierUS Cooperative Agreement Program (Steps Program) enables funded communities to implement chronic disease prevention and health promotion efforts to reduce the burden of diabetes, obesity, asthma, and related risk factors. At both the national and community levels, investment in surveillance and program evaluation is substantial. Public health practitioners engaged in program evaluation planning often identify desired outcomes, related indicators, and data collection methods but may pay only limited attention to an overarching vision for program evaluation among participating sites. We developed a set of foundational elements to provide a vision of program evaluation that informs the technical decisions made throughout the evaluation process. Given the diversity of activities across the Steps Program and the need for coordination between national- and community-level evaluation efforts, our recommendations to guide program evaluation practice are explicit yet leave room for site-specific context and needs. Staff across the Steps Program must consider these foundational elements to prepare a formal plan for program evaluation. Attention to each element moves the Steps Program closer to well-designed and complementary plans for program evaluation at the national, state, and community levels.

  19. New finite element method for thermal fluid flows at high Reynolds numbers; Netsuido ni tomonau ranryu no kaiseki ni tekishita yugen yosoho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanahashi, T.; Nakai, T. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Generally speaking, finite element methods in the computational fluid dynamics are universal, but not economical. In the present paper in order to overcome this defect ill FEM, we propose a new method using the discrete del operator which is a coordinate-free differential operator in the discrete space. This operator in the discrete space is defined as an element average of the gradient of the shape function and it has three characteristics such as orthogonality, identity and symmetricity. Furthermore the discrete del operator is useful in non-memorizing and in easy coding. As the analytical expression of the discrete del operator is a vector in the two or three dimensions, the natural description of programming becomes objective and compact, which is more understandable for non-specialists of CFD. Here we apply this method to thermal fluid flows at high Reynolds numbers. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin


    The NASA Earth Systems Division has the primary responsibility for the Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the NASA Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses major problems facing water resources managers, including having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA's science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA's Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  1. The finite element analysis program MSC Marc/Mentat a first introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas


    Based on simple examples, this book offers a short introduction to the general-purpose finite element program MSC Marc, a specialized program for non-linear problems (implicit solver) distributed by the MSC Software Corporation, which is commonly used in academia and industry. Today the documentation of all finite element programs includes a variety of step-by-step examples of differing complexity, and in addition, all software companies offer professional workshops on different topics. As such, rather than competing with these, the book focuses on providing simple examples, often single-element problems, which can easily be related to the theory that is discussed in finite element lectures. This makes it an ideal companion book to classical introductory courses on the finite element method.

  2. TORO II: A finite element computer program for nonlinear quasi-static problems in electromagnetics: Part 2, User`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartling, D.K.


    User instructions are given for the finite element, electromagnetics program, TORO II. The theoretical background and numerical methods used in the program are documented in SAND95-2472. The present document also describes a number of example problems that have been analyzed with the code and provides sample input files for typical simulations. 20 refs., 34 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Elements of Quality in Agricultural Business Education Programs


    Scott, Donald F.; Dobson, William D.


    This paper describes strategies for developing quality agribusiness management educational programs that include appropriate amounts of management and marketing subject matter, emphasize lifelong learning, avoid weak options, avoid mistakes made by business schools in the accreditation process, and hold potential for reversing the decline in undergraduate enrollments in agricultural economics.

  4. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program. (United States)

    Allen, Robert Ross


    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  5. The Study Abroad Experience: A Crucial Element in Globalizing Business School Programs (United States)

    Mangiero, George A.; Kraten, Michael


    Globalization is a fundamental reality of modern business practice. Participation in a study abroad program is a crucial element in helping students become well rounded global business leaders; it is an increasingly important element of a well rounded business curriculum. A semester or summer abroad, properly conceived and designed, can provide…

  6. Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others


    The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE-Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. A materials/manufacturing plan was developed in FY 1994 with input from gas turbine manufacturers, materials suppliers, universities, and government laboratories. The plan outlines seven major subelements which focus on materials issues and manufacturing processes. Work is currently under way in four of the seven major subelements. There are now major projects on coatings and process development, scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technology, materials characterization, and technology information exchange.

  7. Annual report of the wind characterisitics program element, April 1976--June 1977. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J. V.


    Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), has been providing technical and management support for the Wind Characteristics Program Element (WCPE) of the Wind Energy Conversion Program since April 1976. This first annual report to the Wind Systems Branch (WSB) of ERDA's Division of Solar Energy describes the technical progress within the Program Element from April 1976 through June 1977. Within the Wind Energy Conversion Program, the WCPE is a service element to provide information on wind characteristics to those involved in energy program planning, design and evaluation of performance of wind energy conversion systems(WECS), selection of sites for installation of WECS, and operation of WECS. To identify pertinent wind characteristics and collect and present that information in formats that are usable, the WCPE has been divided into four technical areas: Design and Performance Evaluation; Site Selection; Presiting Evaluation; and Planning and Operation.

  8. Relationship Between the Number of Clinical Sites in Radiography Programs and Job Placement Rates of Graduates. (United States)

    Harrell, Angela; Matthews, Eric


    To determine whether a relationship exists between the number of clinical sites available in radiography programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology and the job placement rates of graduates. We performed a secondary analysis of data on job placement rates and the number of clinical sites available in 438 degree-granting radiography programs from January 2015 to March 2015. A weak, negative, nonsignificant correlation existed between the number of clinical sites and the job placement rate (Spearman's rho = -.113, n = 438, P = .018). The coefficient of determination was 1.28%.Discussion Research evaluating factors contributing to graduate employability is limited but indicates no need for radiography program administrators to adjust clinical site numbers solely on the basis of improving graduate employability. The number of clinical sites available in a radiography program is not related to the job placement rate of its graduates. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  9. STARS: A general-purpose finite element computer program for analysis of engineering structures (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    STARS (Structural Analysis Routines) is primarily an interactive, graphics-oriented, finite-element computer program for analyzing the static, stability, free vibration, and dynamic responses of damped and undamped structures, including rotating systems. The element library consists of one-dimensional (1-D) line elements, two-dimensional (2-D) triangular and quadrilateral shell elements, and three-dimensional (3-D) tetrahedral and hexahedral solid elements. These elements enable the solution of structural problems that include truss, beam, space frame, plane, plate, shell, and solid structures, or any combination thereof. Zero, finite, and interdependent deflection boundary conditions can be implemented by the program. The associated dynamic response analysis capability provides for initial deformation and velocity inputs, whereas the transient excitation may be either forces or accelerations. An effective in-core or out-of-core solution strategy is automatically employed by the program, depending on the size of the problem. Data input may be at random within a data set, and the program offers certain automatic data-generation features. Input data are formatted as an optimal combination of free and fixed formats. Interactive graphics capabilities enable convenient display of nodal deformations, mode shapes, and element stresses.

  10. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Energy Program Conservation Elements (United States)


    ... 436 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Pt... present management systems incorporate these elements. (1) Top Management Control. Top management must have a personal and sustained commitment to the program, provide active direction and motivation, and...

  11. FOCUS: Essential Elements of Quality for State-Funded Preschool Programs (United States)

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2016


    The "FOCUS: Essential Elements of Quality, New Mexico's Tiered Quality Rating and Improvement System (TQRIS)," provides early childhood program personnel with the criteria, tools, and resources they need to improve the quality of their program. These quality improvements focus on children's growth, development, and learning--so that each…

  12. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G


    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  13. On the Polynomial Basis of GF(2n) Having a Small Number of Trace-One Elements


    Jiantao Wang; Dong Zheng; Zheng Huang


    In the Galois fields GF(2n), a polynomial basis with a small number of trace-one elements is desirable for its convenience in computing. To find new irreducible polynomials g(x) over GF(2) with this property, we research into the auxiliary polynomial f(x)=(x+1)g(x) with roots {1,α1,α2,…,αn}, such that the symmetric polynomials sk=1+α1k+α2k+⋯+αnk are relative to the symmetric polynomials of g(x). We introduce a new class of polynomials with the number “1” occupying most of the values in its sk...

  14. Copy number variation and transposable elements feature in recent, ongoing adaptation at the Cyp6g1 locus. (United States)

    Schmidt, Joshua M; Good, Robert T; Appleton, Belinda; Sherrard, Jayne; Raymant, Greta C; Bogwitz, Michael R; Martin, Jon; Daborn, Phillip J; Goddard, Mike E; Batterham, Philip; Robin, Charles


    The increased transcription of the Cyp6g1 gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and consequent resistance to insecticides such as DDT, is a widely cited example of adaptation mediated by cis-regulatory change. A fragment of an Accord transposable element inserted upstream of the Cyp6g1 gene is causally associated with resistance and has spread to high frequencies in populations around the world since the 1940s. Here we report the existence of a natural allelic series at this locus of D. melanogaster, involving copy number variation of Cyp6g1, and two additional transposable element insertions (a P and an HMS-Beagle). We provide evidence that this genetic variation underpins phenotypic variation, as the more derived the allele, the greater the level of DDT resistance. Tracking the spatial and temporal patterns of allele frequency changes indicates that the multiple steps of the allelic series are adaptive. Further, a DDT association study shows that the most resistant allele, Cyp6g1-[BP], is greatly enriched in the top 5% of the phenotypic distribution and accounts for approximately 16% of the underlying phenotypic variation in resistance to DDT. In contrast, copy number variation for another candidate resistance gene, Cyp12d1, is not associated with resistance. Thus the Cyp6g1 locus is a major contributor to DDT resistance in field populations, and evolution at this locus features multiple adaptive steps occurring in rapid succession.

  15. Copy number variation and transposable elements feature in recent, ongoing adaptation at the Cyp6g1 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Schmidt


    Full Text Available The increased transcription of the Cyp6g1 gene of Drosophila melanogaster, and consequent resistance to insecticides such as DDT, is a widely cited example of adaptation mediated by cis-regulatory change. A fragment of an Accord transposable element inserted upstream of the Cyp6g1 gene is causally associated with resistance and has spread to high frequencies in populations around the world since the 1940s. Here we report the existence of a natural allelic series at this locus of D. melanogaster, involving copy number variation of Cyp6g1, and two additional transposable element insertions (a P and an HMS-Beagle. We provide evidence that this genetic variation underpins phenotypic variation, as the more derived the allele, the greater the level of DDT resistance. Tracking the spatial and temporal patterns of allele frequency changes indicates that the multiple steps of the allelic series are adaptive. Further, a DDT association study shows that the most resistant allele, Cyp6g1-[BP], is greatly enriched in the top 5% of the phenotypic distribution and accounts for approximately 16% of the underlying phenotypic variation in resistance to DDT. In contrast, copy number variation for another candidate resistance gene, Cyp12d1, is not associated with resistance. Thus the Cyp6g1 locus is a major contributor to DDT resistance in field populations, and evolution at this locus features multiple adaptive steps occurring in rapid succession.

  16. 0-1 Integer Linear Programming with a Linear Number of Constraints


    Impagliazzo, R; Lovett, S; Paturi, R.; Schneider, S.


    We give an exact algorithm for the 0-1 Integer Linear Programming problem with a linear number of constraints that improves over exhaustive search by an exponential factor. Specifically, our algorithm runs in time $2^{(1-\\text{poly}(1/c))n}$ where n is the number of variables and cn is the number of constraints. The key idea for the algorithm is a reduction to the Vector Domination problem and a new algorithm for that subproblem.

  17. MPSalsa Version 1.5: A Finite Element Computer Program for Reacting Flow Problems: Part 1 - Theoretical Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, K.D.; Hennigan, G.L.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Moffat, H.K.; Salinger, A.G.; Schmidt, R.C.; Shadid, J.N.; Smith, T.M.


    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa Version 1.5, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar or turbulent low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow (with auxiliary turbulence equations), heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solve coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion-reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMK3N, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element database suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec. solver library.

  18. Rare earth elements as a by-catch of sedimentary deposits. Exploration program of rare earth elements; Selten Erd Elemente als Beifang sedimentaerer Lagerstaetten. Erkundungsprogramm Selten Erd Elemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhardt, E.; Gebhardt, A. (comps.)


    The increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) in the field of ''green technologies'' on the one hand and the shortage of raw materials on the world markets on the other hand confronted also Bavaria as an industrial location with growing supply problems in these ''high tech raw materials''. The aim of exploration was the clarification of the feedstock REE potential of heavy mineral concentrates which are obtained in the industrial extraction and processing of sand and kaolin in existing extraction operations in northern Bavaria as by catch and are potentially winnable or marketable. The in-depth investigation enabled the potential of found rare earth elements and other high-tech metal oxides that can be classified as very likely find it in terms of an economic recovery. [German] Der zunehmende Bedarf an Selten Erd Elementen (SEE) im Bereich der ''Gruenen Technologien'' zum Einen sowie die Rohstoffverknappung auf den Weltmaerkten zum Anderen konfrontiert auch Bayern als Industriestandort mit wachsenden Versorgungsproblemen bei diesen ''high tech-Grundstoffen''. Ziel der Erkundung war die Klaerung des rohstofflichen SEE-Potenzials von Schwermineralkonzentraten, die bei der grosstechnischen Gewinnung und Aufbereitung von Sand und Kaolin in vorhandenen Gewinnungsbetrieben Nordbayerns als Beifang anfallen und potenziell gewinn- bzw. vermarktbar sind. Im Zuge der Untersuchung konnten nutzbare Potenziale von Selten Erd Elementen und anderen high-tech - Metalloxiden gefunden werden, die sehr wahrscheinlich als fuendig im Hinblick auf eine wirtschaftliche Gewinnung eingestuft werden koennen.

  19. K-Shell Photoabsorption and Photoionisation of Trace Elements I. Isoelectronic Sequences With Electron Number 3< or = N < or = 11 (United States)

    Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Mendoza, C.; Bautista, M. A.; Witthoeft, M. C.; Kallman, T. R.


    Context. With the recent launching of the Hitomi X-ray space observatory, K lines and edges of chemical elements with low cosmic abundances, namely F, Na, P, Cl, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn, can be resolved and used to determine important properties of supernova remnants, galaxy clusters and accreting black holes and neutron stars.Aims. The second stage of the present ongoing project involves the computation of the accurate photoabsorption and photoionisation cross sections required to interpret the X-ray spectra of such trace elements.Methods. Depending on target complexity and computer tractability, ground-state cross sections are computed either with the close-coupling Breit-Pauli R-matrix method or with the autostructure atomic structure code in the isolated-resonance approximation. The intermediate-coupling scheme is used whenever possible. In order to determine a realistic K-edge behaviour for each species, both radiative and Auger dampings are taken into account, the latter being included in the R-matrix formalism by means of an optical potential.Results. Photoabsorption and total and partial photoionisation cross sections are reported for isoelectronic sequences with electron numbers 3 11 as they contribute significantly to the monotonic background of the cross section between the L and K edges. Configurations with 3d orbitals are important in rendering an accurate L edge, but they can be practically neglected in the K-edge region.

  20. Prediction of settlement by using finite element simulation 2D program at Seksyen 7, Shah Alam (United States)

    Razak, Zakiah; Mukri, Mazidah; Kasim, Nur Aisyah


    Construction on soft ground often involves a number of geotechnical issues especially that related to settlements. Excessive post-construction settlements may they be total or differential have always caused serious problem to all parties in the project. Insufficient knowledge on existing ground conditions due to lacking of a proper site investigation coupled with inadequacy in design especially in the foundation for supporting structure could be the likely reasons for causing this problem and lead to eventual instability of the structure above. In general, a reasonably accurate assessment on the rate of settlement of soil is a very important factor in ensuring the achievement of structurally sound building and/or infrastructural work on soft ground without the development of excessive post-construction settlement. In the current investigation, sensitivity analysis to enhance prediction of settlement is carried out using the PLAXIS Finite Element 2D Program by setting the relevant control parameters. This would allow post-construction settlement be predicted during the pre-construction stage be predicted. It is believed that this is useful in assisting the design engineer in arriving at a satisfactory solution subsequently.

  1. Application of the Single Hardening Model in the Finite Element Program ABAQUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    that several conceptual models, describing the non-linear and irreversible behaviour of soil, have been developed over the last three decades few of them are accessible in commercial finite element programs. In the present study the Single Hardening Model, that is a time independent elastoplastic constitutive...

  2. Ultimate limit state design of sheet pile walls by finite elements and nonlinear programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Sven


    as a nonlinear programming problem where the yield moment of the wall is minimized subject to equilibrium and yield conditions. The finite element discretization used enables exact fulfillment of these conditions and thus, according to the lower bound theorem, the solutions are safe....

  3. Ultimate Limit State Design Of Sheet Pile Walls By Finite Elements And Nonlinear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Sven


    as a nonlinear programming problem where the yield moment of the wall is minimized subject to equilibrium and yield conditions. The finite element discretization used enables exact fulfillment of these conditions and thus, according to the lower bound theorem, the solutions are safe...

  4. Elements of Mathematics, Book O: Intuitive Background. Chapter 16, Introduction to Computer Programming. (United States)

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    The sixteen chapters of this book provide the core material for the Elements of Mathematics Program, a secondary sequence developed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities. The sequence is based on a functional-relational approach to mathematics teaching, and emphasizes teaching by analysis of real-life situations. This text is…

  5. Pest rodents as the essential elements of Mycobacterium bovis controlling programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Moradi


    Discussion: This study was unable to track tangible evidence of tuberculosis transmission by mice. Hence to prove this hypothesis, further studies are advised. However, it was found that mice are potentially a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens, and therefore its importance in this regard must be considered as an effective element of any controlling program.

  6. Workplace Violence Training Programs for Health Care Workers: An Analysis of Program Elements. (United States)

    Arbury, Sheila; Hodgson, Michael; Zankowski, Donna; Lipscomb, Jane


    Commercial workplace violence (WPV) prevention training programs differ in their approach to violence prevention and the content they present. This study reviews 12 such programs using criteria developed from training topics in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Guidelines for Preventing Workplace Violence for Healthcare and Social Service Workers and a review of the WPV literature. None of the training programs addressed all the review criteria. The most significant gap in content was the lack of attention to facility-specific risk assessment and policies. To fill this gap, health care facilities should supplement purchased training programs with specific training in organizational policies and procedures, emergency action plans, communication, facility risk assessment, and employee post-incident debriefing and monitoring. Critical to success is a dedicated program manager who understands risk assessment, facility clinical operations, and program management and evaluation.

  7. Effect of the number of implants on stress distribution of anterior implant-supported fixed prostheses combined with a removable partial denture: a finite element analysis. (United States)

    Mahshid, Minoo; Geramy, Allahyar; Ejlali, Massoud; Sedaghat Monfared, Majid; Rezvani Habib Abadi, Shirin


    The main goal of this study was to evaluate differences in stress distribution relevant to the number of implants under an anterior bridge when combined with a removable partial denture in the posterior region. Four three-dimensional finite element models (3D FEM) were designed from a mandible containing an implant-supported bridge extending between canines, and a bilateral distal extension removable partial denture. A nonrigid connection was selected as the attachment method between the partial denture and the anterior implant-supported fixed prosthesis; 2, 3, 4 and 5 implants supporting the bridge all with 10mm length and 3.8 mm diameter were assessed. With the aid of the finite element program ANSYS 8.0, the models were loaded and von Mises stresses were evaluated. In spongy bone, stress forces showed a decrease from 2 implants to 4 implants but showed an increase in the 5-implant model. Stresses on cortical bone of terminal implants were in similar range in the 2-, 3- and 4-implant models. While, in the 5-implant model the amount of stresses on terminal implants increased dramatically. The stresses on implants were nearly similar in all models, with the greatest amount on terminal implants. Within the limitations of this study, 2-, 3- and 4-implant models showed less stress on cortical and spongy bone in comparison with the 5-implant model. The stresses transferred to implants were nearly similar.

  8. Effect of the number of implants on stress distribution of anterior implant-supported fixed prostheses combined with a removable partial denture: a finite element analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Mahshid


    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to evaluate differences in stress distribution relevant to the number of implants under an anterior bridge when combined with a removable partial denture in the posterior region.Four three-dimensional finite element models (3D FEM were designed from a mandible containing an implant-supported bridge extending between canines, and a bilateral distal extension removable partial denture. A nonrigid connection was selected as the attachment method between the partial denture and the anterior implant-supported fixed prosthesis; 2, 3, 4 and 5 implants supporting the bridge all with 10mm length and 3.8 mm diameter were assessed. With the aid of the finite element program ANSYS 8.0, the models were loaded and von Mises stresses were evaluated.In spongy bone, stress forces showed a decrease from 2 implants to 4 implants but showed an increase in the 5-implant model. Stresses on cortical bone of terminal implants were in similar range in the 2-, 3- and 4-implant models. While, in the 5-implant model the amount of stresses on terminal implants increased dramatically. The stresses on implants were nearly similar in all models, with the greatest amount on terminal implants.Within the limitations of this study, 2-, 3- and 4-implant models showed less stress on cortical and spongy bone in comparison with the 5-implant model. The stresses transferred to implants were nearly similar.

  9. Gerontological Training Programs Offered by Latin American Universities: Number, Characteristics, and Disciplinary Contents (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Giuliani, María Florencia; Serrat, Rodrigo; Curcio, Carmen-Lucía; Lopes, Alexandra; Maldonado, María de la Luz Martínez; Oliveira, Rita da Cássia


    One of the challenges of population aging is to ensure that there are enough trained professionals to meet the changing, specific needs of aging populations. The aim of this study was to describe the number, geographical distribution, and general characteristics of gerontological training programs offered by Latin American universities and to…

  10. Linear programming models and methods of matrix games with payoffs of triangular fuzzy numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Deng-Feng


    This book addresses two-person zero-sum finite games in which the payoffs in any situation are expressed with fuzzy numbers. The purpose of this book is to develop a suite of effective and efficient linear programming models and methods for solving matrix games with payoffs in fuzzy numbers. Divided into six chapters, it discusses the concepts of solutions of matrix games with payoffs of intervals, along with their linear programming models and methods. Furthermore, it is directly relevant to the research field of matrix games under uncertain economic management. The book offers a valuable resource for readers involved in theoretical research and practical applications from a range of different fields including game theory, operational research, management science, fuzzy mathematical programming, fuzzy mathematics, industrial engineering, business and social economics. .

  11. Upper Bounds on the Number of Solutions of Binary Integer Programs (United States)

    Jain, Siddhartha; Kadioglu, Serdar; Sellmann, Meinolf

    We present a new method to compute upper bounds of the number of solutions of binary integer programming (BIP) problems. Given a BIP, we create a dynamic programming (DP) table for a redundant knapsack constraint which is obtained by surrogate relaxation. We then consider a Lagrangian relaxation of the original problem to obtain an initial weight bound on the knapsack. This bound is then refined through subgradient optimization. The latter provides a variety of Lagrange multipliers which allow us to filter infeasible edges in the DP table. The number of paths in the final table then provides an upper bound on the number of solutions. Numerical results show the effectiveness of our counting framework on automatic recording and market split problems.

  12. Nerva Fuel Element Development Program Summary Report - July 1966 through June 1972 Extrusion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, J. M.


    This part of the completion report pertaining to the NERVA graphite fuel element program covers data collected during the extrusion studies. The physical properties of the fuel element reached the following values: coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) - 7.0 x 10-6/o C (25 - l,OOOo C); modulus of elasticity - 1.5 x lo6 psi; flexural strength - - 8,000 psi; ultimate strain to failure - 5,500 pidin; good thermal stress resistance. Matrices were produced which could be vapor coated with crack-free films of zirconium carbide. The CTE of the matrix was almost equal to the CTE of the zirconium carbide coating.

  13. MAPVAR - A Computer Program to Transfer Solution Data Between Finite Element Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, G.W.


    MAPVAR, as was the case with its precursor programs, MERLIN and MERLIN II, is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operation of the code and the effects of various input options.

  14. Effect of six sigma program on the number of surgeries cancellation. (United States)

    Gheysari, Esmat; Yousefi, Hojatollah; Soleymani, Hossain; Mojdeh, Soheila


    Today, the rate of surgeries is increasing, but surgeries are canceled due to various reasons. Unexpected cancellation of surgeries not only results in disorder in the operating room schedule, but also causes stress for patients and their family and increases costs. We determined the number and causes of surgery cancellations and areas for improvement. This outcome evaluation of Six Sigma program was conducted on 850 cases after the implementation of the program and compared to that of 850 cases which received routine care before the program. Cases were selected through easy sampling during the study. Before the implementation, the number of cancellations was recorded daily and their reasons were investigated. Then, Six Sigma program was implemented in accordance with the reasons for each category and necessary steps were taken to prevent the cancellation of surgeries. Data were collected for 3 months using a three-section data collection form. For data analysis, distribution and relative frequency and chi-square test were used. The three categories of patient, physician, and hospital system were identified as the main causes. The highest rate of cancellation was related to ENT surgeries (74.19%). No cancellations were made in orology surgeries. The implementation of the Six Sigma program caused a significant difference in surgery cancellation (P = 0.003); 31 (3.6%) cases of cancellation were reduced to 12 (1.4%) cases. The results showed that Six Sigma program is a pre-surgery care quality improvement program. Patient education and the implementation of the 6 sigma program can be effective in reducing the rate of cancellation of operations.

  15. Government-to-private sector energy programs: Identification of common elements leading to successful implementation (United States)

    Stockton, Keith M.

    This dissertation examines six distinct government energy programs implemented in the United States during the last three decades. A common element within these programs is an attempt by government to drive commercialization of energy technologies leading to changes in energy production or consumptive behavior. We seek to understand the factors that lead to success or failure of these programs with two goals in mind. The first is theoretical in that we test a hypothesis that market-based energy programs have substantially higher success rates than command-and-control programs. The second goal is operational in nature, in which we desire to identify common factors within energy programs that lead either to program success or to failure. We investigate and evaluate three market-based and three command-and-control energy programs. The market-based programs include the federal Corporate Average Fuel Economy and Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Control programs as well as Colorado's Amendment 37. The command-and-control programs include the federal Synthetic Fuels Corporation and Corn Based Ethanol programs as well as Colorado's Solar Electric Power program. We conduct the analysis of each program based on composite methodology derived from leading academics within the Policy Sciences. From our research findings, we conclude that both market-based and command-and-control programs can achieve their legislative goals and objectives, resulting in permanent changes in energy production or consumptive behavior. However, we also find that the economic efficiency is the differentiator between market-based and command-and-control programs. Market-based programs, because of the inherent flexibility, allow participants to react to changing economic and/or technical conditions. In contrast, command-and-control programs lack such flexibility and often result in economic inefficiency when economic conditions change. The financial incentives incorporated in the three command

  16. Influence of Number of Implants and Attachment Type on Stress Distribution in Mandibular Implant-Retained Overdentures: Finite Element Analysis. (United States)

    El-Anwar, Mohamed I; El-Taftazany, Eman A; Hamed, Hamdy A; ElHay, Mohamed A Abd


    This study aimed to compare the stresses generated by using two or four root form dental implants supporting mandibular overdentures that were retained with ball and locator attachments. Under ANSYS environment, four 3D finite element models were prepared. These models simulated complete overdentures supported by two or four implants with either ball or locator attachments as a connection mechanism. The models' components were created by CAD/CAM package then were imported to ANSYS. Load of 100 N was applied at the right premolar/molar region vertically and at an oblique angle of 110° from lingual direction. Within the conditions of this research, in all cases, it was found that cortical and cancellous bone regions were the least to be stressed. Also, the ball attachment produced higher stresses. Caps deformation and stresses are negligible in cases of using locator attachment in comparison to ball attachments. This may indicate longer lifetime and less repair/maintenance operations in implant overdentures retained by locator attachments. Although the study revealed that bone was insensitive to a number of implants or attachment type, it may be recommended to use two implants in the canine region than using four, where the locator attachments were found to be better.

  17. Annual Report of the Wind Characteristics Program Element for the Period April 1976 Through June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C. E.; Ramsdell, J. V.


    The Wind Characteristics Program Element (WCPE) is a service element to provide meteorological information to other parts of the Wind Energy Conversion Program. In this role, the WCPE has as its general objective acceleration of the development, commercialization and utilization of reliable and economically viable wind energy conversion systems (WECS). This report discusses the work undertaken in the areas of design and performance evaluation, site selection, and presiting evaluation from April 1976 through June 1977. A systematic evaluation of wind descriptors has begun in the Design and Performance Evaluation Program Areas and is leading to the preparation of handbooks of meteorological information for use in design and performance evaluation. A conceptual framework has been established within the Site Selection Program Area that clearly defines the relationships between siting tools. The Presiting Evaluation Program Area is involved in the identification of large areas of high wind energy potential throughout the United States, and in the determination of wind characteristics related to the economic viability of wind energy conversion within these areas.

  18. Effect of a three-month football training program on trace element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of a three-month football training program on some trace elements in the serum in male kids aged between eight and twelve years. The study registered eight boys whose mean age was 10.25 ± 0.75 years, mean height was 138.63 ± 3.28 cm and mean weight was 32.13 ...

  19. Quantum Biology at the Cellular Level - elements of the research program


    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily


    Quantum Biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (Quantum Biology at Cellular Level), a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. Key words. decoherence, macroscopic superpositions, basis-dependence, formal superposition, non-classical correlations,...

  20. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan


    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  1. An Efficient Ranking Technique for Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers with Its Application in Chance Constrained Bilevel Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Biswas


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a new ranking technique for intuitionistic fuzzy numbers using the method of defuzzification based on probability density function of the corresponding membership function, as well as the complement of nonmembership function. Using the proposed ranking technique a methodology for solving linear bilevel fuzzy stochastic programming problem involving normal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers is developed. In the solution process each objective is solved independently to set the individual goal value of the objectives of the decision makers and thereby constructing fuzzy membership goal of the objectives of each decision maker. Finally, a fuzzy goal programming approach is considered to achieve the highest membership degree to the extent possible of each of the membership goals of the decision makers in the decision making context. Illustrative numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology and the achieved results are compared with existing techniques.

