Sample records for program depends heavily

  1. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa, E-mail:; Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki [Technology Division, Advanced Evaluation and Technology Development Department, SUMCO Corporation, 1-52 Kubara, Yamashiro-cho, Imari, Saga 849-4256 (Japan); Nakamura, Kozo [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan)


    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at temperatures from 750 °C to 950 °C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  2. Hypoxic areas, density-dependence and food limitation drive the body condition of a heavily exploited marine fish predator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Käll, Filip; Hansson, Martin


    Investigating the factors regulating fish condition is crucial in ecology and the management of exploited fish populations. The body condition of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea has dramatically decreased during the past two decades, with large implications for the fishery relying on this re......Investigating the factors regulating fish condition is crucial in ecology and the management of exploited fish populations. The body condition of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea has dramatically decreased during the past two decades, with large implications for the fishery relying...... shift that occurred in the Baltic Sea in the early 1990s. The changes in cod condition related to feeding opportunities, driven either by density-dependence or food limitation, along the whole period investigated and to the fivefold increase in the extent of hypoxic areas in the most recent 20 years...... and density-dependent processes. These results furnish novel insights into the population dynamics of Baltic Sea cod that can aid the management of this currently threatened population....

  3. Program Verification and System Dependability (United States)

    Jackson, Michael

    Formal verification of program correctness is a long-standing ambition, recently given added prominence by a “Grand Challenge” project. Major emphases have been on the improvement of languages for program specification and program development, and on the construction of verification tools. The emphasis on tools commands general assent, but while some researchers focus on narrow verification aimed only at program correctness, others want to pursue wide verification aimed at the larger goal of system dependability. This paper presents an approach to system dependability based on problem frames and suggests how this approach can be supported by formal software tools. Dependability is to be understood and evaluated in the physical and human problem world of a system. The complexity and non-formal nature of the problem world demand the development and evolution of normal designs and normal design practices for specialised classes of systems and subsystems. The problem frames discipline of systems analysis and development that can support normal design practices is explained and illustrated. The role of formal reasoning in achieving dependability is discussed and some conceptual, linguistic and software tools are suggested.

  4. Belief Logic Programming with Cyclic Dependencies (United States)

    Wan, Hui

    Our previous work [26] introduced Belief Logic Programming (BLP), a novel form of quantitative logic programming with correlation of evidence. Unlike other quantitative approaches to logic programming, this new theory is able to provide accurate conclusions in the presence of uncertainty when the sources of information are not independent. However, the semantics defined in [26] is not sufficiently general—it does not allow cyclic dependencies among beliefs, which is a serious limitation of expressive power. This paper extends the semantics of BLP to allow cyclic dependencies. We show that the new semantics is backward compatible with the semantics for acyclic BLP and has the expected properties. The results are illustrated with examples of inference in a simple diagnostic expert system.

  5. SEECAL: Program to calculate age-dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.


    This report describes the computer program SEECAL, which calculates specific effective energies (SEE) to specified target regions for ages newborn, 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, a 70-kg adult male, and a 58-kg adult female. The dosimetric methodology is that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and is generally consistent with the schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose committee of the US Society of Nuclear Medicine. Computation of SEEs is necessary in the computation of equivalent dose rate in a target region, for occupational or public exposure to radionuclides taken into the body. Program SEECAL replaces the program SEE that was previously used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program SEE was used in the dosimetric calculations for occupational exposures for ICRP Publication 30 and is limited to adults. SEECAL was used to generate age-dependent SEEs for ICRP Publication 56, Part 1. SEECAL is also incorporated into DCAL, a radiation dose and risk calculational system being developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. Electronic copies of the program and data files and this report are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. Do students' programming skills depend on programming language? (United States)

    Savić, Miloš; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran; Radovanović, Miloš


    Bachelor studies in Computer Science at our department in the last decades cover several successive core courses in programming: Introduction to Programming, Data Structures and Algorithms 1 and 2, Operating Systems and Compiler Construction. For a long time our intention was not to insist on the realization of subjects in a specific programming language, but to put emphasis on abstract reasoning and appropriate data structures and algorithms. Also, to avoid teaching different languages and programming environments, we decided to use one good educational language - Modula-2. In the last several years we were under different kinds of pressure to change the language. Starting from the last school-year we decided to adopt Java within the introductory programming course, using the imperative approach first. Some comparisons of students' advancements and success between Modula-2 and Java generations are presented in the paper. The results of the analytical evaluation indicate that the choice of the first programming language does not have a deep influence to students' success at the course.

  7. Complexity of data dependence problems for program schemas with concurrency


    Danicic, S; Hierons, RM; Laurence, MR


    This is the pre-print version of the Article. The official published version can be accessed from the links below. Copyright @ 2012 ACM The problem of deciding whether one point in a program is data dependent upon another is fundamental to program analysis and has been widely studied. In this article we consider this problem at the abstraction level of program schemas in which computations occur in the Herbrand domain of terms and predicate symbols, which represent arbitrary predicate func...

  8. Condition-dependent mate choice: A stochastic dynamic programming approach. (United States)

    Frame, Alicia M; Mills, Alex F


    We study how changing female condition during the mating season and condition-dependent search costs impact female mate choice, and what strategies a female could employ in choosing mates to maximize her own fitness. We address this problem via a stochastic dynamic programming model of mate choice. In the model, a female encounters males sequentially and must choose whether to mate or continue searching. As the female searches, her own condition changes stochastically, and she incurs condition-dependent search costs. The female attempts to maximize the quality of the offspring, which is a function of the female's condition at mating and the quality of the male with whom she mates. The mating strategy that maximizes the female's net expected reward is a quality threshold. We compare the optimal policy with other well-known mate choice strategies, and we use simulations to examine how well the optimal policy fares under imperfect information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Practical Programming with Higher-Order Encodings and Dependent Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poswolsky, Adam; Schürmann, Carsten


    , tedious, and error-prone. In this paper, we describe the underlying calculus of Delphin. Delphin is a fully implemented functional-programming language supporting reasoning over higher-order encodings and dependent types, while maintaining the benefits of HOAS. More specifically, just as representations......Higher-order abstract syntax (HOAS) refers to the technique of representing variables of an object-language using variables of a meta-language. The standard first-order alternatives force the programmer to deal with superficial concerns such as substitutions, whose implementation is often routine...

  10. Role of Mecp2 in Experience-Dependent Epigenetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A. Zimmermann


    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2, the founding member of a family of proteins recognizing and binding to methylated DNA, are the genetic cause of a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder in humans, called Rett syndrome. Available evidence suggests that MECP2 protein has a critical role in activity-dependent neuronal plasticity and transcription during brain development. Moreover, recent studies in mice show that various posttranslational modifications, notably phosphorylation, regulate Mecp2’s functions in learning and memory, drug addiction, depression-like behavior, and the response to antidepressant treatment. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis drives the stress response and its deregulation increases the risk for a variety of mental disorders. Early-life stress (ELS typically results in sustained HPA-axis deregulation and is a major risk factor for stress related diseases, in particular major depression. Interestingly, Mecp2 protein has been shown to contribute to ELS-dependent epigenetic programming of Crh, Avp, and Pomc, all of these genes enhance HPA-axis activity. Hereby ELS regulates Mecp2 phosphorylation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activities in a tissue-specific and temporospatial manner. Overall, these findings suggest MECP2 proteins are so far underestimated and have a more dynamic role in the mediation of the gene-environment dialog and epigenetic programming of the neuroendocrine stress system in health and disease.

  11. Dispersion relations in heavily-doped nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad


    This book presents the dispersion relation in heavily doped nano-structures. The materials considered are III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, GaP, Ge, Platinum Antimonide, stressed, GaSb, Te, II-V, HgTe/CdTe superlattices and Bismuth Telluride semiconductors. The dispersion relation is discussed under magnetic quantization and on the basis of carrier energy spectra. The influences of magnetic field, magneto inversion, and magneto nipi structures on nano-structures is analyzed. The band structure of optoelectronic materials changes with photo-excitation in a fundamental way according to newly formulated electron dispersion laws. They control the quantum effect in optoelectronic devices in the presence of light. The measurement of band gaps in optoelectronic materials in the presence of external photo-excitation is displayed. The influences of magnetic quantization, crossed electric and quantizing fields, intense electric fields on the on the dispersion relation in heavily doped semiconductors and super-lattices are also disc...

  12. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jafari


    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  13. Dependently typed array programs don’t go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.


    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  14. Dependently typed array programs don't go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.


    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  15. Fast and Cache-Oblivious Dynamic Programming with Local Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Stöckel, Morten


    -oblivious algorithm for this type of local dynamic programming suitable for comparing large-scale strings. Our algorithm outperforms the previous state-of-the-art solutions. Surprisingly, our new simple algorithm is competitive with a complicated, optimized, and tuned implementation of the best cache-aware algorithm...

  16. Gas Associated with Heavily Modified Dust (United States)

    Savage, Blair D.

    In the 9th year of IUE, we initiated a program to study the strength, width and central wavelength of the 2175 A extinction bump in a sample of stars known from ANS photometric data to have anomalous extinction. A major result from that program (Cardelli and Savage, "A study of the Fundamental characteristics of the 2175 A Extinction Feature ") is the discovery of the line of sight to HD 62542 which exhibits a UV extinction curve which is the most extreme of any so far found in the Milky Way. The HD 62542 extinction curve has a very weak and very broad UV extinction bump which is centered at 2110 A rather than the normal 2175 A (see Figure 1). Both the bump width and position are well outside the range found for any extinction curve yet observed, including those for the LMC and SMC. The far UV portion of the curve is higher than for any Milky Way sight line for which published data exists. HD 62542 exists in a star forming region of densely packed, swept up interstellar as and dust in the region of the Gum nebula near two stars which exhibit strong stellar winds (zeta Pup and gamma2 Vel). The region appears so extreme that the anomalous extinction may be produced by a combination of shock processing of grains, by grain cogulation, and by mantle growth. In any event the dust toward this star has been so severely modified, it is very likely that the gas phase of the ISM is also extremely anomalous. We therefore propose to obtain high dispersion SWP and LWP spectra of HD 62542 to study the gas-dust interaction along this exceedingly interesting line of sight. Some specific questions we will try to answer include: 1. Are the abundances of molecules anomalous? If the anomalous extinction is produced in a dense interstellar environment either by grain coagulation or mantle growth, the conditions may be favorable for molecule formation. The survival of molecules near HD 62542 may be enhanced by the high far UV extinction of the dust. The HD 62542 sight line may represent

  17. Decadal evolution of a very small heavily debris-covered glacier in an Alpine permafrost environment


    Capt, M.; Bosson, Jean-Baptiste; Fischer, M; Micheletti, N.; Lambiel, Christophe


    Glacier response to climate forcing can be heterogeneous and complex, depending on glacier system characteristics. This article presents the decadal evolution of the Tsarmine Glacier (Swiss Alps), a very small and heavily debris-covered cirque glacier located in the Alpine periglacial belt. Archival aerial photogrammetry and autocorrelation of orthophotos were used to compute surface elevation, volume and geodetic mass changes, as well as horizontal displacement rates for several periods...

  18. Source camera identification for low resolution heavily compressed images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alles, E.J.; Geradts, Z.J.M.H.; Veenman, C.J.


    In this paper, we propose a method to exploit photo response non-uniformity (PRNU) to identify the source camera of heavily JPEG compressed digital photographs of resolution 640 times 480 pixels. Similarly to research reported previously, we extract the PRNU patterns from both reference and

  19. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT


    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  20. Heavily skewed pricing in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; Tieman, Alexander F.

    A common feature in two-sided markets is the prevalence of heavily skewed pricing strategies in which price markups are much higher on one side of the market than the other. We show that maximal skewed pricing is profit maximizing under constant elasticity of demand. The most elastic side of the

  1. Superconductivity in heavily boron-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kriener, Takahiro Muranaka, Junya Kato, Zhi-An Ren, Jun Akimitsu and Yoshiteru Maeno


    Full Text Available The discoveries of superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond in 2004 and silicon in 2006 have renewed the interest in the superconducting state of semiconductors. Charge-carrier doping of wide-gap semiconductors leads to a metallic phase from which upon further doping superconductivity can emerge. Recently, we discovered superconductivity in a closely related system: heavily boron-doped silicon carbide. The sample used for that study consisted of cubic and hexagonal SiC phase fractions and hence this led to the question which of them participated in the superconductivity. Here we studied a hexagonal SiC sample, free from cubic SiC phase by means of x-ray diffraction, resistivity, and ac susceptibility.

  2. Recovery by triple junction motion in heavily deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu


    is briefly considered, whereas recovery in samples deformed to much higher strains is discussed in more detail. An example is Al, where a new and important recovery mechanism is triple junction motion, which can remove thin lamellae and consequently increase the thickness of neighbouring lamellae...... controlling the rate of recovery by triple junction motion. Operation of triple junction motion in other heavily deformed metals, such as Ni and Cu, is also briefly discussed....

  3. Identification of MYC-dependent transcriptional programs in oncogene-addicted liver tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kress, Theresia R.; Pellanda, Paola; Pellegrinet, Luca; Bianchi, Valerio; Nicoli, Paola; Doni, Mirko; Recordati, Camilla; Bianchi, Salvatore; Rotta, Luca; Capra, Thelma; Rava, Micol; Verrecchia, Alessandro; Radaelli, Enrico; Littlewood, Trevor D.; Evan, Gerard I.; Amati, Bruno


    Tumors driven by activation of the transcription factor MYC generally show oncogene addiction. However, the gene expression programs that depend upon sustained MYC activity remain unknown. In this study, we employed a mouse model of liver carcinoma driven by a reversible tet-MYC transgene, combined

  4. Electron spin dynamics in heavily Mn-doped (Ga,Mn)As (United States)

    Zhu, Yonggang; Han, Lifen; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Xinhui; Zhao, Jianhua


    Electron spin relaxation and related mechanisms in heavily Mn-doped (Ga,Mn)As are studied by performing time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements. At low temperature, s-d exchange scattering dominates electron spin relaxation, whereas the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism and Mn impurity scattering play important roles at high temperature. The temperature-dependent spin relaxation time exhibits an anomaly around the Curie temperature (Tc) that implies that thermal fluctuation is suppressed by short-range correlated spin fluctuation above Tc.

  5. Tracking with heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Casagrande, L; Bartalini, P; Bell, W H; Borer, K; Bowcock, T J V; Buytaert, J; Chochula, P; Collins, P; Da Vià, C; Dijkstra, H; Dormond, O; Esposito, A P; Frei, R; Granata, V; Janos, S; Konorov, I; Lourenço, C; Niinikoski, T O; Pagano, S; Palmieri, V G; Parkes, C; Paul, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Ruf, T; Ruggiero, G; Saladino, S; Schmitt, L; Smith, K; Sonderegger, P; Stavitski, I; Steele, D; Vitobello, F


    In this work we show that a heavily irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector recovers its performance when operated at cryogenic temperatures. A DELPHI microstrip detector, irradiated to a fluence of $\\sim\\,4\\times 10^{14}$ p/cm$^2$, no longer operational at room temperature, cannot be distinguished from a non-irradiated one when operated at $T<120$~K. Besides confirming the previously observed `Lazarus effect' in single diodes, these results establish for the first time, the possibility of using standard silicon detectors for tracking applications in extremely demanding radiation environments.

  6. Characterization of ultra-heavily damaged NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartog, H.W. den; Sugonyako, A.V.; Vainshtein, D.I. [University of Groningen (Netherlands); Turkin, A.A. [National Science Centre, Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine); Sulyanov, S.N. [Institute of Crystallography, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kheiker, D.M.; Dorovatovskii, P.V. [Institute of Crystallography, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kurchatov Centre of Synchrotron Radiation, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    In this paper we present the progress made to (i) characterize the defect state of ultra-heavily damaged rock salt samples with up to more than 20 at% Na colloids, which had been irradiated with 0.5 MeV electrons at 100 C up to 10{sup 4} MGy (1000 GRad), and (ii) understand their physical properties. The explanation of the observations, made by means of a variety of experimental techniques, is not trivial and often the results obtained with different experimental techniques lead to conflicting interpretations. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Uncovering Heavily Obscured AGN with WISE and NuSTAR (United States)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Carroll, Christopher M.; Yan, Wei; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Hainline, Kevin N.; NuSTAR Obscured AGN Team


    Supermassive black holes gain their mass through accretion as active galactic nuclei (AGN), but it is now clear that a large fraction of this growth is "hidden" behind large columns of gas and dust. Of particular interest are Compton-thick (CT) AGN, with columns NH > 1024 cm-2, that have been difficult to identify using optical or soft X-ray surveys. We will present two studies of heavily obscured AGN that aim to uncover more of the full population of "hidden" growing black holes: (1) Analysis of the spectral energy distributions of millions of galaxies with photometry from WISE (mid-IR), UKIDSS (near-IR), and SDSS (optical), that uncovers large populations of weak or heavily buried AGN, and (2) NuSTAR observations of a sample of candidate highly obscured AGN, selected from WISE and SDSS photometry,and confirmed using SALT and Keck spectroscopy. The NuSTAR data reveal the existence of powerful CT quasars with extremely large columns NH > 1025 cm-2, which may represent a significant fraction of previously hidden black hole growth. This work is supported by NASA grant numbers NNX16AN48G and NNX15AP24G, and the NSF through grant numbers 1515364 and 1554584.

  8. Characteristics of Heavily Edited Objects in OpenStreetMap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mooney


    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of an analysis of the OpenStreetMap (OSM database for the United Kingdom (UK and Ireland (correct to April 2011. 15; 640 OSM ways (polygons and polylines, resulting in 316; 949 unique versions of these objects, were extracted and analysed from the OSM database for the UK and Ireland. In our analysis we only considered “heavily edited” objects in OSM: objects which have been edited 15 or more times. Our results show that there is no strong relationship between increasing numbers of contributors to a given object and the number of tags (metadata assigned to it. 87% of contributions/edits to these objects are performed by 11% of the total 4128 contributors. In 79% of edits additional spatial data (nodes are added to objects. The results in this paper do not attempt to evaluate the OSM data as good/poor quality but rather informs potential consumers of OSM data that the data itself is changing over time. In developing a better understanding of the characteristics of “heavily edited” objects there may be opportunities to use historical analysis in working towards quality indicators for OSM in the future.

  9. Raltitrexed combined with bevacizumab in heavily pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Cheng


    Full Text Available No standard chemotherapy regimen has been established for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC after progression on 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan. Here, we report the combination of raltitrexed and bevacizumab as a salvage regimen for the treatment of three heavily pretreated patients with KRAS mutant mCRC. All three patients had stable disease (SD according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST criteria, progression free survival (PFS were 3.0, 3.2 months for the first two patients and have not been reached for over 5 months for the third patient and no severe adverse effect was observed. The combination of raltitrexed plus bevacizumab in mCRC seems worthy of further investigation.

  10. Heavily doped silicon electrode for dielectrophoresis in high conductivity media (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongfeng; Tung, Kuan-Wen; Chiou, Pei-Yu


    A hemispherically shaped, heavily doped (N++) silicon electrode is proposed to overcome the challenges of dielectrophoretic (DEP) manipulation using a conventional metal electrode operating in high conductivity media. An N++ electrode decouples the strong electric field region from the electrode interface and provides a large interface capacitance to prevent surface charging in high conductivity media, thereby effectively suppressing electrochemical reactions. Compared to a conventional metal electrode, an N++ electrode can provide 3 times higher threshold voltage and a corresponding 9-fold enhancement of maximum DEP force in 1× phosphate-buffered saline buffer with an electrical conductivity of 1 S/m. Furthermore, an N++ silicon electrode has excellent thermal conductivity and low electrical impedance, ideal for powering massively parallel DEP manipulation in high conductivity media across a large area.

  11. Identification of MYC-Dependent Transcriptional Programs in Oncogene-Addicted Liver Tumors. (United States)

    Kress, Theresia R; Pellanda, Paola; Pellegrinet, Luca; Bianchi, Valerio; Nicoli, Paola; Doni, Mirko; Recordati, Camilla; Bianchi, Salvatore; Rotta, Luca; Capra, Thelma; Ravà, Micol; Verrecchia, Alessandro; Radaelli, Enrico; Littlewood, Trevor D; Evan, Gerard I; Amati, Bruno


    Tumors driven by activation of the transcription factor MYC generally show oncogene addiction. However, the gene expression programs that depend upon sustained MYC activity remain unknown. In this study, we employed a mouse model of liver carcinoma driven by a reversible tet-MYC transgene, combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation and gene expression profiling to identify MYC-dependent regulatory events. As previously reported, MYC-expressing mice exhibited hepatoblastoma- and hepatocellular carcinoma-like tumors, which regressed when MYC expression was suppressed. We further show that cellular transformation, and thus initiation of liver tumorigenesis, were impaired in mice harboring a MYC mutant unable to associate with the corepressor protein MIZ1 (ZBTB17). Notably, switching off the oncogene in advanced carcinomas revealed that MYC was required for the continuous activation and repression of distinct sets of genes, constituting no more than half of all genes deregulated during tumor progression and an even smaller subset of all MYC-bound genes. Altogether, our data provide the first detailed analysis of a MYC-dependent transcriptional program in a fully developed carcinoma and offer a guide to identifying the critical effectors contributing to MYC-driven tumor maintenance. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3463-72. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. β-Actin-dependent global chromatin organization and gene expression programs control cellular identity. (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Almuzzaini, Bader; Drou, Nizar; Kremb, Stephan; Yousif, Ayman; Farrants, Ann-Kristin Östlund; Gunsalus, Kristin; Percipalle, Piergiorgio


    During differentiation and development, cell fate and identity are established by waves of genetic reprogramming. Although the mechanisms are largely unknown, during these events, dynamic chromatin reorganization is likely to ensure that multiple genes involved in the same cellular functions are coregulated, depending on the nuclear environment. In this study, using high-content screening of embryonic fibroblasts from a β-actin knockout (KO) mouse, we found major chromatin rearrangements and changes in histone modifications, such as methylated histone (H)3-lysine-(K)9. Genome-wide H3K9 trimethylation-(Me)3 landscape changes correlate with gene up- and down-regulation in β-actin KO cells. Mechanistically, we found loss of chromatin association by the Brahma-related gene (Brg)/Brahma-associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex subunit Brg1 in the absence of β-actin. This actin-dependent chromatin reorganization was concomitant with the up-regulation of sets of genes involved in angiogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, and myofibroblast features in β-actin KO cells. Some of these genes and phenotypes were gained in a β-actin dose-dependent manner. Moreover, reintroducing a nuclear localization signal-containing β-actin in the knockout cells affected nuclear features and gene expression. Our results suggest that, by affecting the genome-wide organization of heterochromatin through the chromatin-binding activity of the BAF complex, β-actin plays an essential role in the determination of gene expression programs and cellular identity.-Xie, X., Almuzzaini, B., Drou, N., Kremb, S., Yousif, A., Östlund Farrants, A.-K., Gunsalus, K., Percipalle, P. β-Actin-dependent global chromatin organization and gene expression programs control cellular identity. © FASEB.

  13. Functional Python programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven


    This book is for developers who want to use Python to write programs that lean heavily on functional programming design patterns. You should be comfortable with Python programming, but no knowledge of functional programming paradigms is needed.

  14. Static and dynamic properties of heavily doped quantum vortices (United States)

    Pshenichnyuk, I. A.


    Quantum vortices in superfluids may capture matter and deposit it inside their core. By doping vortices with foreign particles one can effectively visualize them and study them experimentally. To acquire a better understanding of the interaction between quantum vortices and matter, and clarify the details of recent experiments, the properties of doped vortices are investigated here theoretically in the regimes where the doping mass becomes close to the total mass of superfluid particles forming a vortex. Such formations are dynamically stable and, possessing both vorticity and enhanced inertia, demonstrate properties that are different from the pure vortex case. The goal of this paper is to define and investigate the universal aspects of heavily doped vortex behavior, which can be realized in different types of quantum mixtures. The proposed 3D model is based on a system of coupled semiclassical matter wave equations that are solved numerically in a wide range of physical parameters. The size, geometry and binding energy of dopants in different regimes are discussed. The coupled motion of a vortex–dopant complex and decoupling conditions are studied. The reconnection of vortices, taken as an example of a fundamental process responsible for the evolution of a quantum turbulent state, is modeled to illustrate the difference between the light and heavy doping cases.

  15. Einstein's photoemission emission from heavily-doped quantized structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad


    This monograph solely investigates the Einstein's Photoemission(EP) from Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The EP in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields  that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determinations of different important physical quantities in HD 2D and 3D materials  and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring   physical properties in the presence of intense light waves w...

  16. Programming of left hand exploits task set but that of right hand depends on recent history. (United States)

    Tang, Rixin; Zhu, Hong


    There are many differences between the left hand and the right hand. But it is not clear if there is a difference in programming between left hand and right hand when the hands perform the same movement. In current study, we carried out two experiments to investigate whether the programming of two hands was equivalent or they exploited different strategies. In the first experiment, participants were required to use one hand to grasp an object with visual feedback or to point to the center of one object without visual feedback on alternate trials, or to grasp an object without visual feedback and to point the center of one object with visual feedback on alternating trials. They then performed the tasks with the other hand. The result was that previous pointing task affected current grasping when it was performed by the left hand, but not the right hand. In experiment 2, we studied if the programming of the left (or right) hand would be affected by the pointing task performed on the previous trial not only by the same hand, but also by the right (or left) hand. Participants pointed and grasped the objects alternately with two hands. The result was similar with Experiment 1, i.e., left-hand grasping was affected by right-hand pointing, whereas right-hand grasping was immune from the interference from left hand. Taken together, the results suggest that when open- and closed-loop trials are interleaved, motor programming of grasping with the right hand was affected by the nature of the online feedback on the previous trial only if it was a grasping trial, suggesting that the trial-to-trial transfer depends on sensorimotor memory and not on task set. In contrast, motor programming of grasping with the left hand can use information about the nature of the online feedback on the previous trial to specify the parameters of the movement, even when the type of movement that occurred was quite different (i.e., pointing) and was performed with the right hand. This suggests that

  17. Effects of Estrogen in Gender-dependent Fetal Programming of Adult Cardiovascular Dysfunction. (United States)

    Chen, Zewen; Wang, Lei; Ke, Jun; Xiao, DaLiao


    Epidemiological studies and experimental studies have demonstrated that intrauterine adverse environment increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. However, whether an individual develops a cardiovascular dysfunctional phenotype may depend on genetic background, age, and sex. In this review, we summarize some of the recent experimental animal studies in the developmental programming of adult CVD with an emphasis on sex differences and the potential role of estrogen in mediating sexual dimorphism. Few epidemiological studies report the effect of sex on the developmental programming of CVD. However, numerous experimental animal studies have shown a sex difference in fetal programming of adult cardiovascular dysfunction. Most of the animal studies indicate that male offspring develop cardiovascular dysfunction and CVD in adulthood, whereas adult females appear to be protected. Estrogen is one of the key factors that contributes to the sex difference of adult CVD. Estrogen/its receptor (ER) may interact with the RAS system by changes of DNA methylation patterns at the target gene promoter, serve as an antioxidant to counteract the prenatal insults-induced heightened ROS, and function as an eNOS activator to increase vasodilation, resulting in the protection of female offspring from the development of hypertension and other CVDs. These studies suggest that estrogen/ER may contribute to sex differences in cardiovascular response to an adverse intrauterine environment and play a significant role in modulating the cardiovascular response in adulthood. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  18. A Guide for the Management of Special Education Programs. 3.0 Educational Simulations. Newday Operations Guide for Drug Dependent Minor Programs. (United States)

    Santa Cruz County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    Presented is the third component, Educational Simulations, of a special day class educational program for drug dependent minors. One objective of the project is said to have been the identification of instructional methods and materials suited to drug dependent minors. Educational games and simulations designed to provide practice in reading and…

  19. Heavily loaded ferrite-polymer composites to produce high refractive index materials at centimetre wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Parke


    Full Text Available A cold-pressing technique has been developed for fabricating composites composed of a polytetrafluoroethylene-polymer matrix and a wide range of volume-fractions of MnZn-ferrite filler (0%–80%. The electromagnetic properties at centimetre wavelengths of all prepared composites exhibited good reproducibility, with the most heavily loaded composites possessing simultaneously high permittivity (180 ± 10 and permeability (23 ± 2. The natural logarithm of both the relative complex permittivity and permeability shows an approximately linear dependence with the volume fraction of ferrite. Thus, this simple method allows for the manufacture of bespoke materials required in the design and construction of devices based on the principles of transformation optics.

  20. Selectively excited blue luminescence in heavily Mg doped p-type GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colton, John S.; Yu, Peter Y.


    The emission at {approx}2.8 eV from heavily doped p-GaN, known as the blue luminescence (BL), has been studied by selective excitation using a dye laser tunable between 2.7-3.0 eV. The peak position and intensity of the BL are found to exhibit an unusual dependence on the excitation photon energy. We have explained our results with a shallow-donor and deep-acceptors pair recombination model which includes potential fluctuations induced by heavy doping. We found a ''critical energy'' of {approx}2.8 eV for the BL. Electron-hole pairs with energies above this energy are able to achieve quasi-thermal equilibrium while those with energies below 2.8 eV are strongly ''localized''.

  1. The Time Response of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers to Heavily Ionizing Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Artamonov, A; Bogomilov, M; Booth, C; Borghi, S; Catanesi, M G; Chimenti, P; Gastaldi, Ugo; Giani, S; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Grossheim, A; Guglielmi, A; Ivantchenko, V; Kolev, D; Meurer, C; Mezzetto, M; Panman, J; Popov, B; Radicioni, E; Schroeter, R; Temnikov, P; Chernyaev, E; Tsenov, R; Tsukerman, I; Wiebusch, C


    The HARP system of resistive plate chambers (RPCs) was designed to perform particle identification by the measurement of the difference in the time-of-flight of different particles. In previous papers an apparent discrepancy was shown between the response of the RPCs to minimum ionizing pions and heavily ionizing protons. Using the kinematics of elastic scattering off a hydrogen target a controlled beam of low momentum recoil protons was directed onto the chambers. With this method the trajectory and momentum, and hence the time-of-flight of the protons can be precisely predicted without need for a measurement of momentum of the protons. It is demonstrated that the measurement of the time-of-arrival of particles by the thin gas-gap glass RPC system of the HARP experiment depends on the primary ionization deposited by the particle in the detector.

  2. Enhanced diffusion of boron by oxygen precipitation in heavily boron-doped silicon (United States)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa; Ono, Toshiaki


    The enhanced diffusion of boron has been investigated by analyzing out-diffusion profiles in the vicinity of the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate with a resistivity of 8.2 mΩ cm and an oxide precipitate (O.P.) density of 108-1010 cm-3. It is found that the boron diffusion during annealing at 850-1000 °C is enhanced with the increase of the oxide precipitate density. On the basis of a model for boron diffusion mediated by silicon self-interstitials, we reveal that the enhanced diffusion is attributed to self-interstitials supersaturated as a result of the emission from oxide precipitates and the absorption by punched-out dislocations. In addition, the temperature dependence of the fraction of the self-interstitial emission obtained analyzing the diffusion enhancement well explains the morphology changes of oxide precipitates reported in literature.

  3. Random responses inflate statistical estimates in heavily skewed addictions data. (United States)

    King, Kevin M; Kim, Dale S; McCabe, Connor J


    Some respondents may respond at random to self-report surveys, rather than responding conscientiously (Meade and Craig, 2012), and this has only recently come to the attention of researchers in the addictions field (Godinho et al., 2016). Almost no research in the published addictions literature has reported screening for random responses. We illustrate how random responses can bias statistical estimates using simulated and real data, and how this is especially problematic in skewed data, as is common with substance use outcomes. We first tested the effects of varying amounts and types of random responses on covariance-based statistical estimates in distributions with varying amounts of skew. We replicated these findings in correlations from a real dataset (Add Health) by replacing varying amounts of real data with simulated random responses. Skew and the proportion of random responses influenced the amount and direction of bias. When the data were not skewed, uniformly random responses deflated estimates, while long-string random responses inflated estimates. As the distributions became more skewed, all types of random responses began to inflate estimates, even at very small proportions. We observed similar effects in the Add Health data. Failing to screen for random responses in survey data produces biased statistical estimates, and data with only 2.5% random responses can inflate covariance-based estimates (i.e., correlations, Cronbach's alpha, regression coefficients, factor loadings, etc.) when data are heavily skewed. Screening for random responses can substantially improve data quality, reliability and validity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Psychological changes in alcohol-dependent patients during a residential rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi I


    Full Text Available Ines Giorgi,1 Marcella Ottonello,2,3 Giovanni Vittadini,4 Giorgio Bertolotti5 1Psychology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione, IRCCS, Pavia, 2Department of Physical & Rehabilitation Medicine, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione, IRCCS, Genoa, 3Department of Medicine, PhD Program in Advanced Sciences and Technologies in Rehabilitation Medicine and Sport, Università di Tor Vergata, Rome, 4Alcohol Rehabilitation Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione, IRCCS, Pavia, 5Psychology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Clinica del Lavoro e della Riabilitazione, IRCCS, Tradate, Italy Background: Alcohol-dependent patients usually experience negative affects under the influence of alcohol, and these affective symptoms have been shown to decrease as a result of alcohol-withdrawal treatment. A recent cognitive–affective model suggests an interaction between drug motivation and affective symptoms. The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the psychological changes in subjects undergoing a residential rehabilitation program specifically designed for alcohol addiction, and to identify at discharge patients with greater affective symptoms and therefore more at risk of relapse.Materials and methods: The sample included 560 subjects (mean age 46.91±10.2 years who completed 28-day rehabilitation programs for alcohol addiction, following a tailored routine characterized by short duration and high intensity of medical and psychotherapeutic treatment. The psychological clinical profiles of anxiety, depression, psychological distress, psychological well-being, and self-perception of a positive change were assessed using the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment – Outcome Evaluation questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the program. The changes in the psychological variables of the questionnaire were identified and considered as outcome

  5. p53-dependent programmed necrosis controls germ cell homeostasis during spermatogenesis. (United States)

    Napoletano, Francesco; Gibert, Benjamin; Yacobi-Sharon, Keren; Vincent, Stéphane; Favrot, Clémentine; Mehlen, Patrick; Girard, Victor; Teil, Margaux; Chatelain, Gilles; Walter, Ludivine; Arama, Eli; Mollereau, Bertrand


    The importance of regulated necrosis in pathologies such as cerebral stroke and myocardial infarction is now fully recognized. However, the physiological relevance of regulated necrosis remains unclear. Here, we report a conserved role for p53 in regulating necrosis in Drosophila and mammalian spermatogenesis. We found that Drosophila p53 is required for the programmed necrosis that occurs spontaneously in mitotic germ cells during spermatogenesis. This form of necrosis involved an atypical function of the initiator caspase Dronc/Caspase 9, independent of its catalytic activity. Prevention of p53-dependent necrosis resulted in testicular hyperplasia, which was reversed by restoring necrosis in spermatogonia. In mouse testes, p53 was required for heat-induced germ cell necrosis, indicating that regulation of necrosis is a primordial function of p53 conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. Drosophila and mouse spermatogenesis will thus be useful models to identify inducers of necrosis to treat cancers that are refractory to apoptosis.

  6. Review and evaluation of online tobacco dependence treatment training programs for health care practitioners. (United States)

    Selby, Peter; Goncharenko, Karina; Barker, Megan; Fahim, Myra; Timothy, Valerie; Dragonetti, Rosa; Kemper, Katherine; Herie, Marilyn; Hays, J Taylor


    Training health care professionals is associated with increased capacity to deliver evidence-based smoking cessation interventions and increased quit rates among their patients. Online training programs hold promise to provide training but questions remain regarding the quality and usability of available programs. The aim was to assess the quality of English-language online courses in tobacco dependence treatment using a validated instrument. An environmental scan was conducted using the Google search engine to identify available online tobacco dependence treatment courses. The identified courses were then evaluated using the Peer Review Rubric for Online Learning, which was selected based on its ability to evaluate instructional design. It also has clear and concise criteria descriptions to ensure uniformity of evaluations by trained experts. A total of 39 courses were identified, of which 24 unique courses were assessed based on their accessibility and functionality during the period of evaluation. Overall, the course ratings indicated that 17 of 24 courses evaluated failed to meet minimal quality standards and none of the courses evaluated could be ranked as superior. However, many excelled in providing effective navigation, course rationale, and content. Many were weak in the use of instructional design elements, such as teaching effectiveness, learning strategies, instructor's role, and assessment and evaluation. Evaluation results and suggestions for improvement were shared with course administrators. Based on the courses evaluated in this review, course developers are encouraged to employ best practices in instructional design, such as cohesiveness of material, linearity of design, practice exercises, problem solving, and ongoing evaluation to improve existing courses and in the design of new online learning opportunities.

  7. Dose-dependent onset of regenerative program in neutron irradiated mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Fratini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tissue response to irradiation is not easily recapitulated by cell culture studies. The objective of this investigation was to characterize, the transcriptional response and the onset of regenerative processes in mouse skin irradiated with different doses of fast neutrons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To monitor general response to irradiation and individual animal to animal variation, we performed gene and protein expression analysis with both pooled and individual mouse samples. A high-throughput gene expression analysis, by DNA oligonucleotide microarray was done with three months old C57Bl/6 mice irradiated with 0.2 and 1 Gy of mono-energetic 14 MeV neutron compared to sham irradiated controls. The results on 440 irradiation modulated genes, partially validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR, showed a dose-dependent up-regulation of a sub-class of keratin and keratin associated proteins, and members of the S100 family of Ca(2+-binding proteins. Immunohistochemistry confirmed mRNA expression data enabled mapping of protein expression. Interestingly, proteins up-regulated in thickening epidermis: keratin 6 and S100A8 showed the most significant up-regulation and the least mouse-to-mouse variation following 0.2 Gy irradiation, in a concerted effort toward skin tissue regeneration. Conversely, mice irradiated at 1 Gy showed most evidence of apoptosis (Caspase-3 and TUNEL staining and most 8-oxo-G accumulation at 24 h post-irradiation. Moreover, no cell proliferation accompanied 1 Gy exposure as shown by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dose-dependent differential gene expression at the tissue level following in vivo exposure to neutron radiation is reminiscent of the onset of re-epithelialization and wound healing and depends on the proportion of cells carrying multiple chromosomal lesions in the entire tissue. Thus, this study presents in vivo evidence of a skin regenerative program exerted independently

  8. Developments for the calculation of heavily loaded journal bearings


    Barrett, D. J. S.


    This thesis describes the development of an ElastoHydroDynamic (EHD) bearing calculation. The effect of body forces is shown to be important for highly loaded bearings in reciprocating internal combustion engines. Extension of the program to rotating machinery includes an examination of instability in the shaft bearings of a turbocharger. The development of a parameter to predict cavitation damage in a bearing is promising. Several calculation results using the program are s...

  9. Family Violence: Effects of a Film Program for Alcohol Dependent Persons. (United States)

    Powers, Robert J.; And Others


    Compared film programs on family violence and alcoholism, in an alcohol rehabilitation program. Patients (N=77) were evaluated for their reactions to the two film programs. A majority of patients rated the film program on family violence very highly, indicating a need for such interventions in alcohol rehabilitation. (JAC)

  10. Selective amputation of the pharynx identifies a FoxA-dependent regeneration program in planaria (United States)

    Adler, Carolyn E; Seidel, Chris W; McKinney, Sean A; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro


    Planarian flatworms regenerate every organ after amputation. Adult pluripotent stem cells drive this ability, but how injury activates and directs stem cells into the appropriate lineages is unclear. Here we describe a single-organ regeneration assay in which ejection of the planarian pharynx is selectively induced by brief exposure of animals to sodium azide. To identify genes required for pharynx regeneration, we performed an RNAi screen of 356 genes upregulated after amputation, using successful feeding as a proxy for regeneration. We found that knockdown of 20 genes caused a wide range of regeneration phenotypes and that RNAi of the forkhead transcription factor FoxA, which is expressed in a subpopulation of stem cells, specifically inhibited regrowth of the pharynx. Selective amputation of the pharynx therefore permits the identification of genes required for organ-specific regeneration and suggests an ancient function for FoxA-dependent transcriptional programs in driving regeneration. DOI: PMID:24737865

  11. Highly precise and developmentally programmed genome assembly in Paramecium requires ligase IV-dependent end joining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Kapusta


    Full Text Available During the sexual cycle of the ciliate Paramecium, assembly of the somatic genome includes the precise excision of tens of thousands of short, non-coding germline sequences (Internal Eliminated Sequences or IESs, each one flanked by two TA dinucleotides. It has been reported previously that these genome rearrangements are initiated by the introduction of developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, which depend on the domesticated transposase PiggyMac. These DSBs all exhibit a characteristic geometry, with 4-base 5' overhangs centered on the conserved TA, and may readily align and undergo ligation with minimal processing. However, the molecular steps and actors involved in the final and precise assembly of somatic genes have remained unknown. We demonstrate here that Ligase IV and Xrcc4p, core components of the non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ, are required both for the repair of IES excision sites and for the circularization of excised IESs. The transcription of LIG4 and XRCC4 is induced early during the sexual cycle and a Lig4p-GFP fusion protein accumulates in the developing somatic nucleus by the time IES excision takes place. RNAi-mediated silencing of either gene results in the persistence of free broken DNA ends, apparently protected against extensive resection. At the nucleotide level, controlled removal of the 5'-terminal nucleotide occurs normally in LIG4-silenced cells, while nucleotide addition to the 3' ends of the breaks is blocked, together with the final joining step, indicative of a coupling between NHEJ polymerase and ligase activities. Taken together, our data indicate that IES excision is a "cut-and-close" mechanism, which involves the introduction of initiating double-strand cleavages at both ends of each IES, followed by DSB repair via highly precise end joining. This work broadens our current view on how the cellular NHEJ pathway has cooperated with domesticated transposases for the emergence of new

  12. Psychological Evaluation of Animal-assisted Intervention (AAI) Programs Involving Visiting Dogs and Cats for Alcohol Dependents: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Narita, Shin; Yoshihara, Eiji; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko


    The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation method for animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs involving Mood Check List-Short form.2 (MCL-S.2) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for psychiatric daycare of Japanese alcohol. dependents. A total of 36 alcohol dependents completed the study and questionnaires assessing their state. A single session of AAI reduced both subjective and physiological measures of state anxiety (A-State); and this program induced a significant reduction in the anxiety after an AAI program session with the dogs and cats involved in the intervention (p = 0.001). The Wilcoxon t-test showed that there were also significant differences in the "anxiety", "pleasantness", and "relaxation". scores for MCL-S.2 among the alcohol dependents, before and after AAI; a significantly decreased "anxiety" score (p = 0.006), and increased "pleasantness" (p = 0.002) and "relaxation" (p=0.012) scores for MCL-S.2 after AAI. The results of this study indicated that alcohol dependents who experienced a group AAI session-program exhibited significant improvements in their feeling; decreased anxiety, and increased pleasantness and relaxation.

  13. Modeling approaches to management of nitrate contamination of groundwater in a heavily cultivated area (United States)

    Koh, E.; Park, Y.; Lee, K.


    A three-dimensional variably-saturated groundwater flow and reactive transport modeling framework was implemented to simulate nitrate contamination in a heavily cultivated area in Jeju volcanic Island. In the study area, two localized aquifer systems (perched and regional groundwater) exist due to distributions of impermeable clay layers beneath the perched groundwater. The approximate application rate of chemical fertilizers was surveyed to be 627.9 kg-N/ha per year, which is much higher than the average annual chemical fertilizer usage in Jeju Island, 172 kg-N/ha per year. Severe nitrate contamination has been observed in the perched groundwater system and such perched groundwater has influenced regional groundwater quality, through poorly cemented wall of the distributed throughout the region wells. For a part of managing plan of nitrate contamination in the island, a numerical modeling framework was developed for various scenarios associated with the factors affecting nitrate contamination in the study area (i.e., usage amount of chemical fertilizers, cultivated methods, grouting condition of wells). This work provides useful information to suggest effective ways to manage nitrate contamination of groundwater in the agricultural field. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011-0001120) and by BK21 project of Korean Government.

  14. Annealing effect on the electron spin dynamics in heavily Mn-doped (Ga,Mn)As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Han; Chen, Lin; Gao, Haixia; Zhao, Jianhua; Zhang, Xinhui [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)


    A temperature- and photo-excitation-density-dependent electron spin dephasing process has been studied by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) measurements for heavily-doped (Ga,Mn)As after appropriate annealing treatment. Unlike the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As in which s-d scattering is dominant for spin dephasing at low temperature, the exchange scattering induced by Mn ions is efficiently suppressed after annealing. For annealed (Ga,Mn)As, the p-d exchange coupling proves to be important for the electron spin dephasing process. Moreover, the Coulomb scattering arising from the weakly-localized holes and Mn impurities is revealed to play an important role in the electron spin dephasing after annealing. Our results demonstrate that the impurity induced disorder plays a significant role in the electron spin-dephasing process in (Ga,Mn)As when Mn is over doped by as much as 15%, which is a critical issue that needs to be considered to achieve high-quality (Ga,Mn)As thin films with a higher Curie temperature T{sub C} and better functionality.

  15. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme


    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  16. Generation Expansion Planning with Large Amounts of Wind Power via Decision-Dependent Stochastic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Yiduo; Zheng, Qipeng; Wang, Jianhui


    , the probability distribution function is determined by not only input parameters but also decision variables. To deal with the nonlinear constraints in our model, a quasi-exact solution approach is then introduced to reformulate the multistage stochastic investment model to a mixed-integer linear programming......Power generation expansion planning needs to deal with future uncertainties carefully, given that the invested generation assets will be in operation for a long time. Many stochastic programming models have been proposed to tackle this challenge. However, most previous works assume predetermined...

  17. Programming a randomized dependent group contingency and common stimuli to promote durable behavior change. (United States)

    Cariveau, Tom; Kodak, Tiffany


    Low levels of academic engagement may impede students' acquisition of skills. Intervening on student behavior using group contingencies may be a feasible way to increase academic engagement during group instruction. The current study examined the effect of a randomized dependent group contingency on levels of academic engagement for second-grade participants receiving small-group reading and writing instruction. The results showed that a randomized dependent group contingency increased the academic engagement of primary participants and several of the other participants during small-group instruction. The findings also showed that high levels of academic engagement were maintained when common stimuli were present and the dependent group contingency was withdrawn. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. P3a amplitude predicts successful treatment program completion in substance-dependent individuals. (United States)

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Baldridge, Robyn M; Stanford, Matthew S


    This study examined P3a amplitude as a direct predictor of treatment success for substance dependence. Participants were 35 adults (27 men, 8 women) undergoing treatment for substance dependence at an urban residential treatment facility between October 2005 and July 2007. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria were used to confirm substance dependence. P3a amplitude was significantly smaller for those who dropped out of treatment. Discriminant function analysis confirmed that P3a amplitude was a robust predictor of treatment completion, more sensitive than other measures including substance abuse severity. Implications for the interpretation of P3a amplitude as an index of executive function are discussed.

  19. Expressing Coarse-Grain Dependencies Among Tasks in Shared Memory Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Karlsson, Sven; Madsen, Jan


    Designers of embedded systems face tight constraints on resources, response time and cost. The ability to analyze embedded systems is essential to timely delivery of new designs. Many analysis techniques model parallel programs as task graphs. Task graphs capture the worst-case execution times of...

  20. Treating Tobacco Dependence: Development of a Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for Outpatient Mental Health Clinics (United States)

    Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Wolfsdorf, Barbara A.; Morissette, Sandra Baker


    Response to smoking cessation treatment programs sharply decreases when applied to smokers with psychiatric comorbidities. Consequently, the development of smoking cessation treatments that address the needs of psychiatric patients is greatly needed. The primary purpose of this article is to detail the process of development of an empirically…



    Reed, J.


    An airblast prediction program for explosions, called BLASTO has been written for use with IBM-PC (or compatible) computers, to produce overpressure-distance curves for a variety of interactive input conditions. Several common units are allowed for each input, but calculation and output are in SI metric units. Explosion yield (chemical or nuclear) and ambient atmospheric pressure are used to generate a referenced 'Standard' overpressure-distance curve. Explosives may be point charges at any h...

  2. Methylation-dependent loss of RIP3 expression in cancer represses programmed necrosis in response to chemotherapeutics. (United States)

    Koo, Gi-Bang; Morgan, Michael J; Lee, Da-Gyum; Kim, Woo-Jung; Yoon, Jung-Ho; Koo, Ja Seung; Kim, Seung Il; Kim, Soo Jung; Son, Mi Kwon; Hong, Soon Sun; Levy, Jean M Mulcahy; Pollyea, Daniel A; Jordan, Craig T; Yan, Pearlly; Frankhouser, David; Nicolet, Deedra; Maharry, Kati; Marcucci, Guido; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Cho, Hyeseong; Thorburn, Andrew; Kim, You-Sun


    Receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) is an essential part of the cellular machinery that executes "programmed" or "regulated" necrosis. Here we show that programmed necrosis is activated in response to many chemotherapeutic agents and contributes to chemotherapy-induced cell death. However, we show that RIP3 expression is often silenced in cancer cells due to genomic methylation near its transcriptional start site, thus RIP3-dependent activation of MLKL and downstream programmed necrosis during chemotherapeutic death is largely repressed. Nevertheless, treatment with hypomethylating agents restores RIP3 expression, and thereby promotes sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in a RIP3-dependent manner. RIP3 expression is reduced in tumors compared to normal tissue in 85% of breast cancer patients, suggesting that RIP3 deficiency is positively selected during tumor growth/development. Since hypomethylating agents are reasonably well-tolerated in patients, we propose that RIP3-deficient cancer patients may benefit from receiving hypomethylating agents to induce RIP3 expression prior to treatment with conventional chemotherapeutics.

  3. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system having a heavily doped n-type region (United States)

    DePoy, David M.; Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.


    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion semiconductor device is provided which incorporates a heavily doped n-type region and which, as a consequence, has improved TPV conversion efficiency. The thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes an emitter layer having first and second opposed sides and a base layer in contact with the first side of the emitter layer. A highly doped n-type cap layer is formed on the second side of the emitter layer or, in another embodiment, a heavily doped n-type emitter layer takes the place of the cap layer.

