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Sample records for program cost calculation

  1. A calculation program for electricity generation costs using LOTUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ki; Lee, Man Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    This program is designed in order to calculate electricity generation cost by different energy sources, and menu type is adopted for user convenience. This program also graphically shows the share of capital investment cost, O and M cost, and fuel cost. Sensitivity analysis about discount rate can also be carried out by this program, taking into consideration the important role of the discount rate in the generation costs calculation. (Author) 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Calculation of Complexity Costs – An Approach for Rationalizing a Product Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    of suggested Life Cycle Complexity Factors (LCCFs). The suggested method has been tested in an action based research study with promising results. The case study shows how the allocation of complexity costs on individual product variants provides previously unknown insights into the true cost structure......This paper proposes an operational method for rationalizing a product program based on the calculation of complexity costs. The method takes its starting point in the calculation of complexity costs on a product program level. This is done throughout the value chain ranging from component...... inventories at the factory sites, all the way to the distribution of finished goods from distribution centers to the customers. The method proposes a step-wise approach including the analysis, quantification and allocation of product program complexity costs by the means of identifying of a number...

  3. NATIONAL STORMWATER CALCULATOR: LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STORMWATER CONTROL COST ESTIMATION PROGRAMMING & FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation Programming & Future EnhancementsJason Berner1; Michael Tryby1; Scott Struck2, Dan Pankani2, Marion Deerhake3, Michelle Simon11. USEPA2. GeoSyntec, Inc.3. RTI, Inc.The National Stormwater Ca...

  4. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuitto, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    VTT Energy is compiling a large and versatile calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy wood. The work has been designed and will be carried out in cooperation with Metsaeteho and Finntech Ltd. The program has been realised in Windows surroundings using SQLWindows graphical database application development system, using the SQLBase relational database management system. The objective of the research is to intensify and create new possibilities for comparison of the utilization costs and the profitability of integrated energy wood production chains with each other inside the chains

  5. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  6. National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation Programming & Future Enhancements - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Stormwater Calculator (NSC) makes it easy to estimate runoff reduction when planning a new development or redevelopment site with low impact development (LID) stormwater controls. The Calculator is currently deployed as a Windows desktop application. The Calculator i...

  7. National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation Programming & Future Enhancements - Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Stormwater Calculator (NSC) makes it easy to estimate runoff reduction when planning a new development or redevelopment site with low impact development (LID) stormwater controls. The Calculator is currently deployed as a Windows desktop application. The NSC is organ...

  8. COSTS CALCULATION OF TARGET COSTING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian UNGUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost information system plays an important role in every organization in the decision making process. An important task of management is ensuring control of the operations, processes, sectors, and not ultimately on costs. Although in achieving the objectives of an organization compete more control systems (production control, quality control, etc., the cost information system is important because monitors results of the other. Detailed analysis of costs, production cost calculation, quantification of losses, estimate the work efficiency provides a solid basis for financial control. Knowledge of the costs is a decisive factor in taking decisions and planning future activities. Managers are concerned about the costs that will appear in the future, their level underpinning the supply and production decisions as well as price policy. An important factor is the efficiency of cost information system in such a way that the information provided by it may be useful for decisions and planning of the work.

  9. A calculation program for harvesting and transportation costs of energy and industrial wood; Energiapuun korjuun ja kuljetuksen kustannuslaskentaohjelmisto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    A computer based model has been developed for calculating the production costs of industrial wood and wood fuel. Several calculation situations, which might be useful for decision-making in energy wood supply, are included into this software. The model will be easy to use for practical purposes and flexible so that different new model and changes in the basis of calculations are easy to implement. Model will offer open interfaces for importing and exporting information. Model includes selected wood delivery chains and open interfaces for adding data from different procurement sources. The cost analysis model is built on Windows-based software, SQLWindows, using different sources of data (ODBC). With the model it is possible to manage these SQLBase databases with SQL-queries. The data included in the databases origins from various energy wood sources (local communities or part of them, forestry boards planning areas or even stands ready for cutting). By knowing the planned share of first thinnings, final cuttings and other harvesting operations it is possible to estimate the potential amount of wood fuel from each area. Also databases from energy wood users, forest and transportation machinery and distances are available in the system. Using the information it is possible to find out the fuel demand of power and heating plants in each moment (e.g., amount and quality), costs of various machines (harvesters, forwarders, trucks) as well as distances between energy wood sources and users. (orig.)

  10. PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ŢAICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

  11. Cost-Estimation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    COSTIT computer program estimates cost of electronic design by reading item-list file and file containing cost for each item. Accuracy of cost estimate based on accuracy of cost-list file. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The Sun version (NPO-19587). PC version (NPO-19157).

  12. Cost Calculation Model for Logistics Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Bokor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exact calculation of logistics costs has become a real challenge in logistics and supply chain management. It is essential to gain reliable and accurate costing information to attain efficient resource allocation within the logistics service provider companies. Traditional costing approaches, however, may not be sufficient to reach this aim in case of complex and heterogeneous logistics service structures. So this paper intends to explore the ways of improving the cost calculation regimes of logistics service providers and show how to adopt the multi-level full cost allocation technique in logistics practice. After determining the methodological framework, a sample cost calculation scheme is developed and tested by using estimated input data. Based on the theoretical findings and the experiences of the pilot project it can be concluded that the improved costing model contributes to making logistics costing more accurate and transparent. Moreover, the relations between costs and performances also become more visible, which enhances the effectiveness of logistics planning and controlling significantly

  13. BASIC program calculates flue gas energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Engineers always seek cost-cutting, energy-efficient ways to operate boilers and waste-heat recovery systems. The starting point in the design or performance evaluation of any heat transfer equipment is an energy balance calculation. This easy-to-use BASIC program tackles this problem. Using the gas stream analysis as percent weight or volume, the program calculates inlet and exit temperatures, heat duty, the gas stream's molecular weight, etc. This program is a definite must for the plant engineering notebook.

  14. Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, K.; Schweizer, T.

    2008-01-01

    This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

  15. [Calculation of workers' health care costs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    In different health care systems, there are different schemes of organization and principles of financing activities aimed at ensuring the working population health and safety. Regardless of the scheme and the range of health care provided, economists strive for rationalization of costs (including their reduction). This applies to both employers who include workers' health care costs into indirect costs of the market product manufacture and health care institutions, which provide health care services. In practice, new methods of setting costs of workers' health care facilitate regular cost control, acquisition of detailed information about costs, and better adjustment of information to planning and control needs in individual health care institutions. For economic institutions and institutions specialized in workers' health care, a traditional cost-effect calculation focused on setting costs of individual products (services) is useful only if costs are relatively low and the output of simple products is not very high. But when products form aggregates of numerous actions like those involved in occupational medicine services, the method of activity based costing (ABC), representing the process approach, is much more useful. According to this approach costs are attributed to the product according to resources used during different activities involved in its production. The calculation of costs proceeds through allocation of all direct costs for specific processes in a given institution. Indirect costs are settled on the basis of resources used during the implementation of individual tasks involved in the process of making a new product. In this method, so called map of processes/actions consisted in the manufactured product and their interrelations are of particular importance. Advancements in the cost-effect for the management of health care institutions depend on their managerial needs. Current trends in this regard primarily depend on treating all cost reference

  16. Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monthly Program Cost Report (MPCR) replaces the Cost Distribution Report (CDR). The MPCR provides summary information about Veterans Affairs operational costs,...

  17. CALCULATION OF COMPANY COSTS THROUGH THE DIRECT-COSTING CALCULATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Constantin DIMA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The cost of production has as its starting point the purchase cost of raw materials and consumables, as well as their processing cost and the calculation of the production cost involves complex aspects. This article is based on the two major concepts of costs calculation, namely the concept of full costs and the concept of partial costs, and it analyses the direct-costing calculation method. Necessity of the Development of calculation methods to ensure rapid determination of the cost of production, and the establishment of indicators broad spectrum of information necessary for making decisions to streamline a business activity conducted by direct-costing method. Direct-costing method appeared in the U.S. for the first time in 1934 (applied by Jonathan Harris and G. Charter Harrison. Subsequently, this method was applied to European countries (England, France, Germany etc.. We stopped on this method because it is considered a modern method of costing. Therefore, we analyzed both advantages and limitations of the method in question

  18. Calculating cost savings in utilization management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Donna

    2014-01-01

    A major motivation for managing the utilization of laboratory testing is to reduce the cost of medical care. For this reason it is important to understand the basic principles of cost accounting in the clinical laboratory. The process of laboratory testing includes three distinct components termed the pre-analytic, analytic and post-analytic phases. Utilization management efforts may impact the cost structure of these three phases in different ways depending on the specific details of the initiative. Estimates of cost savings resulting from utilization management programs reported in the literature have often been fundamentally flawed due to a failure to understand basic concepts such as the difference between laboratory costs versus charges and the impact of reducing laboratory test volumes on the average versus marginal cost structure in the laboratory. This article will provide an overview of basic cost accounting principles in the clinical laboratory including both job order and process cost accounting. Specific examples will be presented to illustrate these concepts in various different scenarios. © 2013.

  19. Calculating the cost of a healthcare project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2008-02-01

    Nearly $200 billion of healthcare construction is expected by the year 2015, and nurse leaders must expand their knowledge and capabilities in healthcare design. This bimonthly department prepares nurse leaders to use the evidence-based design process to ensure that new, expanded, and renovated hospitals facilitate optimal patient outcomes, enhance the work environment for healthcare providers, and improve organizational performance. In this article, the author introduces important project budget terms and a method of calculating an estimation of probable cost for a building project.

  20. 49 CFR 639.25 - Calculation of lease cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.25 Calculation of lease cost. (a) For purposes of this part, the lease cost of a capital asset is— (1) The cost to lease the asset for the same... obtain the capital asset. (b) The estimated lease costs must be reasonable, based on realistic market...

  1. THE COST CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS BY MEANS OF THE STANDARD COST METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA MONICAŢEGLEDI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Originally known as the Estimated Cost System, it has evolved, nowadays being called Standard Cost Accounting. Standard cost calculation method is based on scheduled cost, pre-calculated, set before the start of the manufacturing process itself. This method allows the determination of the elements that influence the amount of costs and their deviations from the predetermined costs.

  2. BURDEN OF DISEASE CALCULATION, COST OF ILLNESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    individual's relatives and the society can channel such resources and energy to other uses that would ..... European countries. Useful Steps in BoD Calculation and CoI Analysis. The first useful step in the calculation is the outcome tree. Others are perspective of evaluation ... illustrating their conditional dependency. The first ...

  3. On Programming and Spreadsheet Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lovászová

    2003-07-01

    spreadsheets–each change of an input value evokes the complete recalculation of the entire sheet. The instant recalculations allow the students to observe many “runs” of the studied algorithm, to formulate hypotheses and to verify them much faster than any other methods of traditional programming.

  4. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  5. REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana KRUPOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostly divided into fixed (costs independent from volume of herd’s production and variable ones (costs connected with improvement of breeding conditions. Cost for feeds and beddings, labour costs, other direct costs and depreciations were found as the most important cost items in ruminants. It can be assumed that including the depreciations into costs of the basic herd takes into consideration the real costs simultaneously invested into raising of young animals in the given period. Costs are calculated for the unit of the main and by-products and their classification is influenced mainly by the type of livestock and production system. In dairy cows is usually milk defined as the main product, and by- products are live born calf and manure. The base calculation unit is kilogram of milk (basic herd of cows and kilogram of gain and kilogram of live weight (young breeding cattle. In suckler cows is a live-born calf the main product and manure is the by-product. The costs are mostly calculated per suckler cow, live-born calf and per kilogram of live weight of weaned calf. Similar division of products into main and by-products is also in cost calculation for sheep categories. The difference is that clotted cheese is also considered as the main product of basic herd in dairy sheep and greasy wool as the by-products in all categories. Definition of the base calculation units in sheep categories followed the mentioned classification. The value of a by-product in cattle and sheep is usually set according to its quantity and intra- plant price of the by-product. In the calculation of the costs for sheep and cattle the “structural ewe” and “structural cow

  6. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  7. Burden of disease calculation, cost of illness analysis and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burden of disease calculation, cost of illness analysis and demand for death: a theoretical review. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... The works of Murray and co-workers on calculating Burden of Disease (BoD), and even the analysis of Cost of Illness (CoI), to fully understand the priority ...

  8. Cost calculation in agricultural enterprises in theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Ziętara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to evolution of the production costs calculation theory in agriculture from the second half of XVIII century till present times. The author emphasized long lasting dispute among the economists about usefulness of the full account of unit costs of production in evaluation of production profitability. Moreover, utility of the part-costs account in evaluation of production competitiveness, as well as their value in evaluation of the production processes and structure (using optimisation methods was analysed. Additionally article describes current problems of cost calculation in agriculture.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR THE PRACTICAL PRACTICE OF COST CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Fenyves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic topic of our treatise is to introduce the system of cost calculation. Our reason for choice of this topic is that, in the economic environment of today, it is very important for a production company to have the most possible accurate knowledge about costs of the activity. This informational demand emerges in case of more and more managing entities since the cost cutback is often the only tool for retaining the competitiveness – of course, within certain frameworks. There is a frequent question among the corporate owners and management: “How could our costs be cut – even if only to a small extent?” One of the devices is the moderation of the activity costs, in order to do this it is essential to know how much the production of the unit of product costs for the company, that is to say, how many its first cost is. Our goal is to aim the attention at values and importance of the management information system as well as information obtained during determination of the cost, the differences in results of the individual cost calculation methods and the reasons of differences. In addition, our intention was to know and acquaint a complex cost calculation procedure in depth during which we endeavoured to form a system theory of a kind.

  10. Hospital financing: calculating inpatient capital costs in Germany with a comparative view on operating costs and the English costing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    The paper analyzes the German inpatient capital costing scheme by assessing its cost module calculation. The costing scheme represents the first separated national calculation of performance-oriented capital cost lump sums per DRG. The three steps in the costing scheme are reviewed and assessed: (1) accrual of capital costs; (2) cost-center and cost category accounting; (3) data processing for capital cost modules. The assessment of each step is based on its level of transparency and efficiency. A comparative view on operating costing and the English costing scheme is given. Advantages of the scheme are low participation hurdles, low calculation effort for G-DRG calculation participants, highly differentiated cost-center/cost category separation, and advanced patient-based resource allocation. The exclusion of relevant capital costs, nontransparent resource allocation, and unclear capital cost modules, limit the managerial relevance and transparency of the capital costing scheme. The scheme generates the technical premises for a change from dual financing by insurances (operating costs) and state (capital costs) to a single financing source. The new capital costing scheme will intensify the discussion on how to solve the current investment backlog in Germany and can assist regulators in other countries with the introduction of accurate capital costing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Other Methods. Hemolytic potency of drugs. Raghava et al., (1994) Biotechniques 17: 1148. FPMAP: methods for classification and identification of microorganisms 16SrRNA. graphical display of restriction and fragment map of ...

  12. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Immunological Methods. Computation of Ab/Ag Concentration from EISA data. Graphical Method; Raghava et al., 1992, J. Immuno. Methods 153: 263. Determination of affinity of Monoclonal Antibody. Using non-competitive ...

  13. SEECAL: Program to calculate age-dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes the computer program SEECAL, which calculates specific effective energies (SEE) to specified target regions for ages newborn, 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, a 70-kg adult male, and a 58-kg adult female. The dosimetric methodology is that of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and is generally consistent with the schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose committee of the US Society of Nuclear Medicine. Computation of SEEs is necessary in the computation of equivalent dose rate in a target region, for occupational or public exposure to radionuclides taken into the body. Program SEECAL replaces the program SEE that was previously used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program SEE was used in the dosimetric calculations for occupational exposures for ICRP Publication 30 and is limited to adults. SEECAL was used to generate age-dependent SEEs for ICRP Publication 56, Part 1. SEECAL is also incorporated into DCAL, a radiation dose and risk calculational system being developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. Electronic copies of the program and data files and this report are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Applying Activity Based Costing (ABC) Method to Calculate Cost Price in Hospital and Remedy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990's. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.

  15. Application of the Activity-Based Costing Method for Unit-Cost Calculation in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Mahdi; Hadian, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Ghaffari, Shahram; Salehi, Masoud

    2015-05-17

    Choosing an appropriate accounting system for hospital has always been a challenge for hospital managers. Traditional cost system (TCS) causes cost distortions in hospital. Activity-based costing (ABC) method is a new and more effective cost system. This study aimed to compare ABC with TCS method in calculating the unit cost of medical services and to assess its applicability in Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord City, Iran.‎ This cross-sectional study was performed on accounting data of Kashani Hospital in 2013. Data on accounting reports of 2012 and other relevant sources at the end of 2012 were included. To apply ABC method, the hospital was divided into several cost centers and five cost categories were defined: wage, equipment, space, material, and overhead costs. Then activity centers were defined. ABC method was performed into two phases. First, the total costs of cost centers were assigned to activities by using related cost factors. Then the costs of activities were divided to cost objects by using cost drivers. After determining the cost of objects, the cost price of medical services was calculated and compared with those obtained from TCS.‎ The Kashani Hospital had 81 physicians, 306 nurses, and 328 beds with the mean occupancy rate of 67.4% during 2012. Unit cost of medical services, cost price of occupancy bed per day, and cost per outpatient service were calculated. The total unit costs by ABC and TCS were respectively 187.95 and 137.70 USD, showing 50.34 USD more unit cost by ABC method. ABC method represented more accurate information on the major cost components. By utilizing ABC, hospital managers have a valuable accounting system that provides a true insight into the organizational costs of their department.

  16. Application of the Activity-Based Costing Method for Unit-Cost Calculation in a Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Mahdi; Hadian, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Ghaffari, Shahram; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Choosing an appropriate accounting system for hospital has always been a challenge for hospital managers. Traditional cost system (TCS) causes cost distortions in hospital. Activity-based costing (ABC) method is a new and more effective cost system. Objective: This study aimed to compare ABC with TCS method in calculating the unit cost of medical services and to assess its applicability in Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on accounting data of Kashani Hospital in 2013. Data on accounting reports of 2012 and other relevant sources at the end of 2012 were included. To apply ABC method, the hospital was divided into several cost centers and five cost categories were defined: wage, equipment, space, material, and overhead costs. Then activity centers were defined. ABC method was performed into two phases. First, the total costs of cost centers were assigned to activities by using related cost factors. Then the costs of activities were divided to cost objects by using cost drivers. After determining the cost of objects, the cost price of medical services was calculated and compared with those obtained from TCS. Results: The Kashani Hospital had 81 physicians, 306 nurses, and 328 beds with the mean occupancy rate of 67.4% during 2012. Unit cost of medical services, cost price of occupancy bed per day, and cost per outpatient service were calculated. The total unit costs by ABC and TCS were respectively 187.95 and 137.70 USD, showing 50.34 USD more unit cost by ABC method. ABC method represented more accurate information on the major cost components. Conclusion: By utilizing ABC, hospital managers have a valuable accounting system that provides a true insight into the organizational costs of their department. PMID:26234974

  17. Documentation of Calculation Program and Guideline for Optimal Window Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend

    . A user-friendly calculation program based on simple input data has recently been developed to assist engineers and architects during the process of selecting suitable windows for residential building design. The program is organised in four steps, which together represent an analysis of how windows...... in a specific building design perform with regard to energy consumption, thermal indoor environment, and cost. The analyses in the steps gradually increase in level of detail and support the design decisions throughout the design process. This document presents work done to validate the program and demonstrates...

  18. Activity-based costing: a practical model for cost calculation in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Yolande; van den Bogaert, Walter; Kesteloot, Katrien

    2003-10-01

    The activity-based costing method was used to compute radiotherapy costs. This report describes the model developed, the calculated costs, and possible applications for the Leuven radiotherapy department. Activity-based costing is an advanced cost calculation technique that allocates resource costs to products based on activity consumption. In the Leuven model, a complex allocation principle with a large diversity of cost drivers was avoided by introducing an extra allocation step between activity groups and activities. A straightforward principle of time consumption, weighed by some factors of treatment complexity, was used. The model was developed in an iterative way, progressively defining the constituting components (costs, activities, products, and cost drivers). Radiotherapy costs are predominantly determined by personnel and equipment cost. Treatment-related activities consume the greatest proportion of the resource costs, with treatment delivery the most important component. This translates into products that have a prolonged total or daily treatment time being the most costly. The model was also used to illustrate the impact of changes in resource costs and in practice patterns. The presented activity-based costing model is a practical tool to evaluate the actual cost structure of a radiotherapy department and to evaluate possible resource or practice changes.

  19. Data calculation program for RELAP 5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Larissa J.B.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: larissajbs@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    As the criteria and requirements for a nuclear power plant are extremely rigid, computer programs for simulation and safety analysis are required for certifying and licensing a plant. Based on this scenario, some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors. A major difficulty in the simulation using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. The preparation of the input data leads to a very large number of mathematical operations for calculating the geometry of the components. Therefore, a mathematical friendly preprocessor was developed in order to perform these calculations and prepare RELAP5 input data. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) combined with Microsoft EXCEL demonstrated to be an efficient tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. Due to the absence of necessary information about some RELAP5 components, this work aims to make improvements to the Mathematic Preprocessor for RELAP5 code (PREREL5). For the new version of the preprocessor, new screens of some components that were not programmed in the original version were designed; moreover, screens of pre-existing components were redesigned to improve the program. In addition, an English version was provided for the new version of the PREREL5. The new design of PREREL5 contributes for saving time and minimizing mistakes made by users of the RELAP5 code. The final version of this preprocessor will be applied to Angra 2. (author)

  20. Bulk Electric Load Cost Calculation Methods: Iraqi Network Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais M. Alias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is vital in any industry to regain the spent capitals plus running costs and a margin of profits for the industry to flourish. The electricity industry is an everyday life touching industry which follows the same finance-economic strategy. Cost allocation is a major issue in all sectors of the electric industry, viz, generation, transmission and distribution. Generation and distribution service costing’s well documented in the literature, while the transmission share is still of need for research. In this work, the cost of supplying a bulk electric load connected to the EHV system is calculated. A sample basic lump-average method is used to provide a rough costing guide. Also, two transmission pricing methods are employed, namely, the postage-stamp and the load-flow based MW-distance methods to calculate transmission share in the total cost of each individual bulk load. The three costing methods results are then analyzed and compared for the 400kV Iraqi power grid considered for a case study.

  1. What Does It Cost to Prevent On-Duty Firefighter Cardiac Events? A Content Valid Method for Calculating Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Daniel Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of mortality among firefighters. We sought to develop a valid method for determining the costs of a workplace prevention program for firefighters. In 2012, we developed a draft framework using human resource accounting and in-depth interviews with experts in the firefighting and insurance industries. The interviews produced a draft cost model with 6 components and 26 subcomponents. In 2013, we randomly sampled 100 fire chiefs out of >7,400 affiliated with the International Association of Fire Chiefs. We used the Content Validity Index (CVI to identify the content valid components of the draft cost model. This was accomplished by having fire chiefs rate the relevancy of cost components using a 4-point Likert scale (highly relevant to not relevant. We received complete survey data from 65 fire chiefs (65% response rate. We retained 5 components and 21 subcomponents based on CVI scores ≥0.70. The five main components include, (1 investment costs, (2 orientation and training costs, (3 medical and pharmaceutical costs, (4 education and continuing education costs, and (5 maintenance costs. Data from a diverse sample of fire chiefs has produced a content valid method for calculating the cost of a prevention program among firefighters.

  2. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I. (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Backe, S. (Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)); Cato, A.; Lindskog, S. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden)); Efraimsson, H. (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (Sweden)); Iversen, Klaus (Danish Decommissioning (Denmark)); Salmenhaara, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Sjoeblom, R. (Tekedo AB, (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility (planning, building and operation), but it was only in the nineteen seventies that the waste issue really surface. Actually, the IAEA guidelines on decommissioning have been issued as recently as over the last ten years, and international advice on finance of decommissioning is even younger. No general international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological prerequisites. Consequently, any cost estimates based mainly on the particulars of the building structures and installations are likely to be gross underestimations. The present study has come about on initiative by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and is based on a common need in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The content of the report may be briefly summarised as follows. The background covers design and operation prerequisites as well as an overview of the various nuclear research facilities in the four participating countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The purpose of the work has been to identify, compile and exchange information on facilities and on methodologies for cost calculation with the aim of achieving an 80 % level of confidence. The scope has been as follows: 1) to establish a Nordic network 2) to compile dedicated guidance documents on radiological surveying, technical planning and financial risk identification and assessment 3) to compile and describe techniques for precise cost calculations at early stages 4) to compile plant and other relevant data A separate section is devoted in the report to good practice for the specific purpose of early but precise cost calculations for research facilities, and a separate section is devoted to techniques for assessment of cost

  3. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  4. Manuals of SORE, the creep fatigue damage calculation program, and the post program of the creep fatigue damage calculation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Hiroaki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tsuruga, Fukuki (Japan). Tsuruga Head Office; Sago, Hiromi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    This report includes the Manuals of 'the Structural Integrity Oriented Reliability Assessment System for 'MONJU' (SORE)', 'the creep fatigue damage calculation program using planning operation data' and 'the post program of the creep fatigue damage calculation program using planning operation data'. These programs were developed for the purpose of assisting the preservation management during the 'MONJU' plant employment period from an operation start. (author)

  5. Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuri, Carlos J.; Corripio, Armando B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two computer programs for use in process design courses: an easy-to-use equipment cost estimation program based on latest cost correlations available and an economic evaluation program which calculates two profitability indices. Comparisons between programed and hand-calculated results are included. (JM)

  6. Calculator programs guide directionally drilled wells through tangled Thums lease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.D.; Barth, J.W.

    1983-10-01

    Over 900 wells have been directionally drilled in the Long Beach Unit of the East Wilmington field from four man-made islands and land-based drilling sites. As more wells are added to each site, the planning of new well courses has become more complex. The hand-held calculator, with Long Beach Unit-developed programs, has been an aid in laying out new wells which avoid existing cased bore holes. The hand-held calculator method also prevented unnecessary commercial computer runs of well plats from surface locations that prove impossible or impractical to drill. With the use of these programs the optimum well course can be designed, reducing drilling and design costs.

  7. User Delay Cost Model and Facilities Maintenance Cost Model for a Terminal Control Area : Volume 3. User's Manual and Program Documentation for the Facilities Maintenance Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    The Facilities Maintenance Cost Model (FMCM) is an analytic model designed to calculate expected annual labor costs of maintenance within a given FAA maintenance sector. The model is programmed in FORTRAN IV and has been demonstrated on the CDC Krono...

  8. VENVAL : a plywood mill cost accounting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter

    1991-01-01

    This report documents a package of computer programs called VENVAL. These programs prepare plywood mill data for a linear programming (LP) model that, in turn, calculates the optimum mix of products to make, given a set of technologies and market prices. (The software to solve a linear program is not provided and must be obtained separately.) Linear programming finds...

  9. Cost effectiveness of two army physical fitness programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A; Metter, E Jeffrey; Fleg, Jerome L; Weinstein, Ali A; Frick, Kevin D

    2013-12-01

    Repeated failure in the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is associated with lower fitness level, premature discharge, and significant career disruption, at high economic and health costs to the individual soldier and the U.S. Army. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to estimate the health and economic implications of two exercise interventions for Army National Guard (ARNG) soldiers who had failed the APFT, a traditional remediation program and a new pedometer-based program called Fitness for Life, involving individual counseling and follow-up telephone calls. Effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed in terms of APFT pass rates and calculated 10-year coronary heart disease risk. Costs were calculated based on tracking of resources used in the programs. APFT pass rates were 54.3% and 47.9%, respectively, for traditional and Fitness for Life programs, p = not significant. Neither program affected 10-year coronary heart disease risk. For assumed APFT pass rates up to 40% without any formal remediation, both the traditional remediation program and the ARNG Fitness for Life intervention had cost savings without significant group differences. Depending on the ARNG unit and personnel preference, although the Fitness for Life Program was more expensive and thus less cost-effective, either program could be cost-effective and of benefit to the military. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. How to calculate avoided costs in a cogeneration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, H.

    1985-09-01

    When calculating the value of heat recovered from engine exhaust in a cogeneration cycle, some energy managers and engineers use the 3413 standard of evaluation: that is, that 3413 Btu of recovered engine exhaust heat has a financial value equivalent to the cost of one kilowatt hour of utility-purchased electricity. The standard establishing 3413 Btu as the equivalent of one kilowatt hour is valid where the heat output from a 1000-watt electric resistance heater is used to add 3413 Btu from electric resistance heat to 23.70 pounds of water in one hour. The temperature of that amount of water will, in one hour, increase 144/sup 0/F (3413/23.70 = 144). To avoid the latent heat range, the starting temperature of the water must not be greater than 67/sup 0/F at sea level. Unless the 3413 standard is understood, it can lead to expensive mistakes in projected avoided costs.

  11. 47 CFR 65.305 - Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Carriers § 65.305 Calculation of the weighted average cost of capital. (a) The composite weighted average cost of capital is the sum of the cost of debt, the cost of preferred stock, and the cost of equity... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of the weighted average cost of...

  12. Energy cost calculations for exercise prescription: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D P

    2000-07-01

    Recent research has resulted in a number of recommended changes in how fitness professionals should prescribe target workloads and calculate the energy cost of exercise. The principal changes are in the use of oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R) as an alternative to percentage of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) for prescribing exercise intensity, the use of net VO2 rather than gross VO2 for the calculation of caloric expenditure during exercise, and a modification of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) equation for calculating the oxygen cost of leg cycle ergometry. The VO2R method of prescribing exercise workloads is similar to the heart rate reserve (HRR) method of prescribing target heart rates, i.e. the target workload is established at a given percentage of the difference between maximal and resting VO2. Several recent studies have shown that there is a discrepancy between the exercise intensity at given percentages of HRR and VO2max, but that HRR and VO2R yield equivalent exercise intensities. The use of VO2R in exercise prescription provides more accurate target workloads, especially for individuals with a low fitness level. Net VO2 during exercise is that amount above resting VO2 due to the exercise itself. A recent recommendation is to employ net VO2 in the calculation of the caloric expenditure during exercise, so as not to overestimate potential bodyweight loss. Several recent studies of leg cycling ergometry have yielded equations for the estimation of VO2 that include a term for unloaded cycling, i.e. the oxygen cost of moving the legs against zero resistance. The equations from these studies provide more accurate estimations of cycling VO2 than the existing ACSM equation, and a new standardised equation has been developed and adopted by the ACSM. The new equation is especially useful for improving the accuracy of VO2 estimates during low intensity leg cycle ergometry. The ACSM equation for bench stepping has also been modified to include

  13. Applied Research of Enterprise Cost Control Based on Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This paper researches the enterprise cost control through the linear programming model, and analyzes the restriction factors of the labor of enterprise production, raw materials, processing equipment, sales price, and other factors affecting the enterprise income, so as to obtain an enterprise cost control model based on the linear programming. This model can calculate rational production mode in the case of limited resources, and acquire optimal enterprise income. The production guiding program and scheduling arrangement of the enterprise can be obtained through calculation results, so as to provide scientific and effective guidance for the enterprise production. This paper adds the sensitivity analysis in the linear programming model, so as to learn about the stability of the enterprise cost control model based on linear programming through the sensitivity analysis, and verify the rationality of the model, and indicate the direction for the enterprise cost control. The calculation results of the model can provide a certain reference for the enterprise planning in the market economy environment, which have strong reference and practical significance in terms of the enterprise cost control.