  2. Virtual garden computer program for use in exploring the elements of biodiversity people want in cities. (United States)

    Shwartz, Assaf; Cheval, Helene; Simon, Laurent; Julliard, Romain


    Urban ecology is emerging as an integrative science that explores the interactions of people and biodiversity in cities. Interdisciplinary research requires the creation of new tools that allow the investigation of relations between people and biodiversity. It has been established that access to green spaces or nature benefits city dwellers, but the role of species diversity in providing psychological benefits remains poorly studied. We developed a user-friendly 3-dimensional computer program (Virtual Garden []) that allows people to design their own public or private green spaces with 95 biotic and abiotic features. Virtual Garden allows researchers to explore what elements of biodiversity people would like to have in their nearby green spaces while accounting for other functions that people value in urban green spaces. In 2011, 732 participants used our Virtual Garden program to design their ideal small public garden. On average gardens contained 5 different animals, 8 flowers, and 5 woody plant species. Although the mathematical distribution of flower and woody plant richness (i.e., number of species per garden) appeared to be similar to what would be expected by random selection of features, 30% of participants did not place any animal species in their gardens. Among those who placed animals in their gardens, 94% selected colorful species (e.g., ladybug [Coccinella septempunctata], Great Tit [Parus major], and goldfish), 53% selected herptiles or large mammals, and 67% selected non-native species. Older participants with a higher level of education and participants with a greater concern for nature designed gardens with relatively higher species richness and more native species. If cities are to be planned for the mutual benefit of people and biodiversity and to provide people meaningful experiences with urban nature, it is important to investigate people's relations with biodiversity further. Virtual Garden offers a standardized

  3. Diesel Exhaust Exposure Assessment Among Tunnel Construction Workers-Correlations Between Nitrogen Dioxide, Respirable Elemental Carbon, and Particle Number. (United States)

    Hedmer, Maria; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Li, Huiqi; Albin, Maria; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Broberg, Karin


    Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust is common due the widespread use of diesel-powered combustion engines. Diesel exhaust is chemically complex and consists of thousands of compounds present as gases and particulate matter. Both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and elemental carbon (EC) have been used as markers for diesel exhaust exposure. Currently EC is regarded as the best surrogate of diesel exhaust. The objective was to quantify the occupational exposure to diesel exhaust in underground tunnel construction work using a multi-metric approach, and to investigate the correlations between NO2, respirable EC, respirable organic carbon (OC), respirable total carbon (TC), respirable dust (RD), and particle number. Also, the use of NO2 as a proxy for diesel exhaust was evaluated, how much of the variability in the diesel exhaust exposure was attributed to within and between individual factors and if there was a difference between expert and self-administered measurements of NO2. The personal exposure to diesel exhaust was assessed by expert supervised measurements of NO2, EC, OC, TC, RD and particle number in the breathing zones of underground tunnel workers. Stationary sampling of NO2, EC, OC, TC, RD, size-fractioned mass concentration, and particle number were conducted. The personal and stationary measurements were conducted on three occasions simultaneously. The workers measured their exposure by repeated self-administered measurements of NO2. The self-administered measurements were performed twice for each worker with at least one month lag between the samplings. In the simultaneous sampling of diesel exhaust, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of NO2 and respirable EC were 72 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 34-140 µg m-3) and 2.6 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 1.6-7.3 µg m-3), respectively. The GM for OC and TC was 28 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 20-42 µg m-3) and 31 µg m-3 (10th-90th percentile 20-50 µg m-3), respectively. The GM for RD and particle number was

  4. Is the Program-Specific Paragraph Responsible for Declining Application Numbers? A Commentary. (United States)

    Kramer, Scott


    An alarming trend of declining applications to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery has surfaced over the past 3 years. There are many possible explanations for this decline, and a recent publication has implicated "impossible" qualifications as the reason for this decline. While these qualifications may deter a significant number of potential applicants, they have not changed significantly in the past 5 years and do not seem to explain a sudden decline. This commentary argues that the program-specific paragraph, which was introduced in 2015, may be at least in part responsible.

  5. COYOTE : a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part I, theoretical background.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.


    The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction

  6. Program design by a multidisciplinary team. [for structural finite element analysis on STAR-100 computer (United States)

    Voigt, S.


    The use of software engineering aids in the design of a structural finite-element analysis computer program for the STAR-100 computer is described. Nested functional diagrams to aid in communication among design team members were used, and a standardized specification format to describe modules designed by various members was adopted. This is a report of current work in which use of the functional diagrams provided continuity and helped resolve some of the problems arising in this long-running part-time project.

  7. 20 CFR 655.1111 - Element I-What hospitals are eligible to participate in the H-1C program? (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Element I-What hospitals are eligible to... I—What hospitals are eligible to participate in the H-1C program? (a) The first attestation element... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES What...

  8. STARS: An Integrated, Multidisciplinary, Finite-Element, Structural, Fluids, Aeroelastic, and Aeroservoelastic Analysis Computer Program (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.


    A multidisciplinary, finite element-based, highly graphics-oriented, linear and nonlinear analysis capability that includes such disciplines as structures, heat transfer, linear aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, and controls engineering has been achieved by integrating several new modules in the original STARS (STructural Analysis RoutineS) computer program. Each individual analysis module is general-purpose in nature and is effectively integrated to yield aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic solutions of complex engineering problems. Examples of advanced NASA Dryden Flight Research Center projects analyzed by the code in recent years include the X-29A, F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle/Thrust Vectoring Control System, B-52/Pegasus Generic Hypersonics, National AeroSpace Plane (NASP), SR-71/Hypersonic Launch Vehicle, and High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) projects. Extensive graphics capabilities exist for convenient model development and postprocessing of analysis results. The program is written in modular form in standard FORTRAN language to run on a variety of computers, such as the IBM RISC/6000, SGI, DEC, Cray, and personal computer; associated graphics codes use OpenGL and IBM/graPHIGS language for color depiction. This program is available from COSMIC, the NASA agency for distribution of computer programs.

  9. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David


    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)


    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  11. Automated evaluation of matrix elements between contracted wavefunctions: A Mathematica version of the FRODO program (United States)

    Angeli, C.; Cimiraglia, R.


    A symbolic program performing the Formal Reduction of Density Operators (FRODO), formerly developed in the MuPAD computer algebra system with the purpose of evaluating the matrix elements of the electronic Hamiltonian between internally contracted functions in a complete active space (CAS) scheme, has been rewritten in Mathematica. New version : A program summaryProgram title: FRODO Catalogue identifier: ADV Y _v2_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3878 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 170729 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica Computer: Any computer on which the Mathematica computer algebra system can be installed Operating system: Linux Classification: 5 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADV Y _v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 171(2005)63 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No Nature of problem. In order to improve on the CAS-SCF wavefunction one can resort to multireference perturbation theory or configuration interaction based on internally contracted functions (ICFs) which are obtained by application of the excitation operators to the reference CAS-SCF wavefunction. The previous formulation of such matrix elements in the MuPAD computer algebra system, has been rewritten using Mathematica. Solution method: The method adopted consists in successively eliminating all occurrences of inactive orbital indices (core and virtual) from the products of excitation operators which appear in the definition of the ICFs and in the electronic Hamiltonian expressed in the second quantization formalism. Reasons for new version: Some years ago we published in this journal a couple of papers [1, 2

  12. Element Partition Trees For H-Refined Meshes to Optimize Direct Solver Performance. Part I: Dynamic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.


    We consider a class of two-and three-dimensional h-refined meshes generated by an adaptive finite element method. We introduce an element partition tree, which controls the execution of the multi-frontal solver algorithm over these refined grids. We propose and study algorithms with polynomial computational cost for the optimization of these element partition trees. The trees provide an ordering for the elimination of unknowns. The algorithms automatically optimize the element partition trees using extensions of dynamic programming. The construction of the trees by the dynamic programming approach is expensive. These generated trees cannot be used in practice, but rather utilized as a learning tool to propose fast heuristic algorithms. In this first part of our paper we focus on the dynamic programming approach, and draw a sketch of the heuristic algorithm. The second part will be devoted to a more detailed analysis of the heuristic algorithm extended for the case of hp-adaptive

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)


    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  14. Does a predialysis education program increase the number of pre-emptive renal transplantations? (United States)

    Cankaya, E; Cetinkaya, R; Keles, M; Gulcan, E; Uyanik, A; Kisaoglu, A; Ozogul, B; Ozturk, G; Aydinli, B


    Renal transplantation (RT) is the most appropriate form of treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Pre-emptive RT decreases the rates of delayed graft function and acute rejection episodes, increasing patient and graft survival, while reducing costs and complications associated with dialysis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between a predialysis education program (PDEP) for patients and their relatives and pre-emptive RT. We divided 88 live donor kidney transplant recipients into 2 groups: transplantation without education (non-PDEP group; n = 27), and enrollment in an education program before RT (PDEP group n = 61). Five patients in the non-PDEP group underwent pre-emptive transplantation, versus 26 of the PDEP group. The rate of pre-emptive transplantations was significantly higher among the educated (42.62%) versus the noneducated group (18.51%; P < .001). PDEP increased the number of pre-emptive kidney transplantations among ESRD patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Part A - Advanced turbine systems. Part B - Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnitz, M.A.


    The DOE Offices of Fossil Energy and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy have initiated a program to develop advanced turbine systems for power generation. The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial applications. One of the supporting elements of the ATS Program is the Materials/Manufacturing Technologies Task. The objective of this element is to address the critical materials and manufacturing issues for both industrial and utility gas turbines.

  16. Clinician use of standardized assessments following a common elements psychotherapy training and consultation program. (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael; Silbaugh-Cowdin, Jessica; Berliner, Lucy


    Despite increasing emphasis on the implementation of evidence-based treatments in community service settings, little attention has been paid to supporting the use of evidence-based assessment (EBA) methods and processes, a parallel component of evidence-based practice. Standardized assessment (SA) tools represent a key aspect of EBA and are central to data-driven clinical decision making. The current study evaluated the impact of a statewide training and consultation program in a common elements approach to psychotherapy. Practitioner attitudes toward, skill applying, and use of SA tools across four time points (pre-training, post-training, post-consultation, and follow-up) were assessed. Results indicated early increases in positive SA attitudes, with more gradual increases in self-reported SA skill and use. Implications for supporting the sustained use of SA tools are discussed, including the use of measurement feedback systems, reminders, and SA-supportive supervision practices.

  17. Pengenalan Ababil: Program Finite Element Analysis (FEA 3-Dimensi Untuk Struktur Rangka-Batang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Waluyo


    Full Text Available Ababil is an open source computer program working on the basis offinite element method (FEM which is aimed to analyze frame structures. It is mainly designed as a solver without embedded pre-or/and post-processing units. Recently, the solver is compatible only for reading and writing in the Gmsh [1] pre- and post-processing software environment. The FEM kinematics formulation applied here is relied on the Timoshenko Beam Theory (TBT using linear shape function. Finally, the well-known FEM software MSC.Nastranis used to ensure the capability of Ababil in the prediction of frame deformation by means of FEMsimulation

  18. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard


    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  19. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (United States)

    Bistrian, Bruce


    The Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) reviewed and discussed the specific gaps and tasks for the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element related to nutrition identified in the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan. There was general consensus that the described gaps and proposed tasks were critical to future NASA mission success. The SRP acknowledged the high scientific quality of the work currently being undertaken by the Nutritional Biochemistry group under the direction of Dr. Scott Smith. In review of the entire HRP, four new gaps were identified that complement the Element's existing research activities. Given the limitations of ground-based analogs for many of the unique physiological and metabolic alterations in space, future studies are needed to quantify nutritional factors that change during actual space flight. In addition, future tasks should seek to better evaluate the time course of physiological and metabolic alterations during flight to better predict alterations during longer duration missions. Finally, given the recent data suggesting a potential role for increased inflammatory responses during space flight, the role of inflammation needs to be explored in detail, including the development of potential countermeasures and new ground based analogs, if this possibility is confirmed.

  20. Background and elements of the linkage between the Brazilian school feeding program and family farming. (United States)

    Schwartzman, Flavia; Mora, Claudia Andrea Rodriguez; Bogus, Claudia Maria; Villar, Betzabeth Slater


    Since 2009, legislation of the National School Feeding Program of Brazil (PNAE) institutionalizes its linkage with family farming as it establishes the requirement that at least 30% out of the total financial resources allocated by the federal government to the states and municipalities for school feeding must be used in the purchase of products directly from this sector. This study analyzes the process of drafting this legislation, focusing on the elements related to the procurement from family farming, through a historical contextualization, and it also presents a graphical representation with the main elements of this linkage: its objectives, target population, actions implemented and expected results. Actors involved with the drafting of the legislation were interviewed. The analyses show that the procurement from family farming is a far-reaching initiative in terms of the concept, execution and results. It has also showed that a strong articulation between the actors and institutions of the different sectors involved is critical to its success. The education, agriculture, planning, procurement and civil society sectors should work articulately at national, state and local level. The results of this study demonstrate that initiatives like this, of institutional procurement from family farming, which are currently being implemented in several countries, constitute as an important strategy of food and nutrition security, for the fulfillment of the human right to adequate food and the promotion of long-term sustainable development.

  1. Building an evidence-informed service array: Considering evidence-based programs as well as their practice elements. (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam; Chorpita, Bruce F; Daleiden, Eric L; Ebesutani, Chad K; Rosenblatt, Abram


    This study empirically examined options for building an evidence-informed service array, comparing strategies to maximize the application of evidence-based treatment literature in a clinical service system. The overall goal was to determine the smallest set of treatments that could serve the largest percentage of clients. Solutions to this problem differ depending on how one defines "treatment." Treatments were conceptualized as (a) programs (integrated treatments produced by specific research laboratories or investigators), and (b) collections of their constituent common procedures, referred to as practice elements. Programs listed by 2 separate government-sanctioned registries were selected to illustrate the effects of "program" conceptualizations, and all available clinical trials testing the programs were analyzed. Practice elements were identified from these same studies and from studies of other treatments that met a standard of evidence but had not been organized into programs on these lists. Relevance mapping methodology was used to identify optimal sets of programs and practice elements. Among a large, diverse clinical population, results identified 11%-22% of youths for whom practice elements provide an evidence-informed treatment option whereas no programs meeting the standard of evidence were available on the registries. Results for the practice elements were able to be matched by a hybrid combination: "best" programs, which were then extended by practice elements. These results demonstrated that there are multiple ways to conceptualize treatments when planning a service array, and these options have significant implications regarding who can be served by treatments supported by evidence. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)


    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  3. Contact anisotropy and coordination number for a granular assembly: a comparison of distinct-element-method simulations and theory. (United States)

    La Ragione, Luigi; Magnanimo, Vanessa


    We study an ideal granular aggregate consisting of elastic spherical particles, isotropic in stress and anisotropic in the contact network. Because of the contact anisotropy, a confining pressure applied at zero deviatoric stress, produces shear strain as well as volume strain. Our goal is to predict the coordination number k, the average number of contacts per particle, and the magnitude of the contact anisotropy ɛ, from knowledge of the elastic moduli of the aggregate. We do this through a theoretical model based upon the well known effective medium theory. However, rather than focusing on the moduli, we consider their ratios over the moduli of an equivalent isotropic state. We observe good agreement between numerical simulation and theory.

  4. Novel features in filled skutterudites containing rare-earth elements with a plural number of 4f-electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Aoki, Y.; Kikuchi, D. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Sugawara, H. [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Science, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Higemoto, W.; Ohishi, K.; Ito, T.U.; Heffner, R. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Saha, S.R.; Koda, A.; Satoh, K.H.; Nishiyama, K.; Kadono, R. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nishida, N. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Shu Lei; MacLaughlin, D.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)


    Wide varieties of strongly correlated electron phenomena are performed on the stage of a 'filled skutterudite structure'. Especially when one of the players contains a plural number of 4f electrons, the orbital degrees of freedom play a major role as a new type of nonmagnetic and/or weak-magnetic phenomena. Several examples found in Pr- and Sm-based filled skutterudites are introduced in relation to muon spin relaxation (muSR) experiments.

  5. Development and program implementation of elements for identification of the electromagnet condition for movable element position control (United States)

    Leukhin, R. I.; Shaykhutdinov, D. V.; Shirokov, K. M.; Narakidze, N. D.; Vlasov, A. S.


    Developing the experimental design of new electromagnetic constructions types in engineering industry enterprises requires solutions of two major problems: regulator’s parameters setup and comprehensive testing of electromagnets. A weber-ampere characteristic as a data source for electromagnet condition identification was selected. Present article focuses on development and implementation of the software for electromagnetic drive control system based on the weber-ampere characteristic measuring. The software for weber-ampere characteristic data processing based on artificial neural network is developed. Results of the design have been integrated into the program code in LabVIEW environment. The license package of LabVIEW graphic programming was used. The hardware is chosen and possibility of its use for control system implementation was proved. The trained artificial neural network defines electromagnetic drive effector position with minimal error. Developed system allows to control the electromagnetic drive powered by the voltage source, the current source and hybrid sources.

  6. Mehar Methods for Fuzzy Optimal Solution and Sensitivity Analysis of Fuzzy Linear Programming with Symmetric Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhpreet Kaur Sidhu


    Full Text Available The drawbacks of the existing methods to obtain the fuzzy optimal solution of such linear programming problems, in which coefficients of the constraints are represented by real numbers and all the other parameters as well as variables are represented by symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, are pointed out, and to resolve these drawbacks, a new method (named as Mehar method is proposed for the same linear programming problems. Also, with the help of proposed Mehar method, a new method, much easy as compared to the existing methods, is proposed to deal with the sensitivity analysis of the same type of linear programming problems.

  7. 26 CFR 31.3406(j)-1 - Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching program. (United States)


    ... data base utilized for the particular matching program. For purposes of this section, the term payor... will be set forth in the guidance establishing the program. (e) Definition of account. Account means...

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)


    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  9. Beyond the Numbers: Data Use for Continuous Improvement of Programs Serving Disconnected Youth (United States)

    Pate, Austin; Lerner, Jennifer Brown; Browning, Andrea


    This publication is a series of in-depth case studies to examine how three programs which serve a disconnected youth population are utilizing data as a tool for continuous program improvement and ongoing accountability. The report features the following programs: (1) Roca, an organization in Massachusetts which engages the highest-risk youth in…

  10. A Method of Determination of an Acquisition Program in Order to Maximize the Total Utility Using Linear Programming in Integer Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Cristian Ioan


    Full Text Available This paper solves in a different way the problem of maximization of the total utility using the linear programming in integer numbers. The author uses the diofantic equations (equations in integers numbers and after a decomposing in different cases, he obtains the maximal utility.

  11. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) Final Report (United States)

    Peterson, Barry


    The Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center on October 4-6, 2009 to discuss the areas of future research targeted by the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for risks, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Sensorimotor Risk SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the realistic demands placed on the HRP. In short, all tasks presented in the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) should address specific risks related to the challenges faced by the astronauts as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity. All tasks proposed to fill the gaps in knowledge should provide applied, translational data necessary to address the specific risks. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the panel charge, either as a group or in separate sessions. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist. Taking the evidence and the risk as givens, the SRP reached the following conclusions: 1) the panel is very supportive of and endorses the present activities of the Sensorimotor Risk; and the panel is likewise supportive of the gaps and associated tasks in the IRP; 2) overall, the tasks addressed the gaps in the IRP; 3) there were some gaps and tasks that merit further enhancement and some new gaps/tasks that the SRP recommends.

  12. Thirty-Two Nodes Hexahedronal Element Subroutine for Multi-Purpose Program MEF. (United States)


    diciplines . A cubic, thirty-two node, three dimensional * isoiparametric element was developed. With such an element very complex structures could be solved...library of one, two, and three-dimensional elements for the solution of problems from a wide variety of diciplines . A cubic, thirty-two node, three...Problem Definition (data base): ............................ 8 2. Element Computations: ................................... 8 3. Assem bly Operations

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.


    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  14. Computation of vibration mode elastic-rigid and effective weight coefficients from finite-element computer program output (United States)

    Levy, R.


    Post-processing algorithms are given to compute the vibratory elastic-rigid coupling matrices and the modal contributions to the rigid-body mass matrices and to the effective modal inertias and masses. Recomputation of the elastic-rigid coupling matrices for a change in origin is also described. A computational example is included. The algorithms can all be executed by using standard finite-element program eigenvalue analysis output with no changes to existing code or source programs.

  15. Bear Lake Unit of the Tallahatchie NWR - Field Numbers for the Forestry Program (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts the field and stand numbers of the entire refuge in 1998. Management treatments in other sources are based on these same numbers.

  16. Quantum biology at the cellular level--elements of the research program. (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily


    Quantum biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (quantum biology at cellular level) - a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. We propose a new general way to address the issue of environmentally induced decoherence and macroscopic superpositions in biological systems, emphasizing the 'basis-dependent' nature of these concepts. We introduce the notion of 'formal superposition' and distinguish it from that of Schroedinger's cat (i.e., a superposition of macroscopically distinct states). Whereas the latter notion presents a genuine foundational problem, the former one contradicts neither common sense nor observation, and may be used to describe cellular 'decision-making' and adaptation. We stress that the interpretation of the notion of 'formal superposition' should involve non-classical correlations between molecular events in a cell. Further, we describe how better understanding of the physics of Life can shed new light on the mechanism driving evolutionary adaptation (viz., 'Basis-Dependent Selection', BDS). Experimental tests of BDS and the potential role of synthetic biology in closing the 'evolvability mechanism' loophole are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of approximate decision rules relative to number of misclassifications: Comparison of greedy and dynamic programming approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha


    In the paper, we present a comparison of dynamic programming and greedy approaches for construction and optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the number of misclassifications. We use an uncertainty measure that is a difference between the number of rows in a decision table T and the number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. Experimental results with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository are also presented. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  18. On the atomic-number similarity of the binding energies of electrons in filled shells of elements of the periodic table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, V. Ya. [Bruk Institute of Electronic Control Machines (Russian Federation); Shpatakovskaya, G. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation)


    An expression for the binding energies of electrons in the ground state of an atom is derived on the basis of the Bohr–Sommerfeld quantization rule within the Thomas–Fermi model. The validity of this relation for all elements from neon to uranium is tested within a more perfect quantum-mechanical model with and without the inclusion of relativistic effects, as well as with experimental binding energies. As a result, the ordering of electronic levels in filled atomic shells is established, manifested in an approximate atomic-number similarity. It is proposed to use this scaling property to analytically estimate the binding energies of electrons in an arbitrary atom.

  19. NIM: A Game-Playing Program. Artificial Intelligence Memo Number 254. (United States)

    Papert, Seymour; Solomon, Cynthia

    Students learned to plan and write complex computer programs by writing a program for playing NIM, a game in which two players alternatively remove one, two, or three sticks from an original pile of 21, with the player taking the last one being the winner. The primary teaching purpose was to develop the idea that a final goal--i.e., winning--could…

  20. Impact of Government Benefit Programs Declines, Adds to Number of Poor Families. (United States)

    Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC.

    The paper summarizes the results of an analysis of recently issued Census data. Examining the anti-poverty effectiveness of cash and non-cash benefit programs from 1979 to 1986, the analysis focuses on the impacts of those programs on families with children, the group whose poverty rate has risen most rapidly since 1979. The data reveal that…

  1. Delta Program Fourth-Year Implementation. Feedback. Publication Number 98-12. (United States)

    Wendt-Keswick, Karen

    The Diversified Education through Leadership, Technology, and Academics (DELTA) program of the Austin Independent School District (AISD), Texas, serves students at each of the AISD 10 regular high schools. The goal of this open-entry, open-exit, competency-based diploma program is to recover former dropouts and to prevent students at risk of…

  2. 78 FR 12157 - RFS Renewable Identification Number (RIN) Quality Assurance Program (United States)


    .... Requirements for a Quality Assurance Plan and QAP Audits B. Requirements for an Affirmative Defense C.... Request for Comment on Prohibiting Producers From Separating RINs G. Summary of the Two QAP Options IV.... Elements of an Option A QAP a. Feedstock-Related Components b. Production Process-Related Components c. RIN...

  3. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others


    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.

  4. Program Manager: Volume 26, Number 6, DSMC 141. November-December 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Some of the articles are Coming Soon - Army's New Integrated, Digitized C2 System for Medical and Tactical Commanders, Small Business Innovation Research Program - A Potent DoD Resource,, Defense...

  5. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Bone and Muscle Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) (United States)

    Glowacki, Julie; Gregor, Robert


    The Bone and Muscle Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on October 4-6, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Bone and Muscle Risk SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the Panel's review. The Bone and Muscle Risk SRP consisted of scientists who are experts in muscle, bone, or both and could evaluate the existing evidence with sufficient knowledge of the potential effects of long duration exposure to microgravity. More important, although expertise in basic science is important, the SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the realistic demands placed on the HRP. In short, all tasks presented in the Integrated Research Plan (IRP) should address specific questions related to the challenges faced by the astronauts as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity. All tasks proposed to fill the gaps in knowledge should provide applied, translational data necessary to answer the specific questions. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the panel charge, either as a group or in separate sessions for the Bone and Muscle Risk subgroups. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on October 6, 2009. Taking the evidence and identified risks as givens, the SRP concluded that 1) integration of information should lead to a more comprehensive approach to identifying the gaps, 2) not all tasks addressed the gaps as

  6. An intervention program to reduce the number of hospitalizations of elderly patients in a primary care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Maya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population consumes a large share of medical resources in the western world. A significant portion of the expense is related to hospitalizations. Objectives To evaluate an intervention program designed to reduce the number of hospitalization of elderly patients by a more optimal allocation of resources in primary care. Methods A multidimensional intervention program was conducted that included the re-engineering of existing work processes with a focus on the management of patient problems, improving communication with outside agencies, and the establishment of a system to monitor quality of healthcare parameters. Data on the number of hospitalizations and their cost were compared before and after implementation of the intervention program. Results As a result of the intervention the mean expenditure per elderly patient was reduced by 22.5%. The adjusted number of hospitalizations/1,000 declined from 15.1 to 10.7 (29.3%. The number of adjusted hospitalization days dropped from 132 to 82 (37.9% and the mean hospitalization stay declined from 8.2 to 6.7 days (17.9%. The adjusted hospitalization cost ($/1,000 patients dropped from $32,574 to $18,624 (42.8%. The overall clinic expense, for all age groups, dropped by 9.9%. Conclusion Implementation of the intervention program in a single primary care clinic led to a reduction in hospitalizations for the elderly patient population and to a more optimal allocation of healthcare resources.

  7. Education by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice Programs, 1990-2006. School Choice Issues in Depth (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.


    School choice programs, which allow students to attend the public or private school of their choice using public funds, have taken root in the U.S. and are growing rapidly both in number and size. Their fiscal impact has become an important political issue. Proponents say school choice saves money because private schooling is more efficient,…

  8. Transportation energy strategy: Project {number_sign}5 of the Hawaii Energy Strategy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study was prepared for the State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) as part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy program. Authority and responsibility for energy planning activities, such as the Hawaii Energy Strategy, rests with the State Energy Resources Coordinator, who is the Director of DBEDT. Hawaii Energy Strategy Study No. 5, Transportation Energy Strategy Development, was prepared to: collect and synthesize information on the present and future use of energy in Hawaii`s transportation sector, examine the potential of energy conservation to affect future energy demand; analyze the possibility of satisfying a portion of the state`s future transportation energy demand through alternative fuels; and recommend a program targeting energy use in the state`s transportation sector to help achieve state goals. The analyses and conclusions of this report should be assessed in relation to the other Hawaii Energy Strategy Studies in developing a comprehensive state energy program. 56 figs., 87 tabs.

  9. Distilling Common History and Practice Elements to Inform Dissemination: Hanf-Model BPT Programs as an Example (United States)

    Kaehler, Laura A.; Jacobs, Mary; Jones, Deborah J.


    There is a shift in evidence-based practice toward an understanding of the treatment elements that characterize empirically-supported interventions in general and the core components of specific approaches in particular. The evidence-base for Behavioral Parent Training (BPT), the standard of care for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders (Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder), which frequently co-occur with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, is well-established; yet, an ahistorical, program-specific lens tells little regarding how leaders, including Constance Hanf at the University of Oregon, shaped the common practice elements of contemporary evidence-based BPT. Accordingly, this review summarizes the formative work of Hanf, as well as the core elements, evolution, and extensions of her work, represented in Community Parent Education (COPE; Cunningham, Bremner, & Boyle, 1995; Cunningham, Bremner, Secord, & Harrison, 2009), Defiant Children (DC; Barkley 1987; Barkley, 2013), Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC; Forehand & McMahon, 1981; McMahon & Forehand, 2003), Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT; Eyberg, & Robinson, 1982; Eyberg, 1988; Eyberg & Funderburk, 2011), and the Incredible Years (IY; Webster-Stratton, 1981; 1982; 2008). Our goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of the evidence-base for the Hanf-Model programs; rather, our intention is to provide a template of sorts from which agencies and clinicians can make informed choices about how and why they are using one program versus another, as well as how to make inform flexible use one program or combination of practice elements across programs, to best meet the needs of child clients and their families. Clinical implications and directions for future work are discussed. PMID:27389606

  10. Institutionalization and Sustainability of the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education Program. CCRC Brief. Number 20 (United States)

    Bailey, Thomas R.; Matsuzuka, Yukari; Jacobs, James; Morest, Vanessa Smith; Hughes, Katherine L.


    In response to the 1992 Scientific and Advanced Technology Act (SATA), the National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program to promote systemic reform of the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The Act gave community colleges the central role for the…

  11. Austin Youth River Watch Program: 1992-93 Final Report. Publication Number 92.33. (United States)

    Turner, Jeannine

    The City of Austin (Texas) provides funds for an educational initiative to involve minority high school students in water quality issues and to reduce the dropout rate through positive role model interaction with academically successful students. Principal program activities were testing river water for pollutants and tutoring at-risk students by…




  13. The WIC Program: Background, Trends, and Economic Issues, 2009 Edition. Economic Research Report Number 73 (United States)

    Oliveira, Victor; Frazao, Elizabeth


    The mission of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is to safeguard the health of low-income women, infants, and children through age 4 who are at nutritional risk. WIC provides nutritious foods to supplement diets, nutrition education, and referrals to health care and other social services.…

  14. The Parole Officer Aide Program in Ohio. An Exemplary Project. Criminal Justice System Series Number 42. (United States)

    Allen, Harry E.; Priestino, Ramon R.