  4. Job-dependent prevalence of selected risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the prevention program participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bryła


    Full Text Available Background: The paper aims to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors taking into account the job type among CVD Prevention and Early Detection Program participants and to assess the likelihood of positive changes. Materials and methods: A group of 393 Program participants was the subject of our observation twice (2006-2008, and 2009-2011. The study subjects had their arterial blood pressure measured. We also analysed the concentration of lipids and glucose before breakfast and anthropometric measurements. Moreover, we used a survey questionnaire about the socio-economic situation of the study subjects, their health behaviors and status. The obtained results were subjected to a statistical treatment, including the Chi2 independence test and logistic regression. Results: Our study confirmed an association between the job type and arterial blood pressure, lipid disorders and prevalence of diabetes. Blue-collar workers suffered more often from CVD risk factors (arterial hypertension, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides, high glucose level before breakfast, diabetes, overweight, obesity than their white-collar colleagues. A 3-year observation showed a higher chance for positive changes in total cholesterol (OR = 2.90, triglycerides (OR = 2.91, glucose before breakfast (OR = 3.11 and body mass index (OR = 2.56 among white-collar workers. Conclusions: The assessment of the prevalence of CVD risk factors indicated a worse situation among blue-collar workers. We estimated the likelihood of positive changes three years after the launch of the prevention program. It turned out to be higher among white-collar workers. Med Pr 2013;64(3:307–315

  5. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John Paul


    A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  6. Prenatal glucocorticoids and maternal smoking during pregnancy independently program adult nicotine dependence in daughters: A 40-year prospective study (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George; Shenassa, Edmond; Rodriguez, Daniel; Niaura, Raymond; LeWinn, Kaja; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Buka, Stephen L.


    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is an independent risk factor for offspring nicotine dependence (ND), but mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated prenatal glucocorticoid (cortisol) and androgen (testosterone) associations with offspring ND over 40 years, and the possibility that prenatal glucocorticoids and androgens would mediate links between MSDP and offspring ND. Methods Participants were 1,086 mother-adult offspring pairs (59% female) from the New England Family Study, a 40-year longitudinal follow up of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. MSDP was assessed prospectively at each prenatal visit. Maternal cortisol, testosterone, and cotinine (nicotine metabolite), were assayed from third trimester maternal sera. Offspring lifetime ND was assessed via structured interview. Results Significant bivariate associations emerged for: a) MSDP/cotinine and lifetime ND, and b) maternal cortisol and lifetime ND, for daughters only. In multivariate models, maternal cortisol and MSDP/cotinine remained significantly and independently associated with increased odds of daughters’ lifetime ND. However, cortisol did not mediate the MSDP-lifetime ND relation. No associations emerged between maternal testosterone and offspring ND. Conclusions Results provide the first evidence in support of prenatal glucocorticoid programming of adult ND over 40 years in daughters only. Our study highlights two independent prenatal pathways leading to increased risk for ND in daughters: elevated prenatal glucocorticoids and MSDP/nicotine exposure. Daughter-specific effects of glucocorticoid and MSDP programming over 40 years highlight the breadth and persistence of sexually dimorphic programming effects in humans. Results do not support androgen programming of offspring ND. PMID:24034414

  7. A Targetable EGFR-Dependent Tumor-Initiating Program in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Savage


    Full Text Available Summary: Therapies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR have variable and unpredictable responses in breast cancer. Screening triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs, we identify a subset responsive to EGFR inhibition by gefitinib, which displays heterogeneous expression of wild-type EGFR. Deep single-cell RNA sequencing of 3,500 cells from an exceptional responder identified subpopulations displaying distinct biological features, where elevated EGFR expression was significantly enriched in a mesenchymal/stem-like cellular cluster. Sorted EGFRhi subpopulations exhibited enhanced stem-like features, including ALDH activity, sphere-forming efficiency, and tumorigenic and metastatic potential. EGFRhi cells gave rise to EGFRhi and EGFRlo cells in primary and metastatic tumors, demonstrating an EGFR-dependent expansion and hierarchical state transition. Similar tumorigenic EGFRhi subpopulations were identified in independent PDXs, where heterogeneous EGFR expression correlated with gefitinib sensitivity. This provides new understanding for an EGFR-dependent hierarchy in TNBC and for patient stratification for therapeutic intervention. : Savage et al. demonstrate that sensitivity to EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib, in triple-negative breast cancer is paradoxically associated with EGFR heterogeneity. Using single-cell RNA sequencing in conjunction with functional assays, they identify TNBC tumors in which EGFR expression identifies cells with tumor-initiating capacity whose proliferative expansion is sensitive to EGFR inhibition. Keywords: breast cancer, tumor heterogeneity, patient-derived xenograft, single-cell RNA sequencing, EGFR inhibition, therapeutic response, tumor-initiating cell, cell hierarchy, BRCA1 mutation

  8. Impaired respiration elicits SrrAB-dependent programmed cell lysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Mashruwala, Ameya A; Guchte, Adriana van de; Boyd, Jeffrey M


    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface or each other. Biofilm-associated cells are the etiologic agents of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. S. aureus increases biofilm formation in response to hypoxia, but how this occurs is unknown. In the current study we report that oxygen influences biofilm formation in its capacity as a terminal electron acceptor for cellular respiration. Genetic, physiological, or chemical inhibition of respiratory processes elicited increased biofilm formation. Impaired respiration led to increased cell lysis via divergent regulation of two processes: increased expression of the AtlA murein hydrolase and decreased expression of wall-teichoic acids. The AltA-dependent release of cytosolic DNA contributed to increased biofilm formation. Further, cell lysis and biofilm formation were governed by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system. Data presented support a model wherein SrrAB-dependent biofilm formation occurs in response to the accumulation of reduced menaquinone.

  9. Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoya, T. Nakamura, T. Matushita, T. Muro, H. Okazaki, M. Arita, K. Shimada, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, T. Takenouchi, H. Kawarada and T. Oguchi


    Full Text Available We have performed soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SXARPES of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond films with different B concentrations in order to study the origin of the metallic behavior of superconducting diamond. SXARPES results clearly show valence band dispersions with a bandwidth of ~23 eV and with a top of the valence band at gamma point in the Brillouin zone, which are consistent with the calculated valence band dispersions of pure diamond. Boron concentration-dependent band dispersions near the Fermi level (EF exhibit a systematic shift of EF, indicating depopulation of electrons due to hole doping. These SXARPES results indicate that diamond bands retain for heavy boron doping and holes in the diamond band are responsible for the metallic states leading to superconductivity at low temperature. A high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy spectrum near EF of a heavily boron-doped diamond superconductor is also presented.

  10. [Review and perspective of a long-term follow-up of two cohorts of workers heavily exposed to asbestos]. (United States)

    Chamoux, Alain


    National screening programs for detection of breast, colon and cervical cancers have been set up in France. Occupational cancers are excluded from these programs. Surveillance is left to the initiative of former employees who can initiate post-professional medical monitoring. This study describes an experience of such monitoring organised by the health insurance in collaboration with "victims". The long term follow-up, every two years, of 324 workers directly and heavily exposed to asbestos confirms the high risk of developing lung cancer, mesothelioma or asbestosis, the latter at times rapidly evolving. The early discovery of 3 bronchopulmonary cancers points to the interest of an annual or biannual routine screening. While new imaging techniques reduce by a factor of 8 irradiation, without significantly affecting the diagnostic capacity, the health benefit provided by annual monitoring scanner in heavy smokers favors an early detection program for lung cancers. The population targeted for such a screening (active or former smoker with pleural plaques) should be defined in more detail. The increasingly frequent observation of lung or pleural changes besides the populations at risk should also be considered. Therefore the detecting procedures applied to those workers indirectly or discontinuously exposed should be reassessed (only 1 TDM at 60 y, or on retirement, for the relevant occupations). These data suggest that the recommendation HAS 2010 for post-professional screening of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos should be reconsidered, particularly in case of pleural plaques. An organized screening program needs to be overhauled.

  11. OpenMP GNU and Intel Fortran programs for solving the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation (United States)

    Young-S., Luis E.; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Lončar, Vladimir; Vudragović, Dušan; Balaž, Antun


    We present Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) version of Fortran 90 programs for solving the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, optimized for use with GNU and Intel compilers. We use the split-step Crank-Nicolson algorithm for imaginary- and real-time propagation, which enables efficient calculation of stationary and non-stationary solutions, respectively. The present OpenMP programs are designed for computers with multi-core processors and optimized for compiling with both commercially-licensed Intel Fortran and popular free open-source GNU Fortran compiler. The programs are easy to use and are elaborated with helpful comments for the users. All input parameters are listed at the beginning of each program. Different output files provide physical quantities such as energy, chemical potential, root-mean-square sizes, densities, etc. We also present speedup test results for new versions of the programs. Program files doi: Licensing provisions: Apache License 2.0 Programming language: OpenMP GNU and Intel Fortran 90. Computer: Any multi-core personal computer or workstation with the appropriate OpenMP-capable Fortran compiler installed. Number of processors used: All available CPU cores on the executing computer. Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 180 (2009) 1888; ibid.204 (2016) 209. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Not completely. It does supersede previous Fortran programs from both references above, but not OpenMP C programs from Comput. Phys. Commun. 204 (2016) 209. Nature of problem: The present Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) Fortran programs, optimized for use with commercially-licensed Intel Fortran and free open-source GNU Fortran compilers, solve the time-dependent nonlinear partial differential (GP) equation for a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in one (1d), two (2d), and three (3d) spatial dimensions for

  12. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW


    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  13. Becoming a Heavily Tattooed Young Body: From a Bodily Experience to a Body Project (United States)

    Ferreira, Vitor Sérgio


    Why some young people start to tattoo their bodies? And why some of them keep going on with this practice, until having all body tattooed? What doing so means to them? These are some of the questions that underlie a qualitative research project carried out in Portugal on heavily tattooed young people. In this article, the author discusses their…

  14. In situ observation of triple junction motion during recovery of heavily deformed aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hughes, Darcy A.; Hansen, Niels


    Microstructural evolution during in situ annealing of heavily cold-rolled aluminum has been studied by transmission electron microscopy, confirming that an important recovery mechanism is migration of triple junctions formed by three lamellar boundaries (Y-junctions). The migrating Y...

  15. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ~ 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.


    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength...

  16. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.


    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Results of optical-absorption experiments on heavily irradiated NaCl single crystals are presented. The dose rates were between 4 and 250 Mrad/h; the doses between 1 and 7 Grad. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of 20-150-degrees-C. Because of the intense optical bands, the thickness of

  18. Heavily Germanium-Doped Silica Fiber With a Flat Normal Dispersion Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chun-can; Wang, M. H.; Wu, J.


    A heavily germanium-doped (Ge-doped) silica fiber with a four-layer refractive index profile is proposed to obtain all normal flat dispersion property. The waveguide dispersion in the fiber can be modified by adjusting the fiber parameters, including the refractive indices and the core radiuses...

  19. The ground state of metallic nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl-KBF4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherkasov, FG; L'vov, SG; Tikhonov, DA; Den Hartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI


    ESR, NMR and static magnetic susceptibility measurements of heavily irradiated NaCl-K and NaCl-KBF4 are reported. Up to 10% of the NaCl-molecules are transformed into metallic Na nanoparticles and Cl-2 precipitates. In addition, there are paramagnetic F- and F-aggregates, which are coupled by

  20. The ground state of metallic nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl–KBF4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherkasov, F.G.; L’vov, S.G.; Tikhonov, D.A.; Hartog, H.W. den; Vainshtein, D.I.


    ESR, NMR and static magnetic susceptibility measurements of heavily irradiated NaCl–K and NaCl–KBF4 are reported. Up to 10% of the NaCl-molecules are transformed into metallic Na nanoparticles and Cl2 precipitates. In addition, there are paramagnetic F- and F-aggregates, which are coupled by

  1. Approaching tobacco dependence in youngsters: impact of an interactive smoking cessation program in a population of Romanian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Esanu


    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive smoking cessation program when first implemented in a naïve population of Romanian adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess youngsters’ attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco dependence, their compliance to smoking cessation interventions and success rate of a standard smoking cessation pilot program.Materials and methods: A total of 231 subjects 14-19 years old participated in the Adolescent Smoking Cessation (ASC pilot program in Romania in 2005. Subjects were evaluated based on the ASC questionnaire, a validated set of questions about smoking and cessation profile, whether current smoker or not. Smoking status was validated by carbon monoxide determination in exhaled air. Participants were delivered 6 interactive ASC sessions about smoking hazards and methods to quit smoking. A final evaluation was done to assess overall program’s impact and to reward quitters and reducers by prizes.Results: Study population was made of 52.4% every day smokers, 10.4% at least once/week but not every day smokers, 6% less than once/week smokers, 23.4% never smokers and 7.8% ex-smokers. Cessation rate was 12.3% in every day smokers and 16.6 % in at least once a week but not every day smokers. Also, 4.1% every day smokers and 30 % at least once/week not every day smokers reduced number of cigarettes smoked/day. The program registered a high attendance rate/sessions as 85.2 % of subjects were present in all sessions. Also, significant changes occurred in participant’s beliefs about smoking and cessation.Conclusions: Pilot ASC was an efficient program with 12.3% of daily smokers to quit smoking and its positive impact on personal smoking and cessation beliefs in 90 % of participants. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 150-155

  2. Mouse prenatal platelet-forming lineages share a core transcriptional program but divergent dependence on MPL. (United States)

    Potts, Kathryn S; Sargeant, Tobias J; Dawson, Caleb A; Josefsson, Emma C; Hilton, Douglas J; Alexander, Warren S; Taoudi, Samir


    The thrombopoietic environment of the neonate is established during prenatal life; therefore, a comprehensive understanding of platelet-forming cell development during embryogenesis is critical to understanding the etiology of early-onset thrombocytopenia. The recent discovery that the first platelet-forming cells of the conceptus are not megakaryocytes (MKs) but diploid platelet-forming cells (DPFCs) revealed a previously unappreciated complexity in thrombopoiesis. This raises important questions, including the following. When do conventional MKs appear? Do pathogenic genetic lesions of adult MKs affect DPFCs? What role does myeloproliferative leukemia virus (MPL), a key regulator of adult megakaryopoiesis, play in prenatal platelet-forming lineages? We performed a comprehensive study to determine the spatial and temporal appearance of prenatal platelet-forming lineages. We demonstrate that DPFCs originate in the yolk sac and then rapidly migrate to other extra- and intraembryonic tissues. Using gene disruption models of Gata1 and Nfe2, we demonstrate that perturbing essential adult MK genes causes an analogous phenotype in the early embryo before the onset of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell-driven (definitive) hematopoiesis. Finally, we present the surprising finding that DPFC and MK commitment from their respective precursors is MPL independent in vivo but that completion of MK differentiation and establishment of the prenatal platelet mass is dependent on MPL expression. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. LRH-1-dependent programming of mitochondrial glutamine processing drives liver cancer. (United States)

    Xu, Pan; Oosterveer, Maaike H; Stein, Sokrates; Demagny, Hadrien; Ryu, Dongryeol; Moullan, Norman; Wang, Xu; Can, Emine; Zamboni, Nicola; Comment, Arnaud; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina


    Various tumors develop addiction to glutamine to support uncontrolled cell proliferation. Here we identify the nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) as a key regulator in the process of hepatic tumorigenesis through the coordination of a noncanonical glutamine pathway that is reliant on the mitochondrial and cytosolic transaminases glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1), which fuel anabolic metabolism. In particular, we show that gain and loss of function of hepatic LRH-1 modulate the expression and activity of mitochondrial glutaminase 2 (GLS2), the first and rate-limiting step of this pathway. Acute and chronic deletion of hepatic LRH-1 blunts the deamination of glutamine and reduces glutamine-dependent anaplerosis. The robust reduction in glutaminolysis and the limiting availability of α-ketoglutarate in turn inhibit mTORC1 signaling to eventually block cell growth and proliferation. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of LRH-1 in coordinating glutamine-induced metabolism and signaling to promote hepatocellular carcinogenesis. © 2016 Xu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. GEMINI/GeMS Observations Unveil the Structure of the Heavily Obscured Globular Cluster Liller 1. (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Miocchi, P.; Massari, D.


    By exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive System at the GEMINI South Telescope, we investigated the structural and physical properties of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge. We have obtained the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagram published so far for this cluster, reaching {{K}s}˜ 19 (below the main-sequence turnoff level). We used these data to redetermine the center of gravity of the system, finding that it is located about 2.″2 southeast from the literature value. We also built new star density and surface brightness profiles for the cluster and rederived its main structural and physical parameters (scale radii, concentration parameter, central mass density, total mass). We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated (concentration parameter c=1.74) and less extended (tidal radius {{r}t}=298\\prime\\prime and core radius {{r}c}=5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 39) than previously thought. By using these newly determined structural parameters, we estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be {{M}tot}=2.3+0.3-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } ({{M}tot}=1.5+0.2-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } for a Kroupa initial mass function), which is comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy (ω Centari and Terzan 5). Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate (after Terzan 5) among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da

  5. Electrical activation of nitrogen heavily implanted 3C-SiC(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fan, E-mail: [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sharma, Yogesh; Shah, Vishal; Jennings, Mike [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Pérez-Tomás, Amador [ICN2 – Institut Catala de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Myronov, Maksym [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Fisher, Craig [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Leadley, David [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mawby, Phil [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Nitrogen is fully activated by 1175 °C annealing for 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} doped 3C-SiC. • Free donor concentration is found to readily saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. • 3C-SiC is found to have complete donor thermal ionization above 150 K. • Donor in 1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} nitrogen implanted 3C-SiC has an energy level ∼15 meV. • The SiO{sub 2} cap is found to have a bigger influence on low and medium doped samples. - Abstract: A degenerated wide bandgap semiconductor is a rare system. In general, implant levels lie deeper in the band-gap and carrier freeze-out usually takes place at room temperature. Nevertheless, we have observed that heavily doped n-type degenerated 3C-SiC films are achieved by nitrogen implantation level of ∼6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} at 20 K. According to temperature dependent Hall measurements, nitrogen activation rates decrease with the doping level from almost 100% (1.5 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, donor level 15 meV) to ∼12% for 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Free donors are found to saturate in 3C-SiC at ∼7 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The implanted film electrical performances are characterized as a function of the dopant doses and post implantation annealing (PIA) conditions by fabricating Van der Pauw structures. A deposited SiO{sub 2} layer was used as the surface capping layer during the PIA process to study its effect on the resultant film properties. From the device design point of view, the lowest sheet resistivity (∼1.4 mΩ cm) has been observed for medium doped (4 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) sample with PIA 1375 °C 2 h without a SiO{sub 2} cap.

  6. Individualized assessment and treatment program for alcohol dependence: results of an initial study to train coping skills. (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Kadden, Ronald M; Kabela-Cormier, Elise


    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBT) are among the most popular interventions offered for alcohol and other substance use disorders, but it is not clear how they achieve their effects. CBT is purported to exert its beneficial effects by altering coping skills, but data supporting coping changes as the mechanism of action are mixed. The purpose of this pilot study was to test a treatment in which coping skills were trained in a highly individualized way, allowing us to determine if such training would result in an effective treatment. Participants were assigned randomly to a comprehensive packaged CBT program (PCBT), or to an individualized assessment and treatment program (IATP). The IATP program employed experience sampling via cellphone to assess coping skills prior to treatment, and provided therapists with a detailed understanding of patients' coping strengths and deficits. Out-patient treatment. A total of 110 alcohol-dependent men and women. Participants in both conditions completed experience sampling of situations, drinking and coping efforts prior to, and following, 12 weeks of treatment. Time-line follow-back procedures were also used to record drinking at baseline and post-treatment. IATP yielded higher proportion of days abstinent (PDA) at post-treatment (P coping responses and less drinking in high-risk situations, as recorded by experience sampling at post-treatment. Post-treatment coping response rates were associated with decreases in drinking. The IATP approach was more successful than PCBT at training adaptive coping responses for use in situations presenting a high risk for drinking. The highly individualized IATP approach may prove to be an effective treatment strategy for alcohol-dependent patients.

  7. The Effect of Modified "Aggression Replacement Training" Program on Self-efficacy of Adolescents with Insulin-dependent Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mazlom


    Full Text Available Background: Self-efficacy is a crucial factor in controlling adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Subsequently the negative behavioral reactions such as aggression adversely affect on self-efficacy. Therefore, interventions are essential to reduce the aggression and to improve the self- efficacy in these patients. Aim: To determine the efficacy of the modified "aggression replacement training" program on self-efficacy of adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes. Methods: In this clinical trial, 70 adult subjects with IDDM who were referred to Parsian Diabetes clinic of Mashhad in 2014 were divided into two groups of intervention and control. The intervention program, including three aspects including: anger control training, social skills training and moral reasoning training was performed in five sessions, each 1.5-2 hours. A five-day interval was between the sessions and each group consisted of 8-10 individuals. The self-management standard questionnaire of “insulin-dependent diabetes management self-efficacy scale (IDMSE” was filled before the intervention and two months afterwards. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 with paired and Independent t-tests. Results: In this study, 38.5 and 61.5 percent of the subjects were boys and girls, respectively with total mean age of 15.9±2. The self-efficacy of the subjects before the intervention was not significantly different within the groups (p=0/57. Nevertheless in post-intervention assessment, the self-efficacy of the Intervention group significantly increased (49.0±11.1 compared to the control group (33.7±5.5 (p

  8. VNAP2: a computer program for computation of two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible, turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, M.C.


    VNAP2 is a computer program for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing-length model, a one-equation model, or the Jones-Launder two-equation model. The geometry may be a single- or a dual-flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference-plane-characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free-jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet-powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free-jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.

  9. Evaluation of Jump into Action: A Program to Reduce the Risk of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in School Children on the Texas-Mexico Border. (United States)

    Holcomb, J. David; Lira, Juanita; Kingery, Paul M.; Smith, D. W.; Lane, Dorothy; Goodway, Jackie


    Evaluated Jump into Action, a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)-prevention program that encouraged students to eat well and exercise regularly to reduce NIDDM risks. Surveys of predominantly Hispanic fifth graders and their teachers at Texas-Mexico border schools indicated that the program increased NIDDM-prevention knowledge and…

  10. SGOTL: A Computer Program for Modeling High-Resolution, Height-Dependent Gravity Effect of Ocean Tide Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang Jiu-Fu Huang


    Full Text Available SGOTL, a computer package coded in FORTRAN, has been developed to model the gravity effect due to ocean tide loading (OTL, especially for a coastal station with large ocean tides. SGOTL uses a regional and a global tide model to account separately for near (inner and far (outer zone contributions, and optimizes an inner-zone region and grid interval for numerical convolution. Height dependent Green¡¦s functions for Newtonian and elastic effects are developed. The coastline is defined by the full-resolution GMT shoreline, and optionally a digital elevation model (DEM. A case study using gravity observations at the Hsinchu superconducting gravity station and some offshore islands around the Taiwan Strait suggests that SGOTL outperforms some selected global OTL programs and achieves an accuracy of 0.1 μGal for 8 leading tidal constituents.

  11. The use of bonded partial ceramic restorations to recover heavily compromised teeth. (United States)

    Politano, Gianfranco; Fabianelli, Andrea; Papacchini, Federica; Cerutti, Antonio

    Restorative procedures are accompanied by a reduction of tooth stability, a decrease of fracture resistance, and an increase in deflection of weakened cusps. The choice between a direct or an indirect restorative technique, mainly in posterior areas, is a challenge, and involves biomechanical, anatomical, functional, esthetic, and financial considerations. In this article, the pros and cons of direct restorations are examined, as well as an analysis of indirect restorations and an overview of dental ceramics. In particular, several clinical uses of lithium disilicate overlays with a circumferential adhesive ferrule effect are proposed: heavily compromised vital teeth with thin walls, cracked teeth, and endodontically treated molars. Clinical procedures are described step by step on the basis of data from scientific literature. In conclusion, the use of lithium disilicate in combination with adhesive technologies can lead to a more conservative, economic, and esthetic approach in the restoration of heavily compromised teeth.

  12. Debt relief and public health spending in heavily indebted poor countries. (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev; Clements, Benedict; Guin-Siu, Maria Teresa; Leruth, Luc


    The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, which was launched in 1996, is the first comprehensive effort by the international community to reduce the external debt of the world's poorest countries. The Initiative will generate substantial savings relative to current and past public spending on health and education in these countries. Although there is ample scope for raising public health spending in heavily indebted poor countries, it may not be advisable to spend all the savings resulting from HIPC resources for this purpose. Any comprehensive strategy for tackling poverty should also focus on improving the efficiency of public health outlays and on reallocating funds to programmes that are most beneficial to the poor. In order to ensure that debt relief increases poverty-reducing spending and benefits the poor, all such spending, not just that financed by HIPC resources, should be tracked. This requires that countries improve all aspects of their public expenditure management. In the short run, heavily indebted poor countries can take some pragmatic tracking measures based on existing public expenditure management systems, but in the longer run they should adopt a more comprehensive approach so as to strengthen their budget formulation, execution, and reporting systems.

  13. Structure of spin excitations in heavily electron-doped Li0.8Fe0.2ODFeSe superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Bingying; Shen, Yao; Hu, Die; Feng, Yu; Park, J. T.; Christianson, A. D.; Wang, Qisi; Hao, Yiqing; Wo, Hongliang; Yin, Zhiping; Maier, T. A.; Zhao, Jun


    Heavily electron-doped iron-selenide high-transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors, which have no hole Fermi pockets, but have a notably high Tc, have challenged the prevailing s± pairing scenario originally proposed for iron pnictides containing both electron and hole pockets. The microscopic mechanism underlying the enhanced superconductivity in heavily electron-doped iron-selenide remains unclear. Here, we used neutron scattering to study the spin excitations of the heavily electron-doped iron-selenide material Li0.8Fe0.2ODFeSe (Tc = 41 K). Our data revealed nearly ring-shaped magnetic resonant excitations surrounding (π, π) at ~21 meV. As the energy increased, the spin excitations assumed a diamond shape, and they dispersed outward until the energy reached ~60 meV and then inward at higher energies. The observed energy-dependent momentum structure and twisted dispersion of spin excitations near (π, π) are analogous to those of hole-doped cuprates in several aspects, thus implying that such spin excitations are essential for the remarkably high Tc in these materials.

  14. FORTRAN 77 programs for conductive cooling of dikes with temperature-dependent thermal properties and heat of crystallization (United States)

    Delaney, P.T.


    Temperature histories obtained from transient heat-conduction theory are applicable to most dikes despite potential complicating effects related to magma flow during emplacement, groundwater circulation, and metamorphic reaction during cooling. Here. machine-independent FORTRAN 77 programs are presented to calculate temperatures in and around dikes as they cool conductively. Analytical solutions can treat thermal-property contrasts between the dike and host rocks, but cannot address the release of magmatic heat of crystallization after the early stages of cooling or the appreciable temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and diffusivity displayed by most rock types. Numerical solutions can incorporate these additional factors. The heat of crystallization can raise the initial temperature at the dike contact, ??c1, about 100??C above that which would be estimated if it were neglected, and can decrease the rate at which the front of solidified magma moves to the dike center by a factor of as much as three. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of rocks increase with decreasing temperature and, at low temperatures, these properties increase more if the rocks are saturated with water. Models that treat these temperature dependencies yield estimates of ??c1 that are as much as 75??C beneath those which would be predicted if they were neglected. ?? 1988.

  15. Delay discounting, treatment motivation and treatment retention among substance-dependent individuals attending an in inpatient detoxification program. (United States)

    Stevens, Laura; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Roeyers, Herbert; Goudriaan, Anna E; Vanderplasschen, Wouter


    Recent studies consistently indicate high rates of delay discounting in drug users, which refers to a strong tendency to devaluate delayed rewards. Many addiction treatment programs however, place high demands on the ability to postpone immediate gratification. Therefore, these programs may be particularly challenging for drug users who are disproportionally oriented towards the present, potentially leading to a drop in their treatment involvement. Still, few studies to date have looked at whether delay discounting in drug users is associated with poorer treatment motivation or shorter treatment retention (i.e., the length of stay in treatment). In the current study, we examined whether delay discounting, as measured shortly following treatment entry, was predictive of poor treatment retention among 84 substance-dependent individuals (SDI) attending an inpatient detoxification program. In addition, we examined whether motivation for treatment would act as a mediator of this relationship. Delay discounting was predictive of shorter treatment retention and higher odds of dropping out of treatment prematurely. The effects of delay discounting on treatment retention were partially mediated by a subcomponent of treatment motivation, i.e., treatment readiness. The propensity to more steeply discount delayed rewards in drug users has the potential to become a clinically relevant behavioral marker, alerting clinicians that these clients may exhibit lower treatment readiness and are more likely to drop out of treatment prematurely. Targeting delay discounting or increasing treatment readiness in drug users with a low tolerance for delay-of-gratification may help to improve treatment retention among these individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multidendritic sensory neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen: origins, dendritic morphology, and segment- and age-dependent programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimura Kaoru


    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the establishment of functional neural circuits that support a wide range of animal behaviors, initial circuits formed in early development have to be reorganized. One way to achieve this is local remodeling of the circuitry hardwiring. To genetically investigate the underlying mechanisms of this remodeling, one model system employs a major group of Drosophila multidendritic sensory neurons - the dendritic arborization (da neurons - which exhibit dramatic dendritic pruning and subsequent growth during metamorphosis. The 15 da neurons are identified in each larval abdominal hemisegment and are classified into four categories - classes I to IV - in order of increasing size of their receptive fields and/or arbor complexity at the mature larval stage. Our knowledge regarding the anatomy and developmental basis of adult da neurons is still fragmentary. Results We identified multidendritic neurons in the adult Drosophila abdomen, visualized the dendritic arbors of the individual neurons, and traced the origins of those cells back to the larval stage. There were six da neurons in abdominal hemisegment 3 or 4 (A3/4 of the pharate adult and the adult just after eclosion, five of which were persistent larval da neurons. We quantitatively analyzed dendritic arbors of three of the six adult neurons and examined expression in the pharate adult of key transcription factors that result in the larval class-selective dendritic morphologies. The 'baseline design' of A3/4 in the adult was further modified in a segment-dependent and age-dependent manner. One of our notable findings is that a larval class I neuron, ddaE, completed dendritic remodeling in A2 to A4 and then underwent caspase-dependent cell death within 1 week after eclosion, while homologous neurons in A5 and in more posterior segments degenerated at pupal stages. Another finding is that the dendritic arbor of a class IV neuron, v'ada, was immediately reshaped during post

  17. [Potentially inappropriate prescription according to the "STOPP" Criteria in heavily polymedicated elderly patients]. (United States)

    Terán-Álvarez, L; González-García, M J; Rivero-Pérez, A L; Alonso-Lorenzo, J C; Tarrazo-Suárez, J A


    Appropriate prescribing is especially relevant in elderly people. The objective of this study is to analyse the potentially inappropriate prescription (PIP) in heavily polymedicated elderly patients according to the criteria Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Primary Care on patients assigned to the Siero-Sariego (Asturias) Health Centre, who were over 64 years old and heavily polymedicated (consumption >10 drugs for six months). The 65 Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions criteria were reviewed in the electronic Primary Care patient records, collecting sociodemographic variables, prescribed medications, and chronic diseases. Frequency distributions were made for each criterion, and causes related to PIP were explored using contingency tables, the Spearman correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. A total of 349 polymedicated elderly patients were analysed with a prevalence of 6.4 (95% CI:5.76-7.08), a mean age of 79.2 years (SD:3.7), 62.2% were female, 14% institutionalised, a Charlson index of 2.9. The mean of number of drugs was 11.5 (SD:1.7), and the most frequent pathologies were high blood pressure (64%), diabetes (46%), and osteoarticular diseases (41%). There was at least one PIP in 72.9% of heavily polymedicated elderly patients [(Mean: 1.32 (SD:1.2)]. The Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions criteria least complied with were: therapeutic duplication (25.2%), use of long-acting benzodiazepines (15.8%), and inappropriate use of aspirin (10.9%). An association was found between having any inappropriate prescription and the number of medications prescribed (OR=1.22 [95% CI:1.04-1.43]) and inversely to the Charlson index (OR=0.76 [95% CI:0.65-0.89]). PIP is common in heavily polymedicated elderly patients. Special attention must be paid to the use of psychotropic drugs, which are implicated in a high volume of PIP. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de

  18. Investigation of Heavily Doped Congruent Lithium Tantalite for Single-pass Second Harmonic Generation


    Farsi, Mohammad Vahid


    Treball final de màster oficial fet en col·laboració amb Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB) i Institut de Ciències Fotòniques (ICFO) [ANGLÈS] We report a compact , practical, green sources based on single-pass second harmonic generation(SHG) of a picosecond Yb-fiber laser in 10-mm-long, heavily MgO doped congruent lithium tantalite (MgO:cPPLT). The fundamental pump source is 20 ps Yb-fiber laser operating at a repetition rate of 80 MHz. The green source ...

  19. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 748242 (Viet Nam); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Anh, Le Duc [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  20. Red blood cell alloimmunization in transfusion-dependent Egyptian patients with thalassemia in a limited donor exposure program. (United States)

    el-Danasoury, Azza S; Eissa, Doaa G; Abdo, Reham M; Elalfy, Mohsen S


    Thalassemia is considered the most common hemoglobinopathy in Egypt and is one of its major health problems. Lifelong red blood cell (RBC) transfusion remains the main treatment for severe forms; however, RBC alloimmunization results as a complication of regular transfusions due to repeated exposure to foreign antigens. The objective was to compare the frequency of alloantibodies in a group of patients in a limited donor exposure program (LDEP) with those receiving RBCs from multiple donors in Egyptian transfusion-dependent patients with thalassemia. A total of 235 regularly transfused patients with thalassemia were studied, 36 of which were on LDEP. All patients were investigated for the presence of RBC autoantibodies and alloantibodies, followed by antibody identification for positive patients. Forty-six (19.5%) patients developed RBC alloantibodies. The most common clinically significant alloantibodies were directed against antigens in the Kell and Rh systems. Development of alloantibodies was associated with older age, higher transfusion frequency, and splenectomy. A trend toward lower alloimmunization was elicited in the LDEP group, where 8.3% (3/36) patients were alloimmunized compared to 21.6% (43/199) in the non-LDEP one (p=0.057). Examination of donor RBCs for presence of Kell and Rh(E) antigens before transfusion can help decrease RBC alloimmunization. Further larger studies are required to assess the frequency of alloantibody production in patients on LDEP. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Activity-Dependent NPAS4 Expression and the Regulation of Gene Programs Underlying Plasticity in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt


    Full Text Available The capability of the brain to change functionally in response to sensory experience is most active during early stages of development but it decreases later in life when major alterations of neuronal network structures no longer take place in response to experience. This view has been recently challenged by experimental strategies based on the enhancement of environmental stimulation levels, genetic manipulations, and pharmacological treatments, which all have demonstrated that the adult brain retains a degree of plasticity that allows for a rewiring of neuronal circuitries over the entire life course. A hot spot in the field of neuronal plasticity centres on gene programs that underlie plastic phenomena in adulthood. Here, I discuss the role of the recently discovered neuronal-specific and activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 as a critical mediator of plasticity in the nervous system. A better understanding of how modifications in the connectivity of neuronal networks occur may shed light on the treatment of pathological conditions such as brain damage or disease in adult life, some of which were once considered untreatable.

  2. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of Luminous, Heavily Obscured, WISE-Selected Quasars at z ~ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, D.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, Roberto J.


    faintly detected by XMM-Newton. A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection. The X-ray data require gas column densities N(H)>1e24 /cm2, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population......We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected AGN at z~2 in a broad X-ray band (0.1 - 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4um (W1) and 4.6um (W2) bands but bright at 12um...... L(sun). The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10)~4e45 erg/s for typical quasar templates. These are amongst the most luminous AGN known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even...

  3. Increasing costs due to ocean acidification drives phytoplankton to be more heavily calcified: optimal growth strategy of coccolithophores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Irie

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump. Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing from this approach. We thus constructed an optimality model to evaluate the evolutionary response of coccolithophorid life history, assuming that their exoskeleton (coccolith serves to reduce the instantaneous mortality rates. Our model predicted that natural selection favors constructing more heavily calcified exoskeleton in response to increased acidification-driven costs. This counter-intuitive response occurs because the fitness benefit of choosing a better-defended, slower growth strategy in more acidic conditions, outweighs that of accelerating the cell cycle, as this occurs by producing less calcified exoskeleton. Contrary to the widely held belief, the evolutionarily optimized population can precipitate larger amounts of CaCO(3 during the bloom in more acidified seawater, depending on parameter values. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may enhance the calcification rates of marine organisms as an adaptive response, possibly accompanied by higher carbon fixation ability. Our theory also provides a compelling explanation for the multispecific fossil time-series record from ∼200 years ago to present, in which mean coccolith size has increased along with rising atmospheric CO(2 concentration.

  4. Increasing costs due to ocean acidification drives phytoplankton to be more heavily calcified: optimal growth strategy of coccolithophores. (United States)

    Irie, Takahiro; Bessho, Kazuhiro; Findlay, Helen S; Calosi, Piero


    Ocean acidification is potentially one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Amongst calcifying organisms, coccolithophores have received special attention because their calcite precipitation plays a significant role in alkalinity flux to the deep ocean (i.e., inorganic carbon pump). Currently, empirical effort is devoted to evaluating the plastic responses to acidification, but evolutionary considerations are missing from this approach. We thus constructed an optimality model to evaluate the evolutionary response of coccolithophorid life history, assuming that their exoskeleton (coccolith) serves to reduce the instantaneous mortality rates. Our model predicted that natural selection favors constructing more heavily calcified exoskeleton in response to increased acidification-driven costs. This counter-intuitive response occurs because the fitness benefit of choosing a better-defended, slower growth strategy in more acidic conditions, outweighs that of accelerating the cell cycle, as this occurs by producing less calcified exoskeleton. Contrary to the widely held belief, the evolutionarily optimized population can precipitate larger amounts of CaCO(3) during the bloom in more acidified seawater, depending on parameter values. These findings suggest that ocean acidification may enhance the calcification rates of marine organisms as an adaptive response, possibly accompanied by higher carbon fixation ability. Our theory also provides a compelling explanation for the multispecific fossil time-series record from ∼200 years ago to present, in which mean coccolith size has increased along with rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration.

  5. Breakdown of single spin-fluid model in the heavily hole-doped superconductor CsFe2As2 (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Li, S. J.; Wang, N. Z.; Li, J.; Song, D. W.; Zheng, L. X.; Nie, L. P.; Luo, X. G.; Wu, T.; Chen, X. H.


    Although Fe-based superconductors are correlated electronic systems with multiorbital, previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement suggests that a single spin-fluid model is sufficient to describe its spin behavior. Here, we first observed the breakdown of single spin-fluid model in a heavily hole-doped Fe-based superconductor CsFe2As2 by site-selective NMR measurement. At high-temperature regime, both Knight shift and nuclear spin-lattice relaxation at 133Cs and 75As nuclei exhibit distinct temperature-dependent behavior, suggesting the breakdown of the single spin-fluid model in CsFe2As2 . This is ascribed to the coexistence of both localized and itinerant spin degree of freedom at 3 d orbitals, which is consistent with the orbital-selective Mott phase. With decreasing temperature, the single spin-fluid behavior is recovered below T*˜75 K due to a coherent state among 3 d orbitals. The Kondo liquid scenario is proposed to understand the low-temperature coherent state.

  6. Radiation-induced gain degradation in lateral PNP BJTs with lightly and heavily doped emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Schrimpf, R.D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)


    Ionizing radiation may cause failures in ICs due to gain degradation of individual devices. The base current of irradiated bipolar devices increases with total dose, while the collector current remains relatively constant. This results in a decrease in the current gain. Lateral PNP (LPNP) transistors typically exhibit more degradation than vertical PNP devices at the same total dose, and have been blamed as the cause of early IC failures at low dose rates. It is important to understand the differences in total-dose response between devices with heavily- and lightly-doped emitters in order to compare different technologies and evaluate the applicability of proposed low-dose-rate hardness-assurance methods. This paper addresses these differences by comparing two different LPNP devices from the same process: one with a heavily-doped emitter and one with a lightly-doped emitter. Experimental results demonstrate that the lightly-doped devices are more sensitive to ionizing radiation and simulations illustrate that increased recombination on the emitter side of the junction is responsible for the higher sensitivity.

  7. Docetaxel monotherapy in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer: a multicenter, community-based feasibility trial. (United States)

    Schmidinger, M; Budinsky, A C; Wenzel, C; Locker, G J; Pluschnig, U; Brodowicz, T; Kubista, E; Maca, S; Zabernigg, A; Ilsinger, P; Seewann, L; Hojas, S; Blach, M; Zielinski, C C; Steger, G G


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of docetaxel in heavily pretreated and anthracycline-resistant patients with metastatic breast cancer in an outpatient setting. Between February 1996 and June 1998, 98 consecutive patients who had progressed during or relapsed following prior anthracycline-containing chemotherapy were enrolled into the trial. Docetaxel was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m2 by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks. The administration of colony-stimulating factors was at the discretion of the attending physician. Premedication with dexamethasone was mandatory for all patients. Of the 98 patients, 93 were evaluable for toxicity and response. Patients had received two palliative regimens (median, range 1-5) prior to docetaxel treatment. The most frequent toxicity observed was leukopenia grade III and IV (WHO grading system) which occurred in 47% of patients (grade IV only in 14%). Except for alopecia grade III (64% of patients), nonhematologic side effects grade III-IV were rare (1-7% of patients) and included nausea, stomatitis, diarrhea, peripheral neuropathy, fluid retention and pulmonary toxicities. There were no treatment-related deaths. Objective responses occurred in 40% of patients (CR 6%, PR 34%), and stable disease in 38% of patients. The median duration of response was 5.3 months (range 0.7-18.1 months) while the median survival was 15 months (range 2 36 months). Docetaxel is a highly active agent in patients with anthracycline-resistant metastatic breast cancer, even in heavily pretreated patients, with moderate toxicity.

  8. Marine reserves and reproductive biomass: a case study of a heavily targeted reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Taylor

    Full Text Available Recruitment overfishing (the reduction of a spawning stock past a point at which the stock can no longer replenish itself is a common problem which can lead to a rapid and irreversible fishery collapse. Averting this disaster requires maintaining a sufficient spawning population to buffer stochastic fluctuations in recruitment of heavily harvested stocks. Optimal strategies for managing spawner biomass are well developed for temperate systems, yet remain uncertain for tropical fisheries, where the danger of collapse from recruitment overfishing looms largest. In this study, we explored empirically and through modeling, the role of marine reserves in maximizing spawner biomass of a heavily exploited reef fish, Lethrinus harak around Guam, Micronesia. On average, spawner biomass was 16 times higher inside the reserves compared with adjacent fished sites. Adult density and habitat-specific mean fish size were also significantly greater. We used these data in an age-structured population model to explore the effect of several management scenarios on L. harak demography. Under minimum-size limits, unlimited extraction and all rotational-closure scenarios, the model predicts that preferential mortality of larger and older fish prompt dramatic declines in spawner biomass and the proportion of male fish, as well as considerable declines in total abundance. For rotational closures this occurred because of the mismatch between the scales of recovery and extraction. Our results highlight how alternative management scenarios fall short in comparison to marine reserves in preserving reproductively viable fish populations on coral reefs.

  9. OpenMP, OpenMP/MPI, and CUDA/MPI C programs for solving the time-dependent dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation (United States)

    Lončar, Vladimir; Young-S., Luis E.; Škrbić, Srdjan; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Balaž, Antun


    We present new versions of the previously published C and CUDA programs for solving the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, which calculate stationary and non-stationary solutions by propagation in imaginary or real time. Presented programs are improved and parallelized versions of previous programs, divided into three packages according to the type of parallelization. First package contains improved and threaded version of sequential C programs using OpenMP. Second package additionally parallelizes three-dimensional variants of the OpenMP programs using MPI, allowing them to be run on distributed-memory systems. Finally, previous three-dimensional CUDA-parallelized programs are further parallelized using MPI, similarly as the OpenMP programs. We also present speedup test results obtained using new versions of programs in comparison with the previous sequential C and parallel CUDA programs. The improvements to the sequential version yield a speedup of 1.1-1.9, depending on the program. OpenMP parallelization yields further speedup of 2-12 on a 16-core workstation, while OpenMP/MPI version demonstrates a speedup of 11.5-16.5 on a computer cluster with 32 nodes used. CUDA/MPI version shows a speedup of 9-10 on a computer cluster with 32 nodes.

  10. Induction of RET dependent and independent pro-inflammatory programs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Hirschsprung patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rusmini

    HSCR disease by modulating inflammatory programs that are either dependent or independent from RET signaling.

  11. Substance Dependency's Effect on Reading Decoding and Comprehension: Reading Decoding and Comprehension Levels as Indicators of Brain Dysfunctioning with Ramifications for Traditional Rehabilitation Programming. (United States)

    Schadler, Debbie E.

    This paper discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the effects of substance dependency on the reading decoding and comprehension of 497 adolescents (ages 12-18) involved in an inpatient drug and alcohol rehabilitation program. The first part of the study involved the formal assessment of reading decoding and reading comprehension…

  12. Effects of a standard transfer exercise program on transfer quality and activities of daily living for transfer-dependent spinal cord injury patients. (United States)

    You, Ji-Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min


    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a standard transfer exercise program on the transfer quality and activities of daily living (ADL) in wheelchair-dependent spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] We randomly divided 22 patients into 2 groups. During the intervention period, one group received treatment with both conventional physical therapy and a standard sitting pivot transfer exercise program (experimental group, n=12) and the other group was managed solely with conventional physical therapy (control group, n=10). The standard transfer exercise program comprised of an independent and a dependent program. Exercises were conducted 30 minutes daily, 3 times per week, over a period of 6 weeks. All subjects were tested using a transfer assessment instrument (TAI) and spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) before and after the intervention. [Results] Compared to the control group, the intervention group scored higher on both the transfer assessment instrument (TAI Part 1, Part 2, TAI total score) and spinal cord independence measure tests (SCIM mobility room and toilet score; SCIM total score). [Conclusion] In conclusion, the standard transfer exercise program is an effective tool which improves transfer quality and the ability of wheelchair-dependent spinal cord injury patients to carry out their ADLs.

  13. Low-temperature TCT characterization of heavily proton irradiated p-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Härkönen, J; Luukka, P; Kassamakov, I; Autioniemi, M; Tuominen, E; Sane, P; Pusa, P; Räisänen, J; Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E; Li, Z


    n+/p−/p+ pad detectors processed at the Microelectronics Center of Helsinki University of Technology on boron-doped p-type high-resistivity magnetic Czochralski (MCz-Si) silicon substrates have been investigated by the transient current technique (TCT) measurements between 100 and 240 K. The detectors were irradiated by 9 MeV protons at the Accelerator Laboratory of University of Helsinki up to 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 2×1015 n/cm2. In some of the detectors the thermal donors (TD) were introduced by intentional heat treatment at 430 °C. Hole trapping time constants and full depletion voltage values were extracted from the TCT data. We observed that hole trapping times in the order of 10 ns were found in heavily (above 1×1015 neq/cm2) irradiated samples. These detectors could be fully depleted below 500 V in the temperature range of 140–180 K.

  14. Simulation of Heavily Irradiated Silicon Pixel Sensors and Comparison with Test Beam Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chiochia, Vincenzo; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Swartz, Morris; Bortoletto, Daniela; Cremaldi, Lucien; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Hoermann, Christoph; Kim, Dongwook; Konecki, Marcin; Kotlinski, Danek; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Rohe, Tilman; Sanders, David A.; Son, Seunghee; Speer, Thomas


    Charge collection measurements performed on heavily irradiated p-spray DOFZ pixel sensors with a grazing angle hadron beam provide a sensitive determination of the electric field within the detectors. The data are compared with a complete charge transport simulation of the sensor which includes signal trapping and charge induction effects. A linearly varying electric field based upon the standard picture of a constant type-inverted effective doping density is inconsistent with the data. A two-trap double junction model implemented in the ISE TCAD software can be tuned to produce a doubly-peaked electric field which describes the data reasonably well. The modeled field differs somewhat from previous determinations based upon the transient current technique. The model can also account for the level of charge trapping observed in the data.

  15. Porous-like structures prepared by temperature-pressure treatment of heavily hydrogenated silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misiuk, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Shalimov, A.; Bak-Misiuk, J. [Institute of Physics, PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Surma, B. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Wnuk, A. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Antonova, I.V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Lavrentieva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zavodinsky, V.G.; Gnidenko, A.A. [Institute of Materials Science, RAS, Tikhookeanskaya 153, 680042 Khabarovsk (Russian Federation)


    Microstructure and related properties of Czochralski silicon heavily doped with hydrogen by implantation (hydrogen dose 2.7 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, at 24 keV) or by hydrogen plasma etching (reference samples) and treated at up to 1270 K (HT) under argon pressure up to 1.1 GPa (HP) are investigated. The structure of HT-HP treated Cz-Si:H is similar to that of porous (spongy) Si. Visible photoluminescence at 2.0-2.8 eV originates from accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen atoms near the sample surface. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Induction hardening of tool steel for heavily loaded aircraft engine components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokicki P.


    Full Text Available Induction hardening is an innovative process allowing modification of the materials surface with more effective, cheaper and more reproducible way to compare with conventional hardening methods used in the aerospace industry. Unfortunately, high requirements and strict regulation concerning this branch of the industry force deep research allowing to obtain results that would be used for numerical modelling of the process. Only by this way one is able to start the industrial application of the process. The main scope of presented paper are results concerning investigation of microstructure evolution of tool steel after single-frequency induction hardening process. The specimens that aim in representing final industrial products (as heavily loaded gears, were heat- -treated with induction method and subjected to metallographic preparation, after which complex microstructure investigation was performed. The results obtained within the research will be a basis for numerical modelling of the process of induction hardening with potential to be introduced for the aviation industrial components.

  17. Double peak electric field distortion in heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Roe, Shaun; Ruggiero, G; Verbitskaya, E


    Non-uniform distribution of the electric field outlined as double peak distortion (DPD) is considered for heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors, which were developed for the CERN-ATLAS semiconductor tracker. DPD originates from the non-uniform accumulation of electrons and holes from the bulk generated current that are captured by radiation induced defects: deep acceptors and donors with mid-gap energy levels. This corresponds to the formation of the low electric field region in the detector central part that consequently will delay charge collection. The electric field distributions at different reverse biases, fluences and detector operational temperatures are calculated using a one-dimensional Poisson equation as it was done earlier for pad detectors. It has been shown that due to the electric field focusing at the strips the DPD effect is more pronounced for strip detectors as compared to that in pad detectors. The double peak electric field distribution is evinced experimentally in current pulse res...

  18. Facilitating political decisions using species distribution models to assess restoration measures in heavily modified estuaries. (United States)

    Heuner, Maike; Weber, Arnd; Schröder, Uwe; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Schröder, Boris


    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological potential for heavily modified water bodies. This standard has not been reached for most large estuaries by 2015. Management plans for estuaries fall short in linking implementations between restoration measures and underlying spatial analyses. The distribution of emergent macrophytes - as an indicator of habitat quality - is here used to assess the ecological potential. Emergent macrophytes are capable of settling on gentle tidal flats where hydrodynamic stress is comparatively low. Analyzing their habitats based on spatial data, we set up species distribution models with 'elevation relative to mean high water', 'mean bank slope', and 'length of bottom friction' from shallow water up to the vegetation belt as key predictors representing hydrodynamic stress. Effects of restoration scenarios on habitats were assessed applying these models. Our findings endorse species distribution models as crucial spatial planning tools for implementing restoration measures in modified estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-channel drain current model for asymmetric heavily / lightly doped DG MOSFETs (United States)

    Dutta, Pradipta; Syamal, Binit; Koley, Kalyan; Dutta, Arka; Sarkar, C. K.