  14. Calculation of the Average Cost per Case of Dengue Fever in Mexico Using a Micro-Costing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The increasing burden of dengue fever (DF) in the Americas, and the current epidemic in previously unaffected countries, generate major costs for national healthcare systems. There is a need to quantify the average cost per DF case. In Mexico, few data are available on costs, despite DF being endemic in some areas. Extrapolations from studies in other countries may prove unreliable and are complicated by the two main Mexican healthcare systems (the Secretariat of Health [SS] and the Mexican Social Security Institute [IMSS]). The present study aimed to generate specific average DF cost-per-case data for Mexico using a micro-costing approach. Methods Expected medical costs associated with an ideal management protocol for DF (denoted ´ideal costs´) were compared with the medical costs of current treatment practice (denoted ´real costs´) in 2012. Real cost data were derived from chart review of DF cases and interviews with patients and key personnel from 64 selected hospitals and ambulatory care units in 16 states for IMSS and SS. In both institutions, ideal and real costs were estimated using the program, actions, activities, tasks, inputs (PAATI) approach, a micro-costing technique developed by us. Results Clinical pathways were obtained for 1,168 patients following review of 1,293 charts. Ideal and real costs for SS patients were US$165.72 and US$32.60, respectively, in the outpatient setting, and US$587.77 and US$490.93, respectively, in the hospital setting. For IMSS patients, ideal and real costs were US$337.50 and US$92.03, respectively, in the outpatient setting, and US$2,042.54 and US$1,644.69 in the hospital setting. Conclusions The markedly higher ideal versus real costs may indicate deficiencies in the actual care of patients with DF. It may be necessary to derive better estimates with micro-costing techniques and compare the ideal protocol with current practice when calculating these costs, as patients do not always receive optimal care

  15. Calculation of the Average Cost per Case of Dengue Fever in Mexico Using a Micro-Costing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubieta-Zavala, Adriana; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Ramírez-Chávez, Adrian; García-Valladares, Luis; López-Cervantes, Malaquias; López Yescas, Juan Guillermo; Durán-Arenas, Luis

    2016-08-01

    The increasing burden of dengue fever (DF) in the Americas, and the current epidemic in previously unaffected countries, generate major costs for national healthcare systems. There is a need to quantify the average cost per DF case. In Mexico, few data are available on costs, despite DF being endemic in some areas. Extrapolations from studies in other countries may prove unreliable and are complicated by the two main Mexican healthcare systems (the Secretariat of Health [SS] and the Mexican Social Security Institute [IMSS]). The present study aimed to generate specific average DF cost-per-case data for Mexico using a micro-costing approach. Expected medical costs associated with an ideal management protocol for DF (denoted ´ideal costs´) were compared with the medical costs of current treatment practice (denoted ´real costs´) in 2012. Real cost data were derived from chart review of DF cases and interviews with patients and key personnel from 64 selected hospitals and ambulatory care units in 16 states for IMSS and SS. In both institutions, ideal and real costs were estimated using the program, actions, activities, tasks, inputs (PAATI) approach, a micro-costing technique developed by us. Clinical pathways were obtained for 1,168 patients following review of 1,293 charts. Ideal and real costs for SS patients were US$165.72 and US$32.60, respectively, in the outpatient setting, and US$587.77 and US$490.93, respectively, in the hospital setting. For IMSS patients, ideal and real costs were US$337.50 and US$92.03, respectively, in the outpatient setting, and US$2,042.54 and US$1,644.69 in the hospital setting. The markedly higher ideal versus real costs may indicate deficiencies in the actual care of patients with DF. It may be necessary to derive better estimates with micro-costing techniques and compare the ideal protocol with current practice when calculating these costs, as patients do not always receive optimal care.

  16. [Cost analysis of the colorectal neoplasm screen program in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ayan; Dong, Pei; Yan, Xiaoling; Hu, Guangyu; Chen, Qingkun; Qiu, Wuqi

    2015-05-01

    To conduct with a cost analysis of the colorectal neoplasm screening program in Beijing, and provide data evidence for decision making. Based on stratified cluster sampling method, we carried out a 2-stage colorectal neoplasm screening program within 6 districts, Dongcheng, Xicheng, Chaoyang, Haidian, Fengtai and Shijingshan, of Beijing city between October, 2012 to May. 2013. The first stage of the program was to conducting a cancer risk level evaluation for community residents who were forty years older and the second stage's task was to providing clinical exam for those high risk people who were selected from the first stage. There were about 12 953 residents were involved in this program. We calculated the main cost of the colorectal neoplasm screen program in Beijing. Then estimate the cost of detecting one Colorectal Neoplasm patient of this program and compare it with the total treatment cost for a patient. 2 487 high risk residents were selected by the first stage and 1 055 of them made appointment for the colonoscopy exam but only 375 accepted the exam, participate rate was 35.5%. 9 neoplasm cancer patients and 71 pre-cancer patient were found at the second stage, the detection rate were 69.2/100 000 and 546/100 000, respectively. The direct input for this neoplasm screening program was 227 100 CNY and the transport expense was 4 200 CNY in the calculations. The cost for detecting one cancer patient was about 19 900 CNY. Comparing with the total medical care cost of a cancer patient (1 282 800 CNY), especially for those have been diagnosed as middle to end stage cancer, the screening program (cost 842 800 CNY) might help to reduce the total health expenditure about 128 700 CNY, based on 12 953 local residents age above 40 years old. An colonoscopy based colorectal neoplasm screening program showed its function on medical expenditure saving and might have advantage on health social labor creating.

  17. HOW TO CALCULATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS? CASE COMPANY GRAFICA CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitel, Becerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies spend on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

  18. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  19. HP-67 calculator programs for thermodynamic data and phase diagram calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, L.

    1978-05-25

    This report is a supplement to a tabulation of the thermodynamic and phase data for the 100 binary systems of Mo with the elements from H to Lr. The calculations of thermodynamic data and phase equilibria were carried out from 5000/sup 0/K to low temperatures. This report presents the methods of calculation used. The thermodynamics involved is rather straightforward and the reader is referred to any advanced thermodynamic text. The calculations were largely carried out using an HP-65 programmable calculator. In this report, those programs are reformulated for use with the HP-67 calculator; great reduction in the number of programs required to carry out the calculation results.

  20. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Breuer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

  1. School District Program Cost Accounting: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the value for school districts of a program cost accounting system and examines different approaches to generating program cost data, with particular emphasis on the "cost allocation to program system" (CAPS) and the traditional "transaction-based system." (JG)

  2. Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accounting and cost calculation, in the attempt to classify the expenses which accomplish the production cost, accordingly to ABC method.

  3. Foundations of Financial Accounting Organization and Cost Calculation using Activity-Based Costing Method in Romanian Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accounting and cost calculation, in the attempt to classify the expenses which accomplish the production cost, accordingly to ABC method.

  4. Newnes circuit calculations pocket book with computer programs

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Circuit Calculations Pocket Book: With Computer Programs presents equations, examples, and problems in circuit calculations. The text includes 300 computer programs that help solve the problems presented. The book is comprised of 20 chapters that tackle different aspects of circuit calculation. The coverage of the text includes dc voltage, dc circuits, and network theorems. The book also covers oscillators, phasors, and transformers. The text will be useful to electrical engineers and other professionals whose work involves electronic circuitry.

  5. Mathematica as program support in the integral calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatanovska, Biljana; Stojanova, Aleksandra; Kocaleva, Mirjana; Stojkovic, Natasa; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give а connection between the mathematical notions and using the computer as educational support at university level. Specifically, mathematical notions used in integral calculations will be explained with help of computer program. The notions, indefinite and definite integral, their calculations and their applications can be easily understand using the computer programs for their presentation. Images obtained with computer programs allows the students to better understand a...

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Multidisciplinary Management Program and Exercise Training Program in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Weixiong; Yi, Anji; Jhamnani, Sunny; Wang, Shi-Yi

    2017-10-15

    Heart failure causes significant health and financial burdens for patients and society. Multidisciplinary management program (MMP) and exercise training program (ETP) have been reported as cost-effective in improving health outcomes, yet no study has compared the 2 programs. We constructed a Markov model to simulate life year (LY) gained and total costs in usual care (UC), MMP, and ETP. The probability of transitions between states and healthcare costs were extracted from previous literature. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) over a 10-year horizon. Model robustness was assessed through 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The expected LY for patients treated with UC, MMP, and ETP was 7.6, 8.2, and 8.4 years, respectively. From a societal perspective, the expected cost of MMP was $20,695, slightly higher than the cost of UC ($20,092). The cost of ETP was much higher ($48,378) because of its high implementation expense and the wage loss it incurred. The ICER of MMP versus UC was $976 per LY gained, and the ICER of ETP versus MMP was $165,702 per LY gained. The results indicated that, under current cost-effectiveness threshold, MMP is cost-effective compared with UC, and ETP is not cost-effective compared with MMP. However, ETP is cost-effective compared with MMP from a healthcare payer's perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Calculation of comparative utilisation and cost: a South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N2O should probably be used conservatively as it increases the anaesthetic cost and contributes to pollution and ozone depletion. Propofol TCI can be considered instead of sevoflurane inhalational anaesthesia for longer procedures. Keywords: cost of anaesthesia; inhalational anaesthesia, intravenous anaesthesia, ...

  8. 7 CFR 246.14 - Program costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the fulfillment of Program objectives are to be considered allowable costs. The two types of nutrition... to two hematological tests for anemia per individual per certification period. The first test shall be to determine anemia status. The second test may be performed only in follow up to a finding of...

  9. 47 CFR 65.300 - Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the cost of capital. 65.300 Section 65.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.300 Calculations of the components and weights of the cost of capital. (a... unreasonable. (b) Excluded from cost of capital calculations made pursuant to § 65.300 shall be those sources...

  10. National Stormwater Calculator: Low Impact Development Stormwater Control Cost Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. EPA has developed the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) to help support local, state, and national stormwater management objectives to reduce runoff through infiltration and retention using green i...

  11. Steam Technical Brief: How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractice Steam Technical Brief helps you calculate the true cost of steam. Knowing the correct cost is important for many reasons and all of them have to do with improving the company's bottom line.

  12. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  13. Cost Functions for Airframe Production Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    were the foundation for the present study. D. Aproach Our goal of unifying the previously separate methods of describing program costs led us to adopt...and procedures on other program data. 4. Write the final report. The first task was to conduct a detailed residual analysis and sensitivity analysis...variables in (3.104), it is possible to write Q as a function of Z. Q(Z) = k1 [-AOZ’(T)/-Il/0 z(t) 1-6 ) Z"[I-Z-1(T)Z" I-I/dZ. (3.105) This integral

  14. CALPAN: A Microcomputer Program for Calculating Accounting Prices Using Input-Output Techniques. User's Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Elio H Londero; Roberto Soto

    2004-01-01

    CALPAN is a set of DOS programs for microcomputers, designed to calculate accounting price ratios using input-output techniques. It also serves to calculate domestic resource costs of foreign exchange and other useful preprogrammed operations, as well as to perform arithmetic operations with matrices. A ZIP file contains the manual in PDF format and the ecalpro.exe file with the program. To install the program run the ecalpro.exe file and when asked give the destination folder (e.g. c:/calpan...

  15. [Cost-effectiveness analysis on colorectal cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q C; Ye, D; Jiang, X Y; Li, Q L; Yao, K Y; Wang, J B; Jin, M J; Chen, K

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening program in different age groups from the view of health economics. Methods: The screening compliance rates, detection rates in different age groups were calculated by using the data from colorectal cancer screening program in Jiashan county, Zhejiang province. The differences in indicator among age groups were analyzed with χ(2) test or trend χ(2) test. The ratios of cost to the number of case were calculated according to cost statistics. Results: The detection rates of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) positivity, advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer and early stage cancer increased with age, while the early diagnosis rates were negatively associated with age. After exclusion the younger counterpart, the cost-effectiveness of individuals aged >50 years could be reduced by 15%-30%. Conclusion: From health economic perspective, it is beneficial to start colorectal cancer screening at age of 50 years to improve the efficiency of the screening.

  16. Calculating skill mix: implications for patient outcomes and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah; Griffiths, Peter; Maben, Jill

    2009-12-01

    Debate continues about the hierarchy of skilled roles in the nursing workforce. For example, should there be grades of qualified nurses other than registered nurses? Should all registered nurses be prepared to degree level? And to what extent should the nursing workforce comprise staff who are not qualified as nurses? Such questions raise critical issues about how different configurations of staff affect patient care outcomes and whether judgements can be made about their cost effectiveness. This Policy+ article refers to systematically reviewed, international evidence in considering the implications for UK nursing of the inclusion of a second-level qualified nurse in the skill mix of the nursing workforce.

  17. Health care costs attributable to overweight calculated in a standardized way for three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lette, M.; Bemelmans, W.J.; Breda, J.; Slobbe, L.C.; Dias, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a tool to calculate health care costs attributable to overweight in a comparable and standardized way. The purpose is to describe the methodological principles of the tool and to put it into use by calculating and comparing the costs attributable to overweight for The

  18. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed...... in Euro. The results revealed an estimated total cost of 310 Euro per included child (net present value) in the 3-year program. Half of the costs were attributed to the first year of the program and the costs of manpower constituted 45% of the total costs. When the total cost was reduced with the cost......The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively...

  19. Calculating Optimum sowing factor: A tool to evaluate sowing strategies and minimize seedling production cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates how to use an excel spreadsheet as a decision-making tool to determine optimum sowing factor to minimize seedling production cost. Factors incorporated into the spreadsheet calculations include germination percentage, seeder accuracy, cost per seed, cavities per block, costs of handling, thinning, and transplanting labor, and more. In addition to...

  20. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the “one hospital” approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the “one hospital” model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital’s cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  1. CHEF An Interactive Program for Accelerator Optics Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Michelotti, Leo

    2005-01-01

    We introduce CHEF, a program built on a "Collaborative Hierarchical Exploratory Framework" for doing optical calculations in accelerator physics. CHEF organizes and shares information between independent components that employ graphical user interfaces for interactive use. Among them are: a browser to display the beamline model's structure; a site viewer to show a line's geometry; phase space windows to oversee development of tracking calculations; a trace window to display the passage of a probe particle through beam position monitors; a plotter for displaying optical functions; a parser which constructs beamline models defined in MAD8 format and allows for interactive editing and debugging of the lattice files. Calculations are carried out by a hierarchy of C++ class libraries, most notably: MXYZPTLK handles automatic differentiation and differential algebra; BEAMLINE contains classes for modeling accelerator components; PHYSICS_TOOLKIT encapsulates specific calculations. Python bindings to these libraries ...

  2. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within...... a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results...... modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility...

  3. Implications of cost optimum calculations on energy performance requirements in Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    This report summarises the work done within the Concerted Action Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (CA EPBD) from January 2011 to May 2014 in order to meet the European Commission's requirement for calculating cost-optimal levels of buildings’ energy performance for new and existing...... buildings. The requirement for performing the calculations is stated in the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (recast) 2010/31/EU1. The calculation procedure is outlined in the comparative methodology framework2 for calculating cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements...

  4. Programming PHREEQC calculations with C++ and Python a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Scott R.; Parkhurst, David L.; Muller, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The new IPhreeqc module provides an application programming interface (API) to facilitate coupling of other codes with the U.S. Geological Survey geochemical model PHREEQC. Traditionally, loose coupling of PHREEQC with other applications required methods to create PHREEQC input files, start external PHREEQC processes, and process PHREEQC output files. IPhreeqc eliminates most of this effort by providing direct access to PHREEQC capabilities through a component object model (COM), a library, or a dynamically linked library (DLL). Input and calculations can be specified through internally programmed strings, and all data exchange between an application and the module can occur in computer memory. This study compares simulations programmed in C++ and Python that are tightly coupled with IPhreeqc modules to the traditional simulations that are loosely coupled to PHREEQC. The study compares performance, quantifies effort, and evaluates lines of code and the complexity of the design. The comparisons show that IPhreeqc offers a more powerful and simpler approach for incorporating PHREEQC calculations into transport models and other applications that need to perform PHREEQC calculations. The IPhreeqc module facilitates the design of coupled applications and significantly reduces run times. Even a moderate knowledge of one of the supported programming languages allows more efficient use of PHREEQC than the traditional loosely coupled approach.

  5. THE PARTICULARITIES OF THE COST CALCULATION METHOD ON COMMANDS IN FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Sabou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the importance of the method on commands in cost calculation and the particularities of the cost calculation method on commands in the furniture industry. This paper presents a hypotetical study on the method on commands, considering the observations made during 2013-2014, on how it is organized and managed accounts management using method on commands.By presenting this hypothetical model about the accounting in management accounting using the method on commands, the paper contributes to the correct application of this method in practice, specifically in management accounting in companies from the furniture industry. In my opinion the method on commands is an appropriate method for achieving management accounting for companies that have as main activity the production of furniture. When applying the method on commands in cost calculation and in management accounting, the companies must to consider the particularities of the cost calculation, in the furniture industry, like: technical and economic factors from this sector, the technical details of each command, the codification of the commands, planning materials and labor costs for each command, monitoring and recording production costs, registration of the direct costs, distribution of the indirect costs on commands, registration of the indirect costs and registration in management accounting.

  6. The impact of patient assistance programs and the 340B Drug Pricing Program on medication cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellon, Yelba M; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Masatsugu, Miles; Contreras, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Patient assistance programs and the 340B Drug Pricing Program promise to improve the financial stability, better serve vulnerable patients, and decrease the burden of cost for uninsured patients. Our objective is to examine the financial impact that PAPs and the 340B Program have on improving medication cost. Retrospective analysis of medication dispensary data. Dispensary data for uninsured patients obtaining medications at 2 community health centers were collected from February 1 to February 29, 2012. Uninsured patients were divided into 2 samples: (1) patients receiving PAP medications and (2) patients receiving 340B medications. The main outcome measured was the patient's cost savings. Cost savings were calculated based on the amount a medication would have cost had it been purchased by patients at prices found on Epocrates software (drugstore.com). A paired sample t test model using continuous variables was utilized to calculate confidence intervals. A total of 1420 PAP and 2772 340B individual medications were dispensed to uninsured patients in February 2012. For patients receiving PAP medications the mean ± standard deviation (SD) for age = 52 ± 10. Average cost was $0.11 (95% CI, $0.04-$0.17) and average savings was $617.36 (95% Cl, $581.32-$653.40). For patients receiving 340B medications the mean ±SD for age = 50 ± 14. Average cost was $11.50 (95% CI, $10.55-$12.45). Average saving was $62.31 (95% CI, $57.99-$66.63). PAPs and 340B provide significant medication savings for uninsured patient. More research is needed to establish "best practices" for the successful integration of PAPs.

  7. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level...

  8. Program developed for CO{sub 2} system calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, E.; Wallace, D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Allison, L.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1998-02-01

    The program CO2SYS performs calculations relating parameters of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) system in seawater and freshwater. The program uses two of the four measurable parameters of the CO{sub 2} system [total alkalinity (TA), total inorganic CO{sub 2} (TCO{sub 2}), pH, and either fugacity (fCO{sub 2}) or partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2})] to calculate the other two parameters at a set of input conditions (temperature and pressure) and a set of output conditions chosen by the user. It replaces and extends the programs CO2SYSTM.EXE, FCO2TCO2.EXE, PHTCO2.EXE, and CO2BTCH.EXE, which were released in May 1995. It may be run in single-input mode or batch-input mode and has a variety of options for the various constants and parameters used. An on-screen information section is available that includes documentation on various topics relevant to the program. This program may be run on any 80 x 86 computer equipped with the DOS operating system by simply typing CO2SYS at the prompt after loading the executable file CO2SYS.EXE.

  9. CALQ8: A FORTRAN-IV Calculator Emulation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-18

    performed In a solution chemistry laboratory. The environment in which this program was developed, tested and is used, includes a Hewlett-Packard Model 1000...34Inte- grated Matl’ Calculator Program." b. "Estructura de un Simulador de Calculadora Anologica (CAN), Revista de Informatica y Automatica 11 37...RNUO) J426 930 KSNFUJQ:=9 3427 ?40 i F(IFACTO, IiE ,77)GO TO N6 0428 1 cACTO:888 042? ;SQXP=:77 3430 .7:j 0431 D0750 ..:i,VOUt G432 9S0 F--VIL 0433 x h U

  10. Study of the environmental costs to nuclear power plants using the SIMPACTS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia, E-mail: fmenzel@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear energy presents advantages in comparison with other kinds of energy sources, when their externalities are evaluated. Externality is a term that represents the side effects of production of goods or services on other people not directly involved in the activity. The externalities can be identified and related to the term environmental cost. The environmental cost is a externality that somehow affects the environment, converted into economic terms, to then be compared with other costs of an action or enterprise. The environmental cost can be calculated through programs for that purpose, however for the nuclear area is the most used SIMPACTS, developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The motivation for this work arose from the need to have a complete assessment of environmental costs from nuclear power reactors, although it is known that this kind of form of energy generation show an advantage over others with regard to externalities. This work is the first step in implementing the program SIMPACTS in plant Angra 2 in order to calculate the environmental cost of their operation. The objective is to develop a methodology for calculating environmental cost for nuclear power reactors. SIMPACTS program will be used to identify the advantages and disadvantages of a cost analysis of environmental and perform the calculation of environmental costs for Angra 2, with the aim of minimizing the environmental impacts of its operation. From an extensive literature search, is presented in this paper the methodology for calculating the environmental cost of the program SIMPACTS and some results of calculations with the environmental cost in international power reactors other power generation plants. (author)

  11. Cost estimation for unmanned lunar and planetary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, J. H.; Pekar, P. R.; Spadoni, D. J.; Stone, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    A basic model is presented for estimating the cost of unmanned lunar and planetary programs. Cost data were collected and analyzed for eight lunar and planetary programs. Total cost was separated into the following components: labor, overhead, materials, and technical support. The study determined that direct labor cost of unmanned lunar and planetary programs comprises 30 percent of the total program cost. Twelve program categories were defined for modeling: six spacecraft subsystem categories (science, structure, propulsion, electrical power, communications, and guidance and integration, test and quality assurance, launch and flight operations, ground equipment, systems analysis and engineering, and program management). An analysis showed that on a percentage basis, direct labor cost and direct labor manhours compare on a one-to-one ratio. Therefore, direct labor hours is used as the parameter for predicting cost, with the advantage of eliminating the effect of inflation on the analysis.

  12. A practical approach for calculating reliable cost estimates from observational data: application to cost analyses in maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Jason L; Comins, Meg M; Chandler, Kristen; Mogos, Mulubrhan F; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2013-08-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) and cost-effectiveness analysis are valuable tools for informing health policy and clinical care decisions. Despite the increased availability of rich observational databases with economic measures, few researchers have the skills needed to conduct valid and reliable cost analyses for CER. The objectives of this paper are to (i) describe a practical approach for calculating cost estimates from hospital charges in discharge data using publicly available hospital cost reports, and (ii) assess the impact of using different methods for cost estimation in maternal and child health (MCH) studies by conducting economic analyses on gestational diabetes (GDM) and pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity. In Florida, we have constructed a clinically enhanced, longitudinal, encounter-level MCH database covering over 2.3 million infants (and their mothers) born alive from 1998 to 2009. Using this as a template, we describe a detailed methodology to use publicly available data to calculate hospital-wide and department-specific cost-to-charge ratios (CCRs), link them to the master database, and convert reported hospital charges to refined cost estimates. We then conduct an economic analysis as a case study on women by GDM and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) status to compare the impact of using different methods on cost estimation. Over 60 % of inpatient charges for birth hospitalizations came from the nursery/labor/delivery units, which have very different cost-to-charge markups (CCR = 0.70) than the commonly substituted hospital average (CCR = 0.29). Using estimated mean, per-person maternal hospitalization costs for women with GDM as an example, unadjusted charges ($US14,696) grossly overestimated actual cost, compared with hospital-wide ($US3,498) and department-level ($US4,986) CCR adjustments. However, the refined cost estimation method, although more accurate, did not alter our conclusions that infant/maternal hospitalization costs

  13. Cost and cost threshold analyses for 12 innovative US HIV linkage and retention in care programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kriti M; Maulsby, Catherine; Brantley, Meredith; Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Zulliger, Rose; Riordan, Maura; Charles, Vignetta; Holtgrave, David R

    2016-09-01

    Out of >1,000,000 people living with HIV in the USA, an estimated 60% were not adequately engaged in medical care in 2011. In response, AIDS United spearheaded 12 HIV linkage and retention in care programs. These programs were supported by the Social Innovation Fund, a White House initiative. Each program reflected the needs of its local population living with HIV. Economic analyses of such programs, such as cost and cost threshold analyses, provide important information for policy-makers and others allocating resources or planning programs. Implementation costs were examined from societal and payer perspectives. This paper presents the results of cost threshold analyses, which provide an estimated number of HIV transmissions that would have to be averted for each program to be considered cost-saving and cost-effective. The methods were adapted from the US Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Per client program costs ranged from $1109.45 to $7602.54 from a societal perspective. The cost-saving thresholds ranged from 0.32 to 1.19 infections averted, and the cost-effectiveness thresholds ranged from 0.11 to 0.43 infections averted by the programs. These results suggest that such programs are a sound and efficient investment towards supporting goals set by US HIV policy-makers. Cost-utility data are pending.

  14. Costs of cardiac rehabilitation and enhanced lifestyle modification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A James; Shepard, Donald S

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate payment to providers for traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and lifestyle modification programs may contribute to low utilization, but little systematic evidence exists. This article estimates and compares the per-patient costs and revenues for 3 types of secondary prevention programs: the Dr Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish), the Benson-Henry Mind/Body Medical Institute's Cardiac Wellness Program (M/BMI), and CR. The authors developed an Excel spreadsheet template for the costs of a secondary prevention program and calibrated it to 7 programs that provided the necessary data. The calibration was based on budgets, cost accounting, statistical reports, and structured interviews (in person or by telephone). The 4 lifestyle programs (2 Ornish and 2 M/BMI) cost almost 4 times as much per patient as the 3 traditional CR programs (means of $7,176 and $1,828, respectively; difference P costs averaged more than twice those of M/BMI ($9,895 and $4,458, respectively; difference P costs per patient by carefully matching program capacity to demand. In none of the programs did net revenues cover costs. The findings suggest that 4 patients could attend a traditional CR program for the cost of 1 patient in an enhanced program.

  15. The Cost of Quality Out-of-School-Time Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Lind, Christianne; Hayes, Cheryl; McMaken, Jennifer; Gersick, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Funders and program planners want to know: What does it cost to operate a high-quality after-school or summer program? This study answers that question, discovering that there is no "right" number. Cost varies substantially, depending on the characteristics of the participants, the goals of the program, who operates it and where it is located.…

  16. A process mapping model for calculating indirect costs of workplace accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallon, Romain; Imbeau, Daniel; de Marcellis-Warin, Nathalie

    2011-10-01

    This article follows an earlier one in which four criteria and four bases for the development of an indirect-cost calculation model adapted to the accuracy requirements and time constraints of workplace decision-makers were established. A two-level model for calculating indirect costs using process mapping of the organizational response to a workplace accident is presented. The model is based on data collected in interviews with those employees in charge of occupational health and safety in 10 companies of various sizes in different industry sectors. This model is the first to use process mapping to establish the indirect costs of workplace accidents. The approach allows easy identification of the duration and frequency of actions taken by stakeholders when a workplace accident occurs, facilitates the collection of the information needed to calculate indirect costs and yields a usable, precise result. A simple graphic representation of an organization's accident processes helps the user understand each accident's cost components, allowing the identification and reduction of inefficiencies in the overall process. By facilitating data collection and shortening the time needed to assess indirect costs of workplace accidents, this indirect cost calculation tool is better suited for workplace use than those currently available. Copyright © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Example of cost calculations for an operating room and a post-anaesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raft, J; Millet, F; Meistelman, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost of an operating room using data from our hospital. Using an accounting-based method helped us. Over the year 2012, the sum of direct and indirect expenses with cost sharing expenses allowed us to calculate the cost of the operating room (OR) and of the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU). The cost of the OR and PACU was €10.8 per minute of time offered. Two thirds of the direct expenses were allocated to surgery and one third to anaesthesia. Indirect expenses were 25% of the direct expenses. The cost of medications and single use medical devises was €111.45 per anaesthesia. The total cost of anaesthesia (taking into account wages and indirect expenses) was €753.14 per anaesthesia as compared to the total cost of the anaesthesia. The part of medications and single use devices for anaesthesia was 14.8% of the total cost. Despite the difficulties facing cost evaluation, this model of calculation, assisted by the cost accounting controller, helped us to have a concrete financial vision. It also shows that a global reflexion is necessary during financial decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants - global method and the method per orders - by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

  19. Using Standard-Sole Cost Method for Performance Gestion Accounting and Calculation Cost in the Machine Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliana Geta Roman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of improving and varying cost calculation methods in the machine building industry is to make them more operational and efficient in supplying the information necessary to the management in taking its decisions. The present cost calculation methods used in the machine building plants – global method and the method per orders – by which a historical cost is determined a posteriori used in deducting and post factum justification of manufacturing expenses does not offer the management the possibility to fully satisfy its need for information. We are talking about a change of conception in applying certain systems, methods and work techniques, according to the needs of efficient administration of production and the plant seen as a whole. The standard-cost method best answers to the needs of the effective management of the value side of the manufacturing process and raising economic efficiency. We consider that, in the machine building industry, these objectives can be achieved by using the standard - sole cost alternative of the standard-cost method.

  20. Purchasing motors in the light of full-cost calculation; Beschaffung von Motoren unter der Vollkostenbetrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauchle, P.; Schnyder, G.

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on how full-cost calculation can help define the optimal purchasing strategy for electrical drives. According to the authors, taking total life-cycle costs into consideration also guarantees economical operation and helps avoid unexpected service costs. The report describes the goals of the project and co-operation with industry and users. Factors influencing life-cycle costs are looked at in detail, including investments, installation and operator-training, operation and monitoring as well as maintenance and repair. Also, energy costs are looked at, as are environmental aspects and the disposal of drives taken out of service. The calculation of the economic feasibility of two types of motor is looked at. Sample Calls for Tender are presented and software for the evaluation of offers is briefly discussed.

  1. Transaction Costs from a Program Manager’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-28

    for the governments of Mexico and the Czech Republic on achieving excellence in the public sector. As an adjunct professor for the University of...we attempted to directly measure transactions costs for defense acquisition programs using the expenditures of the Program Management Office ( PMO ...as an approximate measure of the amount of transaction costs present in an acquisition program. We found that DoD does not track PMO costs

  2. The calculation of costs of postal network and universal postal service based on standard and average cost principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mladenka Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of universal postal service involves high costs for operator, especially in rural areas. The aim of this paper is to propose and test tool for managing the cost of providing universal postal service and maintaining the postal network in order to facilitate understanding of the problem in the sector. The proposed approach use standard prices and standard quantities (the redefined number of postal units, the number of employees, etc. as well as average costs for calculation of the costs of the universal postal service and postal network. The methodology provides the efficiency analysis, benchmarking and identification of causes of poor performance of management and resource allocation. It can be used for postal operators that do not have modern accounting systems.

  3. Activity computer program for calculating ion irradiation activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ben; Connolly, Brian; Read, Mark

    2017-07-01

    A computer program, Activity, was developed to predict the activity and gamma lines of materials irradiated with an ion beam. It uses the TENDL (Koning and Rochman, 2012) [1] proton reaction cross section database, the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) (Biersack et al., 2010) code, a Nuclear Data Services (NDS) radioactive decay database (Sonzogni, 2006) [2] and an ENDF gamma decay database (Herman and Chadwick, 2006) [3]. An extended version of Bateman's equation is used to calculate the activity at time t, and this equation is solved analytically, with the option to also solve by numeric inverse Laplace Transform as a failsafe. The program outputs the expected activity and gamma lines of the activated material.

  4. Costs of the multimicronutrient supplementation program in Chiclayo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Gross, Rainer; Paulini, Javier; de Romaã, Daniel López

    2006-01-01

    There is little information on the cost parameters of weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs. To assess the cost parameters and cost-effectiveness of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program in an urban population of Peru. Data from the Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]), which distributed capsules and foodlets to women and adolescent girls and to children under five, were extrapolated to a population of 100,000 inhabitants. The annual cost per community member was US$1.51. The cost-effectiveness ratio was US$0.12 per 1% of prevented anemia per community member. These costs are in the upper margin of iron supplementation alone. They will decrease notably when weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs are integrated into health packages and participation by women increases. Focusing on micronutrient deficiencies would prevent these problems, and food-distribution programs would be effectively targeted to food-deficient populations.

  5. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  6. 20 CFR 641.859 - What other special rules govern the classification of costs as administrative costs or program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... documented distributions of actual time worked or other equitable cost allocation methods. (d) Specific costs charged to an overhead or indirect cost pool that can be identified directly as a program cost must be... classification of costs as administrative costs or program costs? 641.859 Section 641.859 Employees' Benefits...

  7. Economic Appraisal of Ontario's Universal Influenza Immunization Program: A Cost-Utility Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Beate; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Bauch, Chris T.; Maetzel, Andreas; McGeer, Allison; Raboud, Janet M.; Krahn, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Background In July 2000, the province of Ontario, Canada, initiated a universal influenza immunization program (UIIP) to provide free seasonal influenza vaccines for the entire population. This is the first large-scale program of its kind worldwide. The objective of this study was to conduct an economic appraisal of Ontario's UIIP compared to a targeted influenza immunization program (TIIP). Methods and Findings A cost-utility analysis using Ontario health administrative data was performed. The study was informed by a companion ecological study comparing physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths between 1997 and 2004 in Ontario and nine other Canadian provinces offering targeted immunization programs. The relative change estimates from pre-2000 to post-2000 as observed in other provinces were applied to pre-UIIP Ontario event rates to calculate the expected number of events had Ontario continued to offer targeted immunization. Main outcome measures were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs in 2006 Canadian dollars, and incremental cost-utility ratios (incremental cost per QALY gained). Program and other costs were drawn from Ontario sources. Utility weights were obtained from the literature. The incremental cost of the program per QALY gained was calculated from the health care payer perspective. Ontario's UIIP costs approximately twice as much as a targeted program but reduces influenza cases by 61% and mortality by 28%, saving an estimated 1,134 QALYs per season overall. Reducing influenza cases decreases health care services cost by 52%. Most cost savings can be attributed to hospitalizations avoided. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is Can$10,797/QALY gained. Results are most sensitive to immunization cost and number of deaths averted. Conclusions Universal immunization against seasonal influenza was estimated to be an economically attractive intervention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

  8. Methodology to Calculate the Costs of a Floating Offshore Renewable Energy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro-Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a general methodology to calculate the life-cycle cost of floating offshore renewable energy devices, applying it to wave energy and wind energy devices. It is accounts for the contributions of the six main phases of their life-cycle: concept definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, exploitation and dismantling, the costs of which have been defined. Moreover, the energy produced is also taken into account to calculate the Levelized Cost of Energy of a floating offshore renewable energy farm. The methodology proposed has been applied to two renewable energy devices: a floating offshore wave energy device and a floating offshore wind energy device. Two locations have been considered: Aguçadoura and São Pedro de Moel, both in Portugal. Results indicate that the most important cost in terms of the life-cycle of a floating offshore renewable energy farm is the exploitation cost, followed by the manufacturing and the installation cost. In addition, the best area in terms of costs is the same independently of the type of floating offshore renewable energy considered: Aguçadoura. However, the results in terms of Levelized Cost of Energy are different: Aguçadoura is better when considering wave energy technology and the São Pedro de Moel region is the best option when considering floating wind energy technology. The method proposed aims to give a direct approach to calculate the main life-cycle cost of a floating offshore renewable energy farm. It helps to assess its feasibility and evaluating the relevant characteristics that influence it the most.