    The report represents an external evaluation of a three-year project designed to use ex-offenders as paraprofessional parole officer aides in Ohio. The report includes the results of a 1974 national survey of States' use of ex-offenders in parole work as background of the study. The program is described in terms of selection and assignment, duties…

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul


    Redfish Lake in 2007. The hatchery origin component originated from a 2006 fall presmolt direct-release. The juvenile out-migrant traps on Alturas Lake Creek and Pettit Lake Creek were operated by the SBT from April 19 to May 23, 2007 and April 18 to May 29, 2007, respectively. The SBT estimated 1,749 natural origin and 4,695 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from Pettit Lake and estimated 8,994 natural origin and 6,897 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from Alturas Lake in 2007. The hatchery origin component of sockeye salmon out-migrants originated from fall presmolt direct-releases made to Pettit and Alturas lakes in 2006. In 2007, the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC) chose to have all Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles (tagged and untagged) transported due to potential enhanced survival. Therefore, mainstem survival evaluations were only conducted to Lower Granite Dam. Unique PIT tag interrogations from Sawtooth Valley juvenile out-migrant traps to Lower Granite Dam were utilized to estimate survival rates for out-migrating sockeye salmon smolts. Survival rate comparisons were made between smolts originating from Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes and the various release strategies. Alturas Lake hatchery origin smolts tagged at the out-migrant trap recorded the highest survival rate of 78.0%. In 2007, 494 hatchery origin adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. We observed 195 areas of excavation in the lake from spawning events. This was the highest number of redds observed in Redfish Lake since the program was initiated. Suspected redds were approximately 3 m x 3 m in size and were constructed by multiple pairs of adults. To monitor the predator population found within the lakes, we monitored bull trout spawning in Fishhook Creek, a tributary to Redfish Lake; and in Alpine Creek, a tributary to Alturas Lake. This represented the tenth consecutive year that the index

  16. Nurse-midwifery education through graduate programs to provide a sufficient number of high quality nurse-midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hye Lee


    Full Text Available There is a decrease in the number of new midwives, resulting from the shutdown of midwifery education program in hospitals due to a decrease in birthrate in the Republic of Korea. To solve this problem, the current medical laws on midwifery education system in Korea should be revised; nurse-midwifery specialist programs must be established in educational institutes with nursing programs. To support this argument, the midwifery education programs of America, Europe, Australia, and Japan have been discussed, and a nurse-midwifery specialist curriculum at the master s level, based on the nurse-practitioner system of Korea, has been suggested. Since this assertion is very important and urgent for solving the future population problem of Korea and providing health care for women and children, it should be realized into action immediately.

  17. SANTOS - a two-dimensional finite element program for the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.M.


    SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.

  18. Atomic orbital data for elements with atomic numbers 1 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, G.I.


    Atomic orbital energies and radial expectation values are tabulated for the ground state electronic configuration of all elements with Z less than or equal to 103 and for all orbitals having principal quantum numbers n less than or equal to 8. These tables have been developed for use in a model of electronic excitation and ionization that requires orbital data for both the occupied and unoccupied orbitals. The wavefunctions were calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater method, with a local exchange potential due to Liberman. This potential has the Coulombic form at large distances from the nucleus, with the result that both the occupied and unoccupied orbitals are bound states. The complete nonlocal exchange expression was used to compute the orbital energies. The results are in good agreement with full Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for the occupied orbitals. 22 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Providing Feedback, Orientation and Opportunities for Reflection as Key Elements for Successful Mentoring Programs: Reviewing a Program for Future Business Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Riebenbauer


    Full Text Available The introduction to teaching is critical for novice teachers. Near the end of their master’s program, students of Business Education and Development in Austria spend one semester at an assigned school. They are introduced to teaching, while being assisted by peer students, mentoring teachers, and a companion course. Mentors receive special training and preparation in advance, thus contributing to a high quality mentoring program. The program is organized threefold: (1 providing feedback, (2 opportunities for reflection and (3 career orientation. The purpose of this paper is to assess key elements of successful mentoring programs and to question which competences of mentors contribute most to the success of those programs. Between 2012 and 2015, 188 persons (student teachers and their mentors responded to an online survey at the end of their mentoring program. Additionally, data from a study (1,245 questionnaires regarding the student teachers’ perception of their own competence was utilized, allowing for a comparison of student teacher confidence in their abilities before and after the mentoring program. The present results provide insight into the key elements of successful mentoring programs; both from a student teacher’s and mentor’s perspective. During the semester, students showed an increase regarding their self-perception of their professional competences. It was found that students and mentoring teachers valued feedback after each lesson more than feedback in regular meetings. Opportunities for reflection (e.g. exchange with peer students, learning diaries were considered helpful. The mentoring program helped students to decide whether to become a teacher or not.

  20. FIESTA ROC: A new finite element analysis program for solar cell simulation (United States)

    Clark, Ralph O.


    The Finite Element Semiconductor Three-dimensional Analyzer by Ralph O. Clark (FIESTA ROC) is a computational tool for investigating in detail the performance of arbitrary solar cell structures. As its name indicates, it uses the finite element technique to solve the fundamental semiconductor equations in the cell. It may be used for predicting the performance (thereby dictating the design parameters) of a proposed cell or for investigating the limiting factors in an established design.

  1. CUERVO: A finite element computer program for nonlinear scalar transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirman, M.B.; Gartling, D.K.


    CUERVO is a finite element code that is designed for the solution of multi-dimensional field problems described by a general nonlinear, advection-diffusion equation. The code is also applicable to field problems described by diffusion, Poisson or Laplace equations. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in CUERVO are outlined here; detailed instructions for use of the code are also presented. Example problems are provided to illustrate the use of the code.

  2. Reducing the number of animals used for microsurgery training programs by using a task-trainer simulator. (United States)

    Guerreschi, P; Qassemyar, A; Thevenet, J; Hubert, T; Fontaine, C; Duquennoy-Martinot, V


    To master the skills needed for microsurgery techniques, residents must enrol in a long and complex training program that includes manipulations on simulators, on ex vivo tissues and finally in vivo training. This final step consists of performing vascular anastomoses on murine models. We propose here a simulation program designed to decrease the number of rats used during the final in vivo training. Our study presents the materials used, the various exercises proposed and their evaluations. Two identical student groups were compared in the framework of the University Diploma of Microsurgery. Group A (seven students) followed a classic training program, all of whom achieved permeable vascular anastomoses. A total of 149 rats were needed for this group. Group B (seven students) first validated their manipulations on the task-trainer simulation program. A mean of 6 h was necessary to obtain this validation. All these students achieved the required permeable vascular anastomoses but only 77 rats were used for this group. This simulation program spared 72 rats, abiding by the Russell and Burch concept of a humane experimental technique, namely the 3R principles. This home-made, cost-efficient and easy-to-use task trainer included various exercises with increasing difficulty levels and a progressive scoring system. We believe that microsurgery training needs to include both simple and sophisticated tools in order to reduce the number of animals used to master these surgical skills.

  3. Free and Forced Vibrations of an Axially-Loaded Timoshenko Multi-Span Beam Carrying a Number of Various Concentrated Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yesilce


    Full Text Available In the existing reports regarding free and forced vibrations of the beams, most of them studied a uniform beam carrying various concentrated elements using Bernoulli-Euler Beam Theory (BET but without axial force. The purpose of this paper is to utilize the numerical assembly technique to determine the exact frequency-response amplitudes of the axially-loaded Timoshenko multi-span beam carrying a number of various concentrated elements (including point masses, rotary inertias, linear springs and rotational springs and subjected to a harmonic concentrated force and the exact natural frequencies and mode shapes of the beam for the free vibration analysis. The model allows analyzing the influence of the shear and axial force and harmonic concentrated force effects and intermediate concentrated elements on the dynamic behavior of the beams by using Timoshenko Beam Theory (TBT. At first, the coefficient matrices for the intermediate concentrated elements, an intermediate pinned support, applied harmonic force, left-end support and right-end support of Timoshenko beam are derived. After the derivation of the coefficient matrices, the numerical assembly technique is used to establish the overall coefficient matrix for the whole vibrating system. Finally, solving the equations associated with the last overall coefficient matrix one determines the exact dynamic response amplitudes of the forced vibrating system corresponding to each specified exciting frequency of the harmonic force. Equating the determinant of the overall coefficient matrix to zero one determines the natural frequencies of the free vibrating system (the case of zero harmonic force and substituting the corresponding values of integration constants into the related eigenfunctions one determines the associated mode shapes. The calculated vibration amplitudes of the forced vibrating systems and the natural frequencies of the free vibrating systems are given in tables for different values of

  4. POTHMF: A program for computing potential curves and matrix elements of the coupled adiabatic radial equations for a hydrogen-like atom in a homogeneous magnetic field (United States)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A.; Gerdt, V. P.; Rostovtsev, V. A.; Vinitsky, S. I.; Abrashkevich, A. G.; Kaschiev, M. S.; Serov, V. V.


    , etc.:131 396 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:FORTRAN 77 Computer:Intel Xeon EM64T, Alpha 21264A, AMD Athlon MP, Pentium IV Xeon, Opteron 248, Intel Pentium IV Operating system:OC Linux, Unix AIX 5.3, SunOS 5.8, Solaris, Windows XP RAM:Depends on the number of radial differential equations; the number and order of finite elements; the number of radial points. Test run requires 4 MB Classification:2.5 External routines:POTHMF uses some Lapack routines, copies of which are included in the distribution (see README file for details). Nature of problem:In the multi-channel adiabatic approach the Schrödinger equation for a hydrogen-like atom in a homogeneous magnetic field of strength γ ( γ=B/B, B≅2.35×10 T is a dimensionless parameter which determines the field strength B) is reduced by separating the radial coordinate, r, from the angular variables, (θ,φ), and using a basis of the angular oblate spheroidal functions [3] to a system of second-order ordinary differential equations which contain first-derivative coupling terms [4]. The purpose of this program is to calculate potential curves and matrix elements of radial coupling needed for calculating the low-lying bound and scattering states of hydrogen-like atoms in a homogeneous magnetic field of strength 0A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, B.P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986. M. Abramovits, I.A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Dover, New York, 1965. U. Fano, Colloq. Int. C.N.R.S. 273 (1977) 127; A.F. Starace, G.L. Webster, Phys. Rev. A 19 (1979) 1629-1640; C.V. Clark, K.T. Lu, A.F. Starace, in: H.G. Beyer, H. Kleinpoppen (Eds.), Progress in Atomic Spectroscopy, Part C, Plenum, New York, 1984, pp. 247-320; U. Fano, A.R.P. Rau, Atomic Collisions and Spectra, Academic Press, Florida, 1986. M.G. Dimova, M.S. Kaschiev, S.I. Vinitsky, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 2337-2352; O. Chuluunbaatar, A

  5. An Analysis of Serial Number Tracking Automatic Identification Technology as Used in Naval Aviation Programs (United States)

    Csorba, Robert


    The Government Accounting Office found that the Navy, between 1996 and 1998, lost 3 billion in materiel in-transit. This thesis explores the benefits and cost of automatic identification and serial number tracking technologies under consideration by the Naval Supply Systems Command and the Naval Air Systems Command. Detailed cost-savings estimates are made for each aircraft type in the Navy inventory. Project and item managers of repairable components using Serial Number Tracking were surveyed as to the value of this system. It concludes that two thirds of the in-transit losses can be avoided with implementation of effective information technology-based logistics and maintenance tracking systems. Recommendations are made for specific steps and components of such an implementation. Suggestions are made for further research.

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)


    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)


    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999, when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2001, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October and to Pettit and Alturas lakes in July; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September along with anadromous adult sockeye salmon that returned to the Sawtooth basin and were not incorporated into the captive broodstock program. Kokanee population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September. Only age-0 and age-1 kokanee were captured on Redfish Lake, resulting in a population estimate of 12,980 kokanee. This was the second lowest kokanee abundance estimated since 1990. On Alturas Lake age-0, age-1, and age-2 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population was estimated at 70,159. This is a mid range kokanee population estimate for Alturas Lake, which has been sampled yearly since 1990. On Pettit Lake only age-1 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population estimate was 16,931. This estimate is in the midrange of estimates of the kokanee population in Pettit Lake, which has been sampled

  8. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox - Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) Program Element (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Lucas, Bruno; Dinardo, Salvatore


    The prime objective of the SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have build up over the last 20 years for the future European operational Earth Observation missions, the Sentinels. Sentinel-3 builds directly on a proven heritage pioneered by ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2, with a dual-frequency (Ku and C band) advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) that provides measurements at a resolution of ~300m in SAR mode along track. Sentinel-3 will provide exact measurements of sea-surface height along with accurate topography measurements over sea ice, ice sheets, rivers and lakes. The first of the Sentinel-3 series is planned for launch in early 2015. The current universal altimetry toolbox is BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry mission's data, but it does not have the capabilities to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA will endeavour to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, the French Space Agency), and it is freely available at The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, the BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as net

  9. Key Elements of Academic Programs Management Management of Postgraduate Virtual Courses at Universidad EAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Benavides Gallego


    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg The main focus of this research study is the management of postgraduate academic programs offered at Univerdsidad EAN in virtual learning. The management processes applied to all types of organizations involve educational institutions. In such institutions, one of the principal actions of their management is to adminístrate academic programs, even though the focus of this study is postgraduate courses, specially the particular issues found in specialization courses and master degree programs base don virtual methodolgy, in which particular features and differences are described concerning the management of the academic programs offered having a face to face methodology.

  10. THERM3D -- A boundary element computer program for transient heat conduction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingber, M.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    The computer code THERM3D implements the direct boundary element method (BEM) to solve transient heat conduction problems in arbitrary three-dimensional domains. This particular implementation of the BEM avoids performing time-consuming domain integrations by approximating a ``generalized forcing function`` in the interior of the domain with the use of radial basis functions. An approximate particular solution is then constructed, and the original problem is transformed into a sequence of Laplace problems. The code is capable of handling a large variety of boundary conditions including isothermal, specified flux, convection, radiation, and combined convection and radiation conditions. The computer code is benchmarked by comparisons with analytic and finite element results.

  11. The influence of selenium and zinc addition in food on concentration of these elements in blood and milk, on somatic cells number and histological characteristics of cows udders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Ivana


    Full Text Available The experiment included 30 cows of Holstein-Friesian breed, out of which 15 were receiving selenium and zinc in optimal doses before calving, while the others had never been supplemented with these micronutrients. There was analysed the concentration of selenium and zinc in blood and milk serum as well as the average number of somatic cells in corresponding lactation. After the cows exclusion from production, histological characteristics of cows udders were examined. The results of the investigation have shown that addition of selenium and zinc before calving has a positive effect on the values of these microelements in the blood and milk during the period of early lactation, that is, the concentration of these elements was significantly higher in the blood and milk of the cows that obtained selenium and zinc supplements. Also, in these cows there was significantly lower number of somatic cells during the following lacation period. In the parenchyma of the udder there was found less pronounced infiltration of leukocytes, notably thicker keratin layer of ductus papillaris and less expressed repairing processes that indicate a chronic inflammation of the udder in the samples after exclusion of the cows from production. There was a significant positive correlation between selenium in blood and milk, while there was not observed such a correlation for zinc. On the other hand, there was a significant negative correlation between the concentration of selenium in the blood and milk with the average number of somatic cells and the degree of infiltration of leukocytes, while its influence on the keratin layer of ductus papillarus was not shown. Zinc from blood and udder had a negative correlation with the number of somatic cells, had a positive correlation with the thickness of ductus papillaris keratin layer and had no influence on the level of leukocyte infiltration of udder parenchyma. Zinc demonstrates a positive influence on the formation of ductus

  12. 10 CFR 420.17 - Optional elements of State Energy Program plans. (United States)


    ... following: (1) Program activities of public education to promote energy efficiency, renewable energy, and... efficiency measures and renewable energy measures— (i) Which may include loan programs and performance... allow rebates, grants, or other incentives for the purchase of energy efficiency measures and renewable...

  13. Generalization of special features of boundary element method realization in Ukrainian computer-aided programming systems


    Korobanov, Yurii M.; Lishchuk, Ohnieslav M.; Lishchuk, Ivan M.


    The generalization of theoretical bases for engineering calculations of ship structures in the Ukrainian computer-aided design systems is performed. The mathematical base of the boundary elements method is set out; the boundary integral equation is presented. The method of fictitious loads is considered as the basis of ship structures calculation realization.

  14. The Elements of Effective Program Design: A Two-Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howlett


    Full Text Available Policy and program design is a major theme of contemporary policy research, aimed at improving the understanding of how the processes, methods and tools of policy-making are employed to better formulate effective policies and pro-grams, and to understand the reasons why such designs are not forthcoming. However while many efforts have been made to evaluate policy design, less work has focused on program designs. This article sets out to fill this gap in knowledge of design practices in policy-making. It outlines the nature of the study of policy design with a particular focus on the nature of programs and the lessons derived from empirical experience regarding the conditions that enhance program effectiveness.

  15. Development and validation of InnoQuant™, a sensitive human DNA quantitation and degradation assessment method for forensic samples using high copy number mobile elements Alu and SVA. (United States)

    Pineda, Gina M; Montgomery, Anne H; Thompson, Robyn; Indest, Brooke; Carroll, Marion; Sinha, Sudhir K


    There is a constant need in forensic casework laboratories for an improved way to increase the first-pass success rate of forensic samples. The recent advances in mini STR analysis, SNP, and Alu marker systems have now made it possible to analyze highly compromised samples, yet few tools are available that can simultaneously provide an assessment of quantity, inhibition, and degradation in a sample prior to genotyping. Currently there are several different approaches used for fluorescence-based quantification assays which provide a measure of quantity and inhibition. However, a system which can also assess the extent of degradation in a forensic sample will be a useful tool for DNA analysts. Possessing this information prior to genotyping will allow an analyst to more informatively make downstream decisions for the successful typing of a forensic sample without unnecessarily consuming DNA extract. Real-time PCR provides a reliable method for determining the amount and quality of amplifiable DNA in a biological sample. Alu are Short Interspersed Elements (SINE), approximately 300bp insertions which are distributed throughout the human genome in large copy number. The use of an internal primer to amplify a segment of an Alu element allows for human specificity as well as high sensitivity when compared to a single copy target. The advantage of an Alu system is the presence of a large number (>1000) of fixed insertions in every human genome, which minimizes the individual specific variation possible when using a multi-copy target quantification system. This study utilizes two independent retrotransposon genomic targets to obtain quantification of an 80bp "short" DNA fragment and a 207bp "long" DNA fragment in a degraded DNA sample in the multiplex system InnoQuant™. The ratio of the two quantitation values provides a "Degradation Index", or a qualitative measure of a sample's extent of degradation. The Degradation Index was found to be predictive of the observed loss

  16. Algebraic Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watase Yasushige


    Full Text Available This article provides definitions and examples upon an integral element of unital commutative rings. An algebraic number is also treated as consequence of a concept of “integral”. Definitions for an integral closure, an algebraic integer and a transcendental numbers [14], [1], [10] and [7] are included as well. As an application of an algebraic number, this article includes a formal proof of a ring extension of rational number field ℚ induced by substitution of an algebraic number to the polynomial ring of ℚ[x] turns to be a field.

  17. Continuous Modeling Technique of Fiber Pullout from a Cement Matrix with Different Interface Mechanical Properties Using Finite Element Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ferreira Friedrich

    Full Text Available Abstract Fiber-matrix interface performance has a great influence on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced composite. This influence is mainly presented during fiber pullout from the matrix. As fiber pullout process consists of fiber debonding stage and pullout stage which involve complex contact problem, numerical modeling is a best way to investigate the interface influence. Although many numerical research works have been conducted, practical and effective technique suitable for continuous modeling of fiber pullout process is still scarce. The reason is in that numerical divergence frequently happens, leading to the modeling interruption. By interacting the popular finite element program ANSYS with the MATLAB, we proposed continuous modeling technique and realized modeling of fiber pullout from cement matrix with desired interface mechanical performance. For debonding process, we used interface elements with cohesive surface traction and exponential failure behavior. For pullout process, we switched interface elements to spring elements with variable stiffness, which is related to the interface shear stress as a function of the interface slip displacement. For both processes, the results obtained are very good in comparison with other numerical or analytical models and experimental tests. We suggest using the present technique to model toughening achieved by randomly distributed fibers.

  18. An algorithm for domain decomposition in finite element analysis (United States)

    Al-Nasra, M.; Nguyen, D. T.


    A simple and efficient algorithm is described for automatic decomposition of an arbitrary finite element domain into a specified number of subdomains for finite element and substructuring analysis in a multiprocessor computer environment. The algorithm is designed to balance the work loads, to minimize the communication among processors and to minimize the bandwidths of the resulting system of equations. Small- to large-scale finite element models, which have two-node elements (truss, beam element), three-node elements (triangular element) and four-node elements (quadrilateral element), are solved on the Convex computer to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. A FORTRAN computer program is also included.

  19. Linking the Elements of Change: Program and Client Responses to Innovation (United States)

    Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.


    The process of innovation adoption was investigated using longitudinal records collected from a statewide network of almost 60 treatment programs over a 2-year period. Program-level measures of innovation adoption were defined by averaged counselor ratings of program training needs and readiness, organizational functioning, quality of a workshop training conference, and adoption indicators at follow-up. Findings showed that staff attitudes about training needs and past experiences are predictive of their subsequent ratings of training quality and progress in adopting innovations a year later. Organizational climate (clarity of mission, cohesion, openness to change) also is related to innovation adoption. In programs that lack an open atmosphere for adopting new ideas it was found that counselor trial usage is likely to be attenuated. Most important was evidence that innovation adoption based on training for improving treatment engagement was significantly related to client self-reports of improved treatment participation and rapport recorded several months later. PMID:17433862

  20. Establishing a Competency Field-Based Program of Reading Education: Essential Elements of Administrative Planning. (United States)

    Blair, Charles W.


    Identifies essential aspects of administrative planning that must be considered when moving from a traditional reading preservice education program to a competency, field-based model of instruction. (TJ)

  1. Finite Element Analysis of Transonic Flows over Thin Airfoils. Volume 2. Program User’s Manual (United States)


    RKSC, ANDG. XHP, XTE DTM. TFIN, TO, ZTEST, ALPHA, CIRCO (Problem Parameters) IRES « -1. Set T,, Tj, T3 (Start the Integration) Yes Read Inout...steady position. CIRCO Circulation strength for airfoil at its mean position. SQMAC Square of the freestream Mach number. IRES Number of time

  2. DYCAST: A finite element program for the crash analysis of structures (United States)

    Pifko, A. B.; Winter, R.; Ogilvie, P.


    DYCAST is a nonlinear structural dynamic finite element computer code developed for crash simulation. The element library contains stringers, beams, membrane skin triangles, plate bending triangles and spring elements. Changing stiffnesses in the structure are accounted for by plasticity and very large deflections. Material nonlinearities are accommodated by one of three options: elastic-perfectly plastic, elastic-linear hardening plastic, or elastic-nonlinear hardening plastic of the Ramberg-Osgood type. Geometric nonlinearities are handled in an updated Lagrangian formulation by reforming the structure into its deformed shape after small time increments while accumulating deformations, strains, and forces. The nonlinearities due to combined loadings are maintained, and stiffness variation due to structural failures are computed. Numerical time integrators available are fixed-step central difference, modified Adams, Newmark-beta, and Wilson-theta. The last three have a variable time step capability, which is controlled internally by a solution convergence error measure. Other features include: multiple time-load history tables to subject the structure to time dependent loading; gravity loading; initial pitch, roll, yaw, and translation of the structural model with respect to the global system; a bandwidth optimizer as a pre-processor; and deformed plots and graphics as post-processors.

  3. Use of GRASP, a finite element program, to model faulted gas reservoir of the southern North Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, P.A.; Goldwater, M.H.; Taylor, B.A.


    This study describes a single-phase, 2-dimensional reservoir simulation program called GRASP (gas reservoir areal simulation program) and its use in modeling gas reservoirs in the southern North Sea. The design of the program is outlined, placing special emphasis on those features which have proved to be of greatest value during its application to various gas fields. These include the ability to describe pressure discontinuities across faults and overlapping gas-bearing strata within the context of a 2-dimensional model. The provision of a network analysis model to describe the surface gathering system allows the program to be used either for history matching or for predicting the future reservoir behavior. In the latter case, facilities are provided which allow the consequences of different operating strategies to be investigated. GRASP has been designed, not as a research tool, but as a practical aid to reservoir analysis. Most published applications of finite element methods have considered only small regular reservoirs. In the present study, particular attention is directed toward the difficulties encountered in designing a program capable of describing large, realistic reservoirs. 14 references.

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program : Hatchery Element : Annual Progress Report, 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine


    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000 are presented in this report.

  5. A state university's model program to increase the number of its disadvantaged students who matriculate into health professions schools. (United States)

    Lewis, C L


    Health professions schools often provide support for minority and disadvantaged students in high school or in a single college summer program. However, long-term support for students during their undergraduate years is also crucial. Since 1990, San Diego State University (SDSU), a large urban public university, has implemented the Health Careers Opportunity Program (HCOP) to increase the number of the university's disadvantaged students (most of whom are from minority groups) who matriculate into medical, dental, veterinary, and physician assistant schools. The program's 11 components, each dedicated to some form of educational intervention and support, emphasize developing students' collaborative learning skills, fostering their pride in accomplishment, and helping them achieve positive self-images and self-confidence; these goals are linked with building students' analytical and problem-solving skills. Weekly journals kept by students' mentors serve as an "early warning system" for "bad" feelings, attitudes, and behaviors that reflect students' personal problems and correlate with lower grades, and help the program staff work intensively with students immediately, before problems become severe. The SDSU's HCOP increased the number of disadvantaged (mostly minority) students staying in the prehealth career path (not counting those in the schools of nursing and public health) from 70 in 1989 to 360 in 1995. In 1992 through 1994, the students who had completed the HCOP's Summer Academic Program (to help them bridge into a science curriculum) had pass rates for entry-level math, writing competency, and math placement that were consistently higher than the rates for other SDSU students. The overall grade-point average of HCOP students in the spring of 1995 (3.05) was significantly higher than the overall GPA of all minority students in prehealth training before the HCOP began (2.59 in 1988). The number of SDSU's minority students accepted by health professions schools

  6. SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and velicer's MAP test. (United States)

    O'Connor, B P


    Popular statistical software packages do not have the proper procedures for determining the number of components in factor and principal components analyses. Parallel analysis and Velicer's minimum average partial (MAP) test are validated procedures, recommended widely by statisticians. However, many researchers continue to use alternative, simpler, but flawed procedures, such as the eigenvalues-greater-than-one rule. Use of the proper procedures might be increased if these procedures could be conducted within familiar software environments. This paper describes brief and efficient programs for using SPSS and SAS to conduct parallel analyses and the MAP test.

  7. The innovation element of the diploma (b.eng.) programs at DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Mads; Christiansen, Nynne Budtz


    Diploma) and the Technical University of Denmark. The most significant new activity in the programs is the introduction of a common 10 ECTS compulsory course in innovation in the later part of the programs. The idea behind this course is to give students the opportunity to collaborate on interdisciplinary...... real-life projects. This course strengthens not only innovation skills but personal and interpersonal skills as well. In this paper we will discuss the organization of the Innovation Pilot course. In particular we focus on: - Structure of programmes - Organization of the Innovation Pilot course...

  8. Annual report of the Wind Characteristics Program Element, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendell, L.L.; Barchet, W.R.; Connell, J.R.; Miller, A.H.; Pennell, W.T.; Renne, D.S.


    This annual report briefly describes the technical progress within each segment of the WCPE from October 1979 through September 1980. It includes the progress accomplished directly by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and by subcontractors funded directly by DOE or through PNL. To expedite the management of the activities to produce the required information, the WCPE has been divided into three program areas: Wind Energy Prospecting, Support for Design and Operations, and Site Evaluation. Accomplishments in each of these program areas provide a highlight of WCPE activities in FY 1980.

  9. Atmospheric deposition levels of chosen elements in the Czech Republic determined in the framework of the International Bryomonitoring Program 1995. (United States)

    Sucharová, J; Suchara, I


    In order to determine the atmospheric loads of 13 elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, V, Zn), samples of Pleurozium schreberi (81.1%), Hypnum cupressiforme (11.2%) and Pseudoscleropodium purum (7.7%) bryophytes (mosses) were taken and analysed from an approx. 20 x 20-km grid extending over the entire territory (78,864 km2) of the Czech Republic (abbreviated 'the CZ' in this study). The level of the elements found in the bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements at the investigated sites. Five hot spots indicating relatively high deposition levels were identified in the CZ. The marginal hot spots are the following: the CZ part of the so-called Black Triangle I territory in northwestern CZ; the CZ part of the Black Triangle II territory in northeastern CZ; and the CZ part of the Sudeten mountains (Jizerské Mts and Giant Mts) and their foothills in northern CZ. Inland hot spots were found in the southwestern industrial part of central Bohemia and in the southern Moravian industrial district. The average element contents in CZ bryophytes were comparable with the respective average values obtained in Germany and Poland. However, the CZ average bryophyte values were higher and lower in comparison to the average Austrian and Slovak values, respectively. The CZ average relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements were found to be 2-3 times higher than the respective loads in the cleanest parts of Europe (e.g. clean parts of Nordic countries). A comparison of the analytical results obtained repeatedly at 20 identical localities in the CZ showed a significant decrease in the relative deposition loads of all of the investigated elements in 1995 as compared to 1991. This decrease has been caused by the dramatic restriction of the industrial production, mainly that of the metallurgical and chemical industries, in the CZ. Desulphurisation programs and the effective trapping of flying dust particles in CZ power plants

  10. Essential Elements of a Collaborative Mental Health Training Program for Primary Care. (United States)

    Giles, Lisa L; Martini, D Richard


    Mental health integration in primary care is based on creating an environment that encourages collaboration and supports appropriate care for patients and families while offering a full range of services. Training programs for primary care practitioners should include sessions on how to build and maintain such a practice along with information on basic mental health competencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. National Waste Terminal Storage Program: critical element management concept. Volume II. Concept description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of the CEM Concept is to describe techniques for systematically identifying, evaluating, and influencing those technical, social, economic, political and institutional factors (i.e., events, trends and conditions) that are perceived as being probable uncertainties to the attainment of planned program objectives.

  12. Accounting of Multiplier Effect as a Required Element in Assessing the Effects of Social Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Georgievna Lavrikova


    Full Text Available The article substantiates the importance of taking into account indirect effects of the programs, projects, activities (mainly social when deciding on the need to implement them. The problem of providing society with decent living conditions is studied. The article proves that in spite of some positive trends in the Russian construction market the issues of housing availability do not lose their significance. It notes that a variety of approaches to solving this problem have been developed, that is why it is critical to assess the effectiveness of each solution in order to choose the most suitable one. One of the tools for alleviating this problem – a program of housing construction savings – is discussed in detail; by means of the specially designed universal computational model we determine fiscal effectiveness of this program application in the Sverdlovsk Oblast. The analysis shows that the accounting of multiplier effect reveals the full range of possible effects of the program that can significantly affect the adoption of the decision to initiate actions necessary for their implementation

  13. GeoFORCE Texas: An Outreach Program that is Increasing the Number and Diversity of Students Completing STEM Degrees and Entering the Workforce (United States)

    Snow, E.; Moore, S. L.