    The paper presents a drain current model for double gate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (DG MOSFETs) based on a new velocity saturation model that accounts for short-channel velocity saturation effect independently in the front and the back gate controlled channels under asymmetric front and back gate bias and oxide thickness. To determine the front and the back-channel velocity saturation, drain-induced barrier lowering is evaluated by effective gate voltages at the front and back gates obtained from surface potential at the threshold condition after considering symmetric and asymmetric front and back oxide thickness. The model also incorporates surface roughness scattering and ionized impurity scattering to estimate drain current for heavily / lightly doped channel for short-channel asymmetric DG MOSFET and a good agreement has been achieved with TCAD simulations, with a relative error of around 3-7%.

  20. Biweekly Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (Caelyx) in Heavily Pretreated Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Phase 2 Study. (United States)

    Jehn, Christian F; Hemmati, Philipp; Lehenbauer-Dehm, Silvia; Kümmel, Sherko; Flath, Bernd; Schmid, Peter


    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has shown to be as effective as conventional doxorubicin in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer but provides a lower risk of cardiotoxicity. This phase 2 study in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer was initiated to evaluate a biweekly instead of a 4-week schedule of PLD in order to obtain a more flexible and tolerable regimen. A total of 25 patients with 2 or more prior lines of chemotherapy for metastatic disease were treated with PLD (25 mg/m2) at 2-week intervals for a maximum of 12 courses. Pretreatment with anthracyclines was allowed as long as the cumulative doxorubicin dose at study entry was below 400 mg/m2. Most patients were pretreated with anthracyclines, taxanes, vinorelbine, alkylating agents, and capecitabine. The clinical benefit rate, ie, objective response or stable disease, for at least 6 months was 22.7% for all patients and 22.2% in anthracycline- and taxane-pretreated patients, respectively. Median duration of clinical benefit and median time to progression were 12.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1-32.3) and 7 weeks (95% CI, 5.4-8.6), respectively. Median overall survival was 9.6 months (95% CI, 5.4-13.9). One- and 2-year survival rates were 38% and 4%, respectively. Myelosuppression was low, with no grade 3 or 4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Most common nonhematologic toxicities were nausea, alopecia, asthenia, and hand-foot syndrome. The low rate of hematologic toxicity and hand-foot syndrome is clinically noteworthy. Biweekly PLD is an easily manageable schedule with a favorable toxicity profile. Efficacy was moderate in heavily pretreated patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between levels of serum creatinine and perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erden, Ayse, E-mail: [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Sahin, Burcu Savran, E-mail: [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Orgodol, Horolsuren, E-mail: [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Erden, Ilhan, E-mail: [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Biyikli, Zeynep, E-mail: [Ankara University, School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Talatpasa Bulvari, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)


    Objective: To determine the frequency of perirenal hyperintensity on heavily T2-weighted images and to evaluate its relationship with serum creatinine levels. Subjects and methods: Axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo images which have been originally obtained for MR cholangiopancreatography in 150 subjects were examined by two observers individually for the presence of perirenal hyperintensity. The morphologic properties of perirenal hyperintensity (peripheral rim-like, discontinuous, polar) were recorded. Chi square test was used to test whether the frequencies of bilateral perirenal hyperintensity differ significantly in subjects with high serum creatinine levels and those with normal creatinine levels. This test was also used to compare the frequencies of perirenal hyperintensity in patients with and without renal cysts and in patients with and without corticomedullary differentiation. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The perirenal hyperintensity was identified in 40 of 150 cases (26.6%) on heavily T2-weighted image. Serum creatinine levels were high in 18 of 150 cases (12%). The perirenal hyperintensity was present in 11 of 18 subjects (61%) with high serum creatinine levels and 26 of 132 subjects (19.7%) with normal creatinine levels. The difference of rates in two groups was statistically significant. Odds ratio was 6407 (95% confidence interval 2264-18,129). The frequency of perirenal hyperintensity was also significantly higher in subjects with renal cyst or cysts in whom serum creatinine levels were normal (p < 0.05) (37.5% vs. 11.8%). Conclusion: Perirenal hyperintensities are more frequent in patients with high serum creatinine levels. They are also more common in patients with simple renal cysts.

  2. Chronic lower extremity lymphedema: A comparative study of high-resolution interstitial MR lymphangiography and heavily T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Qing [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1630 Dong Fang Rd, Shanghai 200127 (China)], E-mail:; Xu Jianrong [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1630 Dong Fang Rd, Shanghai 200127 (China)], E-mail:; Liu Ningfei [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Second Medical University, 639 Zhi Zao Ju Rd, Shanghai 200011 (China)], E-mail:


    Purpose: To assess the role of heavily T2-weighted image and interstitial MR lymphangiography (MRL) for the visualization of lymphatic vessels in patients with disorders of the lymphatic circulation. Methods: Forty lower extremities in 31 patients (9 bilateral and 22 unilateral) with primary lymphedema were examined by heavily T2-weighted image and indirect MRL. Maximum-intensity projection (MIP) was used to reconstruct the images of the lymphatic system. Two experienced radiologists analyzed the images with regard to the differences in image quality, number of lymphatic vessels, its maximum diameter and two other findings: accumulated lymph fluid in the tissue and honeycombing pattern. Results: The beaded appearance of the affected vessels in 73 leg segments of 40 lower extremities were present on both modalities 3D MIP. Larger amount of the dilated lymphatic vessels were visualized on heavily T2-weighted image than that on MRL (p = 0.003) and the maximum diameter of it was 4.28 {+-} 1.53 mm on heavily T2-weighted image, whereas 3.41 {+-} 1.05 mm on MRL (p < 0.01). The dilated lymphatic vessels on MRL showed better image quality and greater SNR and CNR than that on heavily T2-weighted image (p < 0.01). The regions of accumulated lymph fluid and the honeycombing pattern extent were identified on heavily T2-weighted image scored statistically higher than that on MRL (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The heavily T2-weighted imaging has greater sensitivity and the MRL image has higher legibility for detecting the pathologically modified lymphatic vessels and accompanying complications non-invasively. Combining these two MR techniques can accurately access the pathological changes in the lower extremity with lymphedema.

  3. Delay discounting, treatment motivation and treatment retention among substance-dependent individuals attending an in inpatient detoxification program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Laura; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Roeyers, Herbert; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Vanderplasschen, Wouter


    Recent studies consistently indicate high rates of delay discounting in drug users, which refers to a strong tendency to devaluate delayed rewards. Many addiction treatment programs however, place high demands on the ability to postpone immediate gratification. Therefore, these programs may be

  4. Hydraulic, Vegetation and Water Quality Characteristics of Heavily Vegetated Groundwater-Fed Ditches in a Riparian Peatland in Northern Germany (United States)

    Scholz, M.; Olson, M. S.; Trepel, M.


    The Environmental Ministry of Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany) has implemented a novel peatland management strategy in order to use the high nutrient retention potential of degenerated wetlands and peatlands, and to improve the habitat conditions at the same time. The effect of raised water levels and passive land use management on hydraulic properties and water quality of heavily vegetated and groundwater-fed ditches at one nationally important wetland case study at the Eider River valley was investigated. Most ditches in the Eider River valley were small and overgrown. The flow properties of selected ditches were regularly assessed at different discharge levels during different vegetation cover periods. The hydraulic residence is predominantly a function of the ditch geometry and overall obstruction cover including the presence of macrophytes. Vegetation cover and other hydraulic obstructions such as accumulated silt and organic debris slow down the hydraulic residence time and lead to a change in the water quality along the ditch. Experimental results were evaluated to get more realistic values for total bed-roughness and pollution loading under different hydraulic flow regimes. The total-roughness Km values of both vegetated and excavated ditch stretches were about 1 and 10, respectively. However, Km is actually a crude "fudge factor" depending predominantly on the hydraulic radius rather than on the total-roughness. This is in contrast to the theory presented in the literature. The biochemical oxygen demand and nutrient concentrations of 24 ditches were analyzed. Mean biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and ortho-phosphate concentrations were 6.0 (+/-2.74), 0.2 (+/-0.44), 0.0 (+/-0.02), 1.6 (+/-2.04) and 0.0 (+/-0.02) mg/L, respectively. Elevated biochemical oxygen demand and nitrate concentrations for upstream ditch cross-sections were apparent.

  5. Community and species-specific responses of wild bees to insect pest control programs applied to a pollinator-dependent crop. (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Isaacs, Rufus


    Wild bee conservation is regarded as essential for sustainable production of pollinator-dependent crops, yet little is known about the effects on wild bee communities of typical insect pest management programs used postbloom. We developed an insecticide program risk (IPR) index to quantify the relative risk to wild bees of insecticide programs applied to blueberry fields. This was used to determine the relationship between IPR and the abundance, diversity, and richness of wild bee communities sampled during three successive flowering seasons. In 2 of 3 yr, bee abundance and species richness declined with increasing IPR. Bee diversity declined with IPR in one of 3 yr. These results indicate that wild bee communities are negatively affected by increasingly intensive chemical pest management activities in crop fields and that interyear variability in bee populations has the potential to mask such effects in short-term studies. When several wild bee species were analyzed separately, two of three solitary and one of three social blueberry-foraging species declined with increasing IPR values, suggesting that different life histories and nesting habits may help some bee populations escape the negative effects of insecticides applied after bloom. Pollinator conservation programs aimed strictly at reducing insecticide use may have varying success, depending on the biology of the target bee species. The IPR index provides a standard method to compare pest management programs for their potential effect on wild bee communities, with broad application for use in other agricultural systems.

  6. Structural analysis of double-layer Shockley stacking faults formed in heavily-nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC during annealing (United States)

    Tokuda, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Kamata, I.; Naijo, T.; Miyazawa, T.; Hayashi, S.; Hoshino, N.; Kato, T.; Okumura, H.; Kimoto, T.; Tsuchida, H.


    We investigated the structures and expansion behavior of double-Shockley stacking faults (DSFs) formed in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC during annealing. Heavily doped epilayers prepared as specimens were successively annealed. Various types of DSFs showing different shapes and dislocation contrasts were found in photoluminescence and synchrotron X-ray topography images. Taking account of every possible stacking sequence forming DSFs, the structures of various types of DSFs were determined from observations by plan-view transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cross-sectional high-angle annular dark-field scanning TEM. We found that a bounding dislocation enclosing a DSF splits into two partial dislocations (PDs), and their Burgers vectors are identical, while the distance of the two PDs depended on their core structures (30° Si-, 30° C- or 90° C-core). We also discussed the contrast rule for the dislocation consisting of two PDs in the synchrotron X-ray topography images and the mobile PDs for the DSF expansion in the epilayers with different nitrogen concentrations.

  7. Sex-Dependent Programming of Glucose and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Mouse Offspring by Maternal Protein Restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Esther M. E.; Bloks, Vincent W.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Baller, Julius F. W.; Huijkman, Nicolette C. A.; Kuipers, Irma; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Plosch, Torsten

    Background: Nutritional conditions during fetal life influence the risk of the development of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in adult life (metabolic programming). Impaired glucose tolerance and dysregulated fatty acid metabolism are hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. Objective: We

  8. Barriers to employability among substance dependent and nonsubstance-affected women on federal welfare: implications for program design. (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; McCrady, Barbara S; Blanchard, Kimberly A; McVeigh, Katharine H; Riordan, Annette; Irwin, Thomas W


    This study examined barriers to employability among women meeting criteria for a substance dependence disorder who were identified by routine screening conducted in welfare offices. The characteristics of these women were compared to other women on welfare who did not have a substance use disorder. A sample of 214 substance dependent women on federal welfare were recruited to participate in a substance use disorders welfare demonstration project. An additional 69 nonsubstance-affected women on welfare served as a comparison sample. All participants were assessed in welfare settings through a standardized battery of measures. Substance dependent women reported moderate to severe substance use problems. They also reported significantly higher rates than the women with no substance use disorder of other barriers such as domestic violence, mental health problems, legal problems, child welfare investigations and fewer job skills. Findings raise questions about the likely effectiveness of existing welfare reform services in addressing the needs of substance dependent women.

  9. Heavily-doped 2D-quantized structures and the Einstein relation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, Kamakhya P


    This book presents the Einstein Relation(ER) in two-dimensional (2-D) Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The ER in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestion for the experimental determination of HD 2D and 3D ERs and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nanodevices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring photon induced physical properties) are also discussed in this context. The influence of crossed electric and quantizing ma...

  10. Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: composition of the microbial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Bioremediation, a process that utilizes the capability of microorganism to degrade toxic waste, is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. The technology is very effective in dealing with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The aim of this study was to examine the composition of the microbial consortium during the ex situ experiment of bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products from the Oil Refinery Pančevo, Serbia. After a 5.5-month experiment with biostimulation and bioventilation, the concentration of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH had been reduced from 29.80 to 3.29 g/kg (89 %. In soil, the dominant microorganism population comprised Gram-positive bacteria from actinomycete-Nocardia group. The microorganisms which decompose hydrocarbons were the dominant microbial population at the end of the process, with a share of more than 80 % (range 107 CFU/g. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that a stable microbial community had been formed after initial fluctuations.

  11. Comparative study and quantification of cementite decomposition in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, A. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Massardier, V., E-mail: [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Kléber, X. [University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS–UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 3ème étage, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne Cedex 69621 (France); Sauvage, X. [University of Rouen, GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 12, Avenue de l’Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Mari, D. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 3, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)


    Heavily cold-drawing was performed on a pearlitic steel wire and on an ultra-low carbon (ULC) steel wire in order to highlight and quantify the microstructural changes caused by this type of deformation. Both global techniques (thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, internal fiction background) and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography) were combined for this study. It was shown that two distinct stages have to be taken into account during the cold-drawing of pearlitic steels. The first stage (below a true strain of 1.5) was attributed mainly to the lamellar alignment, while the second stage (above a true strain of 1.5) was unambiguously interpreted as being due to a gradual enrichment of the carbon content of ferrite arising from the strain induced cementite decomposition. The carbon content in solid solution in ferrite was assessed as a function of the true strain. All the techniques showed that this carbon content exceeds the solubility limit of carbon in the ferrite above a true strain of 2.2. A correlation between the increase in the carbon content of ferrite and the increase in yield strength was also highlighted. Moreover, a scenario was proposed to explain the microstructural changes caused by drawing.

  12. Geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis of heavily and manifoldly contaminated soil samples. (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristin; Einax, Jürgen W; Simeonov, Vasil; Tsakovski, Stefan


    The surroundings of the former Kremikovtzi steel mill near Sofia (Bulgaria) are influenced by various emissions from the factory. In addition to steel and alloys, they produce different products based on inorganic compounds in different smelters. Soil in this region is multiply contaminated. We collected 65 soil samples and analyzed 15 elements by different methods of atomic spectroscopy for a survey of this field site. Here we present a novel hybrid approach for environmental risk assessment of polluted soil combining geostatistical methods and source apportionment modeling. We could distinguish areas with heavily and slightly polluted soils in the vicinity of the iron smelter by applying unsupervised pattern recognition methods. This result was supported by geostatistical methods such as semivariogram analysis and kriging. The modes of action of the metals examined differ significantly in such a way that iron and lead account for the main pollutants of the iron smelter, whereas, e.g., arsenic shows a haphazard distribution. The application of factor analysis and source-apportionment modeling on absolute principal component scores revealed novel information about the composition of the emissions from the different stacks. It is possible to estimate the impact of every element examined on the pollution due to their emission source. This investigation allows an objective assessment of the different spatial distributions of the elements examined in the soil of the Kremikovtzi region. The geostatistical analysis illustrates this distribution and is supported by multivariate statistical analysis revealing relations between the elements.

  13. Yb(3+) heavily doped photonic crystal fiber lasers prepared by the glass phase-separation technology. (United States)

    Chu, Yingbo; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xiongwei; Chen, Zhangru; Ma, Yunxiu; Liu, Yongguang; Wang, Yibo; Liao, Lei; Xing, Yinbin; Li, Haiqing; Peng, Jinggagn; Dai, Nengli; Li, Jinyan; Yang, Luyun


    We report a Yb(3+) heavily doped photonic crystal fiber with 30 μm core diameter manufactured for the first time by an alternative technique. Silica core rods with a diameter of 3 mm and a length of 280 mm were prepared by the sodium-borosilicate glass phase-separation technology. The measurements show that the fiber has an Yb(3+) concentration of 22810 ppm by weight, and a resultant absorption of approximately 8.5 dB/m at 976 nm. The Yb(3+) ions are distributed throughout the fiber core with an excellent homogeneity. The laser performance demonstrates a high slope efficiency of 64.5% for laser emission at 1033.4 nm and a low power threshold of 3 W within a short fiber length of 1 m. This novel approach provides an alternative means of preparing large active silica rods with high doping levels and excellent material homogeneity for large mode area fibers with complex designs.

  14. Thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of heavily doped phosphorus polycrystalline silicon films (United States)

    Birouk, B.; Madi, D.


    The study reported in this paper contributes to better understanding the thermal oxidation effect on structural and optical properties of polycrystalline silicon heavily in situ P-LPCVD films. The deposits, doped at levels 3×1019 and 1.6×1020 cm-3, have been elaborated from silane decomposition (400 mTorrs, 605°C) on monosilicon substrate oriented . The thermal oxidation was performed at temperatures: 850°C during 1 hour, 1000, 1050, and 1100°C during 15 minutes. The XRD spectra analysis pointed out significant texture evolution, while in the case of and textures, the intensities are practically invariant (variations fall in the uncertainty intervals). The optical characterizations showed that refractive index and absorption coefficient are very sensitive to the oxidation treatment, mainly when the doping level is not very high. We think that atomic oxygen acts as defects passivating agent leading to carriers' concentration increasing. Besides, the optical behavior is modeled in visible and near infrared, by a seven-term polynomial function n 2= f( λ 2), with alternate signs, instead of theoretically unlimited terms number from Drude's model. It has been shown that fitting parameters fall on Gaussian curves like they do in the theoretical model.

  15. Microbial leaching of toxic metals and arsenic from a heap consisting of heavily polluted soil (United States)

    Groudev, Stoyan; Georgiev, Plamen; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina


    Soil heavily polluted with toxic heavy metals (mainly Cu, Zn, Cd) and arsenic was subjected to microbial cleanup in a heap specially constructed for this purpose. The heap was located on an impermeable geomembrane, had the shape of a truncated pyramid and contained about 240 tons of soil collected mainly from the horizon A. The soil was highly acidic (with an initial pH of about 3.2) and was preliminarily crushed to minus 2.5 cm particle size. The pollutants were present mainly as the relevant sulphide minerals and the soil was inhabited by different microorganisms, including some acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria able to oxidize sulphides and to solubilize the relevant toxic elements. The heap possessed systems for irrigation and aeration and was surrounded by ditches to collect the drainage heap effluents containing the dissolved pollutants. The treatment of the soil was carried out by means of interrupted irrigation with leach solutions containing diluted sulphuric acid (to maintain pH in the heap within the range of about 2.5 - 2.8) and ammonium and phosphate ions to maintain the microbial growth. The treatment was carried out for a period of about two years during different climatic seasons. After the end of leaching the soil was subjected to some conventional melioration procedures such as liming, grassing, moulching, addition of fertilizers and animal manure and periodic ploughing and irrigation to increase its quality to levels suitable for agricultural utilization.

  16. Gemcitabine and capecitabine for heavily pre-treated metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Pallisgaard, Niels; Andersen, Rikke F


    AIM: We investigated the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and gemcitabin (GemCap) in heavily pre-treated, therapy-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients and the clinical importance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) measurement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients' inclusion criteria included...... histopathologically-verified mCRC refractory to standard chemotherapy, adequate organ function and performance status. Treatment included capecitabine (2,000 mg/m(2) day on days 1-7 q2w) and gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) on day 1). The number of DNA alleles was measured in pre-treatment plasma samples using an in......-house developed qPCR. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients were included in the study. GemCap was well-tolerated in the majority of patients. Disease control rate was 30%, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) by intention-to-treat were 2.7 (95%CI=2.6-2.8) and 6.8 (95%CI=5.0-7.7) months. Median...

  17. Road Environments: Impact of Metals on Human Health in Heavily Congested Cities of Poland. (United States)

    Adamiec, Ewa


    Road dust as a by-product of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions can be a major cause of systemic oxidative stress and multiple disorders. Substantial amounts of road dust are repeatedly resuspended, in particular at traffic lights and junctions where more braking is involved, causing potential threat to pedestrians, especially children. In order to determine the degree of contamination in the heavily traffic-congested cities of Poland, a total of 148 samples of road dust (RD), sludge from storm drains (SL) and roadside soil (RS) were collected. Sixteen metals were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in all samples. Chemical evaluation followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that road environments have been severely contaminated with traffic-related elements. Concentration of copper in all road-environment samples is even higher, exceeding even up to 15 times its average concentrations established for the surrounding soils. Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment revealed that the hazard index (HI) for children in all road-environment samples exceeds the safe level of 1. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to potential health risks caused by the ingestion of traffic-related particles during outdoor activities.

  18. Interaction of surface plasmon polaritons in heavily doped GaN microstructures with terahertz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melentev, G. A., E-mail:; Shalygin, V. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Panevin, V. Yu.; Firsov, D. A. [Department of Physics of Semiconductors and Nanoelectronics, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Riuttanen, L.; Suihkonen, S. [School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo 02150 (Finland); Korotyeyev, V. V.; Lyaschuk, Yu. M.; Kochelap, V. A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics NASU, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine); Poroshin, V. N. [Department of Solid State Electronics, Institute of Physics NASU, Kyiv 03028 (Ukraine)


    We present the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the surface plasmon polariton excitations in heavily doped GaN epitaxial layers. Reflection and emission of radiation in the frequency range of 2–20 THz including the Reststrahlen band were investigated for samples with grating etched on the sample surface, as well as for samples with flat surface. The reflectivity spectrum for p-polarized radiation measured for the sample with the surface-relief grating demonstrates a set of resonances associated with excitations of different surface plasmon polariton modes. Spectral peculiarities due to the diffraction effect have been also revealed. The characteristic features of the reflectivity spectrum, namely, frequencies, amplitudes, and widths of the resonance dips, are well described theoretically by a modified technique of rigorous coupled-wave analysis of Maxwell equations. The emissivity spectra of the samples were measured under epilayer temperature modulation by pulsed electric field. The emissivity spectrum of the sample with surface-relief grating shows emission peaks in the frequency ranges corresponding to the decay of the surface plasmon polariton modes. Theoretical analysis based on the blackbody-like radiation theory well describes the main peculiarities of the observed THz emission.

  19. Superconducting and normal state properties of heavily hole-doped diamond synthesized at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Sidorov, E.A. Ekimov, A.V. Rakhmanina, S.M. Stishov, E.D. Bauer and J.D. Thompson


    Full Text Available Diamonds, synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures in the presence of boron, are heavily hole-doped by incorporation of boron into the diamond lattice. These diamonds become superconducting below Tc=2–9 K. Synthesis in the systems B-C and B4C-C at P=9 GPa and T=2500–2800 K result in formation of polycrystalline carbonado-like material, whereas synthesis from B-C-H gives small single crystals and intergrowth plates. Dense superconducting bodies can be prepared by compacting these single crystal particles at P=8 GPa and T=1800 K. Specific heat and resistivity measurements in magnetic fields prove the bulk nature of superconductivity in all pressure-synthesized samples and provide a consistent set of materials parameters that favor a conventional weak-coupling electron–phonon interpretation of the superconducting mechanism at high hole doping. Schottky barrier tunneling conductance spectra, obtained with contacts fabricated at the surface of these hole-doped diamonds, indicate the appearance of superconducting gap below Tc.

  20. Epibenthic diversity and productivity on a heavily trawled Barents Sea bank (Tromsøflaket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kędra


    Full Text Available Shallow Arctic banks have been observed to harbour rich communities of epifaunal organisms, but have not been well-studied with respect to composition or function due to sampling challenges. In order to determine how these banks function in the Barents Sea ecosystem, we used a combination of video and trawl/dredge sampling at several locations on a heavily trawled bank, Tromsøflaket – located at the southwestern entrance to the Barents Sea. We describe components of the benthic community, and calculate secondary production of dominant epifaunal organisms. Forty-six epibenthic taxa were identified, and sponges were a significant part of the surveyed benthic communities. There were differences in diversity and production among areas, mainly related to the intensity of trawling activities. Gamma was the most diverse and productive area, with highest species abundance and biomass. Trawled areas had considerably lower species numbers, and significant differences in epifaunal abundance and biomass were found between all trawled and untrawled areas. Trawling seems to have an impact on the sponge communities: mean individual poriferan biomass was higher in untrawled areas, and, although poriferans were observed in areas subjected to more intensive trawling, they were at least five times less frequent than in untrawled areas.

  1. A fuzzy inventory model with unit production cost, time depended holding cost, with-out shortages under a space constraint: a parametric geometric programming approach


    Sahidul Islam; Wasim Akram Mandal


    In this paper, an Inventory model with unit production cost, time depended holding cost, with-out shortages is formulated and solved. We have considered here a single objective inventory model. In most real world situation, the objective and constraint function of the decision makers are imprecise in nature, hence the coefficients, indices, the objective function and constraint goals are imposed here in fuzzy environment. Geometric programming provides a powerful tool for solving a variety of...

  2. Extreme anisotropy and anomalous transport properties of heavily electron doped Lix(NH3)yFe2Se2 single crystals (United States)

    Sun, Shanshan; Wang, Shaohua; Yu, Rong; Lei, Hechang


    We report the growth of heavily electron doped Li-NH3 intercalated FeSe single crystals that are free of material complexities and allow access to the intrinsic superconducting properties. Lix(NH3)yFe2Se2 single crystals show extremely large electronic anisotropy in both normal and superconducting states. They also exhibit anomalous transport properties in the normal state, which are believed to possibly be related to the anisotropy of relaxation time and/or temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Taking into account the great chemical flexibility of intercalants in the system, our findings provide a platform to understanding the origin of superconductivity in FeSe-related superconductors.

  3. MR fetography using heavily T2-weighted sequences: Comparison of thin- and thick-slab acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Division Pediatric Radiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore (United States)], E-mail:; Solopova, Alina [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)


    Purpose: To evaluate the use of MR-fetography sequences in identifying the major fetal structures and to compare thick- and thin-slab acquisitions for their diagnostic value. Materials and methods: Twenty-one consecutive, pregnant women with suspected fetal pathology underwent fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 T MRI unit. Heavily T2-weighted, single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequences with a long echo train (MR-fetography) were acquired in a thick- and thin-slab modus. Thick- and thin-slab acquisitions were reviewed by two experienced radiologists with regard to the overall image quality and landmark anatomical structures (spinal canal, spinal cord, posterior fossa, cerebellum, brainstem, basal cisterns, stomach, urinary bladder and umbilical cord according to a three-scale grading system (good, moderate and poor). Visibility scores were calculated and compared between both sequences. Results: Overall image quality was graded good in 76.2%, moderate in 19.0% and poor in 4.8% for thick-slab images and good in 81%, moderate in 14.3% and poor in 4.8% for thin-slab images. The visibility scores of the thick/thin-slab images for evaluation of the main fetal structures were as follows: for the spinal canal 2.8 {+-} 0.4/2.9 {+-} 0.54 (p > 0.05), spinal cord 2.4 {+-} 0.75/2.7 {+-} 0.66 (p > 0.05), posterior fossa components (cerebellum, brainstem and basal cisterns) 2.4 {+-} 0.68/2.8 {+-} 0.54; 2.4 {+-} 0.67/2.7 {+-} 0.66; 2.5 {+-} 0.51/2.7 {+-} 0.56 (p < 0.05), stomach 2.8 {+-} 0.44/2.9 {+-} 0.48 (p > 0.05), urinary bladder 2.8 {+-} 0.51/2.8 {+-} 0.54 (p > 0.05) and umbilical cord 2.9 {+-} 0.30/2.6 {+-} 0.60 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Heavily T2-weighted MR-fetography renders a quick overview of fetal contours, fetal position, amount of amniotic fluid and integrity and presence of several major fluid containing structures. Thick- and thin-slab acquisitions render complementary information. Thick-slab images display the entire fetus in one projection while

  4. Heat loss through the glabrous skin surfaces of heavily insulated, heat-stressed individuals. (United States)

    Grahn, D A; Dillon, J L; Heller, H C


    Insulation reduces heat exchange between a body and the environment. Glabrous (nonhairy) skin surfaces (palms of the hands, soles of the feet, face, and ears) constitute a small percentage of total body surface area but contain specialized vascular structures that facilitate heat loss. We have previously reported that cooling the glabrous skin surfaces is effective in alleviating heat stress and that the application of local subatmospheric pressure enhances the effect. In this paper, we compare the effects of cooling multiple glabrous skin surfaces with and without vacuum on thermal recovery in heavily insulated heat-stressed individuals. Esophageal temperatures (T(es)) and heart rates were monitored throughout the trials. Water loss was determined from pre- and post-trial nude weights. Treadmill exercise (5.6 km/h, 9-16% slope, and 25-45 min duration) in a hot environment (41.5 degrees C, 20-30% relative humidity) while wearing insulating pants and jackets was used to induce heat stress (T(es)>or=39 degrees C). For postexercise recovery, the subjects donned additional insulation (a balaclava, winter gloves, and impermeable boot covers) and rested in the hot environment for 60 min. Postexercise cooling treatments included control (no cooling) or the application of a 10 degrees C closed water circulating system to (a) the hand(s) with or without application of a local subatmospheric pressure, (b) the face, (c) the feet, or (d) multiple glabrous skin regions. Following exercise induction of heat stress in heavily insulated subjects, the rate of recovery of T(es) was 0.4+/-0.2 degrees C/h(n=12), but with application of cooling to one hand, the rate was 0.8+/-0.3 degrees C/h(n=12), and with one hand cooling with subatmospheric pressure, the rate was 1.0+/-0.2 degrees C/h(n=12). Cooling alone yielded two responses, one resembling that of cooling with subatmospheric pressure (n=8) and one resembling that of no cooling (n=4). The effect of treating multiple surfaces was

  5. A Multidisciplinary Assessment of River Surface Water Quality in Areas Heavily Influenced by Human Activities. (United States)

    Charalampous, Nikolina; Kindou, Aggeliki; Vlastos, Dimitris; Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Dailianis, Stefanos


    The present study could serve as a multidisciplinary approach for the assessment of river surface water quality with the use of chemical and biological methods. Specifically, physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and pesticides were measured in water samples from three different stations (sampling station S1, S2, and S3) along Asopos River (Greece). In parallel, algal species (primary producers)-such as Scenedesmus rubescens and Chlorococcum sp.; consumer invertebrate species, such as the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus; as well as human lymphocytes-were exposed to those samples for assessing their toxic and genotoxic/mutagenic effects. According to the results, although the values of almost all of the physicochemical parameters tested, heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, lead, and mercury) and pesticides were lower than or within the respective environmental quality standards, thus offering no clear evidence for their natural or anthropogenic origin. Values recorded for nickel, chromium, hexavalent chromium, and malathion represent a typical case of mixed influence from natural and anthropogenic enrichments. In contrast, the algal growth arrest, the acute toxic effects on the freshwater invertebrates, and the increased micronuclei frequencies observed in human lymphocytes showed the presence of human-derived hazardous substances, which were hardly determinable with the use of conventional chemical methods. Given that the presence of priority pollutants in river surface waters, heavily burdened by anthropogenic activities, could give no clear evidence for their biological risk, the results of the present study showed that chemical and biological assays should be applied in parallel, thus serving as a reliable tool for the assessment of river water quality.

  6. Fine particulate matter constituents and cardiopulmonary mortality in a heavily polluted Chinese city. (United States)

    Cao, Junji; Xu, Hongmei; Xu, Qun; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong


    Although ambient fine particulate matter (PM(2.5); particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) has been linked to adverse human health effects, the chemical constituents that cause harm are unknown. To our knowledge, the health effects of PM(2.5) constituents have not been reported for a developing country. We examined the short-term association between PM(2.5) constituents and daily mortality in Xi'an, a heavily polluted Chinese city. We obtained daily mortality data and daily concentrations of PM(2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 10 water-soluble ions for 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2008. We also measured concentrations of fifteen elements 1 January 2006 through 31 December 2008. We analyzed the data using overdispersed generalized linear Poisson models. During the study period, the mean daily average concentration of PM(2.5) in Xi'an was 182.2 µg/m³. Major contributors to PM(2.5) mass included OC, EC, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. After adjustment for PM(2.5) mass, we found significant positive associations of total, cardiovascular, or respiratory mortality with OC, EC, ammonium, nitrate, chlorine ion, chlorine, and nickel for at least one lag period. Nitrate demonstrated stronger associations with total and cardiovascular mortality than PM(2.5) mass. For a 1-day lag, interquartile range increases in PM(2.5) mass and nitrate (114.9 and 15.4 µg/m³, respectively) were associated with 1.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8%, 2.8%] and 3.8% (95% CI: 1.7%, 5.9%) increases in total mortality. Our findings suggest that PM(2.5) constituents from the combustion of fossil fuel may have an appreciable influence on the health effects attributable to PM(2.5) in Xi'an.

  7. Preliminary report of MR cisternography using heavily T{sub 2}-weighted fast spin echo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Hiroyuki; Muro, Isao; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Mamata, Yoshiaki; Komiya, Taizo; Mamata, Hatsuho; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Tsugane, Ryuichi [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Sato, Osamu


    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the details of cranial nerves and vascular components in the cistern using MR cisternography (MRC). All scans were performed on a PHILIPS Gyroscan ACS-NT (1.5T) using a standard head coil. MRC was performes by heavily T{sub 2}-weighted fast spin echo sequences with reversal image (TR: 6000 ms, TE: 220 ms, NEX: 4 times, matrix: 512 x 307, ETL: 23, 3 mm slice thickness, 0.3 mm slice gap). We studied 4 patients of volunteers with the following diagnosis: arachnoid cyst, facial spasm, pituitary adenoma, and CP angle tumor. The images of the VII and VIIIth nerves were clearly identified by axial and oblique coronal views along the VII and VIIIth nerves. In an oblique coronal view, the roots of the entire VII and VIIIth nerves from the internal auditory meatus to the brainstem were visualized. In the patient with facial spasm, the vascular compression at the root entry zone was proven to be in accordance with the finding obtained during the surgery. In the CP angle tumor case, it was possible to accurately discern the relationship of the tumor to the VII and VIIIth nerves as well as to the surrounding vascular and brainstem structures. In the pituitary adenoma case, MRC was useful indifining the relationship of the tumor to the chiasm, internal carotid artery and first segment of the anterior cerebral artery; however, the area surrounding the trigeminal nerve, the superior cerebello-pontine cistern, has the same intensity as the brainstem due to CSF flow artifacts. This CSF flow related artifact was attributed to high velocity signal loss. The VIth nerve and Xth and IXth nerves were observed in some volunteers. Since an average of 3 min 48 sec only is required for imaging in one direction, the clinical application of this method is considered feasible. (author)

  8. Optical Properties of Heavily Fluorinated Lanthanide Tris β-Diketonate Phosphine Oxide Adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam N. Swinburne


    Full Text Available The construction of lanthanide(III chelates that exhibit superior photophysical properties holds great importance in biological and materials science. One strategy to increase the luminescence properties of lanthanide(III chelates is to hinder competitive non-radiative decay processes through perfluorination of the chelating ligands. Here, the synthesis of two families of heavily fluorinated lanthanide(III β-diketonate complexes bearing monodentate perfluorinated tris phenyl phosphine oxide ligands have been prepared through a facile one pot reaction [Ln(hfac3{(ArF3PO}(H2O] and [Ln(F7-acac3{(ArF3PO}2] (where Ln = Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+, Er3+ and Yb3+. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in combination with photophysical studies have been performed to investigate the factors responsible for the differences in the luminescence lifetimes and intrinsic quantum yields of the complexes. Replacement of both bound H2O and C–H oscillators in the ligand backbone has a dramatic effect on the photophysical properties of the complexes, particularly for the near infra-red emitting ion Yb3+, where a five fold increase in luminescence lifetime and quantum yield is observed. The complexes [Sm(hfac3{(ArF3PO}(H2O] (1, [Yb(hfac3{(ArF3PO}(H2O] (5, [Sm(F7-acac3{(ArF3PO}2] (6 and [Yb(F7-acac3{(ArF3PO}2] (10 exhibit unusually long luminescence lifetimes and attractive intrinsic quantum yields of emission in fluid solution (ΦLn = 3.4% (1; 1.4% (10 and in the solid state (ΦLn = 8.5% (1; 2.0% (5; 26% (6; 11% (10, which are amongst the largest values for this class of compounds to date.

  9. Radium-223 in Heavily Pretreated Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer. (United States)

    Modi, Dipenkumar; Hwang, Clara; Mamdani, Hirva; Kim, Seongho; Gayar, Hesham; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Joyrich, Richard; Heath, Elisabeth I


    Radium-223 is a bone-targeting radiopharmaceutical that extends survival in mCRPC. Postapproval data are limited, and the value of biochemical and radiologic monitoring during radium therapy is unknown. We conducted a retrospective study of 29 patients with mCRPC who received radium-223 at 1 of 3 participating institutions between August 2013 and December 2014. Trend of PSA, radiographic changes, and association of biochemical and clinical variables with PSA trend were measured. The median age of patients was 70 years, 79% of patients (N = 23) were European Americans, and 17% of patients (N = 5) were African Americans. Twenty patients (69%) had received at least 3 lines of prior therapies. Some 38% of patients (N = 11) received all 6 cycles of radium-223. Twenty patients (69%) had an increase in PSA during radium therapy, and 4 patients (14%) had a decline in PSA levels. Five patients had visceral metastases on computed tomography imaging performed during the course of radium-223. Radium therapy in mCRPC was associated with an increase in PSA in the majority of these heavily pretreated patients. The development of visceral disease was not uncommon, suggesting a need for follow-up computed tomography monitoring during radium-223 therapy. The significance of early increases in PSA and pain with radium-223 is still uncertain. Although pain and PSA flare have been reported in patients who subsequently have a dramatic response to therapy, we observed that a PSA increase or pain flare correlates to an improvement in bone scans only in a minority of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Rock Phosphate on Zn and Fe Bioavailability and Accumulation by Salix smithiana in Heavily Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vondrackova S.


    Full Text Available High biomass production Salix smithiana was proved as the plant able to accumulate substantial amount of Cd and Zn in aboveground biomass. Nevertheless, in heavily contaminated soils (mainly by Zn willows can suffer from chlorosis because of Fe deficiency induced by excess of Zn amount. Method such as chemophytostabilization seems like very good measure for planting willows in such heavily contaminated soil. In our experiments we evaluated effect of rock phosphate on changes in Zn and Fe bioavailability and accumulation of these elements by willows together with the willows growth on heavily contaminated soil. Addition of rock phosphate reduced plant-available Zn concentrations in soils resulting in significant decrease of Zn content in leaves. In the case of Fe, however, its contents in the leaves significantly decreased as well, although the mobile portion of Fe in soil remained unchanged. Yield of aboveground biomass in rock phosphate treatment was not significantly different in comparison to the control. After the first vegetation period, we can conclude that reduction of Zn contents in willows after rock phosphate application did not lead to suppress of Fe deficiency and improvement of willow growth in heavily contaminated soil.

  11. Evaluation of the use of polymer modified bitumen in the production of high modulus asphalt for heavily-trafficked roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J


    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), has been introduced to South Africa to provide an optimum solution for the design and construction of heavily trafficked roads. Implementation of EME technology in South Africa...

  12. Obesity Activates a Program of Lysosomal-Dependent Lipid Metabolism in Adipose Tissue Macrophages Independently of Classic Activation (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyuan; Grijalva, Ambar; Skowronski, Alicja; van Eijk, Marco; Serlie, Mireille J.; Ferrante, Anthony W.


    SUMMARY Obesity activates a complex systemic immune response that includes the recruitment of macrophages and other immune cells to key metabolic tissues. Current models postulate that obesity and excess lipids classically activate macrophages, polarizing them toward an M1 (inflammatory) state. Little is known about noninflammatory functions of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). Here, we show that the expansion of adipose tissue (AT) across models of obesity induces a program of lysosome biogenesis in ATMs and is associated with lipid catabolism but not a classic inflammatory phenotype. This program is induced by factors produced by AT and is tightly coupled to lipid accumulation by ATMs. Inhibition of ATM lysosome function impairs lipid metabolism and increases lipid content in ATMs and reduces whole AT lipolysis. These data argue that ATMs contribute quantitatively to the development of obesity-induced inflammation but also serve an important role in lipid trafficking independent of their inflammatory phenotype. PMID:24315368

  13. Obesity activates a program of lysosomal-dependent lipid metabolism in adipose tissue macrophages independently of classic activation. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyuan; Grijalva, Ambar; Skowronski, Alicja; van Eijk, Marco; Serlie, Mireille J; Ferrante, Anthony W


    Obesity activates a complex systemic immune response that includes the recruitment of macrophages and other immune cells to key metabolic tissues. Current models postulate that obesity and excess lipids classically activate macrophages, polarizing them toward an M1 (inflammatory) state. Little is known about noninflammatory functions of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). Here, we show that the expansion of adipose tissue (AT) across models of obesity induces a program of lysosome biogenesis in ATMs and is associated with lipid catabolism but not a classic inflammatory phenotype. This program is induced by factors produced by AT and is tightly coupled to lipid accumulation by ATMs. Inhibition of ATM lysosome function impairs lipid metabolism and increases lipid content in ATMs and reduces whole AT lipolysis. These data argue that ATMs contribute quantitatively to the development of obesity-induced inflammation but also serve an important role in lipid trafficking independent of their inflammatory phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Obesity Activates a Program of Lysosomal-Dependent Lipid Metabolism in Adipose Tissue Macrophages Independently of Classic Activation


    Xu, Xiaoyuan; Grijalva, Ambar; Skowronski, Alicja; van Eijk, Marco; Serlie, Mireille J.; Ferrante Jr., Anthony W.


    Obesity activates a complex systemic immune response that includes the recruitment of macrophages and other immune cells to key metabolic tissues. Current models postulate that obesity and excess lipids classically activate macrophages, polarizing them toward an M1 (inflammatory) state. Little is known about noninflammatory functions of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). Here, we show that the expansion of adipose tissue (AT) across models of obesity induces a program of lysosome biogenesis i...

  15. Historical data reveal 30-year persistence of benthic fauna associations in heavily modified waterbody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Callaway


    Full Text Available Baseline surveys form the cornerstone of coastal impact studies where altered conditions, for example through new infrastructure development, are assessed against a temporal reference state. They are snapshots taken before construction. Due to scarcity of relevant data prior to baseline surveys long-term trends can often not be taken into account. Particularly in heavily modified waterbodies this would however be desirable to control for changes in anthropogenic use over time as well as natural ecological variation. Here, the benthic environment of an industrialized embayment was investigated (Swansea Bay, Wales, UK where it is proposed to build a tidal lagoon that would generate marine renewable energy from the tidal range. Since robust long-term baseline data was not available, the value of unpublished historical benthos information from 1984 by a regional water company was assessed with the aim to improve certainty about the persistence of current benthic community patterns. A survey of 101 positions in 2014 identified spatially discrete benthic communities with areas of high and low diversity. Habitat characteristics including sediment properties and the proximity to a sewage outfall explained 17-35% of the variation in the community structure. Comparing the historical information from 1984 with 2014 revealed striking similarity in the benthic communities between those years, not just in their spatial distribution but also to a large extent in the species composition. The 30-year-old information confirmed spatial boundaries of discrete species associations and pinpointed a similar diversity hotspot. A group of five common species was found to be particularly persistent over time (Nucula nitidosa, Spisula elliptica, Spiophanes bombyx, Nephtys hombergii, Diastylis rathkei. According to the Infauna Quality Index (IQI linked to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD the average ecological status for 2014 was ‘moderate’, but eleven samples

  16. MR fetography using heavily T2-weighted sequences: comparison of thin- and thick-slab acquisitions. (United States)

    Huisman, Thierry A G M; Solopova, Alina


    To evaluate the use of MR-fetography sequences in identifying the major fetal structures and to compare thick- and thin-slab acquisitions for their diagnostic value. Twenty-one consecutive, pregnant women with suspected fetal pathology underwent fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 T MRI unit. Heavily T2-weighted, single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) sequences with a long echo train (MR-fetography) were acquired in a thick- and thin-slab modus. Thick- and thin-slab acquisitions were reviewed by two experienced radiologists with regard to the overall image quality and landmark anatomical structures (spinal canal, spinal cord, posterior fossa, cerebellum, brainstem, basal cisterns, stomach, urinary bladder and umbilical cord according to a three-scale grading system (good, moderate and poor). Visibility scores were calculated and compared between both sequences. Overall image quality was graded good in 76.2%, moderate in 19.0% and poor in 4.8% for thick-slab images and good in 81%, moderate in 14.3% and poor in 4.8% for thin-slab images. The visibility scores of the thick/thin-slab images for evaluation of the main fetal structures were as follows: for the spinal canal 2.8+/-0.4/2.9+/-0.54 (p>0.05), spinal cord 2.4+/-0.75/2.7+/-0.66 (p>0.05), posterior fossa components (cerebellum, brainstem and basal cisterns) 2.4+/-0.68/2.8+/-0.54; 2.4+/-0.67/2.7+/-0.66; 2.5+/-0.51/2.7+/-0.56 (p0.05), urinary bladder 2.8+/-0.51/2.8+/-0.54 (p>0.05) and umbilical cord 2.9+/-0.30/2.6+/-0.60 (pslab acquisitions render complementary information. Thick-slab images display the entire fetus in one projection while thin-slab images provide more detailed anatomical information. The short imaging time usually allows measuring both thick- and thin-slab images. MR-fetography is as a helpful addition to conventional fetal MRI. MR-fetography should not be viewed as a single, stand alone sequence but as a supporting fast MR sequence in a well-designed multisequence fetal MRI protocol

  17. c-Myb Regulates the T-Bet-Dependent Differentiation Program in B Cells to Coordinate Antibody Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Piovesan


    Full Text Available Humoral immune responses are tailored to the invading pathogen through regulation of key transcription factors and their networks. This is critical to establishing effective antibody-mediated responses, yet it is unknown how B cells integrate pathogen-induced signals to drive or suppress transcriptional programs specialized for each class of pathogen. Here, we detail the key role of the transcription factor c-Myb in regulating the T-bet-mediated anti-viral program. Deletion of c-Myb in mature B cells significantly increased serum IgG2c and CXCR3 expression by upregulating T-bet, normally suppressed during Th2-cell-mediated responses. Enhanced expression of T-bet resulted in aberrant plasma cell differentiation within the germinal center, mediated by CXCR3 expression. These findings identify a dual role for c-Myb in limiting inappropriate effector responses while coordinating plasma cell differentiation with germinal center egress. Identifying such intrinsic regulators of specialized antibody responses can assist in vaccine design and therapeutic intervention in B-cell-mediated immune disorders.

  18. c-Myb Regulates the T-Bet-Dependent Differentiation Program in B Cells to Coordinate Antibody Responses. (United States)

    Piovesan, Dana; Tempany, Jessica; Di Pietro, Andrea; Baas, Inge; Yiannis, Callisthenis; O'Donnell, Kristy; Chen, Yunshun; Peperzak, Victor; Belz, Gabrielle T; Mackay, Charles R; Smyth, Gordon K; Groom, Joanna R; Tarlinton, David M; Good-Jacobson, Kim L


    Humoral immune responses are tailored to the invading pathogen through regulation of key transcription factors and their networks. This is critical to establishing effective antibody-mediated responses, yet it is unknown how B cells integrate pathogen-induced signals to drive or suppress transcriptional programs specialized for each class of pathogen. Here, we detail the key role of the transcription factor c-Myb in regulating the T-bet-mediated anti-viral program. Deletion of c-Myb in mature B cells significantly increased serum IgG2c and CXCR3 expression by upregulating T-bet, normally suppressed during Th2-cell-mediated responses. Enhanced expression of T-bet resulted in aberrant plasma cell differentiation within the germinal center, mediated by CXCR3 expression. These findings identify a dual role for c-Myb in limiting inappropriate effector responses while coordinating plasma cell differentiation with germinal center egress. Identifying such intrinsic regulators of specialized antibody responses can assist in vaccine design and therapeutic intervention in B-cell-mediated immune disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Explaining long-term outcomes among drug dependent mothers treated in women-only versus mixed-gender programs (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth; Li, Libo; Pierce, Jennifer; Hser, Yih-Ing


    Specialized substance abuse treatment for parenting women is thought to improve outcomes, but long-term impacts and how they occur are poorly understood. Utilizing a sample of 789 California mothers followed for 10 years after admission to women-only (WO) or mixed-gender (MG) drug treatment, we examine the relationship between WO treatment and outcomes and whether it is mediated by post-treatment exposures to criminal justice and health services systems. At follow-up, 48% of mothers had a successful outcome (i.e., no use of illicit drugs, not involved with the criminal justice system, alive). Controlling for patient characteristics, WO (vs. MG) treatment increased the odds of successful outcome by 44%. In the structural equation model WO treatment was associated with fewer post-treatment arrests, which was associated with better outcomes. Women-only substance abuse treatment has long-term benefits for drug-dependent mothers, a relationship that may be partially explained by post-treatment exposure to the criminal justice system. Findings underscore additional leverage points for relapse prevention and recovery-supportive efforts for drug-dependent mothers. PMID:23702103

  20. Efficacy and safety of palbociclib in heavily pretreated patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer. (United States)

    Ban, Marija; Miše, Branka Petrić; Majić, Ana; Dražić, Ivanka; Vrdoljak, Eduard


    CDK4/6 inhibitors in the first and second treatment line in patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer (mBC) in combination with hormonal therapy improve progression free survival. Role of CDK4/6 inhibitors in further treatment lines remains unclear. Retrospective analysis of 24 HR+/HER2- heavily pretreated mBC patients is presented. A total of 58.3% patients achieved stable disease. No objective response was observed. Median progression free survival was 4.8 months; median overall survival was 11 months. Treatment was well tolerated. Favorable toxicity profile and efficacy of palbociclib/aromatase inhibitors (AI) combination in heavily pretreated luminal mBC patients in this study emphasize the need for further investigation of such drugs in this population.

  1. Nature of intensive defect-related broadband luminescence of heavily doped Al x Ga1-x N:Si layers (United States)

    Osinnykh, I. V.; Malin, T. V.; Plyusnin, V. F.; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Ber, B. Ya; Kazantsev, D. Yu


    We report photoluminescence investigations of heavily doped Al x Ga1-x N:Si films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates. The wide intensive defect-related band dominates in the photoluminescence spectra of Al x Ga1-x N:Si films with the Al content higher than 0.46 covering the whole visible spectral range. This band is attributed to donor-acceptor transitions. The acceptor ionization energy of about 1.87 eV for heavily doped AlN:Si was obtained, decrease of Al content leads to decrease of the acceptor ionization energy. The donor was assigned to the Si atom on the Ga/Al site; the acceptor might be the (2-/3-) transition level of the V Al.