  9. Cost Estimation Lessons Learned for Future Submarine Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    North Carolina and New Mexico 30 General Dynamics Electric Boat “U.S. Navy Awards General Dynamics $14 Billion Contract for Eight Virginia- Class...NAVSEA Program Executive officer, Submarines PMO 450, June 1995. “New SSN Program Life Cycle Cost Estimate.” Naval Center for Cost Analysis: GE-1300

  10. Study on Cost of Nursing Education. Part 1: Cost of Basic Diploma Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Harold R.; Flitter, Hessel H.

    The cost analysis method developed in a National League for Nursing-Public Health Service study was adapted to determine the cost of nursing education in the sample of 126 hospital-supported programs in this study. Some of the findings were: (1) The median gross cost per student-year for educational functions was $1,100 and the median net cost…

  11. [Relationship between community-based dental health programs and health care costs for the metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Hirai, Aya; Morita, Manabu; Kodera, Ryousei

    2010-11-01

    Health care costs have been increasing year by year and health programs are needed which will allow reduction in the burden. The present community-based ecological study examined the relationship between implementation of dental health care programs and health care costs for the metabolic syndrome. We calculated the monthly health care cost for the metabolic syndrome per capita for each municipality in Okayama Prefecture (n = 27) using the national health insurance receipts for 1997 and 2007 for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disorder, cerebral vascular disorder, and atherosclerosis as principal diseases. Information was obtained from each municipality on the implementation of public dental health services consisting of 10 programs, including visits for oral hygiene guidance, health consultation for periodontal disease, preventive long-term care, participation of dental hygienists in public health service, programs for improving oral function in the aged, and etc. The municipalities were divided into two groups based on the implementation/non-implementation of each dental health program. Then, the change in health care cost for metabolic syndrome per capita between 1997 and 2007 was compared between the two groups according to each dental health program. RESULTS Health care costs for metabolic syndrome were reduced in decade in the municipalities which executed dental health care programs such as 'preventive long-term care' or 'health consultation for periodontal disease', being greater in the municipalities which did not. More decrease in health care costs was further observed in the municipalities where the other seven programs were also implemented. Any direct relationship between dental health programs and health care costs for the metabolic syndrome remains unclear. However, our data suggests that costs might be decreased in municipalities which can afford to implement dental health programs. Health care costs for the metabolic syndrome in

  12. RIS3: A program for relativistic isotope shift calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, C.; Gaidamauskas, E.; Gaigalas, G.; Godefroid, M.; Jönsson, P.

    2013-09-01

    An atomic spectral line is characteristic of the element producing the spectrum. The line also depends on the isotope. The program RIS3 (Relativistic Isotope Shift) calculates the electron density at the origin and the normal and specific mass shift parameters. Combining these electronic quantities with available nuclear data, isotope-dependent energy level shifts are determined. Program summaryProgram title:RIS3 Catalogue identifier: ADEK_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADEK_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5147 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 32869 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77. Computer: HP ProLiant BL465c G7 CTO. Operating system: Centos 5.5, which is a Linux distribution compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Advanced Server. Classification: 2.1. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADEK_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 100 (1997) 81 Subprograms used: Cat Id Title Reference ADZL_v1_1 GRASP2K VERSION 1_1 to be published. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Prediction of level and transition isotope shifts in atoms using four-component relativistic wave functions. Solution method: The nuclear motion and volume effects are treated in first order perturbation theory. Taking the zero-order wave function in terms of a configuration state expansion |Ψ>=∑μcμ|Φ(γμPJMj)>, where P, J and MJ are, respectively, the parity and angular quantum numbers, the electron density at the nucleus and the normal and specific mass shift parameters may generally be expressed as ∑cμcν where V is the relevant operator. The matrix elements, in turn, can be expressed as sums over radial integrals multiplied

  13. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  14. Managerial Accounting Principles and Cost Calculation Used by Economic Entities in the Coal Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boca (Rakos) Ileana – Sorina; Vatasoiu Cristian Ionel

    2011-01-01

    Considering the specialized work in managerial accounting, this paper aims to show which cost calculation principles are actually applied in the coal mining industry today. The methodology used in this scientific approach is of qualitative nature, using the following methods: direct observation and interview.

  15. Development of a risk-based mine closure cost calculation model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available . This research is important because currently there are a number of mines that do not have sufficient financial provision to close and rehabilitate the mines. The magnitude of the lack of funds could be reduced or eliminated if the closure cost calculation...

  16. MPBEC, a Matlab Program for Biomolecular Electrostatic Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Perez, Sandra; Marucho, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most used and efficient approaches to compute electrostatic properties of biological systems is to numerically solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. There are several software packages available that solve the PB equation for molecules in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Most of these software packages are useful for scientists with specialized training and expertise in computational biophysics. However, the user is usually required to manually take several important choices, depending on the complexity of the biological system, to successfully obtain the numerical solution of the PB equation. This may become an obstacle for researchers, experimentalists, even students with no special training in computational methodologies. Aiming to overcome this limitation, in this article we present MPBEC, a free, cross-platform, open-source software that provides non-experts in the field an easy and efficient way to perform biomolecular electrostatic calculations on single processor computers. MPBEC is a Matlab script based on the Adaptative Poisson Boltzmann Solver, one of the most popular approaches used to solve the PB equation. MPBEC does not require any user programming, text editing or extensive statistical skills, and comes with detailed user-guide documentation. As a unique feature, MPBEC includes a useful graphical user interface (GUI) application which helps and guides users to configure and setup the optimal parameters and approximations to successfully perform the required biomolecular electrostatic calculations. The GUI also incorporates visualization tools to facilitate users pre- and post- analysis of structural and electrical properties of biomolecules.

  17. MPBEC, a Matlab Program for Biomolecular Electrostatic Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Perez, Sandra; Marucho, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most used and efficient approaches to compute electrostatic properties of biological systems is to numerically solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. There are several software packages available that solve the PB equation for molecules in aqueous electrolyte solutions. Most of these software packages are useful for scientists with specialized training and expertise in computational biophysics. However, the user is usually required to manually take several important choices, depending on the complexity of the biological system, to successfully obtain the numerical solution of the PB equation. This may become an obstacle for researchers, experimentalists, even students with no special training in computational methodologies. Aiming to overcome this limitation, in this article we present MPBEC, a free, cross-platform, open-source software that provides non-experts in the field an easy and efficient way to perform biomolecular electrostatic calculations on single processor computers. MPBEC is a Matlab script based on the Adaptative Poisson-Boltzmann Solver, one of the most popular approaches used to solve the PB equation. MPBEC does not require any user programming, text editing or extensive statistical skills, and comes with detailed user-guide documentation. As a unique feature, MPBEC includes a useful graphical user interface (GUI) application which helps and guides users to configure and setup the optimal parameters and approximations to successfully perform the required biomolecular electrostatic calculations. The GUI also incorporates visualization tools to facilitate users pre- and post-analysis of structural and electrical properties of biomolecules.

  18. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. METHODS The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. RESULTS The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. CONCLUSIONS The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. PMID:27849293

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Military Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Seth L; Smith, Kenneth J; Palmer, Catherine

    2018-02-07

    Occupational noise threatens U.S. worker health and safety and commands a significant financial burden on state and federal government worker compensation programs. Previous studies suggest that hearing conservation programs have contributed to reduced occupational hearing loss for noise-exposed workers. Many military personnel are overexposed to noise and are provided hearing conservation services. Select military branches require all active duty personnel to follow hearing conservation program guidelines, regardless of individual noise exposure. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a military hearing conservation program, relative to no intervention, in relation to cases of hearing loss prevented. We employed cost-effectiveness analytic methods to compare the costs and effectiveness, in terms of hearing loss cases prevented, of a military hearing conservation program relative to no program. We used costs and probability estimates available in the literature and publicly available sources. The effectiveness of the interventions was analyzed based on whether hearing loss occurred over a 20-yr time frame. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention was $10,657 per case of hearing loss prevented. Workers were 28% less likely to sustain hearing loss in our model when they received the hearing conservation program compared with no intervention, which reflected the greater effectiveness of the hearing conservation program. Cost-effectiveness results were sensitive to estimated values for the probability of acquiring hearing loss from both interventions and the cost of hearing protection. We performed a Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis where we simultaneously varied all the model parameters to their extreme plausible bounds. When we ran 10,000 Monte Carlo iterations, we observed that the hearing conservation program was more cost-effective in 99% of cases when decision makers were willing to

  20. Conventional method for the calculation of the global energy cost of buildings; Methode conventionnelle de calcul du cout global energetique des batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    A working group driven by Electricite de France (EdF), Chauffage Fioul and Gaz de France (GdF) companies has been built with the sustain of several building engineering companies in order to clarify the use of the method of calculation of the global energy cost of buildings. This global cost is an economical decision help criterion among others. This press kit presents, first, the content of the method (input data, calculation of annual expenses, calculation of the global energy cost, display of results and limitations of the method). Then it fully describes the method and its appendixes necessary for its implementation: economical and financial context, general data of the project in progress, environmental data, occupation and comfort level, variants, investment cost of energy systems, investment cost for the structure linked with the energy system, investment cost for other invariant elements of the structure, calculation of consumptions (space heating, hot water, ventilation), maintenance costs (energy systems, structure), operation and exploitation costs, tariffs and consumption costs and taxes, actualized global cost, annualized global cost, comparison between variants. The method is applied to a council building of 23 flats taken as an example. (J.S.)

  1. [Process-oriented cost calculation in interventional radiology. A case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnken, A H; Bruners, P; Günther, R W; Rasche, C

    2012-01-01

    Currently used costing methods such as cost centre accounting do not sufficiently reflect the process-based resource utilization in medicine. The goal of this study was to establish a process-oriented cost assessment of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver and lung metastases. In each of 15 patients a detailed task analysis of the primary process of hepatic and pulmonary RF ablation was performed. Based on these data a dedicated cost calculation model was developed for each primary process. The costs of each process were computed and compared with the revenue for in-patients according to the German diagnosis-related groups (DRG) system 2010. The RF ablation of liver metastases in patients without relevant comorbidities and a low patient complexity level results in a loss of EUR 588.44, whereas the treatment of patients with a higher complexity level yields an acceptable profit. The treatment of pulmonary metastases is profitable even in cases of additional expenses due to complications. Process-oriented costing provides relevant information that is needed for understanding the economic impact of treatment decisions. It is well suited as a starting point for economically driven process optimization and reengineering. Under the terms of the German DRG 2010 system percutaneous RF ablation of lung metastases is economically reasonable, while RF ablation of liver metastases in cases of low patient complexity levels does not cover the costs.

  2. Procedure for the record, calculation and analysis of costs at the Post Company of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Lara Zayas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Company is immersed in important changes, which lead to a new economic model that requires to increase the productivity of work and to enlarge the economic efficiency by means of rational use of material resources, financial and humans. In the present work it is proposed a procedure based on the application of cost techniques, for the record, calculation and costs analysis of activities in the Post Company of Cuba in Sancti Spiritus with the objective to obtain a major efficiency from the rational use of resources.

  3. Cost calculations for decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear research facilities, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Inga [StudsvikNuclear AB (Sweden); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Iversen, Klaus [Danish Decommissioning (Denmark); Lindskog, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Salmenhaara, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Sjoeblom, R. [Tekedo AB (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    Today, it is recommended that planning of decommission should form an integral part of the activities over the life cycle of a nuclear facility. However, no actual international guideline on cost calculations exists at present. Intuitively, it might be tempting to regard costs for decommissioning of a nuclear facility as similar to those of any other plant. However, the presence of radionuclide contamination may imply that the cost is one or more orders of magnitude higher as compared to a corresponding inactive situation, the actual ratio being highly dependent on the level of contamination as well as design features and use of the facility in question. Moreover, the variations in such prerequisites are much larger than for nuclear power plants. This implies that cost calculations cannot be performed with any accuracy or credibility without a relatively detailed consideration of the radiological and other prerequisites. Application of inadequate methodologies especially at early stages has often lead to large underestimations. The goals of the project and the achievements described in the report are as follows: 1) Advice on good practice with regard to: 1a) Strategy and planning; 1b) Methodology selection; 1c) Radiological surveying; 1d) Uncertainty analysis; 2) Techniques for assessment of costs: 2a) Cost structuring; 2b) Cost estimation methodologies; 3) Compilation of data for plants, state of planning, organisations, etc.; 3a) General descriptions of relevant features of the nuclear research facilities; 3b) General plant specific data; 3c) Example of the decommissioning of the R1 research reactor in Sweden; 3d) Example of the decommissioning of the DR1 research reactor in Denmark. In addition, but not described in the present report, is the establishment of a Nordic network in the area including an internet based expert system. It should be noted that the project is planned to exist for at least three years and that the present report is an interim one

  4. An integrated approach to calculate life cycle costs of arms and military equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2013-12-01

    , costs are one of the most dominant parameters in decision-making. Modern trends in this area comprehensively perceive all costs during the life cycle of assets.In general, in the analysis of costs in the life cycle of AME there are two sets of costs: visible and invisible (hidden costs. The visible part of the costs is mainly present in decision-making and usually includes the cost of equipping units or purchase of assets. The invisible part of the costs is far more significant. Although it is larger than the visible part and covers more groups of costs, decision-makers often do not take it into account. The hidden costs include: distribution costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, training costs, inventory costs, information systems costs, the cost of disposal and write-offs, etc. The decision making problem about investment in the AME purchase and equipping is obviously of  multicriteria nature, whether an optimum combination of costs for one  technical system (AME is in question, or whether it is a choice of a system of AME among many offered. COST ANALYSIS OF A PARTICULAR  ASSET For the illustration of an integrated approach to the analysis of the cost of assets in their life-cycle, a model from the US Naval Postgraduate School, was adjusted and applied on an example of a real asset. The model is applied to the case of two  squadrons of identical aircraft based at different airports. With regard to the availability, confidentiality, and the variability of costs and reliability of the elements of AME, the calculations in the model are implemented on the basis of the estimated or orientation parameters. Essentially, the goal is to demonstrate the interdependence, mutual relations and influences of parameters and their ultimate impact on the overall cost of military assets. Applying the model to a particular example points to the fact that, in the first years of asset life, the dominant cost is that of asset procurement (cost of acquisition, cost of assets

  5. Analysis of Defense Industry Consolidation Effects on Program Acquisition Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Russell V

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis examines whether cost changes are evident following consolidation within the defense industry by conducting a regression analysis of Major Defense Acquisition Programs across 13 broad defense market sectors...

  6. Cost estimation model for advanced planetary programs, fourth edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the planetary program cost model is discussed. The Model was updated to incorporate cost data from the most recent US planetary flight projects and extensively revised to more accurately capture the information in the historical cost data base. This data base is comprised of the historical cost data for 13 unmanned lunar and planetary flight programs. The revision was made with a two fold objective: to increase the flexibility of the model in its ability to deal with the broad scope of scenarios under consideration for future missions, and to maintain and possibly improve upon the confidence in the model's capabilities with an expected accuracy of 20%. The Model development included a labor/cost proxy analysis, selection of the functional forms of the estimating relationships, and test statistics. An analysis of the Model is discussed and two sample applications of the cost model are presented.

  7. A computer program for analysis of fuelwood harvesting costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole; Giuseppe Rensi

    1985-01-01

    The fuelwood harvesting computer program (FHP) is written in FORTRAN 60 and designed to select a collection of harvest units and systems from among alternatives to satisfy specified energy requirements at a lowest cost per million Btu's as recovered in a boiler, or thousand pounds of H2O evaporative capacity kiln drying. Computed energy costs are used as a...

  8. Computer programs for capital cost estimation, lifetime economic performance simulation, and computation of cost indexes for laser fusion and other advanced technology facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendergrass, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Three FORTRAN programs, CAPITAL, VENTURE, and INDEXER, have been developed to automate computations used in assessing the economic viability of proposed or conceptual laser fusion and other advanced-technology facilities, as well as conventional projects. The types of calculations performed by these programs are, respectively, capital cost estimation, lifetime economic performance simulation, and computation of cost indexes. The codes permit these three topics to be addressed with considerable sophistication commensurate with user requirements and available data.

  9. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Use of linear programming...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...... programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods...

  10. Methodology for Calculating Cost-per-Mile for Current and Future Vehicle Powertrain Technologies, with Projections to 2024: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Timbario, T. A.; Timbario, T. J.; Laffen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, several cost-per-mile calculators exist that can provide estimates of acquisition and operating costs for consumers and fleets. However, these calculators are limited in their ability to determine the difference in cost per mile for consumer versus fleet ownership, to calculate the costs beyond one ownership period, to show the sensitivity of the cost per mile to the annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and to estimate future increases in operating and ownership costs. Oftentimes, these tools apply a constant percentage increase over the time period of vehicle operation, or in some cases, no increase in direct costs at all over time. A more accurate cost-per-mile calculator has been developed that allows the user to analyze these costs for both consumers and fleets. The calculator was developed to allow simultaneous comparisons of conventional light-duty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, mild and full hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This paper is a summary of the development by the authors of a more accurate cost-per-mile calculator that allows the user to analyze vehicle acquisition and operating costs for both consumer and fleets. Cost-per-mile results are reported for consumer-operated vehicles travelling 15,000 miles per year and for fleets travelling 25,000 miles per year.

  11. Costs of diarrheal disease and the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination program in kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flem, Elmira T; Latipov, Renat; Nurmatov, Zuridin S; Xue, Yiting; Kasymbekova, Kaliya T; Rheingans, Richard D

    2009-11-01

    We examined the cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus immunization program in Kyrgyzstan, a country eligible for vaccine funding from the GAVI Alliance. We estimated the burden of rotavirus disease and its economic consequences by using national and international data. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from government and societal perspectives, along with a range of 1-way sensitivity analyses. Rotavirus-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits cost US$580,864 annually, of which $421,658 (73%) is direct medical costs and $159,206 (27%) is nonmedical and indirect costs. With 95% coverage, vaccination could prevent 75% of rotavirus-related hospitalizations and deaths and 56% of outpatient visits and could avert $386,193 (66%) in total costs annually. The medical break-even price at which averted direct medical costs equal vaccination costs is $0.65/dose; the societal break-even price is $1.14/dose for a 2-dose regimen. At the current GAVI Alliance-subsidized vaccine price of $0.60/course, rotavirus vaccination is cost-saving for the government. Vaccination is cost-effective at a vaccine price $9.41/dose, according to the cost-effectiveness standard set by the 2002 World Health Report. Addition of rotavirus vaccines to childhood immunization in Kyrgyzstan could substantially reduce disease burden and associated costs. Vaccination would be cost-effective from the national perspective at a vaccine price $9.41 per dose.

  12. Low Cost Motor Demonstration Program. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    Ib/cu ft foam mandrel (S/N 24) and Motor T-640-2 employed a 17.5 Ib/cu ft mandrel (S/N 28). The change in igniter charge makeup from all size 3A...8217:f ;r.ii ■: rr ■ - — l| fX »-j 4 ’_;:_ ’d/ — t; ■ (’ : ’ -- (;-,’,: f 1 ■ 1 :rL /J :rj _" £ •tit Fpi :t"j .r f. •;.:.l..: ■ ■^i.v \\ Si / fei Wt_...not include cutting or finishing costs. t Si 455 ^mtämim^^^’^*^mM^» fx >imr Arnim ,. ffmß:: -»•«■ ••**r**f F«! iltaWHiMiUiMi ’mm HM m—mm~m mmm

  13. ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

  14. Costs of Development and Maintenance of an Internet Program for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Margaret; Liberti, Lauren; Whittemore, Robin

    2015-07-01

    Many adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have difficulty completing self-management tasks within the context of their social environments. Group-based approaches to psycho-educational support have been shown to prevent declines in glucose control, but are challenging to implement due to youths' many activities and costs. A novel solution is providing psycho-educational support via the internet. The purpose of this study is to describe the cost of developing and maintaining two internet psycho-educational programs, both of which have been shown to improve health outcomes in adolescents with T1D. We calculated actual costs of personnel and programming in the development of TEENCOPE(™) and Managing Diabetes, two highly interactive programs that were evaluated in a multi-site clinical trial (n=320). Cost calculations were set at U.S. dollars and converted to value for 2013 as expenses were incurred over 6 years. Development costs over 1.5 years totaled $324,609, with the majority of costs being for personnel to develop and write content in a creative and engaging format, to get feedback from teens on content and a prototype, and IT programming. Maintenance of the program, including IT support, a part-time moderator to assure safety of the discussion board (0.5-1 hour/week), and yearly update of content was $43,845/year, or $137.00 per youth over 4.5 years. Overall, program and site development were relatively expensive, but the program reach was high, including non-white youth from 4 geographically distinct regions. Once developed, maintenance was minimal. With greater dissemination, cost-per-youth would decrease markedly, beginning to offset the high development expense.

  15. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  16. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  17. Planning influenza vaccination programs: a cost benefit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Ian G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although annual influenza vaccination could decrease the significant economic and humanistic burden of influenza in the United States, immunization rates are below recommended levels, and concerns remain whether immunization programs can be cost beneficial. The research objective was to compare cost benefit of various immunization strategies from employer, employee, and societal perspectives. Methods An actuarial model was developed based on the published literature to estimate the costs and benefits of influenza immunization programs. Useful features of the model included customization by population age and risk-level, potential pandemic risk, and projection year. Various immunization strategies were modelled for an average U.S. population of 15,000 persons vaccinated in pharmacies or doctor’s office during the 2011/12 season. The primary outcome measure reported net cost savings per vaccinated (PV from the perspective of various stakeholders. Results Given a typical U.S. population, an influenza immunization program will be cost beneficial for employers when more than 37% of individuals receive vaccine in non-traditional settings such as pharmacies. The baseline scenario, where 50% of persons would be vaccinated in non-traditional settings, estimated net savings of $6 PV. Programs that limited to pharmacy setting ($31 PV or targeted persons with high-risk comorbidities ($83 PV or seniors ($107 PV were found to increase cost benefit. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the scenario-based findings. Conclusions Both universal and targeted vaccination programs can be cost beneficial. Proper planning with cost models can help employers and policy makers develop strategies to improve the impact of immunization programs.

  18. Costs of vaccine programs across 94 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Allison; Ozawa, Sachiko; Grewal, Simrun; Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Gorham, Katrin M; Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-05-07

    While new mechanisms such as advance market commitments and co-financing policies of the GAVI Alliance are allowing low- and middle-income countries to gain access to vaccines faster than ever, understanding the full scope of vaccine program costs is essential to ensure adequate resource mobilization. This costing analysis examines the vaccine costs, supply chain costs, and service delivery costs of immunization programs for routine immunization and for supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) for vaccines related to 18 antigens in 94 countries across the decade, 2011-2020. Vaccine costs were calculated using GAVI price forecasts for GAVI-eligible countries, and assumptions from the PAHO Revolving Fund and UNICEF for middle-income countries not supported by the GAVI Alliance. Vaccine introductions and coverage levels were projected primarily based on GAVI's Adjusted Demand Forecast. Supply chain costs including costs of transportation, storage, and labor were estimated by developing a mechanistic model using data generated by the HERMES discrete event simulation models. Service delivery costs were abstracted from comprehensive multi-year plans for the majority of GAVI-eligible countries and regression analysis was conducted to extrapolate costs to additional countries. The analysis shows that the delivery of the full vaccination program across 94 countries would cost a total of $62 billion (95% uncertainty range: $43-$87 billion) over the decade, including $51 billion ($34-$73 billion) for routine immunization and $11 billion ($7-$17 billion) for SIAs. More than half of these costs stem from service delivery at $34 billion ($21-$51 billion)-with an additional $24 billion ($13-$41 billion) in vaccine costs and $4 billion ($3-$5 billion) in supply chain costs. The findings present the global costs to attain the goals envisioned during the Decade of Vaccines to prevent millions of deaths by 2020 through more equitable access to existing vaccines for people in all

  19. Impact of a Novel Cost-Saving Pharmacy Program on Pregabalin Use and Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carolyn; Odell, Kevin; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Bancroft, Tim; Halpern, Rachel; Sadosky, Alesia

    2016-02-01

    Pharmacy cost-saving programs often aim to reduce costs for members and payers by encouraging use of lower-tier or generic medications and lower-cost sales channels. In 2010, a national U.S. health plan began a novel pharmacy program directed at reducing pharmacy expenditures for targeted medications, including pregabalin. The program provided multiple options to avoid higher cost sharing: use mail order pharmacy or switch to a lower-cost alternative medication via mail order or retail. Members who did not choose any option eventually paid the full retail cost of pregabalin. To evaluate the impact of the pharmacy program on pregabalin and alternative medication use, health care costs, and health care utilization. This retrospective analysis of claims data included adult commercial health plan members with a retail claim for pregabalin in the first 13 months of the pharmacy program (identification [ID] period: February 1, 2010-February 28, 2011). Members whose benefit plan included the pharmacy program were assigned to the program cohort; all others were assigned to the nonprogram cohort. The program cohort index date was the first retail pregabalin claim during the ID period and after the program start; the nonprogram cohort index date was the first retail pregabalin claim during the ID period. All members were continuously enrolled for 12 months pre- and post-index and had at least 1 inpatient claim or ≥ 2 ambulatory visit claims for a pregabalin-indicated condition. Cohorts were propensity score matched (PSM) 1:1 with logistic regression on demographic and pre-index characteristics, including mail order and pregabalin use, comorbidity, health care costs, and health care utilization. Pregabalin, gabapentin and other alternative medication use, health care costs, and health care utilization were measured. The program cohort was also divided into 2 groups: members who changed to gabapentin post-index and those who did not. A difference-in-differences (Di

  20. DIDEM - An integrated model for comparative health damage costs calculation of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravina, Marco; Panepinto, Deborah; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution represents a continuous hazard to human health. Administration, companies and population need efficient indicators of the possible effects given by a change in decision, strategy or habit. The monetary quantification of health effects of air pollution through the definition of external costs is increasingly recognized as a useful indicator to support decision and information at all levels. The development of modelling tools for the calculation of external costs can provide support to analysts in the development of consistent and comparable assessments. In this paper, the DIATI Dispersion and Externalities Model (DIDEM) is presented. The DIDEM model calculates the delta-external costs of air pollution comparing two alternative emission scenarios. This tool integrates CALPUFF's advanced dispersion modelling with the latest WHO recommendations on concentration-response functions. The model is based on the impact pathway method. It was designed to work with a fine spatial resolution and a local or national geographic scope. The modular structure allows users to input their own data sets. The DIDEM model was tested on a real case study, represented by a comparative analysis of the district heating system in Turin, Italy. Additional advantages and drawbacks of the tool are discussed in the paper. A comparison with other existing models worldwide is reported.

  1. Boston children's hospital community asthma initiative: Five-year cost analyses of a home visiting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Urmi; Sommer, Susan J; Giller-Leinwohl, Judith; Norris, Kerri; Tsopelas, Lindsay; Nethersole, Shari; Woods, Elizabeth R

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the costs and benefits of the Boston Children's Hospital Community Asthma Initiative (CAI) through reduction of Emergency Department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for the full pilot-phase program participants. A cost-benefit analyses was conducted using hospital administrative data to determine an adjusted Return on Investment (ROI): on all 268 patients enrolled in the CAI program during the 33-month pilot program phase of CAI intervention between October 1, 2005 and June 30, 2008 using a comparison group of 818 patients from a similar cohort in neighboring ZIP codes without CAI intervention. Cost data through June 30, 2013 were used to examine cost changes and calculate an adjusted ROI over a 5-year post-intervention period. CAI patients had a cost reduction greater than the comparison group of $1,216 in Year 1 (P = 0.001), $1,320 in Year 2 (P management programs can decrease the incidence of costly hospitalizations and ED visits from asthma. An ROI of greater than one, as found in this cost analysis, supports the business case for the provision of community-based asthma services as part of patient-centered medical homes and Accountable Care Organizations.

  2. Earthquake Hazards Program: Risk-Targeted Ground Motion Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tool is used to calculate risk-targeted ground motion values from probabilistic seismic hazard curves in accordance with the site-specific ground motion...

  3. Planning influenza vaccination programs: a cost benefit model

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Ian G; Taitel Michael S; Zhang Junjie; Kirkham Heather S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although annual influenza vaccination could decrease the significant economic and humanistic burden of influenza in the United States, immunization rates are below recommended levels, and concerns remain whether immunization programs can be cost beneficial. The research objective was to compare cost benefit of various immunization strategies from employer, employee, and societal perspectives. Methods An actuarial model was developed based on the published literature to est...

  4. The Social Value Of Vaccination Programs: Beyond Cost-Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Jeroen; Beutels, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In the current global environment of increased strain on health care budgets, all medical interventions have to compete for funding. Cost-effectiveness analysis has become a standard method to use in estimating how much value an intervention offers relative to its costs, and it has become an influential element in decision making. However, the application of cost-effectiveness analysis to vaccination programs fails to capture the full contribution such a program offers to the community. Recent literature has highlighted how cost-effectiveness analysis can neglect the broader economic impact of vaccines. In this article we also argue that socioethical contributions such as effects on health equity, sustaining the public good of herd immunity, and social integration of minority groups are neglected in cost-effectiveness analysis. Evaluations of vaccination programs require broad and multidimensional perspectives that can account for their social, ethical, and economic impact as well as their cost-effectiveness. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of the "helping babies breathe" program in a missionary hospital in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Vossius

    Full Text Available The Helping Babies Breathe" (HBB program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH in rural Tanzania.Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW, the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health.Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated.The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness.

  6. Numerical calculation of elastohydrodynamic lubrication methods and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The book not only offers scientists and engineers a clear inter-disciplinary introduction and orientation to all major EHL problems and their solutions but, most importantly, it also provides numerical programs on specific application in engineering. A one-stop reference providing equations and their solutions to all major elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) problems, plus numerical programs on specific applications in engineering offers engineers and scientists a clear inter-disciplinary introduction and a concise program for practical engineering applications to most important EHL problems

  7. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  8. Cost and Time Overruns in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Berteau, David; Hofbauer, Joachim; Sanders, Gregory; Ari, Guy Ben

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Cost and time overruns in Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) have become a high-profile problem attracting the interest of Congress, government and watchdog groups. According to the GAO, the 96 MDAPs from FY2008 collectively ran $296 billion over budget and were an average of 22 months behind schedule. President Obama''s memo on government contracting of 4 March 2009 also h...

  9. The Cost of Commonality: Assessing Value in Joint Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    interdependent networks using game theory . Stakeholders in such networks share a common but not identical range of objectives. Parochial interests prevent...network are often undertaken irrespective of common goals. This consequence is a social dilemma known as the tragedy of the commons . The program...transaction cost theories only partially explain the program dynamics that erode joint commonality . Conceptual designs for complex systems in

  10. 19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... input. (c) Allocation of costs. In determining the appropriate method for allocating costs among... lease expenses, material costs, and factory overhead. The Secretary will not consider sales expenses...

  11. [Costs of population cervical cancer screening program in Poland between 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaczyński, Marek; Karowicz-Bilinska, Agata; Kedzia, Witold; Molińska-Glura, Marta; Seroczyński, Przemysław; Januszek-Michalecka, Lucyna; Rokita, Wojciech; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa

    2010-10-01

    Screening programs may contribute to decreasing the mortality rate in a given population and their main target, in case of cervical cancer; is to find and to cure preclinical stages of this malignancy. Regularly repeated tests in defined time intervals can diagnose the illness at its early stages but the results come with a high cost. Population program of early detection of cervical cancer has been conducted since 2007 and is run by the Central Coordinating Center and 16 regional centers. Funds for promotional, educational, monitoring and medical activities are obtained from the National Health Service. The aim of this study was to present the cost-effectiveness of the Program between 2007 and 2009. The material for the analysis was obtained from the SIMP system, where all the data about women participating in the Program are implemented. The analysis of the cervical carcinoma treatment and procedure costs was made on the basis of the National Health Service estimates. The number of new cervical carcinoma cases was calculated with the help of the newly introduced system code--C53. Between 2007 and 2009 the cost of one cytological smear was similar in all regions (about 10 PLN). The highest costs were noted in Lubuski and Swietokrzyski regions. The costs of promotional and educational activities amounted up to 4.5 million PLN. A single cervical smear test cost for one woman has increased in the analyzed years from 3.95 up to 7.34 PLN. The total cost of one woman cytological examination--medical and non-medical elements--was more than 60 PLN. In 2009, 622 new cases of cervical cancer were found thanks to the Program. The cost of one case of cervical cancer diagnosis was 15 000 PLN. The total costs of all cases of cervical cancer in 2009 was 45.5 million PLN. The situation calls for creating new and effective tools for monitoring medical, epidemiological and financial parameters of the Program. Otherwise, the estimates of the health and social impact of the Program

  12. Embodied Energy Calculation in Mitigating Environmental Impact of Low-Cost Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larasati ZR Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of the negative impacts of building construction, or mitigation, should be done in the early phase of a project. Particular method that can be used to reduce the negative impact is Embodied Energy (EE calculation. This research develops a method to calculate the total EE of materials used in building construction by using the Material Selection Analysis (MSA based on Indonesia’s Construction Work Unit Price Analysis (WUPA. MSA breaks down the types, its unit, and total volume of materials within an object. Using the EE data from Inventory Carbon and Energy (ICE Bath, in the UK, this research calculate the embodied energy in three small house types in Indonesia: Type 21 M2, Type 36 M2, and Type 45 M2. The result reveals a negative correlation between building’s area and EE value. Nonetheless, the EE value is positively related to the volume of material used. Proposed strategies to decrease the value of EE in low cost housing construction manly; a design approach in improving the efficiency of material usage, b materials substitution to material with lower value of EE, especially on material on large volume of usage, c socialization of EE value to stakeholders as consideration in determining the choice of materials used, thus, environmental mitigation is expected to be an important aspect in determining the design decisions and the choice of materials used.