    GeoFORCE Texas is an outreach program of the Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin. Established in 2005 with the goal of increasing the number and diversity of students studying geosciences and engineering and entering the high-tech workforce, GeoFORCE has been highly successful. Key elements to that success will be presented here. GeoFORCE targets bright students in rural and inner-city schools where they are generally not academically challenged. Every summer throughout high school we take them on geologic field trips all over the country. In 2014, GeoFORCE led 15 field academies for about 600 students. The program is rigorous and academic. We emphasize college-level thinking skills. Because it is a 4-year program, they have a pretty good grounding in physical geology by the time they graduate. More importantly, they develop confidence in their ability to handle college, and a strong motivation to earn a college degree. GeoFORCE students are mostly minority (85%) and more than half will be the first in their family to graduate from college. GeoFORCE students exceed national averages in rates of going to college (97%), majoring in STEM fields (66%), majoring in geosciences (15%) and engineering (13%), and graduating from college (~85%). GeoFORCE is a public/private partnership and a workforce-focused program. The Jackson School funds staff and operating expenses (37%). Money for student programs comes from private industry (44%), state and federal grants (14%), and foundations and individual donors (5%). Our corporate partners are in the energy sector. In addition to funding, corporate sponsors attend the summer field programs, mentor GeoFORCE students, and provide opportunities for the students to visit the companies. As our students move toward college graduation, our industry and government partners have begun to hire them as interns. GeoFORCE graduates are now entering the workforce. Our first two cohorts are 4 and 5 years past high

  14. Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs. Report Number CN-04-SBP. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series (United States)

    Bernstein, Lawrence S.; McLaughlin, Joan E.; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Daft, Lynn M.


    In 1998, Congress authorized the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project (SBPP) to study the implementation and effects of providing universal free school breakfast in six school districts across the United States. For three years, from School Year (SY) 2000-2001 through SY 2002-2003, these six school districts received federal funds to offer…

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)


    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers

  16. Effect of a physical fitness program on physical self-concept and physical fitness elements in primary school students. (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, D; Viciana, J; Cocca, A; de Rueda Villén, B


    The purpose of this study was to assess the short-term effect of a physical fitness program on physical self-concept and physical fitness elements among primary school students. Spanish boys and girls (N = 75; M age = 11.1 yr., SD = 0.4) were divided into an experimental group and a control group. During physical education classes, the experimental group performed an 8-week program including two circuits of 8 exercises done for 15 to 35 sec. each with 45 to 25 sec. of rest between them. Physical self-concept (Physical Self-Description Questionnaire) and physical fitness (EUROFIT battery tests) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the physical fitness program. The results showed that the improvements in physical fitness were not accompanied by major changes in physical self-concept, even though the physical fitness program seemed to maintain the Experimental group's previous physical appearance, strength, and self-esteem perceptions, all of which statistically significantly decreased in the control group after the intervention.

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.


    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and NMFS initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998, are presented in this report.

  18. Viral Hepatitis Strategic Information to Achieve Elimination by 2030: Key Elements for HIV Program Managers (United States)

    Low-Beer, Daniel; Bergeri, Isabel; Hess, Sarah; Garcia-Calleja, Jesus Maria; Hayashi, Chika; Mozalevskis, Antons; Rinder Stengaard, Annemarie; Sabin, Keith; Harmanci, Hande; Bulterys, Marc


    Evidence documenting the global burden of disease from viral hepatitis was essential for the World Health Assembly to endorse the first Global Health Sector Strategy (GHSS) on viral hepatitis in May 2016. The GHSS on viral hepatitis proposes to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. The GHSS on viral hepatitis is in line with targets for HIV infection and tuberculosis as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. As coordination between hepatitis and HIV programs aims to optimize the use of resources, guidance is also needed to align the strategic information components of the 2 programs. The World Health Organization monitoring and evaluation framework for viral hepatitis B and C follows an approach similar to the one of HIV, including components on the following: (1) context (prevalence of infection), (2) input, (3) output and outcome, including the cascade of prevention and treatment, and (4) impact (incidence and mortality). Data systems that are needed to inform this framework include (1) surveillance for acute hepatitis, chronic infections, and sequelae and (2) program data documenting prevention and treatment, which for the latter includes a database of patients. Overall, the commonalities between HIV and hepatitis at the strategic, policy, technical, and implementation levels justify coordination, strategic linkage, or integration, depending on the type of HIV and viral hepatitis epidemics. Strategic information is a critical area of this alignment under the principle of what gets measured gets done. It is facilitated because the monitoring and evaluation frameworks for HIV and viral hepatitis were constructed using a similar approach. However, for areas where elimination of viral hepatitis requires data that cannot be collected through the HIV program, collaborations are needed with immunization, communicable disease control, tuberculosis, and hepatology centers to ensure collection of information for the remaining indicators. PMID

  19. Distilling Common History and Practice Elements to Inform Dissemination: Hanf-Model BPT Programs as an Example. (United States)

    Kaehler, Laura A; Jacobs, Mary; Jones, Deborah J


    There is a shift in evidence-based practice toward an understanding of the treatment elements that characterize empirically supported interventions in general and the core components of specific approaches in particular. The evidence base for behavioral parent training (BPT) and the standard of care for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders (oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder), which frequently co-occur with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, are well established, yet an ahistorical, program-specific lens tells little regarding how leaders, University of Oregon Medical School, shaped the common practice elements of contemporary evidence-based BPT. Accordingly, this review summarizes the formative work of Hanf, as well as the core elements, evolution, and extensions of her work, represented in Community Parent Education (COPE; (Cunningham et al. in J Child Psychol Psychiatry 36:1141-1159, 1995; Cunningham et al. in COPE, the community parent education program: large group community-based workshops for parents of 3- to 18-year-olds, COPE Works, Hamilton, 2009), Defiant Children (DC; (Barkley in Defiant children: a clinician's manual for assessment and parent training, Guilford Press, New York, 1987; Barkley in Defiant children: a clinician's manual for assessment and parent training, Guilford Press, New York, 2013), Helping the Noncompliant Child (HNC; Forehand and McMahon in Helping the noncompliant child: a clinician's guide to parent training, Guilford Press, New York, 1981; McMahon and Forehand in Helping the noncompliant child: family-based treatment for oppositional behavior, 2nd ed., Guilford Press, New York, 2003), Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT; Eyberg and Robinson in J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 11:130-137, 1982. doi:10.1080/15374418209533076; Eyberg in Child Fam Behav Ther 10:33-46, 1988; Eyberg and Funderburk in Parent-child interaction therapy protocol, PCIT International, Gainesville, 2011), and the Incredible Years

  20. The case for including reach as a key element of program theory. (United States)

    Montague, Steve; Porteous, Nancy L


    This paper suggests that there is a need to build reach in the logic models and results frameworks of public health initiatives. A lack of explicit thinking about reach in logic models can lead to problems such as narrow/constricted understanding of impacts chain, favoring of 'narrow and efficient' initiatives over 'wide and engaging' initiatives and biased thinking against equity considerations. An alternative approach described in this paper that explicitly considers reach demonstrates that an explicit description of reach in program theory and results logic depictions can improve equity in health and social systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)


    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  2. A Donation After Circulatory Death Program Has the Potential to Increase the Number of Donors After Brain Death. (United States)

    Broderick, Andrew R; Manara, Alex; Bramhall, Simon; Cartmill, Maria; Gardiner, Dale; Neuberger, James


    Donation after circulatory death has been responsible for 75% of the increase in the numbers of deceased organ donors in the United Kingdom. There has been concern that the success of the donation after circulatory death program has been at the expense of donation after brain death. The objective of the study was to ascertain the impact of the donation after circulatory death program on donation after brain death in the United Kingdom. Retrospective cohort study. A national organ procurement organization. Patients referred and assessed as donation after circulatory death donors in the United Kingdom between October and December 2013. None. A total of 257 patients were assessed for donation after circulatory death. Of these, 193 were eligible donors. Three patients were deemed medically unsuitable following surgical inspection, 56 patients did not proceed due to asystole, and 134 proceeded to donation. Four donors had insufficient data available for analysis. Therefore, 186 cases were analyzed in total. Organ donation would not have been possible in 79 of the 130 actual donors if donation after circulatory death was not available. Thirty-six donation after circulatory death donors (28% of actual donors) were judged to have the potential to progress to brain death if withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment had been delayed by up to a further 36 hours. A further 15 donation after circulatory death donors had brain death confirmed or had clinical indications of brain death with clear mitigating circumstances in all but three cases. We determined that the maximum potential donation after brain death to donation after circulatory death substitution rate observed was 8%; however due to mitigating circumstances, only three patients (2%) could have undergone brain death testing. The development of a national donation after circulatory death program has had minimal impact on the number of donation after brain death donors. The number of donation after brain death donors

  3. K-shell photoabsorption and photoionization of trace elements. II. Isoelectronic sequences with electron number 12 ≤N ≤ 18 (United States)

    Mendoza, C.; Bautista, M. A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Witthoeft, M. C.; Kallman, T. R.


    Context. We are concerned with improving the diagnostic potential of the K lines and edges of elements with low cosmic abundances, namely F, Na, P, Cl, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn, that are observed in the X-ray spectra of supernova remnants, galaxy clusters, and accreting black holes and neutron stars. Aims: Since accurate photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections are needed in their spectral models, they have been computed for isoelectronic sequences with electron number 12 ≤ N ≤ 18 using a multi-channel method. Methods: Target representations are obtained with the atomic structure code autostructure, and ground-state cross sections are computed with the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method (bprm) in intermediate coupling, including damping (radiative and Auger) effects. Results: Following the findings in our earlier work on sequences with 2 ≤ N ≤ 11, the contributions from channels associated with the 2s-hole [2s] μ target configurations and those containing 3d orbitals are studied in the Mg (N = 12) and Ar (N = 18) isoelectronic sequences. Cross sections for the latter ions are also calculated in the isolated-resonance approximation as implemented in autostructure and compared with bprm to test their accuracy. Conclusions: It is confirmed that the collisional channels associated with the [2s] μ target configurations must be taken into account owing to significant increases in the monotonic background cross section between the L and K edges. Target configurations with 3d orbitals give rise to fairly conspicuous unresolved transition arrays in the L-edge region, but to a much lesser extent in the K-edge that is our main concern; therefore, they have been neglected throughout owing to their computationally intractable channel inventory, thus allowing the computation of cross sections for all the ions with 12 ≤ N ≤ 18 in intermediate coupling with bprm. We find that the isolated-resonance approximations performs satisfactorily and will be our

  4. Glucose signalling pathway controls the programmed ribosomal frameshift efficiency in retroviral-like element Ty3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Türkel, Sezai; Kaplan, Güliz; Farabaugh, Philip J


    Ty3 elements of S. cerevisiae contain two overlapping coding regions, GAG3 and POL3, which are functional homologues of retroviral gag and pol genes, respectively. Pol3 is translated as a Gag3-Pol3 fusion protein dependent on a +1 programmed frameshift at a site with the overlap between the two genes. We show that the Ty3 frameshift frequency varies up to 10-fold in S. cerevisiae cells depending on carbon source. Frameshift efficiency is significantly lower in cells growing on glucose as carbon source than in cells growing on poor alternative carbon sources (glycerol/lactate or galactose). Our results indicate that Ty3 programmed ribosomal frameshift efficiency in response to glucose signalling requires two protein kinases: Snf1p and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Increased frameshifting on alternative carbon sources also appears to require cytoplasmic localization of Snf1p, mediated by the Sip2p protein. In addition to the two required protein kinases, our results implicate that Stm1p, a ribosome-associated protein involved in nutrient sensing, is essential for the carbon source-dependent regulation of Ty3 frameshifting. These data indicate that Ty3 programmed ribosomal frameshift is not a constitutive process but that it is regulated in response to the glucose-signalling pathway. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Language delays, reading delays, and learning difficulties: interactive elements requiring multidimensional programming. (United States)

    Hay, Ian; Elias, Gordon; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate


    Researchers have hypothesized four levels of instructional dialogue and claimed that teachers can improve children's language development by incorporating these dialogue levels in their classrooms. It has also been hypothesized that enhancing children's early language development enhances children's later reading development. This quasi-experimental research study investigated both of these hypotheses using a collaborative service delivery model for Grade 1 children with language difficulties from a socially and economically disadvantaged urban community in Australia. Comparing the end-of-year reading achievement scores for the 57 children who received the language intervention with those of the 59 children in the comparison group, the findings from this research are supportive of both hypotheses. The interrelationships between learning difficulties, reading difficulties, and language difficulties are discussed along with children's development in vocabulary, use of memory strategies and verbal reasoning, and the need for multidimensional programming.

  6. Increasing the Overall Quality and the Number of Women and Hispanic Geoscientists for the Workforce: Rebuilding an Undergraduate Program (United States)

    Ford, M. T.; McGehee, T. L.


    Over the past ten years, the Geosciences Program at Texas A&M University-Kingsville has increased the number of Geology majors 400%, and in the past five years we have graduated 62 students, an increase of 800%. Of these graduates, 37% were Hispanic or African-American and 26% were women. Our graduates are high-achievers with 13% also graduating from the Honor's College (campus-wide rate is less than 1.5%) and that included three women and two Hispanic graduates. Two of these recent graduates are doctoral candidates and eleven are master's candidates at major universities. Of these, three master's candidates are Hispanic, including two women, and one doctoral candidate is a Hispanic woman. The recent productivity and quality changes in this program are attributed to our shift toward an undergraduate, student-centered focus. The increases in productivity resulted from the development of strong relationships with community colleges across the state and significant efforts in recruitment and retention. The major changes in quality included implementation of a strong field-oriented focus with full faculty participation, a strong undergraduate research program, a well-developed recruitment and retention plan, a GIS Certification incorporated into the geology degree, and a culture change to further student professional development. We have maintained over 50 majors in our program for the past three years through increased faculty presentations at high-schools and community colleges, a good University recruiting staff, and quarterly newsletters, focused on student achievements, sent to all prospective students and parents inquiring about the geology major. The resurgence of the oil and gas industry and the retirement of geoscientists have provided a steady stream of job opportunities for our graduates. The 79% that are not pursuing a graduate education accepted jobs after graduation. These include oil and gas entry level jobs, mining jobs, teaching jobs, and geospatial

  7. Implementation of a damage model in a finite element program for computation of structures under dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasserdine Oudni


    Full Text Available This work is a numerical simulation of nonlinear problems of the damage process and fracture of quasi-brittle materials especially concrete. In this study, we model the macroscopic behavior of concrete material, taking into account the phenomenon of damage. J. Mazars model whose principle is based on damage mechanics has been implemented in a finite element program written Fortran 90, it takes into account the dissymmetry of concrete behavior in tension and in compression, this model takes into account the cracking tensile and rupture in compression. It is a model that is commonly used for static and pseudo-static systems, but in this work, it was used in the dynamic case.

  8. The formation, elements of success, and challenges in managing a critical care program: Part I. (United States)

    St Andre, Arthur


    Leaders of critical care programs have significant responsibility to develop and maintain a system of intensive care. At inception, those clinician resources necessary to provide and be available for the expected range of patient illness and injury and throughput are determined. Simultaneously, non-ICU clinical responsibilities and other expectations, such as education of trainees and participation in hospital operations, must be understood. To meet these responsibilities, physicians must be recruited, mentored, and retained. The physician leader may have similar responsibilities for nonphysician practitioners. In concert with other critical care leaders, the service adopts a model of care and assembles an ICU team of physicians, nurses, nonphysician providers, respiratory therapists, and others to provide clinical services. Besides clinician resources, leaders must assure that services such as radiology, pharmacy, the laboratory, and information services are positioned to support the complexities of ICU care. Metrics are developed to report success in meeting process and outcomes goals. Leaders evolve the system of care by reassessing and modifying practice patterns to continually improve safety, efficacy, and efficiency. Major emphasis is placed on the importance of continuity, consistency, and communication by expecting practitioners to adopt similar practices and patterns. Services anticipate and adapt to evolving expectations and resource availability. Effective services will result when skilled practitioners support one another and ascribe to a service philosophy of care.

  9. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element: Evidence Report - Artificial Gravity (United States)

    Clement, Gilles


    The most serious risks of long-duration flight involve radiation, behavioral stresses, and physiological deconditioning. Artificial gravity (AG), by substituting for the missing gravitational cues and loading in space, has the potential to mitigate the last of these risks by preventing the adaptive responses from occurring. The rotation of a Mars-bound spacecraft or an embarked human centrifuge offers significant promise as an effective, efficient multi-system countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. Virtually all of the identified risks associated with bone loss, muscle weakening, cardiovascular deconditioning, and sensorimotor disturbances might be alleviated by the appropriate application of AG. However, experience with AG in space has been limited and a human-rated centrifuge is currently not available on board the ISS. A complete R&D program aimed at determining the requirements for gravity level, gravity gradient, rotation rate, frequency, and duration of AG exposure is warranted before making a decision for implementing AG in a human spacecraft.

  10. National Dam Safety Program. Fresh Air Fund Dam Number 2 (Inventory Number NY726), Hudson River Basin, Dutchess County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report, (United States)


    WORK UNIT NUMBERS COI rkL FFC A,, N ADDRESS 12. REPORT OATE of Enironmntal12 September 1980 Cosrain 5 ofRoad 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 14. ONIORIG AENC NAE ...General3 t-.- Cudu U U 6 b. Condition of Sce’-vicc Spillway ~4c4ztle td AIo eled-ice. JI. 4/’otn4 pI4e o c Cdetc+ n-Al7- see7 /Iced ~6~,ITte’ep or...oe( rIoc e~ td -6 -fhe. idt eui 1tJervfc se _______ I , i_ __ __ *1 ,I I :, I. | . - c. Condition of Auxiliary Spillway !, . fldt_ L L And4. fres

  11. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVII. Lactation performance in MF1 mice is not programmed by fetal number during pregnancy. (United States)

    Duah, Osei A; Monney, Kweku A; Hambly, Catherine; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R


    Several studies have suggested that lactation performance may be programmed by the number of fetuses during pregnancy, whereas other studies indicate that processes during lactation are more important. As gestation litter size and litter size in lactation are usually strongly correlated, separating the roles of pregnancy and lactation in lactation performance is difficult. To break this link, we experimentally manipulated litter size of MF1 mice to five or 16 pups per litter by cross-fostering. Litter size and mass at birth were recorded on day 1 of lactation prior to litter size manipulation. Maternal body mass and food intake, litter size and litter mass were measured daily throughout. After weaning, the potential differential utilisation of body tissues of the mothers was investigated. Relationships between maternal mass and food intake, including asymptotic daily food intake at peak lactation, offspring traits and other maternal parameters suggested that the number of fetuses the females had carried during pregnancy had no effect on lactation performance. Litter mass increases depended only on maternal food intake, which was highly variable between individuals, but was independent of fetal litter size. The sizes of key organs and tissues like the liver and alimentary tract were not related to maximal food intake at peak lactation or to fetal litter size, but the masses of the pelage, mammary glands and retroperitoneal fat pad were. These data suggest that while growth of the mammary glands and associated structures may be initiated in gestation, and vary in relation to the number of placentas, the ultimate sizes and activities of the tissues depends primarily on factors during lactation.

  12. Defense Acquisitions: Better Approach Needed to Account for Number, Cost, and Performance of Non-Major Programs (United States)


    and equipment. About 40 percent of that total is for major defense acquisition programs or ACAT I programs. DOD also invests in other, non-major... ACAT II and III programs that are generally less costly at the individual program level. These programs typically have fewer reporting requirements...and are overseen at lower organizational levels than ACAT I programs, although they may have annual funding needs that are just as significant

  13. MANTLE: A finite element program for the thermal-mechanical analysis of mantle convection. A user's manual with examples (United States)

    Thompson, E.


    A finite element computer code for the analysis of mantle convection is described. The coupled equations for creeping viscous flow and heat transfer can be solved for either a transient analysis or steady-state analysis. For transient analyses, either a control volume or a control mass approach can be used. Non-Newtonian fluids with viscosities which have thermal and spacial dependencies can be easily incorporated. All material parameters may be written as function statements by the user or simply specified as constants. A wide range of boundary conditions, both for the thermal analysis and the viscous flow analysis can be specified. For steady-state analyses, elastic strain rates can be included. Although this manual was specifically written for users interested in mantle convection, the code is equally well suited for analysis in a number of other areas including metal forming, glacial flows, and creep of rock and soil.

  14. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (SRP) (United States)

    Joyner, Michael


    ground based models of limited (e.g. 1/6 th) G environments on Earth that generated a number of ideas for consideration by NASA investigators.

  15. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: Boeing Helicopters airframe finite element modeling (United States)

    Gabel, R.; Lang, P.; Reed, D.


    Mathematical models based on the finite element method of structural analysis, as embodied in the NASTRAN computer code, are routinely used by the helicopter industry to calculate airframe static internal loads used for sizing structural members. Historically, less reliance has been placed on the vibration predictions based on these models. Beginning in the early 1980's NASA's Langley Research Center initiated an industry wide program with the objective of engendering the needed trust in vibration predictions using these models and establishing a body of modeling guides which would enable confident future prediction of airframe vibration as part of the regular design process. Emphasis in this paper is placed on the successful modeling of the Army/Boeing CH-47D which showed reasonable correlation with test data. A principal finding indicates that improved dynamic analysis requires greater attention to detail and perhaps a finer mesh, especially the mass distribution, than the usual stress model. Post program modeling efforts show improved correlation placing key modal frequencies in the b/rev range with 4 percent of the test frequencies.

  16. Albedo factors of some elements in the atomic number range 26≤Z≤79 for 59.54keV. (United States)

    Yılmaz, Demet; Uzunoğlu, Zeynep; Demir, Celalettin


    In this study, we aimed to determine the albedo factors for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Mo, Ag, Dy, Yb, and Au. Albedo factors were investigated experimentally for 59.54keV photon energy by using an HPGe detector with a resolution of 182eV at 5.9keV. Albedo number (AN), albedo energy (AE), and albedo dose (AD) were plotted as a function of atomic number of the target. It was observed that albedo factors decreased with increasing atomic number. In addition, there was a good third-order polynomial relationship between the albedo factors and atomic number. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Advantages of the iridium permanent modifier in fast programs applied to trace-element analysis of plant samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, E.; Baeten, H.; Hoenig, M. [Centre for Veterinary and Agrochemical Research (CERVA), Tervuren (Belgium)


    The application of a fast program combined with the advantages of the iridium permanent modifier is proposed for trace element analysis of plant samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). For two volatile elements (Cd, Pb) and two mid-refractory elements (Cr, Ni) it was demonstrated that coating of the platform or of the tube atomization area with Ir is an efficient means of improving the accuracy and precision of results. A detailed study of interference from individual main matrix components and from composite plant matrices has confirmed the usefulness of the whole approach. The validity of the method has been confirmed by analysis of eight reference plant materials. (orig.)

  18. Critical Elements for Successful Implementation and Adoption of Authentic Scientific Research Programs: Lessons Learned from NASA's Mars Student Imaging Project (United States)

    Klug Boonstra, S.; Swann, J.; Boonstra, D.; Manfredi, L.; Christensen, P. R.


    Recent research identifies the most effective learning as active, engaged learning in which students interact with phenomena, other students, and the teacher/leader to derive meaning and construct understanding of their surroundings. "Similarly, an engaging and effective science education goes well beyond the low-level factual recall that is emphasized in many science classes. It must develop the skills that students need to solve complex problems, work in teams, make and recognize evidence-based arguments, and interpret and communicate complex information" (emphasis added). Authentic science research projects provide active, engaged learning in which students interact with authentic science data in an authentic problem-solving context to derive meaning and construct understanding of the world. In formal (and many informal) settings, the teacher/leader is effectively the gatekeeper who determines the learning experiences in which the students will participate. From our experience of nearly a decade and a half of authentic science programming for 5thgrade through early college students working with NASA Mars data, supporting and enabling the teacher is perhaps the most critical and foundational element for designing a successful authentic research experience. Yet, a major barrier to this type of learning are teacher/leaders who are too often not equipped or who lack confidence to succeed in facilitating authentic research projects. The Mars Student Imaging Project has implemented an iterative process of design, testing, and redesign that has identified and implemented critical teacher/leader-enabling elements that have led to increasingly successful adoptions within formal and informal educational settings - allowing more students to gain the benefits of immersive research experience.

  19. Trace element concentration in wheat grain: results from the Swedish long-term soil fertility experiments and national monitoring program. (United States)

    Kirchmann, Holger; Mattsson, Lennart; Eriksson, Jan


    Concentrations of trace elements in wheat grain sampled between 1967 and 2003 from the Swedish long-term soil fertility experiments were analyzed using ICP-MS. The long-term effect of inorganic and organic fertilization on trace metal concentrations was investigated including the impact of atmospheric deposition and myccorhiza, whereas other factors such as soil conditions, crop cultivar, etc. are not discussed in this paper. Mean values derived from 10 experimental sites were reported. Significantly declining Pb and Cd concentrations in wheat grain could be explained by lower atmospheric deposition. Mean Se contents in all samples were 0.031 mg kg(-1) grain dry weight. No samples had sufficiently high Se concentrations for human (0.05 mg Se kg(-1)) or animal demand (0.1 mg Se kg(-1)). Concentrations of Co in wheat grain were extremely low, 0.002-0.005 mg Co kg(-1) grain dry weight, and far below the minimum levels required by animals, which applied to all fertilizer treatments. A doubling of Mo concentrations in grain since 1975 resulted in Cu/Mo ratios often below one, which may cause molybdenosis in ruminants. The increase in Mo concentrations in crops correlated with the decline in sulfur deposition. Concentrations of Cu and Fe declined in NPK-fertilized wheat as compared to unfertilized or manure-treated wheat. Very low concentrations of Se and Co and low concentrations of Fe and Cu require attention to counteract risks for deficiencies. The main characteristic of the study is that there are few significant changes over time between different fertilizer treatments, but throughout there are low concentrations of most trace elements in all treatments. In general, good agreement between concentrations in wheat from the long-term fertility experiments and the national monitoring program indicate that values are representative.

  20. Finite-element nonlinear transient response computer programs PLATE 1 and CIVM-PLATE 1 for the analysis of panels subjected to impulse or impact loads (United States)

    Spilker, R. L.; Witmer, E. A.; French, S. E.; Rodal, J. J. A.


    Two computer programs are described for predicting the transient large deflection elastic viscoplastic responses of thin single layer, initially flat unstiffened or integrally stiffened, Kirchhoff-Lov ductile metal panels. The PLATE 1 program pertains to structural responses produced by prescribed externally applied transient loading or prescribed initial velocity distributions. The collision imparted velocity method PLATE 1 program concerns structural responses produced by impact of an idealized nondeformable fragment. Finite elements are used to represent the structure in both programs. Strain hardening and strain rate effects of initially isotropic material are considered.

  1. Impact of the Type and Number of Composite Layers in Flexural Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Voided Slabs with FRP Using Finite Element Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammed Maleknia; Ataollah Hajati Modaraei


    .... One usage of FRP laminates is strengthening the reinforced concrete slabs. Present article studied the impact of type and number of composite layers in flexural strengthening of the reinforced concrete voided slabs with FRP laminates...

  2. Elements of Dynamic Programming, (United States)


    UuJACJCIMOIC 3 IICP- ~I) ovio orpacAb. itiafpe.iclclcoe FiA KOAI14CCTnO CptACTO Y1=- - X,1 , nNAeActmIole so DropylO OTP.ICJb DOC = 0151504 PAGE...again all ressvu .te ara packed intc tranch II;their remaiader/residue at tle fau or tae CiLtn year (and entira period) will ie equal tc 0.04 20. iu...we ccnatruct the sesries of curves fcz fau ..t .a w3 ., aependlnS ca X3 IFig. 12.5). For each of these curves we ,oe kuit the maximum ordinate

  3. Stochastic finite element method with simple random elements


    Starkloff, Hans-Jörg


    We propose a variant of the stochastic finite element method, where the random elements occuring in the problem formulation are approximated by simple random elements, i.e. random elements with only a finite number of possible values.

  4. A prospective evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the TAXUS Element paclitaxel-eluting coronary stent system for the treatment of de novo coronary artery lesions: Design and statistical methods of the PERSEUS clinical program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehrenberg Scott


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paclitaxel-eluting stents decrease angiographic and clinical restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention compared to bare metal stents. TAXUS Element is a third-generation paclitaxel-eluting stent which incorporates a novel, thinner-strut, platinum-enriched metal alloy platform. The stent is intended to have enhanced radiopacity and improved deliverability compared to other paclitaxel-eluting stents. The safety and efficacy of the TAXUS Element stent are being evaluated in the pivotal PERSEUS clinical trials. Methods/Design The PERSEUS trials include two parallel studies of the TAXUS Element stent in single, de novo coronary atherosclerotic lesions. The PERSEUS Workhorse study is a prospective, randomized (3:1, single-blind, non-inferiority trial in subjects with lesion length ≤28 mm and vessel diameter ≥2.75 mm to ≤4.0 mm which compares TAXUS Element to the TAXUS Express2 paclitaxel-eluting stent system. The Workhorse study employs a novel Bayesian statistical approach that uses prior information to limit the number of study subjects exposed to the investigational device and thus provide a safer and more efficient analysis of the TAXUS Element stent. PERSEUS Small Vessel is a prospective, single-arm, superiority trial in subjects with lesion length ≤20 mm and vessel diameter ≥2.25 mm to Discussion The TAXUS PERSEUS clinical trial program uses a novel statistical approach to evaluate whether design and metal alloy iterations in the TAXUS Element stent platform provide comparable safety and improved procedural performance compared to the previous generation Express stent. PERSEUS trial enrollment is complete and primary endpoint data are expected in 2010. PERSEUS Workhorse and Small Vessel are registered at, identification numbers NCT00484315 and NCT00489541.

  5. Element Abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays with Atomic Number (Z) in the Interval 30 is less than or equal to Z is less than or equal to 40 (United States)

    Barbier, Louis; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E.; deNolfo, G.; Geier, S.; Israel, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J.; Rauch, B. F.


    We present new results on the elemental abundances of galactic cosmic rays with atomic number, Z, greater than 30, and comparison of these observations with abundances expected from galactic propagation of various suggested models of the cosmic-ray source. We combine preliminary results from the 2003-04 flight of the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) cosmic-ray detector with previously reported results from the 2001-02 flight. This instrument flew over Antarctica for nearly 32 days at a mean atmospheric depth of 5.2 mb in December 2001 - January 2002. At the time of submission of this abstract, January 8, 2004, TIGER was again in the air over Antarctica having completed 22 days of an expected 30day flight at a mean atmospheric depth of about 4 nb, Data from the first flight demonstrated excellent resolution of individual elements, and we expect similar resolution from the second flight.

  6. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. A brief description of the three-dimensional finite element ground-water flow model adapted for waste isolation safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.R.; Gupta, S.K.