  2. An Evaluation of a Continuing Education Program for Family Caregivers of Ventilator-Dependent Children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. Boroughs


    Full Text Available Until 25 years ago, there were limited options for long-term mechanical ventilation of children, and the majority of children were cared for in hospitals. However, with improving technology, the pediatric intensive care unit has moved from the hospital to a home setting, as children with increasingly complex healthcare needs are now often cared for by family members. One of the most complex care conditions involves ventilator and tracheostomy support. Advanced respiratory technologies that augment natural respiratory function prolong the lives of children with respiratory compromise; however, this care often comes with serious risks, including respiratory muscle impairment, respiratory failure, and chronic pulmonary disease. Both non-invasive assisted ventilation and assisted ventilation via tracheostomy can prolong survival into adulthood in many cases; however, mechanical ventilation in the home is a high-stakes, high risk intervention. Increasing complexity of care over time requires perpetual skill training of family caregivers that is delivered and supported by professional caregivers; yet, opportunities for additional training outside of the hospital rarely exist. Recent data has confirmed that repetitive caregiver education is essential for retention of memory and skills in adult learners. This study analyzes the use of continued education and training in the community for family caregivers of ventilator-dependent children diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA.

  3. Structural coarsening during annealing of an aluminum plate heavily deformed using ECAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg V.; Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.


    the electron backscatter diffraction technique both before and after annealing for 10 minutes. The fraction of fast-migrating TJs is found to strongly depend of the type of boundaries composing a junction. The greatest fraction of fast-migrating TJs is in the group, where all boundaries forming a junction...

  4. Lichens as biomonitors of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo heavily shelled with depleted uranium rounds (United States)

    Di Lella, Luigi A.; Frati, Luisa; Loppi, Stefano; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco

    This paper reports the results of a study using lichens as biomonitors to investigate the small-scale environmental distribution of uranium and other trace elements in an area of Kosovo (Djakovica) heavily shelled with depleted uranium (DU) anti-tank ammunition. The results of total uranium concentrations showed great variability and species-specific differences, mainly due to differences in the exposed surface area of the lichens. The uranium concentrations in lichen samples were rather similar at a site heavily shelled with DU ammunition and at a control site. Unexpectedly, the highest uranium concentrations were found at the control site. The observed U distribution can be explained by contamination of lichen thalli by soil particles. The soil geochemistry was similar at the two sampling sites. The 235U/ 238U ratios in the soil samples suggested a modest DU contribution only at the heavily shelled site. Measurements of U isotopes in lichens did not reveal DU pollution at the control site. The U isotopic ratios in lichens at the shelled site showed variable figures; only two samples were clearly contaminated by DU. There were no signs of contamination by other trace elements.

  5. Predominance of heavily calcified coccolithophores at low CaCO3 saturation during winter in the Bay of Biscay. (United States)

    Smith, Helen E K; Tyrrell, Toby; Charalampopoulou, Anastasia; Dumousseaud, Cynthia; Legge, Oliver J; Birchenough, Sarah; Pettit, Laura R; Garley, Rebecca; Hartman, Sue E; Hartman, Mark C; Sagoo, Navjit; Daniels, Chris J; Achterberg, Eric P; Hydes, David J


    Coccolithophores are an important component of the Earth system, and, as calcifiers, their possible susceptibility to ocean acidification is of major concern. Laboratory studies at enhanced pCO(2) levels have produced divergent results without overall consensus. However, it has been predicted from these studies that, although calcification may not be depressed in all species, acidification will produce "a transition in dominance from more to less heavily calcified coccolithophores" [Ridgwell A, et al., (2009) Biogeosciences 6:2611-2623]. A recent observational study [Beaufort L, et al., (2011) Nature 476:80-83] also suggested that coccolithophores are less calcified in more acidic conditions. We present the results of a large observational study of coccolithophore morphology in the Bay of Biscay. Samples were collected once a month for over a year, along a 1,000-km-long transect. Our data clearly show that there is a pronounced seasonality in the morphotypes of Emiliania huxleyi, the most abundant coccolithophore species. Whereas pH and CaCO(3) saturation are lowest in winter, the E. huxleyi population shifts from 90% (winter) of the heavily calcified form. However, it is unlikely that the shifts in carbonate chemistry alone caused the morphotype shift. Our finding that the most heavily calcified morphotype dominates when conditions are most acidic is contrary to the earlier predictions and raises further questions about the fate of coccolithophores in a high-CO(2) world.

  6. Thermal equilibrium concentration of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped silicon crystals - Theoretical study of formation energy and formation entropy in area of influence of dopant atoms- (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Yamaoka, S.; Sueoka, K.; Vanhellemont, J.


    It is well known that p-type, neutral and n-type dopants affect the intrinsic point defect (vacancy V and self-interstitial I) behavior in single crystal Si. By the interaction with V and/or I, (1) growing Si crystals become more V- or I-rich, (2) oxygen precipitation is enhanced or retarded, and (3) dopant diffusion is enhanced or retarded, depending on the type and concentration of dopant atoms. Since these interactions affect a wide range of Si properties ranging from as-grown crystal quality to LSI performance, numerical simulations are used to predict and to control the behavior of both dopant atoms and intrinsic point defects. In most cases, the thermal equilibrium concentrations of dopant-point defect pairs are evaluated using the mass action law by taking only the binding energy of closest pair to each other into account. The impacts of dopant atoms on the formation of V and I more distant than 1st neighbor and on the change of formation entropy are usually neglected. In this study, we have evaluated the thermal equilibrium concentrations of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped Si crystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to obtain the formation energy (Ef) of the uncharged V and I at all sites in a 64-atom supercell around a substitutional p-type (B, Ga, In, and Tl), neutral (C, Ge, and Sn) and n-type (P, As, and Sb) dopant atom. The formation (vibration) entropies (Sf) of free I, V and I, V at 1st neighboring site from B, C, Sn, P and As atoms were also calculated with the linear response method. The dependences of the thermal equilibrium concentrations of trapped and total intrinsic point defects (sum of free I or V and I or V trapped with dopant atoms) on the concentrations of B, C, Sn, P and As in Si were obtained. Furthermore, the present evaluations well explain the experimental results of the so-called ;Voronkov criterion; in B and C doped Si, and also the observed dopant dependent void sizes in P and As doped Si


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Starunskaya


    Full Text Available Importance. The study of psychological characteristics of patients is important for the creation and planning of psychological correction and improve the efficiency of the treatment of coronary heart disease.Тhe purpose. This research is devoted to the study of the psychological features in patients with coronary artery disease (CHD in the preoperative period, depending on their involvement in psycho-correction program.Material and methods. We observed 30 patients with coronary heart disease before coronary bypass surgery. Clinical-psychological method (observation, conversation and psychological testing were used.Results  and conclusions. We found that patients who participated in psycho-correction program had lower values of «anxiety», «phobic anxiety» and «obsessive-compulsive» symptoms. In both groups of patients, on average, we identified the prevalence  of the coping-strategies «self-control» and «planning solution». Furthermore, on average, the «self-awareness» and «extraversion» were more manifested features in the structure of the personality traits of the surveyed patients. The revealed features should be taken into account in planning the programs of psycho-correction for patients with CHD prior to CABG surgery.

  8. Annoyance due to noise and air pollution to the residents of heavily frequented streets (United States)

    Wanner, H. U.; Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.


    The residents of different streets with varying traffic density and building density were questioned about annoyance due to traffic noise and air pollution. Results show that annoyance felt is dependent not only on the measured noise levels and/or air pollution concentrations, but that there do exist interactions between the residential quarters and annoyance. These interactions should be considered when fixing the limits and standards.

  9. The heavily polluted atmosphere of the DAZ white dwarf GALEX J193156.8+011745

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vennes, Stephane; Kawka, Adela; Németh, Péter


    Roč. 404, č. 1 (2010), L40-L44 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300030908; GA ČR GAP209/10/0967; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA301630901 Program:IA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : GALEX J193156.8+011745 * white dwarfs Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.888, year: 2010

  10. Applying a Stitched, Rod-Stiffened Concept to Heavily Loaded Structure (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.


    NASA and the Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A stitched carbon-epoxy material system was developed to reduce the weight and cost of transport aircraft wing structure, first in the NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) program in the 1990's and now in the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. By stitching through the thickness of a dry carbon fiber material prior to cure, the labor associated with panel fabrication and assembly can be significantly reduced and the need for mechanical fasteners is almost eliminated. Stitching provides the benefit of reducing or eliminating delaminations, including those between stiffener flanges and skin. Stitching also reduces part count, and therefore, cost of the structure. The stitched panel concept used in the ACT program in the 1990's used simple blade-stiffeners as stringers, caps and clips. Today, the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept is being developed for application to advanced vehicle configurations. PRSEUS provides additional weight savings through the use of a stiffener with a thin web and a unidirectional carbon rod at the top of the web which provides structurally efficient stiffening. A comparison between the blade-stiffened structure and PRSEUS is presented focusing on highly loaded structure and demonstrating improved weight reduction.

  11. Parker's sneak-guard model revisited: why do reproductively parasitic males heavily invest in testes? (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Kohda, Masanori; Hori, Michio; Sato, Tetsu


    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in males and may cause intraspecific differences in testes investment. Parker's sneak-guard model predicts that sneaker males, who mate under sperm competition risk, invest in testes relatively more than bourgeois conspecifics that have lower risk. Given that sneakers are much smaller than bourgeois males, sneakers may increase testes investment to overcome their limited sperm productivity because of their small body sizes. In this study, we examined the mechanism that mediates differential testes investment across tactics in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus. In the Rumonge population of Burundi, bourgeois males are small compared with those in other populations and have a body size close to sneaky dwarf males. Therefore, if differences in relative testis investment depend on sperm competition, the rank order of relative testis investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge = bourgeois males in the other populations. If differences in relative testis investment depend on body size, the rank order of relative testes investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge > bourgeois males in the other populations. Comparisons of relative testis investment among the three male groups supported the role of sperm competition, as predicted by the sneak-guard model. Nevertheless, the effects of absolute body size on testes investment should be considered to understand the mechanisms underlying intraspecific variation in testes investment caused by alternative reproductive tactics.

  12. Phosphorus and carrier density of heavily n-type doped germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takinai, K.; Wada, K. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    The threshold current density of n-type, tensile-strained Ge lasers strongly depends on the electron density. Although optical net gain analyses indicate that the optimum electron density should be on the order of 1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} to get the lowest threshold, it is not a simple task to increase the electron density beyond the mid range of 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The present paper analyzes the phenomenon where electron density is not proportional to phosphorus donor density, i.e., “saturation” phenomenon, by applying the so-called amphoteric defect model. The analyses indicate that the saturation phenomenon can be well explained by the charge compensation between the phosphorus donors (P{sup +}) and doubly negative charged Ge vacancies (V{sup 2−}).

  13. Phase composition of microdefects in heavily doped n-GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davletkildeev, N.A., E-mail: dna@omsu.r [Omsk Dostoevsky State University, 55a, Mira pr., Omsk 644077 (Russian Federation); Nukenov, M.M.; Sologub, N.V. [Omsk Dostoevsky State University, 55a, Mira pr., Omsk 644077 (Russian Federation)


    The phase composition of the microdefects in Te-doped GaAs single crystals grown by the Czochralski technique with a free carrier density n{sub 0}=5x10{sup 17}-5x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} was investigated. Ga{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase reflections appeared in the X-ray diffraction patterns. Nonmonotonic dependences of the relative volume fraction and the coherent scattering domain size of Ga{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on Te doping level were obtained. The possible causes of the nonmonotonic variation in the structural parameters of the Ga{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase with increase of Te concentration in GaAs are discussed.

  14. Anneal induced transforms of radiation defects in heavily electron irradiated Si diodes (United States)

    Rumbauskas, V.; Meskauskaite, D.; Ceponis, T.; Gaubas, E.


    In this work, the spectra of deep traps attributed to radiation defects in n-type Czochralski (CZ) grown Si with dopant concentrations of 1015 cm-3 have been studied. Samples were irradiated with 6.6 MeV electrons with fluences in the range of (1-5) × 1016 e/cm2. Irradiated samples were annealed using isochronal 24 hour heat treatments in nitrogen (N2) gas at ambient temperature and by discretely varying the temperature from 80 °C to 280 °C. The as-irradiated and annealed samples were studied by combining capacitance-voltage (C-V), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and temperature dependent carrier trapping lifetime (TDTL) measurements. Schottky barrier contacts and ohmic contacts were deposited on the samples by Au magnetron sputtering and metal sintering, respectively, for C-V and DLTS measurements after each heat treatment procedure. In order to reduce the uncertainties due to contact quality, TDTL contact-less measurements were performed using microwave probed photoconductivity transient (MW-PC) technique. Using these techniques, we observe suppression of the rather deep carrier emission centres after heat treatment at elevated temperatures. However, the reduction of deep acceptor concentrations after anneals at elevated temperatures was observed to be accompanied by considerable increase of shallow acceptor concentrations which effectively compensate the dopants. The activation energies of the predominant peaks within the spectrum, displayed as temperature dependent carrier trapping lifetime variations, were measured and are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained from the DLTS spectra.

  15. Metabolic programming of obesity by energy restriction during the perinatal period: different outcomes depending on gender and period, type and severity of restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina ePico


    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled intervention studies in animals have shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. The phenotypes of health or disease are hence the result of the interaction between genetic and environmental factors, starting right from conception. In this sense, gestation and lactation are disclosed as critical periods. Continuous food restriction during these stages may lead to permanent adaptations with lasting effects on the metabolism of the offspring and may influence the propensity to develop different chronic diseases associated with obesity. However, the different outcomes of these adaptations on later health may depend on factors such as the type, duration, period and severity of the exposure to energy restriction conditions, and they are, in part, gender specific. A better understanding of the factors and mechanisms involved in metabolic programming, and their effects, may contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity, which is considered to be one of the major health concerns of our time. Here, the different outcomes of maternal food restriction during gestation and lactation in the metabolic health of offspring, as well as potential mechanisms underlying these effects are reviewed.

  16. Buprenorphine from detox and beyond: preliminary evaluation of a pilot program to increase heroin dependent individuals' engagement in a full continuum of care. (United States)

    Donovan, Dennis M; Knox, Patricia C; Skytta, Jenny A F; Blayney, Jessica A; DiCenzo, Jessica


    Absence of successful transition to post-detoxification treatment leads to high rates of relapse among detoxified heroin users. The present study evaluated a pilot buprenorphine treatment program (BTP). Heroin dependent individuals were inducted onto buprenorphine/naloxone in detox, maintained while transitioning through an intensive inpatient program (IIP), and gradually tapered off medication over 5 months of outpatient (OP) treatment. Compared to programmatic indicators of treatment engagement in the year prior to BTP implementation, referrals from detox to IIP, entry into and completion of IIP and subsequent OP, and days in OP treatment increased substantially. BTP completers, compared to non-completers, viewed abstinence as more difficult and as requiring more assistance to achieve, were less likely to be current cocaine and alcohol users or to have relapsed during the course of treatment. Although preliminary and in need of replication, initial adjunctive use of buprenorphine in an abstinence-based continuum of care may improve post-detoxification treatment entry, engagement, and completion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel insight into vascular, stress, and auxin-dependent and -independent gene expression programs in strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit. (United States)

    Aharoni, Asaph; Keizer, Leopold C P; Van Den Broeck, Hetty C; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Bois, Gregory; Smit, Patrick; De Vos, Ric C H; O'Connell, Ann P


    Using cDNA microarrays, a comprehensive investigation of gene expression was carried out in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit to understand the flow of events associated with its maturation and non-climacteric ripening. We detected key processes and novel genes not previously associated with fruit development and ripening, related to vascular development, oxidative stress, and auxin response. Microarray analysis during fruit development and in receptacle and seed (achene) tissues established an interesting parallelism in gene expression between the transdifferentiation of tracheary elements in Zinnia elegans and strawberry. One of the genes, CAD, common to both systems and encoding the lignin-related protein cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, was immunolocalized to immature xylem cells of the vascular bundles in the strawberry receptacle. To examine the importance of oxidative stress in ripening, gene expression was compared between fruit treated on-vine with a free radical generator and non-treated fruit. Of 46 genes induced, 20 were also ripening regulated. This might suggest that active gene expression is induced to cope with oxidative stress conditions during ripening or that the strawberry ripening transcriptional program is an oxidative stress-induced process. To gain insight into the hormonal control of non-climacteric fruit ripening, an additional microarray experiment was conducted comparing gene expression in fruit treated exogenously with auxin and control fruit. Novel auxin-dependent genes and processes were identified in addition to transcriptional programs acting independent of auxin mainly related to cell wall metabolism and stress response.

  18. Retention of laparoscopic psychomotor skills after a structured training program depends on the quality of the training and on the complexity of the task. (United States)

    Molinas, Carlos Roger; Campo, Rudi


    This follow-up RCT was conducted to evaluate laparoscopic psychomotor skills retention after finishing a structured training program. In a first study, 80 gynecologists were randomly allocated to four groups to follow different training programs for hand-eye coordination (task 1) with the dominant hand (task 1-a) and the non-dominant hand (task 1-b) and laparoscopic intra-corporeal knot tying (task 2) in the Laparoscopic Skills Testing and Training (LASTT) model. First, baseline skills were tested (T1). Then, participants trained task 1 (G1: 1-a and 1-b, G2: 1-a only, G3 and G4: none) and then task 2 (all groups but G4). After training all groups were tested again to evaluate skills acquisition (T2). For this study, 2 years after a resting period, 73 participants were recruited and tested again to evaluate skills retention (T3). All groups had comparable skills at T1 for all tasks. At T2, G1, G2, and G3 improved their skills, but the level of improvement was different (G1 = G2 > G3 > G4 for task 1; G1 = G2 = G3 > G4 for task 2). At T3, all groups retained their task 1 skills at the same level than at T2. For task 2, however, a skill decay was already noticed for G2 and G3, being G1 the only group that retained their skills at the post-training level. Training improves laparoscopic skills, which can be retained over time depending on the comprehensiveness of the training program and on the complexity of the task. For high complexity tasks, full training is advisable for both skills acquisition and retention.

  19. Very heavily electron-doped CrSi2 as a high-performance high-temperature thermoelectric material (United States)

    Parker, David; Singh, David J.


    We analyze the thermoelectric behavior, using first principles and Boltzmann transport calculations, of very heavily electron-doped CrSi2 and find that at temperatures of 900-1250 K and electron dopings of 1-4 × 1021 cm-3, thermopowers as large in magnitude as 200 μV K-1 may be found. Such high thermopowers at such high carrier concentrations are extremely rare, and suggest that excellent thermoelectric performance may be found in these ranges of temperature and doping.

  20. Data on metals biomonitoring in the body of schoolchildren in the vicinity of a heavily industrialized site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Kafaei


    Full Text Available This data is obtained from analyzing the concentration of metals include Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Pb, and Zn in the urine of schoolchildren in Asalouyeh city in vicinity to a heavily industrialized site and comparison with a reference city. The significance of sex groups on urine metal level was evaluated through this data. The urinary content of metals was measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Statistical analyze of data were done by Mann–Whitney test. The herein presented date could beneficial for health assessment of gas and petrochemical companies.

  1. Site distribution in heavily Sc3+-, Zr4+-, and Hf4+- substituted yttrium iron garnet (United States)

    Balestrino, G.; Geller, S.


    Mössbauer spectra of yttrium iron garnet containing large amounts of Sc3+, Zr4+, and Hf4+ substituted for Fe3+ ions (the last two with electrostatic compensation by Ca2+ ions) confirm the conclusions deduced from 0-K spontaneous magnetization that the Zr4+ and Hf4+ ions prefer octahedral sites exclusively. Very small amounts of Sc3+ ions enter tetrahedral sites: For a total of one Sc3+ ion per formula unit, 0.03 is tetrahedral; for a total of 1.5 Sc3+ ions per formula unit, 0.09 is tetrahedral. These results imply that in the region of the ferrimagnetic ground state, i.e., to 0.72 Sc3+ ion per formula unit, at most 0.02 is tetrahedral, but it could be that there is none because of the coincidence of the 0-K dependence of the spontaneous magnetization on the composition of the Zr4+- and Sc3+-substituted yttrium iron garnets in that region. Thus the model given by Geller et al. for the magnetic behavior of substituted iron garnets is corroborated by these results.

  2. Vortex pinning properties and microstructure of MgB2 heavily doped with titanium group elements (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuhei; Naito, Tomoyuki; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki


    The doping of titanium group elements (TGE; Ti, Zr, Hf) to MgB2 is known to improve vortex pinning properties. However, the optimal doping level of each TGE is still a controversial issue. In this study, to improve the critical current density, {J}{{c}}, in high magnetic-field by the TGE-doping, we have studied the vortex pinning properties of (Mg{}1-xTGE x )B2 samples with x ranging in the interval 0temperature and magnetic field. The irreversibility field, {μ }0{H}{irr}, of 3.8 T for the pristine sample was also shifted to a higher field of 4.2 T, 4.3 T and 4.6 T by the Ti20%-, Zr30%- and Hf30%-doping, respectively. Microstractural observations suggested that the grain size, shape and distribution of the MgB2 and impurity phases depended strongly on the species of TGE. We discuss the mechanism of the enhanced vortex pinning properties of the TGE-doped MgB2.

  3. Local breaking of fourfold rotational symmetry by short-range magnetic order in heavily overdoped Ba (Fe1 -xCux)2As2 (United States)

    Wang, Weiyi; Song, Yu; Hu, Ding; Li, Yu; Zhang, Rui; Harriger, L. W.; Tian, Wei; Cao, Huibo; Dai, Pengcheng


    We investigate Cu-doped Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 with transport, magnetic susceptibility, and elastic neutron scattering measurements. In the heavily Cu-doped regime where long-range stripe-type antiferromagnetic order in BaFe2As2 is suppressed, Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 (0.145 ≤x ≤0.553 ) samples exhibit spin-glass-like behavior in magnetic susceptibility and insulating-like temperature dependence in electrical transport. Using elastic neutron scattering, we find stripe-type short-range magnetic order in the spin-glass region identified by susceptibility measurements. The persistence of short-range magnetic order over a large doping range in Ba (Fe1-xCux) 2As2 likely arises from local arrangements of Fe and Cu that favor magnetic order, with Cu acting as vacancies relieving magnetic frustration and degeneracy. These results indicate locally broken fourfold rotational symmetry, suggesting that stripe-type magnetism is ubiquitous in iron pnictides.

  4. Metal-insulator transition and superconductivity in heavily boron-doped diamond and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achatz, Philipp


    During this PhD project, the metal-insulator transition and superconductivity of highly boron-doped single crystal diamond and related materials have been investigated. The critical boron concentration n{sub c} for the metal-insulator transition was found to be the same as for the normal-superconductor transition. All metallic samples have been found to be superconducting and we were able to link the occurence of superconductivity to the proximity to the metal-insulator transition. For this purpose, a scaling law approach based on low temperature transport was proposed. Furthermore, we tried to study the nature of the superconductivity in highly boron doped single crystal diamond. Raman spectroscopy measurements on the isotopically substituted series suggest that the feature occuring at low wavenumbers ({approx} 500 cm{sup -1}) is the A1g vibrational mode associated with boron dimers. Usual Hall effect measurements yielded a puzzling situation in metallic boron-doped diamond samples, leading to carrier concentrations up to a factor 10 higher than the boron concentration determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The low temperature transport follows the one expected for a granular metal or insulator, depending on the interplay of intergranular and intragranular (tunneling) conductance. The metal-insulator transition takes place at a critical conductance g{sub c}. The granularity also influences significantly the superconducting properties by introducing the superconducting gap {delta} in the grain and Josephson coupling J between superconducting grains. A peak in magnetoresistance is observed which can be explained by superconducting fluctuations and the granularity of the system. Additionally we studied the low temperature transport of boron-doped Si samples grown by gas immersion laser doping, some of which yielded a superconducting transition at very low temperatures. Furthermore, preliminary results on the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling are shown for the

  5. Features of the band structure and conduction mechanisms in the n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with Ru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V. A., E-mail: [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pidstrygach Institute for Applied Problems in Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Universität Wien, Institut für Physikalische Chemie (Austria); Romaka, V. V. [National University Lvivska Politekhnika (Ukraine); Stadnyk, Yu. V. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Korzh, R. O.; Krayovskyy, V. Ya. [National University Lvivska Politekhnika (Ukraine); Horyn, A. M. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine)


    The crystal and electronic structure and energy and kinetic properties of the n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with a Ru acceptor impurity are investigated in the temperature and Ru concentration ranges T = 80–400 K and N{sub A}{sup Ru} ≈ 9.5 × 10{sup 19}−5.7 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} (x = 0–0.03), respectively. The mechanism of structural-defect generation is established, which changes the band gap and degree of compensation of the semiconductor and consists in the simultaneous concentration reduction and elimination of donor structural defects by means of the displacement of ∼1% of Ni atoms from the Hf (4a) positions, the generation of acceptor structural defects upon the substitution of Ru atoms for Ni atoms in the 4c positions, and the generation of donor defects in the form of vacancies in the Sn (4b) positions. The calculated electronic structure of HfNi{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}Sn is consistent with the experiment. The results obtained are discussed within the Shklovsky-Efros model for a heavily doped and compensated semiconductor.

  6. Features of the band structure and conduction mechanisms of n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily Lu-doped

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V. A., E-mail: [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Universitet Wien, Institut für Physikalische Chemie (Austria); Romaka, V. V. [National University “Lvivs’ka Politekhnika” (Ukraine); Kaczorowski, D.; Stadnyk, Yu. V. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (Poland); Korzh, R. O.; Krayovskyy, V. Ya.; Kovbasyuk, T. M. [National University “Lvivs’ka Politekhnika” (Ukraine)


    The crystal and electronic structures, energy, kinetic, and magnetic characteristics of n-HfNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with a Lu acceptor impurity in the ranges T = 80–400 K and N{sub A}{sup Lu} ≈ 1.9 × 10{sup 20}−1.9 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} (x = 0.01–0.10) at H ≤ 10 kG is studied. The nature of the structural-defect generation mechanism leading to changes in the band gap and the degree of semiconductor compensation is determined. Its essence is the simultaneous reduction and elimination of donor-type structural defects due to the displacement of ∼1% of Ni atoms from the Hf (4a) site, the generation of acceptor-type structural defects by substituting Ni atoms with Lu atoms at the 4c site, and the generation of donor-type defects such as vacancies at the Sn (4b) site. The results of calculations of the electronic structure of Hf{sub 1−x}Lu{sub x}NiSn are in agreement with experimental data. The results are discussed within the model of a heavily doped and compensated Shklovskii-Efros semiconductor.

  7. Offshore tsunami deposits signify risk for heavily populated southern Levant Coastline (Gaza and Ashkelon) (United States)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly; Galanti, Barak; Katz, Oded


    The southern Levantine coastline is exposed to a variety of potential tsunami-generating sources, including far field influences such as large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions as well as near field offshore landslides along the continental slope, where slumping features are present throughout the area. Not only does this coast boast a long history of continuous occupation but also today large cities (e.g. Tel Aviv, Ashdod, Ashkelon, and Gaza) and related critical infrastructure such as ports, power plants, chemical industries, roads, etc. are located along this corridor. In addition, further to the south, the Gaza Strip has one of the highest population densities in the world and is dependent on external assistance for many basic needs, goods and infrastructure. Newly obtained sediment cores from the shallow shelf offshore Ashkelon (~12 km north of Gaza City) exhibit several events that can be linked to historical records. These cores can be subdivided in two general horizon types that show relative changes to one another across different proxies. The continuous input of Nile-delta sands results in a homogenous and stable 'background' sediment represented by well sorted, finer sands, few inclusions, lower proportions of A. parkinsoniana relative to fossil tests, and very few yellow-stained and blackened specimens. Contrasting these normal marine condition deposits are high energy tsunamigenic deposits characterized by poor sorting, with inclusions of a range of whole, articulated, and fragmented shells, wood, charcoal, and sub-angular to rounded pebbles. Newly mapped and quantified offshore bathymetric evidence for landslides and slumping motion has identified features that are large enough to generate tsunamis that would affect the study area. These were modeled as possible sources and compared to different far field events. Some of those tsunamigenic horizons could be assigned to specific events ranging between the youngest at 1202AD to the oldest prehistoric

  8. Predicting daily ragweed pollen concentrations using Computational Intelligence techniques over two heavily polluted areas in Europe. (United States)

    Csépe, Zoltán; Makra, László; Voukantsis, Dimitris; Matyasovszky, István; Tusnády, Gábor; Karatzas, Kostas; Thibaudon, Michel


    Forecasting ragweed pollen concentration is a useful tool for sensitive people in order to prepare in time for high pollen episodes. The aim of the study is to use methods of Computational Intelligence (CI) (Multi-Layer Perceptron, M5P, REPTree, DecisionStump and MLPRegressor) for predicting daily values of Ambrosia pollen concentrations and alarm levels for 1-7 days ahead for Szeged (Hungary) and Lyon (France), respectively. Ten-year daily mean ragweed pollen data (within 1997-2006) are considered for both cities. 10 input variables are used in the models including pollen level or alarm level on the given day, furthermore the serial number of the given day of the year within the pollen season and altogether 8 meteorological variables. The study has novelties as (1) daily alarm thresholds are firstly predicted in the aerobiological literature; (2) data-driven modelling methods including neural networks have never been used in forecasting daily Ambrosia pollen concentration; (3) algorithm J48 has never been used in palynological forecasts; (4) we apply a rarely used technique, namely factor analysis with special transformation, to detect the importance of the influencing variables in defining the pollen levels for 1-7 days ahead. When predicting pollen concentrations, for Szeged Multi-Layer Perceptron models deliver similar results with tree-based models 1 and 2 days ahead; while for Lyon only Multi-Layer Perceptron provides acceptable result. When predicting alarm levels, the performance of Multi-Layer Perceptron is the best for both cities. It is presented that the selection of the optimal method depends on climate, as a function of geographical location and relief. The results show that the more complex CI methods perform well, and their performance is case-specific for ≥2 days forecasting horizon. A determination coefficient of 0.98 (Ambrosia, Szeged, one day and two days ahead) using Multi-Layer Perceptron ranks this model the best one in the literature

  9. Biological Activity in a Heavily Organohalogen-Contaminated River Sediment (8 pp). (United States)

    Lechner, Ute


    Sediments of the Spittelwasser creek are highly polluted with organic compounds and heavy metals due to the discharge of untreated waste waters from the industrial region of Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany over the course of more than one century. However, relatively few data have been published about the chloroorganic contamination of the sediment. This paper reports on the content of different (chloro)organic compounds with special emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), and chlorobenzenes. Existing concepts for the remediation of Spittelwasser sediment include the investigation of natural attenuation processes, which largely depend on the presence of an intact microbial food web. In order to gain more insight in terms of biological activity, we analyzed the capacity of sediment microflora to degrade organic matter by measuring the activities of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes involved in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. Furthermore, the detection of physiologically active bacteria in the sediment, particularly of those known for their capability to reductively dehalogenate organochlorine compounds, illustrates the potential for intrinsic bioremediation processes. PCDD/F and chlorobenzenes were analyzed by gas chromatography(GC)/mass spectrometry and GC/flame ionization detection, respectively. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes were determined from freshly sampled sediment layers using 4-methylumbelliferyl (MUF) or 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-conjugated model compounds and kinetic fluorescence measurements. Physiologically active bacteria from different sediment layers were microscopically visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Specific bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. The PCDD/F congener profile was dominated by dibenzofurans. In addition, the presence of specific tetra and pentachlorinated dibenzofurans supported the assumption that

  10. Self-Assembled Formation of Well-Aligned Cu-Te Nano-Rods on Heavily Cu-Doped ZnTe Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Jing; Cheng, Man Kit; Lai, Ying Hoi; Wei, Guanglu; Yang, Sean Derman; Wang, Gan; Ho, Sut Kam; Tam, Kam Weng; Sou, Iam Keong


    ... reported. We found an interesting self-assembled formation of crystalline well-aligned Cu-Te nano-rods near the surface of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films grown via the molecular beam epitaxy technique...

  11. Evidence for caspase-dependent programmed cell death along with repair processes in affected skeletal muscle fibres in patients with mitochondrial disorders. (United States)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vattemi, Gaetano; Chignola, Roberto; Chiarini, Anna; Marini, Matteo; Dal Prà, Ilaria; Di Chio, Marzia; Chiamulera, Cristiano; Armato, Ubaldo; Tomelleri, Giuliano


    Mitochondrial disorders are heterogeneous multisystemic disorders due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation causing defective mitochondrial energy production. Common histological hallmarks of mitochondrial disorders are RRFs (ragged red fibres), muscle fibres with abnormal focal accumulations of mitochondria. In contrast with the growing understanding of the genetic basis of mitochondrial disorders, the fate of phenotypically affected muscle fibres remains largely unknown. We investigated PCD (programmed cell death) in muscle of 17 patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. We documented that in affected muscle fibres, nuclear chromatin is condensed in lumpy irregular masses and cytochrome c is released into the cytosol to activate, along with Apaf-1 (apoptotic protease-activating factor 1), caspase 9 that, in turn, activates effector caspase 3, caspase 6, and caspase 7, suggesting the execution of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Whereas active caspase 3 underwent nuclear translocation, AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) mainly stayed within mitochondria, into which an up-regulated Bax is relocated. The significant increase in caspase 2, caspase 3 and caspase 6 activity strongly suggest that the cell death programme is caspase-dependent and the activation of caspase 2 together with PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis) up-regulation point to a role for oxidative stress in triggering the intrinsic pathway. Concurrently, in muscle of patients, the number of satellite cells was significantly increased and myonuclei were detected at different stages of myogenic differentiation, indicating that a reparative programme is ongoing in muscle of patients with mitochondrial disorders. Together, these data suggest that, in patients with mitochondrial disorders, affected muscle fibres are trapped in a mitochondria-regulated caspase-dependent PCD while repairing events take place. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. Effects of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Dependence in Activities of Daily Living and Balance in Older Adults with Dementia. (United States)

    Toots, Annika; Littbrand, Håkan; Lindelöf, Nina; Wiklund, Robert; Holmberg, Henrik; Nordström, Peter; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Gustafson, Yngve; Rosendahl, Erik


    To investigate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) and balance in older people with dementia and whether exercise effects differed between dementia types. Cluster-randomized controlled trial: Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study. Residential care facilities, Umeå, Sweden. Individuals aged 65 and older with a dementia diagnosis, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater, and dependence in ADLs (N=186). Ninety-three participants each were allocated to the high-intensity functional exercise program, comprising lower limb strength and balance exercises, and 93 to a seated control activity. Blinded assessors measured ADL independence using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index (BI) and balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline and 4 (directly after intervention completion) and 7 months. Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect on ADL independence at 4 (FIM=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-1.6-4.3; BI=0.6, 95% CI=-0.2-1.4) or 7 (FIM=0.8, 95% CI=-2.2-3.8; BI=0.6, 95% CI=-0.3-1.4) months. A significant between-group effect on balance favoring exercise was observed at 4 months (BBS=4.2, 95% CI=1.8-6.6). In interaction analyses, exercise effects differed significantly between dementia types. Positive between-group exercise effects were found in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia according to the FIM at 7 months and BI and BBS at 4 and 7 months. In older people with mild to moderate dementia living in residential care facilities, a 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program appears to slow decline in ADL independence and improve balance, albeit only in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Effects of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Dependence in Activities of Daily Living and Balance in Older Adults with Dementia (United States)

    Toots, Annika; Littbrand, Håkan; Lindelöf, Nina; Wiklund, Robert; Holmberg, Henrik; Nordström, Peter; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Gustafson, Yngve; Rosendahl, Erik


    Objectives To investigate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on independence in activities of  daily living (ADLs) and balance in older people with dementia and whether exercise effects differed between dementia types. Design Cluster-randomized controlled trial: Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study. Setting Residential care facilities, Umeå, Sweden. Participants Individuals aged 65 and older with a dementia diagnosis, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater, and dependence in ADLs (N = 186). Intervention Ninety-three participants each were allocated to the high-intensity functional exercise program, comprising lower limb strength and balance exercises, and 93 to a seated control activity. Measurements Blinded assessors measured ADL independence using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index (BI) and balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline and 4 (directly after intervention completion) and 7 months. Results Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect on ADL independence at 4 (FIM=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=−1.6–4.3; BI=0.6, 95% CI=−0.2–1.4) or 7 (FIM=0.8, 95% CI=−2.2–3.8; BI=0.6, 95% CI=−0.3–1.4) months. A significant between-group effect on balance favoring exercise was observed at 4 months (BBS=4.2, 95% CI=1.8–6.6). In interaction analyses, exercise effects differed significantly between dementia types. Positive between-group exercise effects were found in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia according to the FIM at 7 months and BI and BBS at 4 and 7 months. Conclusion In older people with mild to moderate dementia living in residential care facilities, a 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program appears to slow decline in ADL independence and improve balance, albeit only in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia. PMID:26782852


    Chamberlain, R. G.


    The objective of this Services Finance Report program is to provide a means for comparing alternative designs of LMSS systems or other services systems. This program is actually a Multiplan worksheet. The labels used in the worksheet were chosen for a satellite-based cellular communication service (LMSS - Land Mobile Satellite System) but the analysis is not restricted to such cases. A comprehensive financial model is used to calculate a 'figure of merit' which can be used to compare effects of equipment and operating costs, pricing strategy, and customer demand for different systems. The program also calculates the price that a company would have to charge customers to meet all its expenses and make a specified profit. A price estimate can be obtained for almost any service which is heavily dependent on capital investment and which has operating costs that depend on the amount of service sold. The economic analysis has two main components: supplier finances and customer finances. Supplier finances include amortization, interest, insurance, taxes, and operating and maintenance expenses. Customer finances include usage rate, subscription fees, equipment costs, and estimated traffic. Prices can defined as real or nominal to account for effects of escalation and inflation, and the profits can be regulated or unrestricted This program is written for interactive execution with Multiplan (version 1.2) and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS (version 2.11). The LMSS worksheet has a space requirement of approximately 38K of 8 bit bytes. This worksheet was developed in 1984.

  15. Pharmacologic IKK/NF-κB inhibition causes antigen presenting cells to undergo TNFα dependent ROS-mediated programmed cell death (United States)

    Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Gaddy, Daniel F.; Zhao, Jing; Davé, Shaival H.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Plevy, Scott E.; Robbins, Paul D.


    Monocyte-derived antigen presenting cells (APC) are central mediators of the innate and adaptive immune response in inflammatory diseases. As such, APC are appropriate targets for therapeutic intervention to ameliorate certain diseases. APC differentiation, activation and functions are regulated by the NF-κB family of transcription factors. Herein, we examined the effect of NF-κB inhibition, via suppression of the IκB Kinase (IKK) complex, on APC function. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), as well as macrophage and DC lines, underwent rapid programmed cell death (PCD) after treatment with several IKK/NF-κB inhibitors through a TNFα-dependent mechanism. PCD was induced proximally by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which causes a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of a caspase signaling cascade. NF-κB-inhibition-induced PCD of APC may be a key mechanism through which therapeutic targeting of NF-κB reduces inflammatory pathologies.

  16. An NF-κB Transcription-Factor-Dependent Lineage-Specific Transcriptional Program Promotes Regulatory T Cell Identity and Function. (United States)

    Oh, Hyunju; Grinberg-Bleyer, Yenkel; Liao, Will; Maloney, Dillon; Wang, Pingzhang; Wu, Zikai; Wang, Jiguang; Bhatt, Dev M; Heise, Nicole; Schmid, Roland M; Hayden, Matthew S; Klein, Ulf; Rabadan, Raul; Ghosh, Sankar


    Both conventional T (Tconv) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are activated through ligation of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex, leading to the induction of the transcription factor NF-κB. In Tconv cells, NF-κB regulates expression of genes essential for T cell activation, proliferation, and function. However the role of NF-κB in Treg function remains unclear. We conditionally deleted canonical NF-κB members p65 and c-Rel in developing and mature Treg cells and found they have unique but partially redundant roles. c-Rel was critical for thymic Treg development while p65 was essential for mature Treg identity and maintenance of immune tolerance. Transcriptome and NF-κB p65 binding analyses demonstrated a lineage specific, NF-κB-dependent transcriptional program, enabled by enhanced chromatin accessibility. These dual roles of canonical NF-κB in Tconv and Treg cells highlight the functional plasticity of the NF-κB signaling pathway and underscores the need for more selective strategies to therapeutically target NF-κB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Financiamiento de programas de farmacodependencia en la ciudad de México: 1990-1994 Financing of drug dependency programs in Mexico City: 1990-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene M. Parada-Toro


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar el flujo del financiamiento de los programas de farmacodependencia en la ciudad de México, sus fuentes y asignaciones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionó un grupo discreto de instituciones dedicadas a la prevención y el control de la farmacodependencia en la ciudad de México, incluyendo a las instituciones públicas más importantes en el ramo. Se aplicaron encuestas entre administradores y usuarios. Además de integrar los flujos financieros se determinó el gasto por usuario de cada institución. Para el periodo 1990-1993, los gastos se estimaron a partir de los montos financieros asignados a cada programa en 1990 y a valores constantes, para eliminar el efecto de la inflación. RESULTADOS: Las fuentes de financiamiento de las instituciones del grupo estudiado son diversas: de 50 a 90% provienen del presupuesto federal; de 10 a 20%, de aportaciones de los usuarios, y de 15 a 80%, de contribuciones de organizaciones no gubernamentales. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque se han incrementado los montos financieros, en los últimos cuatro años, son insuficientes para el desarrollo de los programas en las instituciones de este estudio, ante la creciente demanda. Se requiere establecer mecanismos que aseguren la captación de recursos necesarios y su uso eficiente. El análisis financiero continuo de estos programas permitirá la toma de decisiones oportuna y una evaluación de los cambios.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the financial flows in the drug dependency programs in México City, their financial source, and the way how funding monies are spent. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A discrete number of institutions devoted to drug dependency control in Mexico City was selected. Analysis of financial flows was carried out using the National Health Accounts methods. Questionnaires to quantify resources were applied to health service managers and users. In addition to collection of financial flow data, we calculated the expenditures per user for each

  18. Successful Chemotherapy with Nab-Paclitaxel in a Heavily Treated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Ishihara


    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for the majority of all lung cancers. A 69-year-old female with postoperatively recurrent NSCLC was treated weekly with nanoparticle-albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel monotherapy every 4 weeks as a tenth line chemotherapy, and stable disease was achieved by seven cycles of this regimen. The patient developed grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 leukopenia, but none of the other toxicities, including febrile neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy, were severe, and thus she was able to tolerate this salvage chemotherapy. To our knowledge this is the first report of the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy in a heavily treated NSCLC patient.

  19. Replacing Heavily Damaged Teeth by Third Molar Autotransplantation With the Use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Rapid Prototyping. (United States)

    Verweij, Jop P; Anssari Moin, David; Wismeijer, Daniel; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard


    This article describes the autotransplantation of third molars to replace heavily damaged premolars and molars. Specifically, this article reports on the use of preoperative cone-beam computed tomographic planning and 3-dimensional (3D) printed replicas of donor teeth to prepare artificial tooth sockets. In the present case, an 18-year-old patient underwent autotransplantation of 3 third molars to replace 1 premolar and 2 molars that were heavily damaged after trauma. Approximately 1 year after the traumatic incident, autotransplantation with the help of 3D planning and rapid prototyping was performed. The right maxillary third molar replaced the right maxillary first premolar. The 2 mandibular wisdom teeth replaced the left mandibular first and second molars. During the surgical procedure, artificial tooth sockets were prepared with the help of 3D printed donor tooth copies to prevent iatrogenic damage to the actual donor teeth. These replicas of the donor teeth were designed based on the preoperative cone-beam computed tomogram and manufactured with the help of 3D printing techniques. The use of a replica of the donor tooth resulted in a predictable and straightforward procedure, with extra-alveolar times shorter than 2 minutes for all transplantations. The transplanted teeth were placed in infraocclusion and fixed with a suture splint. Postoperative follow-up showed physiologic integration of the transplanted teeth and a successful outcome for all transplants. In conclusion, this technique facilitates a straightforward and predictable procedure for autotransplantation of third molars. The use of printed analogues of the donor teeth decreases the risk of iatrogenic damage and the extra-alveolar time of the transplanted tooth is minimized. This facilitates a successful outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dependence Of Electrically Active Centers Content With The Growth Temperature In Heavily Ga-doped ZnO Thin Films: Correlation Between Optical, Structural And Transport Properties (United States)

    Sans, J. A.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Sanchez-Royo, J. F.; Segura, A.


    This work proposes an explanation for the decrease of the electrically active Ga content with the growth temperature observed in ZnO:Ga thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Studies of optical, structural and transport properties have led us to propose the possible segregation of most of Ga atoms in an intermediate phase of spinel ZnGa2O4.

  1. Long-term effectiveness of two Dutch work site smoking cessation programs. (United States)

    Willemsen, M C; de Vries, H; van Breukelen, G; Genders, R


    This article reports on one of the few experimental studies in Europe to examine work site smoking cessation. The study examined whether a comprehensive intervention (self-help manuals, group courses, a mass media campaign, smoking policies, and a second-year program) is more effective than a minimal intervention (self-help manuals only). Eight work sites participated in the study. The effect of treatment on smoking cessation depended on nicotine dependency levels: Heavy smokers had more success with the comprehensive smoking cessation intervention than with the minimal intervention (with respect to both 14-month quit rate and 6-month prolonged abstinence). For heavy smokers, exposure to mass media exhibitions or to group courses had a beneficial effect on prolonged abstinence. Comprehensive programs may be most appropriate in Dutch work sites with large proportions of heavily addicted smokers.

  2. A population of massive, luminous galaxies hosting heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts: Implications for the use of GRBs as tracers of cosmic star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Morgan, A. N. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fruchter, A.; Kalirai, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Silverman, J. M., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    We present observations and analysis of the host galaxies of 23 heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite during the years 2005-2009, representing all GRBs with an unambiguous host-frame extinction of A{sub V} > 1 mag from this period. Deep observations with Keck, Gemini, Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer successfully detect the host galaxies and establish spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for all 23 events, enabling us to provide measurements of the intrinsic host star formation rates, stellar masses, and mean extinctions. Compared to the hosts of unobscured GRBs at similar redshifts, we find that the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs are (on average) more massive by about an order of magnitude and also more rapidly star forming and dust obscured. While this demonstrates that GRBs populate all types of star-forming galaxies, including the most massive, luminous systems at z ≈ 2, at redshifts below 1.5 the overall GRB population continues to show a highly significant aversion to massive galaxies and a preference for low-mass systems relative to what would be expected given a purely star-formation-rate-selected galaxy sample. This supports the notion that the GRB rate is strongly dependent on metallicity, and may suggest that the most massive galaxies in the universe underwent a transition in their chemical properties ∼9 Gyr ago. We also conclude that, based on the absence of unobscured GRBs in massive galaxies and the absence of obscured GRBs in low-mass galaxies, the dust distributions of the lowest-mass and the highest-mass galaxies are relatively homogeneous, while intermediate-mass galaxies (∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) have diverse internal properties.

  3. Improvement on p-type CVD diamond semiconducting properties by fabricating thin heavily-boron-doped multi-layer clusters isolated each other in unintentionally boron-doped diamond layer (United States)

    Maida, Osamu; Tabuchi, Tomohiro; Ito, Toshimichi


    We have developed a new fabrication process to decrease the effective activation energy of B atoms doped in diamond without a significant decrease in the carrier mobility by fabricating heavily B-doped clusters with very low mobility which are embedded in lightly-B-doped diamond layers. The resistivities of the heavily B-doped and unintentionally B-doped diamond stacked layers had almost no temperature dependence, suggesting the presence of an impurity-band conduction in these diamond layers. On the other hand, the resistivities of the samples after the embedding growth process of the stacked layers that had been appropriately divided to innumerable small clusters by means of a suitable etching process increased with decreasing the temperature from 330 to 130 K. The effective activation energies and Hall mobilities at room temperature of both samples were estimated to be 0.21 eV, 106 cm2 V-1 s-1 for micron-sized clusters and 0.23 eV, 470 cm2 V-1 s-1 for nano-sized clusters, respectively, indicating that the diamond film structure fabricated in this work is effective for the improvement of the p-type performance for the B-doped CVD diamond.

  4. Understanding the decision-making process for health promotion programming at small to midsized businesses. (United States)

    Hughes, M Courtney; Patrick, Donald L; Hannon, Peggy A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Ghosh, Donetta L


    This study explores the decision-making process for implementing and continuing health promotion programs at small to midsized businesses to inform health promotion practitioners and researchers as they market their services to these businesses. Qualitative interviews are conducted with 24 employers located in the Pacific Northwest ranging in size from 75 to 800 employees, with the majority having between 100 and 200 employees. Small to midsized employers depend most on company success-related factors rather than on humanitarian motives when deciding whether to adopt workplace health promotion programs. They rely heavily on health insurers for health promotion and desire more information about the actual costs and cost-benefits of programs. To increase health promotion adoption at small to midsized businesses, health promotion practitioners should appeal to overall company success-related factors, use the insurance channel, and target their information to both human resource personnel and senior management.

  5. Monitoring operating temperature and supply voltage in achieving high system dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    System dependability being a set of number of attributes, of which the important reliability, heavily depends on operating temperature and supply voltage. Any change beyond the designed specifications may change the system performance and could result in system reliability and hence dependability

  6. Theoretical investigation of the formation of basal plane stacking faults in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Chisato; Ichimura, Aiko [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Ohtani, Noboru, E-mail: [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Research and Development Center for SiC Materials and Processes, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Katsuno, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Tatsuo; Sato, Shinya; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Yano, Takayuki [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 20-1 Shintomi, Futtsu, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan)


    The formation of basal plane stacking faults in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals was theoretically investigated. A novel theoretical model based on the so-called quantum well action mechanism was proposed; the model considers several factors, which were overlooked in a previously proposed model, and provides a detailed explanation of the annealing-induced formation of double layer Shockley-type stacking faults in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals. We further revised the model to consider the carrier distribution in the depletion regions adjacent to the stacking fault and successfully explained the shrinkage of stacking faults during annealing at even higher temperatures. The model also succeeded in accounting for the aluminum co-doping effect in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals, in that the stacking fault formation is suppressed when aluminum acceptors are co-doped in the crystals.