  13. Modeling Large sound sources in a room acoustical calculation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    1999-01-01

    A room acoustical model capable of modelling point, line and surface sources is presented. Line and surface sources are modelled using a special ray-tracing algorithm detecting the radiation pattern of the surfaces in the room. Point sources are modelled using a hybrid calculation method combinin...... this ray-tracing method with Image source modelling. With these three source types, it is possible to model large and complex sound sources in workrooms....

  14. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, Wlliam J.

    2003-12-01

    This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) PIER program. The purpose of the Energy Simulations and Projected State-Wide Energy Savings project is to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms (RCs) across California climates. A key objective of the energy monitoring was to validate DOE2 simulations for comparison to initial DOE2 performance projections. The validated DOE2 model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance RC operation in the 16 California climate zones. The primary objective of this phase of work was to utilize detailed field monitoring data to modify DOE2 inputs and generate performance projections based on a validated simulation model. Additional objectives include the following: (1) Obtain comparative performance data on base case and high performance HVAC systems to determine how they are operated, how they perform, and how the occupants respond to the advanced systems. This was accomplished by installing both HVAC systems side-by-side (i.e., one per module of a standard two module, 24 ft by 40 ft RC) on the study RCs and switching HVAC operating modes on a weekly basis. (2) Develop projected statewide energy and demand impacts based on the validated DOE2 model. (3) Develop cost effectiveness projections for the high performance HVAC system in the 16 California climate zones.

  15. Simple Calculation Programs for Biology Methods in Molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GMAP: A program for mapping potential restriction sites. RE sites in ambiguous and non-ambiguous DNA sequence; Minimum number of silent mutations required for introducing a RE sites; Set theory for searching RE sites; Raghava and Sahni (1994) Biotechniques 16:1116 ...

  16. FORTRAN programs for transient eddy current calculations using a perturbation-polynomial expansion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, K.H.

    1976-11-01

    A description is given of FORTRAN programs for transient eddy current calculations in thin, non-magnetic conductors using a perturbation-polynomial expansion technique. Basic equations are presented as well as flow charts for the programs implementing them. The implementation is in two steps--a batch program to produce an intermediate data file and interactive programs to produce graphical output. FORTRAN source listings are included for all program elements, and sample inputs and outputs are given for the major programs.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Dengue Vaccination Programs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha

    2017-05-01

    AbstractThe first approved dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV, a chimeric, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus vaccine, was recently licensed in 13 countries, including Brazil. In light of recent vaccine approval, we modeled the cost-effectiveness of potential vaccination policies mathematically based on data from recent vaccine efficacy trials that indicated that vaccine efficacy was lower in seronegative individuals than in seropositive individuals. In our analysis, we investigated several vaccination programs, including routine vaccination, with various vaccine coverage levels and those with and without large catch-up campaigns. As it is unclear whether the vaccine protects against infection or just against disease, our model incorporated both direct and indirect effects of vaccination. We found that in the presence of vaccine-induced indirect protection, the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination decreased with increasing vaccine coverage levels because the marginal returns of herd immunity decreases with vaccine coverage. All routine dengue vaccination programs that we considered were cost-effective, reducing dengue incidence significantly. Specifically, a routine dengue vaccination of 9-year-olds would be cost-effective when the cost of vaccination per individual is less than $262. Furthermore, the combination of routine vaccination and large catch-up campaigns resulted in a greater reduction of dengue burden (by up to 93%) than routine vaccination alone, making it a cost-effective intervention as long as the cost per course of vaccination is $255 or less. Our results show that dengue vaccination would be cost-effective in Brazil even with a relatively low vaccine efficacy in seronegative individuals.

  18. The costs of transit fare prepayment programs : a parametric cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the renewed interest in transit fare prepayment plans over the past : 10 years, few transit managers have a clear idea of how much it costs to operate : and maintain a fare prepayment program. This report provides transit managers : with the ...

  19. Subject-specific geometrical detail rather than cost function formulation affects hip loading calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Mariska; De Groote, Friedl; Bosmans, Lode; Bartels, Ward; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the relative importance of introducing an increasing level of medical image-based subject-specific detail in bone and muscle geometry in the musculoskeletal model, on calculated hip contact forces during gait. These forces were compared to introducing minimization of hip contact forces in the optimization criterion. With an increasing level of subject-specific detail, specifically MRI-based geometry and wrapping surfaces representing the hip capsule, hip contact forces decreased and were more comparable to contact forces measured using instrumented prostheses (average difference of 0.69 BW at the first peak compared to 1.04 BW for the generic model). Inclusion of subject-specific wrapping surfaces in the model had a greater effect than altering the cost function definition.

  20. An analysis of potential costs of adverse events based on Drug Programs in Poland. Pulmonology focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkultecka-Debek Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The project was performed within the Polish Society for Pharmacoeconomics (PTFE. The objective was to estimate the potential costs of treatment of side effects, which theoretically may occur as a result of treatment of selected diseases. We analyzed the Drug Programs financed by National Health Fund in Poland in 2012 and for the first analysis we selected those Programs where the same medicinal products were used. We based the adverse events selection on the Summary of Product Characteristics of the chosen products. We extracted all the potential adverse events defined as frequent and very frequent, grouping them according to therapeutic areas. This paper is related to the results in the pulmonology area. The events described as very common had an incidence of ≥ 1/10, and the common ones ≥ 1/100, <1/10. In order to identify the resources used, we performed a survey with the engagement of clinical experts. On the basis of the collected data we allocated direct costs incurred by the public payer. We used the costs valid in December 2013. The paper presents the estimated costs of treatment of side effects related to the pulmonology disease area. Taking into account the costs incurred by the NHF and the patient separately e calculated the total spending and the percentage of each component cost in detail. The treatment of adverse drug reactions generates a significant cost incurred by both the public payer and the patient.

  1. How can activity-based costing methodology be performed as a powerful tool to calculate costs and secure appropriate patient care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Chao, Te-Hsin; Yao, Yuh; Tu, Shu-Min; Wu, Chun-Ching; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chao, Shiu-Hsiung; Shaw, Keh-Yuong

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the advantages of using activity-based costing (ABC) methodology in the health care industry. The potential values of ABC methodology in health care are derived from the more accurate cost calculation compared to the traditional step-down costing, and the potentials to evaluate quality or effectiveness of health care based on health care activities. This project used ABC methodology to profile the cost structure of inpatients with surgical procedures at the Department of Colorectal Surgery in a public teaching hospital, and to identify the missing or inappropriate clinical procedures. We found that ABC methodology was able to accurately calculate costs and to identify several missing pre- and post-surgical nursing education activities in the course of treatment.

  2. Calculation of costs of pregnancy- and puerperium-related care: experience from a hospital in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarowar, M G; Medin, E; Gazi, R; Koehlmoos, T P; Rehnberg, C; Saifi, R; Bhuiya, A; Khan, J

    2010-06-01

    Calculation of costs of different medical and surgical services has numerous uses, which include monitoring the performance of service-delivery, setting the efficiency target, benchmarking of services across all sectors, considering investment decisions, commissioning to meet health needs, and negotiating revised levels of funding. The role of private-sector healthcare facilities has been increasing rapidly over the last decade. Despite the overall improvement in the public and private healthcare sectors in Bangladesh, lack of price benchmarking leads to patients facing unexplained price discrimination when receiving healthcare services. The aim of the study was to calculate the hospital-care cost of disease-specific cases, specifically pregnancy- and puerperium-related cases, and to indentify the practical challenges of conducting costing studies in the hospital setting in Bangladesh. A combination of micro-costing and step-down cost allocation was used for collecting information on the cost items and, ultimately, for calculating the unit cost for each diagnostic case. Data were collected from the hospital records of 162 patients having 11 different clinical diagnoses. Caesarean section due to maternal and foetal complications was the most expensive type of case whereas the length of stay due to complications was the major driver of cost. Some constraints in keeping hospital medical records and accounting practices were observed. Despite these constraints, the findings of the study indicate that it is feasible to carry out a large-scale study to further explore the costs of different hospital-care services.

  3. Cost-Utility Analysis of a Cardiac Telerehabilitation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Rasmussen, Maja Kjær; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    and Methods: The analysis was carried out together with a randomized controlled trial with 151 patients during 2012-2014. Costs of the intervention were estimated with a health sector perspective following international guidelines for CU. Quality of life was assessed using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey......Background: Cardiac rehabilitation can reduce mortality of patients with cardiovascular disease, but a frequently low participation rate in rehabilitation programs has been found globally. The objective of the Teledialog study was to assess the cost-utility (CU) of a cardiac telerehabilitation (CTR....... Results: The rehabilitation activities were approximately the same in the two groups, but the number of contacts with the physiotherapist was higher among the intervention group. The mean total cost per patient was (sic)1,700 higher in the intervention group. The quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gain...

  4. Easy-to-use application programs for decay heat and delayed neutron calculations on personal computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Application programs for personal computers are developed to calculate the decay heat power and delayed neutron activity from fission products. The main programs can be used in any computers from personal computers to main frames because their sources are written in Fortran. These programs have user friendly interfaces to be used easily not only for research activities but also for educational purposes. (author)

  5. 49 CFR 639.23 - Calculation of purchase or construction cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.23... cost of a capital asset is— (1) The estimated cost to purchase or construct the asset; plus (2... capital asset. (b) The estimated cost to purchase or construct must be— (1) Reasonable; (2) Based on...

  6. Computer program to calculate three-dimensional boundary layer flows over wings with wall mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, J. D.; Randall, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A system of computer programs for calculating three dimensional transonic flow over wings, including details of the three dimensional viscous boundary layer flow, was developed. The flow is calculated in two overlapping regions: an outer potential flow region, and a boundary layer region in which the first order, three dimensional boundary layer equations are numerically solved. A consistent matching of the two solutions is achieved iteratively, thus taking into account viscous-inviscid interaction. For the inviscid outer flow calculations, the Jameson-Caughey transonic wing program FLO 27 is used, and the boundary layer calculations are performed by a finite difference boundary layer prediction program. Interface programs provide communication between the two basic flow analysis programs. Computed results are presented for the NASA F8 research wing, both with and without distributed surface suction.

  7. Determination of Wheel-Rail Contact Characteristics by Creating a Special Program for Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebeşan Ioan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors in this paper describe the steps of creating a special program in GUI tool in Matlab. The program is designed to calculate the main properties of wheel-rail contact zone, such as: contact ellipse dimensions, normal stress and friction coefficients. All the relevant equations, which were introduced by different researchers, are firstly presented and modified to be applicable to the programming environment, and then the program was built. In the end, the program working quality is discussed and some expected future developments on this program are suggested. The proposed program can make the comparison between theoretical and experimental results, when they are available, easier and faster.

  8. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen; Smed, Sinne; Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Mojca; Rayner, Mike; Darmon, Nicole; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA), or dietary guidelines (DG), or nutrient recommendations (N), or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN), or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN). The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods. The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6). The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8). The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN) to 134 (DGN) foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N) and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN). Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN) tripled it. Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  9. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Parlesak

    Full Text Available Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs that help prevent both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost.Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear programming. The FBs were defined using five different constraints: cultural acceptability (CA, or dietary guidelines (DG, or nutrient recommendations (N, or cultural acceptability and nutrient recommendations (CAN, or dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations (DGN. The variety and number of foods in each of the resulting five baskets was increased through limiting the relative share of individual foods.The one-day version of N contained only 12 foods at the minimum cost of DKK 27 (€ 3.6. The CA, DG, and DGN were about twice of this and the CAN cost ~DKK 81 (€ 10.8. The baskets with the greater variety of foods contained from 70 (CAN to 134 (DGN foods and cost between DKK 60 (€ 8.1, N and DKK 125 (€ 16.8, DGN. Ensuring that the food baskets cover both dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations doubled the cost while cultural acceptability (CAN tripled it.Use of linear programming facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable.

  10. GoSam: A program for automated one-loop Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, G; Heinrich, G; Luisoni, G; Mastrolia, P; Ossola, G; Reiter, T; Tramontano, F

    2012-01-01

    The program package GoSam is presented which aims at the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The amplitudes are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop corrections to both QCD and electroweak theory, and model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also included. The flexibility of the program is demonstrated by various examples.

  11. GoSam. A program for automated one-loop calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Greiner, N.; Heinrich, G.; Reiter, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Luisoni, G. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Mastrolia, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ossola, G. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). New York City College of Technology; Tramontano, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    The program package GoSam is presented which aims at the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes. The amplitudes are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams and can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction, or a combination of both. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop corrections to both QCD and electroweak theory, and model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model can be linked as well. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also included. The flexibility of the program is demonstrated by various examples. (orig.)

  12. Nutritional, Economic, and Environmental Costs of Milk Waste in a Classroom School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Cash, Sean B; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D

    2017-04-01

    To measure fluid milk waste in a US School Breakfast in the Classroom Program and estimate its nutritional, economic, and environmental effects. Fluid milk waste was directly measured on 60 elementary school classroom days in a medium-sized, urban district. The US Department of Agriculture nutrition database, district cost data, and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions and water footprint estimates for fluid milk were used to calculate the associated nutritional, economic, and environmental costs. Of the total milk offered to School Breakfast Program participants, 45% was wasted. A considerably smaller portion of served milk was wasted (26%). The amount of milk wasted translated into 27% of vitamin D and 41% of calcium required of School Breakfast Program meals. The economic and environmental costs amounted to an estimated $274 782 (16% of the district's total annual School Breakfast Program food expenditures), 644 893 kilograms of CO2e, and 192 260 155 liters of water over the school year in the district. These substantial effects of milk waste undermine the School Breakfast Program's capacity to ensure short- and long-term food security and federal food waste reduction targets. Interventions that reduce waste are urgently needed.

  13. 34 CFR 263.4 - What training costs may a Professional Development program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What training costs may a Professional Development... GRANT PROGRAMS Professional Development Program § 263.4 What training costs may a Professional Development program include? (a) A Professional Development program may include, as training costs, assistance...

  14. The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T.; Fang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crime-costing literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-of-illness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime. PMID:20071107

  15. Market value calculation and the solution of circularity between value and the weighted average cost of capital WACC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Most finance textbooks present the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC calculation as: WACC = Kd×(1-T×D% + Ke×E%, where Kd is the cost of debt before taxes, T is the tax rate, D% is the percentage of debt on total value, Ke is the cost of equity and E% is the percentage of equity on total value. All of them precise (but not with enough emphasis that the values to calculate D% y E% are market values. Although they devote special space and thought to calculate Kd and Ke, little effort is made to the correct calculation of market values. This means that there are several points that are not sufficiently dealt with: Market values, location in time, occurrence of tax payments, WACC changes in time and the circularity in calculating WACC. The purpose of this note is to clear up these ideas, solve the circularity problem and emphasize in some ideas that usually are looked over. Also, some suggestions are presented on how to calculate, or estimate, the equity cost of capital.

  16. Medicaid service use and program costs for pregnant teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Norma I; Kuo, May; Adams, E Kathleen; Ayadi, M Femi; Gilbert, Brenda Colley

    2005-12-01

    Teen pregnancy is an important public health issue for all teens, but particularly for low-income teens who rely on the public health safety net for services. Medicaid pays for more than two-thirds of deliveries among teenagers in the USA. To discern how this public program serves pregnant teens (aged 11-19 years), the authors used Medicaid enrollment and claims data for Florida, Georgia and New Jersey in 1995 to examine teens' enrollment duration, service use and average payments relative to 20-24-year-olds on Medicaid. Teens were more likely than the older women to have been enrolled in Medicaid before pregnancy and to have maintained coverage through the third month following delivery. If not enrolled prepregnancy, teens were more likely than older women to enroll later in pregnancy. Teens were less likely to receive early prenatal care and more likely to be hospitalized during pregnancy, usually for preterm labor. While total Medicaid payments for routine prenatal and delivery-related care were equivalent between teens and older women, payments for nonroutine care during pregnancy were modestly higher for teens in Florida and Georgia. Thus, only modest cost savings can accrue from lower average costs per pregnancy and delivery among teens who delay pregnancy. Additional and larger cost savings to the Medicaid program from preventing teen pregnancy would accrue from the expected lower enrollment in Medicaid among the teens as they age.

  17. [Prevention of Occupational Injuries Related to Hands: Calculation of Subsequent Injury Costs for the Austrian Social Occupational Insurance Institution (AUVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, M S; Mayer, B; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M M

    2015-08-01

    Occupational injuries cause short-term, direct costs as well as long-term follow-up costs over the lifetime of the casualties. Due to shrinking budgets accident insurance companies focus on cost reduction programmes and prevention measures. For this reason, a decision support system for consequential cost calculation of occupational injuries was developed for the main Austrian social occupational insurance institution (AUVA) during three projects. This so-called cost calculation tool combines the traditional instruments of accounting with quantitative methods such as micro-simulation. The cost data are derived from AUVA-internal as well as external economic data sources. Based on direct and indirect costs, the subsequent occupational accident costs from the time of an accident and, if applicable, beyond the death of the individual casualty are predicted for the AUVA, the companies in which the casualties are working, and the other economic sectors. By using this cost calculation tool, the AUVA classifies risk groups and derives related prevention campaigns. In the past, the AUVA concentrated on falling, accidents at construction sites and in agriculture/forestry, as well as commuting accidents. Currently, among others, a focus on hand injuries is given and first prevention programmes have been initiated. Hand injuries represent about 38% of all casualties with average costs of about 7,851 Euro/case. Main causes of these accidents are cutting injuries in production, agriculture, and forestry. Beside a low, but costly, number of amputations with average costs of more than 100,000 Euro/case, bone fractures and strains burden the AUVA-budget with about 17,500 and 10,500 € per case, respectively. Decision support systems such as this cost calculation tool represent necessary instruments to identify risk groups and their injured body parts, causes of accidents, and economic activities, which highly burden the budget of an injury company, and help derive

  18. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  19. Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting

  20. Screening Doses for Induction of Cancers Calculated with the Interactive RadioEpidemiological Program (IREP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kocher, David C; Apostoaei, Julian A

    2007-01-01

    .... Screening doses for 32 cancer types were calculated with the Interactive RadioEpidemiological Program, which is used by the Department of Veterans Affairs in adjudicating claims for compensation...

  1. [Needle exchange programs are a cost-effective preventative measure against HIV in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eythórsson, Elías Sæbjorn; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Gottfređsson, Magnús

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 there was a sudden increase in HIV cases among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Iceland. In 2007 - 2011 there were 34 new HIV cases among IDUs compared to four in the previous four year period. The purpose of this study was to assess whether needle exchange programs (NEPs) were cost-effective in preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs in Iceland. Cost-utility analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. Costs are presented at the 2011 price level and values were discounted using a 3% discount rate. A ten year period, 2011 - 2020 was compared with and without NEPs. The Incremental Cost-Utility Ratio (ICUR) was calculated as societal cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Sensitivity analysis was performed on study assumptions. The estimated societal costs associated with HIV infections among IDUs from 2011 - 2020 was 914.369.621 ISK without NEP and 947.653.758 ISK with NEP. Excess societal cost due to NEP was 33.284.137 ISK. Societal utility from NEP was 7,39 QALYs. Additionally, NEP prevented 4-5 HIV infections. The ICUR of providing NEP was 4.506.720 ISK. According to WHO an intervention is considered cost-effective if the ICUR is less than three-fold national GDP per capita. In 2011 the GDP per capita in Iceland was 15.315.000 ISK. Sensitivity analysis on study assumptions yielded a societal cost within the WHO limit. Therefore, the results indicate that NEPs are cost-effective in preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs in Iceland.

  2. New Richardson's extrapolation spreadsheet calculator using VBA programming for numerical differentiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Kim Gaik; Kek, Sie Long; Abdul-Kahar, Rosmila

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have further improved the limitations of our previous two Richardson's extrapolation spreadsheet calculators for computing differentiations numerically. The new feature in this new Richardson's extrapolation spreadsheet calculator is fully automated up to any level based on the stopping criteria using VBA programming. The new version is more flexible because it is controlled by programming. Furthermore, it reduces computational time and CPU memory.

  3. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-11-10

    To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. Analisar os custos do Programa de Tratamento do Tabagismo no Sistema Único de Saúde e estimar o custo de sua implementação plena em um município brasileiro. A

  4. About real cost calculations for biogas from vinasse biodigestion and its energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, K.R. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)]. E-mail: kaka_salomon@yahoo.com.br; Lora , E.E.S.; Rocha, M.H. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Thermal Systems Study Group]. E-mails: electo@unifei.edu.br; mateus.rocha@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    The sharp increase in ethanol production has drawn attention to the increase in the production of n residues, mainly stillage, a by-product from the ethanol agro-industry. As it is a highly polluting effluent that is generated in great volumes, its transport and disposal is not simple. Stillage Is a product that results from the distillation and fermentation of the sugarcane in the process of ethanol production. Today there are new environmental standards that restrict the disposal of the stillage in the soil. The anaerobic biodigestion comes as an alternative treatment for the stillage. One of the advantages of the biodigestion is that the stillage fertilization potential continues to be the same after the process and, this way, the effluent can be taken to the fields through fertirrigation. The main advantages are the conservation of the nutrients, mainly phosphor and nitrogen contents, and the increase in the pH for the application in the soil. This paper presents a methodology for the calculation of the biogas cost obtained from stillage biodigestion, considering the benefits of the fertirrigation with the effluent generated in the digester. Later an analysis of the economical feasibility of the use of the biogas obtained from the stillage anaerobic digestion in different scenarios is carried out, among them there are: electric power generation with alternative internal combustion, with gas turbines and micro-turbines, with the 'substituted' bagasse burned together with the biogas in the boilers, with the sales of the substituted bagasse (for electric power generation in another unit) and with the use of the biogas in spray dryers with the subsequent sales of dried yeasts. It is also considered an analysis under an environmental point of view of the use of the biogas that includes the possibility of selling the certificates of avoided emissions (carbon credits) due to the use of the biogas in substitution to fossil fuels. The most important results

  5. Comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder: Calculation of productivity and procurement cost of wood chips

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Takuyuki; Sakurai, Rin; Aruga, Kazuhiro; Nitami, Toshio; Sakai, Hideo; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    An experiment on comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder was carried out in order to calculate the productivity and procurement cost of wood chips. At the investigated site, the tub grinder had a hammer mill crusher at the bottom of the tub, and a grapple loader and a bucket loader worked as auxiliary machines for the grinder. As a result, the productivity of the tub grinder was 60.0 loose m3/PMH0, and the total comminuting cost was calculated as 5.637 US$/m3, indicating that th...

  6. COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR CALCULATION MICROCHANNEL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Olshevska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Creating a computer program to calculate microchannel air condensers to reduce design time and carrying out variant calculations. Software packages for thermophysical properties of the working substance and the coolant, the correlation equation for calculating heat transfer, aerodynamics and hydrodynamics, the thermodynamic equations for the irreversible losses and their minimization in the heat exchanger were used in the process of creating. Borland Delphi 7 is used for creating software package.

  7. THE METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATING OF LABOR COSTS OF MEDICAL PERSONNEL IN MARKET CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Katasonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the approximate calculations of working time of physician to work with the patient and documentation. On the base of these calculations they outline the possible ways to optimize the work of the medical staff.

  8. Plane stress calculations with a two dimensional elastic-plastic computer program. [HEMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.L.; Guinan, M.W.

    1976-04-05

    In the study of ductile fracture it is useful to simulate fracture on the computer under plane stress conditions. In general, this is a three dimensional problem. Presented here is a method for adapting a two dimensional elastic-plastic computer program to calculate problems in plane stress as well as plane strain geometry. A simulation of a tension test of a flat aluminum plate pulled to failure is calculated with the modified two dimensional program. The results are compared with a fully three dimensional calculation. Finally a comparison is made with an experiment to demonstrate the effectiveness of the computational methods for studying fracture of work hardening materials.

  9. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  10. VORSTAB: A computer program for calculating lateral-directional stability derivatives with vortex flow effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, C. Edward

    1985-01-01

    A computer program based on the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method of Lan is presented for calculating longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of nonplanar wing-body combination. The method is based on the assumption of inviscid subsonic flow. Both attached and vortex-separated flows are treated. For the vortex-separated flow, the calculation is based on the method of suction analogy. The effect of vortex breakdown is accounted for by an empirical method. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables and program job control set-up are described. Three test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the code.

  11. Development of charge calculation program for target steel in induction furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Saliu O. SEIDU; Adetunji ONIGBAJUMO

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of charge calculation program for target steel in induction furnace. The simulation modelling function developed is based on mass balance analysis of the furnace production. The process engineering of the furnace follows linear algebraic mathematical function. Visual basic programming language (C#) is used in the coding and interface integration. This is used to develop a unit process based simulation program with user friendly interface f...

  12. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground {open_quote}The First Step,{close_quote} provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget.

  13. Cost optimal and nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) definitions, calculation principles and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kurnitski, Jarek

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces technical definitions, system boundaries, energy calculation methods and input data for setting primary energy based minimum/cost optimal and nZEB requirements in national energy frames. Offers five case studies of nZEB office buildings.

  14. Review of demand-side bidding programs: Impacts, costs, and cost-effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01

    In December 1987, Central Maine Power (CMP) instituted the first competitive bidding program that allowed developers to propose installation of conservation measures. Since then, about 30 utilities in 14 states have solicited bids from energy service companies (ESCOs) and customers to reduce energy demand in residential homes and in commercial and industrial facilities. Interest in the use of competitive procurement mechanisms for demand-side resources continues to grow. In this study, the authors build upon earlier work conducted by LBL in collaboration with others (Goldman and Busch 1992; Wolcott and Goldman 1992). They have developed methods to compare bid prices and program costs among utilities. They also characterize approaches used by utilities and developers to allocate risks associated with DSM resources based on their review of a large sample of signed contracts. These contracts are analyzed in some detail because they provide insights into the evolving roles and responsibilities of utilities, customers, and third party contractors in providing demand-side management (DSM) services. The analysis also highlights differences in the allocation of risks between traditional utility rebate programs and DSM bidding programs.

  15. Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE's ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

  16. Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE`s ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

  17. New benchmarks for costs and cost-efficiency of school-based feeding programs in food-insecure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Cavallero, Andrea; Minervini, Licia; Mirabile, Mariana; Molinas, Luca; de la Mothe, Marc Regnault

    2011-12-01

    School feeding is a popular intervention that has been used to support the education, health and nutrition of school children. Although the benefits of school feeding are well documented, the evidence on the costs of such programs is remarkably thin. Address the need for systematic estimates of the cost of different school feeding modalities, and of the determinants of the considerable cost variation among countries. WFP project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected for 78 projects in 62 countries through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The standardized yearly average school feeding cost per child, not including school-level costs, was US$48. The yearly costs per child were lowest at US$23 for biscuit programs reaching school-going children and highest at US$75 for take-home rations programs reaching families of schoolgoing children. The average cost of programs combining on-site meals with extra take-home rations for children from vulnerable households was US$61. Commodity costs were on average 58% of total costs and were highest for biscuit and take-home rations programs (71% and 68%, respectively). Fortified biscuits provided the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery, whereas take-home rations were more cost-efficient in terms of food quantities delivered. Both costs and effects should be considered carefully when designing school feeding interventions. The average costs of school feeding estimated here are higher than those found in earlier studies but fall within the range of costs previously reported. Because this analysis does not include school-level costs, these

  18. Cost Effectiveness of Iran National Plasma Contract Fractionation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Majid Cheraghali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma derived medicines (PDM including immunoglobulins, clotting factors and albumin are life saving medicines which due to their high costs are inaccessible for many patients living in developing countries. By contrary substantial volume of plasma as raw materials for production of these medicines are discarded worldwide. Good quality recovered plasma, as a result of separation of donated blood into its components, could be used for production of PDM. In 2011 Iranian donors donated about 2 million units of blood. A shift fromadministration of whole blood to components therapy has resulted in the generation of over 250,000 liters of surplus of recovered plasma. This created a good opportunity for Iran’s health care system to use this plasma for production of PDM. Therefore Iran national transfusion service has started a contract fractionation program for converting recovered plasma into PDM. This program not only provided essential PDM for Iran pharmaceutical market but also has created a direct saving of about 8.5 million Euros in 2011 for national health sector. In addition this program has drastically contributed to improvement of overall quality of working procedures and services provided by Iran national blood transfusion organization.

  19. Logistics Cost Calculation of Implementation Warehouse Management System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Warehouse management system can take full advantage of the resources and provide efficient warehousing services. The paper aims to show advantages and disadvantages of the warehouse management system in a chosen enterprise, which is focused on logistics services and transportation. The paper can bring new innovative approach for warehousing and presents how logistics enterprise can reduce logistics costs. This approach includes cost reduction of the establishment, operation and savings in the overall assessment of the implementation of the warehouse management system. The innovative warehouse management system will be demonstrated as the case study, which is classified as a qualitative scientific method, in the chosen logistics enterprise. The paper is based on the research of the world literature, analyses of the internal logistics processes, data and finally enterprise documents. The paper discovers costs related to personnel costs, handling equipment costs and costs for material identification. Implementation of the warehouse management system will reduce overall logistics costs of warehousing and extend the warehouse management system to other parts of the logistics chain.

  20. Cost benefit analysis of the California HVS program

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ); • Compile a set of assumptions required for a benefit/cost analysis including analysis period, initial construction costs, routine maintenance costs, rehabilitation timing and costs, discount rate etc.; • Conduct initial benefit/cost analyses based... Pf Ca Cb Cc Concrete Base Pavement Notation: Pi = Probability that option I would be implemented Ci = Discounted life cycle cost for each alternative Asphalt Base Pavement G1 Base Pavement Effective cost for each alternative = (P i ) x (C i...