    Four levels of hydrologic models have been categorized to handle varying complexities and degrees of available input parameters. The first level is for the simplest one-dimensional models having analytical solutions; the second level includes idealized analytic or hybrid analytic models for single aquifer systems with scanty input data; the third level deals with more complex single or quasi-multilayered systems; and the fourth level is for complex multilayered systems. The three-dimensional finite element ground-water model described in this report falls under the fourth level of hydrologic models. This model is capable of simulating single-layered systems having variable thickness or multilayered systems where not only thickness can be varied, but the number of layers can be changed to agree with the vertical geologic section. Supporting programs have been developed to plot grid values, contour maps and three-dimensional graphics of the input data used in simulation as well as the results obtained. At present, the model considers only confined aquifers. The capabilities of the model were demonstrated by using a test case consisting of the multilayered ground-water system beneath Long Island, New York.

  7. NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0018 TITLE: NRC/AMRMC Resident Research Associateship Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Howard Gamble CONTRACTING...Associateship Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2-0018 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Howard Gamble 5d. PROJECT report. The productivity of these Associates is listed in the technical report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS- Associateship program , post-doc, awards 16

  8. Heavy-section steel technology program: Semiannual progress report for April--September 1996. Volume 13, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program focus is on the development and validation of technology for the assessment of fracture-prevention margins in commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The HSST Program is organized in seven tasks: (1) program management, (2) constraint effects analytical development and validation, (3) evaluation of cladding effects, (4) ductile to cleavage fracture mode conversion, (5) fracture analysis methods development and applications, (6) material property data and test methods, and (7) integration of results into a state-of-the-art methodology. The program tasks have been structured to place emphasis on the resolution fracture issues with near-term licensing significance. Resources to execute the research tasks are drawn from ORNL with subcontract support from universities and other research laboratories. Close contact is maintained with the sister Heavy-Section Steel irradiation Program at ORNL and with related research programs both in the US and abroad. This report provides an overview of principal developments in each of the seven program tasks from April 1996--September 1996.

  9. Does the Number of College Credits Earned in a Tech Prep and Postsecondary Enrollment Options Program Predict College Success? (United States)

    Meyer, Bruce A.


    The purpose of this study was to examine a Tech Prep Program located in Northwest Ohio and determine the degree to which college credits earned in high school through the Tech Prep and PSEO Programs predict college success and if there were any significant gender/race differences in credits earned and college success as well as high school…

  10. Wave Scattering in Heterogeneous Media using the Finite Element Method (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0086 Wave Scattering in Heterogeneous Media using the Finite Element Method Chiruvai Vendhan INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...Scattering in Heterogeneous Media using the Finite Element Method 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4026 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6...heterogeneous ocean acoustic waveguide. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS Acoustics, Finite Element Methods , Wave propagation 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  11. Simple BASIC program for calculating the cervicovaginal FNP and for estimating the sample size of the number of cervicovaginal smears to be rescreened. (United States)

    Lo, J W; Fung, C H


    To guide cytotechnologists and pathologists in calculating the false negative proportion, or rate, and the number of Papanicolaou smears to be reevaluated for a meaningful assessment of screening performance, a computer program written in BASIC was prepared, based on several recent publications in the field of cytopathology. A complete program listing and sample runs to help users be cognizant of the necessary inputs to run the program. The output from the program gives the results of the various calculations. Since the tedious manual calculations are handled by the computer program, it is more likely for those involved in the interpretation of Papanicolaou smears to follow the approaches suggested by experts in these two areas.

  12. Analysis of Florida Department Of Transportation Transit Corridor Program/Projects: Technical Memorandum Number Three - General Recommendations (United States)


    CUTR interviewed FDOT personnel at both the Central Office and Distict Offices and agency personnel to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the overall Transit Corridor Program, including the results of specific projects, as well as the FDOT proce...

  13. Electronic Devices, Methods, and Computer Program Products for Selecting an Antenna Element Based on a Wireless Communication Performance Criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method of operating an electronic device includes providing a plurality of antenna elements, evaluating a wireless communication performance criterion to obtain a performance evaluation, and assigning a first one of the plurality of antenna elements to a main wireless signal reception and trans...

  14. The academic productivity and impact of the University of Toronto Neurosurgery Program as assessed by manuscripts published and their number of citations. (United States)

    Lozano, Christopher S; Tam, Joseph; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Lozano, Andres M


    Recent works have assessed academic output across neurosurgical programs using various analyses of accumulated citations as a proxy for academic activity and productivity. These assessments have emphasized North American neurosurgical training centers and have largely excluded centers outside the United States. Because of the long tradition and level of academic activity in neurosurgery at the University of Toronto, the authors sought to compare that program's publication and citation metrics with those of established programs in the US as documented in the literature. So as to not rely on historical achievements that may be of less relevance, they focused on recent works, that is, those published in the most recent complete 5-year period. The authors sought to make their data comparable to existing published data from other programs. To this end, they compiled a list of published papers by neurosurgical faculty at the University of Toronto for the period from 2009 through 2013 using the Scopus database. Individual author names were disambiguated; the total numbers of papers and citations were compiled on a yearly basis. They computed a number of indices, including the ih(5)-index (i.e., the number of citations the papers received over a 5-year period), the summed h-index of the current faculty over time, and a number of secondary measures, including the ig(5), ie(5), and i10(5)-indices. They also determined the impact of individual authors in driving the results using Gini coefficients. To address the issue of author ambiguity, which can be problematic in multicenter bibliometric analyses, they have provided a source dataset used to determine the ih(5) index for the Toronto program. The University of Toronto Neurosurgery Program had approximately 29 full-time surgically active faculty per year (not including nonneurosurgical faculty) in the 5-year period from 2009 to 2013. These faculty published a total of 1217 papers in these 5 years. The total number of

  15. Numbers of MD and DO Graduates in Graduate Medical Education Programs Accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Osteopathic Association. (United States)

    Jolly, Paul; Lischka, Terri; Sondheimer, Henry


    To determine the number of DO (doctor of osteopathic medicine) and MD (doctor of medicine) residents in training programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) and to examine the behavior of DO residents who moved between the two types of programs. In 2013, the authors linked data on residents reported in ACGME-accredited and AOA-accredited programs in 2009, 2010, and 2011 to produce a count of all residents, including an unduplicated count of residents reported in joint programs. DO residents were identified who moved between AOA-accredited and ACGME-accredited programs. There were 106,923 MD residents and 14,789 DO residents on duty on December 31, 2011. Fifty-one percent of DO residents were in ACGME-accredited programs, 40% in AOA-accredited programs, and 9% in joint programs. DOs were 12% of all residents and 14% of first-year residents. Of 3,742 DOs and 16,863 MDs graduating in 2009-2010, 663 MDs and 222 DOs were not reported in graduate medical education (GME) in either 2010 or 2011. A larger percentage of DO graduates were training in the primary care specialties, especially in family medicine. These data provide the first comprehensive accounting of the numbers of individuals in U.S. GME, in both ACGME- and AOA-accredited residencies. The number of graduates from U.S. medical schools is increasing rapidly; residency positions are growing more slowly. The planned unified accreditation of U.S. GME may cause significant changes in the patterns of GME for future trainees.

  16. Do Dose Numbers Matter?: Evaluation of Differing Infant and Toddler Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine Programs in Canadian Children. (United States)

    Bettinger, Julie A; Vanderkooi, Otto G; Scheifele, David W; Halperin, Scott A; Kellner, James D; Schryvers, Anthony; De Serres, Gaston; Alcantara, Joenel


    The diversity of Canadian infant meningococcal C conjugate (MenC) vaccine programs is unique among countries providing MenC vaccines and offers a valuable opportunity to determine the optimal vaccine program. This longitudinal study assessed differences in seroprotection by 3 different vaccine schedules in children two years after receiving either 1 toddler MenC vaccine dose (1 dose), 1 infant and 1 toddler dose (2 doses), or 2 infant and 1 toddler MenC vaccine dose (3 doses). Three similar cohorts of healthy infants from 1, 2 and 3 dose program areas were enrolled before to their 12 month toddler dose and vaccinated with MenC-tetanus toxoid (MenC-TT) conjugate vaccine. Sera obtained 2 years later were assayed for serogroup C bactericidal activity using standardized procedures with rabbit as the exogenous complement source. Serum bactericidal activity titers ≥1:8 were considered protective. Results were available for 384 children. Rates of seroprotection at 36 months of age were significantly different between the 1 and 3 dose programs, but confidence intervals overlapped between the 1 and 2 dose programs and between the 2 and 3 dose programs: 1 dose 92% (95% confidence interval: 86%-96%) versus 99% (95%-100%) with 2 doses and 100% (97%-100%) with 3 doses. Geometric mean titers were significantly different at 12.1 (10.8-13.5), 32.4 (28.9-36.2) and 50.6 (45.7-55.9) in the 1, 2 and 3 dose programs, respectively. At 36 months of age, evidence of seroprotection remained for greater than 90% of participants. Our results indicate that 1 toddler dose or 1 infant plus 1 toddler dose with MenC-TT vaccine provides seroprotection against MenC disease in early childhood.

  17. Essentials and guidelines for clinical medical physics residency training programs: executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249. (United States)

    Prisciandaro, Joann I; Willis, Charles E; Burmeister, Jay W; Clarke, Geoffrey D; Das, Rupak K; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Gerbi, Bruce J; Harkness, Beth A; Patton, James A; Peck, Donald J; Pizzutiello, Robert J; Sandison, George A; White, Sharon L; Wichman, Brian D; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Both, Stefan


    There is a clear need for established standards for medical physics residency training. The complexity of techniques in imaging, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology continues to increase with each passing year. It is therefore imperative that training requirements and competencies are routinely reviewed and updated to reflect the changing environment in hospitals and clinics across the country. In 2010, the AAPM Work Group on Periodic Review of Medical Physics Residency Training was formed and charged with updating AAPM Report Number 90. This work group includes AAPM members with extensive experience in clinical, professional, and educational aspects of medical physics. The resulting report, AAPM Report Number 249, concentrates on the clinical and professional knowledge needed to function independently as a practicing medical physicist in the areas of radiation oncology, imaging, and nuclear medicine, and constitutes a revision to AAPM Report Number 90. This manuscript presents an executive summary of AAPM Report Number 249.

  18. Atomic Structure and Valence: Level II, Unit 10, Lesson 1; Chemical Bonding: Lesson 2; The Table of Elements: Lesson 3; Electrolysis: Lesson 4. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program. (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Atomic Structure and Valence, Chemical Bonding, The Table of Elements, and Electrolysis. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  19. Small angle scattering of 59.54 keV photons by elemental samples in the atomic number region 13 ≤ Z ≤ 82

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vinaykumar


    Full Text Available In the present paper, we report the angle integrated coherent scattering cross sections of some elements at low momentum transfer over four angular ranges for some elements in the atomic number range 13≤Z≤82 for 241Am (59.54 keV gamma rays. The coherent scattering cross sections were derived from the experimentally measured total (Coherent + incoherent scattering cross sections for the elements at the energy of interest by subtracting separately the small contribution of the corresponding angle integrated incoherent scattering cross sections. The theoretical angle integrated incoherent scattering cross sections were computed by numerically integrating the values provided in the compilations based on the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock (NRHF model and the modified form factor (MFF model for the charge distribution within the atom. The present values of the angle integrated coherent scattering cross sections of the elements Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn and Pb at 59.54 keV in the angular ranges of (0∘−4∘, (0∘−6∘, (0∘−8∘ and (0°–10° so obtained are compared with the corresponding theoretical S-matrix data within the range of experimental errors. The root mean square error on the measured cross sections was found to be the lowest for Al at 4.1% and the highest for Pb at 4.9%. For the other elements the error was in between these two values. Possible conclusions are drawn based on the present study.

  20. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0178 TITLE: Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David M. Lubaroff, PhD CONTRACTING...Prostate Cancer Research Training Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0178 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David M...Distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The HBCU Summer Research Training Program accepted a total of 8 students from Lincoln

  1. Communication Sciences Laboratory Quarterly Progress Report, Volume 9, Number 3: Research Programs of Some of the Newer Members of CSL. (United States)

    Feinstein, Stephen H.; And Others

    The research reported in these papers covers a variety of communication problems. The first paper covers research on sound navigation by the blind and involves echo perception research and relevant aspects of underwater sound localization. The second paper describes a research program in acoustic phonetics and concerns such related issues as…

  2. Spent nuclear fuels project: FY 1995 multi-year program plan, WBS {number_sign}1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denning, J.L.


    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) program is to safely, reliably, and efficiently manage, condition, transport, and store Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF, so that it meets acceptance criteria for disposal in a permanent repository. The Hanford Site Spent Nuclear Fuel strategic plan for accomplishing the project mission is: Establish near-term safe storage in the 105-K Basins; Complete national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to obtain a decision on how and where spent nuclear fuel will be managed on the site; Define and establish alternative interim storage on site or transport off site to support implementation of the NEPA decision; and Define and establish a waste package qualified for final disposition. This report contains descriptions of the following: Work Breakdown Structure; WBS Dictionary; Responsibility Assignment Matrix; Program Logic Diagrams; Program Master Baseline Schedule; Program Performance Baseline Schedule; Milestone List; Milestone Description Sheets; Cost Baseline Summary by Year; Basis of Estimate; Waste Type Data; Planned Staffing; and Fiscal Year Work Plan.

  3. No effect of a graded training program on the number of running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Ida; Bredeweg, Steef W.; van Mechelen, Willem; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Diercks, Ron L.

    Background: Although running has positive effects on health and fitness, the incidence of a running-related injury (RRI) is high. Research on prevention of RRI is scarce; to date, no studies have involved novice runners. Hypothesis: A graded training program for novice runners will lead to a

  4. No effect of a graded training program on the number of running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, I.; Bredeweg, S.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Pepping, G.J.; Diercks, R.L.


    Background: Although running has positive effects on health and fitness, the incidence of a running-related injury (RRI) is high. Research on prevention of RRI is scarce; to date, no studies have involved novice runners. Hypothesis: A graded training program for novice runners will lead to a

  5. "Braingame Brian": Toward an Executive Function Training Program with Game Elements for Children with ADHD and Cognitive Control Problems. (United States)

    Prins, Pier J M; Brink, Esther Ten; Dovis, Sebastiaan; Ponsioen, Albert; Geurts, Hilde M; de Vries, Marieke; van der Oord, Saskia


    In the area of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, there is an urgent need for new, innovative, and child-focused treatments. A computerized executive functioning training with game elements aimed at enhancing self-control was developed. The first results are promising, and the next steps involve replication with larger samples, evaluating transfer of training effects to daily life, and enhancing motivation through more gaming elements.

  6. Effects of long-lived 10 MeV-scale sterile neutrinos on primordial elemental abundances and the effective neutrino number (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kusakabe, Motohiko; Okada, Hiroshi


    The primordial lithium abundance inferred from spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars is ˜3 times smaller than the theoretical prediction in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) model. We assume a simple model composed of standard model particles and a sterile neutrino νH with mass of O(10) MeV which decays long after BBN. We then investigate cosmological effects of a sterile neutrino decay, and check if a sterile neutrino can reduce the primordial lithium abundance. We formulate the injection spectrum of nonthermal photon induced by the νH decay. We take into account the generation of electrons and positrons, e±'s, and active neutrinos at the νH decay, the primary photon production via the inverse Compton scattering of cosmic background radiation (CBR) by energetic e±, and electromagnetic cascade showers induced by the primary photons. The steady state injection spectrum is then derived as a function of the νH mass and the photon temperature. The νH decay produces energetic active neutrinos which are not thermalized, and e±'s which are thermalized. We then derive formulas relevant to the νH decay rates and formulas for the baryon-to-photon ratio η and effective neutrino number Neff. The initial abundance, mass, and lifetime of νH are taken as free parameters. We then consistently solve (1) the cosmic thermal history, (2) nonthermal nucleosynthesis induced by the nonthermal photons, (3) the η value, and (4) the Neff value. We find that an effective Be7 destruction can occur only if the sterile neutrino decays at photon temperature T =O(1) keV. Amounts of energy injection at the νH decay are constrained from limits on primordial D and Li7 abundances, the Neff value, and the CBR energy spectrum. We find that Be7 is photodisintegrated and the Li problem is partially solved for the lifetime 104-105 s and the mass ≳14 MeV. Be7 destruction by more than a factor of 3 is not possible because of an associated D overdestruction. In the

  7. Strategy of Philosophy Education to Develop Thinking Children : An Analysis of Curriculum for Early Elementally School in the Program “Philosophy for Children”


    Fukui, Suguru


    In this study, the author explores the strategy of the philosophy education to develop thinking children by analyzing of structures of the curriculum for early elementally school in the program “Philosophy for Children”. The curriculum consists of a storybook and instructional manual. The curriculum is structured so that children are made aware of problematical concepts in their own life, and then required to practice judge relations of concepts on their own experience. Children discover good...

  8. Kβ/Kα X-ray intensity ratios for some elements in the atomic number range 28≤Z≤39 at 16.896 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yılmaz


    Full Text Available The K shell intensity ratios (Kβ/Kα have been experimentally determined for some elements in the atomic number range 28 ≤ Z ≤ 39 by using secondary excitation method. K X-rays emitted by samples have been counted by a Si (Li detector with 160 eV resolutions at 5.9 keV. The measured values were compared with the theoretical and experimental values. In general, the values obtained are in good agreement with the calculated values.

  9. Program manager: The Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 14, Number 2, March-April 1985, (United States)


    subsystem. Indeed, acquisition strategy involving an in- leadership is the adhesive at the Memoria war tentional increase in capital investment soldier...may be pc wered by a more reliable -.- , and maintainable generator through -tion. This allowed the program he contractor’s attitude is im- efforts of...assure ade- pc ( Iti(ation So radically drove the quate deceleration, energy capacity, There are risks in this radical tailor- d.ign ot the engine that

  10. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 22, Number 3, May-June 1993 (United States)


    contractor program man- 3. The Wall Street lournal, Federal agers know their own company well. Express Advertisement , various, lanu- They know their...weakened b\\’ subliminal * College (DSMC) faculty members. limitations which included the fear of Forrest Gale and Owen Gadeken, hay- getting hurt and...Real com- dividual physical activity into a social, almost no crowd. This presented us mitment invoives trust in the process. psychological one. WVe

  11. Program Manager: The Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 12, Number 4, July-August 1983. (United States)


    Pellegrini . USA Actin Deputy Commandant Colonel T. V. Forburger. USA Dean. Department of Vol. Xll, No. 4 Research and Information Colonel G. Dana... Peter M. Fonash; Lieutenant Commander John F. Kramer, USN;Dorothy L. Reago Lieutenant Colonel Vance A. Mall, USAF and Dr. Robert Mathis Design...language Peter M. Fonash, Army Deputy Director, Ada Joint Program Office Lieutenant Commander lohn F. Kramer, USN, Former Navy Deputy Director, Ada Joint

  12. The Effect of a Physical Activity Program on the Total Number of Primary Care Visits in Inactive Patients: A 15-Month Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giné-Garriga

    Full Text Available Effective promotion of exercise could result in substantial savings in healthcare cost expenses in terms of direct medical costs, such as the number of medical appointments. However, this is hampered by our limited knowledge of how to achieve sustained increases in physical activity.To assess the effectiveness of a Primary Health Care (PHC based physical activity program in reducing the total number of visits to the healthcare center among inactive patients, over a 15-month period.Randomized controlled trial.Three hundred and sixty-two (n = 362 inactive patients suffering from at least one chronic condition were included. One hundred and eighty-three patients (n = 183; mean (SD; 68.3 (8.8 years; 118 women were randomly allocated to the physical activity program (IG. One hundred and seventy-nine patients (n = 179; 67.2 (9.1 years; 106 women were allocated to the control group (CG. The IG went through a three-month standardized physical activity program led by physical activity specialists and linked to community resources.The total number of medical appointments to the PHC, during twelve months before and after the program, was registered. Self-reported health status (SF-12 version 2 was assessed at baseline (month 0, at the end of the intervention (month 3, and at 12 months follow-up after the end of the intervention (month 15.The IG had a significantly reduced number of visits during the 12 months after the intervention: 14.8 (8.5. The CG remained about the same: 18.2 (11.1 (P = .002.Our findings indicate that a 3-month physical activity program linked to community resources is a short-duration, effective and sustainable intervention in inactive patients to decrease rates of PHC NCT00714831.

  13. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College, Volume 19, Number 6, November-December 1990 (United States)


    or in keeping their programs sold and better job for our men and women in even a negative effect, on the fully funded during their watches. uniform...preferential treatment in adefense contractors to bid on defense very important national interests, to-be-defined manner. The EDIG contracts in participating...system concept, identify major cost N9’Q .X, neesar tov asur vih roability ofc~t I re aheeti aac .... -’ .- ’/. i. . ,L.L. . . drivers, assure that

  14. Program Manager, the Journal of the Defense Systems Management College, Volume 14, Number 5, September-October 1985. (United States)


    Con- of an uncontrolled government. The - Honore ’ Balzac gress to "raise an army" and to "pro- legacy, however, is a very complex en- vide and...America. do hereby proclaim Friday. July 19. 1985, as National PO W./M.I A. Recognition Day. I call on all Americans to join in honoring all former...Participation in .ive tion Day’ po4er.’ the Vietnam unknown, the President public awareness programs is one way said, "One way to honor those who we can all help

  15. Operation Dragoon: Unified Land Operations and Elements of Operational Art in Southern France (United States)


    Operation Dragoon: Unified Land Operations and Elements of Operational Art in Southern France A Monograph by MAJ Justin M. Cuff United States...Operations and Elements of Operational Art in Southern France 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Operation Dragoon, the invasion of Southern France on August 15, 1944, is one of the least celebrated, yet highly

  16. Laser Setup for Volume Diffractive Optical Elements Recording in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass (United States)


    published in non peer-reviewed journals : Final Report: Laser Setup for Volume Diffractive Optical Elements Recording in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass...enhancement of lasers brightness and fine spectral filtering. However, further increase of size of holographic optical elements , which are required for high...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - Approved for Public Release

  17. Photovoltaic systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Each of the Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Systems Program projects funded and/or in existence during fiscal year 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) are described. The project sheets list the contractor, principal investigator, and contract number and funding and summarize the programs and status. The program is divided into various elements: program assessment and integration, research and advanced development, technology development, system definition and development, system application experiments, and standards and performance criteria. (WHK)

  18. Multi-cluster processor operating only select number of clusters during each phase based on program statistic monitored at predetermined intervals (United States)

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev [Sandy, UT; Dwarkadas, Sandhya [Rochester, NY; Albonesi, David [Ithaca, NY


    In a processor having multiple clusters which operate in parallel, the number of clusters in use can be varied dynamically. At the start of each program phase, the configuration option for an interval is run to determine the optimal configuration, which is used until the next phase change is detected. The optimum instruction interval is determined by starting with a minimum interval and doubling it until a low stability factor is reached.

  19. "Braingame Brian": Toward an Executive Function Training Program with Game Elements for Children with ADHD and Cognitive Control Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.; ten Brink, E.; Dovis, S.; Ponsioen, A.; Geurts, H.M.; de Vries, M.; van der Oord, S.


    In the area of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, there is an urgent need for new, innovative, and child-focused treatments. A computerized executive functioning training with game elements aimed at enhancing self-control was developed. The first results are promising, and the next


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his

  1. A non-conformal finite element/finite volume scheme for the non-structured grid-based approximation of low Mach number flows; Un schema elements finis non-conformes/volumes finis pour l'approximation en maillages non-structures des ecoulements a faible nombre de Mach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansanay-Alex, G.


    The development of simulation codes aimed at a precise simulation of fires requires a precise approach of flame front phenomena by using very fine grids. The need to take different spatial scale into consideration leads to a local grid refinement and to a discretization with homogeneous grid for computing time and memory purposes. The author reports the approximation of the non-linear convection term, the scalar advection-diffusion in finite volumes, numerical simulations of a flow in a bent tube, of a three-dimensional laminar flame and of a low Mach number an-isotherm flow. Non conformal finite elements are also presented (Rannacher-Turek and Crouzeix-Raviart elements)

  2. The Mass Attenuation Coefficients, Electronic, Atomic, and Molecular Cross Sections, Effective Atomic Numbers, and Electron Densities for Compounds of Some Biomedically Important Elements at 59.5 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Akça


    Full Text Available The mass attenuation coefficients for compounds of biomedically important some elements (Na, Mg, Al, Ca, and Fe have been measured by using an extremely narrow collimated-beam transmission method in the energy 59.5 keV. Total electronic, atomic, and molecular cross sections, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities have been obtained by using these results. Gamma-rays of 241Am passed through compounds have been detected by a high-resolution Si(Li detector and by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF. Obtained results have been compared with theoretically calculated values of WinXCom and FFAST. The relative difference between the experimental and theoretical values are −9.4% to +11.9% with WinXCom and −11.8% to +11.7% FFAST. Results have been presented and discussed in this paper.

  3. Chemical Elements Bingo (United States)

    Tejeda, Silvia; Palacios, Joaquin


    An important part of the high school chemistry program is the topic of periodic classification and periodicity. We have observed that one of the obstacles for the study of the matter is the new vocabulary necessary to initiate this work. Our students have to understand that the periodic classification is an orderly way of presenting the elements and its properties, they compare the table with other classification systems that they already know, nevertheless for the average student it is difficult to deduce or predict properties with periodic classification. As an example of this concept, we can point out the electronic configuration, atomic radii, oxidation state, and valence number. In order to facilitate the learning-teaching process of this topic in high school level, we stimulate the class to play with the periodic table, to get familiar with the general concepts of periodicity. We started our work dealing with the most common elements in each group. Chemical Elements Bingo (CEB) is a game we designed to teach periodic classification.

  4. 59th Medical Wing Protection of Vulnerable Populations: Ombudsman Program (United States)


    REPORT TYPE 20/04/2018 poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 59th Medical Wing Protection of Vulnerable Populations: Ombudsman Program 6. AUTHOR(S...CONTRACT NUMBER Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Se. TASK NUMBER Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...59th Medical Wing Protection of Vulnerable Populations: Ombudsman Program Wayne DeutschDDS1, MPH, Michele Tavish LYN, PMP, CCRC 1 Brenda

  5. Personnel-General: Army Substance Abuse Program (ASAP) (United States)


    civilians. c. All urine specimens will be forwarded to the supporting FTDTL. d. Illicit use of anabolic steroids by military members is recognized as an...Army Regulation 600–85 Personnel—General Army Substance Abuse Program (ASAP) Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC 1 October 2001...Substance Abuse Program (ASAP) Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number

  6. ALGEBRA: a computer program that algebraically manipulates finite element output data. [In extended FORTRAN for CDC 7600 or CYBER 76 only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richgels, M A; Biffle, J H


    ALGEBRA is a program that allows the user to process output data from finite-element analysis codes before they are sent to plotting routines. These data take the form of variable values (stress, strain, and velocity components, etc.) on a tape that is both the output tape from the analyses code and the input tape to ALGEBRA. The ALGEBRA code evaluates functions of these data and writes the function values on an output tape that can be used as input to plotting routines. Convenient input format and error detection capabilities aid the user in providing ALGEBRA with the functions to be evaluated. 1 figure.

  7. ILS Element E1 Maintenance Planning: Distribution Program and User’s Manual. Version 1.0 (United States)


    For a single digit , enter a blank space or zero to the left of the digit . The program accepts only actual dates. If an incorrect date is entered...Documentation for Comoleteness and Firmaness E1.2-1 What stage of develooment- are you in?: "o Concept Exploration "o Development and Validation "o Full Scale

  8. Optimal Recycling of Steel Scrap and Alloying Elements: Input-Output based Linear Programming Method with Its Application to End-of-Life Vehicles in Japan. (United States)

    Ohno, Hajime; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kondo, Yasushi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya


    Importance of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) as an urban mine is expected to grow, as more people in developing countries are experiencing increased standards of living, while the automobiles are increasingly made using high-quality materials to meet stricter environmental and safety requirements. While most materials in ELVs, particularly steel, have been recycled at high rates, quality issues have not been adequately addressed due to the complex use of automobile materials, leading to considerable losses of valuable alloying elements. This study highlights the maximal potential of quality-oriented recycling of ELV steel, by exploring the utilization methods of scrap, sorted by parts, to produce electric-arc-furnace-based crude alloy steel with minimal losses of alloying elements. Using linear programming on the case of Japanese economy in 2005, we found that adoption of parts-based scrap sorting could result in the recovery of around 94-98% of the alloying elements occurring in parts scrap (manganese, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum), which may replace 10% of the virgin sources in electric arc furnace-based crude alloy steel production.

  9. Results of the monitoring program at the factory site of fuel elements Juzbado; Resultados del programa vigilancia del emplazamiento en la fabrica de elementos combustibles de Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Trujillo, D.; Perez Fonseca, A.; Sierra Gil, S.


    The factory fuel elements Juzbado has a number of unique features different from other nuclear facilities, given that the inventory of isotopes present in Juzbado limited to uranium enriched to 5% and their descendants, all these isotopes are normally in the nature in various amounts depending on the hydrogeological area. For this reason, it should be noted that quantification of contamination provided can be complicated to be able to find the same isotopes in the natural background radiation, having to have clear criteria and appropriate methodology for distinguishing background values ??due to the factory values . In this paper we will explain the results of the inspection plan.

  10. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps (United States)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana


    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  11. Finite-element three-dimensional ground-water (FE3DGW) flow model - formulation, program listings and users' manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.K.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.


    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. Hydrologic and transport models are available at several levels of complexity or sophistication. Model selection and use are determined by the quantity and quality of input data. Model development under AEGIS and related programs provides three levels of hydrologic models, two levels of transport models, and one level of dose models (with several separate models). This document consists of the description of the FE3DGW (Finite Element, Three-Dimensional Groundwater) Hydrologic model third level (high complexity) three-dimensional, finite element approach (Galerkin formulation) for saturated groundwater flow.