  7. Treatment inferred from mutations identified using massive parallel sequencing leads to clinical benefit in some heavily pretreated cancer patients. (United States)

    Zick, Aviad; Peretz, Tamar; Lotem, Michal; Hubert, Ayala; Katz, Daniela; Temper, Mark; Rottenberg, Yakir; Uziely, Beatrice; Nechushtan, Hovav; Meirovitz, Amichai; Sonnenblick, Amir; Sapir, Eli; Edelman, David; Goldberg, Yael; Lossos, Alexander; Rosenberg, Shai; Fried, Iris; Finklstein, Ruth; Pikarsky, Eli; Goldshmidt, Hanoch


    Molecular portraits of numerous tumors have flooded oncologists with vast amounts of data. In parallel, effective inhibitors of central pathways have shown great clinical benefit. Together, this promises potential clinical benefits to otherwise end-stage cancer patients. Here, we report a clinical service offering mutation detection of archived samples using the ion Ampliseq cancer panel coupled with clinical consultation.A multidisciplinary think tank consisting of oncologists, molecular-biologists, genetic counselors, and pathologists discussed 67 heavily pretreated, advanced cancer patient cases, taking into account mutations identified using ion Ampliseq cancer panel, medical history, and relevant literature.The team generated a treatment plan, targeting specific mutations, for 41 out of 64 cases. Three patients died before results were available. For 32 patients, the treating oncologists chose not to include the panel recommendation in the treatment plan for various reasons. Nine patients were treated as recommended by the panel, 5 with clinical benefit, and 4 with disease progression.This study suggests that routine use of massive parallel tumor sequencing is feasible and can judiciously affect treatment decisions when coupled with multidisciplinary team-based decision making. Administration of personalized based therapies at an earlier stage of disease, expansion of genetic alterations examined, and increased availability of targeted therapies may lead to further improvement in the clinical outcome of metastatic cancer patients.

  8. Phytoextraction of Nitrogen and Phosphorus by Crops Grown in a Heavily Manured Dark Brown Chernozem under Contrasting Soil Moisture Conditions. (United States)

    Agomoh, Ikechukwu; Hao, Xiying; Zvomuya, Francis


    Repeated uptake of excess nutrients by crops in soils with a long history of manure application may be a viable option for reducing the nutrient levels. In this greenhouse study, we examined the effectiveness of six 40-day cycles of barley, canola, corn, oat, pea, soybean, and triticale, all grown under two moisture regimes (100% and 50% soil field capacity, SFC), at extracting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from a Dark Brown Chernozem that had received 180 Mg ha(-1) (wet wt.) of beef cattle feedlot manure annually for 38 years. Repeated cropping resulted in an overall decrease in dry matter yield (DMY). The decrease in N and P uptake relative to Cycle 1 was fastest for the cereal grains and less pronounced for the two legumes. However, cumulative N and P uptake values were significantly greater for corn than the other crops under both moisture regimes. The reduction in soil N and P was greater under the 100% than the 50% SFC. These results indicate that repeated cropping can be a useful management practice for reducing N and P in a heavily manured soil. The extent of reduction will be greater for crops with high biomass production under adequate moisture supply.

  9. Evolution of carbon distribution and mechanical properties during the static strain ageing of heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamontagne, A. [Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS – UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Massardier, V., E-mail: [Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS – UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sauvage, X. [University of Rouen, GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, BP 12, Avenue de l’Université, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Kléber, X. [Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, MATEIS – UMR CNRS 5510, Bât. St Exupéry, 25 Avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Mari, D. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Station 3, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland)


    The static strain ageing of heavily cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires was investigated using both global techniques and local techniques (Atom Probe Tomography (APT)), in order to highlight how the cold-drawn destabilized microstructure returns to a more stable state during post-drawing treatments between 20 °C and 150 °C. The global techniques (thermoelectric power, differential scanning calorimetry) clearly showed that ageing occurs in three successive ageing stages and is due to a redistribution of the carbon atoms coming from the strain-induced cementite dissolution. The first ageing stage was unambiguously attributed to the carbon segregation to the defects, while the second and third stages were interpreted as being due to the precipitation of intermediate carbides (2nd stage) and cementite (3rd stage). The true strain was not found to significantly affect the ageing kinetics and mechanisms but appeared to play a role in the amount of carbon atoms involved in the different ageing stages. APT analyses confirmed that ageing is governed by the carbon depletion of strain-induced supersaturated ferrite. The strengthening mechanisms associated with the different ageing stages were also discussed.

  10. Carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with heavily pretreated multiple myeloma: A phase 1 study in Japan. (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Ri, Masaki; Chou, Takaaki; Sugiura, Isamu; Takezako, Naoki; Sunami, Kazutaka; Ishida, Tadao; Izumi, Tohru; Ozaki, Shuji; Shumiya, Yoshihisa; Ota, Kenji; Iida, Shinsuke


    This is the first study in which the carfilzomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) regimen was evaluated in heavily pretreated multiple myeloma. This study is a multicenter, open-label phase 1 study of KRd in Japanese patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients. The objectives were to evaluate the safety, tolerability, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of the regimen. Carfilzomib was administrated intravenously over 10 min on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15 and 16 of a 28-day cycle. In cycle 1, the dosage for days 1 and 2 was 20 mg/m(2) , followed by 27 mg/m(2) . Lenalidomide and dexamethasone were administered at 25 mg (days 1-21) and 40 mg (days 1, 8, 15 and 22), respectively. Twenty-six patients were enrolled. Patients had received a median of four prior regimens and 88.5% and 61.5% received previous bortezomib and lenalidomide, respectively. High-risk cytogenetics were seen in 53.8% of patients. The overall response rate was 88.5%. A higher rate of hyperglycemia was observed than in a previous carfilzomib monotherapy study, but this was attributed to dexamethasone. Carfilzomib pharmacokinetics were not affected by lenalidomide and dexamethasone. The KRd regimen was well tolerated and showed efficacy in Japanese RRMM patients. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Miscellaneous additives can enhance plant uptake and affect geochemical fractions of copper in a heavily polluted riparian grassland soil. (United States)

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M


    The problem of copper (Cu) pollution in riverine ecosystems is world-wide and has significant environmental, eco-toxicological, and agricultural relevance. We assessed the suitability and effectiveness of application rate of 1% of activated charcoal, bentonite, biochar, cement kiln dust, chitosan, coal fly ash, limestone, nano-hydroxyapatite, organo-clay, sugar beet factory lime, and zeolite as soil amendments together with rapeseed as bioenergy crop as a possible remediation option for a heavily Cu polluted floodplain soil (total Cu=3041.9mgkg(-1)) that has a very high proportion of sorbed/carbonate fraction (484.6mgkg(-1)) and potential mobile fraction of Cu (1611.9mgkg(-1)). Application changed distribution of Cu among geochemical fractions: alkaline materials lead to increased carbonate bounded fraction and the acid rhizosphere zone might cause release of this Cu. Thus, mobilization of Cu and uptake of Cu by rapeseed were increased compared to the control (except for organo-clay) under the prevailing conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of a school-based disordered eating prevention program in adolescent girls: general and specific effects depending on adherence to the interactive activities. (United States)

    López-Guimerà, Gemma; Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Fauquet, Jordi; Portell, Mariona; Raich, Rosa M


    This study assessed the impact of a school-based program aimed at preventing disordered eating. The program was based on the media-literacy approach and has interactive format. The program was assessed under strong methodological conditions. Seven schools with 263 Spanish adolescent girls in the area of Barcelona, were randomly assigned to either the complete prevention program condition, the partial program condition or the non-treatment control condition, and assessed at pre, post and 6-month follow-up. The program was effective in generating positive changes at follow-up. The effects sizes (ES(d) = 0.29 to ES(d) = 0.38) were greater, on average, than that obtained up to now in selective-universal programs, and similar or greater than that achieved by targeted prevention programs. The results indicate a greater and relevant effect size of the intervention in those participants who completed the inter-session interactive activities (ES(d) = 0.29 to ES(d) = 0.45) although the differences were not significant. These results suggest the importance of monitoring adherence to the activities in all programs defined as "interactive". The implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  13. Performance and Dependability Evaluation: Successes, Failures and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.


    Over the last 40 years, the field of model-based performance and dependability evaluation has seen important developments, successes and scientific breakthroughs. However, the field has not matured into a key engineering discipline which is heavily called upon by computer system and software

  14. The effect of detonation wave incidence angle on the acceleration of flyers by explosives heavily laden with inert additives (United States)

    Loiseau, Jason; Georges, William; Frost, David L.; Higgins, Andrew J.


    The incidence angle of a detonation wave in a conventional high explosive influences the acceleration and terminal velocity of a metal flyer by increasing the magnitude of the material velocity imparted by the transmitted shock wave as the detonation is tilted towards normal loading. For non-ideal explosives heavily loaded with inert additives, the detonation velocity is typically subsonic relative to the flyer sound speed, leading to shockless accelerations when the detonation is grazing. Further, in a grazing detonation the particles are initially accelerated in the direction of the detonation and only gain velocity normal to the initial orientation of the flyer at later times due to aerodynamic drag as the detonation products expand. If the detonation wave in a non-ideal explosive instead strikes the flyer at normal incidence, a shock is transmitted into the flyer and the first interaction between the particle additives and the flyer occurs due to the imparted material velocity from the passage of the detonation wave. Consequently, the effect of incidence angle and additive properties may play a more prominent role in the flyer acceleration. In the present study we experimentally compared normal detonation loadings to grazing loadings using a 3-mm-thick aluminum slapper to impact-initiate a planar detonation wave in non-ideal explosive-particle admixtures, which subsequently accelerated a second 6.4-mm-thick flyer. Flyer acceleration was measured with heterodyne laser velocimetry (PDV). The explosive mixtures considered were packed beds of glass or steel particles of varying sizes saturated with sensitized nitromethane, and gelled nitromethane mixed with glass microballoons. Results showed that the primary parameter controlling changes in flyer velocity was the presence of a transmitted shock, with additive density and particle size playing only secondary roles. These results are similar to the grazing detonation experiments, however under normal loading the

  15. Correlating microbial community profiles with geochemical conditions in a watershed heavily contaminated by an antimony tailing pond. (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Tang, Song; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Lan, Xiaolong; Sun, Weimin


    Mining activities have introduced various pollutants to surrounding aquatic and terrestrial environments, causing adverse impacts to the environment. Indigenous microbial communities are responsible for the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants in diverse environments, indicating the potential for bioremediation of such pollutants. Antimony (Sb) has been extensively mined in China and Sb contamination in mining areas has been frequently encountered. To date, however, the microbial composition and structure in response to Sb contamination has remained overlooked. Sb and As frequently co-occur in sulfide-rich ores, and co-contamination of Sb and As is observed in some mining areas. We characterized, for the first time, the microbial community profiles and their responses to Sb and As pollution from a watershed heavily contaminated by Sb tailing pond in Southwest China. The indigenous microbial communities were profiled by high-throughput sequencing from 16 sediment samples (535,390 valid reads). The comprehensive geochemical data (specifically, physical-chemical properties and different Sb and As extraction fractions) were obtained from river water and sediments at different depths as well. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) demonstrated that a suite of in situ geochemical and physical factors significantly structured the overall microbial community compositions. Further, we found significant correlations between individual phylotypes (bacterial genera) and the geochemical fractions of Sb and As by Spearman rank correlation. A number of taxonomic groups were positively correlated with the Sb and As extractable fractions and various Sb and As species in sediment, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in Sb biogeochemical cycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery. (United States)

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline


    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We caution

  17. Effects of distance from a heavily transited avenue on asthma and atopy in a periurban shantytown in Lima, Peru. (United States)

    Baumann, Lauren M; Robinson, Colin L; Combe, Juan M; Gomez, Alfonso; Romero, Karina; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Hansel, Nadia N; Wise, Robert A; Breysse, Patrick N; Barnes, Kathleen; Hernandez, Juan E; Checkley, William


    Proximity to roadways increases the risk of asthma in developed countries; however, relatively little is known about this relationship in developing countries, where rapid and uncontrolled growth of cities has resulted in urban sprawl and heavy traffic volumes. We sought to determine the effect of distance from a heavily transited avenue on asthma symptoms and quantitative respiratory outcome measures in a periurban shantytown in Lima, Peru. We enrolled 725 adolescents aged 13 to 15 years who were administered a survey on asthma symptoms and measured spirometry, response to allergy skin testing, and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). We calculated distances from the main avenue for all households and measured indoor particulate matter in 100 households. We used multivariable regression to model the risk of asthma symptoms, risk of atopy, eNO levels, and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity ratio as a function of distance. Compared against 384 meters, the odds of current asthma symptoms in households living within 100 meters increased by a factor of 2 (P atopy increased by a factor of 1.07 for every 100-meter difference in the distance from the avenue (P = .03). We found an inverse relationship in prebronchodilator FEV(1)/forced vital capacity and distance to the avenue in female subjects (P = .01) but not in male subjects. We did not find an association between eNO or household particulate matter levels and distance. Living in close proximity to a high-traffic-density avenue in a periurban community in Peru was associated with a greater risk of asthma symptoms and atopy. Regulation of mobile-source pollutants in periurban areas of developing countries might help reduce the burden of asthma symptoms and atopy. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Community level offset of rain use- and transpiration efficiency for a heavily grazed ecosystem in inner Mongolia grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Z Gao

    Full Text Available Water use efficiency (WUE is a key indicator to assess ecosystem adaptation to water stress. Rain use efficiency (RUE is usually used as a proxy for WUE due to lack of transpiration data. Furthermore, RUE based on aboveground primary productivity (RUEANPP is used to evaluate whole plant water use because root production data is often missing as well. However, it is controversial as to whether RUE is a reliable parameter to elucidate transpiration efficiency (TE, and whether RUEANPP is a suitable proxy for RUE of the whole plant basis. The experiment was conducted at three differently managed sites in the Inner Mongolia steppe: a site fenced since 1979 (UG79, a winter grazing site (WG and a heavily grazed site (HG. Site HG had consistent lowest RUEANPP and RUE based on total net primary productivity (RUENPP. RUEANPP is a relatively good proxy at sites UG79 and WG, but less reliable for site HG. Similarly, RUEANPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on aboveground net primary productivity (TEANPP at sites UG79 and WG but not for site HG. However, if total net primary productivity is considered, RUENPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on total net primary productivity (TENPP for all sites. Although our measurements indicate decreased plant transpiration and consequentially decreasing RUE under heavy grazing, productivity was relatively compensated for with a higher TE. This offset between RUE and TE was even enhanced under water limited conditions and more evident when belowground net primary productivity (BNNP was included. These findings suggest that BNPP should be considered when studies fucus on WUE of more intensively used grasslands. The consideration of the whole plant perspective and "real" WUE would partially revise our picture of system performance and therefore might affect the discussion on the C-sequestration and resilience potential of ecosystems.

  19. [Speciation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from the Heavily Polluted Area of Xiaoqing River]. (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Yong-xia; Gao, Fu-wei; Xu, Min-min; Sun, Bo; Wang, Ning; Yang, Jian


    Th concentrations of Cu, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni in interstitial water were analyzed by ICP-MS from the heavily polluted area of Xiaoqing River. A modified BCR's sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the fraction of the heavy metals in the surface sediments. The aquatic toxicity of heavy metals in interstitial water was assessed by US Water Quality Criteria (CCC, CMC). Based on the speciation of the metals in the surface sediments, the ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed with methods of risk assessment code (RAC) and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that: The tested heavy metals would not pose chronic toxicity for aquatic ecosystem. The contents of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) in the surface sediments were higher than the background values of the local soils, indicating enrichment of heavy metals. Cu, As and Ni were mainly composed with residual fractions, Pb and Cr were mainly constituted of residual and oxidizable fractions, and mass fractions of Zn and Cd existed mainly in acid soluble and reducible factions. The contents of bio-available fractions of Cd, Zn, Cr and Pb in the sediments were higher those of residual fractions, indicating high potential for secondary release. Based on calculation of RAC method, Cu, Pb, Cr and As posed extremely low to low risk to the environment. Accordingly, Ni was of low to medium risk, Cd was of medium to high risk, and Zn was of medium to extremely high risk to the environment. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the sediments was in the descending order of Cd > Zn > Ni > As > Cu > Cr > Pb. Cd had high to very high potential ecological risk comparing with the other heavy metals. The potential ecological risk indexes (RI) of the heavy metals in the sediments were in the range of 136.83-264.83, and posed medium to high potential ecological risks for Xiaoqing River.

  20. The status of coastal oceanography in heavily impacted Yellow and East China Sea: Past trends, progress, and possible futures (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang


    Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.

  1. The Nature of the Torus in the Heavily Obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-Ray Study (United States)

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.; Arevalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S.E; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; hide


    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMMNewton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probed by our campaign, down to a few days. The observed continuum variability is due to an intrinsically variable primary continuum seen in transmission through a large, but still Compton-thin column density (N(sub H) approx. 0.8-1.1 x 10(exp 24)/sq cm). If arranged in a spherical-toroidal geometry, the Compton scattering matter has an opening angle approx. 66deg, and is seen at a grazing angle through its upper rim (inclination angle approx. 70deg). We report a possible occultation event during the 2014 campaign. If the torus is constituted by a system of clouds sharing the same column density, this event allows us to constrain their number (17 +/- 5) and individual column density, [approx. (4.9 +/- 1.5) x 10(exp 22)/ sq cm]. The comparison of IR and X-ray spectroscopic results with state-of-the art torus models suggests that at least two-thirds of the X-ray obscuring gas volume might be located within the dust sublimation radius. We report also the discovery of an ionized absorber, characterized by variable resonant absorption lines due to He- and H-like iron. This discovery lends support to the idea that moderate column density absorbers could be due to clouds evaporated at the outer surface of the torus, possibly accelerated by the radiation pressure due to the central AGN emission leaking through the patchy absorber.

  2. Single-polarization optical low-noise pre-amplified receiver for heavily coded optical communications links (United States)

    Roth, Jeffrey M.; Masurkar, Amrita; Scalesse, Vincent; Minch, Jeffrey R.; Walther, Frederick G.; Savage, Shelby J.; Ulmer, Todd G.


    We report a single-polarization, optical low-noise pre-amplfier (SP-OLNA) that enhances the receiver sensitivity of heavily-coded 1.55-μm optical communication links. At channel bit-error ratios of approximately 10%, the erbium-doped SP-OLNA provides an approximately 1.0-dB receiver sensitivity enhancement over a conventional two-polarization pre-amplfier. The SP-OLNA includes three gain stages, each followed by narrow-band athermal fiber Bragg gratings. This cascaded fiter is matched to a return-to-zero, 2.88-Gb/s, variable burst-mode, differential phase shift keying (DPSK) waveform. The SP-OLNA enhancement of approximately 1.0 dB is demonstrated over a range of data rates, from the full 2.88-Gb/s (non-burst) data rate, down to a 1/40th burst rate (72 Mb/s). The SP-OLNA'sfirst stage of ampli_cation is a single-polarization gain block constructed from polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber components, PM erbium gain fiber, and a PM integrated pump coupler and polarizer. This first stage sets the SP-OLNA's noise figure, measured at 3.4 dB. Two subsequent non-PM gain stages allow the SP-OLNA to provide an overall gain of 78 dB to drive a DPSK demodulator receiver. This receiver is comprised of a delay-line interferometer and balanced photo-receiver. The SP-OLNA is packaged into a compact, 5"x7"x1.6" volume, which includes an electronic digital interface to control and monitor pump lasers, optical switches, and power monitors.

  3. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Zengel

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control, as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by

  4. Subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects (SUSHI) for selective visualization of peripheral nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Niwa, Tetsu; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Cauteren, Marc [Philips Healthcare, Asia Pacific, Tokyo (Japan); Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sutton (United Kingdom)


    The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new magnetic resonance (MR) technique for selective peripheral nerve imaging, called ''subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects'' (SUSHI). Six volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted MR neurography (DW-MRN) of the brachial plexus, and seven volunteers underwent DW-MRN of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee, at 1.5 T. DW-MRN images with SUSHI (DW-MRN{sub SUSHI}) and conventional DW-MRN images (DW-MRN{sub AP}) were displayed using a coronal maximum intensity projection and evaluated by two independent observers regarding signal suppression of lymph nodes, bone marrow, veins, and articular fluids and regarding signal intensity of nerves and ganglia, using five-point grading scales. Scores of DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} were compared to those of DW-MRN{sub AP} using Wilcoxon tests. Suppression of lymph nodes around the brachial plexus and suppression of articular fluids at the level of the knee at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was significantly better than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). However, overall signal intensity of brachial plexus nerves and ganglia at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was significantly lower than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). On the other hand, signal intensity of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee at DW-MRN{sub SUSHI} was judged as significantly better than that at DW-MRN{sub AP} (P < 0.05). The SUSHI technique allows more selective visualization of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee but is less useful for brachial plexus imaging because signal intensity of the brachial plexus nerves and ganglia can considerably be decreased. (orig.)

  5. Path Dependency


    Mark Setterfield


    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  6. NuSTAR J033202-2746.8: direct constraints on the Compton reflection in a heavily obscured quasar at z ≈ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Moro, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Alexander, D. M.


    We report Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of NuSTAR J033202-2746.8, a heavily obscured, radio-loud quasar detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, the deepest layer of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey (∼400 ks, at its deepest). NuSTAR J033202-2746.8 is reliabl...

  7. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider


    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  8. "The Success of Captive Broodstock Programs Depends on High In-Culture Survival, ..." [from the Abstract], 2006-2007 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Marine Fisheries Service


    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: This study documented that captively reared Chinook exhibited spawn timing similar to their founder anadromous population. An analysis of spawn timing data of captively reared Chinook salmon that had received different levels of antibiotic treatment did not suggest that antibiotic treatments during the freshwater or seawater phase of the life cycle affects final maturation timing. No effect of rearing density was found with respect to spawn timing or other reproductive behaviors. Objective 2: This study investigated the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon by exposing juvenile salmon to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression differs between coho and sockeye salmon. While temporal patterns differ between these species, exposure to arginine elicited increases in odorant receptor mRNA expression in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: This study: (i) identified the critical period when maturation is initiated in male spring Chinook salmon and when body growth affects onset of puberty, (ii) described changes in the reproductive endocrine system during onset of puberty and throughout spermatogenesis in male spring Chinook salmon, (iii) found that the rate of oocyte development prior to vitellogenesis is related to body growth in female spring Chinook, and (iv) demonstrated that growth regimes which reduce early (age 2) male maturation slow the rate of primary and early

  9. Mobility and Device Applications of Heavily Doped Silicon and Strained SILICON(1-X) Germanium(x) Layers (United States)

    Carns, Timothy Keith

    With the advent of Si molecular beam epitaxy (Si -MBE), a significant amount of research has occurred to seek alternative high conductivity Si-based materials such as rm Si_{1-x}Ge_ {x} and delta-doped Si. These materials have brought improvements in device speeds and current drives with the added advantage of monolithic integration into Si VLSI circuits. The bulk of research in Si-based materials has been devoted to the implementation of strained rm Si_{1-x}Ge_{x} as the base layer of a rm Si_ {1-x}Ge_{x}/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Because of the valence band offset, the rm Si_{1-x}Ge _{x} layer can be heavily doped, leading to lower base sheet resistances and hence, improved speed performances. The Ge content in the base can also be graded to increase the drift field in the base. However, very few hole mobility measurements have been done in these strained layers, leading to limitations in device modeling and in understanding the transport behavior in this important material. In addition to rm Si_{1 -x}Ge_{x}, much potential also exists in using delta-doping in Si for improved conductivities over those of bulk Si. However, as of yet, delta-doped Si has received little attention. Therefore, this dissertation is dedicated to the investigation of both of these Si-based materials (strained rm Si_{1-x}Ge_{x } and delta-doped Si and rm Si_{1-x}Ge_ {x}) for the purpose of obtaining higher conductivities than comparably doped bulk Si. This work is divided into three parts to accomplish this objective. The first part is contained in Chapter 3 and is comprised of a comprehensive characterization of the hole mobility in compressively strained rm Si_{1 -x}Ge_{x}. Few results have been obtained prior to this research which has led to many inaccuracies in device modeling. The second part of this dissertation in Chapters 4 and 5 is devoted to the study of the mobility behavior in both boron and antimony delta-doped Si and rm Si_ {1-x}Ge_{x}. The important

  10. Investigation of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) of Heavily Boron Doped Superconductive Diamond for Device Applications (United States)

    Green, Delroy Earl

    ABSTRACT Diamond has a wide bandgap of 5.47 eV at room temperature and is the hardest known naturally occurring material with a Knoop hardness of 10,400 kg/mm2 or 10 on the Mohs scale [1]. Due to the structure of the covalent bonding of its carbon atoms, diamond is extremely strong having each carbon atom bonded to four neighboring carbon atoms. Although diamond is hard, its toughness, when compared to most engineering materials, is poor. However, because of its hardness, it can be used as an efficient cutting and drilling tool. With the exception of naturally occurring blue diamonds, which are semiconductors, diamond is a good electrical insulator. However, unlike most insulators, diamond has the highest thermal conductivity of 22 W/cm-K [1, 2] among naturally occurring materials. Although diamond is a good electrical insulator, it also shows semiconducting properties when doped with impurities. When diamond is heavily doped with boron the resulting material possess excess holes and as such it is classified as a p-type material. If excess boron doping is achieved, then the resulting material is found to behave like a superconductor at very low temperatures. In this superconducting state, the doped diamond conducts electricity. A series of boron-doped diamond films were grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) and tested to determine the optimum technique for doping diamond with boron for superconductivity. The first sets of experiments were conducted by utilizing boron powder, paste or solid (B2O3) to dope the seeded diamond during growth on various substrates. The second technique, which was conducted at Blue Wave Semiconductors Inc. commercial laboratory, involves doping with diborane gas (B6H2). Various processing parameters were optimized for diamond quality, structure, morphology, and doping. A combined analysis of scanning electron microscope, Raman mapping and Hall measurements at various temperatures were conducted to ascertain the

  11. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies (United States)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.


    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21 cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. We measure a slope for the linewidth-based BTFR of α = 3.75 ± 0.11, a value that is somewhat steeper than (but in broad agreement with) previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of ± 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample enables us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small (I.e., non-zero) intrinsic scatter. We furthermore find a systematic difference in the BTFR of galaxies with "double-horned" 21 cm line profiles - suggestive of flat outer galactic rotation curves - and those with "peaked" profiles - suggestive of rising rotation curves. When we restrict our sample of galaxies to objects in the former category, we measure a slightly steeper slope of α = 4.13 ± 0.15. Overall, the high-accuracy measurement of the BTFR presented in this article is intended as a reliable observational benchmark against which to test theoretical expectations. Here we consider a representative set of semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations in the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) context, as well as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). In the near future, interferometric follow-up observations of several sample members will enable us to further refine the BTFR measurement, and

  12. A case series of low dose bevacizumab and chemotherapy in heavily pretreated patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Defferrari


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy prolongs progression free survival in the first line treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, but its cost/effectiveness is debated. We assessed the safety and activity of a lower dose of bevacizumab in pretreated advanced stage EOC. Methods We treated 15 patients, mostly with platinum resistant EOC, who had received a median of four prior cytotoxic regimens, with bevacizumab 5–7.5 mg/kg q21 days in combination with either carboplatin (n = 8, oral cyclofosfamide (n = 5 or weekly paclitaxel (n = 2. Bevacizumab was administered until disease progression. Tumor response was assessed by CA125 and fusion 18 F-FDG PET/contrast enhanced CT. Results The median number of bevacizumab cycles was 21 (range 3–59. The median baseline CA125 was 272 U/ml and decreased to 15.2 U/ml at nadir. Tumor response was 4 complete response (CR (26.7% and 7 partial response (PR (46.7% by chemotherapy (CT, with an overall response rate of 73.4% (95% CI, 51.0 – 95.8 according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST, and 6 CR (40% and 4 PR (26.7% by PET, for an overall metabolic response rate of 67% (95%CI, 42.8 – 90.6 according to PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST. Median progression free survival (PFS was 21 months and median overall survival (OS was 24 months. Grade 3 adverse events related to bevacizumab were hypertension (n = 2, proteinuria (n = 1 and epistaxis (n = 5. Treatment was delayed in five patients for nasal bleeding or uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusions Low-dose bevacizumab and chemotherapy was well tolerated and active in a heavily pretreated population of advanced EOC. Further studies should assess the activity of low dose bevacizumab in EOC.

  13. Medicare program; extension of the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals and the Medicare-dependent hospital (MDH) program under the hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for acute care hospitals for fiscal year 2014. Interim final rule with comment period. (United States)


    This interim final rule with comment period implements changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals and to the Medicare-dependent hospital (MDH) program under the hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for FY 2014 (through March 31, 2014) in accordance with sections 1105 and 1106, respectively, of the Pathway for SGR Reform Act of 2013.

  14. TEMPEST: A three-dimensional time-dependence computer program for hydrothermal analysis: Volume 1, Numerical methods and input instructions: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, D.S.; Eyler, L.L.


    TEMPEST offers simulation capabilities over a wide range of hydrothermal problems that are definable by input instructions. These capabilities are summarized by categories as follows: modeling capabilities; program control; and I/O control. 10 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs. (LSP)

  15. The efficacy of a diabetic educational program and predictors of compliance of patients with noninsulin-dependent (type 2 diabetes mellitus in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M Mokabel


    CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus exhibited significant change in both BMI, sugar accumulation, and adherence to medication after attending the educational program, and there was evidence of improved knowledge of regular self-checks of blood sugar, dietary regimen, foot care, exercise, and lifestyle behavior.

  16. Pilot Study to determine interest of adult civilian dependants of active duty military personnel in participation in a weight control program (United States)

    Adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel (ADMP) may play a central role in influencing the home food environment and the risk of overweight and obesity in American Warfighters and military families. However, there is no information on whether this group would be receptive to weigh...

  17. Mechanisms of vegetation removal by floods on bars of a heavily managed gravel bed river (The Isere River, France) (United States)

    Jourdain, Camille; Belleudy, Philippe; Tal, Michal; Malavoi, Jean-René


    In natural alpine gravel bed rivers, floods and their associated bedload transport maintain channels active and free of mature woody vegetation. In managed rivers, where flood regime and sediment supply have been modified by hydroelectric infrastructures and sediment mining, river beds tend to stabilize. As a result, in the recent past, mature vegetation has established on gravel bars of many gravel bed rivers worldwide. This established vegetation increases the risk of flooding by decreasing flow velocity and increasing water levels. In addition, the associated reduction in availability of pioneer habitats characteristic of these environments typically degrades biodiversity. Managing hydrology in a way that would limit vegetation establishment on bars presents an interesting management option. In this context, our study aims at understanding the impacts of floods of varying magnitude on vegetation removal, and identifying and quantifying the underlying mechanisms. Our study site is the Isère River, a heavily managed gravel bed river flowing in the western part of the French Alps. We studied the impact of floods on sediment transport and vegetation survival at the bar scale through field monitoring from 2014 to 2015, focusing on young salicaceous vegetation (chains, and topographic surveys. Hourly water discharge was obtained from the national gauging network. The hydraulics of monitored floods was characterized using a combination of field measurements and 2D hydraulic modeling: water levels were measured with pressure sensors and Large Scale Particle Velocimetry was used to measure flow velocities. These data were used to calibrate 2D hydrodynamic model using TELEMAC2D. At the reach scale, removal of mature vegetation was assed using a series of historical aerial photographs between 2001 and 2015. Our monitoring period covered a series of floods with recurrence intervals of 2 to 4 times per year, as well as one large flood with a 10 year return period. Only the

  18. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as third- or later-line therapy in patients with heavily treated metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Q


    , patients with a primary colon tumor might have had a longer overall survival than patients with a primary rectal tumor (18.8 months vs 11.1 months, respectively; P=0.037. Common chemotherapy-related toxicities were nausea/vomiting (48.6%, fatigue (34.3%, leucopenia (40%, neutropenia (42.9%, and anemia (42.9%, with one patient with grade 3 neutropenia, and two patients with grade 3 thrombocytopenia. The common bevacizumab-associated toxicity was hypertension (31.4%. None of the patients discontinued therapy or died because of bevacizumab-associated toxicities.Conclusion: Our data showed that adding bevacizumab to third- or later-line therapy might lead to tumor control and improved survival in heavily pretreated mCRC patients. In addition, preliminary data suggested that primary colon cancer was more likely to benefit from bevacizumab-containing regimens. Toxicities were acceptable, and no new toxicity was identified. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.Keywords: bevacizumab, chemotherapy, metastatic colorectal cancer

  19. Near-Field Imaging of Free Carriers in ZnO Nanowires with a Scanning Probe Tip Made of Heavily Doped Germanium (United States)

    Sakat, Emilie; Giliberti, Valeria; Bollani, Monica; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Pea, Marialilia; Finazzi, Marco; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Melli, Mauro; Sassolini, Simone; Cabrini, Stefano; Biagioni, Paolo; Ortolani, Michele; Baldassarre, Leonetta


    A novel scanning probe tip made of heavily doped semiconductor is fabricated and used instead of standard gold-coated tips in infrared scattering-type near-field microscopy. Midinfrared near-field microscopy experiments are conducted on ZnO nanowires with a lateral resolution better than 100 nm, using tips made of heavily electron-doped germanium with a plasma frequency in the midinfrared (plasma wavelength of 9.5 μ m ). Nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix are imaged at two wavelengths, 11.3 and 8.0 μ m , above and below the plasma wavelength of the tips. An opposite sign of the imaging contrasts between the nanowire and the dielectric matrix is observed at the two infrared wavelengths, indicating a clear role of the free-electron plasma in the heavily doped germanium tip in building the imaging contrast. Electromagnetic simulations with a multispherical dipole model accounting for the finite size of the tip are well consistent with the experiments. By comparison of the simulated and measured imaging contrasts, an estimate for the local free-carrier density in the investigated ZnO nanowires in the low 1019 cm-3 range is retrieved. The results are benchmarked against the scattering intensity and phase maps obtained on the same sample with a gold-coated probe tip in pseudoheterodyne detection mode.

  20. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanharawi, Imane El; Tzarouchi, Loukia [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Cardoen, Liesbeth [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Alison, Marianne [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France)


    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting. (orig.)

  1. Self-Assembled Formation of Well-Aligned Cu-Te Nano-Rods on Heavily Cu-Doped ZnTe Thin Films (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Cheng, Man Kit; Lai, Ying Hoi; Wei, Guanglu; Yang, Sean Derman; Wang, Gan; Ho, Sut Kam; Tam, Kam Weng; Sou, Iam Keong


    Cu doping of ZnTe, which is an important semiconductor for various optoelectronic applications, has been successfully achieved previously by several techniques. However, besides its electrical transport characteristics, other physical and chemical properties of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe have not been reported. We found an interesting self-assembled formation of crystalline well-aligned Cu-Te nano-rods near the surface of heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films grown via the molecular beam epitaxy technique. A phenomenological growth model is presented based on the observed crystallographic morphology and measured chemical composition of the nano-rods using various imaging and chemical analysis techniques. When substitutional doping reaches its limit, the extra Cu atoms favor an up-migration toward the surface, leading to a one-dimensional surface modulation and formation of Cu-Te nano-rods, which explain unusual observations on the reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns and apparent resistivity of these thin films. This study provides an insight into some unexpected chemical reactions involved in the heavily Cu-doped ZnTe thin films, which may be applied to other material systems that contain a dopant having strong reactivity with the host matrix.

  2. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus


    Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...... of their modularization. Besides, dependent classes complement multi-methods in scenarios where multi-dispatched abstractions rather than multi-dispatched method are needed. They can also be used to express more precise signatures of multi-methods and even extend their dispatch semantics. We present a formal semantics...

  3. Your morals depend on language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Costa

    Full Text Available Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.

  4. Your morals depend on language. (United States)

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz


    Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.

  5. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim


    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  6. Adjuncts in Social Work Programs: Good Practice or Unethical? (United States)

    Pearlman, Catherine A.


    Social work education programs rely heavily on adjunct instructors, as do most academic institutions. This article adds to existing literature on adjuncts by focusing on the unique issues in social work education, using social work values and ethics as a focus. The benefits and detriments for adjuncts, programs, and students in schools of social…

  7. anion dependence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUMAN Das

    the lifetime distributions show a pronounced anion dependence and suggest cluster stability time up to a few nanoseconds. Keywords. Amide deep eutectics; simulations; cluster size and lifetime distributions; anion dependence. 1. Introduction ... industrial applications.11–15 In chemical industry, they are used as ...

  8. [Affective dependency]. (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M


    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  9. The effects of two-week program of individually measured physical activity on insulin resistance in obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čizmić Milica


    Full Text Available It is well known that under the influence of regular, individually measured aerobic physical activity, it is possible to raise the biological efficiency of insulin by several mechanisms: by increasing the number of insulin receptors, their sensitivity and efficiency, as well as by increasing glucose transporters GLUT-4 on the level of cell membrane. The aim of this research was to examine whether decreased insulin resistance could be achieved under the influence of the program of individually measured aerobic physical activity in the 2-week period, in the obese type 2 diabetes patients with the increased aerobic capacity (VO2max. In 10 type 2 diabetes patients 47.6 ± 4.6 years of age (group E, in the 14-days period, program of aerobic training was applied (10 sessions - 35 min session of walking on treadmill, intensity 60.8 ± 5.7% (VO2max, frequency 5 times a week , as well as 1 600 kcal diet. At the same time, other 10 type 2 diabetes patients 45.9 ± 5.5 years of age (group C were on 1 600 kcal diet. Before and after this period the following was measured in both groups: insulin sensitivity (M/I by the method of hyperinsulin euglycemic clamp, and (VO2max by Astrand test on ergocycle. In contrast to the group C, in the second testing of E group subjects a significant increase was obtained in M/I (1.23 ± 0.78 vs. 2.42 ± 0.95 mg/kg/min/mU p<0.001, 96.75% as well as the increase of (VO2max (26.34 ± 4.26 vs. 29.16 ± 5.01 ml/kg/min p<0.05, 10.7%. The results had shown that 2-week program of aerobic training had had significant influence on the increased aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity in the tested patients.

  10. Genome-wide functional analysis of CREB/long-term memory-dependent transcription reveals distinct basal and memory gene expression programs. (United States)

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Arey, Rachel N; Kaletsky, Rachel; Kauffman, Amanda; Stein, Geneva; Keyes, William; Xu, Daniel; Murphy, Coleen T


    Induced CREB activity is a hallmark of long-term memory, but the full repertoire of CREB transcriptional targets required specifically for memory is not known in any system. To obtain a more complete picture of the mechanisms involved in memory, we combined memory training with genome-wide transcriptional analysis of C. elegans CREB mutants. This approach identified 757 significant CREB/memory-induced targets and confirmed the involvement of known memory genes from other organisms, but also suggested new mechanisms and novel components that may be conserved through mammals. CREB mediates distinct basal and memory transcriptional programs at least partially through spatial restriction of CREB activity: basal targets are regulated primarily in nonneuronal tissues, while memory targets are enriched for neuronal expression, emanating from CREB activity in AIM neurons. This suite of novel memory-associated genes will provide a platform for the discovery of orthologous mammalian long-term memory components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug dependence (United States)

    ... are not there (hallucinations) and can lead to psychological addiction. Marijuana (cannabis, or hashish). There are several ... work, or family are being harmed Episodes of violence Hostility when confronted about drug dependence Lack of ...

  12. Methods, Devices and Computer Program Products Providing for Establishing a Model for Emulating a Physical Quantity Which Depends on at Least One Input Parameter, and Use Thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention proposes methods, devices and computer program products. To this extent, there is defined a set X including N distinct parameter values x_i for at least one input parameter x, N being an integer greater than or equal to 1, first measured the physical quantity Pm1 for each...... of the N distinct parameter values x_i of the at least one input parameter x, while keeping all other input parameters fixed, constructed a Vandermonde matrix VM using the set of N parameter values x_i of the at least one input parameter x, and computed the model W for emulating the physical quantity P...... based on the Vandermonde matrix and the first measured physical quantity according to the equation W=(VMT*VM)-1*VMT*Pm1. The model is iteratively refined so as to obtained a desired emulation precision.; The model can later be used to emulate the physical quantity based on input parameters or logs taken...

  13. HESI admission assessment (A(2)) examination scores, program progression, and NCLEX-RN success in baccalaureate nursing: an exploratory study of dependable academic indicators of success. (United States)

    Hinderer, Katherine A; DiBartolo, Mary C; Walsh, Catherine M


    In an effort to meet the demand for well-educated, high-quality nurses, schools of nursing seek to admit those candidates most likely to have both timely progression and first-time success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Finding the right combination of academic indicators, which are most predictive of success, continues to be an ongoing challenge for entry-level baccalaureate nursing programs across the United States. This pilot study explored the relationship of a standardized admission examination, the Health Education Systems, Inc. (HESI) Admission Assessment (A(2)) Examination to preadmission grade point average (GPA), science GPA, and nursing GPA using a retrospective descriptive design. In addition, the predictive ability of the A(2) Examination, preadmission GPA, and science GPA related to timely progression and NCLEX-RN success were explored. In a sample of 89 students, no relationship was found between the A(2) Examination and preadmission GPA or science GPA. The A(2) Examination was correlated with nursing GPA and NCLEX-RN success but not with timely progression. Further studies are needed to explore the utility and predictive ability of standardized examinations such as the A(2) Examination and the contribution of such examinations to evidence-based admission decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Photovoltaic investigation of minority carrier lifetime in the heavily-doped emitter layer of silicon junction solar cell (United States)

    Ho, C.-T.


    The results of experiments on the recombination lifetime in a phosphorus diffused N(+) layer of a silicon solar cell are reported. The cells studied comprised three groups of Czochralski grown crystals: boron doped to one ohm-cm, boron doped to 6 ohm-cm, and aluminum doped to one ohm-cm, all with a shunt resistance exceeding 500 kilo-ohms. The characteristic bulk diffusion length of a cell sample was determined from the short circuit current response to light at a wavelength of one micron. The recombination rates were obtained by measurement of the open circuit voltage as a function of the photogeneration rate. The recombination rate was found to be dependent on the photoinjection level, and is positive-field controlled at low photoinjection, positive-field influence Auger recombination at a medium photoinjection level, and negative-field controlled Auger recombination at a high photoinjection level.

  15. Nondestructive depth-resolved spectroscopic investigation of the heavily intermixed In2S3/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, Marcus; Barreau, N.; Couzinie-Devy, F.; Pookpanratana, S.; Klaer, J.; Blum, M.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J.D.; Schock, H.W.; Weinhardt, L.; Kessler, J.; Heske, Clemens


    The chemical structure of the interface between a nominal In2S3 buffer and a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin-film solar cell absorber was investigated by soft x-ray photoelectron and emission spectroscopy. We find a heavily intermixed, complex interface structure, in which Cu diffuses into (and Na through) the buffer layer, while the CIGSe absorber surface/interface region is partially sulfurized. Based on our spectroscopic analysis, a comprehensive picture of the chemical interface structure is proposed.

  16. Coronary artery rupture during high-pressure post-dilatation of coronary stent in a heavily calcified lesion of an ectatic right coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ali


    Full Text Available Coronary artery perforation (CAP is a rare but feared complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. With the use of novel instruments, including hydrophilic and ultrarigid guidewires, rotablator devices, and cutting balloons, the success rate of intervention for coronary artery chronic total occlusion (CTOs and calcified lesions has increased. Along with these changes, the risk of CAP has also increased. In this case report, we present a tip III CAP due to high-pressure postdilatation of coronary stent in a heavily calcified lesion of an ectatic right coronary artery.

  17. Investing in Head Start: Impacts and Cost Effectiveness of America's Comprehensive Child Development Program (United States)

    University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development, 2009


    As part of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the federal Head Start and Early Head Start programs received a significant increase in funding. Head Start is the longest-running program to address systemic poverty in the United States. It is also one of the most heavily researched programs in the nation. Still, debate continues…

  18. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  19. Ontological dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamper, R.K.


    Successful ontological analysis depends upon having the right underlying theory. The work described here, exploring how to understand organisations as systems of social norms found that the familiar objectivist position did not work, eventually replacing it with a radically subjectivist ontology

  20. Experimental Research and CFD Calculations Based Investigations Into Gas Flow in a Short Segment of a Heavily Worn Straight Through Labyrinth Seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Damian


    Full Text Available Steam turbines are used as propulsion components in not only power plants but also on merchant and naval ships. The geometry of the steam turbine seals changes throughout the machine life cycle. The rate of deterioration of these seals, in turn, affects heavily the efficiency of the thermal machine. However, the literature overview does not provide any research reports on flow phenomena occurring in heavily deteriorated seals. The paper describes the course and results of investigations into a model straight through labyrinth seal composed of 4 discs, each with the slot height of 2 mm. The investigations have been conducted with air as the working medium. Changes of gas flow parameters due to wear were analysed. Based on the experimental data, more intensive leakage was observed as the result of the increased slot height. The static pressure distribution along the examined segment was measured. The experimentally recorded distribution differed remarkably from the theoretical assumptions. Another part of the experimental research focused on comparing the gas velocities at points situated upstream of the first and second seal disc. The velocity measurements were carried out using a constant temperature wire probe. This part of the investigations provided opportunities for analysing the influence of seal wear on gas flow conditions in the seal segment. The paper compares the results of the experimental research with those obtained using the CFX software. The presented results of velocity distributions provide a clear picture of the nature of the gas flow in the seal, which enables its analysis.

  1. Team-client Relationships And Extreme Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Karn


    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that examined the relationship between software engineering teams who adhered to the extreme programming (XP methodology and their project clients. The study involved observing teams working on projects for clients who had commissioned a piece of software to be used in the real world. Interviews were conducted during and at the end of the project to get client opinion on how the project had progressed. Of interest to the researchers were opinions on frequency of feedback, how the team captured requirements, whether or not the iterative approach of XP proved to be helpful, and the level of contextual and software engineering knowledge the client had at the start of the project. In theory, fidelity to XP should result in enhanced communication, reduce expectation gaps, and lead to greater client satisfaction. Our results suggest that this depends heavily on the communication skills of the team and of the client, the expectations of the client, and the nature of the project.

  2. Changes over time in the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema in adolescents from Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil (2005-2012): Relationship with living near a heavily travelled highway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toledo, M F; Saraiva-Romanholo, B M; Oliveira, R C; Saldiva, P H N; Silva, L F F; Nascimento, L F C; Solé, D


    ... (PDH, a heavily travelled highway). This cross-sectional study of adolescents (N=1039) from public and private schools was evaluated using the standard questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood...

  3. Ultra Dependable Processor (United States)

    Sakai, Shuichi; Goshima, Masahiro; Irie, Hidetsugu

    This paper presents the processor architecture which provides much higher level dependability than the current ones. The features of it are: (1) fault tolerance and secure processing are integrated into a modern superscalar VLSI processor; (2) light-weight effective soft-error tolerant mechanisms are proposed and evaluated; (3) timing errors on random logic and registers are prevented by low-overhead mechanisms; (4) program behavior is hidden from the outer world by proposed address translation methods; (5) information leakage can be avoided by attaching policy tags for all data and monitoring them for each instruction execution; (6) injection attacks are avoided with much higher accuracy than the current systems, by providing tag trackings; (7) the overall structure of the dependable processor is proposed with a dependability manager which controls the detection of illegal conditions and recovers to the normal mode; and (8) an FPGA-based testbed system is developed where the system clock and the voltage are intentionally varied for experiment. The paper presents the fundamental scheme for the dependability, elemental technologies for dependability and the whole architecture of the ultra dependable processor. After showing them, the paper concludes with future works.

  4. Rain: A New Concurrent Process-Oriented Programming Language


    Brown, Neil C.C.


    This paper details the design of a new concurrent process-oriented programming language, Rain. The language borrows heavily from occam-p and C++ to create a new language based on process-oriented programming, marrying channel-based communication, a clear division between statement and expression, and elements of functional programming. An expressive yet simple type system, coupled with templates, underpins the language. Modern features such as Unicode support and 64-bit integers are included ...

  5. [Prevention of alcohol dependence]. (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M


    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  6. [Dependency syndrome]. (United States)

    Vuorisalo, Sailaritta


    The most common causes of lower limb edema include cardiac insufficiency, venous insufficiency, insufficiency of lymph flow, and side effects of drugs. It can also be due to dependency syndrome, in which the edema and skin changes can only be explained by a passive calf muscle pump and the resulting venous hypertension. Underlying the drop foot is always immobilization for one reason or other. The patient must be given an explanation about the situation, activated to move if possible, and in any case guided to the use of support stockings and postural therapy.

  7. Direct identification of interstitial Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs and evidence of its high thermal stability

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, LMC; Correia, JG; Decoster, S; da Silva, MR; Araújo, JP; Vantomme, A


    We report on the lattice location of Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs by means of $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling from the decay of $^{56}$Mn. The majority of the Mn atoms substitute for Ga and up to 31% occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site with As nearest neighbors. Contrary to the general belief, we find that interstitial Mn is immobile up to 400$^{\\circ}$C, with an activation energy for diffusion of 1.7–2.3 eV. Such high thermal stability of interstitial Mn has significant implications on the strategies and prospects for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism in Ga$_{1−x}$Mn$_{x}$As.

  8. On the variations of optical property and electronic structure in heavily Al-doped ZnO films during double-step growth process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q. C.; Ding, K., E-mail:; Zhang, J. Y.; Yan, F. P.; Pan, D. M.; Huang, F., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chiou, J. W., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)


    We have investigated the variations of optical property and electronic structure in heavily Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films during the growth process, which were formed by first creating Zn vacancies in O{sub 2}-rich atmosphere and second filling the vacancies with Zn atoms in Zn-vapor atmosphere. After the first step, the high-resistance AZO films have the same optical bandgap with nominally undoped ZnO, indicating that negligible variations in the fundamental bandgap happened to the AZO films although Al atom was incorporated into the ZnO lattice. After the second step, once free electrons were brought into the lattice by Zn-filling, the optical transition energy blueshifts due to the band-filling effect. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements suggest that Zn-filling process decreased the unoccupied states of the conduction band, but not raised the conduction band minimum.

  9. Assessment of state-of-the-art models for predicting the remobilisation of radionuclides following the flooding of heavily contaminated areas: the case of Pripyat River floodplain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, Luigi [ENEA CR Casaccia, via P. Anguillarese, 301 cp 2400, 00100 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail:; Perianez, Raul [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, University of Sevilla (Spain); Kivva, Sergey [Institute of Mathematical Machines and System Problems (Ukraine); Laptev, Gennady [Ukrainian Institute for Hydrometeorology (Ukraine); Angeli, Giacomo [ENEA CR Casaccia, via P. Anguillarese, 301 cp 2400, 00100 Rome (Italy); Barros, Haydn [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, University of Sevilla (Spain); Zheleznyak, Mark [Institute of Mathematical Machines and System Problems (Ukraine)


    The performances of models are assessed to predict the wash-off of radionuclides from contaminated flooded areas. This process should be accounted for in the proper management of the aftermath of a nuclear accident. The contamination of the Pripyat River water following the inundation of a floodplain heavily contaminated by {sup 9}Sr and {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin is used as the basis for modelling. The available experimental evidence demonstrated that remobilisation of radiostrontium is an important process implying a significant secondary radioactive load of water flowing over the contaminated floodplain. On the contrary, there is no empirical evidence of a similar behaviour for radiocaesium. In general, state-of-the-art models properly predicted the remobilisation of strontium, whereas they significantly overestimated radiocaesium concentrations in water. The necessary model improvements for a more accurate prediction of radiocaesium contamination levels include a reassessment of the values of the model parameters controlling the remobilisation process.

  10. Gear Tooth Root Stresses of a Very Heavily Loaded Gear Pair-Case Study: Orbiter Body Flap Actuator Pinion and Ring Gear (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Handschuh, Robert F.