  1. Cost analysis of school-based sexuality education programs in six countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the costs of six school-based sexuality education programs (Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, India, Estonia and the Netherlands). Methods Cost analyses were carried out in schools that were fully implementing a SE program, as this best reflects the resources needed to run an effective program. The costs were analyzed from the program perspective, meaning that all costs borne by the governmental and (international) non-governmental organizations supporting the program were included. Cost analyses were based on financial records, interviews and school surveys. We distinguished costs in three consecutive program phases: development, update and implementation. Recommendations on the most efficient program characteristics and scale-up pathways were drawn from results of three fully scaled up programs (Estonia, Nigeria and the Netherlands), scale-up scenarios of two pilot programs (Kenya and Indonesia), and an implementation plan (India), The costs of the programs were compared by converting cost per student reached in US dollars (US$) to international dollars (I$). Results Findings revealed a range of costs and coverage of sexuality education programs. Costs per student reached were; US$7 in Nigeria, US$13.50 in India, US$33 in Estonia and the Netherlands, US$50 in Kenya, and US$160 in Indonesia. Conclusions Intra-curricular sexuality education programs have, because of their compulsory nature, the most potential to be scaled up and are therefore most efficient. Extra-curricular sexuality education programs have lower potential to be scaled up and are therefore less efficient. In terms of class size and number of lessons, countries need to strike a balance between the quality (demanding

  2. Cost analysis of school-based sexuality education programs in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivela, Jari; Ketting, Evert; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-08-01

    Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the costs of six school-based sexuality education programs (Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, India, Estonia and the Netherlands). Cost analyses were carried out in schools that were fully implementing a SE program, as this best reflects the resources needed to run an effective program. The costs were analyzed from the program perspective, meaning that all costs borne by the governmental and (international) non-governmental organizations supporting the program were included. Cost analyses were based on financial records, interviews and school surveys.We distinguished costs in three consecutive program phases: development, update and implementation. Recommendations on the most efficient program characteristics and scale-up pathways were drawn from results of three fully scaled up programs (Estonia, Nigeria and the Netherlands), scale-up scenarios of two pilot programs (Kenya and Indonesia), and an implementation plan (India), The costs of the programs were compared by converting cost per student reached in US dollars (US$) to international dollars (I$). Findings revealed a range of costs and coverage of sexuality education programs. Costs per student reached were; US$7 in Nigeria, US$13.50 in India, US$33 in Estonia and the Netherlands, US$50 in Kenya, and US$160 in Indonesia. Intra-curricular sexuality education programs have, because of their compulsory nature, the most potential to be scaled up and are therefore most efficient. Extra-curricular sexuality education programs have lower potential to be scaled up and are therefore less efficient. In terms of class size and number of lessons, countries need to strike a balance between the quality (demanding smaller classes and many lessons) and the

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of a Collaborative Care Depression and Anxiety Treatment Program in Patients with Acute Cardiac Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Healy, Brian; Suarez, Laura; Levy, Douglas E; Mastromauro, Carol; Januzzi, James L; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    To use data from a randomized trial to determine the cost-effectiveness of a collaborative care (CC) depression and anxiety treatment program and to assess effects of the CC program on health care utilization. The CC intervention's impact on health-related quality of life, depression-free days (DFDs), and anxiety-free days (AFDs) over the 24-week postdischarge period was calculated and compared with the enhanced usual care (EUC) condition using independent samples t tests and random-effects regression models. Costs for both the CC and EUC conditions were calculated on the basis of staff time, overhead expenses, and treatment materials. Using this information, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. A cost-effectiveness acceptability plot was created using nonparametric bootstrapping with 10,000 replications, and the likelihood of the CC intervention's cost-effectiveness was assessed using standard cutoffs. As a secondary analysis, we determined whether the CC intervention led to reductions in postdischarge health care utilization and costs. The CC intervention was more costly than the EUC intervention ($209.86 vs. $34.59; z = -11.71; P < 0.001), but was associated with significantly greater increases in quality-adjusted life-years (t = -2.49; P = 0.01) and DFDs (t = -2.13; P = 0.03), but not AFDs (t = -1.92; P = 0.057). This translated into an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3337.06 per quality-adjusted life-year saved, $13.36 per DFD, and $13.74 per AFD. Compared with the EUC intervention, the CC intervention was also associated with fewer emergency department visits but no differences in overall costs. This CC intervention was associated with clinically relevant improvements, was cost-effective, and was associated with fewer emergency department visits in the 24 weeks after discharge. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. CALCULATING THE SOCIAL COSTS OF CARBON WITHOUT KNOWING PREFERENCES COMMENT ON "A RAPID ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIAL COST OF CARBON"

    OpenAIRE

    REYER GERLAGH

    2014-01-01

    The Social Costs of Carbon (SCC) equals the marginal welfare loss associated with one unit of emitted CO2, divided by the marginal welfare gain associated with one unit of consumption. In stochastic assessments, both the nominator and denominator can depend on uncertain parameters; specifically they depend on the (implicit) scaling of the welfare function with the parameters. I discuss some pitfalls when calculating the expected value or the certainty equivalent of the SCC, and show that a mi...

  5. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

  6. A Substance Use Cost Calculator for US Employers With an Emphasis on Prescription Pain Medication Misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplerud, Eric; Hodge, Sarah; Benham, Tess

    2017-11-01

    Substance use disorders are among the most common and costly health conditions affecting Americans. Despite estimates of national costs exceeding $400 billion annually, individual companies may not see how substance use impacts their bottom lines through lost productivity and absenteeism, turnover, health care expenses, disability, and workers' compensation. Data on employed adults (18 years and older) from 3 years (2012 to 2014) of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health Public Use Data Files were analyzed. The results offer employers an authoritative, free, epidemiologically grounded, and easy-to-use tool that gives specific information about how alcohol, prescription pain medication misuse, and illicit drug use is likely impacting workplaces like theirs. Employers have detailed reports of the cost of substance use that can be used to improve workplace policies and health benefits.

  7. DNAStat, version 2.1--a computer program for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the new DNAStat version 2.1 for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations. The popularization of DNA studies employed in the judicial system has led to the necessity of developing appropriate computer programs. Such programs must, above all, address two critical problems, i.e. the broadly understood data processing and data storage, and biostatistical calculations. Moreover, in case of terrorist attacks and mass natural disasters, the ability to identify victims by searching related individuals is very important. DNAStat version 2.1 is an adequate program for such purposes. The DNAStat version 1.0 was launched in 2005. In 2006, the program was updated to 1.1 and 1.2 versions. There were, however, slight differences between those versions and the original one. The DNAStat version 2.0 was launched in 2007 and the major program improvement was an introduction of the group calculation options with the potential application to personal identification of mass disasters and terrorism victims. The last 2.1 version has the option of language selection--Polish or English, which will enhance the usage and application of the program also in other countries.

  8. 76 FR 54999 - Notice of 2011 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of 2011 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Departments of Agriculture for the National Organic Certification Cost- Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice... Service (AMS) for the allocation of National Organic Certification Cost-Share Funds. Beginning in Fiscal...

  9. 75 FR 54590 - Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites all States of the United... allocation of National Organic Certification Cost-Share Funds. The AMS has allocated $22.0 million for this...

  10. 75 FR 54591 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... Applications for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This... the Agricultural Management Assistance (AMA) Program. Total amount of cost-share payments provided to...

  11. Organizational Change Efforts: Methodologies for Assessing Organizational Effectiveness and Program Costs versus Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Barry A.; Mirvis, Philip H.

    1982-01-01

    A standardized methodology for identifying, defining, and measuring work behavior and performance rather than production, and a methodology that estimates the costs and benefits of work innovation are presented for assessing organizational effectiveness and program costs versus benefits in organizational change programs. Factors in a cost-benefit…

  12. 42 CFR 137.301 - How are project and program environmental review costs identified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... development to identify program and project related costs associated with carrying out environmental... costs identified? 137.301 Section 137.301 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Construction Nepa Process § 137.301 How are project and program environmental review costs identified? (a) The...

  13. The Economic Importance and Characteristics of Cost Calculation in the Clothing Industry in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caprian Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The paper ends with the author conclusions regarding the implementation of a cost calculationmethod in the clothing industry as well as the main actions to be taken by clothing companies tohave competitive and innovative products and to cope with fierce competition.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of the “Helping Babies Breathe” Program in a Missionary Hospital in Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossius, Corinna; Lotto, Editha; Lyanga, Sara; Mduma, Estomih; Msemo, Georgina; Perlman, Jeffrey; Ersdal, Hege L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Helping Babies Breathe” (HBB) program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH) in rural Tanzania. Methods Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health. Findings Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY) averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide) 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated. Conclusion The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness. PMID:25006802

  15. Review of procedures used to perform material balance yield calculations in the H-Coal Pilot Plant: Fossil Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, J.M.; Price, C.O.; Johnson, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    The MATBAL computer program was designed and used by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., to perform material balance calculations for the H-Coal Pilot Plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky. All of the material balance information generated at the Pilot Plant and the MATBAL code are stored on an IBM 3033 computer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The MATBAL source code from ASFI was supplemented by McAuto (a McDonald-Douglas Corp. subsidiary), while the Pilot Plant data were obtained directly from McAuto. All of the material balance examples and results shown in this report were performed for Pilot Plant Section 200, the liquefaction section. The MATBAL program allows the user to retrieve, screen, and correct process variables (temperatures, pressures, tank levels, flow rates, etc.) and analytical data before performing the material balance calculations. A matrix format facilitates changes to the input data, elemental point numbers (EPNs), and sample point numbers (SPNs), allowing a large degree of flexibility in defining the material balance envelope. The use of intermediate data storage files saves time and computer costs in the data reduction and material balance calculations. The data on flow rates, elemental analyses, and compositional analyses for each stream are stored along with the data on accumulation, elemental analyses, and compositional analyses for each vessel. The headings, EPNs and SPNs, for both streams and vessels are also stored by MATBAL. The user may choose from several options for calculation methods (ash and mass normalization), data retrieval and storage, and the types of information printed. This report explains the subroutines, functions, and variables used in the MATBAL code and matches the code input with the printed output. A discussion of program execution explains the use of the input cards, options, and steps of execution. 42 figs.

  16. UDATE1: A computer program for the calculation of uranium-series isotopic ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.

    UDATE1 is a FORTRAN-77 program with an interface for an Apple Macintosh computer that calculates isotope activities from measured count rates to date geologic materials by uranium-series disequilibria. Dates on pure samples can be determined directly by the accumulation of 230Th from 234U and of 231Pa from 235U. Dates for samples contaminated by clays containing abundant natural thorium can be corrected by the program using various mixing models. Input to the program and file management are made simple and user friendly by a series of Macintosh modal dialog boxes.

  17. A PROGRAM IN C++ THAT SIMULATES THE HP 48G CALCULATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Lazo, Paul; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Ruiz Lizama, Edgar; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a program in C++ language that emulates the behavior of a HP 48G calculator. For this, we use the concepts that the paradigm of the programming oriented to objects and battery algorithms for the polish notation provide. In the implementation of the program a Borland C++ 4.5 Compiler was used. El artículo presenta un programa en lenguaje C++ que emula el comportamiento de la calculadora HP 48G. Para ello se utiliza los conceptos que provee el paradigma de la programació...

  18. Are the program packages for molecular structure calculations really black boxes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MRAKOVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this communication it is shown that the widely held opinion that compact program packages for quantum–mechanical calculations of molecular structure can safely be used as black boxes is completely wrong. In order to illustrate this, the results of computations of equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies and dissociation energies for all homonuclear diatomic molecules involving the atoms from the first two rows of the Periodic Table, performed using the Gaussian program package are presented. It is demonstrated that the sensible use of the program requires a solid knowledge of quantum chemistry.

  19. What Is Professional Development Worth? Calculating the Value of Onboarding Programs in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Amy; Hodges, Alan; Zelaya, Priscilla

    2017-01-01

    Return on investment (ROI) is a commonly used metric for organizations concerned with demonstrating the value of their investments; it can be used to determine whether funds spent providing professional development programs for Extension professionals are good investments. This article presents a method for calculating ROI for an onboarding…

  20. A general framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs. The POWHEG BOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, Simone [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, Paolo [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Oleari, Carlo [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Milano-Bicocca Univ. (Italy); Re, Emanuele [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology

    2010-02-15

    In this work we illustrate the POWHEG BOX, a general computer code framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs according to the POWHEG method. Aim of this work is to provide an illustration of the needed theoretical ingredients, a view of how the code is organized and a description of what a user should provide in order to use it. (orig.)

  1. Updating Linear Schedules with Lowest Cost: a Linear Programming Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruk, Sławomir; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Czarnigowska, Agata

    2017-10-01

    Many civil engineering projects involve sets of tasks repeated in a predefined sequence in a number of work areas along a particular route. A useful graphical representation of schedules of such projects is time-distance diagrams that clearly show what process is conducted at a particular point of time and in particular location. With repetitive tasks, the quality of project performance is conditioned by the ability of the planner to optimize workflow by synchronizing the works and resources, which usually means that resources are planned to be continuously utilized. However, construction processes are prone to risks, and a fully synchronized schedule may expire if a disturbance (bad weather, machine failure etc.) affects even one task. In such cases, works need to be rescheduled, and another optimal schedule should be built for the changed circumstances. This typically means that, to meet the fixed completion date, durations of operations have to be reduced. A number of measures are possible to achieve such reduction: working overtime, employing more resources or relocating resources from less to more critical tasks, but they all come at a considerable cost and affect the whole project. The paper investigates the problem of selecting the measures that reduce durations of tasks of a linear project so that the cost of these measures is kept to the minimum and proposes an algorithm that could be applied to find optimal solutions as the need to reschedule arises. Considering that civil engineering projects, such as road building, usually involve less process types than construction projects, the complexity of scheduling problems is lower, and precise optimization algorithms can be applied. Therefore, the authors put forward a linear programming model of the problem and illustrate its principle of operation with an example.

  2. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.

  3. [The cost in calculating transport noise disturbances in public decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinet, E

    2001-09-01

    The public decision-making methods in transport are based on cost-benefit analysis, by which the consequences of the decision (standards for vehicles, new infrastructures...) are converted in monetary amounts and compared to the cost of implementation of the decision. But some of these consequences, especially those related to environment, are not directly expressed in monetary terms. The article aims at offsetting this difficulty in the case of noise. The possible methods for getting money values of noise are presented; it is shown that the estimates to which they lead are coherent and consistent. Then a comparison is made between the present procedures and the procedures which could be implemented, and it is shown that large gains of efficiency could be obtained.

  4. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  5. The Opportunity Cost of Study Abroad Programs: An Economics-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, George

    2008-01-01

    Most colleges and universities offer study abroad programs, and an increasing number of students participate in such programs. The cost of offering and promoting study abroad programs is often misunderstood and incorrectly assessed. This paper provides an analysis of study abroad costs that will be of general interest, but will be especially…

  6. Evaluating Intangible Outcomes: Using Multiattribute Utility Analysis to Compare the Benefits and Costs of Social Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selameab, Tehout; Yeh, Stuart S.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, program managers are required to evaluate programs with multiple outcomes against costs. This is difficult when program outcomes are not easily translated into a common metric. This article compares cost benefit analysis with Multiple Attribute Utility Technology and discusses the application of judgment in both analytical…

  7. An interactive microcomputer program for calculation of combined parenteral and enteral nutrition for neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, R; Gale, J; Branski, D; Armon, Y; Zelingher, J; Roll, D

    1983-11-01

    A responsive, iterating program is described (available on diskette from first author), which enables the physician to formulate a balanced, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for low-birth-weight and sick newborns. The program allows for the possibility of TPN or simultaneous intravenous, intraarterial, and oral feeding. It calculates the overall balance of fluids, nutrients, calories, electrolytes, minerals, trace elements, and vitamins. It features the integration of algorithms and limit tests of nutritional balance, to produce a feeding program that can be modified by clinical considerations of the physician, specific for each patient. The entire procedure can be accomplished, and a record of the entries and orders to the pharmacy and to the ward staff printed, within about 4-5 min. The program, which is written in BASIC, can be accommodated within and operated with a 16K byte microcomputer, equipped with a monitor, a printer, and a diskette or other program storage device.

  8. A Cost Model for Air Force Institute of Technology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    specific Air Force require- ments in science, engineering management, medicine, and the social sciences. The peograms administered by CI include officer...Difference Direct Costs: $ 73.11 $ 67.77 $ 5.34 Indirect Costs: AFIT Indirect Costs 19.31 22.51 (3.20) Base Sico =rt Costs .97 1.01 (.04) Crmand Overhead...cost model’s forecast potential. A final determination regarding the quantification of the risk involved in using the AFIT cost model as a forecast

  9. 78 FR 5164 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... Applications From State Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This notice invites the following eligible States: Connecticut...

  10. 76 FR 55000 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share... INFORMATION: This Organic Certification Cost-Share Program is part of the Agricultural Management Assistance... Applications from State Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic...

  11. Assessment model validity document. NAMMU: A program for calculating groundwater flow and transport through porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliffe, K.A.; Morris, S.T.; Porter, J.D. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    NAMMU is a computer program for modelling groundwater flow and transport through porous media. This document provides an overview of the use of the program for geosphere modelling in performance assessment calculations and gives a detailed description of the program itself. The aim of the document is to give an indication of the grounds for having confidence in NAMMU as a performance assessment tool. In order to achieve this the following topics are discussed. The basic premises of the assessment approach and the purpose of and nature of the calculations that can be undertaken using NAMMU are outlined. The concepts of the validation of models and the considerations that can lead to increased confidence in models are described. The physical processes that can be modelled using NAMMU and the mathematical models and numerical techniques that are used to represent them are discussed in some detail. Finally, the grounds that would lead one to have confidence that NAMMU is fit for purpose are summarised.

  12. A Fortran program for calculating electron or hole mobility in disordered semiconductors from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang

    2011-12-01

    A Fortran program is developed to calculate charge carrier (electron or hole) mobility in disordered semiconductors from first-principles. The method is based on non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics and static master equation, treating dynamic and static disorder on the same footing. We have applied the method to calculate the hole mobility in disordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) conjugated polymers as a function of temperature and electric field and obtained excellent agreements with experimental results. The program could be used to explore structure-mobility relation in disordered semiconducting polymers/organic semiconductors and aid rational design of these materials. Program summaryProgram title: FPMu Catalogue identifier: AEJV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 788 580 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8 433 024 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Any architecture with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Linux, Windows RAM: Proportional to the system size, in our example, 1.2 GB Classification: 7.9 Nature of problem: Determine carrier mobility from first-principles in disordered semiconductors as a function of temperature, electric field and carrier concentration. Solution method: Iteratively solve master equation with carrier state energy and transition rates determined from first-principles. Restrictions: Mobility for disordered semiconductors where the carrier wave-functions are localized and the carrier transport is due to phonon-assisted hopping mechanism. Running time: Depending on the system size (about an hour for the example here).

  13. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  14. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analysis of a population-based screening program for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pil, L; Fobelets, M; Putman, K; Trybou, J; Annemans, L

    2016-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in Belgium. In Flanders (Belgium), a population-based screening program with a biennial immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) in women and men aged 56-74 has been organised since 2013. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of the colorectal population-based screening program in Flanders (Belgium). A health economic model was conducted, consisting of a decision tree simulating the screening process and a Markov model, with a time horizon of 20years, simulating natural progression. Predicted mortality and incidence, total costs, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) with and without the screening program were calculated in order to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CRC screening. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted, taking into account uncertainty of the model parameters. Mortality and incidence were predicted to decrease over 20years. The colorectal screening program in Flanders is found to be cost-effective with an ICER of 1681/QALY (95% CI -1317 to 6601) in males and €4,484/QALY (95% CI -3254 to 18,163). The probability of being cost-effective given a threshold of €35,000/QALY was 100% and 97.3%, respectively. The budget impact analysis showed the extra cost for the health care payer to be limited. This health economic analysis has shown that despite the possible adverse effects of screening and the extra costs for the health care payer and the patient, the population-based screening program for CRC in Flanders is cost-effective and should therefore be maintained. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. WinClastour—a Visual Basic program for tourmaline formula calculation and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Fuat; Yavuz, Vural; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2006-10-01

    WinClastour is a Microsoft ® Visual Basic 6.0 program that enables the user to enter and calculate structural formulae of tourmaline analyses obtained both by the electron-microprobe or wet-chemical analyses. It is developed to predict cation site-allocations at the different structural positions, as well as to estimate mole percent of the end-members of the calcic-, alkali-, and X-site vacant group tourmalines. Using the different normalization schemes, such as 24.5 oxygens, 31 anions, 15 cations ( T+ Z+ Y), and 6 silicons, the present program classifies tourmaline data based on the classification scheme proposed by Hawthorne and Henry [1999. Classification of the minerals of the tourmaline group. European Journal of Mineralogy 11, 201-215]. The present program also enables the user Al-Mg disorder between Y and Z sites. WinClastour stores all the calculated results in a comma-delimited ASCII file format. Hence, output of the program can be displayed and processed by any other software for general data manipulation and graphing purposes. The compiled program code together with a test data file and related graphic files, which are designed to produce a high-quality printout from the Grapher program of Golden Software, is approximately 3 Mb as a self-extracting setup file.

  16. When pharmacodynamics trump costs: an antimicrobial stewardship program's approach to selecting optimal antimicrobial agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goff, Debra A; Nicolau, David P

    2013-01-01

    .... Antimicrobial stewardship programs provide guidance for clinicians regarding use of the most appropriate antimicrobial at the right dose, duration, and route in addition to being cost-effective...

  17. Slicken 1.0: Program for calculating the orientation of shear on reactivated faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Xu, Shunshan; Nieto-Samaniego, Ángel F.; Alaniz-Álvarez, Susana A.

    2017-07-01

    The slip vector on a fault is an important parameter in the study of the movement history of a fault and its faulting mechanism. Although there exist many graphical programs to represent the shear stress (or slickenline) orientations on faults, programs to quantitatively calculate the orientation of fault slip based on a given stress field are scarce. In consequence, we develop Slicken 1.0, a software to rapidly calculate the orientation of maximum shear stress on any fault plane. For this direct method of calculating the resolved shear stress on a planar surface, the input data are the unit vector normal to the involved plane, the unit vectors of the three principal stress axes, and the stress ratio. The advantage of this program is that the vertical or horizontal principal stresses are not necessarily required. Due to its nimble design using Java SE 8.0, it runs on most operating systems with the corresponding Java VM. The software program will be practical for geoscience students, geologists and engineers and will help resolve a deficiency in field geology, and structural and engineering geology.

  18. Cost optimal building performance requirements. Calculation methodology for reporting on national energy performance requirements on the basis of cost optimality within the framework of the EPBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Bettgenhaeuser, K.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    On the European level, the principles for the requirements for the energy performance of buildings are set by the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Dating from December 2002, the EPBD has set a common framework from which the individual Member States in the EU developed or adapted their individual national regulations. The EPBD in 2008 and 2009 underwent a recast procedure, with final political agreement having been reached in November 2009. The new Directive was then formally adopted on May 19, 2010. Among other clarifications and new provisions, the EPBD recast introduces a benchmarking mechanism for national energy performance requirements for the purpose of determining cost-optimal levels to be used by Member States for comparing and setting these requirements. The previous EPBD set out a general framework to assess the energy performance of buildings and required Member States to define maximum values for energy delivered to meet the energy demand associated with the standardised use of the building. However it did not contain requirements or guidance related to the ambition level of such requirements. As a consequence, building regulations in the various Member States have been developed by the use of different approaches (influenced by different building traditions, political processes and individual market conditions) and resulted in different ambition levels where in many cases cost optimality principles could justify higher ambitions. The EPBD recast now requests that Member States shall ensure that minimum energy performance requirements for buildings are set 'with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels'. The cost optimum level shall be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology. The objective of this report is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in Europe around the details of such a methodology by describing possible details on how to calculate cost optimal levels and pointing towards important factors and

  19. SUBGR: A Program to Generate Subgroup Data for the Subgroup Resonance Self-Shielding Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-06

    The Subgroup Data Generation (SUBGR) program generates subgroup data, including levels and weights from the resonance self-shielded cross section table as a function of background cross section. Depending on the nuclide and the energy range, these subgroup data can be generated by (a) narrow resonance approximation, (b) pointwise flux calculations for homogeneous media; and (c) pointwise flux calculations for heterogeneous lattice cells. The latter two options are performed by the AMPX module IRFFACTOR. These subgroup data are to be used in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) neutronic simulator MPACT, for which the primary resonance self-shielding method is the subgroup method.

  20. Automatic teeth axes calculation for well-aligned teeth using cost profile analysis along teeth center arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyehyun; Lee, Jeongjin; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Wooshik; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2012-04-01

    In dental implantology and virtual dental surgery planning using computed tomography (CT) images, the examination of the axes of neighboring and/or biting teeth is important to improve the performance of the masticatory system as well as the aesthetic beauty. However, due to its high connectivity to neighboring teeth and jawbones, a tooth and/or its axis is very elusive to automatically identify in dental CT images. This paper presents a novel method of automatically calculating individual teeth axes. The planes separating the individual teeth are automatically calculated using cost profile analysis along the teeth center arch. In this calculation, a novel plane cost function, which considers the intensity and the gradient, is proposed to favor the teeth separation planes crossing the teeth interstice and suppress the possible inappropriately detected separation planes crossing the soft pulp. The soft pulp and dentine of each individually separated tooth are then segmented by a fast marching method with two newly proposed speed functions considering their own specific anatomical characteristics. The axis of each tooth is finally calculated using principal component analysis on the segmented soft pulp and dentine. In experimental results using 20 clinical datasets, the average angle and minimum distance differences between the teeth axes manually specified by two dentists and automatically calculated by the proposed method were 1.94° ± 0.61° and 1.13 ± 0.56 mm, respectively. The proposed method identified the individual teeth axes accurately, demonstrating that it can give dentists substantial assistance during dental surgery such as dental implant placement and orthognathic surgery.

  1. Variation in Number of Doses, Bottle Volume, and Calculated Yearly Cost of Generic and Branded Latanoprost for Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Joanna H; Feldman, Robert M; Lee, David A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate discrepancies in doses per bottle, bottle fill volume, and cost among branded and generic formulations of latanoprost. Comparative economic analysis. This study was conducted at the Ruiz Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth). Four regionally available latanoprost formulations were measured. Number of drops per bottle and actual bottle fill volume were measured for a calculated sample size (10 bottles). Annual cost (using average wholesale price), days use per bottle, drops per milliliter, and number of bottles used per year were calculated. Data were summarized using mean and standard deviation; 1-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey's studentized range test were used for comparing means among manufacturers. Pfizer's branded lantanoprost, Xalatan (New York, New York, USA), had the largest fill volume (P Levene 0.14). Annual cost and number of doses per bottle, factors important to patients, vary significantly depending on the manufacturer of latanoprost. Practitioners can better advise patients by being aware of these differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The cost and performance of utility commercial lighting programs. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.; Sonnenblick, R.; Payne, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) is to document the measured cost and performance of utility-sponsored, energy-efficiency, demand-side management (DSM) programs. Consistent documentation of DSM programs is a challenging goal because of problems with data consistency, evaluation methodologies, and data reporting formats that continue to limit the usefulness and comparability of individual program results. This first DEEP report investigates the results of 20 recent commercial lighting DSM programs. The report, unlike previous reports of its kind, compares the DSM definitions and methodologies that each utility uses to compute costs and energy savings and then makes adjustments to standardize reported program results. All 20 programs were judged cost-effective when compared to avoided costs in their local areas. At an average cost of 3.9{cents}/kWh, however, utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs are not ``too cheap to meter.`` While it is generally agreed upon that utilities must take active measures to minimize the costs and rate impacts of DSM programs, the authors believe that these activities will be facilitated by industry adoption of standard definitions and reporting formats, so that the best program designs can be readily identified and adopted.

  3. [Direct costs of the dengue fever control and prevention program in 2005 in the City of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliberti, Helena; Zucchi, Paola

    2010-03-01

    To estimate the direct costs associated with the control of Aedes aegypti and prevention of dengue fever in the City of São Paulo Dengue Control Program, Brazil, in 2005. The following items were considered: human resources, uniforms, field materials, individual protection equipment, spraying equipment, strategic supplies (insecticides and larvicides), and vehicles. The costs associated with laboratory tests for entomological surveillance and dengue fever diagnosis were also calculated, as well as costs relating to information and printed materials for educational campaigns. The total direct costs of the City of São Paulo Dengue Fever Program in 2005 were R$ 21,774,282.82 (US$ 12,486,941.34 considering the dollar/real exchange rate in December 2009). Of this amount, 59.4% were directed to human resources, 38.3% to epidemic control measures, and 2.2% to capital expenditure. The cost per capita was R$ 1.99 in 2005. The control of dengue fever is essential given the growth of epidemics. Knowledge about the costs of strategies and priority items employed in dengue fever control and prevention programs can guide decision-making regarding the application of budget resources in both the City of São Paulo and Brazil as a whole.

  4. A Sensitivity Analysis of the Rigid Pavement Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Original Report Date: September 1999. This report describes the sensitivity analysis performed on the Rigid Pavement Life-Cycle Cost Analysis program, a computer program developed by the Center for Transportation Research for the Texas Department of ...

  5. A model to predict the cost-effectiveness of disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2010-06-01

    High costs and deficits in the care of patients with chronic diseases have triggered numerous programs to improve the quality and efficiency of treatment of chronic diseases. Decision makers need to estimate the impact of a disease management program (DMP) on long-term costs and cost-effectiveness in order to decide which programs to introduce. This prediction, however, requires formalizing the relations between a variety of variables. The purpose of this paper is to formalize these relations and develop a model that enhances the quality of predictions of the costs and cost-effectiveness of a DMP. The model's cost function is able to portray a reduction both of treatment overuse and underuse by improving both physician and patient compliance. The model's applicability is demonstrated by a simulated DMP for patients with hypertension. The application example shows that implementation costs may have a larger financial impact than downstream costs.

  6. Development of charge calculation program for target steel in induction furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu O. SEIDU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of charge calculation program for target steel in induction furnace. The simulation modelling function developed is based on mass balance analysis of the furnace production. The process engineering of the furnace follows linear algebraic mathematical function. Visual basic programming language (C# is used in the coding and interface integration. This is used to develop a unit process based simulation program with user friendly interface for the furnace. The application could be adapted to the production of different alloy steel depending on the production standard set by the user. Also, the program is developed to calculate the mass of scrap for optimization, ferrosilicon, ferromanganese, and other additives. Iteration of scrap charge for optimization is incorporated to enable the user simulates changes and manipulates scrap charge in the furnace before ferro-alloys and carbon additives are charged depending on the foundry practice or target standard. This also helps in the decision of the furnace engineer while requesting scrap from the yard. On validation, the program was seen to give charge optimization result very close in value to standard charge rate of the integrated steel complex in which it was tested.

  7. Implementing Suicide Prevention Programs: Costs and Potential Life Years Saved in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lesage, Alain; Latimer, Eric; Seguin, Monique

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the costs and effects of suicide prevention programs at the population level. We aimed to determine (i) the costs associated with a suicide death and using prospective values (ii) the costs and effects of transferring, into a Canadian context, the results of the European Nuremberg Alliance against Depression (NAD) trial with the addition of 4 community-based suicide prevention strategies. These included the training of family physicians in the detection and treatment of depression, population campaigns aimed at increasing awareness about depression, the training of community leaders among first responders and follow-up of individuals who attempted suicide. This study includes a prospective value implementation study design. Using published data and information from interviews with Canadian decision makers, we assessed the costs of a suicide death in the province of Quebec and the costs of potentially implementing the NAD multi-modal suicide prevention programs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), from a health care system and societal perspective, associated with the NAD program while considering the friction cost method (FCM) and human capital approach (HCA) (discounted at 3%.) The costs considered included those incurred for the suicide prevention program and direct medical and non-medical costs as well as those related to a police investigation and funeral costs. Indirect costs associated with loss of productivity and short term disability were also considered. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Costs presented were in 2010 dollars. The annual total cost of implementing the suicide prevention programs in Quebec reached CAD23,982,293. The most expensive components of the program included the follow-up of individuals who had attempted suicide and psychotherapy for bereaved individuals. These accounted for 39% and 34% of total costs. The ICER associated with the implementation of the programs reached on average CAD3

  8. Fission product inventory calculation by a CASMO/ORIGEN coupling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong; Jung, In Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A CASMO/ORIGEN coupling utility program was developed to predict the composition of all the fission products in spent PWR fuels. The coupling program reads the CASMO output file, modifies the ORIGEN cross section library and reconstructs the ORIGEN input file at each depletion step. In ORIGEN, the burnup equation is solved for actinides and fission products based on the fission reaction rates and depletion flux of CASMO. A sample calculation has been performed using a 14 x 14 PWR fuel assembly and the results are given in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (Author)

  9. Cost analysis of an exercise program for older women with respect to social welfare and healthcare costs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, L; Rantanen, T; Mäkinen, E; Timonen, T E; Törmäkangas, T; Sulkava, R

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze social welfare and healthcare costs and fall-related healthcare costs after a group-based exercise program. The 10-week exercise program, which started after discharge from the hospital, was designed to improve physical fitness, mood, and functional abilities in frail elderly women. Sixty-eight acutely hospitalized and mobility-impaired women (mean age 83.0, SD 3.9 years) were randomized into either group-based (intervention) or home exercise (control) groups. Information on costs was collected during 1 year after hospital discharge. There were no differences between the intervention and control groups in the mean individual healthcare costs: 4381 euros (SD 3829 euros) vs 3539 euros (SD 3967 euros), P=0.477, in the social welfare costs: 3336 euros (SD 4418 euros) vs 4073 euros (SD 5973 euros), P=0.770, or in the fall-related healthcare costs: 996 euros (SD 2612 euros) vs 306 euros (SD 915), P=0.314, respectively. This exercise intervention, which has earlier proved to be effective in improving physical fitness and mood, did not result in any financial savings in municipal costs. These results serve as a pilot study and further studies are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness of this exercise intervention for elderly people.

  10. Increasing the competitiveness of maintenance contract rates by using an alternative methodology for the calculation of average vehicle maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies tend to outsource transport to fleet management companies to increase efficiencies if transport is a non-core activity. The provision of fleet management services on contract introduces a certain amount of financial risk to the fleet management company, specifically fixed rate maintenance contracts. The quoted rate needs to be sufficient and also competitive in the market. Currently the quoted maintenance rates are based on the maintenance specifications of the manufacturer and the risk management approach of the fleet management company. This is usually reflected in a contingency that is included in the quoted maintenance rate. An alternative methodology for calculating the average maintenance cost for a vehicle fleet is proposed based on the actual maintenance expenditures of the vehicles and accepted statistical techniques. The proposed methodology results in accurate estimates (and associated confidence limits of the true average maintenance cost and can beused as a basis for the maintenance quote.