  12. User’s Guide for the Incremental Construction, Soil-Structure Interaction Program SOILSTRUCT with Far-Field Boundary Elements (United States)


    Unlimited , TIC t’%i ELECTE •m• Y2 5,1, ඦ 5" 23 116 Prepared for Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers The contents of this report an not to be...evaluation of soil-structure interaction of earth retaining structures. The initial version of the program was developed by Profesors G. W. Clough and J


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silva Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This study aims to identify possible tendencies from offered vacancy indices, registrations and number of graduates in the field of Accounting Science, both in presential and distance education, from 1995 to 2012. Expansion policies and the increasing access of the Brazilian Higher Education System (“Sistema de Educação Superior” (SES, institutionalized by the government, are considered as a context to understand these tendencies. The main data sources used were micro data from the Higher Education Census (“Censo de Educação Superior” (CES from 1995 to 2012. This study carried out descriptive and analytical procedures in a trending movement for these indices from 1995 to 2012. The results suggest that the growth in the offer of vacancies was expressive throughout the period. This movement was not followed in the same rate by the number of interested candidates to compete for a position in the Accounting Science program. There is an oversupply on offers for vacancies with a rising tendency in private institutions. The evolution in the registration rate in distant education courses (“Cursos de Educação à Distância” (EAD is inconstant. There is a concentration of enrolled students at a lower number in Higher Education Institutions (“Instituições de Ensino Superior” (IES of a public nature, in contrast with the pulverized distribution on registrations among a higher number of private IES. The completion rate in Accounting Science presents high and low alternate periods for the presential modality. However, there is evidence on high evasion and/or retention index. The course assessment tools indicate possible problems in the offering of the education service and deficiencies regarding the under graduation of students in Accounting Science.

  14. Theoretical substantiation of programs of targeted development of coordination abilities of pupils in lessons of physical training with elements of sports games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Boychuk


    Full Text Available Purpose : improving the process of teaching students the art of sports games on the lessons of physical education through targeted development of coordination abilities. Material : an analysis of more than 20 references. Results : The results of the theoretical analysis of the feasibility of targeted improvement of coordination abilities of students in learning motor actions. A program for the coordination of training students in physical education lessons with elements of sports games. Identified tools, methods and instructional techniques parenting coordination abilities. The most significant coordination abilities for sports games have the ability to differentiate the motion parameters, response, spatial orientation and coordination of movements. Conclusions : The targeted improvement of coordination abilities of students in physical education and sports training enhances the effectiveness of the process of learning motor actions.

  15. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.


    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  16. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.


    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  17. Statis Program Analysis for Reliable, Trusted Apps (United States)


    devices. App stores also provide a tempting vector for an attacker. An attacker can take advantage of bugdoors (software defects that permit...STATIC PROGRAM ANALYSIS FOR RELIABLE, TRUSTED APPS UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON FEBRUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...STATIC PROGRAM ANALYSIS FOR RELIABLE, TRUSTED APPS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-12-2-0107 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61101E 6. AUTHOR

  18. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten


    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...

  19. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph


    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  20. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen


    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  1. Fibonacci numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich


    Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher

  2. Sagan numbers


    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.


    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  3. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (United States)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia


    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  4. Implementation of the Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Inspection Module (United States)


    7 5 T H A I R B A S E W I N G Implementation of the Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Inspection Module 2009 Environment...Implementation of the Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Inspection Module 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  5. Technical Leadership Development Program- Year 4 (United States)


    Replace   ‘Enterprise   Questions’   with   individual   Technical   Leadership   White   Paper   submissions   by   each...UNCLASSIFIED Contract Number: H98230-08-D-0171 WHS TOO009 RT0004 Report No. SERC-2013-TR-013-4 28 February 2013 1 Technical Leadership ...SUBTITLE Technical Leadership Development Program- Year 4 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER H98230-08-D-0171 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  6. U.S. Military Stop Loss Program (United States)


    deployment cycle. While Stop Movement originally applied to all assigned personnel in a deploying unit, exceptions have emerged over the past several...dates that are sooner than what was originally planned, the more soldiers who will be affected by Stop Loss. The relationship between the number of...00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE U.S. Military Stop Loss Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  7. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function (United States)


    Final report for “Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function” Principal Investigator: Christina D. Smolke...SUBTITLE Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18   2 Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function Task 1

  8. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle


    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  9. Discovery of element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)


    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  10. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E


    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  11. Final Report, Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing: Co-Array Fortran, Grant Number DE-FC02-01ER25505

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Numrich


    The major accomplishment of this project is the production of CafLib, an 'object-oriented' parallel numerical library written in Co-Array Fortran. CafLib contains distributed objects such as block vectors and block matrices along with procedures, attached to each object, that perform basic linear algebra operations such as matrix multiplication, matrix transpose and LU decomposition. It also contains constructors and destructors for each object that hide the details of data decomposition from the programmer, and it contains collective operations that allow the programmer to calculate global reductions, such as global sums, global minima and global maxima, as well as vector and matrix norms of several kinds. CafLib is designed to be extensible in such a way that programmers can define distributed grid and field objects, based on vector and matrix objects from the library, for finite difference algorithms to solve partial differential equations. A very important extra benefit that resulted from the project is the inclusion of the co-array programming model in the next Fortran standard called Fortran 2008. It is the first parallel programming model ever included as a standard part of the language. Co-arrays will be a supported feature in all Fortran compilers, and the portability provided by standardization will encourage a large number of programmers to adopt it for new parallel application development. The combination of object-oriented programming in Fortran 2003 with co-arrays in Fortran 2008 provides a very powerful programming model for high-performance scientific computing. Additional benefits from the project, beyond the original goal, include a programto provide access to the co-array model through access to the Cray compiler as a resource for teaching and research. Several academics, for the first time, included the co-array model as a topic in their courses on parallel computing. A separate collaborative project with LANL and PNNL showed how to

  12. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John


    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  13. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2011 Missouri Department of Conservation general contaminant monitoring program (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.


    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillet samples of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis), golden redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from six sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs were collected from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at eight of the sites, and crayfish from two sites. Following preparation and analysis of the samples, highlights of the data were as follows: cadmium and lead residues were most elevated in crayfish tissue samples from the Big River at Cherokee Landing, with 1 to 8 micrograms per gram dry weight and 22 to 45 micrograms per gram dry weight, respectively. Some dorsal muscle plugs from largemouth bass collected from Clearwater Lake, Lake St. Louis, Noblett Lake, Hazel Creek Lake, and Harrison County Lake contained mercury residues (1.7 to 4.7 micrograms per gram dry weight) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Criterion of 1.5 micrograms per gram dry weight of fish tissue (equivalent to 0.30 micrograms per gram wet weight).

  14. The Ph.D. Pipeline: McNair Program Cuts Could Hamper Efforts to Boost Number of Minorities Holding Doctoral Degrees (United States)

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal


    This article features the Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program at the University of Memphis. The McNair program is named after Ronald E. McNair, the second African-American in space, who died in the Space Shuttle Challenger explosion in 1986. Approximately 200 campuses across the nation host the program. Whereas the program…

  15. Many Eligible Children Don't Participate in School Nutrition Programs: Reauthorization Offers Opportunities to Improve. National Issue Brief Number 85 (United States)

    Carson, Jessica A.


    This brief uses data from the 2013 Current Population Survey's Food Security Supplement to document levels of participation in two of the largest programs authorized by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010--the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program--by region and place type (rural, suburban, and city), to identify…

  16. Computer Programs for Plotting Spot-Beam Coverages from an Earth-Synchronous Satellite and Earth-Station Antenna Elevation Angle Contours. Memorandum Number 72/4. (United States)

    Stagl, Thomas W.; Singh, Jai P.

    Computer programs prepared in connection with a project on Application of Communication Satellites to Educational Development (see EM 010 449) are described and listed in this memorandum. First, the data tape containing a digitized map of the world which was used for the programs is described. Then the first program, WORLDMAP, which plots the tape…

  17. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P., E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  18. A Novel Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Dual Regulatory T-Cell Programming (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0240 TITLE: A Novel Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Dual Regulatory T-Cell Programming PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Novel Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Dual Regulatory T-Cell 5b. GRANT NUMBER Programming 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...of Defense for Health Affairs, through Peer Reviewed Medical Research Program under the award number W81XWH-15-1-0240. 2. This work was also

  19. Evaluation of the King-Devick Test to Assess Eye Movements and the Performance of Rapid Number Naming in Concussed and Non-Concussed Service Members (United States)


    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Michael Dretsch, PhD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...imaging and salivary biomarkers. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? MAJ Dretsch and Ms. Fauth met

  20. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter


    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  1. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    How many points are there on a line? Which is more in number- points on a line or lines in a plane? These are some natural questions that have occurred to us sometime or the other. It is interesting to note the difference between the two questions. Do we have to know how many points and lines there are to answer.

  2. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory. Besides mathematics, she is interested in (singing) indian classical music and yoga. Right: Shailesh Shirali is. Director of Sahyadri School.

  3. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0531 TITLE: Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0531 Cancer Scholars Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c... PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam Kisailus, PHD; Wendy Huss, PHD ; Richard Hershberger, MBA, PHD; Anna Allen PHD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  4. Flow Element Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  5. The Effects of an Anti-Cyberbullying Program on Decreasing the Number of Aggressive Experiences for Students While Using Digital Technology (United States)

    Corso, Patricia-Ann Schullery


    This study examined the effect of an anti-bullying program, Cyberbullying: A Prevention Curriculum for Grades 6-12 (Limber, Kowalski & Agatston, 2008). A quasi-experimental post-test design was used to investigate (a) whether or not participation in the program was related to the frequency of aggressive on-line experiences for victims and/or…

  6. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. 1997 Ship Production Symposium, Paper Number 16: Towards a Generic Product-Oriented Work Breakdown Structure for Shipbuilding (United States)


    Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy Industries NSRP National Shipbuilding Research Program PODAC Production-Oriented Design and breakdown structure (PWBS) development and implementation that had been made by Ishikawajima - Harima Heavy Industries (IHI) in Japan in the 1970...INNOVATION MARINE INDUSTRY STANDARDS WELDING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM April 1997 NSRP

  7. Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.


    We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.

  8. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten


    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...

  9. Combination of the ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios from two test elements for the diagnostic of plasma temperature and electron number density in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail:; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)


    In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.

  10. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  11. DOE/Industrial Technologies Program DOE Award Number DE-FG36-05GO15099 Plant Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment Pilgrims Pride Corporation – Mt Pleasant Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paper, Riyaz; Dooley, Bill; Turpish, William J; Symonds, Mark; Carswell, Needham


    The U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), through Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is supporting plant wide energy efficiency assessments that will lead to substantial improvements in industrial efficiency, waste reduction, productivity, and global competitiveness in industries identified in ITP’s Industries of the Future. The stated goal of the assessments is to develop a comprehensive strategy at manufacturing locations that will significantly increase plant productivity, profitability, and energy efficiency, and reduce environmental emissions. ITP awarded a contract to Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation to conduct a plant wide energy efficiency assessment for their Mt Pleasant Facility in Mt Pleasant, Texas. Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation is the largest poultry company in the U.S. and Mexico producing nearly 9 billion pounds of poultry per year. Pilgrim's Pride products are sold to foodservice, retail and frozen entrée customers. Pilgrim's Pride owns and operates 37 chicken processing plants (34 in the U.S. and three in Mexico), 12 prepared foods plants and one turkey processing plant. Thirty-five feed mills and 49 hatcheries support these plants. Pilgrim's Pride is ranked number 382 on 2006's FORTUNE 500 list and net sales were $7.4 billion. In Mt. Pleasant, Texas, Pilgrim's Pride operates one of the largest prepared foods plants in the United States, with the capability of producing 2,000 different products and the capacity to turn out more than 7 million pounds of finished goods per week. The facility is divided into distinct departments: East Kill, West Kill, Prepared Foods, Protein Conversion, Wastewater Treatment, and Truck Shop. Facility processes include killing, eviscerating, refrigeration, baking, frying, and protein conversion. Pilgrim’s Pride formed a team to complete the plant wide energy efficiency assessment. The scope of work for this project was to: provide the analysis of departmental

  12. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section... FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP funds... through the following elements: (1) Development and implementation of educational programs; (2) Resource...



    ECBC-TR-1434 DARPA ANTIBODY TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM STANDARDIZED TEST BED FOR...COVERED (From - To) Oct 2010 – Sep 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DARPA Antibody Technology Program Standardized Test Bed for Antibody Characterization...Characterization of Two MS2 scFv Antibodies Produced by the University of Texas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  14. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.


    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  15. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.


    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  16. Element 115


    Forsberg, Ulrika


    This thesis is devoted to detailed studies of element 115 decay chains using the highly efficient multi-coincidence alpha, electron, gamma and X-ray detector setup TASISpec at the gas-filled separator TASCA at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. In a three-week long experiment thirty new decay chains assumed to stem from element 115 isotopes were observed together with the very first detections of gamma rays and potential X-rays from these nuclei. Paper I describes preparations in terms of optimisations...

  17. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 22, Number 2, DSMC 113. Repairing the DoD/Industry Partnership. March - April, 1993. (United States)


    programs in trouble were the excep- gether with the fact it has been 30 or tion, to the current environment where more years in the offing, make...this a programs not in trouble are the ex- formidable problem to attack. As we ....... "ception. "Not in trouble " equates to know. even the biggest of...superficial. This more recent in business. One day the second baker ever. if other commitments had been Personalit ’-Ethic focus was filled with asked the

  18. New magic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Kruecken, R


    The nuclear shell model is a benchmark for the description of the structure of atomic nuclei. The magic numbers associated with closed shells have long been assumed to be valid across the whole nuclear chart. Investigations in recent years of nuclei far away from nuclear stability at facilities for radioactive ion beams have revealed that the magic numbers may change locally in those exotic nuclei leading to the disappearance of classic shell gaps and the appearance of new magic numbers. These changes in shell structure also have important implications for the synthesis of heavy elements in stars and stellar explosions. In this review a brief overview of the basics of the nuclear shell model will be given together with a summary of recent theoretical and experimental activities investigating these changes in the nuclear shell structure.

  19. Addressing Achievement Gaps: School Finance and the Achievement Gap--Funding Programs That Work. Policy Notes. Volume 16, Number 3, Fall 2008 (United States)

    Yaffe, Deborah


    In education reform, money matters, but so does spending it wisely--on programs designed to meet the ambitious goal of helping low-income and minority children achieve at the same levels as their more affluent peers. The latest in the Educational Testing Service's (ETS's) series of symposia on Addressing Achievement Gaps brought researchers,…

  20. Learning in the Fast Lane: Adult Learners' Persistence and Success in Accelerated College Programs. New Agenda Series[TM]. Volume 4, Number 1. (United States)

    Wlodkowski, Raymond J.; Mauldin, Jennifer E.; Gahn, Sandra W.

    This report reviews a study to identify individual factors that affect adult learners' success and persistence in college programs. Part 1, a historical analysis, uses past records of students to analyze patterns of persistence and success. It examines how demographic variables relate to continuing enrollment, grade point average (GPA), and degree…

  1. Military and Veteran Families and Children: Policies and Programs for Health Maintenance and Positive Development. Social Policy Report. Volume 28, Number 3 (United States)

    Cozza, Stephen J.; Lerner, Richard M.; Haskins, Ron


    This "Social Policy Report" summarizes what is currently known about our nation's military children and families and presents ideas and proposals pertinent to the formulation of new programs and the policies that would create and sustain these initiatives. We emphasize the need for future rigorous developmental research about military…

  2. Advising Time Inventory: Consequences of the General College Individualized Baccalaureate Degree Program on Faculty Advising, Activities, and Academic Load. The General College Studies, Volume XV, Number 2. (United States)

    Hansen, Evelyn Unes

    In order to determine if the recently instituted, individualized baccalaureate (BA) degree program at General College had affected the time spent in, and the nature and scope of faculty advising, this study identified how much "real time" was spent by faculty in advising, with whom, and on what kinds of activities. During the winter quarter, 1978,…

  3. GeoGebra 3D from the perspectives of elementary pre-service mathematics teachers who are familiar with a number of software programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdal Baltaci


    Full Text Available Each new version of the GeoGebra dynamic mathematics software goes through updates and innovations. One of these innovations is the GeoGebra 5.0 version. This version aims to facilitate 3D instruction by offering opportunities for students to analyze 3D objects. While scanning the previous studies of GeoGebra 3D, it is seen that they mainly focus on the visualization of a problem in daily life and the dimensions of the evaluation of the process of problem solving with various variables. Therefore, this research problem was determined to reveal the opinions of pre-service elementary mathematics teachers who can use multiple software programs very well, about the usability of GeoGebra 3D. Compared to other studies conducted in this field, this study is thought to add a new dimension to the literature on GeoGebra 3D because the participants in the study had received training in using the Derive, Cabri, Cabri 3D, GeoGebra and GeoGebra 3D programs and had developed activities throughout their undergraduate programs and in some cases they were held responsible for those programs in their exams. In this research, we used the method of case study. The participants consisted of five elementary pre-service mathematics teachers who were enrolled in fourth year courses. We employed semi-structured interviews to collect data. It is concluded that pre-service elementary mathematics teachers expressed a great deal of opinions about the positive contribution of the GeoGebra 3D dynamic mathematics software.

  4. The Graduation Rates of Professional School Counselors in North Atlantic States: Numbers of Graduates from CACREP and Non-CACREP Programs (United States)

    Boes, Susan R.; Snow, Brent M.; Hancock, Mary; Chibbaro, Julie


    The need for well-trained school counselors is mandated both because of the types of 21st Century needs our school children bring to counselors as well as the numbers of school children that are on the case load of the majority of school counselors across the nation (Snow, et al., 2008; Boes, Snow, & Chibbaro, 2009). Developing similar curricula…

  5. National Dam Inspection Program. Ilion Reservoir Number 1 Dam (NY 00186), Mohawk River Basin, Town of German Flatts Herkimer County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report, (United States)


    Month, Day, Year . 5. Apparent use - 1. Fish 6 Wildlife Management 4. Power 2. Recreation 5. Farm 3. . Water Supply $• No Apparent Use 6. Type...the Jt Hater Board, supply the softening units. These units being three in . ’•"*- number-Permutit Manufacturer, using zeolite resin. This plant

  6. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan


    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  7. Reactor Materials Program - Baseline Material Property Handbook - Mechanical Properties of 1950's Vintage Stainless Steel Weldment Components, Task Number 89-23-A-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoner, K.J.


    The Process Water System (primary coolant) piping of the nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950''s at Savannah River Site is comprised primarily of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. A program to measure the mechanical properties of archival PWS piping and weld materials (having approximately six years of service at temperatures between 25 and 100 degrees C) has been completed. The results from the mechanical testing has been synthesized to provide a mechanical properties database for structural analyses of the SRS piping.

  8. Titan : A new facility for ultraclean sampling of trace elements and isotopes in the deep oceans in the international Geotraces program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baar, H.J.W.; Timmermans, K.R; Laan, P.; De Porto, H.H.; Ober, S.; Blom, J.J.; Bakker, M.C.; Schilling, J; Sarthou, G.; Smit, M. G.; Klunder, M


    Towards more rapid ultraclean sampling of deep ocean waters for trace elements, a novel rectangular frame was constructed of titanium, holding two rows of 12 samplers, as well as various sensors. The frame is deployed to deep ocean waters by an 8000 m length Kevlar wire with internal power and

  9. Finite element methods for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Fenner, Roger T


    This book is intended as a textbook providing a deliberately simple introduction to finite element methods in a way that should be readily understandable to engineers, both students and practising professionals. Only the very simplest elements are considered, mainly two dimensional three-noded “constant strain triangles”, with simple linear variation of the relevant variables. Chapters of the book deal with structural problems (beams), classification of a broad range of engineering into harmonic and biharmonic types, finite element analysis of harmonic problems, and finite element analysis of biharmonic problems (plane stress and plane strain). Full Fortran programs are listed and explained in detail, and a range of practical problems solved in the text. Despite being somewhat unfashionable for general programming purposes, the Fortran language remains very widely used in engineering. The programs listed, which were originally developed for use on mainframe computers, have been thoroughly updated for use ...

  10. Number Needed To… $ave? (United States)

    Rocker, Graeme M; Verma, Jennifer Y; Demmons, Jillian; Mittmann, Nicole


    The 'Number Needed to Treat' (NNT) is a useful measure for estimating the number of patients that would need to receive a therapeutic intervention to avoid one of the adverse events that the treatment is designed to prevent. We explored the possibility of an adaption of NNT to estimate the 'Number Needed to $ave' (NN$) as a new, conceptual systems metric to estimate potential cost-savings to the health system from implementation of a treatment, or in this case, a program. We used the outcomes of the INSPIRED COPD Outreach ProgramTM to calculate that 26 patients would need to complete the program to avoid healthcare expenditures of $100,000, based on hospital bed days avoided. The NN$ does not translate into 'cost savings' per se, but redirection of resource expenditures for other purposes. We propose that the NN$ metric, if further developed, could help to inform system-level resource allocation decisions in a manner similar to the way that the NNT metric helps to inform individual-level treatment decisions.

  11. Progress report on the scientific investigation program for the Nevada Yucca Mountain Site, October 1, 1991--March 31, 1992, Number 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In accordance with the requirements of section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992. This report is the sixth in a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not officially part of site characterization. Information on these activities is provided in order to fully integrate all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  12. Small Business: Action Needed to Determine Whether DOD’s Comprehensive Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be Made Permanent (United States)


    SMALL BUSINESS Action Needed to Determine Whether DOD’s Comprehensive Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be... Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be Made Permanent 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...committees November 2015 SMALL BUSINESS Action Needed to Determine Whether DOD’s Comprehensive Subcontracting Plan Test Program Should Be Made

  13. Identifying and Leveraging Trust as a Key Element in the Development, Implementation and Sustainment of the Salt Lake City Fire Department’s Intelligence Program (United States)


    Disentanglement and Protest Deterrence Training, which consisted of didactic and tactical training programs and had built several working relationships with...This program also includes joint training, both didactic and tactile, taking this network development to a higher level by improving the mutual...the book , From Good to Great, Jim Collins wrote a chapter called, First Who…Then What.152 The significant finding of his research on the core of

  14. Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform (United States)


    mêçÅÉÉÇáåÖë= çÑ=íÜÉ= bfdeqe=^kkr^i=^`nrfpfqflk== obpb^o`e=pvjmlpfrj== qeropa^v=pbppflkp== slirjb ff Developing Program Management Leadership for...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Developing Program  Management   Leadership   for Acquisition Reform    The 8th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Panel #20: Investing in People

  15. A finite element method with a high order L{sup 2} decomposition devoted to the simulation of diphasic low Mach number flows; Une methode elements finis a decomposition L{sup 2} d'ordre eleve motivee par la simulation d'ecoulement diphasique bas mach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, T


    This work deals with the discretization of Navier-Stokes equations using different finite element methods adapted to the problem of two-phase flows. These methods must be of high order to limit the presence of spurious flows (which contradict the establishment of a physical equilibrium) and to verify energy conservation properties. Several solutions are proposed which seem to fulfill these expectations. A reformulation of the six-equation system adapted to low Mach two-phase flows has been also proposed. These methods have been implemented into the Trio-U code of CEA Grenoble, but have been tested only on simple 'academic' configurations. (J.S.)

  16. Chemical experiments with superheavy elements. (United States)

    Türler, Andreas


    Unnoticed by many chemists, the Periodic Table of the Elements has been extended significantly in the last couple of years and the 7th period has very recently been completed with eka-Rn (element 118) currently being the heaviest element whose synthesis has been reported. These 'superheavy' elements (also called transactinides with atomic number > or = 104 (Rf)) have been artificially synthesized in fusion reactions at accelerators in minute quantities of a few single atoms. In addition, all isotopes of the transactinide elements are radioactive and decay with rather short half-lives. Nevertheless, it has been possible in some cases to investigate experimentally chemical properties of transactinide elements and even synthesize simple compounds. The experimental investigation of superheavy elements is especially intriguing, since theoretical calculations predict significant deviations from periodic trends due to the influence of strong relativistic effects. In this contribution first experiments with hassium (Hs, atomic number 108), copernicium (Cn, atomic number 112) and element 114 (eka-Pb) are reviewed.

  17. The VERCORS safety program, source term analytical study with special emphasis on the release of non volatile fission products and transuranic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducros, G.; Andre, B.; Tourasse, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Maro, D. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire


    This document is not a true report but the succession of transparencies listing the main titles of subjects that have been developed in oral form at CSARP Meeting. The main interest of the document is in large computer designed figures. The subject is the VERCORS program (which extends the HEVA experimental program) devoted to the determination of the source term of fission products released from PWR fuel samples during a severe accident sequence. The experiment is performed in a shielded hot cell at CEA Grenoble plant. Measurements aimed at characterizing fission products releases and structural materials as a function of fuel temperature and oxidising / reducing conditions of the environment. (author).

  18. Error-controlled adaptive finite elements in solid mechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stein, Erwin; Ramm, E


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Error-controlled Adaptive Finite-element-methods . . . . . . . . . . . . Missing Features and Properties of Today's General Purpose FE Programs for Structural...

  19. Epidemiology and trace elements. (United States)

    Elwood, P C


    Basically, epidemiology is the making of measurements of known reproducibility, in a bias-free manner, on representative samples of subjects drawn from defined communities. Epidemiology has become a relatively precise science and its value in medicine is widely appreciated. So too are its limitations: the difficulties in achieving a high response rate, in identifying and controlling confounding factors in the examination of an association, and the ultimate difficulties in distinguishing causation from association. While the value of community-based studies seems to be recognized by those interested in man and his environment, the need for the strict application of epidemiological procedures, and the limitations imposed on conclusions drawn from studies in which these procedures have been compromised, does not seem to be adequately understood. There are certain known links between trace elements in the environment and disease: for example the level of iodine in soil and water and the prevalence of goitre; the level of fluoride in water and the prevalence of dental caries. The investigation of other possible associations is difficult for a number of reasons, including interrelationships between trace elements, confounding of trace element levels (and disease) with social and dietary factors, and the probability that relationships are generally weak. Two conditions in which associations are likely are cardiovascular disease and cancer. Despite research along a number of lines, the relevance of trace elements to cardiovascular disease is not clear, and certainly the apparent association with hardness of domestic water supply seems unlikely to be causal. The same general conclusion seems reasonable for cancer, and although there are a very few well established associations which are likely to be causal, such as exposure to arsenic and skin cancer, the role of trace elements is obscure, and likely to be very small.

  20. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)


    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  1. Are All Program Elements Created Equal? Relations Between Specific Social and Emotional Learning Components and Teacher-Student Classroom Interaction Quality. (United States)

    Abry, Tashia; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Curby, Timothy W


    School-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are presented to educators with little understanding of the program components that have the greatest leverage for improving targeted outcomes. Conducted in the context of a randomized controlled trial, the present study used variation in treatment teachers' (N = 143) implementation of four core components of the Responsive Classroom approach to examine relations between each component and the quality of teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (controlling for pre-intervention interaction quality and other covariates). We also examined the extent to which these relations varied as a function of teachers' baseline levels of interaction quality. Indices of teachers' implementation of Morning Meeting, Rule Creation, Interactive Modeling, and Academic Choice were derived from a combination of teacher-reported surveys and classroom observations. Ratings of teacher-student classroom interactions were aggregated across five observations conducted throughout the school year. Structural path models indicated that teachers' use of Morning Meeting and Academic Choice related to higher levels of emotionally supportive interactions; Academic Choice also related to higher levels of instructional interactions. In addition, teachers' baseline interaction quality moderated several associations such that the strongest relations between RC component use and interaction quality emerged for teachers with the lowest baseline interaction quality. Results highlight the value of examining individual program components toward the identification of program active ingredients that can inform intervention optimization and teacher professional development.

  2. An adaptive compilation framework for generic data-parallel array programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; van Deurzen, T.; Herhut, S.; Scholz, S.-B.; Hanus, M.; Reck., F.


    Generic array programming abstracts from structural properties of arrays, such as rank (number of axes/dimensions) and shape (number of element along each axis/dimension). This allows for abstract program specifications and, as such, is desirable from a software engineering perspective. However,


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it

  4. Intelligent Elements for ISHM (United States)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca


    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  5. Teaching Explicitly and Reflecting on Elements of Nature of Science: a Discourse-Focused Professional Development Program with Four Fifth-Grade Teachers (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Plakitsi, Katerina; Seroglou, Fanny; Papantoniou, Georgia


    The nature of science (NOS) has become a central goal of science education in many countries. This study refers to a developmental work research program, in which four fifth-grade elementary in-service teachers participated. It aimed to improve their understandings of NOS and their abilities to teach it effectively to their students. The 1-year-long, 2012-2013, program consisted of a series of activities to support teachers to develop their pedagogical content knowledge of NOS. In order to accomplish our goal, we enabled teacher-researchers to analyze their own discourse practices and to trace evidence of effective NOS teaching. Many studies indicate the importance of examining teachers' discussions about science in the classroom, since it is teachers' understanding of NOS reflected in these discussions that will have a vital impact on students' learning. Our proposal is based on the assumption that reflecting on the ways people form meanings enables us to examine and seek alternative ways to communicate aspects of NOS during science lessons. The analysis of discourse data, which has been carried out with the teacher-researchers' active participation, indicated that initially only a few aspects of NOS were implicitly incorporated in teacher-researchers' instruction. As the program evolved, all teacher-researchers presented more informed views on targeted NOS aspects. On the whole, our discourse-focused professional development program with its participatory, explicit, and reflective character indicated the importance of involving teacher-researchers in analyzing their own talk. It is this involvement that results in obtaining a valuable awareness of aspects concerning pedagogical content knowledge of NOS teaching.

  6. Comparisons of node-based and element-based approaches of assigning bone material properties onto subject-specific finite element models. (United States)

    Chen, G; Wu, F Y; Liu, Z C; Yang, K; Cui, F


    Subject-specific finite element (FE) models can be generated from computed tomography (CT) datasets of a bone. A key step is assigning material properties automatically onto finite element models, which remains a great challenge. This paper proposes a node-based assignment approach and also compares it with the element-based approach in the literature. Both approaches were implemented using ABAQUS. The assignment procedure is divided into two steps: generating the data file of the image intensity of a bone in a MATLAB program and reading the data file into ABAQUS via user subroutines. The node-based approach assigns the material properties to each node of the finite element mesh, while the element-based approach assigns the material properties directly to each integration point of an element. Both approaches are independent from the type of elements. A number of FE meshes are tested and both give accurate solutions; comparatively the node-based approach involves less programming effort. The node-based approach is also independent from the type of analyses; it has been tested on the nonlinear analysis of a Sawbone femur. The node-based approach substantially improves the level of automation of the assignment procedure of bone material properties. It is the simplest and most powerful approach that is applicable to many types of analyses and elements. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of competition program "Аcrobatics" of skilled athletes in acrobatic rock and roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batieieva N.P.


    Full Text Available Reviewed and analyzed the results of the strongest performances of dancing couples in acrobatic rock and roll category "M-class", the competition rules of the World rock 'n' roll confederation. A comparative analysis on the requirements to perform acrobatic competition program "Acrobatics". Selected a number of acrobatic elements that make up the structure of competitive acrobatic programs. Found that a number of sports pairs allow technical errors (involuntary distortion performance techniques acrobatic element when performing acrobatic elements. Proposed grading scale acrobatic elements of the program, using methodical and special terms "related" sports. The recommendations to judges, coaches on the cost of each acrobatic element in assessing and compiling competitive program.