    The space shuttle orbiter's body flap actuator gearing was assessed as a case study of the stresses for very heavily loaded external-internal gear pairs (meshing pinion and ring gear). For many applications, using the high point of single tooth contact (HPSTC) to locate the position of the tooth force is adequate for assessing the maximum tooth root stress condition. But for aerospace gearing such an approach may be inadequate for assessing the stress condition while also simultaneously minimizing mass. In this work specialized contact analyses and finite element methods were used to study gear tooth stresses of body flap actuator gears. The analytical solutions considered the elastic deformations as an inherent part of the solutions. The ratio for the maximum tooth stresses using the HPSTC approach solutions relative to the contact analysis and finite element solutions were 1.40 for the ring gear and 1.28 for the pinion gear.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Widhidewi


    Full Text Available Tobacco dependence in schizophrenia patients is a problem that got more concern, withfew treatment options. Peoples with schizophrenia have a prevalence rate of cigarettesmoking two until four times higher than the general population. Consequently, patientsalso have a lower smoking quit rate than the general population. Tobacco dependence inthis population may complicate symptoms and also has adverse physiological effects onpatients. Besides that, patients with schizophrenia tend to smoke more heavily thansmokers in general population. This can increased smoking-related morbidity andmortality and impose a significant financial burden on patients. Recent studiesdemonstrated that patients with schizophrenia smoke before the onset of the illness andalso start smoking earlier than the average population. Patients become psychotic earlierthan patients who do not smoke, and require higher dose of anti-psychotic medications.

  12. Phenibut dependence (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Paton-Gay, C Lindsay; Balchand, Kam; Rehm, Jürgen


    Phenibut is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist designed and used as an anxiolytic in Russia. In Western countries, phenibut is not a registered medication but is available through online stores as a supplement. We present a case of a patient who used phenibut to self-medicate anxiety, insomnia and cravings for alcohol. While phenibut was helpful initially, the patient developed dependence including tolerance, significant withdrawal symptoms within 3–4 h of last use and failure to fulfil his roles at work and at home. He finally sought medical assistance in our addictions clinic. We have gradually, over the course of 9 weeks, substituted phenibut with baclofen, which has similar pharmacological properties, and then successfully tapered the patient off baclofen. This required approximately 10 mg of baclofen for each gram of phenibut. PMID:23391959

  13. Modules program structures and the structuring of operating systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Duijvestijn, W.; Lockemann, P.C.


    In this paper some views are presented on the way in which complex systems, such as Operating Systems and the programs to be interfaced with them can be constructed, and how such systems may become heavily library oriented. Although such systems have a dynamic nature, all interfacing within and

  14. Factores de riesgo/protección y los programas preventivos en drogodependencias en el Perú Risk/protective factors and prevention programs for drug dependence in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Cabanillas-Rojas


    Full Text Available Los factores de riesgo/protección (FRP representan elementos fundamentales para el análisis, comprensión y formulación de respuestas preventivas de las drogodependencias. El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar una revisión de la literatura sobre los FRP y sus implicancias en el diseño de programas preventivos. Se focalizará en FRP individual (aspectos genéticos, experiencias tempranas y habilidades psicosociales, familiar (control y monitoreo parental, permisividad, estilos parentales, pares (presión grupal y normas sociales y comunitario (desorganización. De otro lado, se evidencia la necesidad de incorporar un marco conceptual multifactorial para el abordaje preventivo de las drogodependencias, articulando ámbitos de intervención (escolar, familiar y comunitario y la asunción de una perspectiva evolutiva que permita la implementación de acciones sostenidas. Además, se discuten las implicaciones para investigaciones futuras y formulación de políticas públicas.Risk/ protective factors (RPF are main elements for the analysis, understanding and formulation of answers for the prevention of drug dependences. The objective of this article is to present a literature review about the RPF and their implications in the design of preventive programs. It will focus on individual (genetic aspects, early experiences and psicosocial skills, family (parental control and monitoring, permissiveness, parenting styles, peer (group pressure and social norms and communitarian (disorganization RPF. On the other hand, the need of incorporating a multifactor conceptual framework for the preventive approach to drug dependences, articulating the intervention spaces (school, family and community, assuming and evolving perspective allowing the implementations of sustained actions is evidenced. On top, the implications for future research and public policy formulation are discussed.

  15. State Partnership Program: Shaping the Environment for 21st Century Defense (United States)


    State Partnership Program: Shaping the Environment for 21st Century Defense by Lieutenant Colonel Paul B. Chauncey III...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER State Partnership Program: Shaping the Environment for 21st...relies heavily upon the partner’s cultural awareness and inherent regional interests in shaping the environment of the future.16 A thorough

  16. A Program Transformation for Backwards Analysis of Logic Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick


    programs presented here is based on a transformation of the input program, which makes explicit the dependencies of the given program points on the initial goals. The transformation is derived from the resultants semantics of logic programs. The transformed program is then analysed using a standard...... framework and no special properties of the abstract domain....

  17. Exploring the degree of trawling disturbance by the analysis of benthic communities ranging from a heavily exploited fishing ground to an undisturbed area in the NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Juan


    Full Text Available This study focuses on 4 sites in the northwestern Mediterranean to investigate the response of benthic fauna across a gradient of trawling impact. One site was located in a heavily exploited fishing ground. The second site was enclosed in the fishing ground but had not been trawled in twenty years. The third site was located adjacent to a marine protected area and was subjected to occasional trawling. The fourth site was located inside the marine protected area, where trawling was banned thirty years ago. Side-scan sonar records of trawl marks on the seabed confirmed the gradient of trawling intensity. We investigated the response of benthic fauna to trawling disturbance at the mesoscale of a fishing ground. We compared the observed patterns of abundance, biomass, diversity and community structure for epifauna and infauna with responses predicted from previous studies. Results showed that those communities less impacted by trawling sustained more biogenically habitat-structured communities (e.g. more abundance of sessile suspension feeders at the less disturbed sites against higher dominance of small invertebrates at the disturbed site. Moreover, these results confirm the benefits of restricting trawling activities for benthic communities, with marine reserves as the paradigm for the conservation of Mediterranean fishing grounds.

  18. Bevacizumab Demonstrates Prolonged Disease Stabilization in Patients with Heavily Pretreated Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Agostino


    Full Text Available There are now a variety of therapies approved for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC. These include the immunotherapeutics, alfa-interferon, and interleukin-2, and agents that target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR via its tyrosine kinase, such as sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib, or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, such as temsirolimus and everolimus. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the ligand, VEGF, has shown activity against RCC as a single agent in patients who had failed prior cytokine therapy and as first line therapy in combination with interferon. The activity of bevacizumab in patients who had received and failed prior therapy has not been described. We report our experience in 4 patients with metastatic RCC who had failed prior cytokine, TKI, and mTOR inhibitors who were treated with bevacizumab as single agent therapy. These heavily pretreated patients sustained very prolonged periods of stable disease (median of 12 months with very little toxicity and excellent quality of life. The activity of this agent in patients who had failed prior therapies directed against the VEGFR and mTOR suggests that therapy targeting the ligand, VEGF, is still a viable approach in these patients and deserves further study.

  19. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China. (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi


    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7-13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city.

  20. Combination of phenotype assessments and CYP2C9-VKORC1 polymorphisms in the determination of warfarin dose requirements in heavily medicated patients. (United States)

    Michaud, V; Vanier, M-C; Brouillette, D; Roy, D; Verret, L; Noel, N; Taillon, I; O'Hara, G; Gossard, D; Champagne, M; Goodman, K; Renaud, Y; Brown, A; Phillips, M; Ajami, A M; Turgeon, J


    The relative contribution of phenotypic measures and CYP2C9-vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) polymorphisms to warfarin dose requirements at day 14 was determined in 132 hospitalized, heavily medicated patients. Phenotypic measures were (1) the urinary losartan metabolic ratio before the first dose of warfarin, (2) the S:R-warfarin ratio at day 1, and (3) a dose-adjusted international normalized ratio (INR) at day 4. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes were determined by gene chip analysis. In multivariate analyses, the dose-adjusted INR at day 4 explained 31% of variability observed in warfarin doses at day 14, whereas genotypic measures (CYP2C9-VKORC1) contributed 6.5%. When S:R-warfarin ratio was used, genotypes contributed more significantly (23.5%). Finally, urinary losartan metabolic ratio was of low predictive value. The best models obtained explained 51% of intersubject variability in warfarin dose requirements. Thus, combination of a phenotypic measure to CYP2C9-VKORC1 genotypes represents a useful strategy to predict warfarin doses in patients receiving multiple drugs (11+/-4 drugs/day).

  1. Precise and economical dredging model of sediments and its field application: case study of a river heavily polluted by organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus. (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zeng, Fan-Xin; Liu, Wu-Jun; Zeng, Raymond J; Jiang, Hong


    Environmental dredging is an efficient means to counteract the eutrophication of water bodies caused by endogenous release of nitrogen and/or phosphorus from polluted sediments. The huge operational cost and subsequent disposal cost of the dredged polluted sediments, as well as the adverse effect on the benthic environment caused by excessive dredging, make the currently adopted dredging methods unfavorable. Precise dredging, i.e., determining the dredging depth based on the pollution level, not only significantly decreases the costs but also leaves a uniform favorable environment for benthos. However, there is still no feasible process to make this promising method executable. Taking a river heavily polluted by organic compounds as an example, we proposed an executable precise dredging process, including sediment survey, model establishment, data interpolation, and calculation of dredging amount. Compared with the traditional dredging method, the precise one would save 16 to 45% of cost according to different pollutant removal demands. This precise dredging method was adopted by the National Water Project of China to treat the endogenous pollution of Nanfei River in 2010. This research provides a universal scientific and engineering basis for sediment dredging projects.

  2. Heavy Metal Pollution in Settled Dust Associated with Different Urban Functional Areas in a Heavily Air-Polluted City in North China (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Han, Zhangxiong; Yang, Jinsong; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi


    Understanding variations of heavy metals in atmospheric particles between different functional areas is significant for pollution control and urban planning in cities. To reveal pollution and spatial distribution of heavy metals in atmospheric particles from different urban functional areas in Shijiazhuang in North China, 43 settled dust samples were collected over the main urban area and heavy metal concentrations were determined in their <63 μm fractions using an ICP-OES. The results suggest that Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and V in the dust are not or slightly enriched and their concentrations vary slightly between different sites, implying their natural origins; whereas Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb are often notably enriched and their concentrations vary significantly between different functional areas, indicating their anthropogenic sources. Integrated pollution indexes (IPIs) of the ten heavy metals are 2.7–13.6 (5.7 ± 2.2), suggesting high or very high pollution levels of most dust. Relatively lower IPIs occur mainly in the administration-education area, the commercial area, and other unclassified sites; while peaks occur mainly in the North Railway Station, the northeastern industrial area, and some sites near heavily trafficked areas, implying the significant influence of intensive industrial (including coal combustion) and traffic activities on atmospheric heavy metal accumulation. These results suggest a clear need of mitigating atmospheric heavy metal pollution via controlling emissions of toxic metals (especially Cd and Pb) from industrial and traffic sources in the city. PMID:27834903

  3. Unmasking Heavily O-Glycosylated Serum Proteins Using Perchloric Acid: Identification of Serum Proteoglycan 4 and Protease C1 Inhibitor as Molecular Indicators for Screening of Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Fadzli, Farhana; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Hoong, See Mee; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Hashim, Onn Haji


    Heavily glycosylated mucin glycopeptides such as CA 27.29 and CA 15-3 are currently being used as biomarkers for detection and monitoring of breast cancer. However, they are not well detected at the early stages of the cancer. In the present study, perchloric acid (PCA) was used to enhance detection of mucin-type O-glycosylated proteins in the serum in an attempt to identify new biomarkers for early stage breast cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of an earlier developed sandwich enzyme-linked lectin assay were significantly improved with the use of serum PCA isolates. When a pilot case-control study was performed using the serum PCA isolates of normal participants (n = 105) and patients with stage 0 (n = 31) and stage I (n = 48) breast cancer, higher levels of total O-glycosylated proteins in sera of both groups of early stage breast cancer patients compared to the normal control women were demonstrated. Further analysis by gel-based proteomics detected significant inverse altered abundance of proteoglycan 4 and plasma protease C1 inhibitor in both the early stages of breast cancer patients compared to the controls. Our data suggests that the ratio of serum proteoglycan 4 to protease C1 inhibitor may be used for screening of early breast cancer although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations.

  4. Effects of distance from a heavily transited avenue on asthma and atopy in a peri-urban shanty-town in Lima, Peru (United States)

    Baumann, Lauren M; Robinson, Colin L; Combe, Juan M; Gomez, Alfonso; Romero, Karina; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Hansel, Nadia N; Wise, Robert A; Breysse, Patrick N; Barnes, Kathleen; Hernandez, Juan E; Checkley, William


    Background Proximity to roadways increases the risk of asthma in developed countries; however, relatively little is known about this relationship in developing countries, where rapid and uncontrolled growth of cities has resulted in urban sprawl and heavy traffic volumes. Objective Determine the effect of distance from a heavily transited avenue on asthma symptoms and quantitative respiratory outcome measures in a peri-urban shanty town in Lima, Peru. Methods We enrolled 725 adolescents aged 13–15 years, administered a survey on asthma symptoms and measured spirometry, response to allergy skin testing and eNO. We calculated distances from the main avenue for all households and measured indoor PM in 100 households. We used multivariable regression to model the risk of asthma symptoms, risk of atopy, eNO and FEV1/FVC as a function of distance. Results Compared against 384 meters, the odds of current asthma symptoms in households living within 100 meters increased by a factor of 2 (pPeru was associated with a greater risk of asthma symptoms and atopy. Regulation of mobile source pollutants in peri-urban areas of developing countries may help reduce the burden of asthma symptoms and atopy. PMID:21237505

  5. The Ruby programming language

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David


    This book begins with a quick-start tutorial to the language, and then explains the language in detail from the bottom up: from lexical and syntactic structure to datatypes to expressions and statements and on through methods, blocks, lambdas, closures, classes and modules. The book also includes a long and thorough introduction to the rich API of the Ruby platform, demonstrating -- with heavily-commented example code -- Ruby's facilities for text processing, numeric manipulation, collections, input/output, networking, and concurrency. An entire chapter is devoted to Ruby's metaprogramming capabilities. The Ruby Programming Language documents the Ruby language definitively but without the formality of a language specification. It is written for experienced programmers who are new to Ruby, and for current Ruby programmers who want to challenge their understanding and increase their mastery of the language.

  6. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald


    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular...... functor rules for the later modality considered in earlier work, and are crucial for programming and proving with dependent types. We show soundness of the type theory with respect to a denotational model....

  7. Parenthood and opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pihkala H


    Full Text Available Heljä Pihkala, Mikael Sandlund Institution of Clinical Sciences/Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Introduction: Many patients in maintenance treatment programs for opioid dependence are parents to underage children. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore how parents who are regular patients in maintenance treatment perceive their parenthood. Methods: The study used a qualitative approach. The informants were recruited by staff at a substance abuse clinic in Sweden. Criteria for inclusion were participation in the local maintenance treatment program, having a child or children younger than 18 years, and being in contact with the child or children. Data were collected in 2012–2013 by in-depth interviews of seven fathers and five mothers and analyzed using concepts and procedures of qualitative content analysis. Results: The central findings of the study were: 1 the parents’ concerns about possible future discrimination against their children, ie, stigma by association; and 2 the patients’ own parents’ role as the most important support in parenthood. Conclusion: The issue of anticipated discrimination against the children of parents undergoing maintenance treatment might be an aspect to consider in the development of interventions and support. Considering the role of the patients' own parents also seems important. Keywords: parenthood, opiod dependence, maintenance treatment, qualitative analysis, anticipated stigma, stigma by association

  8. Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; Short Inpatient Hospital Stays; Transition for Certain Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospitals Under the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System; Provider Administrative Appeals and Judicial Review. Final rule with comment period; final rule. (United States)


    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2016 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program and the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program. Further, this document includes certain finalized policies relating to the hospital inpatient prospective payment system: Changes to the 2-midnight rule under the short inpatient hospital stay policy; and a payment transition for hospitals that lost their status as a Medicare-dependent, small rural hospital (MDH) because they are no longer in a rural area due to the implementation of the new Office of Management and Budget delineations in FY 2015 and have not reclassified from urban to rural before January 1, 2016. In addition, this document contains a final rule that finalizes certain 2015 proposals, and addresses public comments received, relating to the changes in the Medicare regulations governing provider administrative appeals and judicial review relating to appropriate claims in provider cost reports.

  9. Resultados cubanos del programa latinoamericano de educación a pacientes diabéticos no insulinodependientes (PEDNID-LA Results of the Latin American education program for non-insulin dependent patients (PEDNID-LA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario García González


    after their participation in a group education program structured by the Latin American Diabetes Association and sponsored by the International Federation of Diabetes, WHO and its Pan American offices, and Boehringer Mannheim Laboratories. The main project covered 30-40 obese non-insulin dependent patients from every country, preferably with recent onset of the disease, by the chronological order in which they went to the outpatient service. The program was composed by 4 weekly theoretical-practical sessions for month, developed in group discussions and a three-month follow-up at doctor's office during a year. Data were EPI-INFO-processed and the results were compared before and a year after the educational intervention. There were significant increase of knowledge on the disease (p=0,001; reduction of body weight, decrease of classical symptoms of the disease and of daily dosage of oral hypoglycemic agents. At the end of the study, levels of glycosylated hemoglobin have greatly improved (p=0,001, similar to that found in the rest of the participant countries. It was proved that the educational intervention has an impact on the normalization of clinical, biochemical and therapeutic indicators. The possibilities of the continent for the implementation of educational programs that strenghten and support the clinical care was also confirmed

  10. Numerical modelling of fine-grained sediments remobilization in heavily polluted streams. Case study: Elbe and Bílina River, Czech Republic. (United States)

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar


    The study aimed to estimate remobilization of channel and riparian cohesive sediment of streams, heavily polluted by industrial emmissions. There were analyzed four stream stretches in Czech Republic: (1) Elbe River from Usti nad Labem to the boundary with Germany; (2) Bílina river, draining industrial and mining areas of Northwest Bohemia; (3) Midstream reach of Czech Elbe by the confluence with Vltava river, affected by chemical industry and (4) fluvial lakes in the riparian zone of Czech Elbe river downstream of Pardubice burdened by old loads from heavy chemical industry. Sediments of clay and silt character bedded in the riparian water-courses are regarded heavily polluted by wide range of toxic matters. In the sediment samples, there were found elevated concentrations of persistent organic matters (DDT, PCB, HCH, Fluoranthen), Heavy metals (Hg, As, Cd), and others. The pollution in sediment is resulting from the unregulated heavy industrial production in the area in the second half of 20th century during the socialistic regime in Czech republic that still play an important role in Elbe river water quality. The main goal of the study was to evaluate the risk of remobilization of polluted sediments by the assessment of discharge (values and return periods), initiating remobilization of sediment from the river bed. The modeling stems on basic assumption, that once the sediment is elevated from the bed, it could be transported far downstream in the form of suspended load. The evaluation was made on the basis of numerical hydrodynamic calculation coupled with sediment transport model. The MIKE by DHI modelling software with different levels of schematization was used according the flow conditions and available data sources. For 50 km stretch of Bílina river the 1D schematization (MIKE 11) was selected as the discharges driving remobilization were expected within the extent of channel capacity due to the stream regulation. For the lower and middle course of Elbe

  11. Multiple adverse thyroid and metabolic health signs in the population from the area heavily polluted by organochlorine cocktail (PCB, DDE, HCB, dioxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langer Pavel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several our previous studies showed associations of increasing blood level of persistent organochlorinated pollutants (POPs with individual thyroid and metabolic adverse health signs in subjects from heavily polluted area (POLL compared to these from the area of background pollution (BCGR. In this study we present increasing number of subjects with multiple adverse signs positively associated with blood level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs which is used as a marker of other POPs cocktail. Methods In a total of 2046 adults (834 males and 1212 females; age range 21–75 from POLL and BCGR the serum level of major POPs such as of 15 most abundant PCBs congeners, dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE and hexachlorobenzene (HCB was estimated by high resolution gas chromatography. In addition, the data on thyroid volume by ultrasound and body mass index were obtained and serum level of thyroperoxidase and thyrotropin receptor antibodies as well as that of free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, thyrotropin, thyroglobulin, fasting glucose and insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides was measured. Thus, a total of 13 adverse signs were defined and the interrelations between PCBs level and increasing number of subjects with increasing number of adverse signs were evaluated. Results Because of high correlation between major POPs (PCB, DDE and HCB, for this purpose the level of PCBs was considered as a marker also for the presence of DDE and HCB. Thus, if all data obtained from 2046 subjects were stratified according to quintiles of PCBs level, highly significant increase was found (p Conclusion Significantly higher accumulation of adverse signs in subjects with high POPs level was found in POLL thus supporting the conclusion that POPs appear to increase the prevalence of several subclinical and overt thyroid and metabolic disorders.

  12. Community-based participatory research in a heavily researched inner city neighbourhood: Perspectives of people who use drugs on their experiences as peer researchers. (United States)

    Damon, Will; Callon, Cody; Wiebe, Lee; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas; McNeil, Ryan


    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become an increasingly common approach to research involving people who use(d) drugs (PWUD), who are often employed as peer researchers on these projects. This paper seeks to understand the impact of CBPR on PWUD, particularly those living in heavily researched and stigmatized neighbourhoods where CBPR projects are often located. This study draws on 14 in-depth interviews with PWUD who had previous experience as both peer researchers and research participants in CBPR projects conducted between July 2010 and February 2011. The study employed a CBPR approach in its study design, recruitment, interviewing, and analysis. Our analysis indicates that participants were supportive of CBPR in principle and described the ways in which it helped contest stigmatizing assumptions and researcher bias. Participants also reported positive personal gains from participation in CBPR projects. However, many participants had negative experiences with CBPR projects, especially when CBPR principles were implemented in a superficial or incomplete manner. Participants emphasized the importance of inclusiveness and active deconstruction of hierarchy between researchers and community members to successful CBPR among drug using populations. CBPR has been widely adopted as a research approach within marginalized communities but has often been implemented inconsistently. Still, CBPR can empower communities to contest forms of social stigma that are often reproduced through academic research on marginalized communities. Our findings describe how the benefits of CBPR are maximized when CBPR principles are consistently applied and when community-based researchers are supported in ways that reduce power hierarchies. This suggests a need for capacity building within affected communities to develop independent support, training, and grievance processes for peer researchers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrative taxonomy of the ornamental 'peppermint' shrimp public market and population genetics of Lysmata boggessi, the most heavily traded species worldwide. (United States)

    Baeza, J Antonio; Behringer, Donald C


    The ornamental trade is a worldwide industry worth >15 billion USD with a problem of rampant product misidentification. Minimizing misidentification is critical in the face of overexploitation of species in the trade. We surveyed the peppermint shrimp ornamental marketplace in the southeastern USA, the most intense market for peppermint shrimps worldwide, to characterize the composition of species in the trade, reveal the extent of misidentification, and describe the population genetics of the true target species. Shrimps were bought from aquarium shops in FL, GA, SC, and NC. We demonstrated, contrary to popular belief (information from dealers), that the most heavily traded species in the market was Lysmata boggessi, an endemic species to the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and not Lysmata wurdemanni. Importantly, only when color pattern or genetic markers in conjunction with morphological traits were employed, was it was possible to unequivocally identify L. boggessi as the only species in the trade. The intensity of the market for peppermint shrimps in the USA has led to L. boggessi being the most traded species worldwide. Misidentification in the shrimp aquarium trade is accidental and involuntary, and is explained by remarkable similarity among congeneric species. Using sequences of the 16S-mt-DNA marker, we found no indication of population genetic structure in the endemic L. boggessi across  550 km of linear coast. Therefore, this species can be considered genetically homogeneous and a single fished stock. Still, we argue in favor of additional studies using more powerful markers (e.g., SNPs) capable of revealing genetic structure at a finer spatial-scale. Our results will help advance management and conservation policies in this lucrative yet understudied fishery. Future studies of other ornamental fisheries will benefit from using an integrative taxonomic approach, as we demonstrate here.

  14. On the infrared absorption coefficient measurement of thick heavily Zn doped GaAs using spectrally resolved modulated photothermal infrared radiometry (United States)

    Pawlak, M.; Pal, S.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.


    In this paper, we report on measurements of the infrared absorption coefficient in the mid-infrared range of a heavily Zn-doped GaAs wafer using spectrally resolved modulated photothermal infrared radiometry (PTR). The method allows us to measure the infrared absorption coefficient of (i) much thicker samples as compared to the one used in Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in transmission configuration and (ii) with non-mirror-like surfaces as would be required for measurements in the reflection configuration. From the best fits of the theoretical model to the PTR results, the values of the infrared absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity of GaAs wafer are obtained. These values of infrared absorption coefficients are compared both with the literature values on very thin, similarly doped GaAs:Be sample and with infrared absorption coefficients calculated from FTIR specular reflectance measurements on the same sample. FTIR reflectance measurements demand additional assumptions for the evaluation of absorption coefficient and mirror-like surfaces. The results obtained from both experimental methods yield the same order of the infrared absorption coefficients. It is observed that the infrared absorption coefficient decreases with increasing wavelength because of inter-valence band transitions. However, only the infrared spectrum estimated using PTR exhibits free carrier absorption effect at a shorter wavelength as observed in previous works on very thin Be-doped GaAs samples. It is worth mentioning that the presented method is not limited to semiconductors, but can be used for other highly infrared absorbing samples. In addition, the spectrally resolved PTR measurements simultaneously provide the same values of thermal diffusivity of the GaAs wafer within estimation uncertainties thus demonstrating the reliability of the PTR method in the measurement of thermal diffusivity of such samples.

  15. Integrative taxonomy of the ornamental ‘peppermint’ shrimp public market and population genetics of Lysmata boggessi, the most heavily traded species worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Baeza


    Full Text Available The ornamental trade is a worldwide industry worth >15 billion USD with a problem of rampant product misidentification. Minimizing misidentification is critical in the face of overexploitation of species in the trade. We surveyed the peppermint shrimp ornamental marketplace in the southeastern USA, the most intense market for peppermint shrimps worldwide, to characterize the composition of species in the trade, reveal the extent of misidentification, and describe the population genetics of the true target species. Shrimps were bought from aquarium shops in FL, GA, SC, and NC. We demonstrated, contrary to popular belief (information from dealers, that the most heavily traded species in the market was Lysmata boggessi, an endemic species to the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and not Lysmata wurdemanni. Importantly, only when color pattern or genetic markers in conjunction with morphological traits were employed, was it was possible to unequivocally identify L. boggessi as the only species in the trade. The intensity of the market for peppermint shrimps in the USA has led to L. boggessi being the most traded species worldwide. Misidentification in the shrimp aquarium trade is accidental and involuntary, and is explained by remarkable similarity among congeneric species. Using sequences of the 16S-mt-DNA marker, we found no indication of population genetic structure in the endemic L. boggessi across  550 km of linear coast. Therefore, this species can be considered genetically homogeneous and a single fished stock. Still, we argue in favor of additional studies using more powerful markers (e.g., SNPs capable of revealing genetic structure at a finer spatial-scale. Our results will help advance management and conservation policies in this lucrative yet understudied fishery. Future studies of other ornamental fisheries will benefit from using an integrative taxonomic approach, as we demonstrate here.

  16. Phylogeography of the heavily poached African common pangolin (Pholidota, Manis tricuspis) reveals six cryptic lineages as traceable signatures of Pleistocene diversification. (United States)

    Gaubert, Philippe; Njiokou, Flobert; Ngua, Gabriel; Afiademanyo, Komlan; Dufour, Sylvain; Malekani, Jean; Bi, Sery Gonedelé; Tougard, Christelle; Olayemi, Ayodeji; Danquah, Emmanuel; Djagoun, Chabi A M S; Kaleme, Prince; Mololo, Casimir Nebesse; Stanley, William; Luo, Shu-Jin; Antunes, Agostinho


    Knowledge on faunal diversification in African rainforests remains scarce. We used phylogeography to assess (i) the role of Pleistocene climatic oscillations in the diversification of the African common pangolin (Manis tricuspis) and (ii) the utility of our multilocus approach for taxonomic delineation and trade tracing of this heavily poached species. We sequenced 101 individuals for two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), two nuclear DNA and one Y-borne gene fragments (totalizing 2602 bp). We used a time-calibrated, Bayesian inference phylogenetic framework and conducted character-based, genetic and phylogenetic delineation of species hypotheses within African common pangolins. We identified six geographic lineages partitioned into western Africa, Ghana, the Dahomey Gap, western central Africa, Gabon and central Africa, all diverging during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. MtDNA (cytochrome b + control region) was the sole locus to provide diagnostic characters for each of the six lineages. Tree-based Bayesian delimitation methods using single- and multilocus approaches gave high support for 'species' level recognition of the six African common pangolin lineages. Although the diversification of African common pangolins occurred during Pleistocene cyclical glaciations, causative correlation with traditional rainforest refugia and riverine barriers in Africa was not straightforward. We conclude on the existence of six cryptic lineages within African common pangolins, which might be of major relevance for future conservation strategies. The high discriminative power of the mtDNA markers used in this study should allow an efficient molecular tracing of the regional origin of African common pangolin seizures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period. (United States)


    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  18. A New Method for Dependent Parsing (United States)

    Jim, Trevor; Mandelbaum, Yitzhak

    Dependent grammars extend context-free grammars by allowing semantic values to be bound to variables and used to constrain parsing. Dependent grammars can cleanly specify common features that cannot be handled by context-free grammars, such as length fields in data formats and significant indentation in programming languages. Few parser generators support dependent parsing, however. To address this shortcoming, we have developed a new method for implementing dependent parsers by extending existing parsing algorithms. Our method proposes a point-free language of dependent grammars, which we believe closely corresponds to existing context-free parsing algorithms, and gives a novel transformation from conventional dependent grammars to point-free ones.

  19. Estimating representative background PM2.5 concentration in heavily polluted areas using baseline separation technique and chemical mass balance model (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yanling; Mao, Jian; Ma, Zhenxing; Cong, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xian; Tian, Shasha; Azzi, Merched; Chen, Li; Bai, Zhipeng


    The determination of background concentration of PM2.5 is important to understand the contribution of local emission sources to total PM2.5 concentration. The purpose of this study was to exam the performance of baseline separation techniques to estimate PM2.5 background concentration. Five separation methods, which included recursive digital filters (Lyne-Hollick, one-parameter algorithm, and Boughton two-parameter algorithm), sliding interval and smoothed minima, were applied to one-year PM2.5 time-series data in two heavily polluted cities, Tianjin and Jinan. To obtain the proper filter parameters and recession constants for the separation techniques, we conducted regression analysis at a background site during the emission reduction period enforced by the Government for the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in Beijing. Background concentrations in Tianjin and Jinan were then estimated by applying the determined filter parameters and recession constants. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was also applied to ascertain the effectiveness of the new approach. Our results showed that the contribution of background PM concentration to ambient pollution was at a comparable level to the contribution obtained from the previous study. The best performance was achieved using the Boughton two-parameter algorithm. The background concentrations were estimated at (27 ± 2) μg/m3 for the whole year, (34 ± 4) μg/m3 for the heating period (winter), (21 ± 2) μg/m3 for the non-heating period (summer), and (25 ± 2) μg/m3 for the sandstorm period in Tianjin. The corresponding values in Jinan were (30 ± 3) μg/m3, (40 ± 4) μg/m3, (24 ± 5) μg/m3, and (26 ± 2) μg/m3, respectively. The study revealed that these baseline separation techniques are valid for estimating levels of PM2.5 air pollution, and that our proposed method has great potential for estimating the background level of other air pollutants.

  20. Perfil dos pacientes com perdas funcionais e dependência atendidos pelo PSF no município de São Paulo Perfil de los pacientes con perdidas funcionales y dependencia atendidos por el PSF en el municipio de São Paulo Profile of the patients with functional losses and dependence in the family health care program in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Correia Gaspar


    discute la necesidad de elaboración de políticas de atención domiciliaria que contemplen las especificidades del municipio de São Paulo en sustitución aquellas focalizadas en grupo poblacionales específicos.The aim of this study was to understand how social and health inequalities are expressed in the health-disease profile of individuals with functional losses and dependence receiving home care by Family Health Care Program's teams in the administrative districts of the city of São Paulo. The districts were grouped according to the Social Exclusion Index through a cluster analysis, and a statistical description of the variables was developed in order to compare them. For the city as a whole was verified the prevalence of senior women with light functional losses and dependence requiring low complexity care, compatible with Primary Health Care. Districts with major social exclusion had a larger proportion of males less than 60 years old and children with severe disabilities who need care of greater complexity. The article debates the need for home care policies designed for the specificities of the city of São Paulo instead of policies focused on specific population groups.

  1. Heavily lipidized, calcified giant cell glioblastoma in an 8-year-old patient, associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1): report of a case with long-term survival. (United States)

    Kroh, H; Matyja, E; Marchel, A; Bojarski, P


    Giant cell glioblastoma (GCG-BM) with predominance of bizarre, multinucleated giant cells is a rare subtype of glioblastoma, however, its clinical behavior and histological features are still not fully understood. We report an unusual case of a heavily lipidized form of giant cell glioma corresponding mostly to GCGBM in a young patient with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Histologically, the tumor revealed numerous characteristic histopathological features of giant cell glioblastoma including cellular pleomorphism with numerous giant tumor cells, pseudopalisades around necrotic foci and mitotic activity, accompanied by additional unique morphological elements such as massive lipidization of the neoplastic cells, abundant microcalcifications and angiomatous pattern of vascularization. Such aberrant morphology might be associated with the unusually long survival period of 12 years without clinical evidence of tumor recurrence. The coexistence of intracerebral heavily lipidized, calcified giant cell glioblastoma with NF1 has not been previously reported in literature.

  2. Formation of basal plane stacking faults on the (0 0 0 1 bar) facet of heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC single crystals during physical vapor transport growth (United States)

    Ohtomo, Kohei; Matsumoto, Nana; Ashida, Koji; Kaneko, Tadaaki; Ohtani, Noboru; Katsuno, Masakazu; Sato, Shinya; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Tatsuo


    The formation of stacking faults in heavily nitrogen-doped (mid-1019 cm-3) 4H-SiC boules grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) growth method was investigated by studying surface morphologies on the (0 0 0 1 bar) facet of the boules. Low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) observations detected stacking faults on the (0 0 0 1 bar) facet of heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals. LVSEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies revealed that the stacking faults showed characteristic morphologies, which stemmed from the interaction between stacking faults and surface steps. These observations also revealed that heavy nitrogen doping resulted in the nucleation of a number of surface hillocks on the (0 0 0 1 bar) facet; the hillocks were never observed on the facet of conventionally doped (nitrogen concentration: mid-1018 cm-3) 4H-SiC boules. Furthermore, the hillocks were nucleated only on the facet and never observed on the outer regions of the facet. Based on these results, the stacking fault formation mechanism in heavily nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals is discussed.

  3. The Impacts of the Chicago Welcoming Schools' Safe Passage Program on Student Safety and Crime (United States)

    Curran, F. Chris


    Students' ability to succeed academically in the school setting depends heavily on factors that students face outside of the school walls. One such contributor is the presence of a safe environment for students to travel to and from school. Unfortunately, for many students in urban and economically depressed environments, the daily commute to and…

  4. How does the spatial context shape conditions for car dependency? : An analysis of the differences between and within regions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.; Bertolini, L.; Straatemeier, T.


    Adapting cities and region to facilitate car use is not only a technical issue. It has made society heavily car-dependent, increasing the vulnerability of society to adverse changes in social, economic, environmental, or other spheres. This paper analyzes how the spatial context shapes conditions

  5. Developing Tests of Visual Dependency (United States)

    Kindrat, Alexandra N.


    Astronauts develop neural adaptive responses to microgravity during space flight. Consequently these adaptive responses cause maladaptive disturbances in balance and gait function when astronauts return to Earth and are re-exposed to gravity. Current research in the Neuroscience Laboratories at NASA-JSC is focused on understanding how exposure to space flight produces post-flight disturbances in balance and gait control and developing training programs designed to facilitate the rapid recovery of functional mobility after space flight. In concert with these disturbances, astronauts also often report an increase in their visual dependency during space flight. To better understand this phenomenon, studies were conducted with specially designed training programs focusing on visual dependency with the aim to understand and enhance subjects ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. The Rod and Frame test (RFT) was used first to assess an individual s visual dependency, using a variety of testing techniques. Once assessed, subjects were asked to perform two novel tasks under transformation (both the Pegboard and Cube Construction tasks). Results indicate that head position cues and initial visual test conditions had no effect on an individual s visual dependency scores. Subjects were also able to adapt to the manual tasks after several trials. Individual visual dependency correlated with ability to adapt manual to a novel visual distortion only for the cube task. Subjects with higher visual dependency showed decreased ability to adapt to this task. Ultimately, it was revealed that the RFT may serve as an effective prediction tool to produce individualized adaptability training prescriptions that target the specific sensory profile of each crewmember.

  6. Practical Reflection and Metaprogramming for Dependent Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, David Raymond


    Embedded domain-specific languages are special-purpose programming languages that are implemented within existing generalpurpose programming languages. Dependent type systems allow strong invariants to be encoded in representations of domain-specific languages, but it can also make it difficult...... to program in these embedded languages. Interpreters and compilers must always take these invariants into account at each stage, and authors of embedded languages must work hard to relieve users of the burden of proving these properties. Idris is a dependently typed functional programming language whose...... semantics are given by elaboration to a core dependent type theory through a tactic language. This dissertation introduces elaborator reflection, in which the core operators of the elaborator are realized as a type of computations that are executed during the elaboration process of Idris itself, along...

  7. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.


    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease...... patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...... and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction...

  8. Evidence for greater cue reactivity among low-dependent vs. high-dependent smokers. (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P


    Cue reactivity paradigms are well-established laboratory procedures used to examine subjective craving in response to substance-related cues. For smokers, the relationship between nicotine dependence and cue reactivity has not been clearly established. The main aim of the present study was to further examine this relationship. Participants (N=90) were between the ages 18-40 and smoked > or =10 cigarettes per day. Average nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; FTND) at baseline was 4.9 (SD=2.1). Participants completed four cue reactivity sessions consisting of two in vivo cues (smoking and neutral) and two affective imagery cues (stressful and relaxed), all counterbalanced. Craving in response to cues was assessed following each cue exposure using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-B). Differential cue reactivity was operationally defined as the difference in QSU scores between the smoking and neutral cues, and between the stressful and relaxed cues. Nicotine dependence was significantly and negatively associated with differential cue reactivity scores in regard to hedonic craving (QSU factor 1) for both in vivo and imagery cues, such that those who had low FTND scores demonstrated greater differential cue reactivity than those with higher FTND scores (beta=-.082; p=.037; beta=-.101; p=.023, respectively). Similar trends were found for the Total QSU and for negative reinforcement craving (QSU factor 2), but did not reach statistical significance. Under partially sated conditions, less dependent smokers may be more differentially cue reactive to smoking cues as compared to heavily dependent smokers. These findings offer methodological and interpretative implications for cue reactivity studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for greater cue reactivity among low dependent vs. high dependent smokers (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.


    Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms are well-established laboratory procedures used to examine subjective craving in response to substance-related cues. For smokers, the relationship between nicotine dependence and cue reactivity has not been clearly established. The main aim of the present study was to further examine this relationship. Methods Participants (N=90) were between the ages 18–40 and smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day. Average nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; FTND) at baseline was 4.9 (SD=2.1). Participants completed four cue reactivity sessions consisting of two in vivo cues (smoking, neutral) and two affective imagery cues (stressful, relaxed), all counterbalanced. Craving in response to cues was assessed following each cue exposure using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges—Brief (QSU-B). Differential cue reactivity was operationally defined as the difference in QSU scores between the smoking and neutral cues, and between the stressful and relaxed cues. Results Nicotine dependence was significantly and negatively associated with differential cue reactivity scores in regards to hedonic craving (QSU factor 1) for both in vivo and imagery cues, such that those who had low FTND scores demonstrated greater differential cue reactivity than those with higher FTND scores (β = −.082; p = .037; β = −.101; p = .023, respectively). Similar trends were found for the total QSU and for negative reinforcement craving (QSU factor 2), but did not reach statistical significance. Discussion Under partially sated conditions, less dependent smokers may be more differentially cue reactive to smoking cues as compared to heavily dependent smokers. These findings offer methodological and interpretative implications for cue reactivity studies. PMID:20206451

  10. Dependency, Empathy, and Altruism. (United States)

    Miller, Shirley Matile

    This study examined the relationship of dependency, empathy, and altruism. It was hypothesized that: (1) dependency would be related in a curvilinear manner to empathy, with children who are moderate in dependency scoring highest in empathy; (2) dependency would be positively related to visible altruism when such prosocial behavior results in…

  11. [Dependent patient and interpersonal dependency: psychotherapeutic strategies]. (United States)

    Versaevel, C


    This article is a review of psychotherapies for patients suffering from dependent personality and interpersonal dependency. We synthesized articles making reference to this question, notably those written by Bornstein, author who refers to the dependent personality. We highlighted the psychotherapies that have been the object of an evaluation. The research on the subject is sparse: only eight studies permitting assessment of psychotherapies in this indication in 2005. Besides these psychotherapies, we detailed other approaches which are used by practitioners in these indications. The therapy does not aim at autonomy "at all costs", but that the patient finds a dependence "adapted" to his/her environment. Before starting a therapy, an evaluation is useful to specify the type of dependence. First of all, is there a "pathological" dependence? Is the suffering of the patient secondary to his personality or not supportive enough? Does insight exist? What is the reaction of the patient if we suggest the hypothesis of a dependence on his/her part? Does he/she consider this idea or reject it? Finally, is the dependence primary or secondary? For that purpose, it is necessary to study the biography of the patient and the appearance of the comorbidity over time. The primary dependence is seen in childhood and precedes the other psychological disorders. The secondary dependence follows after the comorbidity and events of life that alter self-esteem (depression, for example). Various therapeutic strategies arise from various currents. The therapies of analytical inspiration recommend replaying the relationship of object and explicitly evoking the transfer. The behavioural and cognitive psychotherapies aim at making the patient identify the cognitions which underlie the dependence, then leading the patient to modify his/her cognition and to behave in a more autonomous way, using the theory of learning. The humanist therapies aim at a therapeutic relationship of acceptance and

  12. Alcohol e-Help: study protocol for a web-based self-help program to reduce alcohol use in adults with drinking patterns considered harmful, hazardous or suggestive of dependence in middle-income countries. (United States)

    Schaub, Michael P; Tiburcio, Marcela; Martinez, Nora; Ambekar, Atul; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Wenger, Andreas; Monezi Andrade, André Luiz; Padruchny, Dzianis; Osipchik, Sergey; Gehring, Elise; Poznyak, Vladimir; Rekve, Dag; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira


    Given the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e-health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web-based self-help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicentre randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the internet-based self-help intervention to reduce alcohol use. Two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) with follow-up 6 months after randomization. Community samples in middle-income countries. People aged 18+, with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of 8+ indicating hazardous alcohol consumption. Offer of an internet-based self-help intervention, 'Alcohol e-Health', compared with a 'waiting list' control group. The intervention, adapted from a previous program with evidence of effectiveness in a high-income country, consists of modules to reduce or entirely stop drinking. The primary outcome measure is change in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score assessed at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include self-reported the numbers of standard drinks and alcohol-free days in a typical week during the past 6 months, and cessation of harmful or hazardous drinking (AUDIT < 8). Data analysis will be by intention-to-treat, using analysis of covariance to test if program participants will experience a greater reduction in their AUDIT score than controls at follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be analysed by (generalized) linear mixed models. Complier average causal effect and baseline observations carried forward will be used in sensitivity analyses. If the Alcohol e-Health program is found to be effective, the potential public health impact of its expansion into countries with underdeveloped alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatment systems world-wide is considerable. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Direct comparison of Yb3+:CaF2 and heavily doped Yb3+:YLF as laser media at room temperature. (United States)

    Pirri, Angela; Alderighi, Daniele; Toci, Guido; Vannini, Matteo; Nikl, Martin; Sato, Hiroki


    We report an extensive comparison of the laser performances of diode-pumped Yb(3+):YLF (30% at.) and Yb(3+):CaF(2) (5% at.) crystals, lasing at room-temperature and operating in two different operation mode, i.e. Continuous Wave (CW) and quasi-CW. An in-depth investigation of the crystals behavior by changing the pump power, clearly shows the crystal absorption depends on the lasing conditions. Therefore, we report an unambiguous definition of the slope efficiency calculated taken into account the real measured crystal absorption under laser action. Finally, we present a study of problems related to thermally induced losses which are expected influencing the laser performance.

  14. Acamprosate for alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Rösner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is among the main leading health risk factors in most developed and developing countries. Therapeutic success of psychosocial programs for relapse prevention is moderate, but could potentially be increased by an adjuvant treatment with the glutamate antagonist acamprosate. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and tolerability of acamprosate in comparison to placebo and other pharmacological agents. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group (CDAG Specialized Register, PubMed, Embase and CINAHL in January 2009 and inquired manufacturers and researchers for unpublished trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All double-blind randomised controlled trials (RCTs which compare the effects of acamprosate with placebo or active control on drinking-related outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Trial quality was assessed by one author and cross-checked by a second author. Individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses were used to verify the primary effectiveness outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: 24 RCTs with 6915 participants fulfilled the criteria of inclusion and were included in the review. Compared to placebo, acamprosate was shown to significantly reduce the risk of any drinking RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.91; NNT 9.09 (95% CI 6.66 to 14.28 and to significantly increase the cumulative abstinence duration MD 10.94 (95% CI 5.08 to 16.81, while secondary outcomes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, heavy drinking did not reach statistical significance. Diarrhea was the only side effect that was more frequently reported under acamprosate than placebo RD 0.11 (95% 0.09 to 0.13; NNTB 9.09 (95% CI 7.69 to 11.11. Effects of industry-sponsored trials RR 0.88 (95% 0.80 to 0.97 did not significantly differ from those of non-profit funded trials RR 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96. In addition, the linear regression test did not indicate a significant risk of

  15. Clonal differences in survival capacity, copper and zinc accumulation, and correlation with leaf polyamine levels in poplar: a large-scale field trial on heavily polluted soil. (United States)

    Castiglione, S; Todeschini, V; Franchin, C; Torrigiani, P; Gastaldi, D; Cicatelli, A; Rinaudo, C; Berta, G; Biondi, S; Lingua, G


    Three ex situ collections of poplar clones from natural populations of Populus alba and P. nigra growing in northern Italy were assessed for their genetic dissimilarity (GD) by means of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The high GD evidenced within populations was exploited for screening 168 clones in a field trial on heavy metal-polluted soil. After one growth season, clonal differences in plant survival and growth were observed. On the basis of performance, six clones were singled out, and used to evaluate copper and zinc accumulation in different organs. Clonal differences in metal concentrations were most evident for leaves and stems; one clone of P. alba (AL35) had a distinctly higher concentration of both metals in the roots. Leaf polyamine (putrescine, spermidine, spermine) profiles correlated with tissue metal concentrations, depending on the clone, plant organ and metal. In particular, the high metal-accumulating clone AL35 exhibited a dramatically higher concentration of free and conjugated putrescine. Overall, the results indicate that, given the high GD of Populus even within populations, it is possible to identify genotypes best suited for soil clean-up, and useful also for investigating physiological markers associated with high metal accumulation/tolerance.

  16. Clonal differences in survival capacity, copper and zinc accumulation, and correlation with leaf polyamine levels in poplar: A large-scale field trial on heavily polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castiglione, S. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 25, I-20100 Milano (Italy); Todeschini, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, via Bellini 25/G, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy); Franchin, C. [Dipartimento di Biologia e.s., Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio 42, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Torrigiani, P. [Dipartimento di Colture Arboree, Universita di Bologna, Via Fanin 46, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Gastaldi, D. [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, via Bellini 25/G, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy); Cicatelli, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Salerno, Stecca 7, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Rinaudo, C.; Berta, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, via Bellini 25/G, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy); Biondi, S. [Dipartimento di Biologia e.s., Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio 42, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Lingua, G., E-mail: guido.lingua@mfn.unipmn.i [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale, via Bellini 25/G, I-15100 Alessandria (Italy)


    Three ex situ collections of poplar clones from natural populations of Populus alba and P. nigra growing in northern Italy were assessed for their genetic dissimilarity (GD) by means of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The high GD evidenced within populations was exploited for screening 168 clones in a field trial on heavy metal-polluted soil. After one growth season, clonal differences in plant survival and growth were observed. On the basis of performance, six clones were singled out, and used to evaluate copper and zinc accumulation in different organs. Clonal differences in metal concentrations were most evident for leaves and stems; one clone of P. alba (AL35) had a distinctly higher concentration of both metals in the roots. Leaf polyamine (putrescine, spermidine, spermine) profiles correlated with tissue metal concentrations, depending on the clone, plant organ and metal. In particular, the high metal-accumulating clone AL35 exhibited a dramatically higher concentration of free and conjugated putrescine. Overall, the results indicate that, given the high GD of Populus even within populations, it is possible to identify genotypes best suited for soil clean-up, and useful also for investigating physiological markers associated with high metal accumulation/tolerance - High survival rate and heavy metal accumulation are associated with high polyamine concentration in an elite poplar clone.

  17. Suzaku  Observations of Heavily Obscured (Compton-thick) Active Galactic Nuclei Selected by the Swift/BAT Hard X-Ray Survey (United States)

    Tanimoto, Atsushi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Kawamuro, Taiki; Ricci, Claudio; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Terashima, Yuichi


    We present a uniform broadband X-ray (0.5–100.0 keV) spectral analysis of 12 Swift/Burst Alert Telescope selected Compton-thick ({log}{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2≥slant 24) active galactic nuclei (CTAGNs) observed with Suzaku. The Suzaku data of three objects are published here for the first time. We fit the Suzaku and Swift spectra with models utilizing an analytic reflection code and those utilizing the Monte-Carlo-based model from an AGN torus by Ikeda et al. The main results are as follows: (1) The estimated intrinsic luminosity of a CTAGN strongly depends on the model; applying Compton scattering to the transmitted component in an analytic model may largely overestimate the intrinsic luminosity at large column densities. (2) Unabsorbed reflection components are commonly observed, suggesting that the tori are clumpy. (3) Most of CTAGNs show small scattering fractions (X-ray-selected CTAGNs are different from less obscured objects.

  18. A Quantitative Study on the Relationship of Information Security Policy Awareness, Enforcement, and Maintenance to Information Security Program Effectiveness (United States)

    Francois, Michael T.