  11. GRAIN: a computer program to calculate ancestral and partial inbreeding coefficients using a gene dropping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumung, R; Farkas, J; Boichard, D; Mészáros, G; Sölkner, J; Curik, I

    2015-04-01

    GRain is freely available software intended to enable and promote testing of hypotheses with respect to purging and heterogeneity of inbreeding depression. The program is based on a stochastic approach, the gene dropping method, and calculates various coefficients from large and complex pedigrees. GRain calculates, together with the 'classical' inbreeding coefficient, ancestral inbreeding coefficients proposed by Ballou, (1997) J. Hered., 88, 169 and Kalinowski et al., (2000) Conserv. Biol., 14, 1375 as well as an ancestral history coefficient (AHC ), defined here for the first time. AHC is defined as the number that tells how many times during pedigree segregation (gene dropping) a randomly taken allele has been in IBD status. Furthermore, GRain enables testing of heterogeneity and/or purging of inbreeding depression with respect to different founders/ancestors by calculating partial coefficients for all previously obtained coefficients. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. An Assessment of Cost Improvements in the NASA COTS - CRS Program and Implications for Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    This review brings rigorous life cycle cost (LCC) analysis into discussions about COTS program costs. We gather publicly available cost data, review the data for credibility, check for consistency among sources, and rigorously define and analyze specific cost metrics.

  13. A PC program to optimize system configuration for desired reliability at minimum cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Steven W.; Siahpush, Ali S.

    1994-01-01

    High reliability is desired in all engineered systems. One way to improve system reliability is to use redundant components. When redundant components are used, the problem becomes one of allocating them to achieve the best reliability without exceeding other design constraints such as cost, weight, or volume. Systems with few components can be optimized by simply examining every possible combination but the number of combinations for most systems is prohibitive. A computerized iteration of the process is possible but anything short of a super computer requires too much time to be practical. Many researchers have derived mathematical formulations for calculating the optimum configuration directly. However, most of the derivations are based on continuous functions whereas the real system is composed of discrete entities. Therefore, these techniques are approximations of the true optimum solution. This paper describes a computer program that will determine the optimum configuration of a system of multiple redundancy of both standard and optional components. The algorithm is a pair-wise comparative progression technique which can derive the true optimum by calculating only a small fraction of the total number of combinations. A designer can quickly analyze a system with this program on a personal computer.

  14. Maternal influenza immunization in Malawi: Piloting a maternal influenza immunization program costing tool by examining a prospective program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Pecenka

    Full Text Available This costing study in Malawi is a first evaluation of a Maternal Influenza Immunization Program Costing Tool (Costing Tool for maternal immunization. The tool was designed to help low- and middle-income countries plan for maternal influenza immunization programs that differ from infant vaccination programs because of differences in the target population and potential differences in delivery strategy or venue.This analysis examines the incremental costs of a prospective seasonal maternal influenza immunization program that is added to a successful routine childhood immunization and antenatal care program. The Costing Tool estimates financial and economic costs for different vaccine delivery scenarios for each of the major components of the expanded immunization program.In our base scenario, which specifies a donated single dose pre-filled vaccine formulation, the total financial cost of a program that would reach 2.3 million women is approximately $1.2 million over five years. The economic cost of the program, including the donated vaccine, is $10.4 million over the same period. The financial and economic costs per immunized pregnancy are $0.52 and $4.58, respectively. Other scenarios examine lower vaccine uptake, reaching 1.2 million women, and a vaccine purchased at $2.80 per dose with an alternative presentation.This study estimates the financial and economic costs associated with a prospective maternal influenza immunization program in a low-income country. In some scenarios, the incremental delivery cost of a maternal influenza immunization program may be as low as some estimates of childhood vaccination programs, assuming the routine childhood immunization and antenatal care systems are capable of serving as the platform for an additional vaccination program. However, purchasing influenza vaccines at the prices assumed in this analysis, instead of having them donated, is likely to be challenging for lower-income countries. This result

  15. Cost and quality planning for large NASA programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rone, Kyle Y.

    1990-01-01

    The Software Cost and Quality Engineering methodology developed over the last two decades at IBM Federal Sector Div. is used to plan the NASA Space Station Data Management System (DMS). An ongoing project to capture this methodology, which is built on a foundation of experiences and lessons learned, has resulted in the development of a PC-based tool that integrates cost and quality forecasting methodologies and data in a consistent manner. This tool, Software Cost and Quality Engineering Starter Set (SCQESS), is being used to assist in the DMS costing exercises. At the same time, DMS planning serves as a forcing function and provides a platform for the continuing, iterative development, calibration, and validation and verification of SCQESS. The data that forms the cost and quality engineering data base is derived from more than 17 years of development of NASA Space Shuttle software, ranging from low criticality, low complexity support tools to highly complex and highly critical onboard software.

  16. TEAM-HF Cost-Effectiveness Model: A Web-Based Program Designed to Evaluate the Cost-Effectiveness of Disease Management Programs in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelby D.; Neilson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Matthew; Li, Yanhong; Briggs, Andrew H.; Polsky, Daniel E.; Graham, Felicia L.; Bowers, Margaret T.; Paul, Sara C.; Granger, Bradi B.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Whellan, David J.; Riegel, Barbara; Levy, Wayne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure disease management programs can influence medical resource use and quality-adjusted survival. Because projecting long-term costs and survival is challenging, a consistent and valid approach to extrapolating short-term outcomes would be valuable. Methods We developed the Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure (TEAM-HF) Cost-Effectiveness Model, a Web-based simulation tool designed to integrate data on demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics, use of evidence-based medications, and costs to generate predicted outcomes. Survival projections are based on a modified Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM). Projections of resource use and quality of life are modeled using relationships with time-varying SHFM scores. The model can be used to evaluate parallel-group and single-cohort designs and hypothetical programs. Simulations consist of 10,000 pairs of virtual cohorts used to generate estimates of resource use, costs, survival, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from user inputs. Results The model demonstrated acceptable internal and external validity in replicating resource use, costs, and survival estimates from 3 clinical trials. Simulations to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of heart failure disease management programs across 3 scenarios demonstrate how the model can be used to design a program in which short-term improvements in functioning and use of evidence-based treatments are sufficient to demonstrate good long-term value to the health care system. Conclusion The TEAM-HF Cost-Effectiveness Model provides researchers and providers with a tool for conducting long-term cost-effectiveness analyses of disease management programs in heart failure. PMID:26542504

  17. Cost analysis of school-based sexuality education programs in six countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivela, J.; Ketting, E.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Policy-makers who are making decisions on sexuality education programs face important economic questions: what are the costs of developing sexuality education programs; and what are the costs of implementing and scaling them up? This study responds to these questions by assessing the

  18. A Cost-Benefit Study of a Breaking the Cycle Program for Juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Alexander J.; Lattimore, Pamela K.; Krebs, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a cost-benefit analysis of a Juvenile Breaking the Cycle (JBTC) program in Oregon designed to provide juvenile justice system monitoring and coordinated treatment and services to youth who are assessed as at high risk for recidivism and substance use. Detailed cost analyses are presented for youth in the JBTC program and a…

  19. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.G. Steuten (Lotte); K.M.M. Lemmens (Karin); A.P. Nieboer (Anna); H.J.M. Vrijhoef (Hubertus)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified. Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multicomponent disease

  20. 75 FR 78798 - Airport Improvement Program: Proposed Changes to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program: Proposed Changes to Benefit Cost Analysis... requiring benefit cost analyses (BCA) for capacity projects when applying for Airport Improvement Program... Friday, except Federal holidays. Privacy: We will post all comments we receive, without change, to http...

  1. Cost-Benefit Considerations of New Careers Programs. Career Options Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Robert K.; And Others

    Since the early 1960's, new programs have been developed to prepare poor people for jobs in hospitals, schools, social agencies, and community centers offering human services. To ascertain the cost effectiveness of these programs the Career Options Research and Development (CORD) Project focused on the need for cost and benefit studies that…

  2. 78 FR 53425 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... policy for these fiscal years. For cases not settled and cost claims not paid prior to the effective date of the fiscal year in question, costs will be recalculated using the revised rates in this policy for... Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2012...

  3. Cost Management Competencies for Department of Defense Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Posner .................................................................................................... 22 Cadbury -Schweppes...Posner’s Problems and Skills .............................................................................. . 23 8. Cadbury -Schweppes Model...goals make organizational skills critical. Cadbury -Schweppes Cadbury -Schweppes conducted an extensive research program involving program manager

  4. Cost effectiveness of the MDOT preventive maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Michigan Department of Transportations (MDOT) pavement preservation program dates back to 1992. MDOTs pavement preservation strategy is primarily implemented through its capital preventive maintenance (CPM) program, in which preventive main...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of the Norwegian breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2017-02-15

    The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) has a nation-wide coverage since 2005. All women aged 50-69 years are invited biennially for mammography screening. We evaluated breast cancer mortality reduction and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using our microsimulation model, calibrated to most recent data. The microsimulation model allows for the comparison of mortality and costs between a (hypothetical) situation without screening and a situation with screening. Breast cancer incidence in Norway had a steep increase in the early 1990s. We calibrated the model to simulate this increase and included recent costs for screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and travel and productivity loss. We estimate a 16% breast cancer mortality reduction for a cohort of women, invited to screening, followed over their complete lifetime. Cost-effectiveness is estimated at NOK 112,162 per QALY gained, when taking only direct medical costs into account (the cost of the buses, examinations, and invitations). We used a 3.5% annual discount rate. Cost-effectiveness estimates are substantially below the threshold of NOK 1,926,366 as recommended by the WHO guidelines. For the Norwegian population, which has been gradually exposed to screening, breast cancer mortality reduction for women exposed to screening is increasing and is estimated to rise to ∼30% in 2020 for women aged 55-80 years. The NBCSP is a highly cost-effective measure to reduce breast cancer specific mortality. We estimate a breast cancer specific mortality reduction of 16-30%, at the cost of 112,162 NOK per QALY gained. © 2016 UICC.

  6. Multisite Cost Analysis of a School-Based Voluntary Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R.; D'amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. Method: The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. Results: From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100–$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14—$28). Conclusions: Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites. PMID:21906509

  7. Multisite cost analysis of a school-based voluntary alcohol and drug prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-09-01

    This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100-$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14-$28). Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites.

  8. Collecting costs of community prevention programs: communities putting prevention to work initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavjou, Olga A; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Hoerger, Thomas J; Trogdon, Justin G; Cash, Amanda J

    2014-08-01

    Community-based programs require substantial investments of resources; however, evaluations of these programs usually lack analyses of program costs. Costs of community-based programs reported in previous literature are limited and have been estimated retrospectively. To describe a prospective cost data collection approach developed for the Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) program capturing costs for community-based tobacco use and obesity prevention strategies. A web-based cost data collection instrument was developed using an activity-based costing approach. Respondents reported quarterly expenditures on labor; consultants; materials, travel, and services; overhead; partner efforts; and in-kind contributions. Costs were allocated across CPPW objectives and strategies organized around five categories: media, access, point of decision/promotion, price, and social support and services. The instrument was developed in 2010, quarterly data collections took place in 2011-2013, and preliminary analysis was conducted in 2013. Preliminary descriptive statistics are presented for the cost data collected from 51 respondents. More than 50% of program costs were for partner organizations, and over 20% of costs were for labor hours. Tobacco communities devoted the majority of their efforts to media strategies. Obesity communities spent more than half of their resources on access strategies. Collecting accurate cost information on health promotion and disease prevention programs presents many challenges. The approach presented in this paper is one of the first efforts successfully collecting these types of data and can be replicated for collecting costs from other programs. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. A new version of a computer program for dynamical calculations of RHEED intensity oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Andrzej; Skrobas, Kazimierz

    2006-01-01

    We present a new version of the RHEED program which contains a graphical user interface enabling the use of the program in the graphical environment. The presented program also contains a graphical component which enables displaying program data at run-time through an easy-to-use graphical interface. New version program summaryTitle of program: RHEEDGr Catalogue identifier: ADWV Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWV Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADUY Authors of the original program: A. Daniluk Does the new version supersede the original program: no Computer for which the new version is designed and others on which it has been tested: Pentium-based PC Operating systems or monitors under which the new version has been tested: Windows 9x, XP, NT Programming language used: Borland C++ Builder Memory required to execute with typical data: more than 1 MB Number of bits in a word: 64 bits Number of processors used: 1 Number of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5797 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 588 121 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is a very useful technique for studying growth and surface analysis of thin epitaxial structures prepared by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The RHEED technique can reveal, almost instantaneously, changes either in the coverage of the sample surface by adsorbates or in the surface structure of a thin film. Method of solution: RHEED intensities are calculated within the framework of the general matrix formulation of Peng and Whelan [1] under the one-beam condition. Reasons for the new version: Responding to the user feedback we designed a graphical package that enables displaying program data at run-time through an easy-to-use graphical interface. Summary of revisions:In the present form

  10. Cost calculator methods for estimating casework time in child welfare services: A promising approach for use in implementation of evidence-based practices and other service innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Lisa; Landsverk, John; Ward, Harriet; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Saldana, Lisa; Wulczyn, Fred; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    Estimating costs in child welfare services is critical as new service models are incorporated into routine practice. This paper describes a unit costing estimation system developed in England (cost calculator) together with a pilot test of its utility in the United States where unit costs are routinely available for health services but not for child welfare services. The cost calculator approach uses a unified conceptual model that focuses on eight core child welfare processes. Comparison of these core processes in England and in four counties in the United States suggests that the underlying child welfare processes generated from England were perceived as very similar by child welfare staff in California county systems with some exceptions in the review and legal processes. Overall, the adaptation of the cost calculator for use in the United States child welfare systems appears promising. The paper also compares the cost calculator approach to the workload approach widely used in the United States and concludes that there are distinct differences between the two approaches with some possible advantages to the use of the cost calculator approach, especially in the use of this method for estimating child welfare costs in relation to the incorporation of evidence-based interventions into routine practice.

  11. Program Cost Allocation and the Validation of Faculty Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilles, William C.

    1973-01-01

    The author reviews the historical use of effort measure in cost allocation studies, examines criticism of the effort technique, and reports on several recent attempts by academic health centers to achieve a more valid measure of faculty activities. (Editor)

  12. Technology Transfer Program (TTP) Cost Accounting Final Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1980-01-01

    .... Shipbuilding Maritime Administration. The material contained herein was developed from the study of the Cost Accounting systems presently in operation in the shipyards of Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI) of Japan...

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of childhood asthma management through school-based clinic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Teresa; Bame, Sherry I

    2011-04-01

    Asthma is a leading chronic illness among American children. School-based health clinics (SBHCs) reduced expensive ER visits and hospitalizations through better healthcare access and monitoring in select case studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-benefit of SBHC programs in managing childhood asthma nationwide for reduction in medical costs of ER, hospital and outpatient physician care and savings in opportunity social costs of lowing absenteeism and work loss and of future earnings due to premature deaths. Eight public data sources were used to compare costs of delivering primary and preventive care for childhood asthma in the US via SBHC programs, including direct medical and indirect opportunity costs for children and their parents. The costs of nurse staffing for a nationwide SBHC program were estimated at $4.55 billion compared to the estimated medical savings of $1.69 billion, including ER, hospital, and outpatient care. In contrast, estimated total savings for opportunity costs of work loss and premature death were $23.13 billion. Medical savings alone would not offset the expense of implementing a SBHC program for prevention and monitoring childhood asthma. However, even modest estimates of reducing opportunity costs of parents' work loss would be far greater than the expense of this program. Although SBHC programs would not be expected to affect the increasing prevalence of childhood asthma, these programs would be designed to reduce the severity of asthma condition with ongoing monitoring, disease prevention and patient compliance.

  14. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented

  15. Cost-Utility Analysis of Three U.S. HIV Linkage and Re-engagement in Care Programs from Positive Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kriti M; Zulliger, Rose; Maulsby, Cathy; Kim, Jeeyon Janet; Charles, Vignetta; Riordan, Maura; Holtgrave, David

    2016-05-01

    Linking and retaining people living with HIV in ongoing, HIV medical care is vital for ending the U.S. HIV epidemic. Yet, 41-44 % of HIV+ individuals are out of care. In response, AIDS United initiated Positive Charge, a series of five HIV linkage and re-engagement projects around the U.S. This paper investigates whether three Positive Charge programs were cost effective and calculates a return on investment for each program. It uses standard methods of cost utility analysis and WHO-CHOICE thresholds. All three projects were found to be cost effective, and two were highly cost effective. Cost utility ratios ranged from $4439 to $137,271. These results suggest that HIV linkage to care programs are a productive and efficient use of public health funds.

  16. Program-specific cost-effectiveness analysis: breast cancer screening policies for a safety-net program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikow, Joy; Tancredi, Daniel J; Yang, Zhuo; Ritley, Dominique; Jiang, Yun; Slee, Christina; Popova, Svetlana; Rylett, Phillip; Knutson, Kirsten; Smalley, Sherie

    2013-01-01

    Every Woman Counts (EWC), a California breast cancer screening program, faced challenging budget cutbacks and policy choices. A microsimulation model evaluated costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of EWC program mammography policy options on coverage for digital mammography (which has a higher cost than film mammography but recent legislation allowed reimbursement at the lower film rate); screening eligibility age; and screening frequency. Model inputs were based on analyses of program claims data linked to California Cancer Registry data, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, and the Medi-Cal literature. Outcomes included number of procedures, cancers, cancer deaths, costs, and incremental cost per life-year. Projected model outcomes matched program data closely. With restrictions on the number of clients screened, strategies starting screening at age 40 years were dominated (not cost-effective). This finding was highly robust in sensitivity analyses. Compared with no screening, biennial film mammography for women aged 50 to 64 years was projected to reduce 15-year breast cancer mortality by nearly 7.8% at $18,999 per additional life-year, annual film mammography was $106,428 per additional life-year, and digital mammography $180,333 per additional life-year. This more effective, more expensive strategy was projected to reduce breast cancer mortality by 8.6%. Under equal mammography reimbursement, biennial digital mammography beginning at age 50 years was projected to decrease 15-year breast cancer mortality by 8.6% at an incremental cost per additional life-year of $17,050. For the EWC program, biennial screening mammography starting at age 50 years was the most cost-effective strategy. The impact of digital mammography on life expectancy was small. Program-specific cost-effectiveness analysis can be completed in a policy-relevant time frame to assist policymakers faced with difficult program choices. Copyright © 2013, International Society for

  17. Robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Richard; Northen, Trent R

    2013-10-15

    Untargeted metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled via electrospray ionization is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products, metabolic capabilities, and biomarkers. However, the elucidation of the identities of uncharacterized metabolites from spectral features remains challenging. A critical step in the metabolite identification workflow is the assignment of redundant spectral features (adducts, fragments, multimers) and calculation of the underlying chemical formula. Inspection of the data by experts using computational tools solving partial problems (e.g., chemical formula calculation for individual ions) can be performed to disambiguate alternative solutions and provide reliable results. However, manual curation is tedious and not readily scalable or standardized. Here we describe an automated procedure for the robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming optimization (RAMSI). Chemical rules among related ions are expressed as linear constraints and both the spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation are performed in a single optimization step. This approach is unbiased in that it does not require predefined sets of neutral losses and positive and negative polarity spectra can be combined in a single optimization. The procedure was evaluated with 30 experimental mass spectra and was found to effectively identify the protonated or deprotonated molecule ([M + H](+) or [M - H](-)) while being robust to the presence of background ions. RAMSI provides a much-needed standardized tool for interpreting ions for subsequent identification in untargeted metabolomics workflows.

  18. MARCH calculations performed for the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit) analysis exercise program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooton, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the validation effort for the MARCH portion of the Source Term Code Package, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requested Battelle Columbus to participate in the Three Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) Analysis Exercise Program. Previous TMI-2 calculations (1980) had been performed using the original MARCH 1.1 version of the code. MARCH was written to calculate thermal-hydraulic phenomena for reactor accidents leading to core meltdown. The accident sequences normally considered by MARCH users are relatively uncomplicated. For example, multiple changes in emergency core cooling injection, steam generator auxiliary feedwater flow rates, and cycling of primary system steam relief valves are not generally considered in severe-accident analysis. All of these things were done during the TMI-2 accident. In addition, at TMI-2 the core meltdown sequence was interrupted by the restoration of core cooling after achieving significant melting. In order to perform meaningful TMI-2 calculations, it has been found necessary to add a number of modeling enhancements to MARCH. These modeling changes are discussed along with the results of the TMI-2 MARCH calculations in this paper.

  19. Peritoneal function and adequacy calculations: current programs versus PD Adequest 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó-Planas, Josep

    2002-01-01

    Our current programs (CPs) were compared to PD Adequest 2.0 (PD-A) for calculations of peritoneal membrane transport and dialysis adequacy. Thirty peritoneal equilibration tests (PETs) and 24-hour balances (24hBs) were conducted and calculated using our CPs and PD-A. Thirty hospital-controlled peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were studied. The inclusion of correction factors (for glucose or plasmatic water) and of residual volume, and the use of 3 or 6 peritoneal samples were analyzed to discover the differences between programs. The main outcome measures were peritoneal permeability and adequacy parameters, evaluated by Student t-test (mean and paired comparisons) and linear regression for correlation. No significant differences were found in D/P values for small solutes. At the first step, mass transfer area coefficient (MTAC) urea and MTAC creatinine were significantly higher in DP-A than in CP, but MTAC glucose did not differ. The causes of differences were: (1) inclusion of a correction factor for aqueous plasmatic concentration of small solutes in CP; (2) lack of Inclusion of residual volume in peritoneal volumes in CP; and (3) use of 6 peritoneal samples in CP versus 3 in PD-A. At the second step, when the input data were made equivalent for both programs, the differences disappeared for MTAC urea, creatinine, and glucose (mean comparison), but creatinine and glucose remained different by paired comparison. Similar results were obtained when a correction for plasmatic aqueous concentration was applied to the data in both programs [MTAC urea: 22.60 +/- 4.27 ml/min (CP) vs 22.43 +/- 4.61 mL/min (PD-A), nonsignificant, r= 0.97; MTAC creatinine: 9.76 +/- 3.83 mL/min (CP) vs 10.61 +/- 3.07 mL/min (PD-A), nonsignificant, r = 0.98; MTAC glucose: 13.30 +/- 3.12 mL/min (CP) vs 11.87 +/- 3.41 m/min (PD-A), nonsignificant, r= 0.92]. Creatinine and glucose were different by paired t-test. No significant differences were found in Kt/V and urea generation rate. Weekly

  20. Simulator program for load flow calculations and correct switching training; Simulationsprogramm fuer Netzberechnug und Schalttraining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschick, H.; Bernhardt, R. [Ingenieur- und Servicegesellschaft fuer Energie und Umwelt, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Simulatorenentwicklung

    1997-10-20

    The following article describes a PC program package for the training of load switching in electrical power supply and distribution station under normal, critical and fault conditions. It contains load flow and short circuit calculation, station interlocking checking and protection device simulation. There exist a single user version as well as a multi user version intended for group switching training. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verfasser stellen ein PC-Programmsystem zum Training von Schalthandlungen in elektrischen Energieversorgungsanlagen unter Normal- und Ausnahmebedingungen vor. Es enhaelt Lastfluss- und Kurzschlussberechnung, Verriegelungsueberpruefung und Schutzemulation. Es ist sowohl eine Einzelplatz- als auch eine Mehrplatzversion zum Gruppenschalttraining verfuegbar. (orig.)

  1. The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    of biodiversity. Common policy simplifications result in a 49100% loss in biodiversity benefits depending on the conservation target chosen. Failure to differentiate prices for conservation improvements in space is particularly problematic. Additional implementation costs that accompany more complicated policies......Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies...

  2. The changing cost to prevent diabetes: A retrospective analysis of the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, Nicholas W; Cheng, Feng; Kelly, William N

    Diabetes prevention interventions are poorly implemented. While health care costs generally increase, 2 factors affect the relative cost of diabetes prevention interventions: the declining cost of metformin (even without insurance) and the new recommendation for vitamin B12 monitoring during metformin treatment. The study's objective was to update the relative health system cost estimate of metformin for diabetes prevention by incorporating the current health system cost of metformin and the cost of addressing potential metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency. The study was designed to assess whether metformin with vitamin B12 supplementation is a cost-saving measure for diabetes prevention and for the updated cost estimate to be useful in assessing future implementation studies. In 2012, the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group published detailed per capita total direct health system costs for the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). The present analysis incorporated the declining cost of metformin and the increasing cost of metformin monitoring into the detailed per capita health system costs found in the DPP and DPPOS. The updated costs were used to assess the total cost of metformin use for diabetes prevention relative to placebo and lifestyle intervention. The current health system cost to acquire metformin ranges from $0 to $72 per year. The estimated health system cost to address potential metformin-associated vitamin B12 deficiency is $28 per metformin-treated patient per year. The 10-year total health system cost for metformin in diabetes prevention can decrease by $329 or increase by $21 depending on the cost to acquire metformin. Compared with placebo, the unadjusted cost savings of metformin is generally maintained, although it may double or quadruple depending on how metformin is acquired by patients. Metformin with vitamin B12 supplementation remained less costly and less effective

  3. Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

  4. Very Low-Cost Nutritious Diet Plans Designed by Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foytik, Jerry

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedural details of Linear Programing, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to devise a dietary guide for consumers that minimizes food costs without sacrificing nutritional quality. Compares Linear Programming with the Thrifty Food Plan, which has been a basis for allocating coupons under the Food Stamp Program. (CS)

  5. 76 FR 65769 - Airport Improvement Program: Modifications to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program: Modifications to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA... Airport Improvement Program (AIP) discretionary funds. On December 16, 2010, the FAA issued a Notice of... which BCAs are required from $5 million to $10 million in Airport Improvement Program (AIP...

  6. EosFit-Pinc: a GUI program to calculate pressures in host-inclusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Ross; Alvaro, Matteo; Mazzucchelli, Mattia; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    A remnant pressure in an inclusion trapped inside a host mineral is developed because the inclusion and the host have different thermal expansion and compressibilities, and the inclusion does not expand in response to P and T as would a free crystal. Instead it is restricted to expand only as much as the cavity of the host mineral, and this constriction in volume can result in inclusions exhibiting over-pressures when the host is studied at room conditions. The remnant pressure of the inclusion, measured by X-ray diffractometry, birefringence analysis or Raman spectroscopy, can then be used with the equations of state (EoS) of the host and inclusion to constrain the P and T at entrapment. This concept has been known for a long time, but satisfactory quantitative modelling of inclusion-host systems based on non-linear elasticity theory and precise EoS has only recently come available (Angel et al., 2014, 2015), even though calculations still assume isotropic elastic properties. The elasticity calculations to determine entrapment conditions involving the EoSs for both the host and the inclusion are complex if thermodynamically-realistic EoS are employed. We have therefore developed a simple GUI program, EosFit-Pinc that performs all of the necessary calculations under the assumptions of isotropic elasticity. Equations of state of the host and the inclusion can be loaded as files created by other software in the EosFit7 program suite, or imported directly from thermodynamic databases such as Thermocalc. The complete range of EoS types supported by EosFit-7 are available in EosFit-Pinc. Fluid EoS can be provided in the form of PVT tables, which allows fluid inclusions to be modelled. Once loaded, the EoS of the host and inclusion can be used to calculate the entrapment isomeke from the measured remnant pressure of the inclusion. Or the final pressure can be calculated if the entrapment conditions are known or estimated. Calculations of the isochors of both the host and

  7. Cost-utility analysis of neonatal screening program, shiraz university of medical sciences, shiraz, iran, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Nahid; Shirvani, Samad; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Askarian, Mehrdad; Rastegar, Mohsen

    2013-10-01

    The most important cause of infant mortality during the first month of life is related to congenital abnormalities. Nevertheless, timely diagnosis of these diseases can reduce the severity of their effects. The present study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the neonatal screening program in Fars Province, Iran. In this study, costs of executing the screening programs, treatment of the diagnosed cases, treatment of affected, non-screened individuals, quality of life, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were measured in two study groups. Performing the screening programs for phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, and favism resulted in respectively $3386, $13078, $19641, and $1088 saving per patient. Overall, the study results revealed the cost-effectiveness of execution of the neonatal screening program. Neonatal screening program is one of the health interventions which lead to long-term beneficial outcome for the patients, financial saving for the society, and improvement of the patients' quantity as well as quality of life.

  8. The Cost of Commonality: Assessing Value in Joint Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    dire consequences for the survival and performance of the network as a whole ( Emerson , 1976). Military services are independent stakeholders who join...maximize provincial outcomes at the expense of collective optimization. Thus, rational actions within the network are often undertaken irrespective of...incentives for opportunistic behavior at the expense of collective optimization. The associated transaction costs and suboptimal performance can have

  9. Health care utilization and costs after entry into an outreach program for homeless mentally ill veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, R; Gallup, P; Frisman, L K

    1993-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a Department of Veterans Affairs outreach and residential treatment program for homeless mentally ill veterans on utilization and cost of health care services provided by the VA. Veterans at nine program sites (N = 1,748) were assessed with a standard intake instrument. Services provided by the outreach program were documented in quarterly clinical reports and in residential treatment discharge summaries. Data on nonprogram VA health service utilization and health care costs were obtained from national VA data bases. Changes in use of services and cost of services from the year before initial contact with the program to the year after were analyzed by t test. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship of these changes to indicators of clinical need and to participation in the outreach program. Although utilization of inpatient service did not increase after veterans' initial contact with the program, use of domiciliary and outpatient services increased substantially. Total annual costs to the VA also increased by 35 percent, from $6,414 to $8,699 per veteran per year. Both clinical need and participation in the program were associated with increased use of health services and increased cost. Veterans with concomitant psychiatric and substance abuse problems used fewer health care services than others. Specialized programs to improve the access of homeless mentally ill persons to health care services appear to be effective, but costly. Dually diagnosed persons seem especially difficult to engage in treatment.

  10. Calculating Amortized Capital Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Programas de mantenimiento de metadona con servicios auxiliares: un estudio de coste-efectividad Methadone maintenance programs with supplementary services: a cost-effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Puigdollers

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Actualmente, los programas de mantenimiento con metadona (PMM son la mejor alternativa de tratamiento para los adictos a opiáceos. Se pretende valorar el coste-efectividad de tres PMM que ofrecían diferentes servicios auxiliares utilizando como medida de efectividad el incremento de la calidad de vida. Métodos: Estudio de seguimiento a 12 meses de 586 pacientes que iniciaron tratamiento con metadona en los centros de atención y seguimiento municipales de Barcelona. Para medir la evolución de la calidad de vida se utilizó el Perfil de Salud de Nottingham (PSN. Se calcularon los costes unitarios estándar y el coste total por paciente a partir de los registros de actividad. Los datos sociodemográficos, de salud y toxicológicos se obtuvieron a través de una entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis coste-efectividad se realizó mediante dos modelos multivariados con idénticas variables de ajuste. Resultados: Cuanto mayor es la intensidad de programa, más elevado es el coste. Los modelos ajustados detectaron un aumento significativo de la calidad de vida (mejora de un 8% en el PSN y de los costes (17% entre el programa de intensidad baja y el de intensidad media. Conclusiones: El programa de media intensidad demostró la mejor relación coste-efectividad pero, dadas las limitaciones del estudio, es difícil ser taxativo en la generalización de sus resultados.Objective: Methadone maintenance programs (MMP currently offer the best treatment for opioid-addicted patients. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of three MMPs that offered varying levels of supplementary services. Health-related quality of life was used as a measure of effectiveness. Methods: A 12-month follow-up study of 586 patients beginning methadone treatment in Drug Care Centers in Barcelona was performed. The Nottingham Health Profile was used to measure quality of life. Standard unit costs and total cost per patient were calculated from

  12. Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-02-15

    The restricted active-space (RAS) approach can accurately simulate metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes without the use of any fitting parameters. These characteristics provide a unique capability to identify unknown chemical species and to analyze their electronic structure. To find the best balance between cost and accuracy, the sensitivity of the simulated spectra with respect to the method variables has been tested for two models, [FeCl6 ](3-) and [Fe(CN)6 ](3-) . For these systems, the reference calculations give deviations, when compared with experiment, of ≤1 eV in peak positions, ≤30% for the relative intensity of major peaks, and ≤50% for minor peaks. When compared with these deviations, the simulated spectra are sensitive to the number of final states, the inclusion of dynamical correlation, and the ionization potential electron affinity shift, in addition to the selection of the active space. The spectra are less sensitive to the quality of the basis set and even a double-ζ basis gives reasonable results. The inclusion of dynamical correlation through second-order perturbation theory can be done efficiently using the state-specific formalism without correlating the core orbitals. Although these observations are not directly transferable to other systems, they can, together with a cost analysis, aid in the design of RAS models and help to extend the use of this powerful approach to a wider range of transition metal systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of a disease management program for early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnaliev, Mihail; Wijeratne, Rashmi; Kwon, Eunhae Grace; Ohiomoba, Henry; Ng, Man Wai

    2015-01-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of a pilot disease management (DM) program aimed at preventing early childhood caries among children younger than 5 years. The DM program was implemented in the Boston Children's Hospital-based dental practice in 2008. Health care costs were obtained from the hospital finance department and non-health care costs were estimated through a parent survey. The measure of effectiveness was avoided hospital-based visits for restorative treatment or extractions. Incremental costs (2011 US$) and effectiveness were estimated from a health care system, societal, and public payer perspectives over 3, 6, and 12 months, by comparing DM participants (n = 395) to a historical comparison group (n = 123) using generalized linear models. Bootstrapping and other sensitivity analyses were used to incorporate uncertainty in the analyses. The DM program was associated with a reduction in societal costs of $20 (p = 0.85), $215 (p = 0.24), and $669 (p costly and more effective was 61.5 percent, 81.9 percent, and 98.6 percent over 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Consistent results were observed from a health care system and public payer perspectives. The DM program appears cost-effective and has the potential to reduce health care costs. Our results justify a multicenter trial to evaluate the DM program on a larger scale. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  14. Variation in average costs among federally sponsored state-organized cancer detection programs: economies of scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansley, Edward C; Duñet, Diane O; May, Daniel S; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; McKenna, Matthew T

    2002-01-01

    Societal cost-effectiveness analysis and its variants help decision makers achieve an efficient allocation of resources across the set of all possible health interventions. Sometimes, however, decision makers are focused instead on the efficient allocation of resources within a particular intervention program that has already been implemented. This is especially true when the intervention is being delivered at several different sites. An analysis of average cost across program sites may help program officials to maximize the health benefits that can be achieved with limited resources. In this article, the authors present such an analysis, with special attention paid to the possible existence and implications of economies of scale. Focusing on federally sponsored, state-organized cancer detection programs, the authors modeled 19 state programs as productive processes and examined their average costs over a 2- to 5-year period of operation. They considered 3 alternative definitions of output: women served, screens performed, and conditions detected. Average federal costs and average total costs were estimated for each grant period. Multivariate regression analysis was used to help explain the variation in average costs. The average cost estimates were distributed in a skewed pattern with the majority of observations falling close to the median and substantially below the mean. For all measures considered, average cost decreased as output expanded. This inverse relationship between average cost and output level persisted even after controlling for the effects of other predictors, suggesting the possible existence of economies of scale. The potential existence of economies of scale calls into question the assumption of a constant average cost frequently made in economic analyses of proposed public health programs. It also implies that a) differences in output level should be taken into account when comparing operating efficiency across program sites; b) conclusions

  15. Manufactured Homes Acquisition Program : Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations, Heat Loss Coefficient Tables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Bob; Baylon, David

    1992-05-01

    This manual is intended to assist builders of manufactured homes in assessing the thermal performance of structural components used in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). U-factors for these components are calculated using the ASHRAE (1989) parallel heat loss method, with adaptations made for the construction practices found in the Pacific Northwest manufactured home industry. This report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the general assumptions and calculation procedures used to develop U-factors and R-values for specific materials used in the construction industry, overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components' heat loss rates. The individual components of manufactured homes are reviewed in terms of overall thermal conductivity. The second part contains tables showing the results of heat loss calculations expressed as U-factors for various configurations of the major building components: floor systems, ceiling systems, wall systems, windows, doors and skylights. These values can be used to establish compliance with the MAP specifications and thermal performance criteria or to compare manufactured homes built to different standards.