  8. Sand Fly Surveillance and Control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as Part of a Leishmaniasis Control Program (United States)


    Vol. 38, no. 2 Journal of Vector Ecology 411 Scientific Note Sand fly surveillance and control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as part of a leishmaniasis ...following the 2003 invasion experienced serious risk of infection by several vector-borne pathogens, specifically cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis part of a leishmaniasis control program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  9. PArthENoPE: Public Algorithm Evaluating the Nucleosynthesis of Primordial Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisanti, O.; Cirillo, A.; Esposito, S.; Iocco, F.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Serpico, P.D.


    We describe a program for computing the abundances of light elements produced during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is publicly available at Starting from nuclear statistical equilibrium conditions the program solves the set of coupled ordinary differential equations, follows the departure from chemical equilibrium of nuclear species, and determines their asymptotic abundances as function of several input cosmological parameters as the baryon density, the number of effective neutrino, the value of cosmological constant and the neutrino chemical potential.

  10. Alloying Characteristics of the Rare Earth Elements with the Transition Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elliott, Rodney


    The alloying characteristics of the rare earth elements with the transition metals undergo a radical change as the atomic number of the transition series increases - - transition elements in Groups...

  11. Framed primal elements


    Debongnie, Jean-François


    Framed primal finite elements may be viewed as a generalized class of elements including conforming elements, primal hybrids, and non concorming elements passing the patch test. This systematization is illustrated on a lot of examples.

  12. Constraints in Genetic Programming (United States)

    Janikow, Cezary Z.


    Genetic programming refers to a class of genetic algorithms utilizing generic representation in the form of program trees. For a particular application, one needs to provide the set of functions, whose compositions determine the space of program structures being evolved, and the set of terminals, which determine the space of specific instances of those programs. The algorithm searches the space for the best program for a given problem, applying evolutionary mechanisms borrowed from nature. Genetic algorithms have shown great capabilities in approximately solving optimization problems which could not be approximated or solved with other methods. Genetic programming extends their capabilities to deal with a broader variety of problems. However, it also extends the size of the search space, which often becomes too large to be effectively searched even by evolutionary methods. Therefore, our objective is to utilize problem constraints, if such can be identified, to restrict this space. In this publication, we propose a generic constraint specification language, powerful enough for a broad class of problem constraints. This language has two elements -- one reduces only the number of program instances, the other reduces both the space of program structures as well as their instances. With this language, we define the minimal set of complete constraints, and a set of operators guaranteeing offspring validity from valid parents. We also show that these operators are not less efficient than the standard genetic programming operators if one preprocesses the constraints - the necessary mechanisms are identified.

  13. Development of a quality assurance program for ionizing radiation secondary calibration laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, H.T. II; Taylor, A.R. Jr. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)


    For calibration laboratories, routine calibrations of instruments meeting stated accuracy goals are important. One method of achieving the accuracy goals is to establish and follow a quality assurance program designed to monitor all aspects of the calibration program and to provide the appropriate feedback mechanism if adjustments are needed. In the United States there are a number of organizations with laboratory accreditation programs. All existing accreditation programs require that the laboratory implement a quality assurance program with essentially the same elements in all of these programs. Collectively, these elements have been designated as a Measurement Quality Assurance (MQA) program. This paper will briefly discuss the interrelationship of the elements of an MQA program. Using the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) as an example, it will focus on setting up a quality control program for the equipment in a Secondary Calibration Laboratory.

  14. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality. (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen


    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  15. Photon mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3) where fi = (ni/ ∑j nj) and Zi are the fractional abundance and atomic number respectively of the constituent element. Here, ni is the total number of atoms of the constituent element and ∑j nj are the total number of atoms of all types present in the compound as per its chemical formula. The effective atomic number, Zeff,.

  16. Finite Element Modeling of the Skew Rolling Process (United States)

    He, Ming; Sawamiphakdi, Krich; Perez, Anthony J.; Daiger, Kevin P.


    A helical skew rolling process is a continuous hot forming process that produces near net-shape parts from tubing for hard turning or machining to the finished parts. The process can challenge forging processes in a number of applications by its high production rate and ability of forming intricate geometry. Because of its technical complexity, a number of tests have to be performed to improve and validate the design before a part can be put into production. To reduce the design lead-time and cost as well as improving the production quality, developing and implementing the finite element analysis procedures in design is an inevitable step. In literature, it has not been seen that the numerical simulation is applied to the skew rolling process so far. Simulation of the skew rolling is in a complicated three-dimensional metal large-deformation category, characterized by its severe mesh distortion and consistent contact and separation between the workpiece and dies. This paper describes the new development in finite element modeling of the skew rolling process and demonstrates the application of finite element modeling to aid the design of tooling and process parameters. By the use of the DEFORM-3D finite element program, the simulations can predict the geometry and some defects in parts reasonably well agreed with the actual products. However, one of the key issues is simulation time due to the nature of the nonlinear finite element method and the Lagrangian formulation adopted in the DEFORM-3D program. Solving nonlinear algebraic equations in each time step combined with iterative procedures is very computationally demanding and time consuming. Repeatedly reduction in time step size to satisfy the contact criterion prolongs the simulation significantly. Therefore, the improvement in the finite element theories and solving methods is necessary before the simulation can achieve reasonable timing.

  17. The effects of land use on fluvial sediment chemistry for the conterminous U.S. - Results from the first cycle of the NAWQA Program: Trace and major elements, phosphorus, carbon, and sulfur (United States)

    Horowitz, A.J.; Stephens, V.C.


    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began the first cycle of its National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The Program encompassed 51 river basins that collectively accounted for more than 70% of the total water use (excluding power generation), and 50% of the drinking water supply in the U.S. The basins represented a variety of hydrologic settings, rock types (geology), land-use categories, and population densities. One aspect of the first cycle included bed sediment sampling; sites were chosen to represent baseline and important land-use categories (e.g., agriculture, urban) in each basin. In total, over 1200 bed sediment samples were collected. All samples were size-limited (< 63????m) to facilitate spatial and/or temporal comparisons, and subsequently analyzed for a variety of chemical constituents including major (e.g., Fe, Al,) and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Cd), nutrients (e.g., P), and carbon. The analyses yielded total (??? 95% of the concentrations present), rather than total-recoverable chemical data. Land-use percentages, upstream underlying geology, and population density were determined for each site and evaluated to asses their relative influence on sediment chemistry. Baseline concentrations for the entire U.S. also were generated from a subset of all the samples, and are based on material collected from low population (??? 27??p km- 2) density, low percent urban (??? 5%), agricultural or undeveloped areas. The NAWQA baseline values are similar to those found in other national and global datasets. Further, it appears that upstream/underlying rock type has only a limited effect (mostly major elements) on sediment chemistry. The only land-use category that appears to substantially affect sediment chemistry is percent urban, and this result is mirrored by population density; in fact, the latter appears more consistent than the former.

  18. Investigative Journalism Techniques. Evaluation Guide Number 6. (United States)

    St. John, Mark

    Noting that program evaluators can profit by adopting the investigative journalist's goal of discovering hidden information, this guide explores the journalist's investigative process--without its element of suspicion--and discusses how components of this process can be applied to program evaluation. After listing the major characteristics of the…

  19. Green's Functions and Finite Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Friedel


    This book elucidates how Finite Element methods look like from the perspective of Green’s functions, and shows new insights into the mathematical theory of Finite Elements. Practically, this new view on Finite Elements enables the reader to better assess solutions of standard programs and to find better model of a given problem. The book systematically introduces the basic concepts how Finite Elements fulfill the strategy of Green’s functions  and how approximating of Green’s functions. It discusses in detail the discretization error and shows that are coherent with the strategy of “goal oriented refinement”. The book also gives much attention to the dependencies of FE solutions from the parameter set of the model.

  20. Magic Numbers in Protein Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Bohr, Henrik


    A homology measure for protein fold classes has been constructed by locally projecting consecutive secondary structures onto a lattice. Taking into account hydrophobic forces we have found a mechanism for formation of domains containing magic numbers of secondary structures and multipla...... of these domains. We have performed a statistical analysis of available protein structures and found agreement with the predicted preferred abundances. Furthermore, a connection between sequence information and fold classes is established in terms of hinge forces between the structural elements....

  1. On the number of matroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bansal (Nikhil); R. Pendavingh; J.G. van der Pol (Jorn)


    htmlabstractWe consider the problem of determining mn, the number of matroids on n elements. The best known lower bound on mn is due to Knuth (1974) who showed that log log mn is at least n− 3 2 log n−O(1). On the other hand, Piff (1973) showed that log log mn ≤ n − log n + log log n + O(1),

  2. Trace Elements in River Waters (United States)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.


    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  3. Names of the Heavier Elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of. Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) to look into the problem of pri ori ty of discovery of the elements with nuclear charge number. Z > 100. The two Unions selected the members of the group consisting of nine scientists in nuclear physics and chemistry in. 1987.

  4. Presidential elements in government: introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reestman, J.H.


    The editorial board of the European Constitutional Law Review has solicited a number of contributions on presidential elements in government systems in Europe. At the origin of the project are some recent sweeping interventions of heads of state in the political arena. These are notably the

  5. Children, everyday numbers and school numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Maria Ignatius Nogueira


    Full Text Available Relationship made by school children between “daily” numbers, or rather, numbers deployed outside the school, and numbers worked out in school under various circumstances, or rather, orally and in writing, is investigated. Analysis has been undertaken with ten six-year-old children by means of a clinical and critical method. Research results show that children interact with the environment and recognized the figures, name them, conjecture on their written mode and give coherent meaning to the figures. Analysis also demonstrates that children use numbers outside the school. They understand and exemplify the number’s different meanings in an out-class context. Since the children do not give a weighty meaning to “school” numbers, pedagogical activity with numbers fails to put into practice the recommendations of the official policy.

  6. The CEBAF Element Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce


    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  7. ANSYS mechanical APDL for finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn


    ANSYS Mechanical APDL for Finite Element Analysis provides a hands-on introduction to engineering analysis using one of the most powerful commercial general purposes finite element programs on the market. Students will find a practical and integrated approach that combines finite element theory with best practices for developing, verifying, validating and interpreting the results of finite element models, while engineering professionals will appreciate the deep insight presented on the program's structure and behavior. Additional topics covered include an introduction to commands, input files, batch processing, and other advanced features in ANSYS. The book is written in a lecture/lab style, and each topic is supported by examples, exercises and suggestions for additional readings in the program documentation. Exercises gradually increase in difficulty and complexity, helping readers quickly gain confidence to independently use the program. This provides a solid foundation on which to build, preparing readers...

  8. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating a...

  9. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A project...

  10. Numbers Defy the Law of Large Numbers (United States)

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie


    As the number of independent tosses of a fair coin grows, the rates of heads and tails tend to equality. This is misinterpreted by many students as being true also for the absolute numbers of the two outcomes, which, conversely, depart unboundedly from each other in the process. Eradicating that misconception, as by coin-tossing experiments,…

  11. The Magic of a Number System (United States)

    Elmasry, Amr; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    We introduce a new number system that supports increments with a constant number of digit changes. We also give a simple method that extends any number system supporting increments to support decrements using the same number of digit changes. In the new number system the weight of the ith digit is 2 i - 1, and hence we can implement a priority queue as a forest of heap-ordered complete binary trees. The resulting data structure guarantees O(1) worst-case cost per insert and O(lg{n}) worst-case cost per delete, where n is the number of elements stored.

  12. Trace Elements and Residual Elements in Superalloys, (United States)

    Trace elements , *Superalloys, Impurities, Nickel alloys, Refining, Refractory materials, Gases, Residuals, Porosity, Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Segregation(Metallurgy), Auger electron spectroscopy, Fracture(Mechanics), Symposia

  13. Different Brains Process Numbers Differently: Structural Bases of Individual Differences in Spatial and Nonspatial Number Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, F.; Lindemann, O.; Toni, I.; Bekkering, H.


    A dominant hypothesis on how the brain processes numerical size proposes a spatial representation of numbers as positions on a "mental number line." An alternative hypothesis considers numbers as elements of a generalized representation of sensorimotor-related magnitude, which is not obligatorily

  14. Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Menninger, Karl


    Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.

  15. The effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years diagnosed with asthma: a systematic review protocol. (United States)

    Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne


    The objective of this review is to identify the best available quantitative evidence related to the effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to18 years with a diagnosis of asthma. Asthma is a serious public health issue globally and nationally. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Asthma Report 2014 estimates that 334 million people worldwide currently suffer from asthma. In the United States, asthma currently affects about 25 million people. Although asthma can occur at any age, it most often begins early in life, and is the most common non-communicable disease among children. Approximately 14% of the world's children have asthma. In the United States, 7.1 million children have asthma. Globally, the burden of asthma, measured by disability and premature death, is greatest in children approaching adolescence (ages 10-14). Asthma is also a serious economic concern in primary health care worldwide. In the United States, the estimated total cost of asthma to society was US$56 billion in 2007, or US$3259 per person. In 2008 asthma caused 10.5 million missed days from school and 14.2 missed days from work for caregivers. The estimated total cost of loss of productivity resulting from missed school or work days is US$3.8 billion per year, and premature death US$2.1 billion per year. Globally, asthma ranks 14 in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs), which are the number of years lost to ill health, disability or death attributed to asthma. According to a 2011 European study, the estimated total cost of asthma was €19.3 billion among people aged 15 to 64 years. A study conducted in the Asia-Pacific region reported that the direct and indirect costs of asthma per person ranged from US$184 in Vietnam to US$1189in Hong Kong in 2000. A Canadian study showed that C$184 loss of productivity during one week was attributed to asthma in 2012. In Australia, AU

  16. Thorium utilization program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending February 28, 1977. [Fuel element crushing, burning; particle classification; solvent extraction; dry solids handling; plant management; HET fuel shipping; HTGR recycle demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    General Atomic Thorium Utilization Program activities progressed on schedule during the quarter, with continuation of the head-end reprocessing equipment testing program. Individual testing of the tertiary, oversize crushers and the screener was completed. Preparation of the equipment for testing as a system is under way. Tests on the tertiary crusher revealed no operating problems. No material holdup areas or bypass of the crushing cavity were detected. The initial issue of a functional level diagram for the Fuel Element Size Reduction System has been prepared for preliminary review. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated from data obtained in six 0.40-m primary burner heatup runs. Six runs were made on the 0.20-m primary burner. Other significant 0.20-m burner work included fabrication and initial testing of an electrical resistance probe bed level sensor and preliminary heat transfer design calculations for determining the cooling requirements to maintain the recycling fines cyclone exit temperature at approximately 500/sup 0/C. The conceptual design of the engineering-scale dissolver-centrifuge for incorporation into the head-end line was completed. Three solvent extraction feed adjustment runs were completed. Two of the runs were representative of the continuous intercycle concentration step. The other run was a continuous operation which utilized leacher product as feed. Progress with dry solids handling component and system testing continues. Efforts were focused on completion of the HET fuel shipping conceptual design report, development of detailed costs, and identification of all system interfaces. The Reprocessing Flowsheet Review and Materials Balance Study of reprocessing head-end and off-gas treatment systems is in technical review.

  17. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias


    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  18. Behaviour of Lagrangian triangular mixed fluid finite elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    insufficient degrees of freedom available in these elements to satisfy the twin constraints. Note that the number of constraints an element has to satisfy is proportional to the number of integration points used to numerically evaluate the stiffness matrix. However, in the case of quadratic triangular fluid elements, it was shown ...

  19. Economic optimization of the number of recipients in bovine embryo transfer programs Otimização econômica do número de receptoras em programas de transferência de embriões em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Travassos Beltrame


    Full Text Available Purchase and maintenance of recipient females account for a large proportion of the costs and determine the number of calves that can be produced in an embryo transfer program. However, the large variability of embryo production by the donors and the need to purchase and synchronize the recipients before knowing the number of embryos collected make it difficult for the decision maker to identify the ideal number of recipient females to allocate. An ex-ante evaluation to determine the optimal number of recipient females was carried out through a sensitivity analysis for the ratio between the number of recipients and donors in a simulation model. The variability for the number of embryos collected was accounted for by applying the Monte Carlo simulation technique, assuming normal distribution and known values for mean and variance. The simulation considered monthly intervals between collections, during a 24 months program. The effect of embryo freezing on the number of pregnancies was considered by introducing a stock of frozen embryos into the mathematical model. Optimal recipient/donor ratio and the cost per pregnancy were compared for three recipient synchronization protocols (prostaglandin, progesterone - P4 and Ovsynch, based on the expected performance for synchronization, conception and transfer/treated rates for each protocol. Stochastic simulation associated with sensitivity analysis was effective in identifying the optimal donor to recipient ratio. Freezing embryos is effective to reduce the operational costs per pregnancy. The estimated optimal recipient/donor ratio was 20 for prostaglandin and 16.7 for the other protocols. The P4 protocol, although the most expensive, resulted in the lowest pregnancy cost estimation followed by prostaglandin and Ovsynch.A aquisição e manutenção de receptoras representam grande proporção dos custos e determinam o número de produtos gerados em um programa de transferência de embriões. Entretanto

  20. Smoothed analysis of complex conic condition numbers


    Buergisser, Peter; Cucker, Felipe; Lotz, Martin


    Smoothed analysis of complexity bounds and condition numbers has been done, so far, on a case by case basis. In this paper we consider a reasonably large class of condition numbers for problems over the complex numbers and we obtain smoothed analysis estimates for elements in this class depending only on geometric invariants of the corresponding sets of ill-posed inputs. These estimates are for a version of smoothed analysis proposed in this paper which, to the best of our knowledge, appears ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 3, 2012 ... (or system) in the sense that the behavior at discrete number of ... squares method can be used in deriving the element equation. Whichever formulation approach is used, the result- ing element equation are solved using appropriate ma- trix solvers .... symmetric stiffness matrix, but also the non-essential.

  2. An Overview of State Policies Supporting Worksite Health Promotion Programs. (United States)

    VanderVeur, Jennifer; Gilchrist, Siobhan; Matson-Koffman, Dyann


    Worksite health promotion (WHP) programs can reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular disease risk factors. State law can encourage employers and employer-provided insurance companies to offer comprehensive WHP programs. This research examines state law authorizing WHP programs. Quantitative content analysis. Worksites or workplaces. United States (and the District of Columbia). State law in effect in 2013 authorizing WHP programs. Frequency and distribution of states with WHP laws. To determine the content of the laws for analysis and coding, we identified 18 policy elements, 12 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Worksite Health ScoreCard (HSC) and 6 additional supportive WHP strategies. We used these strategies as key words to search for laws authorizing WHP programs or select WHP elements. We calculated the number and type of WHP elements for each state with WHP laws and selected two case examples from states with comprehensive WHP laws. Twenty-four states authorized onsite WHP programs, 29 authorized WHP through employer-provided insurance plans, and 18 authorized both. Seven states had a comprehensive WHP strategy, addressing 8 or more of 12 HSC elements. The most common HSC elements were weight management, tobacco cessation, and physical activity. Most states had laws encouraging the adoption of WHP programs. Massachusetts and Maine are implementing comprehensive WHP laws but studies evaluating their health impact are needed.

  3. Communications Stylebook: Graphics Guide: Anchor Elements (United States)

    Certain elements must be displayed on the covers of all documents distributed to the public. These include an acceptable Agency identifier, such as the logo, the assigned publication number, and the EPA portal address.

  4. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David


    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  5. Tropical Real Hurwitz numbers


    Markwig, Hannah; Rau, Johannes


    In this paper, we define tropical analogues of real Hurwitz numbers, i.e. numbers of covers of surfaces with compatible involutions satisfying prescribed ramification properties. We prove a correspondence theorem stating the equality of the tropical numbers with their real counterparts. We apply this theorem to the case of double Hurwitz numbers (which generalizes our result from arXiv:1409.8095).

  6. Laser program annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, L.W.; Strack, J.R. (eds.)


    This volume provides a program overview, presenting highlights of the technical accomplishments of the elements of the program, as well as discussions of program resources and facilities. Also covered are the work of the Solid-State Laser program element, which includes systems operations, Nova, and research and development activities. (MOW)

  7. Evaluating Number Sense in Workforce Students (United States)

    Steinke, Dorothea A.


    Earlier institution-sponsored research revealed that about 20% of students in community college basic math and pre-algebra programs lacked a sense of part-whole relationships with whole numbers. Using the same tool with a group of 86 workforce students, about 75% placed five whole numbers on an empty number line in a way that indicated lack of…

  8. Ecosystem element transport model for Lake Eckarfjaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, L.; Bradshaw, C. [The Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University (Sweden); Andersson, E.; Kautsky, U. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. - SKB (Sweden)


    The ecosystem transport model of elements was developed for Lake Eckarfjaerden located in the Forsmark area in Sweden. Forsmark has currently a low level repository (SFR) and a repository for spent fuel is planned. A large number of data collected during site-investigation program 2002-2009 for planning the repository were available for the creation of the compartment model based on carbon circulation, physical and biological processes (e.g. primary production, consumption, respiration). The model is site-specific in the sense that the food web model is adapted to the actual food web at the site, and most estimates of biomass and metabolic rates for the organisms and meteorological data originate from site data. The functional organism groups of Lake Eckarfjaerden were considered as separate compartments: bacterio-plankton, benthic bacteria, macro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, benthic fauna. Two functional groups of bacteria were taken into account for the reason that they have the highest biomass of all functional groups during the winter, comprising 36% of the total biomass. Effects of ecological parameters, such as bacteria and algae biomass, on redistribution of a hypothetical radionuclide release in the lake were examined. The ecosystem model was used to estimate the environmental transfer of several elements (U, Th, Ra) and their isotopes (U-238, U-234,Th-232, Ra-226) to various aquatic organisms in the lake, using element-specific distribution coefficients for suspended particle and sediment. Results of chemical analyses of the water, sediment and biota were used for model validation. The model gives estimates of concentration factors for fish based on modelling rather on in situ measurement, which reduces the uncertainties for many radionuclides with scarce of data. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  9. Fatigue Damage Accumulation Under Quasi-Random Loading of Composite Airframe Elements (United States)

    Strizhius, V.


    To perform engineering estimations of the fatigue life of quasi-randomly loaded layered composites, with geometric concentrators, representing the longitudinal elements of composite wing of a transport airplane, a special rule of fatigue damage accumulation is suggested. The main propositions of the method for calculating the fatigue life of these elements by using this rule are formulated. The examples of estimations presented show a good agreement between analytical results and experimental data. A number of important conclusions about the effect of different levels of cyclic loading and "GAG" cycles of different flight types of the quasi-random "TWIST" program on the total fatigue life are made.

  10. Fractal Two-Level Finite Element Method For Free Vibration of Cracked Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y.T. Leung


    Full Text Available The fractal two-level finite element method is extended to the free vibration behavior of cracked beams for various end boundary conditions. A cracked beam is separated into its singular and regular regions. Within the singular region, infinite number of finite elements are virturally generated by fractal geometry to model the singular behavior of the crack tip. The corresponding numerous degrees of freedom are reduced to a small set of generalized displacements by fractal transformation technique. The solution time and computer storage can be remarkably reduced without sacrifying accuracy. The resonant frequencies and mode shapes computed compared well with the results from a commercial program.

  11. Using Technology to Expand and Enhance Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families (United States)


    C. T. (2007). Predictors of depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of young children with or at risk for developmental delay. Journal of...Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wayne Fisher, Ph.D... Autism in Military Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0444 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Wayne W. Fisher

  12. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Frazer


    The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...

  13. Trace Elements and Health (United States)

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.


    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  14. Data Element Registry Services (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  15. p-adic numbers


    Grešak, Rozalija


    The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...

  16. Safety-in-numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel


    Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known.......Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....

  17. Structured Analysis: Review of ILS Element E13 Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (United States)



  18. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We now apply the theory of the Thue equation to obtain an effective bound on m. Indeed, by Lemma 3.2, we can write m2 = ba3 and m2 − 4 = cd3 with b, c cubefree. By the above, both b, c are bounded since they are cubefree and all their prime factors are less than e63727. Now we have a finite number of. Thue equations:.


    Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.


    A boron-10 containing reactor control element wherein the boron-10 is dispersed in a matrix material is describeri. The concentration of boron-10 in the matrix varies transversely across the element from a minimum at the surface to a maximum at the center of the element, prior to exposure to neutrons. (AEC)

  20. GOMA - A full-Newton finite element program for free and moving boundary problems with coupled fluid/solid momentum, energy, mass, and chemical species transport: User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, P.R.; Sackinger, P.A.; Rao, R.R. [and others


    GOMA is a two- and three-dimensional finite element program which excels in analyses of manufacturing processes, particularly those involving free or moving interfaces. Specifically, the full-Newton-coupled heat, mass, momentum, and pseudo-solid mesh motion algorithm makes GOMA ideally suited for simulating processes in which the bulk fluid transport is closely coupled to the interfacial physics. Examples include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, soldering, crystal growth, and solid-network or solution film drying. The code is based on the premise that any boundary can be (1) moving or free, with an apriori unknown position dictated by the distinguishing physics, (2) fixed, according to a global analytical representation, or (3) moving in time and space under user-prescribed kinematics. The goal is to enable the user to predict boundary position or motion simultaneously with the physics of the problem being analyzed and to pursue geometrical design studies and fluid-structure interaction problems. The moving mesh algorithm treats the entire domain as a computational Lagrangian solid that deforms subject to the physical principles which dictate boundary position. As an added benefit, the same Lagrangian solid mechanics can be exploited to solve multi-field problems for which the solid motion and stresses interact with other transport phenomena, either within the same material phase (e.g. shrinking coating) or in neighboring material phases (e.g. flexible blade coating). Thus, analyses of many fluid-structure interaction problems and deformable porous media problems are accessible. This document serves as a user`s guide and reference for GOMA and provides a brief overview of GOMA`s capabilities, theoretical background, and classes of problems for which it is targeted.

  1. Making decisions from numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, E.


    Regulatory agencies require numbers to provide health protection. The manner in which these numbers are derived from animal experiments and human epidemiology is considered together with the limitations and inadequacies of these numbers. Some recent examples of risk assessment in Canada are given including asbestos, drinking water, and indoor air quality. The value of these numbers in providing a measure of the hazard in a wider perspective is stressed, although they can never be the sole determinant of public policy.

  2. Clinical effect of fuzzy numbers based on center of gravity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 5, 2011 ... Key words: Fuzzy number, defuzzification, centroid, clinical research. INTRODUCTION. Since Jain, Dubis and Prade (Dubios et al., 1987) introduced the relevant concepts of fuzzy numbers, in classical set theory, an element either belongs to a set or it does not. In other words, the status of the element.

  3. Survey on fusible numbers


    Xu, Junyan


    We point out that the recursive formula that appears in Erickson's presentation "Fusible Numbers" is incorrect, and pose an alternate conjecture about the structure of fusible numbers. Although we are unable to solve the conjecture, we succeed in establishing some basic properties of fusible numbers. We suggest some possible approaches to the conjecture, and list further problems in the final chapter.

  4. Discovery: Prime Numbers (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville


    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  5. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji


    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  6. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.


    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  7. A generalized sense of number. (United States)

    Arrighi, Roberto; Togoli, Irene; Burr, David C


    Much evidence has accumulated to suggest that many animals, including young human infants, possess an abstract sense of approximate quantity, a number sense. Most research has concentrated on apparent numerosity of spatial arrays of dots or other objects, but a truly abstract sense of number should be capable of encoding the numerosity of any set of discrete elements, however displayed and in whatever sensory modality. Here, we use the psychophysical technique of adaptation to study the sense of number for serially presented items. We show that numerosity of both auditory and visual sequences is greatly affected by prior adaptation to slow or rapid sequences of events. The adaptation to visual stimuli was spatially selective (in external, not retinal coordinates), pointing to a sensory rather than cognitive process. However, adaptation generalized across modalities, from auditory to visual and vice versa. Adaptation also generalized across formats: adapting to sequential streams of flashes affected the perceived numerosity of spatial arrays. All these results point to a perceptual system that transcends vision and audition to encode an abstract sense of number in space and in time.

  8. The Atomic Number Revolution in Chemistry: A Kuhnian Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wray, K. Brad


    This paper argues that the field of chemistry underwent a significant change of theory in the early twentieth century, when atomic number replaced atomic weight as the principle for ordering and identifying the chemical elements. It is a classic case of a Kuhnian revolution. In the process...... of what it is to be an element. In the process of making these changes, a new scientific lexicon emerged, one that took atomic number to be the defining feature of a chemical element....

  9. Elements of spin motion (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio; Ishizaki, Hideharu


    For use in numerical studies of rotational motion, a set of elements is introduced for the torque-free rotational motion of a rigid body around its barycenter. The elements are defined as the initial values of a modification of the Andoyer canonical variables. A computational procedure is obtained for determining these elements from the combination of the spin angular momentum vector and a triad defining the orientation of the rigid body. A numerical experiment shows that the errors of transformation between the elements and variables are sufficiently small. The errors increase linearly with time for some elements and quadratically for some others.

  10. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  11. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: a systematic review of reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Louk WH


    the interpretion-based method of analysis: parent involvement and a larger number of sessions. Conclusion Five effective elements of school health promotion were found to be similar across the three behavioral domains examined (substance abuse, sexual behavior, nutrition. An integrative program that addresses the three domains seems feasible. The five elements are primary candidates to include in programs targeting these behaviors.

  12. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald


    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  13. The Matrix Element Method and Vector-Like Quark Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Benjamin


    In my time at the CERN summer student program, I worked on applying the matrix element method to vector-like quark identification. I worked in the ATLAS University of Geneva group under Dr. Olaf Nackenhorst. I developed automated plotting tools with ROOT, a script for implementing and optimizing generated matrix element calculation code, and kinematic transforms for the matrix element method.

  14. Subcritical Noise Analysis Measurements with Fresh and Spent Research Reactor Fuels Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Kryter, R.C.; Miller, V.C.