    Today's organizations rely heavily on information technology to conduct their daily activities. Therefore, their information security systems are an area of heightened security concern. As a result, organizations implement information security programs to address and mitigate that concern. However, even with the emphasis on information security,…


    Tennekoon, Vidhura; Rosenman, Robert

    When a binary dependent variable is misclassified, that is, recorded in the category other than where it really belongs, probit and logit estimates are biased and inconsistent. In some cases the probability of misclassification may vary systematically with covariates, and thus be endogenous. In this paper we develop an estimation approach that corrects for endogenous misclassification, validate our approach using a simulation study, and apply it to the analysis of a treatment program designed to improve family dynamics. Our results show that endogenous misclassification could lead to potentially incorrect conclusions unless corrected using an appropriate technique.

  20. Microbial reduction of ferric iron oxyhydroxides as a way for remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with toxic metals by infiltration of acid mine drainage (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina


    The abandoned uranium mine Curilo is a permanent source of acid mine drainage (AMD) which steadily contaminated grey forest soils in the area. As a result, the soil pH was highly acidic and the concentration of copper, lead, arsenic, and uranium in the topsoil was higher than the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC) for soils. The leaching test revealed that approximately half of each pollutant was presented as a reducible fraction as well as the ferric iron in horizon A was presented mainly as minerals with amorphous structure. So, the approach for remediation of the AMD-affected soils was based on the process of redoxolysis carried out by iron-reducing bacteria. Ferric iron hydroxides reduction and the heavy metals released into soil solutions was studied in the dependence on the source of organic (fresh or silage hay) which was used for growth and activity of soil microflora, initial soil pH (3.65; 4.2; and 5.1), and the ion content of irrigation solutions. The combination of limestone (2.0 g/ kg soil), silage addition (at rate of 45 g dry weight/ kg soil) in the beginning and reiterated at 6 month since the start of soil remediation, and periodical soil irrigation with slightly acidic solutions containing CaCl2 was sufficient the content of lead and arsenic in horizon A to be decreased to concentrations similar to the relevant MAC. The reducible, exchangeable, and carbonate mobile fractions were phases from which the pollutants was leached during the applied soil remediation. It determined the higher reduction of the pollutants bioavailability also as well as the process of ferric iron reduction was combined with neutralization of the soil acidity to pH (H2O) 6.2.

  1. Contribution of mine wastes to atmospheric metal deposition in the surrounding area of an abandoned heavily polluted mining district (Rio Tinto mines, Spain). (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Caliani, Juan C; Gonzalez, Isabel; Romero, Antonio


    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of abandoned mine wastes on the levels and chemical profile of total atmospheric deposition in one of the oldest and largest mining districts in Europe (Rio Tinto mines, Iberian Pyrite Belt), on the basis of a complete geochemical characterization of particulate matter samples periodically collected in five sampling stations located around the mining district between March 2009 and February 2011. The annual levels of total bulk deposition (soluble and insoluble fractions) registered in the Rio Tinto Mining District ranged between 18 and 43 g/m(2) depending on the distance from the sampling station with regard to the mine waste deposits. As a general pattern in the area, high mass levels of Zn and Cu were deposited in a range of 9-62 mg/m(2) not only in the insoluble but also in the soluble fraction. Other potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn and Bi showed greater deposition fluxes in the locations closest to the mine waste deposits. A principal component analysis with a Multilinear Regression Analysis certifies the presence of two common sources in the mining area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals (Al, Ca, Sr, Ti, Li, Mg, Mn, K, Na and Fe), mixed with other anthropogenic species (NH4(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-)) within the village closest to the mine; and 2) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg, SO4(2-) and Sr. In addition, a mine waste factor made up of toxic elements (Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn, Cd and Bi) has been recognized in the sampling sites exposed to dust-bearing winds downwind of the mining area, suggesting that mine wastes are a relevant source of heavy-mineral particles with potentially adverse environmental effects to surrounding soils, plants and humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Cannabis: Use and dependence]. (United States)

    Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier


    The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, irritability, anger, restlessness, depression, mood swings and cravings. Regular cannabis use induces cognitive impairment, especially of attention, episodic memory and working memory. Alcohol and other substances abuse or dependence are frequently found in patients with cannabis dependence. Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in patients with cannabis dependence, in particular anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The treatment of cannabis dependence includes behavioral psychotherapy, especially motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy, alongside treatment of co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. There are currently no available pharmacological treatment interventions for cannabis dependence. The treatment of cannabis dependence and withdrawal remains nonspecific. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Parent training in nonviolent resistance for adult entitled dependence. (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli; Dolberger, Dan; Nortov, Efi; Omer, Haim


    "Adult entitled dependence" is a condition characterized by the extreme dependence of grown children on their family and by levels of dysfunction, seemingly excessive in light of their apparent capacity to function. The family and the dependent adult become involved in an interaction in which the very attempts to alleviate the problem may aggravate it. Parent-training in nonviolent resistance (NVR) is an intervention that has been shown to be helpful to parents of behaviorally disturbed youth. Parent training in NVR offers parents means to shift away from a stance of helplessness toward realistic goals that are accomplishable without the collaboration of their offspring. We report on the parents of 27 entitled dependent grown children who participated in parent training in NVR. Additionally, we present 2 detailed case studies that exemplify the problem and the therapeutic process. Before treatment, the dependent adults were not working or studying, drew heavily on parental services (financial or otherwise), and were resistant to parental attempts to change the situation. Most parents succeeded in overcoming their helplessness and reducing the provision of parental services. In a considerable proportion of cases, the grown children started working or studying or moved to independent lodgings. © FPI, Inc.

  4. Doping dependence of the vortex dynamics in single-crystal superconducting NaFe{}_{1-x}Co x As (United States)

    Ahmad, D.; Choi, W. J.; Seo, Y. I.; Jung, S.-G.; Kim, Y. C.; Salem-Sugui, S., Jr.; Park, T.; Kwon, Y. S.


    We investigate the doping dependence of flux pinning in superconducting NaFe{}1-xCo x As (x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) single crystals grown by the Bridgman method. The electronic specific heat displays a pronounced anomaly in a sample series at superconducting transition temperature, which hardly shows any residual part at low temperature. We found that Co doping plays an important role in signifying the secondary peak in the magnetic hysteresis of optimally doped (x = 0.03) and heavily doped (x = 0.05, 0.07) crystals. Furthermore, the dependence of the relaxation rate S = ∣d ln M/d ln t∣ on magnetic field and temperature exhibits a decreasing trend within a certain range corresponding to the secondary peak effect in the optimally and heavily doped samples. The magnetic relaxation rate combined with the Maley analysis of the current-dependent creep energy shows a single-vortex pinning in the lightly doped sample dominant at low applied fields, and plastic pinning at high applied fields, without showing a secondary peak. However, in the optimally and heavily doped samples, the magnetic relaxation rate and U(J) isothermal analysis show that the collective pinning that dominates below H peak crosses over to plastic pinning for fields above H peak.

  5. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud


    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  6. Encouraging more women into computer science: Initiating a single-sex intervention program in Sweden (United States)

    Brandell, Gerd; Carlsson, Svante; Ekblom, Håkan; Nord, Ann-Charlotte


    The process of starting a new program in computer science and engineering, heavily based on applied mathematics and only open to women, is described in this paper. The program was introduced into an educational system without any tradition in single-sex education. Important observations made during the process included the considerable interest in mathematics and curiosity about computer science found among female students at the secondary school level, and the acceptance of the single-sex program by the staff, administration, and management of the university as well as among male and female students. The process described highlights the importance of preparing the environment for a totally new type of educational program.

  7. European Gas Dependency


    Antonsen, Iben; Bieber, Martin; Gandrup, Tobias; Lehmann, Tina; Weinberger, Ashley


    The focal point of the project is, as it is implied in the title, European gas dependency, to be more specific; the dependency of Russian gas. We chose Russia, because the EU's import of gas is mainly supplied by Russia. We present background information and knowledge to describe why the case is of relevance and that a situation of dependency exists. We solely look at the dependency from the European Union's point of view, taking point of departure in the Green Paper. The Green Paper is a pap...

  8. Systems dependability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, Jean-François


    Presents recent developments of probabilistic assessment of systems dependability based on stochastic models, including graph theory, finite state automaton and language theory, for both dynamic and hybrid contexts.

  9. Gradle dependency management

    CERN Document Server

    Ikkink, Hubert Klein


    If you work on Java projects, use Gradle as a build automation tool, and you use dependencies in your project, this is the book for you. Additionally, if you want to deploy your project artifacts as dependencies for other developers using Gradle, you've found the right book.

  10. Adam Smith and dependency. (United States)

    Ozler, Sule


    The focus of this paper is the works and life of Adam Smith, who is widely recognized as the father and founder of contemporary economics. Latent content analysis is applied to his seminal text in economics, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). The results reveal that Smith considers dependence on others a problem and sees the solution to this problem in impersonalized interdependence. In addition, his views on social dependency and personal dependency, reflected in his Lectures on Jurisprudence (1963) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), are analyzed. This analysis suggests a central tension between dependence and independence in Smith's writings. The personal dependency patterns he exhibited in his life, which also suggest a tension between dependence and independence, are identified through a reading of his biographies. Based on insights from psychoanalytic literature, this paper proposes that developing the ideas in the Wealth of Nations was part of Smith's creative solution to this tension. In particular, his solution to one individual's dependence on another was through a system of impersonalized interdependence. In other words, Smith defended against his personal dependence through his economic theorizing.

  11. Improving Loop Dependence Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven


    Programmers can no longer depend on new processors to have significantly improved single-thread performance. Instead, gains have to come from other sources such as the compiler and its optimization passes. Advanced passes make use of information on the dependencies related to loops. We improve th...

  12. The Politics of Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    The central claim of this book is that thinking about ‘dependence’ should be at the core of political theory principally because it helps us to think about issues of economic justice. Unlike political theories that either condemn or celebrate dependence, the book argues that dependence...... is an inescapable fact of social life, neither good nor bad in itself. The real political issues are about how we as a society organise and judge various forms of dependence. And this is, in fact, what much political debate is about if we dig beneath the surface. On the one hand, we disagree about how we should...... organise vulnerability; on the other hand, we disagree about who we should condemn as parasitical. Vulnerability and parasitism are thus key concepts for understanding political debate about forms of dependence. Showing the tension between these two sides to the problem of economic dependence...

  13. Temperature Dependent Models of Semiconductor Devices for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents an investigation of the temperature dependent model of a diode and bipolar transistor built-in to the NAP-2 program and comparison of these models with experimentally measured characteristics of the BA 100 diode and BC 109 transistor. The detail of the modelling technique has been discussed and ...

  14. Noninvasive assessment of liver detoxification capacity of children, observed in children from heavily polluted industrial and clean control areas, together with assessments of air pollution and chloro-organic body burden. (United States)

    Herbarth, Olf; Franck, Ulrich; Krumbiegel, Peter; Rehwagen, Martina; Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike; Weiss, Holger


    The liver is an important target organ in exposure to foreign substances or their metabolites. Early changes in the metabolic capacity of the liver may be a first sign of the effect of an exposure and an indication of an early (pre)pathological process. For the noninvasive testing of this metabolic capacity, a special diagnostic tool has been developed and demonstrated under real exposure conditions. The main questions investigated were (1) whether the liver detoxification capacity of children is affected by long-term low exposure in a highly polluted area and (2) to what extent redevelopment in once heavily polluted industrial areas contributes to improvement in the health measured in the children from the changed detoxification capacity. Kindergarten children from a heavily polluted industrial area and a control area were observed over a prolonged period during redevelopment of the industrial area. The liver's detoxification capacity was assessed with a stable-isotope-based diagnostic test, the [(15)N]methacetin test. In addition, the region-specific external exposure (indicator components were chlorinated compounds) and internal load were measured. The difference in the children's internal load between the exposed and control groups reflected the differences in exposure (exposed children had an internal load 2.3 times greater than that of the control children). The exposed children showed a 6% lower liver detoxification capacity. A reduction in pollution by about 70% as a result of remediation was reflected in improved liver detoxification capacity, and the difference between the polluted and control areas was no longer significant. Prolonged exposure to low concentrations of xenobiotics can disturb hepatic functioning. The proposed test can be used as a tool to determine the effects of multicomponent exposure and is well suited for bioeffect monitoring. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 103-108, 2004

  15. Faraday rotation and photoluminescence in heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses for fiber-integrated magneto-optics. (United States)

    Gao, Guojun; Winterstein-Beckmann, Anja; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Dubs, Carsten; Dellith, Jan; Schmidt, Markus A; Wondraczek, Lothar


    We report on the magneto-optical (MO) properties of heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses towards fiber-integrated paramagnetic MO devices. For a Tb(3+) ion concentration of up to 9.7 × 10(21) cm(-3), the reported glass exhibits an absolute negative Faraday rotation of ~120 rad/T/m at 632.8 nm. The optimum spectral ratio between Verdet constant and light transmittance over the spectral window of 400-1500 nm is found for a Tb(3+) concentration of ~6.5 × 10(21) cm(-3). For this glass, the crystallization stability, expressed as the difference between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of melt crystallization exceeds 100 K, which is a prerequisite for fiber drawing. In addition, a high activation energy of crystallization is achieved at this composition. Optical absorption occurs in the NUV and blue spectral region, accompanied by Tb(3+) photoluminescence. In the heavily doped materials, a UV/blue-to-green photo-conversion gain of ~43% is achieved. The lifetime of photoluminescence is ~2.2 ms at a stimulated emission cross-section σem of ~1.1 × 10(-21) cm(2) for ~ 5.0 × 10(21) cm(-3) Tb(3+). This results in an optical gain parameter σem*τ of ~2.5 × 10(-24) cm(2)s, what could be of interest for implementation of a Tb(3+) fiber laser.

  16. Faraday rotation and photoluminescence in heavily Tb3+-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses for fiber-integrated magneto-optics (United States)

    Gao, Guojun; Winterstein-Beckmann, Anja; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Dubs, Carsten; Dellith, Jan; Schmidt, Markus A.; Wondraczek, Lothar


    We report on the magneto-optical (MO) properties of heavily Tb3+-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses towards fiber-integrated paramagnetic MO devices. For a Tb3+ ion concentration of up to 9.7 × 1021 cm-3, the reported glass exhibits an absolute negative Faraday rotation of ~120 rad/T/m at 632.8 nm. The optimum spectral ratio between Verdet constant and light transmittance over the spectral window of 400-1500 nm is found for a Tb3+ concentration of ~6.5 × 1021 cm-3. For this glass, the crystallization stability, expressed as the difference between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of melt crystallization exceeds 100 K, which is a prerequisite for fiber drawing. In addition, a high activation energy of crystallization is achieved at this composition. Optical absorption occurs in the NUV and blue spectral region, accompanied by Tb3+ photoluminescence. In the heavily doped materials, a UV/blue-to-green photo-conversion gain of ~43% is achieved. The lifetime of photoluminescence is ~2.2 ms at a stimulated emission cross-section σem of ~1.1 × 10-21 cm2 for ~ 5.0 × 1021 cm-3 Tb3+. This results in an optical gain parameter σem*τ of ~2.5 × 10-24 cm2s, what could be of interest for implementation of a Tb3+ fiber laser.

  17. Compulsivity in opioid dependence. (United States)

    Tolomeo, Serenella; Matthews, Keith; Steele, Douglas; Baldacchino, Alex


    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50). Compulsivity was measured using Intra/Extra-Dimensional (IED) Task and impulsivity was measured using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data were also obtained. As hypothesised, compulsivity was negatively associated with impulsivity (p<0.02). Testing for the neural substrates of compulsivity versus impulsivity, we found a higher compulsivity/impulsivity ratio associated with significantly decreased white matter adjacent to the nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and rostral cingulate in the abstinent group, compared to the other opioid dependent groups. In addition, self-reported duration of opioid exposure correlated negatively with bilateral globus pallidus grey matter reductions. Our findings are consistent with Volkow & Koob's addiction models and underline the important role of compulsivity versus impulsivity in opioid dependence. Our results have implications for the treatment of opioid dependence supporting the assertion of different behavioural and biological phenotypes in the opioid dependence and abstinence syndromes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Visual dependence and BPPV. (United States)

    Agarwal, K; Bronstein, A M; Faldon, M E; Mandalà, M; Murray, K; Silove, Y


    The increased visual dependence noted in some vestibular patients may be secondary to their vertigo. We examine whether a single, brief vertigo attack, such as in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), modifies visual dependency. Visual dependency was measured before and after the Hallpike manoeuvre with (a) the Rod and Frame and the Rod and Disc techniques whilst seated and (b) the postural sway induced by visual roll-motion stimulation. Three subject groups were studied: 20 patients with BPPV (history and positive Hallpike manoeuvre; PosH group), 20 control patients (history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre; NegH group) and 20 normal controls. Our findings show that while both patient groups showed enhanced visual dependency, the PosH and the normal control group decreased visual dependency on repetition of the visual tasks after the Hallpike manoeuvre. NegH patients differed from PosH patients in that their high visual dependency did not diminish on repetition of the visual stimuli; they scored higher on the situational characteristic questionnaire ('visual vertigo' symptoms) and showed higher incidence of migraine. We conclude that long term vestibular symptoms increase visual dependence but a single BPPV attack does not increase it further. Repetitive visual motion stimulation induces adaptation in visual dependence in peripheral vestibular disorders such as BPPV. A positional form of vestibular migraine may underlie the symptoms of some patients with a history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre. The finding that they have non adaptable increased visual dependency may explain visuo-vestibular symptoms in this group and, perhaps more widely, in patients with migraine.

  19. Security of Dependable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.


    Security and dependability are crucial for designing trustworthy systems. The approach “security as an add-on” is not satisfactory, yet the integration of security in the development process is still an open problem. Especially, a common framework for specifying dependability and security is very...... much needed. There are many pressing challenges however; here, we address some of them. Firstly, security for dependable systems is a broad concept and traditional view of security, e.g., in terms of confidentiality, integrity and availability, does not suffice. Secondly, a clear definition of security...

  20. Removing Cycles in Esterel Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard von Hanxleden


    Full Text Available Esterel belongs to the family of synchronous programming languages, which are affected by cyclic signal dependencies. This prohibits a static scheduling, limiting the choice of available compilation techniques for programs with such cycles. This work proposes an algorithm that, given a constructive synchronous Esterel program, performs a semantics-preserving source code level transformation that removes cyclic signal dependencies. The transformation is divided into two parts: detection of cycles and iterative resolution of these cycles. It is based on the replacement of cycle signals by a signal expression involving no other cycle signals, thereby breaking the cycle. This transformation of cyclic Esterel programs enables the use of efficient compilation techniques, which are only available for acyclic programs. Furthermore, experiments indicate that the code transformation can even improve code quality produced by compilers that can already handle cyclic programs.

  1. Drug Craving Terminology among Opiate Dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Maarefvand


    Full Text Available Objective:Drug craving is defined as an urge to continue substance abuse. Drug dependents use different terms to express their subjective feeling of craving. This study was an attempt to generate an understanding of craving terminology among different groups of Persian speaking Iranian opiate dependents.Method:Terms used for the meaning of drug craving were listed by 36 ex-opiate dependents in focus group discussion meetings in the first phase of the study. These terms were composed from Craving Terms Questionnaire. In the second phase, 120 subjects in 3 groups of opiate dependents and a group of Current Opiate Abusers rated usage frequency of each term in the questionnaire under a Twelve-Step Program, Methadone Maintenance, and Other Abstinence-based Programs.Results:Eighty nine terms were categorized in stimulation and triggering, attention bias and obsession, decision making difficulty, information processing impairment, withdrawal induction, drug euphoric experience, mental urge, motor control problem, negative valancing and stigmatizing. Terms for the three categories of mental urge, attention bias and obsession and motor control problem were used more than others. Patients in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT group used different categories of craving terms in comparison to other groups. Abstinent cases reported higher total score for craving terms in comparison to other groups in Twelve-Step Program and other abstinence-based programs.Conclusion:Each craving-related term is associated with some aspects of the multidimensional concept of craving. A drug-craving thesaurus could provide a better understanding of craving nature from a drug dependent point of view. There are differences among abstinence vs. maintenance based treated opiate dependents in using craving terms. Addiction therapists will benefit from accessing drug dependents’ lexicon to assess and create therapeutic alliance with their clients.

  2. Debriefing depends on purpose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.A.M. Peters (Vincent); G. Vissers; F.B.L. van der Meer (Frans-Bauke)


    textabstractSocial simulation techniques are used for a multiplicity of goals, e.g. training, education, assessment, exploration, development and research. In all cases is necessary. However its shape and aims depend on the specific purpose of the simulation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kaźmierczak


    Full Text Available The paper presents the dimensioning of retention reservoirs indicator method regarding to the German DWA-A 117 guideline, recommended for small rainfall catchments (with an area of 200 ha. A comparative calculation of the retention reservoirs overflow useful volume were conducted for 4 variants of catchment development (degree sealing surface varied from 60% to 90%, under the assumed sewage outflow from the tank at the level of the urban basin natural runoff. At given conditions required unit volume of retention reservoirs, from 145.4 m3 to 206.7 m3 for each 1 ha of catchment area were determined. The obtained results confirmed the fact that useful volume of the tanks were decreased, when Blaszczyk’s pattern reliable rainwater streams were used for calculations. Because the DWA-A 117 guideline method should be applied to a small rainfall catchments, it is recommended to verify the hydraulic capacity of dimensioned channels and objects using hydrodynamic simulations at different load of rainfall catchment scenarios, variable in time and space.

  4. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests. (United States)

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G


    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Education as a Tool for Peace? The King Abdullah Scholarship Program and Perceptions of Saudi Arabia and UAE Post 9/11 (United States)

    Hilal, Kholoud T.; Denman, Brian D.


    Since 9/11, Saudi Arabia has made significant attempts to change its public image because of its alleged association with global terrorism. Given its charitable interests in promoting education as a tool for peace within the Arab region, it has established the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP), considered to be the most heavily endowed…

  6. The Value of SAT Scores and High School Grades in the Selection of Honors Program Candidates from the Perspective of Honors Students and Graduates (United States)

    Roszkowski, Michael J.; Nigro, Richard A.


    Admission to honors programs is competitive and typically relies heavily on the applicant's high school grades and SAT scores. Research shows that of the two criteria, the stronger predictor of performance in an honors curriculum is the high school record, which would imply that grades should receive the greater emphasis. We surveyed current…

  7. Apache Maven dependency management

    CERN Document Server

    Lalou, Jonathan


    An easy-to-follow, tutorial-based guide with chapters progressing from basic to advanced dependency management.If you are working with Java or Java EE projects and you want to take advantage of Maven dependency management, then this book is ideal for you. This book is also particularly useful if you are a developer or an architect. You should be well versed with Maven and its basic functionalities if you wish to get the most out of this book.

  8. Developmental programming of happiness. (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Fortier, Paz; Lahat, Ayelet; Tang, Alva; Mathewson, Karen J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J


    Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively. This bias to happy faces was associated with a reduced likelihood of emotional problems. Findings suggest that differential susceptibility to positive emotions may be prenatally programmed, with effects lasting into adulthood. We discuss implications for integrating prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, and the developmental origins of postnatal plasticity and resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Atenção à dependência química na Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo: possibilidades da extensão universitária Atención a la dependencia química en la Universidad Federal del Espírito Santo: posibilidad de la extensión universitaria Substance dependence care at Federal University of Espírito Santo: program extension possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues de Amorim


    Full Text Available Objetiva-se neste trabalho descrever dois programas permanentes de extensão da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo que atuam com base nos princípios de ensino, pesquisa, assistência e extensão, direcionados à temática das drogas: o Núcleo de Estudos sobre o Álcool e outras Drogas e o Programa de Atendimento ao Alcoolista do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes. Tais estratégias constituem referências no Estado do Espírito Santo, promovendo a produção e divulgação de conhecimentos, a realização de pesquisas, a cooperação técnica e assessoria no campo da dependência química, a colaboração na organização de práticas de saúde que atendam às necessidades da população e a assistência ambulatorial para o tratamento do alcoolismo. Inicialmente descrevem-se o Programa de Atendimento ao Alcoolista e sua atuação interdisciplinar no atendimento a pacientes alcoolistas. Em seguida, são apresentadas a origem, a organização e as competências do Núcleo de Estudos sobre o Álcool e outras Drogas.El objetivo de este trabajo es describir dos programas permanentes de extensión de la Universidad Federal del Espírito Santo que actúan con base en los principios de la enseñanza, investigación, asistencia y extensión, en dirección al tema de las drogas: el Núcleo de Estudios sobre el Alcohol y otras Drogas y el Programa de Atención al Alcohólico del Hospital Universitario Cassiano Antônio Moraes. Dichas estrategias constituyen referencias en el Estado del Espírito Santo, promoviendo la producción y divulgación de conocimientos, la realización de investigaciones, la cooperación técnica y asesoría en el campo de la dependencia química, la colaboración en la organización de prácticas de salud que atiendan a las necesidades de la población y la asistencia en ambulatorio para el tratamiento del alcoholismo. Primeramente se describe el Programa de Atención al Alcohólico y su actuaci

  10. Assessing Programming Costs of Explicit Memory Localization on a Large Scale Shared Memory Multiprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Picano


    Full Text Available We present detailed experimental work involving a commercially available large scale shared memory multiple instruction stream-multiple data stream (MIMD parallel computer having a software controlled cache coherence mechanism. To make effective use of such an architecture, the programmer is responsible for designing the program's structure to match the underlying multiprocessors capabilities. We describe the techniques used to exploit our multiprocessor (the BBN TC2000 on a network simulation program, showing the resulting performance gains and the associated programming costs. We show that an efficient implementation relies heavily on the user's ability to explicitly manage the memory system.

  11. Cell cycle-dependent variations in protein concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cookson, Natalie A; Cookson, Scott W; Tsimring, Lev S; Hasty, Jeff

    .... While most modeling techniques rely heavily on the concentrations of intracellular molecules, little attention has been paid to tracking and simulating the significant volume fluctuations that occur...

  12. Parenting Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martín-Quintana


    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at emphasizing the importance of using parenting programs to promote parental competences. There is a need for this support taking into account the complexity of the parenting task in our modern societies. Following the European recommendation on positive parenting, those parenting programs are considered important measures to support parents in their educational role. Forward, several generations of parenting programs at the international context were briefly described and some examples of programs within the national context, as well. This paper provides some reflection on three models of parental education, and shows the results of an experiential parenting programs addressed to parents in psychosocial risk situation in two Spanish communities. A new program “Crecer felices en familia”, still in the implementation phase, was also described. As a conclusion, the paper emphasized the importance of evaluating programs in order to know more about their efficacy and to improve the way of implementation in real settings.

  13. Facility Location Evaluation for Satsop Integrating transmission : Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement, Fiscal Year 1976 Proposed Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    Alternatives were discussed for the proposed construction of a substation near Satsop and two 500-kV transmission lines from the proposed Satsop Substation approximately 24 miles west of Olympia, one running from Satsop to Paul Substation and one running from Satsop to Olympia Substation. Depending on the final route location chosen, between approximately 62 and 73 miles of 500-kV transmission line between the proposed Satsop Substation and Olympia and Paul Substations over existing, parallel, and new right-of-way would be required. Between 15 and 31 miles of new access road would also be required. Land use affected would include clearing from 560 to 1180 acres of timber. Depending upon the route location chosen, between 1/4 and 4 acres of agricultural land would be removed from production, and between 4 and 37 acres temporarily disrupted. In addition, approximately 30 acres of land would be required for the substation. Other impacts would include the removal of wildlife habitat associated with the above mentioned right-of-way requirements. Disturbance to wildlife during construction would occur. Some erosion and sedimentation would occur. Visual impacts would result from clearing rights-of-way through heavily forested areas. Noise and other disturbances to residents will occur, primarily during construction. The alternatives considered include: (1) nonconstruction, and (2) six alternative route locations for the proposed transmission lines. Generation alternatives to all transmission construction, including alternative methods of electrical transmission and generation, transmission construction, disposal of slash and limiting the consumption of electricity are discussed in BPA's General Construction and Maintenance Program Statement and the Annual Proposed Program Statement.

  14. The Erika oil spill impact on land vegetation : main results of a five year monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncet, F. [Cedre, Brest (France); Ragot, R. [Conservatoir Botanique National de Brest, Brest (France); Tintilier, F. [Biotope, Bouguenais (France)


    An extensive environmental impact assessment was initiated by the French Ministry of the Environment following a spill of 20,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil that occurred in December 1999 when the tanker Erica broke and sank off the coast of Brittany. The spill affected 400 km of coastline. Before the oil reached the shore, it had been drifting and weathering at sea for 12 days under harsh sea conditions, resulting in oil fragmentation and scattering. The oil then reached lichen communities and coastal plants of the splash zone on rocky shores, dune vegetation and salt marshes. The oil was composed of 90 per cent heavy distillation residue and 10 per cent light fraction. The type of oil is significant, since weathered crude oils are considered to be less toxic to marsh grass than lighter more penetrating oils. A large scale, 2.5 year clean-up operation was conducted under the POLMAR French national organization. Vegetation clean-up was undertaken depending on the degree of oiling, sensitivity of plant species or natural habitats. A 5 year monitoring program was also launched to determine the impact on vegetation and contamination of the plant tissues by aromatic hydrocarbons. The monitoring program established 175 permanent quadrats on all types of affected vegetation communities and followed a phyto-sociological method. It was determined that adequate removal of the bulk oil resulted in minimal impact on heavily oiled vegetation. Although there was light to moderate short and medium term damages, the composition of vegetation and cover did not evolve significantly in most quadrats monitored. There was a long-term impact on slow growing communities such as lichen, and grey dunes. Residual oil was still observed up to 2005. The adverse effects were linked to coating rather than to toxic effects. Fixed dunes, aerohaline grass and heath communities were found to be more vulnerable and have not yet recovered to pre-spill state. 15 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Dependently Typed Programming with Domain-Specific Logics (United States)


    remember this story, except from being told about it), Dad brought home an Apple II from school. Mom and Dad set me up in the dining room playing Math analogous respect-for-equality rule, which says that it respects equality in the context and classifier. Congruence : Each equality judgement is a... congruence , specified by reflexivity, symmetry, transi- tivity rules, and a compatibility rule for each term constructor. Figure 7.3: 2DTT: General

  16. US oil dependency and energy security; Dependance petroliere et securite energetique americaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P. [Institut francais des Relations Internationals, 75 - Paris (France)]|[Universite Pierre Mendes-France-IEPE-CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  17. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar


    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the un...

  18. Aspects, Dependencies, and Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitchyan, R; Fabry, J.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Südholt, M.; Consel, C.


    For Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) the topic of Aspects, Dependencies and Interactions is of high importance across the whole range of development activities – from requirements engineering through to language design. Aspect interactions must be adequately addressed all across the

  19. Empirically sampling Universal Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schluter, Natalie; Agic, Zeljko


    Universal Dependencies incur a high cost in computation for unbiased system development. We propose a 100% empirically chosen small subset of UD languages for efficient parsing system development. The technique used is based on measurements of model capacity globally. We show that the diversity...

  20. Reference-Dependent Sympathy (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.


    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  1. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...

  2. Beyond Dependency Theory. (United States)

    Henriquez, Pedro


    Dependency theory was part of the reaction against the thesis that proclaimed the benefits of economic integration into the capitalist world. The theory emphasizes the interplay between the internal structures of developing nations and international structures, and analyzes desirable national strategies and policies for structural changes. (CS)

  3. Aspects, Dependencies and Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanen, F.; Chitchyan, R; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Fabry, J.; Sudholt, M.; Mehner, K.; Cebulla, M.


    The topics on aspects, dependencies and interactions are among the key remaining challenges to be tackled by the Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community to enable a wide adoption of AOSD technology. This second workshop, organized and supported by the AOSD-Europe project, aimed to

  4. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...

  5. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki


    , and color, but additionally being capable of sensing, actuating, and computing. Indeed, computers will not be things in and by themselves, but embedded into the materials that make up our surroundings. This also means that the way we interact with computers and the way we program them, will change....... Consequently we ask what the practice of programming and giving form to such materials would be like? How would we be able to familiarize ourselves with the dynamics of these materials and their different combinations of cause and effect? Which tools would we need and what would they look like? Will we program...... these computational composites through external computers and then transfer the code them, or will the programming happen closer to the materials? In this feature we outline a new research program that floats between imagined futures and the development of a material programming practice....

  6. Origin of in Situ Domain Formation of Heavily Nb-Doped Pb(Zr,Ti)O3Thin Films Sputtered on Ir/TiW/SiO2/Si Substrates for Mobile Sensor Applications. (United States)

    Han, Chan Su; Park, Kyu Sik; Choi, Hong Je; Cho, Yong Soo


    High-quality piezoelectric thin films have recently been in demand for mobile sensor applications. An investigation was conducted to understand the improvements in the piezoelectric and imprint characteristics of heavily Nb-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films with an extensive range of Nb content (up to 14 mol %) beyond the typical solid solubility limit of Nb. The positive effects produced by the unusual doping of Nb were realized by utilizing an in situ sputtering process that did not require a subsequent annealing and poling procedure. An enhanced piezoelectric coefficient, -e 31 , of -12.87 C/m 2 and a stronger shift in the coercive field, E c,shift , of ∼20 kV/cm, which are ideally useful for mobile sensor applications, were obtained for the 12 mol % Nb-doped films deposited on nonconventional buffer electrodes of Ir/TiW. The reduced oxygen vacancy concentration and preferred domain orientation with a stronger piezoresponse induced by the Nb donor doping contributed to the enhancement of the piezoelectric properties. Potential defect dipoles aligned by a residual stress gradient along columnar structures seemed to induce an internal electric field in the Nb-doped films, leading to the preferred domain orientation, as well as the strong imprint behavior due to a clamping of domain walls.

  7. Insertion of a pentacene layer into the gold/poly(methyl methacrylate)/heavily doped p-type Si/indium device leading to the modulation of resistive switching characteristics (United States)

    Hung, Cheng-Chun; Lin, Yow-Jon


    In order to get a physical insight into the pentacene interlayer-modulated resistive switching (RS) characteristics, the Au/pentacene/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/heavily doped p-type Si (p+-Si)/In and Au/PMMA/p+-Si/In devices are fabricated and the device performance is provided. The Au/pentacene/PMMA/p+-Si/In device shows RS behavior, whereas the Au/PMMA/p+-Si/In device exhibits the set/reset-free hysteresis current-voltage characteristics. The insertion of a pentacene layer is a noticeable contribution to the RS characteristic. This is because of the occurrence of carrier accumulation/depletion in the pentacene interlayer. The transition from carrier depletion to carrier accumulation (carrier accumulation to carrier depletion) in pentacene occurring under negative (positive) voltage induces the process of set (reset). The switching conduction mechanism is primarily described as space charge limited conduction according to the electrical transport properties measurement. The concept of a pentacene/PMMA heterostructure opens a promising direction for organic memory devices.

  8. Remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with heavy metals by means of their leaching at acidic pH followed by the soil reclamation by means of neutralization and bacterial manure addition (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina


    Some grey forest soils in Western Bulgaria are heavily polluted with heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc), arsenic, and uranium due to the infiltration of acid mine drainage generated at the abandoned uranium mine Curilo. This paper presents some results from a study about soil remediation based on the contaminants leaching from the topsoil by means of irrigation with solutions containing sulphuric acid or its in situ generation by means of sulphur-oxidizing chemolithotrophic bacteria in or without the presence of finely cut straw. These methods were tested in large scale zero suction lysimeters. The approaches based on S° and finely cut straw addition was the most efficient amongst the tested methods and for seven months of soil remediation the concentration of all soil contaminants were decreased below the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC). Neutralization of the soil acidity was applied as a next stage of soil reclamation by adding CaCO3 and cow manure. As a result, soil pH increased from strongly acidic (2.36) to slightly acidic (6.15) which allowed subsequent addition of humic acids and bacterial manure to the topsoil. The soil habitat changed in this way facilitated the growth of microorganisms which restored the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon to the levels typical for non-polluted grey forest soil.

  9. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  10. Program Fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil


    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  11. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua


    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  12. Programming F#

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Chris


    Why learn F#? This multi-paradigm language not only offers you an enormous productivity boost through functional programming, it also lets you develop applications using your existing object-oriented and imperative programming skills. With Programming F#, you'll quickly discover the many advantages of Microsoft's new language, which includes access to all the great tools and libraries of the .NET platform. Learn how to reap the benefits of functional programming for your next project -- whether it's quantitative computing, large-scale data exploration, or even a pursuit of your own. With th

  13. Debugging a high performance computing program (United States)

    Gooding, Thomas M.


    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  14. Test Reduction in Open Architecture via Dependency Analysis (United States)


    Executive, Business Transformation Agency • Office of Procurement and Assistance Management Headquarters, Department of Energy We also thank the...oriented programs, they proposed the System Dependence Net ( SDN ), which can be used to represent concurrency issues in the program, in addition to the

  15. Context Dependent Spectral Unmixing (United States)


    Symposium (IGARSS), july 2008, vol. 2, pp. II–371 –II–374. [81] H. Frigui, L. Zhang, and P. Gader, “Context-dependent multisensor fusion and estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of

  16. Counting Dependence Predictors (United States)

    2008-05-02 Supervising Professor: Doug Burger Second Reader: Stephen W. Keckler May 2, 2008 Abstract Modern processors rely on memory improved further for large windows without compromising its ability to support fully distributed execution. 8 Acknowledgements I thank Doug Burger the Intel Undergraduate Research Fellowship for 2007- 2008. References [1] D. Burger , S. W. Keckler, K. S. McKinley, M. Dahlin, L. K. John, C. Lin

  17. Why Density Dependent Propulsion? (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.


    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  18. Reference Dependent Altruism


    Breitmoser, Yves; Tan, Jonathan H.W.


    In view of behavioral patterns left unorganized by current social preference theories, we propose a theory of reference dependent altruism (RDA). With RDA, one's degree of altruism increases at reference points. It induces equity and efficiency effects that are conditional on whether or not payoffs meet reference points. We verify the theory first by experimentally analyzing majority bargaining, where observed behavior contradicts existing theories but confirms RDA. Using parameter estimates ...

  19. Dependency Tree Annotation Software (United States)


    CoNLL is organized by the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) Special Interest Group on Natural Language Learning (SIGNLL). 2. Features...The system supports interactive visualization and editing of dependency trees—a formalism frequently used in computational linguistics to represent...between words. DTE supports the widely used Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)-X format as well as several other file

  20. Time dependence of ICD (United States)

    Dorner, Reinhard


    We will discuss experimental studies of ICD in van der Vaals dimers of rare gas atoms and small molecules using the COLTRIMS technique. The talk will cover ICD after resonant Auger excitation (Nature 505, 664 (2014)) and two studies unveiling the time dependence of ICD in the energy (PRL 111, 233004 (2013)) and in the time domain (PRL 111, 093401 (2013)). A new technique to make ultrafast movies without the use of short pulses will be discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz


    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  2. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  3. Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Presently the US imports a large proportion of its petroleum requirements. This dependence on foreign petroleum has had a major impact on our economy. As a result, the Federal government is sponsoring programs to offset this foreign reliance by conservation of oil and gas, conversion of petroleum using facilities to coal and nuclear energy and the development of alternate sources of energy. One of the most acceptable alternate resources is geothermal. It offers an environmentally sound energy resource, can be developed at reasonable cost in comparison to other forms of energy and has a long term production capacity. On September 3, 1974, the Geothermal Energy Research Development and Demonstration Act was enacted to further the research, development and demonstration of geothermal energy technologies. This Act also established the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Program to assist in the financing of geothermal resource development, both electrical and non-electrical. The highlights of that Guaranty Program are detailed in this report.

  4. Computer Programs. (United States)

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  5. Land reclamation program annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.; Carter, R. P.; Cleaves, D. T.


    The Argonne Land Reclamation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, is a joint effort of two Argonne divisions: Energy and Environmental Systems and Environmental Impact Studies. The program is carried out by a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers, and has three primary objectives: (1) to develop energy-efficient and cost-effective mining and reclamation techniques; (2) to assist industry in evaluating the applicability of regulations and demonstrating techniques to meet regulations; and (3) to supply data and evaluation techniques to decisionmakers concerned with trade-offs between energy development and environmental quality. Six integrated field research sites have been established to address problems associated with surface mining operations. This program relies heavily on input from industry and has developed excellent working arrangements with coal companies at each of the current mining sites. A major area of interest is the development of a computerized system to store and manage data gathered by the research staff. The Land Reclamation Program assigns the highest priority to the transfer to users of information generated by its research.

  6. Land Reclamation Program annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Argonne Land Reclamation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, is a joint effort of two Argonne divisions: Energy and Environmental Systems and Environmental Impact Studies. The program is carried out by a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers and has three primary objectives: (1) to develop energy-efficient and cost-effective mining and reclamation techniques; (2) to assist industry in evaluating the viability of environmental regulations and demonstrating techniques to meet these regulations; and (3) to supply data and evaluation techniques to decisionmakers concerned with trade-offs between energy development and environmental quality. Six integrated field research sites have been established to address problems associated with surface mining operations. This program relies heavily on input from industry and has developed working arrangements with coal companies at each of the current mining sites. A major area of interest is the development of a ten-year environmental mining and reclamation research plan for the Assistant Secretary for Environment. The Land Reclamation Program assigns the highest priority to the transfer to users of information generated by its research.

  7. Choreographic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    , as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programming paradigm that in this dissertation we refer to as Choreographic Programming. Recent studies show...... endpoint described in a choreography can then be automatically generated, ensuring that such implementations are safe by construction. However, current formal models for choreographies do not deal with critical aspects of distributed programming, such as asynchrony, mobility, modularity, and multiparty...... sessions; it remains thus unclear whether choreographies can still guarantee safety when dealing with such nontrivial features. This PhD dissertation argues for the suitability of choreographic programming as a paradigm for the development of safe distributed systems. We proceed by investigating its...

  8. The yield of eggplant depending on climate conditions and mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczewska-Sowińska Katarzyna


    Full Text Available The field production of eggplant in moderate climates is difficult as it depends heavily on thermal conditions. Eggplant is a species that is sensitive to low temperatures, and temperatures below 16°C constrain the growth of young plants. Other disadvantageous factors include: temperatures that are too high, water shortage and excessive soil humidity. The growth conditions for eggplant can be improved by using mulches. The purpose of the experiment was the assessment of eggplant cropping while using synthetic mulches of polyethylene foil and polypropylene textile. The research took five years (2008-2012 and on the basis of the obtained results it was possible to determine the influence of weather conditions on the yielding of this species. It was proven that eggplant cropping significantly depended on the air temperature and the amount of rainfall during the vegetation period. The highest yield was observed when the average air temperature was high and at the same time rainfall was evenly distributed throughout the vegetation season. It also turned out that the agro-technical procedure which significantly increased eggplant fruit cropping was mulching the soil with polyethylene black foil, or transparent foil, previously having applied a herbicide.

  9. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated. (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo


    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair-as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) 'in-the-city-control' people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  10. Augmented CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD56(-) cells in cytokine-induced killer cells cultured with engineered cells for costimulatory enhancement from heavily pretreated patients with solid tumor. (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Yi, Yongxiang; Yin, Dandan; Zhou, Zhenxian; Fan, Jing; Ye, Wei; Zhao, Wei


    Cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs) were shown to be a promising tool in the quest for new therapeutic approaches in the setting of metastatic solid tumors refractory to standard treatments. However, there is a practical clinical problem of different expansion rates and cell function as individual variability exists. Stimulatory molecular 4-1BB could promote division and survival of T cells and enhance effector activity including cytokine production. This study aimed to invest the contribution of co-stimulation signal to CIKs production for exploring new strategies, which increase the expansion and reliability of CIKs generation to improve access to CIKs therapy. We studied the larger-scale expansion of CIKs cultured with engineered cells for costimulatory enhancement (ECCE) consisting of K562 cells that expressed 4-1BBL in heavily pretreated patients with solid tumor. The proliferation and cytotoxic capacity of CIKs were evaluated. Phenotypes of CIKs were analyzed using flow cytometry. Cytokine levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proliferation and cytotoxic activity of CIKs were significantly up-regulated by ECCE. The percentages of CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(+)CD56(-) CIKs were significantly increased while the percentage of CD3(+)CD56(+) CIKs was decreased. In addition, the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α by CIKs could also be enhanced significantly when ECCE were added into the culture system. This study suggests that ECCE may improve the efficacy of CIKs therapy and make CIKs therapy possible for the patients whose CIKs would be hard to be cultured using conventional methods. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile......, biotechnology and semi-conductor industries in a new light. It also invites the reader to learn more about medical practices, wind power, lasers and synthesizers. Primarily for academicians, researchers and PhD students in fields related to technology management, this book is a research-oriented textbook...

  12. Reporting a program evaluation: Needs, program plan, intervention, and decisions


    Chacón Moscoso, Salvador; Chaves, Susana Sanduvete; Vidal, Mariona Portell; Teresa Anguera Argilaga, M.


    The approach to intervention programs varies depending on the methodological perspective adopted. This means that health professionals lack clear guidelines regarding how best to proceed, and it hinders the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of this paper is to set out the essential and common aspects that should be included in any program evaluation report, thereby providing a useful guide for the professional regardless of the procedural approach used. Furthermore, the paper seeks to ...

  13. Programming Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark


    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  14. Dependent seniors garment design (United States)

    Caldas, A. L.; Carvalho, M. A.; Lopes, H. P.


    This paper is part of a PhD research in Textile Engineering at University of Minho and aims to establish an ergonomic pattern design methodology to be used in the construction of garments for elderly women, aged 65 and over, dependent of care. The research was developed with a close contact with four institutions involved in supporting this aged population, located in the cities of Guimarães (Portugal) and Teresina (Brazil). These clothes should be adequate to their anthropometrics and their special needs, in accordance with important functional factors for the dependency of their caregiver, such as: care for the caregiver and comfort for the user. Questions regarding the functional properties of the materials, the pattern design process, trimmings and the assembling process of the garments are specially considered in the desired comfort levels, in order to provide an adequate handling by facilitating the dressing and undressing tasks, but also to assure the user the needed comfort in all its variables.

  15. Elevated temperature dependent transport properties of phosphorus and arsenic doped zinc oxide thin films (United States)

    Cai, B.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Oder, T. N.; McMaster, M.; Velpukonda, N.; Smith, A.


    Elevated temperature dependent Hall effect measurements were performed in a wide temperature range from 80 to 800 K to study transport properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films heavily doped with phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As), and grown on sapphire substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Double thermal activation processes in both P- and As-doped ZnO thin films with small activation energy of ˜0.04 eV and large activation energy of ˜0.8 eV were observed from variable temperature Hall effect measurements. The samples exhibited n-type conductivities throughout the temperature range. Based on photoluminescence measurements at 11 K and theoretical results, the large activation energy observed in the temperature dependent Hall effect measurement has been assigned to a deep donor level, which could be related to oxygen vacancy (VO) in the doped ZnO thin films.

  16. Dependence of NMR noise line shapes on tuning, matching, and transmission line properties. (United States)

    Bendet-Taicher, Eli; Müller, Norbert; Jerschow, Alexej


    The tuning and matching conditions of rf circuits, as well as the properties of the transmission lines connecting these to the preamplifier, have direct consequences for NMR probe sensitivity and as for the optimum delivery of rf power to the sample. In addition, tuning/matching conditions influence radiation damping effects, which manifest themselves as fast signal flip-back and line broadening effects, and can lead to concentration-dependent frequency shifts. Previous studies have also shown that the appearance of spin-noise and absorbed circuit noise signals heavily depended on tuning settings. Consequently, all these phenomena are linked together. The mutual connections and interdependences of these effects are highlighted and reviewed here.

  17. Reflection and Hyper-Programming in Persistent Programming Systems (United States)

    Kirby, Graham


    The work presented in this thesis seeks to improve programmer productivity in the following ways: - by reducing the amount of code that has to be written to construct an application; - by increasing the reliability of the code written; and - by improving the programmer's understanding of the persistent environment in which applications are constructed. Two programming techniques that may be used to pursue these goals in a persistent environment are type-safe linguistic reflection and hyper-programming. The first provides a mechanism by which the programmer can write generators that, when executed, produce new program representations. This allows the specification of programs that are highly generic yet depend in non-trivial ways on the types of the data on which they operate. Genericity promotes software reuse which in turn reduces the amount of new code that has to be written. Hyper-programming allows a source program to contain links to data items in the persistent store. This improves program reliability by allowing certain program checking to be performed earlier than is otherwise possible. It also reduces the amount of code written by permitting direct links to data in the place of textual descriptions. Both techniques contribute to the understanding of the persistent environment through supporting the implementation of store browsing tools and allowing source representations to be associated with all executable programs in the persistent store. This thesis describes in detail the structure of type-safe linguistic reflection and hyper-programming, their benefits in the persistent context, and a suite of programming tools that support reflective programming and hyper-programming. These tools may be used in conjunction to allow reflection over hyper-program representations. The implementation of the tools is described.

  18. Programming Python

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutz, Mark


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 8 9 15 17 20 22 2. A Sneak Preview "Programming Python: The Short Story" The Task Step 1: Representing Records Step 2: Storing Records Persistently Step 3...

  19. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel


    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  20. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy. (United States)

    Adamsen, L; Andersen, C; Midtgaard, J; Møller, T; Quist, M; Rørth, M


    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction and self-identity. This should be taken into account when designing programs to rehabilitate and encourage these patients through the often-strenuous antineoplastic treatments.

  1. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    Enzyme catalysts have the potential to improve both the process economics and the environ-mental profile of many oxidation reactions especially in the fine- and specialty-chemical industry, due to their exquisite ability to perform stereo-, regio- and chemo-selective oxida-tions at ambient temper...... far below their potential maximum catalytic rate at industrially relevant oxygen concentrations. Detailed knowledge of the en-zyme kinetics are therefore required in order to determine the best operating conditions and design oxygen supply to minimize processing costs. This is enabled...... by the development of the tube-in-tube reactor (TiTR) setup, capable of performing fully automated kinetic char-acterization of oxygen dependent enzymes - at oxygen concentrations allowing full satura-tion of the enzyme. The development of the TiTR enables us to characterize a range of en-zyme variants developed...

  2. Object-oriented Programming Laws for Annotated Java Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Falconieri Freitas


    Full Text Available Object-oriented programming laws have been proposed in the context of languages that are not combined with a behavioral interface specification language (BISL. The strong dependence between source-code and interface specifications may cause a number of difficulties when transforming programs. In this paper we introduce a set of programming laws for object-oriented languages like Java combined with the Java Modeling Language (JML. The set of laws deals with object-oriented features taking into account their specifications. Some laws deal only with features of the specification language. These laws constitute a set of small transformations for the development of more elaborate ones like refactorings.