  16. Manufactured Homes Acquisition Program : Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations, Heat Loss Coefficient Tables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Bob; Baylon, David.

    1992-05-01

    This manual is intended to assist builders of manufactured homes in assessing the thermal performance of structural components used in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). U-factors for these components are calculated using the ASHRAE (1989) parallel heat loss method, with adaptations made for the construction practices found in the Pacific Northwest manufactured home industry. This report is divided into two parts. The first part describes the general assumptions and calculation procedures used to develop U-factors and R-values for specific materials used in the construction industry, overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components` heat loss rates. The individual components of manufactured homes are reviewed in terms of overall thermal conductivity. The second part contains tables showing the results of heat loss calculations expressed as U-factors for various configurations of the major building components: floor systems, ceiling systems, wall systems, windows, doors and skylights. These values can be used to establish compliance with the MAP specifications and thermal performance criteria or to compare manufactured homes built to different standards.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community Exercise and Nutrition Program for Older Adults: Texercise Select

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufolake (Odufuwa Akanni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based programs that can improve health outcomes among older populations often requires an understanding of factors influencing community adoption of such programs. One such program is Texercise Select, a community-based health promotion program previously shown to improve functional health, physical activity, nutritional habits and quality of the life among older adults. This paper assesses the cost-effectiveness of Texercise Select in the context of supportive environments to facilitate its delivery and statewide sustainability. Participants were surveyed using self-reported instruments distributed at program baseline and conclusion. Program costs were based on actual direct costs of program implementation and included costs of recruitment and outreach, personnel costs and participant incentives. Program effectiveness was measured using quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained, as well as health outcomes, such as healthy days, weekly physical activity and Timed Up-and-Go (TUG test scores. Preference-based EuroQol (EQ-5D scores were estimated from the number of healthy days reported by participants and converted into QALYs. There was a significant increase in the number of healthy days (p < 0.05 over the 12-week program. Cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from $1374 to $1452 per QALY gained. The reported cost-effective ratios are well within the common cost-effectiveness threshold of $50,000 for a gained QALY. Some sociodemographic differences were also observed in program impact and cost. Non-Hispanic whites experienced significant improvements in healthy days from baseline to the follow-up period and had higher cost-effectiveness ratios. Results indicate that the Texercise Select program is a cost-effective strategy for increasing physical activity and improving healthy dietary practices among older adults as compared to similar health promotion interventions. In line with the significant improvement in

  18. Hospital cost effect of a heart failure disease management program: the Specialized Primary and Networked Care in Heart Failure (SPAN-CHF) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Douglas; Kimmelstiel, Carey; Perry, Kathleen; Parikh, Amay; Konstam, Varda; Konstam, Marvin A

    2006-05-01

    Determine the effect on hospitalization cost of a heart failure disease management (HFDM) program delivered within a diverse provider network as demonstrated in the SPAN-CHF randomized controlled trial. The SPAN-CHF trial was a prospective randomized assessment of the effectiveness of HFDM delivered for 90 days across a diverse provider network in a heterogeneous population of 200 patients. Baseline clinical and demographic data were obtained on each patient, mortality was monitored, and hospitalizations were tracked for 90 days. Cost estimates for each hospitalization were based on a subsample of patients seen at Tufts-New England Medical Center for whom hospitalization costs were calculated. Heart failure disease management program costs were estimated using a programmatic budget model. Hospital utilization and cost data were combined to estimate medical costs for intervention and control groups. Heart failure disease management had a favorable effect on heart failure hospitalization, which was partially offset by noncardiac hospitalizations. The relative odds of at least one all-cause hospitalization during the intervention period trended less for the intervention group compared with the control group (0.76 [95% CI 0.38-1.51]). The point estimate of the differential hospitalization cost between control and intervention groups was a reduction in cost of $375 per patient. The net effect including the costs of the program was an increase of $488 per patient for the intervention group compared with the control group. The program would have been cost saving if HFDM costs had been 24% lower. The HFDM intervention, administered over 90 days to patients hospitalized for heart failure, succeeded in reducing the rate of heart failure hospitalizations, although this effect was partially offset by an increase in non-heart failure hospitalizations. The resulting modest reduction in all-cause hospitalization costs was exceeded by the cost of the intervention. Thus, although

  19. Cost of providing injectable contraceptives through a community-based social marketing program in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Downing, Janelle; Bell, Suzanne; Weidert, Karen; Godefay, Hagos; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2016-06-01

    To provide a cost analysis of an injectable contraceptive program combining community-based distribution and social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia. We conducted a cost analysis, modeling the costs and programmatic outcomes of the program's initial implementation in 3 districts of Tigray, Ethiopia. Costs were estimated from a review of program expense records, invoices, and interviews with health workers. Programmatic outcomes include number of injections and couple-year of protection (CYP) provided. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the average number of injections provided per month by community health workers (CHWs), the cost of the commodity, and the number of CHWs trained. The average programmatic CYP was US $17.91 for all districts with a substantial range from US $15.48-38.09 per CYP across districts. Direct service cost was estimated at US $2.96 per CYP. The cost per CYP was slightly sensitive to the commodity cost of the injectable contraceptives and the number of CHWs. The capacity of each CHW, measured by the number of injections sold, was a key input that drove the cost per CYP of this model. With a direct service cost of US $2.96 per CYP, this study demonstrates the potential cost of community-based social marketing programs of injectable contraceptives. The findings suggest that the cost of social marketing of contraceptives in rural communities is comparable to other delivery mechanisms with regards to CYP, but further research is needed to determine the full impact and cost-effectiveness for women and communities beyond what is measured in CYP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic Modeling of Heart Failure Telehealth Programs: When Do They Become Cost Saving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena Xin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth programs for congestive heart failure have been shown to be clinically effective. This study assesses clinical and economic consequences of providing telehealth programs for CHF patients. A Markov model was developed and presented in the context of a home-based telehealth program on CHF. Incremental life expectancy, hospital admissions, and total healthcare costs were examined at periods ranging up to five years. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses were also conducted on clinical performance parameters. The base case analysis yielded cost savings ranging from $2832 to $5499 and 0.03 to 0.04 life year gain per patient over a 1-year period. Applying telehealth solution to a low-risk cohort with no prior admission history would result in $2502 cost increase per person over the 1-year time frame with 0.01 life year gain. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the cost savings were most sensitive to patient risk, baseline cost of hospital admission, and the length-of-stay reduction ratio affected by the telehealth programs. In sum, telehealth programs can be cost saving for intermediate and high risk patients over a 1- to 5-year window. The results suggested the economic viability of telehealth programs for managing CHF patients and illustrated the importance of risk stratification in such programs.

  1. Streamlined library programming how to improve services and cut costs

    CERN Document Server

    Porter-Reynolds, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    In their roles as community centers, public libraries offer many innovative and appealing programs; but under current budget cuts, library resources are stretched thin. With slashed budgets and limited staff hours, what can libraries do to best serve their publics? This how-to guide provides strategies for streamlining library programming in public libraries while simultaneously maintaining-or even improving-quality delivery. The wide variety of principles and techniques described can be applied on a selective basis to libraries of all sizes. Based upon the author's own extensive experience as

  2. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Producibility Cost Reductions through Alternative Materials and Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horsmon, Jr., Albert W; Johnson, Karl; Gans-Devney, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    .... The research, sponsored by the National Shipbuilding Research Program (NSRP), looks specifically at increased use of fiberglass and plastic pipe, adhesives, and flexible and rubber hose as areas where cost and producibility gains may be found...

  3. Do volunteers reduce the costs of parent training programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scavenius Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer; Amilon, Anna; Schultz, Esben Anton

    ADHD in children has considerable negative consequences for both affected individuals and their families. One way to milden these negative consequences is by offering parents training in how to handle the child’s difficulties. However, running parent training programs is associated with substantial...

  4. Cost of Sawing Timber (COST) Module (Version 1.0) for Windows®

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jefferson, Jr. Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Robert W. Mayer; Robert W. Mayer

    2005-01-01

    The Cost of Sawing Timber (COST) Module calculates the cost of operations per minute and per thousand board feet for a hardwood sawmill. It may be used independently or as a source of cost information for use in sawmill efficiency software such as the SOLVE program. Cost figures are calculated on the basis of information entered by the user. Sawmill managers use these...

  5. Plenary III–04: Responses to Drug Costs: Year Three of the Medicare Part D Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Vicki; Reed, Mary; Hsu, John

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Many Medicare Part D beneficiaries face substantial prescription drug cost-sharing. In the first year of the program, many beneficiaries reported substantial drug use changes in response to the coverage gap. In response, an increasing number of plans offer generic drug coverage during the gap. We compared responses to Part D costs among beneficiaries with generic-only gap coverage and full gap coverage in 2008, the third year of the Part D program.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  7. A Framework for Calculating Indirect Costs and Earned Value for IT Infrastructure Modernization Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    management capability (e.g., as measured by the CMMI, OPM3 , 6-Sigma, etc.) Projects with limited capabilities and processes have difficulty managing...management and improvement methods such as the CMMI, OPM3 , 6-Sigma, or their equivalents. As Figure 2 indicates, at least one determinant of estimate

  8. The growing importance of costs and ways to maintain cost control on a large program in today's competitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. J.; Grimes, D. W.; Gaetano, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of management techniques that make it possible to overcome inflationary and developmental cost rises while holding schedule and performance fixed in scientific space programs. The techniques reviewed pertain to high personnel motivation, continual review of contract rigidity for de facto modification by senior judgment, standardization vs design innovation, cooperative customer/contractor goal orientation vs task orientation, and deep real-time management visibility.

  9. The cost effectiveness of a quality improvement program to reduce maternal and fetal mortality in a regional referral hospital in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, David M; Ramaswamy, Rohit; Jeuland, Marc; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel K; Engmann, Cyril M; Olufolabi, Adeyemi J; Owen, Medge D

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a quality improvement intervention aimed at reducing maternal and fetal mortality in Accra, Ghana. Quasi-experimental, time-sequence intervention, retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis. Data were collected on the cost and outcomes of a 5-year Kybele-Ghana Health Service Quality Improvement (QI) intervention conducted at Ridge Regional Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Accra, Ghana, focused on systems, personnel, and communication. Maternal deaths prevented were estimated comparing observed rates with counterfactual projections of maternal mortality and case-fatality rates for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstetric hemorrhage. Stillbirths prevented were estimated based on counterfactual estimates of stillbirth rates. Cost-effectiveness was then calculated using estimated disability-adjusted life years averted and subjected to Monte Carlo and one-way sensitivity analyses to test the importance of assumptions inherent in the calculations. Incremental Cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which represents the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted by the intervention compared to a model counterfactual. From 2007-2011, 39,234 deliveries were affected by the QI intervention implemented at Ridge Regional Hospital. The total budget for the program was $2,363,100. Based on program estimates, 236 (±5) maternal deaths and 129 (±13) intrapartum stillbirths were averted (14,876 DALYs), implying an ICER of $158 ($129-$195) USD. This value is well below the highly cost-effective threshold of $1268 USD. Sensitivity analysis considered DALY calculation methods, and yearly prevalence of risk factors and case fatality rates. In each of these analyses, the program remained highly cost-effective with an ICER ranging from $97-$218. QI interventions to reduce maternal and fetal mortality in low resource settings can be highly cost effective. Cost-effectiveness analysis is feasible and should regularly be conducted to

  10. Costs to Automate Demand Response - Taxonomy and Results from Field Studies and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Becky Z [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    During the past decade, the technology to automate demand response (DR) in buildings and industrial facilities has advanced significantly. Automation allows rapid, repeatable, reliable operation. This study focuses on costs for DR automation in commercial buildings with some discussion on residential buildings and industrial facilities. DR automation technology relies on numerous components, including communication systems, hardware and software gateways, standards-based messaging protocols, controls and integration platforms, and measurement and telemetry systems. This report compares cost data from several DR automation programs and pilot projects, evaluates trends in the cost per unit of DR and kilowatts (kW) available from automated systems, and applies a standard naming convention and classification or taxonomy for system elements. Median costs for the 56 installed automated DR systems studied here are about $200/kW. The deviation around this median is large with costs in some cases being an order of magnitude great or less than the median. This wide range is a result of variations in system age, size of load reduction, sophistication, and type of equipment included in cost analysis. The costs to automate fast DR systems for ancillary services are not fully analyzed in this report because additional research is needed to determine the total cost to install, operate, and maintain these systems. However, recent research suggests that they could be developed at costs similar to those of existing hot-summer DR automation systems. This report considers installation and configuration costs and does include the costs of owning and operating DR automation systems. Future analysis of the latter costs should include the costs to the building or facility manager costs as well as utility or third party program manager cost.

  11. Cost structure and clinical outcome of a stem cell transplantation program in a developing country: the experience in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Heredia-Salazar, Alberto Carlos; Cantú-Rodríguez, Olga G; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Homero; Villarreal-Villarreal, César Daniel; Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Herrera-Garza, José Luís; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2015-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in developing countries is cost-limited. Our primary goal was to determine the cost structure for the HSCT program model developed over the last decade at our public university hospital and to assess its clinical outcomes. Adults and children receiving an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from January 2010 to February 2011 at our hematology regional reference center were included. Laboratory tests, medical procedures, chemotherapy drugs, other drugs, and hospitalization costs were scrutinized to calculate the total cost for each patient and the median cost for the procedure. Data regarding clinical evolution were incorporated into the analysis. Physician fees are not charged at the institution and therefore were not included. Fifty patients were evaluated over a 1-year period. The total estimated cost for an allogeneic HSCT was $12,504. The two most expensive diseases to allograft were non-Hodgkin lymphoma ($11,760 ± $2,236) for the malignant group and thalassemia ($12,915 ± $5,170) for the nonmalignant group. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia ($11,053 ± 2,817) and acute myeloblastic leukemia ($10,251 ± $1,538) were the most frequent indications for HSCT, with 11 cases each. Median out-of-pocket expenses were $1,605, and 1-year follow-up costs amounted to $1,640, adding up to a total cost of $15,749 for the first year. The most expensive components were drugs and laboratory tests. Applying the cost structure described, HSCT is an affordable option for hematological patients living in a developing country. ©AlphaMed Press.

  12. Intraoperative waste in spine surgery: incidence, cost, and effectiveness of an educational program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroceanu, Alex; Canacari, Elena; Brown, Eric; Robinson, Adam; McGuire, Kevin J

    2011-09-01

    Prospective observational study. This study aims to quantify the incidence of intraoperative waste in spine surgery and to examine the efficacy of an educational program directed at surgeons to induce a reduction in the intraoperative waste. Spine procedures are associated with high costs. Implants are a main contributor of these costs. Intraoperative waste further exacerbates the high cost of surgery. Data were collected during a 25-month period from one academic medical center (15-month observational period, 10-month post-awareness program). The total number of spine procedures and the incidence of intraoperative waste were recorded prospectively. Other variables recorded included the type of product wasted, cost associated with the product or implant wasted, and reason for the waste. Intraoperative waste occurred in 20.2% of the procedures prior to the educational program and in 10.3% of the procedures after the implementation of the program (P spine budget. After the awareness program this proportion decrease to an average of 1.2% (P = 0.003). Intraoperative waste in spine surgery exacerbates the already costly procedures. Extrapolation of this data to the national level leads to an annual estimate of $126,722,000 attributable to intraoperative spine waste. A simple educational program proved to be and continues to be effective in making surgeons aware of the import of their choices and the costs related to surgical waste.

  13. A cost effectiveness study of integrated care in health services delivery: a diabetes program in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Jill

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is rapidly growing as a proportion of the disease burden in Australia as elsewhere. This study addresses the cost effectiveness of an integrated approach to assisting general practitioners (GPs with diabetes management. This approach uses a centralized database of clinical data of an Australian Division of General Practice (a network of GPs to co-ordinate care according to national guidelines. Methods Long term outcomes for patients in the program were derived using clinical parameters after 5 years of program participation, and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS Outcomes Model, to project outcomes for 40 years from the time of diagnosis and from 5 years post-diagnosis. Cost information was obtained from a range of sources. While program costs are directly available, and costs of complications can be estimated from the UKPDS model, other costs are estimated by comparing costs in the Division with average costs across the state or the nation. The outcome and cost measures are used derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results The clinical data show that the program is effective in the short term, with improvement or no statistical difference in most clinical measures over 5 years. Average HbA1c levels increased by less than expected over the 5 year period. While the program is estimated to generate treatment cost savings, overall net costs are positive. However, the program led to projected improvements in expected life years and Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE, with incremental cost effectiveness ratios of $A8,106 per life-year saved and $A9,730 per year of QALE gained. Conclusions The combination of an established model of diabetes progression and generally available data has provided an opportunity to establish robust methods of testing the cost effectiveness of a program for which a formal control group was not available. Based on this methodology, integrated health care

  14. FORTRAN programs for calculating nonlinear seismic ground response in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    The programs described here were designed for calculating the nonlinear seismic response of a two-dimensional configuration of soil underlain by a semi-infinite elastic medium representing bedrock. There are two programs. One is for plane strain motions, that is, motions in the plane perpendicular to the long axis of the structure, and the other is for antiplane strain motions, that is motions parallel to the axis. The seismic input is provided by specifying what the motion of the rock-soil boundary would be if the soil were absent and the boundary were a free surface. This may be done by supplying a magnetic tape containing the values of particle velocity for every boundary point at every instant of time. Alternatively, a punch card deck may be supplied giving acceleration values at every instant of time. In the plane strain program it is assumed that the acceleration values apply simultaneously to every point on the boundary; in the antiplane strain program it is assumed that the acceleration values characterize a plane shear wave propagating upward in the underlying elastic medium at a specified angle with the vertical. The nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the soil is represented by a three-dimensional rheological model. A boundary condition is used which takes account of finite rigidity in the elastic substratum. The computations are performed by an explicit finite-difference scheme that proceeds step by step in space and time. Computations are done in terms of stress departures from an unspecified initial state. Source listings are provided here along with instructions for preparing the input. A more detailed discussion of the method is presented elsewhere.

  15. Development of selective photoionization spectroscopy technology - Development of a computer program to calculate selective ionization of atoms with multistep processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Soon; Nam, Baek Il [Myongji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    We have developed computer programs to calculate 2-and 3-step selective resonant multiphoton ionization of atoms. Autoionization resonances in the final continuum can be put into account via B-Spline basis set method. 8 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  16. International Acquisition Programs: Variables Beyond Cost, Schedule and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    US defense budget and often run on a different budgeting timeline.25 For example, the Norwegian defense budget is approximately 1 percent of the US...Defense Acquisition System, 5. 12 Wood , International Military Aerospace Collaboration Case Studies in Domestic and Intergovernmental Politics, 3. 13...Financial Impacts on Foreign Suppliers, 8. 35 Ibid., 55. 36 Hoff, “The F-16 Coproduction Program – An Analysis,” 21. 37 Ibid., 15. 38 Wood

  17. Virtualization for cost-effective teaching of assembly language programming

    OpenAIRE

    Cadenas, Jose O.; Sherratt, Simon; Howlett, Des; Guy, Chris; Lundqvist, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    A virtual system that emulates an ARM-based processor machine has been created to replace a traditional hardware-based system for teaching assembly language. The proposed virtual system integrates, in a single environment, all the development tools necessary to deliver introductory or advanced courses on modern assembly language programming. The virtual system runs a Linux operating system in either a graphical or console mode on a Windows or Linux host machine. No software licenses or extra ...

  18. Implementation and Evaluation of Fock Matrix Calculation Program on the Cell Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Inadomi, Yuichi; Inoue, Koji; Murakami, Kazuaki J.

    2007-12-01

    Various processor architectures have been proposed until today, and the performance has improved remarkably. Recently, the Chip Multi-processors (CMPs), which has many processor cores onto a chip, are proposed for further performance improvement. The Cell processor is one of such CMP and shows high computational performance. Although this processor is designed for the multimedia, that high performance character can be utilized to molecular orbital calculation. In this study we implemented Fock matrix construction program on the Cell processor, and evaluated computational performance. As a result, there were two kinds of main stalls by the branch prediction and the data alignment, which are controlled by software mechanism for the simplification of the Cell processor hardware. It is possible to improve the performance about 30%, if the branch prediction hit ratio could be improved to 99%. For data alignment stall, a part of stalls, which is originated by data shuffle pipeline, could be decreased by preparing hardware data alignment mechanism.

  19. Potential Cost Savings and Cost Avoidances Associated With Security Cooperation Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Joint Combined Exchange Trainings MBA Masters of Business Administration MERHC Medicare-eligible retiree health care MODA Ministry of Defense...Related Construction (ERC) Title 10 Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MODA ) Program Title 10 Coalition Support Funds (CSF), including Coalition Readiness

  20. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men: risk calculators for real-world decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP can be clinically effective and cost-effective for HIV prevention in high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM. However, individual patients have different risk profiles, real-world populations vary, and no practical tools exist to guide clinical decisions or public health strategies. We introduce a practical model of HIV acquisition, including both a personalized risk calculator for clinical management and a cost-effectiveness calculator for population-level decisions. METHODS: We developed a decision-analytic model of PrEP for MSM. The primary clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness outcomes were the number needed to treat (NNT to prevent one HIV infection, and the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained. We characterized patients according to risk factors including PrEP adherence, condom use, sexual frequency, background HIV prevalence and antiretroviral therapy use. RESULTS: With standard PrEP adherence and national epidemiologic parameters, the estimated NNT was 64 (95% uncertainty range: 26, 176 at a cost of $160,000 (cost saving, $740,000 per QALY--comparable to other published models. With high (35% HIV prevalence, the NNT was 35 (21, 57, and cost per QALY was $27,000 (cost saving, $160,000, and with high PrEP adherence, the NNT was 30 (14, 69, and cost per QALY was $3,000 (cost saving, $200,000. In contrast, for monogamous, serodiscordant relationships with partner antiretroviral therapy use, the NNT was 90 (39, 157 and cost per QALY was $280,000 ($14,000, $670,000. CONCLUSIONS: PrEP results vary widely across individuals and populations. Risk calculators may aid in patient education, clinical decision-making, and cost-effectiveness evaluation.

  1. SHIELD 1.0: development of a shielding calculator program in diagnostic radiology; SHIELD 1.0: desenvolvimento de um programa de calculo de blindagem em radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Romulo R.; Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da [Hospital Sao Lucas (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Friedrich, Barbara Q.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    In shielding calculation of radiological facilities, several parameters are required, such as occupancy, use factor, number of patients, source-barrier distance, area type (controlled and uncontrolled), radiation (primary or secondary) and material used in the barrier. The shielding design optimization requires a review of several options about the physical facility design and, mainly, the achievement of the best cost-benefit relationship for the shielding material. To facilitate the development of this kind of design, a program to calculate the shielding in diagnostic radiology was implemented, based on data and limits established by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 147 and SVS-MS 453/98. The program was developed in C⌗ language, and presents a graphical interface for user data input and reporting capabilities. The module initially implemented, called SHIELD 1.0, refers to calculating barriers for conventional X-ray rooms. The program validation was performed by the comparison with the results of examples of shielding calculations presented in NCRP 147.

  2. [Cost-benefit analysis of primary prevention programs for mental health at the workplace in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kensuke; Kawakami, Norito; Tsusumi, Akizumi; Inoue, Akiomi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Takeuchi, Ayano; Fukuda, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    To determine the cost-benefits of primary prevention programs for mental health at the workplace, we conducted a meta-analysis of published studies in Japan. We searched the literature, published as of 16 November 2011, using the Pubmed database and relevant key words. The inclusion criteria were: conducted in the workplace in Japan; primary prevention focus; quasi-experimental studies or controlled trials; and outcomes including absenteeism or presenteeism. Four studies were identified: one participatory work environment improvement, one individual-oriented stress management, and two supervisor education programs. Costs and benefits in yen were estimated for each program, based on the description of the programs in the literature, and additional information from the authors. The benefits were estimated based on each program's effect on work performance (measured using the WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire in all studies), as well as sick leave days, if available. The estimated relative increase in work performance (%) in the intervention group compared to the control group was converted into labor cost using the average bonus (18% of the total annual salary) awarded to employees in Japan as a base. Sensitive analyses were conducted using different models of time-trend of intervention effects and 95% confidence limits of the relative increase in work performance. For the participatory work environment improvement program, the cost was estimated as 7,660 yen per employee, and the benefit was 15,200-22,800 yen per employee. For the individual-oriented stress management program, the cost was 9,708 yen per employee, and the benefit was 15,200-22,920 yen per employee. For supervisor education programs, the costs and benefits were respectively 5,209 and 4,400-6,600 yen per employee, in one study, 2,949 and zero yen per employee in the other study. The 95% confidence intervals were wide for all these studies. For the point estimates based on these cases, the

  3. Post Milestone B Funding Climate and Cost Growth in Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-8091 March 2017 Post-Milestone B Funding Climate and Cost Growth in Major...Jun 2013]. Post-Milestone B Funding Climate and Cost Growth in Major Defense Acquisition Programs David L. McNicol I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F...entered a boom climate for procurement funding some time after passing Milestone (MS) B on average had higher unit cost growth than programs whose

  4. User guide for HCR Estimator 2.0: software to calculate cost and revenue thresholds for harvesting small-diameter ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Debra Larson; Eini C. Lowell; Robert B. Rummer

    2008-01-01

    The HCR (Harvest Cost-Revenue) Estimator is engineering and financial analysis software used to evaluate stand-level financial thresholds for harvesting small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) in the Southwest United States. The Windows-based program helps contractors and planners to identify costs associated with tree...

  5. Cost-utility of a disease management program for patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte; Palmer, Stephen; Vrijhoef, Bert; van Merode, Frits; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Severens, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The long-term cost-utility of a disease management program (DMP) for adults with asthma was assessed compared to usual care. A DMP for patients with asthma has been developed and implemented in the region of Maastricht (The Netherlands). By integrating care, the program aims to continuously improve quality of care within existing budgets. A clinical trial was performed over a period of 15 months to collect data on costs and effects of the program and usual care. These data were used to inform a probabilistic decision-analytic model to estimate the 5-year impact of the program beyond follow-up. A societal perspective was adopted, with outcomes assessed in terms of costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The DMP is associated with a gain in QALYs compared to usual care (2.7+/-.2 versus 3.4+/-.8), at lower costs (3,302+/-314 euro versus 2,973+/-304 euro), thus leading to dominance. The probability that disease management is the more cost-effective strategy is 76 percent at a societal willingness to pay (WTP) for an additional QALY of 0 euro, reaching 95 percent probability at a WTP of 1,000 euro per additional QALY. Organizing health care according to the principles of disease management for adults with asthma has a high probability of being cost-effective and is associated with a gain in QALYs at lower costs.

  6. Accounting for Uncertainty and Time Lags in Equivalency Calculations for Offsetting in Aquatic Resources Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiversity offset programs attempt to minimize unavoidable environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities by requiring offsetting measures in sufficient quantity to counterbalance losses due to the activity. Multipliers, or offsetting ratios, have been used to increase the amount of offsets to account for uncertainty but those ratios have generally been derived from theoretical or ad-hoc considerations. I analyzed uncertainty in the offsetting process in the context of offsetting for impacts to freshwater fisheries productivity. For aquatic habitats I demonstrate that an empirical risk-based approach for evaluating prediction uncertainty is feasible, and if data are available appropriate adjustments to offset requirements can be estimated. For two data-rich examples I estimate multipliers in the range of 1.5:1 - 2.5:1 are sufficient to account for the uncertainty in the prediction of gains and losses. For aquatic habitats adjustments for time delays in the delivery of offset benefits can also be calculated and are likely smaller than those for prediction uncertainty. However, the success of a biodiversity offsetting program will also depend on the management of the other components of risk not addressed by these adjustments.

  7. Interactive software tool to comprehend the calculation of optimal sequence alignments with dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Ignacio L; Melo, Francisco

    2010-07-01

    Dynamic programming (DP) is a general optimization strategy that is successfully used across various disciplines of science. In bioinformatics, it is widely applied in calculating the optimal alignment between pairs of protein or DNA sequences. These alignments form the basis of new, verifiable biological hypothesis. Despite its importance, there are no interactive tools available for training and education on understanding the DP algorithm. Here, we introduce an interactive computer application with a graphical interface, for the purpose of educating students about DP. The program displays the DP scoring matrix and the resulting optimal alignment(s), while allowing the user to modify key parameters such as the values in the similarity matrix, the sequence alignment algorithm version and the gap opening/extension penalties. We hope that this software will be useful to teachers and students of bioinformatics courses, as well as researchers who implement the DP algorithm for diverse applications. The software is freely available at: http:/melolab.org/sat. The software is written in the Java computer language, thus it runs on all major platforms and operating systems including Windows, Mac OS X and LINUX. All inquiries or comments about this software should be directed to Francisco Melo at fmelo@bio.puc.cl.

  8. DEP : a computer program for evaluating lumber drying costs and investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Holmes; George B. Harpole; Edward Bilek

    1983-01-01

    The DEP computer program is a modified discounted cash flow computer program designed for analysis of problems involving economic analysis of wood drying processes. Wood drying processes are different from other processes because of the large amounts of working capital required to finance inventories, and because of relatively large shares of costs charged to inventory...

  9. Recidivism, Costs, and Psychosocial Outcomes for a Post-Arrest Juvenile Diversion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Kay; Martin, Lisa A.; Smith, Cynthia; Cooper, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    Recidivism, costs, and psychosocial outcomes are reported for a post-arrest diversion program in Wayne County (Detroit), MI. Program features included: rapid, standardized assessment of psychosocial functioning with the Juvenile Inventory For Functioning[R], an individualized plan for addressing needs, engagement of caregivers, service provision…

  10. 76 FR 61089 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... fiscal year in question, costs will be recalculated using the revised rates in this policy for these..., and Restoration Program for Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010 AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., and Restoration Program for Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010. SUMMARY: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  11. A Cost-Savings Analysis of a Statewide Parenting Education Program in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Erin J.; Corwin, Tyler W.; Hodnett, Rhenda; Faulk, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a cost-savings analysis of the statewide implementation of an evidence-informed parenting education program. Methods: Between the years 2005 and 2008, the state of Louisiana used the Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) to impart parenting skills to child welfare-involved families. Following these families' outcomes…

  12. Lowering employee health care costs through the Healthy Lifestyle Incentive Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Hyatt, Beverly; Aldana, Steven G; Kinnersley, Dan

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the Healthy Lifestyle Incentive Program (HLIP), a worksite health program, on lowering prescription drug and medical costs. Health care cost data for Salt Lake County employees during 2004 through 2008 were linked with HLIP enrollment status. Additional program information was obtained from a cross-sectional survey administered in 2008. The program includes free annual screenings, tailored feedback on screening results, financial incentives for maintaining and modifying certain behaviors, and periodic educational programs and promotions to raise awareness of health topics. Frequency and cost of prescription drug and medical claims. Participation increased from 16% to 23% in men and 34% to 45% in women over the 5-year study period and was associated with a significantly greater level of physical activity and improved general health. Participants were generally satisfied with the HLIP (43% were very satisfied, 51% satisfied, 5% dissatisfied, and 1% very dissatisfied). The primary factors contributing to participation were financial incentives (more so among younger employees), followed by a desire to improve health (more so among older employees). Over the study period, the cost savings in lower prescription drug and medical costs was $3,568,837. For every dollar spent on the HLIP the county saved $3.85. Financial incentives and then a desire for better health were the primary reasons for participation. The HLIP resulted in substantial health care cost savings for Salt Lake County Government.