    The verification of the subcriticality is of utmost importance for the safe transportation and storage of nuclear reactor fuels. Transportation containers and storage facilities are designed such that nuclear fuels remain in a subcritical state. Such designs often involve excess conservatism because of the lack of relevant experimental data to verify the accuracy of Monte Carlo codes used in nuclear criticality safety analyses. A joint experimental research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc., and the University of Missouri was initiated to obtain measured quantities that could be directly related to the subcriticality of simple arrays of Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) fuel elements. A series of measurement were performed to assess the reactivity of materials such as BORAL, stainless steel, aluminum, and lead that are typically used in the construction of shipping casks. These materials were positioned between the fuel elements. In addition, a limited number of measurements were performed with configurations of fresh and spent (irradiated) fuel elements to ascertain the reactivity of the spent fuel elements. In these experiments, fresh fuel elements were replaced by spent fuel elements such that the subcritical reactivity change could be measured. The results of these measurements were used by Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions to determine the subcriticality of MURR fuel elements isolated by absorbing materials. The measurements were interpreted using the MCNP-DSP Monte Carlo code to obtain the subcritical neutron multiplication factor k(sub eff), and the bias in K(sub eff) that are used in criticality safety analyses.

  15. Solution of simple numerical problems using spreadsheet programs (United States)

    Riggi, F.


    Spreadsheet programs are now extensively used for the analysis of business problems. A spreadsheet program reproduces the structure of a large page with columns and rows. The intersection of a column and a row defines a cell, each cell being identified by a column letter and a row number, starting at the upper left. The screen is a window over this matrix, whose dimensions depend on the machine's resources. Unlike that which occurs with paper spreadsheets, the elements (cells) of such a matrix structure can hold not only labels or numerical values but also mathematical formulae relating them to other matrix elements.

  16. Global Health Education in US Pediatric Residency Programs. (United States)

    Butteris, Sabrina M; Schubert, Charles J; Batra, Maneesh; Coller, Ryan J; Garfunkel, Lynn C; Monticalvo, David; Moore, Molly; Arora, Gitanjli; Moore, Melissa A; Condurache, Tania; Sweet, Leigh R; Hoyos, Catalina; Suchdev, Parminder S


    Despite the growing importance of global health (GH) training for pediatric residents, few mechanisms have cataloged GH educational opportunities offered by US pediatric residency programs. We sought to characterize GH education opportunities across pediatric residency programs and identify program characteristics associated with key GH education elements. Data on program and GH training characteristics were sought from program directors or their delegates of all US pediatric residency programs during 2013 to 2014. These data were used to compare programs with and without a GH track as well as across small, medium, and large programs. Program characteristics associated with the presence of key educational elements were identified by using bivariate logistic regression. Data were collected from 198 of 199 active US pediatric residency programs (99.5%). Seven percent of pediatric trainees went abroad during 2013 to 2014. Forty-nine programs (24.7%) reported having a GH track, 66.1% had a faculty lead, 58.1% offered international field experiences, and 48.5% offered domestic field experiences. Forty-two percent of programs reported international partnerships across 153 countries. Larger programs, those with lead faculty, GH tracks, or partnerships had significantly increased odds of having each GH educational element, including pretravel preparation. The number of pediatric residency programs offering GH training opportunities continues to rise. However, smaller programs and those without tracks, lead faculty, or formal partnerships lag behind with organized GH curricula. As GH becomes an integral component of pediatric training, a heightened commitment is needed to ensure consistency of training experiences that encompass best practices in all programs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Certain number-theoretic episodes in algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaramakrishnan, R


    Many basic ideas of algebra and number theory intertwine, making it ideal to explore both at the same time. Certain Number-Theoretic Episodes in Algebra focuses on some important aspects of interconnections between number theory and commutative algebra. Using a pedagogical approach, the author presents the conceptual foundations of commutative algebra arising from number theory. Self-contained, the book examines situations where explicit algebraic analogues of theorems of number theory are available. Coverage is divided into four parts, beginning with elements of number theory and algebra such as theorems of Euler, Fermat, and Lagrange, Euclidean domains, and finite groups. In the second part, the book details ordered fields, fields with valuation, and other algebraic structures. This is followed by a review of fundamentals of algebraic number theory in the third part. The final part explores links with ring theory, finite dimensional algebras, and the Goldbach problem.

  18. NASA's educational programs (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.


    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  19. Santa Ana River Design Memorandum Number 1. Phase 2. GDM on the Santa Ana River Mainstem, Including Santiago Creek. Volume 4. Mill Creek Levee (United States)


    PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Engineering Division 300 N Los Angeles Street Los Angeles, CA 90012 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME...AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Project Management Branch August 1988 300 N Los Angeles Street 13 NUMBER OF PAGES Los An eles, CA 90012 108 14. MONITORING...plants are the Califorinia Portland Cement Company plant at Colton, the Kaiser Cement Company plant at Lucerne Valley, the Southwestern Cement Company

  20. Finite elements methods in mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Eslami, M Reza


    This book covers all basic areas of mechanical engineering, such as fluid mechanics, heat conduction, beams, and elasticity with detailed derivations for the mass, stiffness, and force matrices. It is especially designed to give physical feeling to the reader for finite element approximation by the introduction of finite elements to the elevation of elastic membrane. A detailed treatment of computer methods with numerical examples are provided. In the fluid mechanics chapter, the conventional and vorticity transport formulations for viscous incompressible fluid flow with discussion on the method of solution are presented. The variational and Galerkin formulations of the heat conduction, beams, and elasticity problems are also discussed in detail. Three computer codes are provided to solve the elastic membrane problem. One of them solves the Poisson’s equation. The second computer program handles the two dimensional elasticity problems, and the third one presents the three dimensional transient heat conducti...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafnani Hafnani


    Full Text Available Study of the set properties is simple and rarely investigated at the Department of Mathematics. This paper examines some set properties on the irrational numbers. The study is about the properties applying to the real numbers which are a complete ordered field. However, the results of this study show that those properties do not imply to the irrational numbers, but the ordered property. The prove of the irrational numberby some examples is demonstrated in this study.

  2. The simple complex numbers


    Zalesny, Jaroslaw


    A new simple geometrical interpretation of complex numbers is presented. It differs from their usual interpretation as points in the complex plane. From the new point of view the complex numbers are rather operations on vectors than points. Moreover, in this approach the real, imaginary and complex numbers have similar interpretation. They are simply some operations on vectors. The presented interpretation is simpler, more natural, and better adjusted to possible applications in geometry and ...

  3. Numbers, sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, Keith


    Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc

  4. Predicting Lotto Numbers


    Jorgensen, C.B.; Suetens, S.; Tyran, J.R.


    We investigate the "law of small numbers" using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in th...

  5. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles


    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  6. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto...... numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular...

  7. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping


    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  8. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters


    Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.

  9. Cycle for fuel elements. Uranium production, programs for nuclear power stations and capital expenditure involved; Cycles de combustibles. Production d'uranium, programme de centrales electriques et effort financier correspondant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriot, J.; Gaussens, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A number of different possible programs for nuclear power stations of various types are presented in this survey. These programs are established in relation to the use of uranium and thorium in amounts similar to those that shall probably be produced in France during the next fifteen years. As it is possible to draw plans for nuclear power stations in which several processes exist simultaneously, an unlimited number of variations being thinkable, this survey is limited to successive analysis of the results obtained by use of only one of each of the following three systems: - system natural uranium-graphite, - system natural uranium-heavy water, -system enriched uranium-pressurised light water. All schemes are considered as assemblages of these three simple systems. The effects of plutonium recycling are also considered for each system. The electric power installed and the capacity of stations situated up-stream and down-stream have been calculated by this method and an attempt has been made to establish the sum to be invested during the fifteen years necessary for the launching of the programs scheduled. A table of timing for the investments groups the results obtained. Considering the fact that French availabilities in capital shall not be unlimited during the coming years, this way of presenting the results seems to be interesting. (author)Fren. [French] L'etude presentee comporte l'examen d'un certain nombre d'hypotheses de programmes de centrales nucleaires de types differents. Ces programmes correspondent a l'utilisation de tonnages d'uranium et de thorium de l'ordre de grandeur de ceux qui seront probablement produits par la France dans les quinze prochaines annees. Comme il est possible de batir un programme de centrales nucleaires, comportant a la fois plusieurs filieres suivant des variantes en nombre infini, on s'est contente d'examiner successivement les resultats ous si on utilisait exclusivement l

  10. Characterization and distribution of repetitive elements in association with genes in the human genome. (United States)

    Liang, Kai-Chiang; Tseng, Joseph T; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Sun, H Sunny


    Repetitive elements constitute more than 50% of the human genome. Recent studies implied that the complexity of living organisms is not just a direct outcome of a number of coding sequences; the repetitive elements, which do not encode proteins, may also play a significant role. Though scattered studies showed that repetitive elements in the regulatory regions of a gene control gene expression, no systematic survey has been done to report the characterization and distribution of various types of these repetitive elements in the human genome. Sequences from 5' and 3' untranslated regions and upstream and downstream of a gene were downloaded from the Ensembl database. The repetitive elements in the neighboring of each gene were identified and classified using cross-matching implemented in the RepeatMasker. The annotation and distribution of distinct classes of repetitive elements associated with individual gene were collected to characterize genes in association with different types of repetitive elements using systems biology program. We identified a total of 1,068,400 repetitive elements which belong to 37-class families and 1235 subclasses that are associated with 33,761 genes and 57,365 transcripts. In addition, we found that the tandem repeats preferentially locate proximal to the transcription start site (TSS) of genes and the major function of these genes are involved in developmental processes. On the other hand, interspersed repetitive elements showed a tendency to be accumulated at distal region from the TSS and the function of interspersed repeat-containing genes took part in the catabolic/metabolic processes. Results from the distribution analysis were collected and used to construct a gene-based repetitive element database (GBRED; A user-friendly web interface was designed to provide the information of repetitive elements associated with any particular gene(s). This is the first study focusing on the gene

  11. Finite element procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen


    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  12. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaedel, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Science Research Center; GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)


    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs, element 108), copernicium (Cn, element 112), and element 114 is discussed from an experimental point of view. Recent results are emphasized and compared with empirical extrapolations and with fully-relativistic theoretical calculations, especially also under the aspect of the architecture of the Periodic Table. (orig.)

  13. Littlewood and Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    doctoral thesis, R Balasubramanian [8] improved this further and showed that one can take θ = 1/3. 4. Littlewood's Problem on Diophantine Ap- proximation. For any real number x, let ||x|| denote the distance of x to the nearest integer. For any pair of real numbers α, β, Littlewood conjectured that lim inf n→∞ n||nα||||nβ|| = 0.

  14. The Class Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. The Class Number Problem - An Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory. Rajat Tandon. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 28-37. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl


    We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...

  16. The Congruent Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Mathematics, especially number theory, one of- .... pear on the list. Continuing in this way ·would exhaust one's computing resources, not to mention one's patience! Also, this procedure is of no avail if n is not a congruent number. ..... If p and q are odd primes, then the Legendre symbol (p/q) is 1 if P is a quadratic residue.

  17. Avogadro's Number Ferromagnetically (United States)

    Houari, Ahmed


    Avogadro's number, usually denoted by N[subscript A], plays a fundamental role in both physics and chemistry. It defines the extremely useful concept of the mole, which is the base unit of the amount of matter in the international system of units. The fundamental character of this number can also be illustrated by its appearance in the definitions…

  18. Photoshop Elements 5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Brundage, Barbara


    Anyone still think that Adobe Photoshop Elements is a toy version of the real thing? As the most popular photo-editing program on the market, Photoshop Elements not only has Photoshop's marvelous powers, but also has capabilities the mothership lacks. Each new version includes more tools designed specifically for today's consumer digital photo enthusiasts. The latest edition, Photoshop Elements 5, solidifies the reputation of this superb and inexpensive product with new scrapbook features, a link to online photo services, and many other improvements. In fact, there's so much to Photoshop Ele

  19. Photoshop Elements 10 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Brundage, Barbara


    Elements 10 offers much of Photoshop's power without the huge price tag. It's a great tool for most image-editing buffs-whether you're a photographer, scrapbooker, or aspiring graphic artist. But Elements still doesn't come with a useful manual. This bestselling book helps you get the most out of the program, from the basics to advanced tips for both Windows and Mac users. The important stuff you need to know: Quickly learn your way around. Customize Elements to suit your working style.Get to work right away. Import, organize, and make quick image fixes with ease.Retouch any image. Learn how

  20. Photoshop Elements 9 the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Brundage, Barbara


    Elements 9 offers much of Photoshop's power without the huge price tag. It's an ideal tool for most image-editing buffs -- including scrapbookers, photographers, and aspiring graphic artists. But Elements still doesn't come with a decent manual. This bestselling book will help you get the most out of the program, from the basics to advanced tips for both Windows and Mac. Quickly learn your way around. Customize Elements to suit your working style.Get to work right away. Import, organize, and make quick image fixes with ease.Retouch any image. Learn how to repair and restore your old and damag

  1. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  2. Program Fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil


    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  3. Benchmarking the QUAD4/TRIA3 element (United States)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.


    The QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements are the primary plate/shell elements in NASTRAN. These elements enable the user to analyze thin plate/shell structures for membrane, bending and shear phenomena. They are also very new elements in the NASTRAN library. These elements are extremely versatile and constitute a substantially enhanced analysis capability in NASTRAN. However, with the versatility comes the burden of understanding a myriad of modeling implications and their effect on accuracy and analysis quality. The validity of many aspects of these elements were established through a series of benchmark problem results and comparison with those available in the literature and obtained from other programs like MSC/NASTRAN and CSAR/NASTRAN. Never-the-less such a comparison is never complete because of the new and creative use of these elements in complex modeling situations. One of the important features of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements is the offset capability which allows the midsurface of the plate to be noncoincident with the surface of the grid points. None of the previous elements, with the exception of bar (beam), has this capability. The offset capability played a crucial role in the design of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. It allowed modeling layered composites, laminated plates and sandwich plates with the metal and composite face sheets. Even though the basic implementation of the offset capability is found to be sound in the previous applications, there is some uncertainty in relatively simple applications. The main purpose of this paper is to test the integrity of the offset capability and provide guidelines for its effective use. For the purpose of simplicity, references in this paper to the QUAD4 element will also include the TRIA3 element.

  4. Beyond the Numbers Making Sense of Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Christmann, Edwin


    Statistics is required coursework within most teacher certification programs. Beyond the Numbers presents a nonthreatening, practical approach to statistics, providing step-by-step instructions for understanding and implementing the essential components of the subject.The basic and understandable explanations in Beyond the Numbers break down complex statistical processes to simple arithmetic computations that can be applied with the confidence that accompanies understanding.

  5. Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering. (United States)

    Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong


    DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.

  6. Serum Trace Element Presentation in Female Wistar Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of therapeutic agents are known to alter serum trace element levels with dangerous consequences. An earlier study had demonstrated significant alteration in the levels of some trace elements in male rats dosed with paracetamol/methionine. This study is designed to compare serum element presentation at the ...

  7. Comparative analysis of regulatory elements in different germin-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that these promoters have important regulatory elements, which are involved in various important functions. These elements have been compared on the basis of location, copy number, and distributed on positive and negative strands. It was also observed that some of these elements are common and ...

  8. Advanced number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Harvey


    ""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts

  9. Elementary theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw


    Since the publication of the first edition of this work, considerable progress has been made in many of the questions examined. This edition has been updated and enlarged, and the bibliography has been revised.The variety of topics covered here includes divisibility, diophantine equations, prime numbers (especially Mersenne and Fermat primes), the basic arithmetic functions, congruences, the quadratic reciprocity law, expansion of real numbers into decimal fractions, decomposition of integers into sums of powers, some other problems of the additive theory of numbers and the theory of Gaussian

  10. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudley, Underwood


    Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

  11. The emergence of number

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, John N


    This book presents detailed studies of the development of three kinds of number. In the first part the development of the natural numbers from Stone-Age times right up to the present day is examined not only from the point of view of pure history but also taking into account archaeological, anthropological and linguistic evidence. The dramatic change caused by the introduction of logical theories of number in the 19th century is also treated and this part ends with a non-technical account of the very latest developments in the area of Gödel's theorem. The second part is concerned with the deve

  12. Numbers and computers

    CERN Document Server

    Kneusel, Ronald T


    This is a book about numbers and how those numbers are represented in and operated on by computers. It is crucial that developers understand this area because the numerical operations allowed by computers, and the limitations of those operations, especially in the area of floating point math, affect virtually everything people try to do with computers. This book aims to fill this gap by exploring, in sufficient but not overwhelming detail, just what it is that computers do with numbers. Divided into two parts, the first deals with standard representations of integers and floating point numb

  13. Supersymmetric Displaced Number States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Zypman


    Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.

  14. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin


    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  15. Fundamentals of number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J


    This excellent textbook introduces the basics of number theory, incorporating the language of abstract algebra. A knowledge of such algebraic concepts as group, ring, field, and domain is not assumed, however; all terms are defined and examples are given - making the book self-contained in this respect.The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diopha

  16. Brief history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Corry, Leo


    The world around us is saturated with numbers. They are a fundamental pillar of our modern society, and accepted and used with hardly a second thought. But how did this state of affairs come to be? In this book, Leo Corry tells the story behind the idea of number from the early days of the Pythagoreans, up until the turn of the twentieth century. He presents an overview of how numbers were handled and conceived in classical Greek mathematics, in the mathematics of Islam, in European mathematics of the middle ages and the Renaissance, during the scientific revolution, all the way through to the

  17. Graph pegging numbers


    Helleloid, Geir; Khalid, Madeeha; Moulton, David Petrie; Wood, Philip Matchett


    In graph pegging, we view each vertex of a graph as a hole into which a peg can be placed, with checker-like ``pegging moves'' allowed. Motivated by well-studied questions in graph pebbling, we introduce two pegging quantities. The pegging number (respectively, the optimal pegging number) of a graph is the minimum number of pegs such that for every (respectively, some) distribution of that many pegs on the graph, any vertex can be reached by a sequence of pegging moves. We prove several basic...

  18. Professor Stewart's incredible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian


    Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,

  19. The ends of elements (United States)

    Thornton, Brett F.; Burdette, Shawn C.


    When elements 117 and 118 are finally named, should these new members of the halogen and noble gas families receive names ending in -ium as IUPAC has suggested? Brett F. Thornton and Shawn C. Burdette look at the history of element suffixes and make the case for not following this recommendation.

  20. Trace element emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.


    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  1. Movies and Literary Elements. (United States)

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man,…

  2. BSCW Unstructured Mixed Element Grids (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Corase Grid: Quad Surface Faces= 9360 Tria Surface Faces= 128928 Nodes = 2869187 Total Elements = 9099201 Hex Elements = 0 Pent_5 Elements = 0 Pent_6 Elements =...

  3. Defense AR Journal. Volume 14, Number 3, Dedcember 2007 (United States)


    organizational modeling is analogous to modeling employed in the natural sciences such as finite element modeling ( FEM ) or computational fluid dynamics (CFD...modeling. FEM and CFD modeling both break down the larger structure being modeled into smaller elements, with each element having its own...harmonized with the other core factors, like PfM, Program Objective Memorandum ( POM ) funding, maintenance of legacy systems, and regulatory governance

  4. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 14, Number 3, Dec 2007 (United States)


    modeling is analogous to modeling employed in the natural sciences such as finite element modeling ( FEM ) or computational fluid dynamics (CFD...modeling. FEM and CFD modeling both break down the larger structure being modeled into smaller elements, with each element having its own characteristics...with the other core factors, like PfM, Program Objective Memorandum ( POM ) funding, maintenance of legacy systems, and regulatory governance

  5. Quantum random number generators (United States)

    Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos


    Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.

  6. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Drawing a random number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik


    highly uniform multidimensional draws, which are highly relevant for todays traffic models. This paper shows among others combined shuffling and scrambling seems needless, that scrambling gives the lowest correlation and that there are detectable differences between random numbers, dependent...

  8. Finite Element Method for Analysis of Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauhe, Jens Christian

    The use of cellular and composite materials have in recent years become more and more common in all kinds of structural components and accurate knowledge of the effective properties is therefore essential. In this wok the effective properties are determined using the real material microstructure...... theoretical models. Besides the determination of the effective properties, viscoelastic and damage analysis have been performed on a number of material microstructures....... description of the material microstructure the finite element models must contain a large number of elements and this problem is solved by using the preconditioned conjugated gradient solver with an Element-By-Element preconditioner. Finite element analysis provides the volume averaged stresses and strains...

  9. Final Report DOE Supported Activities through the Utility/DOE Matching Grant Program Contract Number DE FG02-95NE38111 For the Period 30 September 1995 through 30 September 2002 Extended until 30 March 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James F.


    This report covers activities in the Univesity of Illinois Department of Nulcear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering Matching Grant Program for the period form 30 September 1995 to 30 March 2003. The funds for this program include industrial partner funds which were matched, or nearly matched by DOE-NE. The industrial partner was Commonwealth Edison, which changed its corporate structure and name to Exelon during the course of the contract. The funds from the contract were used to support nuclear engineering educational needs, including undergraduate and graduate students support, purchase of laboratory equipment, support for seminar speakers and conferences, and support for new faculty members. The funds were instrumental in maintaining a first quality nuclear engineering educational program at the University of Illinois.

  10. Accuracy of semi-analytical finite elements for modelling wave propagation in rails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andhavarapu, EV


    Full Text Available triangular elements. This paper extends this study to include quadratic triangular elements and other linear and quadratic elements. It is shown that for a given number of degrees of freedom the quadratic elements are more efficient than the linear elements...

  11. A Nonlocal Finite Element Approach to Nanobeams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotti de Sciarra


    Full Text Available This paper presents a consistent derivation of a new nonlocal finite element procedure in the framework of continuum mechanics and nonlocal thermodynamics for the analysis of bending of nanobeams under transverse loads. This approach is able to provide the overall performance and the influence of specific parameters in the behavior of nanobeams and it is also able to deal with nanomechanical systems by solving a reduced number of algebraic equations. An example shows that the proposed nonlocal finite element procedure, using a mesh composed by only four elements of equal size, provides the exact values in terms of transversal displacement and bending of the nanobeam.

  12. The Superheavy Elements and Anti-Gravity (United States)

    Anastasovski, Petar K.


    The essence of any propulsion concept is to overcome gravity. Anti-gravity is a natural means to achieve this. Thus, the technology to pursue anti-gravity, by using superheavy elements, may provide a new propulsion paradigm. The theory of superluminal relativity provides a hypothesis for existence of elements with atomic number up to Z = 145, some of which may possess anti-gravity properties. Analysis results show that curved space-time exists demonstrating both gravitic and anti-gravitic properties not only around nuclei but inside the nuclei as well. Two groups of elements (Z Hawking, in honour of Stephen W. Hawking.

  13. Safety in Numbers (United States)


    Bicocca. Dipartimento di Informatica , Sistemistica e Comunicazione. Laboratorio di Test e Analisi del Software, Milano. Technical Report LTA:2004:05...Communications of the ACM, 1981. 24(9): pp. 563-573. 76. Thomas Reps, On the sequential nature of interprocedural program-analysis problems. Acta Informatica

  14. Outlook. Number 349 (United States)

    Council for American Private Education, 2009


    Council for American Private Education (CAPE) is a coalition of national associations serving private schools K-12. "Outlook" is published monthly by CAPE. This issue contains the following articles: (1) NAEP Math Results Raise Question: Are Reforms Working?; (2) CAPE Calls for Equity in Discretionary Grant Programs; (3) "Let Me…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOCARIU Liliana


    Full Text Available Industrial design represents an important 20th century phenomenon, which contributed to the spectacular development of human society. There are a lot of domains in which the insertion of the industrial design methods and theories is extremely necessary, becoming common practice. Marketing uses industrial design elements in order to draw up advertisements for products, to develop logos or packaging with all its attached factors, to organise promotional sales with the view of penetrating a certain market or of appealing to a large number of consumers.

  16. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian N


    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  17. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.


    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  18. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian Naismith


    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  19. A Parameter-Free Dynamic Alternative to Hyper-Viscosity for Coupled Transport Equations: Application to the Simulation of 3D Squall Lines Using Spectral Elements (United States)


    Viscosity for Coupled Transport Equations: Application to the Simulation of 3D Squall Lines Using Spectral Elements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...the results against those obtained with a fourth-order hyper- viscosity programmed in the same code. The main conclusion that arises is that tuning...second order operator which means that fewer communications are required by VMS+DC than by a hyper- viscosity method fewer communications translate into

  20. Comparison of hexahedral and tetrahedral elements in finite element analysis of the foot and footwear. (United States)

    Tadepalli, Srinivas C; Erdemir, Ahmet; Cavanagh, Peter R


    Finite element analysis has been widely used in the field of foot and footwear biomechanics to determine plantar pressures as well as stresses and strains within soft tissue and footwear materials. When dealing with anatomical structures such as the foot, hexahedral mesh generation accounts for most of the model development time due to geometric complexities imposed by branching and embedded structures. Tetrahedral meshing, which can be more easily automated, has been the approach of choice to date in foot and footwear biomechanics. Here we use the nonlinear finite element program Abaqus (Simulia, Providence, RI) to examine the advantages and disadvantages of tetrahedral and hexahedral elements under compression and shear loading, material incompressibility, and frictional contact conditions, which are commonly seen in foot and footwear biomechanics. This study demonstrated that for a range of simulation conditions, hybrid hexahedral elements (Abaqus C3D8H) consistently performed well while hybrid linear tetrahedral elements (Abaqus C3D4H) performed poorly. On the other hand, enhanced quadratic tetrahedral elements with improved stress visualization (Abaqus C3D10I) performed as well as the hybrid hexahedral elements in terms of contact pressure and contact shear stress predictions. Although the enhanced quadratic tetrahedral element simulations were computationally expensive compared to hexahedral element simulations in both barefoot and footwear conditions, the enhanced quadratic tetrahedral element formulation seems to be very promising for foot and footwear applications as a result of decreased labor and expedited model development, all related to facilitated mesh generation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Based System for Managing the Design and Pilot-Testing of Interactive Videodisc Programs. Training and Development Research Center, Project Number Forty-Three. (United States)

    Sayre, Scott Alan

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based system that would allow interactive video developers to integrate and manage the design components prior to production. These components of an interactive video (IVD) program include visual information in a variety of formats, audio information, and instructional techniques,…

  2. An Investigation of Possible Test Floor Effects By Comparing Score Distributions for Students Tested With Two Different Levels of a Test Battery at Four Different Times Over a Two-Year Interval. Iowa Testing Programs Occasional Papers. Number 24. (United States)

    Olsen, Scott A.

    When a program evaluation is conducted on the basis of gains made in standardized achievement test scores between a pretest and a posttest, serious bias can result where a floor effect exists on one or both of the test levels. Based upon the expanded standard scores on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills from three successive regular spring…

  3. Rotman Lens Sidewall Design and Optimization with Hybrid Hardware/Software Based Programming (United States)


    PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO. 0704...Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 hybrid numerical electromagnetics, MoM , FMM, CPU-GPU, Rotman lens REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...hybrid platforms: This task involves developing a hybrid MoM -FMM code that utilizes CPU as well as GPU to handle problem sizes in the order of 10

  4. Neutronic fuel element fabrication (United States)

    Korton, George


    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  5. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge


    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...

  6. Elements in biological AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.


    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  7. The LHC in numbers

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne


    What makes the LHC the biggest particle accelerator in the world? Here are some of the numbers that characterise the LHC, and their equivalents in terms that are easier for us to imagine.   Feature Number Equivalent Circumference ~ 27 km   Distance covered by beam in 10 hours ~ 10 billion km a round trip to Neptune Number of times a single proton travels around the ring each second 11 245   Speed of protons first entering the LHC 299 732 500 m/s 99.9998 % of the speed of light Speed of protons when they collide 299 789 760 m/s 99.9999991 % of the speed of light Collision temperature ~ 1016 °C ove...

  8. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre


    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  9. Geometry of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Peter M


    This volume contains a fairly complete picture of the geometry of numbers, including relations to other branches of mathematics such as analytic number theory, diophantine approximation, coding and numerical analysis. It deals with convex or non-convex bodies and lattices in euclidean space, etc.This second edition was prepared jointly by P.M. Gruber and the author of the first edition. The authors have retained the existing text (with minor corrections) while adding to each chapter supplementary sections on the more recent developments. While this method may have drawbacks, it has the definit


    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service


    The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service  


    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service


    he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service

  12. Earthquake number forecasts testing (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.


    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  13. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk


    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  14. Saint Louis Center for Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills: A Collaborative Air Force-Civilian Trauma Skills Training Program (United States)


    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) June 2014 – December 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Saint Louis Center for Sustainment of Trauma and...Readiness Skills: A Collaborative Air Force-Civilian Trauma Skills Training Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM support of these campaigns have had to maintain a high degree of clinical skill to effectively render care to wounded combatants, a necessity

  15. Revised Structural Technology Evaluation Program (STEP) User’s Manual for Structural Synthesis. (United States)


    This BLOCK DATA subroutine stores the library of material properties. MN/ This subroutine modifies the structural design of an element to maximize the...gage design. The second part employs a non-linear programing technique to maximize the efficiency of each element while maintaining a constant weight...accomplished with symmetry grouping also. Since the use of symMetry groups reduces the number of independent desl variables of the structure, it can

  16. Operations Program Executive (United States)

    Fague, M. A.


    Ground Resource Operations Program executive (GROPE) is control program for binding system of programs into single, easily operated entity. It relieves user from complexity arising from decomposition of large application into number of interacting program units. System simplifies job control, data management, and recordkeeping for interacting programs.

  17. Bending Moment Calculations for Piles Based on the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xin Jie


    Full Text Available Using the finite element analysis program ABAQUS, a series of calculations on a cantilever beam, pile, and sheet pile wall were made to investigate the bending moment computational methods. The analyses demonstrated that the shear locking is not significant for the passive pile embedded in soil. Therefore, higher-order elements are not always necessary in the computation. The number of grids across the pile section is important for bending moment calculated with stress and less significant for that calculated with displacement. Although computing bending moment with displacement requires fewer grid numbers across the pile section, it sometimes results in variation of the results. For displacement calculation, a pile row can be suitably represented by an equivalent sheet pile wall, whereas the resulting bending moments may be different. Calculated results of bending moment may differ greatly with different grid partitions and computational methods. Therefore, a comparison of results is necessary when performing the analysis.

  18. Cognitive Analysis of Educational Games: The Number Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maas, Han; Nyamsuren, Enkhbold


    We analyze the cognitive strategies underlying performance in the Number task, a Math game that requires both arithmetic fluency and mathematical creativity. In this game all elements in a set of numbers (for instance, 2, 5, 9) have to be used precisely once to create a target number (for

  19. Cognitive Analysis of Educational Games : The Number Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maas, H.L.J.; Nyamsuren, E.

    We analyze the cognitive strategies underlying performance in the Number task, a Math game that requires both arithmetic fluency and mathematical creativity. In this game all elements in a set of numbers (for instance, 2, 5, 9) have to be used precisely once to create a target number (for instance,

  20. Multi-Element Airfoil System (United States)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)


    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.