  3. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger


    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  4. Army Programs: Army Energy Program (United States)


    the Energy Program. o Expands the responsibilities of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (para 1-4). o Includes ridesharing as...not been highlighted. Summary. This regulation establishes poli- cies, procedures, and responsibilities for the Army Energy Program. Applicability ...Energy Technology Service (FETS) • 3–13, page 6 Energy Surveys • 3–14, page 6 Army Energy Awareness Seminars • 3–15, page 6 Army ridesharing • 3–16

  5. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada (United States)



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  6. Erosão real e estimada através da RUSLE em estradas florestais, em relevo ondulado a fortemente ondulado Real and estimative erosion through RUSLE from forest roads in undulated at heavily undulated relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Camargo Correa


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perdas de solo provenientes de trechos de estradas de uso florestal inseridas na região de Itaiópolis, Santa Catarina, que apresenta relevo ondulado a fortemente ondulado em dois tipos de solo: Cambissolo Húmico Distrófico típico e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico típico. A erosividade da chuva foi calculada através de pluviogramas e de dados de pluviosidade da empresa Rigesa - Soluções em Embalagens MeadWestvaco; a erosividade do solo foi calculada em função dos resultados de análises, a declividade e comprimento de rampa foram medidos em campo e os fatores C e P, estipulados através da literatura. A hipótese de similaridade entre os valores reais monitorados pelo período de um ano e os valores estimados pela RUSLE foi evidenciada através de análise estatística, que apresentou alta correlação nos tratamentos avaliados e se manteve dentro do limite crítico proposto pela análise, validando, portanto, essa hipótese.The objective of this work was to evaluate the soil losses from a portion of forest roads located in a region with undulated to heavily undulated relief in two types of soil: Humic Cambissoil, typical Dystrophic and Red-Yellow Argissoil, typical Dystrophic. The rainfall erosivity was calculated using rainfall data through the Rigesa Company, the soil erodibility was calculated based on the results of the analyses, the declivity and the slope length were measured in the field, and Factors C and P were estimated from literature. The similarity hypothesis between the real values monitored over a one year period and the estimated values using the RUSLE were evidenced via statistical analyses that presented high correlations in the evaluated treatments, remaining inside the critical limit considered for the analyses, therefore validating the hypothesis.

  7. Time dependent seismic hazard (United States)

    Polidoro, B.; Iervolino, I.; Chioccarelli, E.; Giorgio, M.


    Probabilistic seismic hazard is usually computed trough a homogeneous Poisson process that even though it is a time-independent process it is widely used for its very convenient properties. However, when a single fault is of concern and/or the time scale is different from that of the long term, time-dependent processes are required. In this paper, different time-dependent models are reviewed with working examples. In fact, the Paganica fault (in central Italy) has been considered to compute both the probability of occurrence of at least one event in the lifespan of the structure, as well as the seismic hazard expressed in terms of probability of exceedance of an intensity value in a given time frame causing the collapse of the structure. Several models, well known or novel application to engineering hazard have been considered, limitation and issues in their applications are also discussed. The Brownian Passage Time (BPT) model is based on a stochastic modification of the deterministic stick-slip oscillator model for characteristic earthquakes; i.e., based on the addition of random perturbations (a Gaussian white noise) to the deterministic load path predicted by elastic rebound theory. This model assumes that the load state is at some ground level immediately after an event, increases steadly over time, reaches a failure threshold and relaxes instantaneously back to the ground level. For this model also a variable threshold has been considered to take into account the uncertainty of the threshold value. For the slip-predictable model it is assumed that the stress accumulates at a constant rate starting from some initial stress level. Stress is assumed to accumulate for a random period of time until an earthquake occurs. The size of the earthquake is governed by the stress release and it is a function of the elapsed time since the last event. In the time-predictable model stress buildup occurs at a constant rate until the accumulated stress reaches a threshold

  8. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Commission on Cancer National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers National Cancer Database National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer Oncology Medical Home Accreditation Program Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation Program Cancer Programs Staff Information Children's ...

  9. Density dependent neurodynamics. (United States)

    Halnes, Geir; Liljenström, Hans; Arhem, Peter


    The dynamics of a neural network depends on density parameters at (at least) two different levels: the subcellular density of ion channels in single neurons, and the density of cells and synapses at a network level. For the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley (FH) neural model, the density of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) channels determines the behaviour of a single neuron when exposed to an external stimulus. The features of the onset of single neuron oscillations vary qualitatively among different regions in the channel density plane. At a network level, the density of neurons is reflected in the global connectivity. We study the relation between the two density levels in a network of oscillatory FH neurons, by qualitatively distinguishing between three regions, where the mean network activity is (1) spiking, (2) oscillating with enveloped frequencies, and (3) bursting, respectively. We demonstrate that the global activity can be shifted between regions by changing either the density of ion channels at the subcellular level, or the connectivity at the network level, suggesting that different underlying mechanisms can explain similar global phenomena. Finally, we model a possible effect of anaesthesia by blocking specific inhibitory ion channels.

  10. Local dependency in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudĕlka Miloš


    Full Text Available Many real world data and processes have a network structure and can usefully be represented as graphs. Network analysis focuses on the relations among the nodes exploring the properties of each network. We introduce a method for measuring the strength of the relationship between two nodes of a network and for their ranking. This method is applicable to all kinds of networks, including directed and weighted networks. The approach extracts dependency relations among the network’s nodes from the structure in local surroundings of individual nodes. For the tasks we deal with in this article, the key technical parameter is locality. Since only the surroundings of the examined nodes are used in computations, there is no need to analyze the entire network. This allows the application of our approach in the area of large-scale networks. We present several experiments using small networks as well as large-scale artificial and real world networks. The results of the experiments show high effectiveness due to the locality of our approach and also high quality node ranking comparable to PageRank.

  11. Enhancing the CDF's B physics program with a faster data acquisition system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Petar Maksimovic


    The physics program of Run II at the Tevatron includes precision electroweak measurements such as the determination of the top quark and W boson masses; bottom and charm physics including the determination of the B{sub s} and D{sup 0} mixing parameters; studies of the strong interaction; and searches for the Higgs particle, supersymmetric particles, hidden space-time dimensions and quark substructure. All of these measurements benefit from a high-resolution tracking detector. Most of them rely heavily on the efficient identification of heavy flavored B hadrons by detection of displaced secondary vertices, and are enhanced by the capability to trigger on tracks not coming from the primary vertex. This is uniquely provided by CDF's finely-segmented silicon detectors surrounding the interaction region. Thus CDF experiment's physics potential critically depends on the performance of its silicon detectors. The CDF silicon detectors were designed to operate up to 2-3 fb{sup -1} of accumulated pji collisions, with an upgrade planned thereafter. However, the upgrade project was canceled in 2003 and Run II has been extended through 2011, with an expected total delivered integrated luminosity of 12 fb{sup -1} or more. Several preventive measures were taken to keep the original detector operational and maintain its performance. The most important of these are the decrease in the operating temperature of the detector, which reduces the impact of radiation exposure, and measures to minimize damage due to integrated radiation dose, thermal cycles, and wire bond resonance conditions. Despite these measures the detectors operating conditions continue to change with issues arising from radiation damage to the sensors, aging infrastructure and electronics. These, together with the basic challenges posed by the inaccessibility of the detector volume and large number (about 750 thousand) of readout channels, make the silicon detector operations the single most complex and

  12. Computer Assisted Parallel Program Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Shigeo


    Parallel computation is widely employed in scientific researches, engineering activities and product development. Parallel program writing itself is not always a simple task depending on problems solved. Large-scale scientific computing, huge data analyses and precise visualizations, for example, would require parallel computations, and the parallel computing needs the parallelization techniques. In this Chapter a parallel program generation support is discussed, and a computer-assisted parallel program generation system P-NCAS is introduced. Computer assisted problem solving is one of key methods to promote innovations in science and engineering, and contributes to enrich our society and our life toward a programming-free environment in computing science. Problem solving environments (PSE) research activities had started to enhance the programming power in 1970's. The P-NCAS is one of the PSEs; The PSE concept provides an integrated human-friendly computational software and hardware system to solve a target ...

  13. Programming Algol

    CERN Document Server

    Malcolme-Lawes, D J


    Programming - ALGOL describes the basics of computer programming using Algol. Commands that could be added to Algol and could increase its scope are described, including multiplication and division and the use of brackets. The idea of labeling or naming a command is also explained, along with a command allowing two alternative results. Most of the important features of Algol syntax are discussed, and examples of compound statements (that is, sets of commands enclosed by a begin ... end command) are given.Comprised of 11 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the digital computer an

  14. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua


    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  15. ICD programming


    Biffi, Mauro


    Background: Appropriate ICD programming is the key to prevent inappropriate shock delivery, that is closely associated to a negative patients' outcome. Methods: Review of the literature on ICD therapy to generate ICD programmings that can be applied to the broad population of ICD and CRT-D carriers. Results: Arrhythmia detection should occur with a detection time ranging 9″–12″ in the VF zone, and 15″–60″ in the VT zone. Discriminator should be applied at least up to 200 bpm. ATP therap...

  16. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Conference Registry Login SCR Training and Testing Cancer Cancer Programs Cancer Programs Overview of Cancer Programs Cancer Programs News American Joint Committee on ...

  17. Context-dependent Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A Taylor


    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  18. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence (United States)

    Marshall, Kushani; Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; Le Foll, Bernard


    Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world. Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to 4 March 2014), MEDLINE (to week 3 February 2014), EMBASE (to 3 March 2014) and PsycINFO (to week 4 February 2014). We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication (supportive care) in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving 958 participants. For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. Approximately 80% of study participants were male. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias. Three studies were at risk of attrition bias. All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing

  19. Energy Program annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y. (ed.)


    The national economy is particularly dependent on efficient electrical generation and transportation. Electrical demand continues to grow and will increasingly rely on coal and nuclear fuels. The nuclear power industry still has not found a solution to the problem of disposing of the waste produced by nuclear reactors. Although coal is in ample supply and the infrastructure is in place for its utilization, environmental problems and improved conversion processes remain technical challenges. In the case of transportation, the nation depends almost exclusively on liquid fuels with attendant reliance on imported oil. Economic alternates---synfuels from coal, natural gas, and oil shale, or fuel cells and batteries---have yet to be developed or perfected so as to impact the marketplace. Inefficiencies in energy conversion in almost all phases of resource utilization remain. These collective problems are the focus of the Energy Program.

  20. The role of diversification strategies in the economic development for oil-depended countries: - The case of UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Zain Elabdin Ahmed


    Full Text Available Diversification strategies adopted by oil-depended economies' played an important role in the economic development in these countries, which rely heavily on oil exports. UAE as an oil-dependency economy has the type of strategy to diversify the sources of its national income and reduce its dependence on oil to counter the instability in global oil prices. This paper seek to investigate whether the diversification strategies adopted by (UAE is adequate to manage its economic development. The methodology employed in this study is to examine the contribution of diversified sectors based on the country's GDP especially during and after the global financial crisis (2008-2012 using statistical analysis procedure. The results confirm that investment in different sectors rather than oil would have substantially improved the performance UAE economy.

  1. Program Proposal (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.


    A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

  2. Sprego Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csernoch


    Full Text Available Spreadsheet management is a border-land between office applications and programming, however, it is rather communicated that spreadsheet is nothing more than an easily handled fun piece. Consequently, the complexity of spreadsheet handling, the unprepared end-users, their problem solving abilities and approaches do not match. To overcome these problems we have developed and introduced Sprego (Spreadsheet Lego. Sprego is a simplified functional programming language in spreadsheet environment, and such as can be used both as introductory language and the language of end-user programmers. The essence of Sprego is that we use as few and simple functions as possible and based on these functions build multilevel formulas. With this approach, similar to high level programming, we are able solve advanced problems, developing algorithmic skills, computational thinking. The advantage of Sprego is the simplicity of the language, when the emphasis is not on the coding but on the problem. Beyond that spreadsheets would provide real life problems with authentic data and tables which students are more interested in than the artificial environment and semi-authentic problems of high level programming languages.

  3. GPD program at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hose, N


    The study of exclusive reactions like Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Meson Production is one major part of the future COMPASS program1 in order to investigate nucleon structure through Generalised Parton Distributions (GPD). The high energy of the muon beam allows to measure the $x_{B}$-dependence of the $t$-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. The use of positive and negative polarised muon beams allows to determine the Beam Charge and Spin Difference of the DVCS cross sections to access the real part of the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H.

  4. Density regulation in Northeast Atlantic fish populations: Density dependence is stronger in recruitment than in somatic growth. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Fabian; Ricard, Daniel; Heino, Mikko


    Population regulation is a central concept in ecology, yet in many cases its presence and the underlying mechanisms are difficult to demonstrate. The current paradigm maintains that marine fish populations are predominantly regulated by density-dependent recruitment. While it is known that density-dependent somatic growth can be present too, its general importance remains unknown and most practical applications neglect it. This study aimed to close this gap by for the first time quantifying and comparing density dependence in growth and recruitment over a large set of fish populations. We fitted density-dependent models to time-series data on population size, recruitment and age-specific weight from commercially exploited fish populations in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Data were standardized to enable a direct comparison within and among populations, and estimated parameters were used to quantify the impact of density regulation on population biomass. Statistically significant density dependence in recruitment was detected in a large proportion of populations (70%), whereas for density dependence in somatic growth the prevalence of density dependence depended heavily on the method (26% and 69%). Despite age-dependent variability, the density dependence in recruitment was consistently stronger among age groups and between alternative approaches that use weight-at-age or weight increments to assess growth. Estimates of density-dependent reduction in biomass underlined these results: 97% of populations with statistically significant parameters for growth and recruitment showed a larger impact of density-dependent recruitment on population biomass. The results reaffirm the importance of density-dependent recruitment in marine fishes, yet they also show that density dependence in somatic growth is not uncommon. Furthermore, the results are important from an applied perspective because density dependence in somatic growth affects productivity and

  5. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper


    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  6. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard


    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  7. NASA industry education initiative. Education programs report, 1991 (United States)


    Findings from the initial inventory of education programs show that support for the NASA-Industry Education Initiative (NIEI) appears to be strong among the organizations surveyed. In addition, the range, depth and historical baselines of NIEI education programs are encouraging. It is also apparent that there is a significant level of cooperation between NIEI members and other organizations. Heavily focused towards science, engineering, mathematics and technology achievement, NIEI activities appear to be aligned with national education goals. Three criticisms are revealed: (1) the majority of programs are targeted fairly late in the education cycle; (2) the number of initiatives geared towards adult literacy and adult skills-enhancement appears to be relatively low; (3) the majority of NIEI activities involve traditional education-assistance programs, but the number of critical assessment and systematic reform initiatives is low. Four Working Group recommendations resulted from this activity: (1) NIEI Working Group operations should continue for an indefinite period, with participation open to other like-minded private-sector organization; (2) the report should be periodically updated; (3) an analysis of ongoing education programs should be conducted; (4) American corporations should continue to support education and evaluate in-house programs periodically.

  8. Are Student Exchange Programs Worth It? (United States)

    Messer, Dolores; Wolter, Stefan C.


    The number of university students participating in exchange programs has risen sharply over the last decade. A survey of Swiss university graduates (classes of 1999 and 2001) shows that participation in student exchange programs depends significantly on the socio-economic background of students. We further analyze whether the participants benefit…

  9. Open systems dependability dependability engineering for ever-changing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tokoro, Mario


    The book describes a fundamentally new approach to software dependability, considering a software system as an ever-changing system due to changes in service objectives, users' requirements, standards and regulations, and to advances in technology. Such a system is viewed as an Open System since its functions, structures, and boundaries are constantly changing. Thus, the approach to dependability is called Open Systems Dependability. The DEOS technology realizes Open Systems Dependability. It puts more emphasis on stakeholders' agreement and accountability achievement for business/service cont

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Inspiring Quality Initiative Resources Continuous Quality Improvement ACS Clinical Scholars in Residence AHRQ Safety Program for ISCR ... Advocacy Efforts Cancer Liaison Program Cancer Programs Conference Clinical Research Program Commission on Cancer National Accreditation Program ...

  11. The Study of early maladaptive Schemas in Men Dependent on Drugs and those Not Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Firoozi


    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives of the Study Dependence on drugs is a prevalent problem throughout the world, in general and in Iran, in particular. Such a phenomenon is associated with numerous negative consequences. Given the changes in the consumption patterns in different countries, especially in Iran, and the abuse of drugs, identifying the factors which may pave the way for drug abuse is absolutely essential, which can be taken into account in setting the objectives of therapy programs. Cognizant of this, the present study has sought to study early maladaptive schemas in men dependent on drugs and those that are not. Materials and Method: The research design adopted in the present study was causal-comparative. The populaiton of interest was all the men dependent on drugs in the city of Yasouj, who had presented to recovery centers affiliated to welfare organization and Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in the year 2014 and were undergoing treatment. Using multi-stage cluster sampling, initially out of 23 centers for recovery programs, four centers were randomly chosen. Following that, out of each center, 20 and in total, 80 clients were chosen as the sample through convenience sampling. In addition, 80 men not dependent on drugs were chosen through matching with the sample dependent on drugs in terms of age, gender and locality. For the purpsoe of measuing early maladaptive schemas, we made use of the short version of Young’s early maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire. In order to determine the prevalent schemas in men dependent on drugs and those not dependent and the difference between the two groups, use was made of independent-sample t-test and effect size (d. Findings: The findings suggest that mean values of those dependent on drugs in all the schemas in quesiton were significantly higher than those of men not dependent. Although the difference in effect size of all schemas fell in the domain of the large effect, the largest

  12. A rare case modafinil dependence


    Raman Krishnan; Krishnan Vengadaragava Chary


    Modafinil, a non-amphetamine psychostimulant, is indicated for narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder and severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Modafinil is prescribed at the dose of 100 mg once in a day or as two doses, 12 h apart in a day. It has also been found that it reduces cocaine dependence and withdrawal phenomenon. Modafinil is claimed to have very low liability for abuse and dependence. Here we report a rare case of modafinil dependence.

  13. Varieties of Crossing Dependencies: Structure Dependence and Mild Context Sensitivity (United States)

    Stabler, Edward P.


    Four different kinds of grammars that can define crossing dependencies in human language are compared here: (1) "context sensitive rewrite" grammars with rules that depend on context; (2) "matching" grammars with constraints that filter the generative structure of the language; (3) "copying" grammars which can copy structures of unbounded size;…

  14. Dependency on Soup Kitchens in Urban Areas of New York State. (United States)

    Rauschenbach, Barbara S.; And Others


    A study of the dependency of persons on soup kitchens in Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, and Westchester County (New York) identified who uses these kitchens, the extent to which they are dependent on them, what other food programs they use, what their perceived need from other services is, and dependency differences of subgroups. (JS)

  15. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan


    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  16. Programming Razor

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, Jess


    Take Razor for a test drive and discover first hand how this scripting syntax simplifies the way you create dynamic, data-driven websites. With this concise guide, you'll work with Razor syntax by building example websites with Microsoft WebMatrix and ASP.NET MVC. You'll quickly learn how Razor lets you combine code and content in a fluid and expressive manner on Windows-based servers. Programming Razor also explores components of the Razor API, and shows you how Razor templates are turned into rendered HTML. By the end of this book, you'll be able to create Razor-based websites with custom

  17. Topology optimised wavelength dependent splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, K. K.; Burgos Leon, J.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results. This com......A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results...

  18. Two Generations of Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

      Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences - primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...... or economic processes have multiple possible paths of outcomes, rather than a unique path of equilibria. The selection among outcomes may depend on contingent choices or events - outcomes of path-dependent processes require a very relevant study - a perception of history....

  19. Dihydrocodeine / Agonists for Alcohol Dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht eUlmer


    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol addiction too often remains insufficiently treated. It shows the same profile as severe chronic diseases, but no comparable, effective basic treatment has been established up to now. Especially patients with repeated relapses, despite all therapeutic approaches, and patients who are not able to attain an essential abstinence to alcohol, need a basic medication. It seems necessary to acknowledge that parts of them need any agonistic substance, for years, possibly lifelong. For >14 years, we have prescribed such substances with own addictive character for these patients.Methods: We present a documented best possible practice, no designed study. Since 1997, we prescribed Dihydrocodeine (DHC to 102 heavily alcohol addict-ed patients, later, also Buprenorphine, Clomethiazole (>6 weeks, Baclofen and in one case Amphetamine, each on individual indication. This paper focuses on the data with DH, especially. The Clomethiazole-data has been submitted to a German journal. The number of treatments with the other substances is still low. Results: The 102 patients with the DHC-treatment had 1367 medically assisted detoxifications and specialized therapies before! The 4 years-retention rate was 26.4%, including 2.8% successfully terminated treatments. In our 12-step scale on clinical impression, we noticed a significant improvement from mean 3.7 to 8.4 after 2 years. The demand for medically assisted detoxifications in the 2 years remaining patients was reduced by 65.5%. Mean GGT improved from 206.6 U/l at baseline to 66.8 U/l after 2 years. Experiences with the other substances are similar but different in details.Conclusions: Similar to the Italian studies with GHB and Baclofen, we present a new approach, not only with new substances, but also with a new setting and much more trusting attitude. We observe a huge improvement, reaching an almost optimal, stable, long term status in around ¼ of the patients already. Many further

  20. Geothermal energy program overview (United States)


    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  1. Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson


    A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)

  2. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan


    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  3. Response-reinforcer dependency and resistance to change. (United States)

    Cançado, Carlos R X; Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele; Aló, Raquel Moreira; Hauck, Flávia; Doughty, Adam H


    The effects of the response-reinforcer dependency on resistance to change were studied in three experiments with rats. In Experiment 1, lever pressing produced reinforcers at similar rates after variable interreinforcer intervals in each component of a two-component multiple schedule. Across conditions, in the fixed component, all reinforcers were response-dependent; in the alternative component, the percentage of response-dependent reinforcers was 100, 50 (i.e., 50% response-dependent and 50% response-independent) or 10% (i.e., 10% response-dependent and 90% response-independent). Resistance to extinction was greater in the alternative than in the fixed component when the dependency in the former was 10%, but was similar between components when this dependency was 100 or 50%. In Experiment 2, a three-component multiple schedule was used. The dependency was 100% in one component and 10% in the other two. The 10% components differed on how reinforcers were programmed. In one component, as in Experiment 1, a reinforcer had to be collected before the scheduling of other response-dependent or independent reinforcers. In the other component, response-dependent and -independent reinforcers were programmed by superimposing a variable-time schedule on an independent variable-interval schedule. Regardless of the procedure used to program the dependency, resistance to extinction was greater in the 10% components than in the 100% component. These results were replicated in Experiment 3 in which, instead of extinction, VT schedules replaced the baseline schedules in each multiple-schedule component during the test. We argue that the relative change in dependency from Baseline to Test, which is greater when baseline dependencies are high rather than low, could account for the differential resistance to change in the present experiments. The inconsistencies in results across the present and previous experiments suggest that the effects of dependency on resistance to change are

  4. Measuring Poverty Reduction and Targeting Performance Under Multiple Government Programs


    Paul Makdissi; Quentin Wodon


    The evaluation of the poverty impact and targeting performance of a given social program may depend on how other programs are treated in the analysis.Using well-known results from cooperative game theory, this paper proposes an empirically simple yet theoretically sound method for allocating between various programs the overall poverty reduction obtained from a set of programs, and for assessing the targeting performance of each program

  5. Improvement of NADPH bioavailability in Escherichia coli by replacing NAD(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GapA with NADP (+)-dependent GapB from Bacillus subtilis and addition of NAD kinase. (United States)

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N


    Enzymatic synthesis of some industrially important compounds depends heavily on cofactor NADPH as the reducing agent. This is especially true in the synthesis of chiral compounds that are often used as pharmaceutical intermediates to generate the correct stereochemistry in bioactive products. The high cost and technical difficulty of cofactor regeneration often pose a challenge for such biocatalytic reactions. In this study, to increase NADPH bioavailability, the native NAD(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gapA gene in Escherichia coli was replaced with a NADP(+)-dependent gapB from Bacillus subtilis. To overcome the limitation of NADP(+) availability, E. coli NAD kinase, nadK was also coexpressed with gapB. The recombinant strains were then tested in three reporting systems: biosynthesis of lycopene, oxidation of cyclohexanone with cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO), and an anaerobic system utilizing 2-haloacrylate reductase (CAA43). In all the reporting systems, replacing NAD(+)-dependent GapA activity with NADP(+)-dependent GapB activity increased the synthesis of NADPH-dependent compounds. The increase was more pronounced when NAD kinase was also overexpressed in the case of the one-step reaction catalyzed by CAA43 which approximately doubled the product yield. These results validate this novel approach to improve NADPH bioavailability in E. coli and suggest that the strategy can be applied in E. coli or other bacterium-based production of NADPH-dependent compounds.

  6. Geothermal Technologies Program Overview - Peer Review Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, JoAnn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)


    This Geothermal Technologies Program presentation was delivered on June 6, 2011 at a Program Peer Review meeting. It contains annual budget, Recovery Act, funding opportunities, upcoming program activities, and more.

  7. A Mars Exploration Discovery Program (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Paige, D. A.


    The Mars Exploration Program should consider following the Discovery Program model. In the Discovery Program a team of scientists led by a PI develop the science goals of their mission, decide what payload achieves the necessary measurements most effectively, and then choose a spacecraft with the capabilities needed to carry the payload to the desired target body. The primary constraints associated with the Discovery missions are time and money. The proposer must convince reviewers that their mission has scientific merit and is feasible. Every Announcement of Opportunity has resulted in a collection of creative ideas that fit within advertised constraints. Following this model, a "Mars Discovery Program" would issue an Announcement of Opportunity for each launch opportunity with schedule constraints dictated by the launch window and fiscal constraints in accord with the program budget. All else would be left to the proposer to choose, based on the science the team wants to accomplish, consistent with the program theme of "Life, Climate and Resources". A proposer could propose a lander, an orbiter, a fleet of SCOUT vehicles or penetrators, an airplane, a balloon mission, a large rover, a small rover, etc. depending on what made the most sense for the science investigation and payload. As in the Discovery program, overall feasibility relative to cost, schedule and technology readiness would be evaluated and be part of the selection process.

  8. Verification of angular dependence in MOSFET detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Clayton H.; Shorto, Julian M.B.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Nunes, Maíra G.; Silva Junior, Iremar A.; Yoriyaz, Hélio, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In vivo dosimetry is an essential tool for quality assurance programs, being a procedure commonly performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) or diodes. However, a type of dosimeter that has increasing popularity in recent years is the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detector. MOSFET dosimeters fulfill all the necessary characteristics to realize in vivo dosimetry since it has a small size, good precision and feasibility of measurement, as well as easy handling. Nevertheless, its true differential is to allow reading of the dose in real time, enabling immediate intervention in the correction of physical parameters deviations and anticipation of small anatomical changes in a patient during treatment. In order for MOSFET dosimeter to be better accepted in clinical routine, information reporting performance should be available frequently. For this reason, this work proposes to verify reproducibility and angular dependence of a standard sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter (TN-502RD-H) for Cs-137 and Co-60 sources. Experimental data were satisfactory and MOSFET dosimeter presented a reproducibility of 3.3% and 2.7% (1 SD) for Cs-137 and Co-60 sources, respectively. In addition, an angular dependence of up to 6.1% and 16.3% for both radioactive sources, respectively. It is conclusive that MOSFET dosimeter TN-502RD-H has satisfactory reproducibility and a considerable angular dependence, mainly for the Co-60 source. This means that although precise measurements, special attention must be taken for applications in certain anatomical regions in a patient. (author)

  9. InDependent Diabetes Trust. (United States)

    Evans, Roger


    The InDependent Diabetes Trust is a UK-based charity run by people with diabetes for others living with the condition. It was set up in 1994 as the Insulin Dependent Diabetes Trust (IDDT), a registered charity. It is run entirely by voluntary donations and does not accept funding from pharmaceutical companies.

  10. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Vedtofte, Louise; Holst, Jens Juul


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 5.5 ± 0.1%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Saline or physiological doses...

  11. The Copenhagen Dependency Treebank (CDT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg Müller, Henrik; Korzen, Iørn


    the fundamentals of how CDT is marked up with semantic relations in accordance with the dependency principles governing the annotation on the other levels of CDT. Specifically, focus will be on how Generative Lexicon (GL) theory has been incorporated into the unitary theoretical dependency framework of CDT...

  12. Gentoo package dependencies over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Remco; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Ordonez Matamoros, Hector Gonzalo


    Open source distributions such as Gentoo need to accurately track dependency relations between software packages in order to install working systems. To do this, Gentoo has a carefully authored database containing those relations. In this paper, we extract the Gentoo package dependency graph and its

  13. Compositional dependability modeling using arcade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Huisman, Marieke

    Dependability is a key concern for today's complex computer and communication systems. To make sure that such an application meets all its dependability requirements, a rigorous and systematic analysis is required. This talk introduces ARCADE, a formally well-rooted and extensible framework for

  14. Frequency-dependent heat capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Claus Flensted

    The frequency–dependent heat capacity of super-cooled glycerol near the glass transition is measured using the 3w detection technique. An electrical conducting thin film with a temperature–dependent electrical resistance is deposited on a substrate. The thin film is used simultaneously as a heater...

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accreditation Program Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation Program Cancer Programs Staff Information Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Children's Surgery Verification ...

  16. Annotated Answer Set Programming


    Straccia, Umberto


    We present Annotated Answer Set Programming, that extends the ex pressive power of disjunctive logic programming with annotation terms, taken from the generalized annotated logic programming framework.

  17. Leadership Development Program Final Project (United States)

    Parrish, Teresa C.


    TOSC is NASA's prime contractor tasked to successfully assemble, test, and launch the EM1 spacecraft. TOSC success is highly dependent on design products from the other NASA Programs manufacturing and delivering the flight hardware; Space Launch System(SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle(MPCV). Design products directly feed into TOSC's: Procedures, Personnel training, Hardware assembly, Software development, Integrated vehicle test and checkout, Launch. TOSC senior management recognized a significant schedule risk as these products are still being developed by the other two (2) programs; SVE and ACE positions were created.

  18. Seismic Safety Program: Ground motion and structural response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In 1964, John A. Blume & Associates Research Division (Blume) began a broad-range structural response program to assist the Nevada Operations Office of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in ensuring the continued safe conduct of underground nuclear detonation testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Blume`s long experience in earthquake engineering provided a general basis for the program, but much more specialized knowledge was required for the AEC`s purposes. Over the next 24 years Blume conducted a major research program to provide essential understanding of the detailed nature of the response of structures to dynamic loads such as those imposed by seismic wave propagation. The program`s results have been embodied in a prediction technology which has served to provide reliable advanced knowledge of the probable effects of seismic ground motion on all kinds of structures, for use in earthquake engineering and in building codes as well as for the continuing needs of the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). This report is primarily an accounting of the Blume work, beginning with the setting in 1964 and the perception of the program needs as envisioned by Dr. John A. Blume. Subsequent chapters describe the structural response program in detail and the structural prediction procedures which resulted; the intensive data acquisition program which, as is discussed at some length, relied heavily on the contributions of other consultant-contractors in the DOE/NV Seismic Safety Support Program; laboratory and field studies to provide data on building elements and structures subjected to dynamic loads from sources ranging from testing machines to earthquakes; structural response activities undertaken for testing at the NTS and for off-NTS underground nuclear detonations; and concluding with an account of corollary studies including effects of natural forces and of related studies on building response.

  19. The PERICLES research program: an integrated approach to characterize the combined effects of mixtures of pesticide residues to which the French population is exposed. (United States)

    Crépet, A; Héraud, F; Béchaux, C; Gouze, M E; Pierlot, S; Fastier, A; Leblanc, J Ch; Le Hégarat, L; Takakura, N; Fessard, V; Tressou, J; Maximilien, R; de Sousa, G; Nawaz, A; Zucchini-Pascal, N; Rahmani, R; Audebert, M; Graillot, V; Cravedi, J P


    Due to the broad spectrum of pesticide usages, consumers are exposed to mixtures of residues, which may have combined effects on human health. The PERICLES research program aims to test the potential combined effects of pesticide mixtures, which are likely to occur through dietary exposure. The co-exposure of the French general population to 79 pesticide residues present in the diet was first assessed. A Bayesian nonparametric model was then applied to define the main mixtures to which the French general population is simultaneously and most heavily exposed. Seven mixtures made of two to six pesticides were identified from the exposure assessment. An in vitro approach was used for investigating the toxicological effects of these mixtures and their corresponding individual compounds, using a panel of cellular models, i.e. primary rat and human hepatocytes, liver, intestine, kidney, colon and brain human cell lines. A set of cell functions and corresponding end-points were monitored such as cytotoxicity, real-time cell impedance, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis and PXR nuclear receptor transactivation. The mixtures were tested in equimolar concentrations. Among the seven mixtures, two appeared highly cytotoxic, five activated PXR and depending on the assay one or two were genotoxic. In some experiments, the mixture effect was quantitatively different from the effect expected from the addition concept. The PERICLES program shows that, for the most pesticides mixtures to which the French general population is exposed, the toxic effects observed on human cells cannot be easily predicted based on the toxic potential of each compound. Consequently, additional studies should be carried on in order to more accurately define the mixtures of chemicals to which the consumers are exposed, as well as to improve the investigation, prediction and monitoring of their potential human health effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of nanoscale size dependent parameters on lattice thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Throughout the method of trial and error, using the MATHCAD. 12 program, the values of P,Nimp and γ were adjusted such that the best fit for calculated lattice thermal conductivity to the experimental curves were obtained as shown in figure 3. The diameter dependence of the fitting parameters Nimp,P and γ (L, T ) and γ ...

  1. Selection and scheduling of jobs with time-dependent duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper two mathematical programming models, both with multiple objective functions, are proposed to solve four related categories of job scheduling problems. All four of these categories have the property that the duration of the jobs is dependent on the time of implementation and in some cases the preceding job.

  2. MAPVAR - A Computer Program to Transfer Solution Data Between Finite Element Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, G.W.


    MAPVAR, as was the case with its precursor programs, MERLIN and MERLIN II, is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operation of the code and the effects of various input options.

  3. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D.L. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Khwaja, S. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))


    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine. (United States)

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B


    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year (n=167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful.

  5. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel


    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  6. A Theory of Service Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Neovius


    Full Text Available Service composition has become commonplace nowadays, in large part due to the increased complexity of software and supporting networks. Composition can be of many types, for instance sequential, prioritising, non-deterministic. However, a fundamental feature of the services to be composed consists in their dependencies with respect to each other. In this paper we propose a theory of service dependency, modelled around a dependency operator in the Action Systems formalism. We analyze its properties, composition behaviour, and refinement conditions with accompanying examples.

  7. Dependence in Probability and Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Doukhan, Paul; Surgailis, Donatas; Teyssiere, Gilles


    This volume collects recent works on weakly dependent, long-memory and multifractal processes and introduces new dependence measures for studying complex stochastic systems. Other topics include the statistical theory for bootstrap and permutation statistics for infinite variance processes, the dependence structure of max-stable processes, and the statistical properties of spectral estimators of the long memory parameter. The asymptotic behavior of Fejer graph integrals and their use for proving central limit theorems for tapered estimators are investigated. New multifractal processes are intr

  8. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael


    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Overview of the Vehicle Technologies Program including external assessment and market view; internal assessment, program history and progress; program justification and federal role; program vision, mission, approach, strategic goals, outputs, and outcomes; and performance goals.

  10. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quality Improvement Program About Standards Apply Participant Use Data File (PUF) Resources & FAQs Find a MBSAQIP Center ... Programs Trauma Quality Programs National Trauma Data Bank Trauma Quality Improvement Program Mentoring for Excellence ...

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview of Cancer Programs Cancer Programs News American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Advocacy Efforts Cancer Liaison ... Validation Programs Accredited Education Institutes CME Accreditation CME Joint Providership Program Verification of Knowledge and Skills Resources ...

  12. 1995 Federal Research and Development Program in Materials Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Nation's economic prosperity and military security depend heavily on development and commercialization of advanced materials. Materials are a key facet of many technologies, providing the key ingredient for entire industries and tens of millions of jobs. With foreign competition in many areas of technology growing, improvements in materials and associated processes are needed now more than ever, both to create the new products and jobs of the future and to ensure that U.S. industry and military forces can compete and win in the international arena. The Federal Government has invested in materials research and development (R&D) for nearly a century, helping to lay the foundation for many of the best commercial products and military components used today. But while the United States has led the world in the science and development of advanced materials, it often has lagged in commercializing them. This long-standing hurdle must be overcome now if the nation is to maintain its leadership in materials R&D and the many technologies that depend on it. The Administration therefore seeks to foster commercialization of state-of-the-art materials for both commercial and military use, as a means of promoting US industrial competitiveness as well as the procurement of advanced military and space systems and other products at affordable costs. The Federal R&D effort in Fiscal Year 1994 for materials science and technology is an estimated $2123.7 million. It includes the ongoing R&D base that support the missions of nine Federal departments and agencies, increased strategic investment to overcome obstacles to commercialization of advanced materials technologies, interagency cooperation in R&D areas of mutual benefit to leverage assets and eliminate duplicative work, cost-shared research with industrial and academic partners in critical precompetitive technology areas, and international cooperation on selected R&D topics with assured benefits for the United States. The

  13. Smoking and predictors of nicotine dependence in a homeless population. (United States)

    Torchalla, Iris; Strehlau, Verena; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Li, Kathy; Schuetz, Christian; Krausz, Michael


    To assess prevalence rates of tobacco use and dependence in a sample of homeless individuals and to investigate trends for demographic and clinical characteristics across different levels of nicotine dependence (nonsmokers vs. lowly dependent smokers vs. highly dependent smokers). A cross-sectional study of 489 homeless men and women in 3 Canadian cities. Each subject was assessed using structured clinical interviews and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Cochran-Armitage trend tests were applied to determine unadjusted trends in sociodemographic and clinical variables across levels of nicotine dependence. A generalized logit model was computed to adjust for potential confounding. The mean age was 37.9 years; 39.2% of the participants were women. About 80.8% were current smokers; the mean FTND score was 5.0. Although no significant differences were found between nonsmokers and smokers with low nicotine dependence, smokers with high nicotine dependence were only half as likely as nonsmokers to be Aboriginal, were 2.39 times more likely to have ever been incarcerated, and 2.44 times more likely to have current drug dependence. There were significant trends for the use of cocaine, opioids, and alcohol, with nonsmokers having the lowest and highly dependent smokers having the highest rates of using these substances. Available public health smoking cessation treatment opportunities should be made available within health care services for the homeless. There is also a need for developing and implementing tobacco dependence treatment programs, which are accessible and tailored to meet the needs of this specific population, accounting for polysubstance use and concurrent substance dependence and mental health disorders.

  14. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager (United States)

    Price, C.


    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  15. The Cost of Quality Out-of-School-Time Programs (United States)

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Lind, Christianne; Hayes, Cheryl; McMaken, Jennifer; Gersick, Andrew


    Funders and program planners want to know: What does it cost to operate a high-quality after-school or summer program? This study answers that question, discovering that there is no "right" number. Cost varies substantially, depending on the characteristics of the participants, the goals of the program, who operates it and where it is located.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  17. Your morals depend on language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz


    Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem...

  18. Trust, dependence and interorganizational systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.K.M.


    Organizations form interorganizational relationships and utilize information technology to improve performance. This thesis discusses the influences of dependence and different types of trust on the use of interorganizational systems and subsequently the attainment of strategic benefits. The

  19. On time dependent Ekman transports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roed, L.P


    One of the most cited papers in ocean current theories is the paper by Ekman (1905). Here we take his paper as a starting point for computing time dependent solutions for the integrated velocities or the transports.

  20. Behavioral program synthesis with genetic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Krawiec, Krzysztof


    Genetic programming (GP) is a popular heuristic methodology of program synthesis with origins in evolutionary computation. In this generate-and-test approach, candidate programs are iteratively produced and evaluated. The latter involves running programs on tests, where they exhibit complex behaviors reflected in changes of variables, registers, or memory. That behavior not only ultimately determines program output, but may also reveal its `hidden qualities' and important characteristics of the considered synthesis problem. However, the conventional GP is oblivious to most of that information and usually cares only about the number of tests passed by a program. This `evaluation bottleneck' leaves search algorithm underinformed about the actual and potential qualities of candidate programs. This book proposes behavioral program synthesis, a conceptual framework that opens GP to detailed information on program behavior in order to make program synthesis more efficient. Several existing and novel mechanisms subs...

  1. Modeling Systems of Dependent Components (United States)


    Marked Shocks generated by a Poisson, a Renewal , or a Hawkes Point Process , ( ) . A Generalized Coupon Collecting Model as a Parsimonious Optimal...estimators of the mean, variance, and tail probabilities of the system life when the shock process is a Poisson process , a renewal process , or a...Modeling Systems of Dependent Components New classes of stochastic models for network systems having stochastically dependent components are studied by

  2. Scale dependence of deuteron electrodisintegration (United States)

    More, S. N.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.


    Background: Isolating nuclear structure properties from knock-out reactions in a process-independent manner requires a controlled factorization, which is always to some degree scale and scheme dependent. Understanding this dependence is important for robust extractions from experiment, to correctly use the structure information in other processes, and to understand the impact of approximations for both. Purpose: We seek insight into scale dependence by exploring a model calculation of deuteron electrodisintegration, which provides a simple and clean theoretical laboratory. Methods: By considering various kinematic regions of the longitudinal structure function, we can examine how the components—the initial deuteron wave function, the current operator, and the final-state interactions (FSIs)—combine at different scales. We use the similarity renormalization group to evolve each component. Results: When evolved to different resolutions, the ingredients are all modified, but how they combine depends strongly on the kinematic region. In some regions, for example, the FSIs are largely unaffected by evolution, while elsewhere FSIs are greatly reduced. For certain kinematics, the impulse approximation at a high renormalization group resolution gives an intuitive picture in terms of a one-body current breaking up a short-range correlated neutron-proton pair, although FSIs distort this simple picture. With evolution to low resolution, however, the cross section is unchanged but a very different and arguably simpler intuitive picture emerges, with the evolved current efficiently represented at low momentum through derivative expansions or low-rank singular value decompositions. Conclusions: The underlying physics of deuteron electrodisintegration is scale dependent and not just kinematics dependent. As a result, intuition about physics such as the role of short-range correlations or D -state mixing in particular kinematic regimes can be strongly scale dependent

  3. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine


    Striley, Catherine L.W.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Cottler, Linda B.


    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who re...

  4. NASA's educational programs (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.


    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  5. Dependência de drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Garcia-Mijares


    Full Text Available O texto discute três teorias atuais de dependência de drogas: a Teoria Comportamental da dependência como escolha de Heyman, a Teoria da Sensibilização do incentivo de Robinson e Berridge, e a Teoria Neurobiológica da dependência como escolha, de Kalivas. Todas concordam em caracterizar a dependência como resultante de processos de aprendizagem em que droga e estímulos associados a seus efeitos adquirem controle potente sobre o comportamento. Diferenciam-se quanto aos processos de aprendizagem envolvidos. A Teoria Comportamental enfatiza componentes operantes e sustenta que o consumo repetido de drogas diminui o valor reforçador de atividades concorrentes. A Teoria da Sensibilização enfatiza componentes respondentes, propondo a dependência como resultado da sensibilização da potência eliciadora de estímulos condicionados aos efeitos da droga. A Teoria Neurobiológica integra as duas primeiras, descrevendo as mudanças no circuito do reforço que acontecem no processo de dependência.

  6. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri


    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  7. Bridging the Otolaryngology Peer Review Knowledge Gap: A Call for a Residency Development Program. (United States)

    Schmalbach, Cecelia E


    Current otolaryngology literature and future scientific direction rely heavily on a rigorous peer review process. Just as manuscripts warrant thoughtful review with constructive feedback to the authors, the same can be said for critiques written by novice peer reviewers. Formal scientific peer review training programs are lacking. Recognizing this knowledge gap, Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery is excited to offer its new Resident Reviewer Development Program. All otolaryngology residents who are postgraduate year 2 and above and in excellent academic standing are eligible to participate in this mentored program, during which they will conduct 6 manuscript reviews under the direction of a seasoned reviewer in his or her subspecialty area of interest. By completing reviews alongside a mentor, participants gain the required skills to master the peer review process-a first step that often leads to journal editorial board and associate editor invitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  8. Extracting Credible Dependencies for Averaged One-Dependence Estimator Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Wang


    Full Text Available Of the numerous proposals to improve the accuracy of naive Bayes (NB by weakening the conditional independence assumption, averaged one-dependence estimator (AODE demonstrates remarkable zero-one loss performance. However, indiscriminate superparent attributes will bring both considerable computational cost and negative effect on classification accuracy. In this paper, to extract the most credible dependencies we present a new type of seminaive Bayesian operation, which selects superparent attributes by building maximum weighted spanning tree and removes highly correlated children attributes by functional dependency and canonical cover analysis. Our extensive experimental comparison on UCI data sets shows that this operation efficiently identifies possible superparent attributes at training time and eliminates redundant children attributes at classification time.

  9. Frequency dependent changes in NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind eKumar


    Full Text Available The NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity is thought to mediate several forms of learning, and can be induced by spike trains containing a small number of spikes occurring with varying rates and timing, as well as with oscillations. We computed the influence of these variables on the plasticity induced at a single NMDAR containing synapse using a reduced model that was analytically tractable, and these findings were confirmed using detailed, multi-compartment model. In addition to explaining diverse experimental results about the rate and timing dependence of synaptic plasticity, the model made several novel and testable predictions. We found that there was a preferred frequency for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP such that higher frequency stimuli induced lesser LTP, decreasing as 1/f when the number of spikes in the stimulus was kept fixed. Among other things, the preferred frequency for inducing LTP varied as a function of the distance of the synapse from the soma. In fact, same stimulation frequencies could induce LTP or LTD depending on the dendritic location of the synapse. Next, we found that rhythmic stimuli induced greater plasticity then irregular stimuli. Furthermore, brief bursts of spikes significantly expanded the timing dependence of plasticity. Finally, we found that in the ~5-15Hz frequency range both rate- and timing-dependent plasticity mechanisms work synergistically to render the synaptic plasticity most sensitive to spike-timing. These findings provide computational evidence that oscillations can have a profound influence on the plasticity of an NMDAR-dependent synapse, and show a novel role for the dendritic morphology in this process.

  10. DEEPEN: A negation detection system for clinical text incorporating dependency relation into NegEx. (United States)

    Mehrabi, Saeed; Krishnan, Anand; Sohn, Sunghwan; Roch, Alexandra M; Schmidt, Heidi; Kesterson, Joe; Beesley, Chris; Dexter, Paul; Max Schmidt, C; Liu, Hongfang; Palakal, Mathew


    In Electronic Health Records (EHRs), much of valuable information regarding patients' conditions is embedded in free text format. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques have been developed to extract clinical information from free text. One challenge faced in clinical NLP is that the meaning of clinical entities is heavily affected by modifiers such as negation. A negation detection algorithm, NegEx, applies a simplistic approach that has been shown to be powerful in clinical NLP. However, due to the failure to consider the contextual relationship between words within a sentence, NegEx fails to correctly capture the negation status of concepts in complex sentences. Incorrect negation assignment could cause inaccurate diagnosis of patients' condition or contaminated study cohorts. We developed a negation algorithm called DEEPEN to decrease NegEx's false positives by taking into account the dependency relationship between negation words and concepts within a sentence using Stanford dependency parser. The system was developed and tested using EHR data from Indiana University (IU) and it was further evaluated on Mayo Clinic dataset to assess its generalizability. The evaluation results demonstrate DEEPEN, which incorporates dependency parsing into NegEx, can reduce the number of incorrect negation assignment for patients with positive findings, and therefore improve the identification of patients with the target clinical findings in EHRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The psychobiology of nicotine dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. K. Balfour


    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence to show that nicotine is the principal addictive component of tobacco smoke. The results of laboratory studies have shown that nicotine has many of the behavioural and neurobiological properties of a drug of dependence. This article focuses on the evidence that nicotine has the rewarding and reinforcing properties typical of an addictive drug and that these properties are mediated, in part, by its effects on mesolimbic dopamine neurones. However, in many experimental models of dependence, nicotine has relatively weak reinforcing properties that do not appear to explain adequately the powerful addiction to tobacco smoke experienced by many habitual smokers. Some of the reasons for this conundrum will be covered herein. This article focuses on the hypothesis that sensory stimuli and other pharmacologically active components in tobacco smoke play a pivotal role in the addiction to nicotine when it is inhaled in tobacco smoke. The article will discuss the evidence that dependence upon tobacco smoke reflects a complex interaction between nicotine and the components of the smoke, which are mediated by complementary effects of nicotine on the dopamine projections to the shell and core subdivisions of the accumbens. It will also discuss the extent to which the complexity of the dependence explains why nicotine replacement therapy does not provide a completely satisfying aid to smoking cessation and speculate on the properties treatments should exhibit if they are to provide a better treatment for tobacco dependence than those currently available.

  12. Dependency Structures for Statistical Machine Translation (United States)

    Bach, Nguyen


    Dependency structures represent a sentence as a set of dependency relations. Normally the dependency structures from a tree connect all the words in a sentence. One of the most defining characters of dependency structures is the ability to bring long distance dependency between words to local dependency structures. Another the main attraction of…

  13. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong


    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  14. System programming languages


    Šmit, Matej


    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  15. Advanced Object-Oriented Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    Learn how to write object-oriented programs in R and how to construct classes and class hierarchies in the three object-oriented systems available in R. This book gives an introduction to object-oriented programming in the R programming language and shows you how to use and apply R in an object-oriented...... manner. You will then be able to use this powerful programming style in your own statistical programming projects to write flexible and extendable software. After reading Advanced Object-Oriented Programming in R, you'll come away with a practical project that you can reuse in your own analytics coding...... endeavors. You’ll then be able to visualize your data as objects that have state and then manipulate those objects with polymorphic or generic methods. Your projects will benefit from the high degree of flexibility provided by polymorphism, where the choice of concrete method to execute depends on the type...

  16. Dependence logic theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kontinen, Juha; Väänänen, Jouko; Vollmer, Heribert


    In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning ...

  17. Parsing Universal Dependencies without training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Agic, Zeljko; Plank, Barbara


    We present UDP, the first training-free parser for Universal Dependencies (UD). Our algorithm is based on PageRank and a small set of specific dependency head rules. UDP features two-step decoding to guarantee that function words are attached as leaf nodes. The parser requires no training......, and it is competitive with a delexicalized transfer system. UDP offers a linguistically sound unsupervised alternative to cross-lingual parsing for UD. The parser has very few parameters and distinctly robust to domain change across languages....

  18. Aid to Families with Dependent Children Quality Control Review Panel Decisions (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Quality Control Review Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning the AFDC program...

  19. Factors associated with resilience in wives of individuals with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Sreekumar


    Conclusion: Assessment of resilience in wives of individuals with alcohol dependence and identification and management of those with poor resilience should go hand in hand with their husband's treatment program.

  20. Comprehensive Monitor-Oriented Compensation Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Colombo


    Full Text Available Compensation programming is typically used in the programming of web service compositions whose correct implementation is crucial due to their handling of security-critical activities such as financial transactions. While traditional exception handling depends on the state of the system at the moment of failure, compensation programming is significantly more challenging and dynamic because it is dependent on the runtime execution flow — with the history of behaviour of the system at the moment of failure affecting how to apply compensation. To address this dynamic element, we propose the use of runtime monitors to facilitate compensation programming, with monitors enabling the modeller to be able to implicitly reason in terms of the runtime control flow, thus separating the concerns of system building and compensation modelling. Our approach is instantiated into an architecture and shown to be applicable to a case study.