  13. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report, 1 October 1977-31 December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabenhorst, D.W.; Small, T.R.; Wilkinson, W.O.

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 1979. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1-kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; development of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  14. Arithmetic-Like Reasoning in Wild Vervet Monkeys: A Demonstration of Cost-Benefit Calculation in Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic-like reasoning has been demonstrated in various animals in captive and seminatural environments, but it is unclear whether such competence is practiced in the wild. Using a hypothetical foraging paradigm, we demonstrate that wild vervet monkeys spontaneously adjust their “foraging behavior” deploying arithmetic-like reasoning. Presented with arithmetic-like problems in artificially controlled feeding conditions, all the monkeys tested attempted to retrieve “artificial prey” according to the quantity of the remainder when the task involved one subtraction only (i.e., “2−1”, while one monkey out of four did so when it was sequentially subtracted twice (i.e., “2−1−1”. This monkey also adjusted his “foraging behavior” according to the quantity of the reminder for a task requiring stepwise mental manipulation (i.e., “(2−1−1”, though the results became less evident. This suggests that vervet monkeys are capable of spontaneously deploying mental manipulations of numerosity for cost-benefit calculation of foraging but that the extent of such capacity varies among individuals. Different foraging strategies might be deployed according to different levels of mental manipulation capacity in each individual in a given population. In addition to providing empirical data, the current study provides an easily adaptable field technique that would allow comparison across taxa and habitat using a uniform method.

  15. The impact of an online disease management program on medical costs among health plan members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steven M; Day, Brian; Wildenhaus, Kevin; Silberman, Anna; Wang, Chun; Silberman, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the economic impact of an online disease management program within a broader population health management strategy. A retrospective, quasi-experimental, cohort design evaluated program participants and a matched cohort of nonparticipants on 2003-2007 claims data in a mixed model. The study was conducted through Highmark Inc, Blue Cross Blue Shield, covering 4.8 million members in five regions of Pennsylvania. Overall, 413 online self-management program participants were compared with a matched cohort of 360 nonparticipants. The costs and claims data were measured per person per calendar year. Total payments were aggregated from inpatient, outpatient, professional services, and pharmacy payments. The costs of the online program were estimated on a per-participant basis. All dollars were adjusted to 2008 values. The online intervention, implemented in 2006, was a commercially available, tailored program for chronic condition self management, nested within the Blues on Call(SM) condition management strategy. General linear modeling (with covariate adjustment) was used. Data trends were also explored using second-order polynomial regressions. Health care costs per person per year were $757 less than predicted for participants relative to matched nonparticipants, yielding a return on investment of $9.89 for every dollar spent on the program. This online intervention showed a favorable and cost-effective impact on health care cost.

  16. Cost-effective management of the hospital-based hospice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M

    1992-01-01

    As hospital-based hospice programs proliferate across the country, most are under the leadership of a nurse administrator. Nurse administrators must be prepared to manage the many components that constitute the broad scope of this role. Cost-effective management is the greatest challenge. The author explores this management role, including a discussion of hospice-program reimbursement, hospital-based program advantages, options to increase staff productivity, management of drugs and durable medical equipment, inpatient admissions, volunteer services, and fund-raising. Cost-effective measures are explored throughout the discussion, along with a history and explanation of the hospice concept of care.

  17. Attrition Cost Model Instruction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This instruction manual explains in detail how to use the Attrition Cost Model program, which estimates the cost of student attrition for a state's higher education system. Programmed with SAS, this model allows users to instantly calculate the cost of attrition and the cumulative attrition rate that is based on the most recent retention and…

  18. Life prolonging of disease management programs in patients with type 2 diabetes is cost-effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, A; Büscher, G; Sawicki, P T; Thomas, K; Graf, C; Müller, D; Stock, S

    2012-02-01

    Our objective was to examine the cost-effectiveness of disease management programs (DMPs) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) taking into account their life prolonging effect. We compared real life costs in 19,888 propensity score matched pairs of T2DM DMP participants and T2DM patients in routine care (RC) according to sickness funds data. We estimated mean annual costs for survivors, last year of life costs for decedents, the influence of ageing on costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and effects on hospitalization. Annual costs for survivors were 3,318€ (DMP) and 3,570€ (RC). The mean costs in the last year of life were 16,911€ (DMP) and 15,763€ (RC). Ageing had a cost triggering effect for survivors (30€/36€ per year in DMP-/RC-group; pcost decreasing effect in the last year of life (546€/483€ per year in DMP-/RC-group; pcost-effectiveness ratio of the DMP vs. RC was -1396€ per life-year gained. Hospitalizations increased with age in case of survival and decreased with age in case of death but were always lower in the DMP-group. Despite increase in costs due to longer life DMPs are cost-effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M G Steuten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L M G Steuten1, K M M Lemmens2, A P Nieboer2, H JM Vrijhoef31Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Health, Organisation, Policy and Economics, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Erasmus University Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Integrated Care, Maastricht, The NetherlandsObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified.Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multi-component disease management or chronic care programs for adults with COPD, describing process, intermediate, and end results of care. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and descriptively summarized.Results: Twenty articles describing 17 unique COPD programs were included. There is little evidence for significant improvements in process and intermediate outcomes, except for increased provision of patient self-management education and improved disease-specific knowledge. Overall, the COPD programs generate end results equivalent to usual care, but programs containing ≥3 components show lower relative risks for hospitalization. There is limited scope for programs to break-even or save money.Conclusion: Identifying cost effective multi-component COPD programs remains a challenge due to scarce methodologically sound studies that demonstrate significant improvements on process, intermediate and end results of care. Estimations of potential cost effectiveness of specific programs illustrated in this paper can, in the absence of ‘perfect data’, support timely decision-making regarding these programs. Nevertheless, well-designed health economic studies are needed to decrease the current decision

  20. Cost effectiveness of a community-based crisis intervention program for people bereaved by suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comans, Tracy; Visser, Victoria; Scuffham, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Postvention services aim to ameliorate distress and reduce future incidences of suicide. The StandBy Response Service is one such service operating in Australia for those bereaved through suicide. Few previous studies have reported estimates or evaluations of the economic impact and outcomes associated with the implementation of bereavement/grief interventions. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a postvention service from a societal perspective. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the health outcomes, quality-adjusted life years, and associated costs such as medical costs and time off work. Data were obtained from a prospective cross-sectional study comparing previous clients of the StandBy service with a control group of people bereaved by suicide who had not had contact with StandBy. Costs and outcomes were measured at 1 year after suicide bereavement and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. The base case found that the StandBy service dominated usual care with a cost saving from providing the StandBy service of AUS $803 and an increase in quality-adjusted life years of 0.02. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicates there is an 81% chance the service would be cost-effective given a range of possible scenarios. Postvention services are a cost-effective strategy and may even be cost-saving if all costs to society from suicide are taken into account.

  1. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a multimedia learning education program for stoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shu-Fen; Wang, Yun-Tung; Wu, Li-Yue; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Hayter, Mark

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the costs and effectiveness of enterostomal education using a multimedia learning education program (MLEP) and a conventional education service program (CESP). Multimedia health education programs not only provide patients with useful information in the absence of health professionals, but can also augment information provided in traditional clinical practice. However, the literature on the cost-effectiveness of different approaches to stoma education is limited. This study used a randomised experimental design. A total of 54 stoma patients were randomly assigned to MLEP or CESP nursing care with a follow-up of one week. Effectiveness measures were knowledge of self-care (KSC), attitude of self-care (ASC) and behavior of self-care (BSC). The costs measures for each patient were: health care costs, MLEP cost and family costs. Subjects in the MLEP group demonstrated significantly better outcomes in the effectiveness measures of KSC, ASC and BSC. Additionally, the total social costs for each MLEP patient and CESP patient were US$7396·90 and US$8570·54, respectively. The cost-effectiveness ratios in these two groups showed that the MLEP model was better than the CESP model after one intervention cycle. In addition, the Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio was -20·99. This research provides useful information for those who would like to improve the self-care capacity of stoma patients. Due to the better cost-effectiveness ratio of MLEP, hospital policy-makers may consider these results when choosing to allocate resources and develop care and educational interventions. This study provides a cost effective way of addressing stoma care in the post-operative period that could be usefully transferred to stoma care settings internationally. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of family planning programs in rural Bangladesh: evidence from Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, G B; Balk, D; Faiz, K K

    1991-01-01

    The Family Planning Health Services Project in Matlab is often seen as more expensive than similar activities carried out by the government of Bangladesh. At the same time, it as been observed that the project is much more effective. The alleged high cost of the project is said to make it difficult to replicate throughout the nation. Previously, the true costs of the project had not been documented. This study systemically examines the cost of the project and assesses its cost-effectiveness. An experimental design framework is used as a basis for understanding the cost-effectiveness of the project, although a sensitivity analysis lends further support to the relative efficiency of the approach undertaken in Matlab. Although in the aggregate, the Matlab Project is more expensive than the government's family planning program, it is also more effective, generating enough output to offset the extra costs of the intensified delivery system.

  4. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  5. [Development and effectiveness of a drug dosage calculation training program using cognitive loading theory based on smartphone application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung Soo; Park, Jung Ha; Park, Kyung Yeon

    2012-10-01

    This study was done to develop and evaluate a drug dosage calculation training program using cognitive loading theory based on a smartphone application. Calculation ability, dosage calculation related self-efficacy and anxiety were measured. A nonequivalent control group design was used. Smartphone application and a handout for self-study were developed and administered to the experimental group and only a handout was provided for control group. Intervention period was 4 weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, χ²-test, t-test, and ANCOVA with the SPSS 18.0. The experimental group showed more 'self-efficacy for drug dosage calculation' than the control group (t=3.82, panxiety for drug dosage calculation'. Mean satisfaction score for the program was 86.1. These results indicate that this drug dosage calculation training program using smartphone application is effective in improving dosage calculation related self-efficacy and calculation ability. Further study should be done to develop additional interventions for reducing anxiety.

  6. 75 FR 34336 - Reimbursement Transportation Cost Payment Program for Geographically Disadvantaged Farmers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) conducted a study that analyzed barriers in agricultural transportation in... particular past farm programs, such as various dairy programs, operating under capped amounts. If.... Supporting documentation for FY 2010 is due October 30, 2010. FSA plans to calculate payment rates and...

  7. Budget-impact model for colonoscopy cost calculation and comparison between 2 litre PEG+ASC and sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate or sodium phosphate oral bowel cleansing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruss, H-J; Cockett, A; Leicester, R J

    2012-01-01

    With the availability of several bowel cleansing agents, physicians and hospitals performing colonoscopies will often base their choice of cleansing agent purely on acquisition cost. Therefore, an easy to use budget impact model has been developed and established as a tool to compare total colon preparation costs between different established bowel cleansing agents. The model was programmed in Excel and designed as a questionnaire evaluating information on treatment costs for a range of established bowel cleansing products. The sum of costs is based on National Health Service reference costs for bowel cleansing products. Estimations are made for savings achievable when using a 2-litre polyethylene glycol with ascorbate components solution (PEG+ASC) in place of other bowel cleansing solutions. Test data were entered into the model to confirm validity and sensitivity. The model was then applied to a set of audit cost data from a major hospital colonoscopy unit in the UK. Descriptive analysis of the test data showed that the main cost drivers in the colonoscopy process are the procedure costs and costs for bed days rather than drug acquisition costs, irrespective of the cleansing agent. Audit data from a colonoscopy unit in the UK confirmed the finding with a saving of £107,000 per year in favour of PEG+ASC when compared to sodium picosulphate with magnesium citrate solution (NaPic+MgCit). For every patient group the model calculated overall cost savings. This was irrespective of the higher drug expenditure associated with the use of PEG+ASC for bowel preparation. Savings were mainly realized through reduced costs for repeat colonoscopy procedures and associated costs, such as inpatient length of stay. The budget impact model demonstrated that the primary cost driver was the procedure cost for colonoscopy. Savings can be realized through the use of PEG+ASC despite higher drug acquisition costs relative to the comparator products. From a global hospital funding

  8. Purposive facebook recruitment endows cost-effective nutrition education program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara; Wamboldt, Patricia

    2013-08-15

    Recent legislation established a requirement for nutrition education in federal assistance programs to be evidence-based. Recruitment of low-income persons to participate and evaluate nutrition education activities can be challenging and costly. Facebook has been shown to be a cost-effective strategy to recruit this target audience to a nutrition program. The purpose of our study was to examine Facebook as a strategy to recruit participants, especially Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) eligible persons, to view and evaluate an online nutrition education program intended to be offered as having some evidence base for SNAP-Ed programming. English-speaking, low-income Pennsylvania residents, 18-55 years with key profile words (eg, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food bank), responded to a Facebook ad inviting participation in either Eating Together as a Family is Worth It (WI) or Everyone Needs Folic Acid (FA). Participants completed an online survey on food-related behaviors, viewed a nutrition education program, and completed a program evaluation. Facebook set-up functions considered were costing action, daily spending cap, and population reach. Respondents for both WI and FA evaluations were similar; the majority were white, Cost per completed evaluation was US $25.48; cost per low-income completer was US $39.92. Results were similar for the FA evaluation; 795 Facebook users clicked on the ad with 110 unique site visitors, and 73 completing the evaluation (ie, 73/795, 9.2% of ad clickers and 73/110, 66% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per valid completed survey with program evaluation was US $18.88; cost per low-income completer was US $27.53. With Facebook we successfully recruited low-income Pennsylvanians to online nutrition program evaluations. Benefits using Facebook as a recruitment strategy included real-time recruitment management with lower costs and more efficiency compared to previous data from

  9. Use of Linear Programming to Develop Cost-Minimized Nutritionally Adequate Health Promoting Food Baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, A.; Tetens, Inge; Dejgård Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs) are developed to promote healthier eating patterns, but increasing food prices may make healthy eating less affordable. The aim of this study was to design a range of cost-minimized nutritionally adequate health-promoting food baskets (FBs) that help prevent...... both micronutrient inadequacy and diet-related non-communicable diseases at lowest cost. Average prices for 312 foods were collected within the Greater Copenhagen area. The cost and nutrient content of five different cost-minimized FBs for a family of four were calculated per day using linear...... facilitates the generation of low-cost food baskets that are nutritionally adequate, health promoting, and culturally acceptable....

  10. Impact of a University-Based Outpatient Telemedicine Program on Time Savings, Travel Costs, and Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullet, Navjit W; Geraghty, Estella M; Kaufman, Taylor; Kissee, Jamie L; King, Jesse; Dharmar, Madan; Smith, Anthony C; Marcin, James P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate travel-related and environmental savings resulting from the use of telemedicine for outpatient specialty consultations with a university telemedicine program. The study was designed to retrospectively analyze the telemedicine consultation database at the University of California Davis Health System (UCDHS) between July 1996 and December 2013. Travel distances and travel times were calculated between the patient home, the telemedicine clinic, and the UCDHS in-person clinic. Travel cost savings and environmental impact were calculated by determining differences in mileage reimbursement rate and emissions between those incurred in attending telemedicine appointments and those that would have been incurred if a visit to the hub site had been necessary. There were 19,246 consultations identified among 11,281 unique patients. Telemedicine visits resulted in a total travel distance savings of 5,345,602 miles, a total travel time savings of 4,708,891 minutes or 8.96 years, and a total direct travel cost savings of $2,882,056. The mean per-consultation round-trip distance savings were 278 miles, average travel time savings were 245 minutes, and average cost savings were $156. Telemedicine consultations resulted in a total emissions savings of 1969 metric tons of CO 2 , 50 metric tons of CO, 3.7 metric tons of NO x , and 5.5 metric tons of volatile organic compounds. This study demonstrates the positive impact of a health system's outpatient telemedicine program on patient travel time, patient travel costs, and environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Some calculator programs for particle physics. [LEGENDRE, ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE, CONFIDENCE, TWO BODY, ELLIPSE, DALITZ RECTANGULAR, and DALITZ TRIANGULAR codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Seven calculator programs that do simple chores that arise in elementary particle physics are given. LEGENDRE evaluates the Legendre polynomial series ..sigma..a/sub n/P/sub n/(x) at a series of values of x. ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE evaluates the first-associated Legendre polynomial series ..sigma..b/sub n/P/sub n//sup 1/(x) at a series of values of x. CONFIDENCE calculates confidence levels for chi/sup 2/, Gaussian, or Poisson probability distributions. TWO BODY calculates the c.m. energy, the initial- and final-state c.m. momenta, and the extreme values of t and u for a 2-body reaction. ELLIPSE calculates coordinates of points for drawing an ellipse plot showing the kinematics of a 2-body reaction or decay. DALITZ RECTANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a rectangular Dalitz plot. DALITZ TRIANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a triangular Dalitz plot. There are short versions of CONFIDENCE (EVEN N and POISSON) that calculate confidence levels for the even-degree-of-freedom-chi/sup 2/ and the Poisson cases, and there is a short version of TWO BODY (CM) that calculates just the c.m. energy and initial-state momentum. The programs are written for the HP-97 calculator. (WHK)

  12. Severe Obesity In Adults Cost State Medicaid Programs Nearly $8 Billion In 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Claire; Pamplin, John; Long, Michael W; Ward, Zachary J; Gortmaker, Steven L; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to expand Medicaid while controlling spending must be informed by a deeper understanding of the extent to which the high medical costs associated with severe obesity (having a body mass index of [Formula: see text] or higher) determine spending at the state level. Our analysis of population-representative data indicates that in 2013, severe obesity cost the nation approximately $69 billion, which accounted for 60 percent of total obesity-related costs. Approximately 11 percent of the cost of severe obesity was paid for by Medicaid, 30 percent by Medicare and other federal health programs, 27 percent by private health plans, and 30 percent out of pocket. Overall, severe obesity cost state Medicaid programs almost $8 billion a year, ranging from $5 million in Wyoming to $1.3 billion in California. These costs are likely to increase following Medicaid expansion and enhanced coverage of weight loss therapies in the form of nutrition consultation, drug therapy, and bariatric surgery. Ensuring and expanding Medicaid-eligible populations' access to cost-effective treatment for severe obesity should be part of each state's strategy to mitigate rising obesity-related health care costs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of national health insurance programs in high-income countries: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Nghiem

    Full Text Available National health insurance is now common in most developed countries. This study reviews the evidence and synthesizes the cost-effectiveness information for national health insurance or disability insurance programs across high-income countries.A literature search using health, economics and systematic review electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Medline, Econlit, RepEc, Cochrane library and Campbell library, was conducted from April to October 2015.Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies by applying screening criteria to the title and keywords fields, followed by a detailed examination of abstracts.Studies were selected for data extraction using a quality assessment form consisting of five questions. Only studies with positive answers to all five screening questions were selected for data extraction. Data were entered into a data extraction form by one reviewer and verified by another.Data on costs and quality of life in control and treatment groups were used to draw distributions for synthesis. We chose the log-normal distribution for both cost and quality-of-life data to reflect non-negative value and high skew. The results were synthesized using a Monte Carlo simulation, with 10,000 repetitions, to estimate the overall cost-effectiveness of national health insurance programs.Four studies from the United States that examined the cost-effectiveness of national health insurance were included in the review. One study examined the effects of medical expenditure, and the remaining studies examined the cost-effectiveness of health insurance reforms. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER ranged from US$23,000 to US$64,000 per QALY. The combined results showed that national health insurance is associated with an average incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$51,300 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY. Based on the standard threshold for cost-effectiveness, national insurance programs are cost-effective interventions

  14. Cost analysis of integrated renal replacement therapy program in the province of Toledo (2012-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Olasagasti, José L; Garcia Diaz, José Eugenio; Carrasco Benitez, Pilar; Mareque Ruiz, Miguel Ángel; Parras Partido, María Pilar; Moreno Alia, Inmaculada; Jimenez Lopez, Laura; Cia Lecumberri, Juan José; Araque, Pilar; Fernandez, María Luisa

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is the object of constant analysis in the search for efficiency and sustainability. To calculate the direct cost of healthcare for the prevalent RRT population in the province of Toledo (2012/2013). a) Population: All prevalent patients at some point in RRT in 2012 (669) and in 2013 (682). b) Costs included (€): 1) dialysis procedure; 2) inpatient, outpatient and emergency care, dialysis and non-dialysis related; 3) drug consumption; 4) medical transport. c) Calculation and analysis: The aggregate localized or reconstructed cost of each item was calculated from the individual cost of each patient. Annual cost and cost per patient/year was calculated for the whole RRT and for its subprograms (€). a) Aggregate costs: The total cost of RRT amounted to 15.84 and 15.77 million euros (2012/2013). Dialysis procedures account for 40.2% of the total while the sum of hospital care and drug consumption represents 41.5%. Healthcare for patients on hospital haemodialysis (HHD) and combined haemodialysis (CHD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and transplant (Tx) accounts for 70.0, 5.0 and 25.0% of the total respectively. b) Patient/year cost: From the number of patients/year provided by each subprogramme, the following values were obtained in 2012/2013: All RRT 26,130/25,379; HHD 49,167/53,289; CHD 44,657/44,971; PD 45,538/51,869 and Tx 10,909/10,984. Our results are consistent with others published, although our patient/year values are slightly higher, probably because they include elements such as outpatient pharmacy, hospital and medical transport cargo. The growing contribution of Tx to the survival of the whole RRT population contains the overall costs and reduces the patient/year cost, making RRT sustainable. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting Cost Growth Using Programs Reviews and Milestones for DoD Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    growth, percent of programs with cost growth, mean, median, standard deviation, interquartile range, minimum, and maximum. We used Microsoft Excel to...rc en t t ot al  c os t g ro w th Percent Program Completion Mean: % Complete vs % Total Cost  Growth Development Procurement Total 0% 20% 40% 60% 80...100% 120% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Pe rc en t t ot al  c os t g ro w th Percent Program Completion Median: % Complete vs % Total Cost  Growth

  16. Cost-effectiveness of SHINE: A Telephone Translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Hollenbeak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The Support, Health Information, Nutrition, and Exercise (SHINE trial recently showed that a telephone adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP lifestyle intervention was effective in reducing weight among patients with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether a conference call (CC adaptation was cost effective relative to an individual call (IC adaptation of the DPP lifestyle intervention in the primary care setting. Methods We performed a stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a clinical trial comparing two telephone adaptations of the DPP lifestyle intervention. The primary outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios estimated for weight loss, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Costs were estimated from the perspective of society and included direct medical costs, indirect costs, and intervention costs. Results After one year, participants receiving the CC intervention accumulated fewer costs ($2,831 vs. $2,933 than the IC group, lost more weight (6.2 kg vs. 5.1 kg, had greater reduction in BMI (2.1 vs. 1.9, and had greater reduction in waist circumference (6.5 cm vs. 5.9 cm. However, participants in the CC group had fewer QALYs than those in the IC group (0.635 vs. 0.646. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for CC vs. IC was $9,250/QALY, with a 48% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay of $100,000/QALY. Conclusions CC delivery of the DPP was cost effective relative to IC delivery in the first year in terms of cost per clinical measure (weight lost, BMI, and waist circumference but not in terms of cost per QALY, most likely because of the short time horizon.

  17. 25 CFR 170.607 - Can a tribe use its allocation of IRR Program funds for contract support costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... costs? Yes. Contract support costs are an eligible item out of a tribe's IRR Program allocation and need... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use its allocation of IRR Program funds for contract support costs? 170.607 Section 170.607 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  18. Cost-Utility Analysis of a Cardiac Telerehabilitation Program: The Teledialog Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Rasmussen, Maja Kjær; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Hansen, John; Nielsen, Gitte; Spindler, Helle; Dinesen, Birthe

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation can reduce mortality of patients with cardiovascular disease, but a frequently low participation rate in rehabilitation programs has been found globally. The objective of the Teledialog study was to assess the cost-utility (CU) of a cardiac telerehabilitation (CTR) program. The aim of the intervention was to increase the patients' participation in the CTR program. At discharge, an individualized 3-month rehabilitation plan was formulated for each patient. At home, the patients measured their own blood pressure, pulse, weight, and steps taken for 3 months. The analysis was carried out together with a randomized controlled trial with 151 patients during 2012-2014. Costs of the intervention were estimated with a health sector perspective following international guidelines for CU. Quality of life was assessed using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. The rehabilitation activities were approximately the same in the two groups, but the number of contacts with the physiotherapist was higher among the intervention group. The mean total cost per patient was €1,700 higher in the intervention group. The quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gain was higher in the intervention group, but the difference was not statistically significant. The incremental CU ratio was more than €400,000 per QALY gained. Even though the rehabilitation activities increased, the program does not appear to be cost-effective. The intervention itself was not costly (less than €500), and increasing the number of patients may show reduced costs of the devices and make the CTR more cost-effective. Telerehabilitation can increase participation, but the intervention, in its current form, does not appear to be cost-effective.

  19. Operating expenses for the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular disease in an academic interventional radiology department: cost calculations according to a microeconomic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janne d'Othée, Bertrand; Langdon, David R; Bell, Gregory K; Bettmann, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    A correct understanding of the true costs of a procedure is necessary to make informed decisions in cost-effectiveness analyses. The actual comprehensive costs of performing cardiovascular and interventional radiology (CVIR) procedures were analyzed in the present study, as opposed to charges or ratios of costs to charges (RCCs), as often used in the literature. Costs included labor, equipment, administration, facility establishment and maintenance, overhead, and consumable supplies. Cost identification was initially performed with use of an hourly rate that reflected the cost of operating the CVIR section. This was then combined with the costs of the consumable supplies used during each type of procedure. Eight types of vascular procedures were studied in 235 consecutive patients to determine mean procedure duration and supplies consumption. Costs were then compared with charges and RCCs of these procedures. The hourly rate for operating one angiography suite was 690 dollars. Average cost by procedure, including hourly rate plus consumable supplies, were: aortic arteriogram, 1,442 dollars; aortobifemoral arteriogram, 1,554 dollars; unilateral limb arteriogram, 1,307 dollars; simple iliac or femoropopliteal angioplasty, 2,119 dollars; arterial stent placement, 2,780 dollars; percutaneous thrombectomy, 1,998 dollars; arterial in situ thrombolysis, 3,133 dollars; and arteriogram after thrombolysis, 926 dollars. RCCs calculated for each procedure ranged from 0.39 (thrombectomy) to 1.92 (control arteriography during or after thrombolysis) and were lower than expected based on previous reports. The average actual costs of several common diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for peripheral vascular occlusive disease were established, allowing determination of the relative importance of different cost components. This methodology may serve as a template for future cost analyses.

  20. Comparing the Medicaid Retrospective Drug Utilization Review Program Cost-Savings Methods Used by State Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Sergio I

    2017-12-01

    The Medicaid Drug Utilization Review (DUR) program is a 2-phase process conducted by Medicaid state agencies. The first phase is a prospective DUR and involves electronically monitoring prescription drug claims to identify prescription-related problems, such as therapeutic duplication, contraindications, incorrect dosage, or duration of treatment. The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services requires each state to measure prescription drug cost-savings generated from its DUR programs on an annual basis, but it provides no guidance or unified methodology for doing so. To describe and synthesize the methodologies used by states to measure cost-savings using their Medicaid retrospective DUR program in federal fiscal years 2014 and 2015. For each state, the cost-savings methodologies included in the Medicaid DUR 2014 and 2015 reports were downloaded from Medicaid's website. The reports were then reviewed and synthesized. Methods described by the states were classified according to research designs often described in evaluation textbooks. In 2014, the most often used prescription drugs cost-savings estimation methodology for the Medicaid retrospective DUR program was a simple pre-post intervention method, without a comparison group (ie, 12 states). In 2015, the most common methodology used was a pre-post intervention method, with a comparison group (ie, 14 states). Comparisons of savings attributed to the program among states are still unreliable, because of a lack of a common methodology available for measuring cost-savings. There is great variation among states in the methods used to measure prescription drug utilization cost-savings. This analysis suggests that there is still room for improvement in terms of

  1. The cost-effectiveness of a successful community-based obesity prevention program: the be active eat well program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Marjory L; Herbert, Jessica K; de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Mavoa, Helen M; Keating, Catherine L; Carter, Robert C; Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the cost-effectiveness of Be Active Eat Well (BAEW), a large, multifaceted, community-based capacity-building demonstration program that promoted healthy eating and physical activity for Australian children aged 4-12 years between 2003 and 2006. A quasi-experimental, longitudinal design was used with anthropometric data collected at baseline (1001 children-intervention; 1183-comparator) and follow-up. A societal perspective was employed, with intervention resource use measured retrospectively based on process evaluation reports, school newsletters, reports, and key stakeholder interviews, and valued in 2006 Australian dollars (AUD). Outcomes were measured as Body Mass Index (BMI) units saved and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) averted over the predicted cohort lifetime, and reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (with 95% uncertainty intervals). The intervention cost AUD0.34M ($0.31M; $0.38M) annually, and resulted in savings of 547 (-104; 1209) BMI units and 10.2 (-0.19; 21.6) DALYs. This translated to modest cost offsets of AUD27 311 (-$1803; $58 242) and a net cost per DALY saved of AUD29 798 (dominated; $0.26M). BAEW was affordable and cost-effective, and generated substantial spin-offs in terms of activity beyond funding levels. Elements fundamental to its success and any potential cost efficiencies associated with scaling-up now require identification. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Computer program for calculating supersonic flow on the windward side conical delta wings by the method of lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunker, E. B.; South, J. C., Jr.; Davis, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual is presented for a program that calculates the supersonic flow on the windward side of conical delta wings with shock attached at the sharp leading edge by the method of lines. The program also has a limited capability for computing the flow about circular and elliptic cones at incidence. It provides information including the shock shape, flow field, isentropic surface-flow properties, and force coefficients. A description of the program operation, a sample computation, and a FORTRAN 4 program listing are included.

  3. A Comparison of Four Software Programs for Implementing Decision Analytic Cost-Effectiveness Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Chase; Paulden, Mike; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; McCabe, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    The volume and technical complexity of both academic and commercial research using decision analytic modelling has increased rapidly over the last two decades. The range of software programs used for their implementation has also increased, but it remains true that a small number of programs account for the vast majority of cost-effectiveness modelling work. We report a comparison of four software programs: TreeAge Pro, Microsoft Excel, R and MATLAB. Our focus is on software commonly used for building Markov models and decision trees to conduct cohort simulations, given their predominance in the published literature around cost-effectiveness modelling. Our comparison uses three qualitative criteria as proposed by Eddy et al.: "transparency and validation", "learning curve" and "capability". In addition, we introduce the quantitative criterion of processing speed. We also consider the cost of each program to academic users and commercial users. We rank the programs based on each of these criteria. We find that, whilst Microsoft Excel and TreeAge Pro are good programs for educational purposes and for producing the types of analyses typically required by health technology assessment agencies, the efficiency and transparency advantages of programming languages such as MATLAB and R become increasingly valuable when more complex analyses are required.

  4. Effect of Medicaid disease management programs on emergency admissions and inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Matthew S

    2013-08-01

    To determine the impact of state Medicaid diabetes disease management programs on emergency admissions and inpatient costs. National InPatient Sample sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Project for the years from 2000 to 2008 using 18 states. A difference-in-difference methodology compares costs and number of emergency admissions for Washington, Texas, and Georgia, which implemented disease management programs between 2000 and 2008, to states that did not undergo the transition to managed care (N = 103). Costs and emergency admissions were extracted for diabetic Medicaid enrollees diagnosed in the reform and non-reform states and collapsed into state and year cells. In the three treatment states, the implementation of disease management programs did not have statistically significant impacts on the outcome variables when compared to the control states. States that implemented disease management programs did not achieve improvements in costs or the number of emergency of admissions; thus, these programs do not appear to be an effective way to reduce the burden of this chronic disease. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. HFOLD - A program package for calculating two-body MSSM Higgs decays at full one-loop level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, W; Eberl, H; Hluchá, H

    2011-10-01

    HFOLD (Higgs Full One Loop Decays) is a Fortran program package for calculating all MSSM Higgs two-body decay widths and the corresponding branching ratios at full one-loop level. The package is done in the SUSY Parameter Analysis convention and supports the SUSY Les Houches Accord input and output format. PROGRAM SUMMARY: Program title: HFOLD Catalogue identifier: AEJG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 340 621 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 760 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 524 288 000 Bytes Classification: 11.1 External routines: LoopTools 2.2 (http://www.feynarts.de/looptools/), SLHALib 2.2 (http://www.feynarts.de/slha/). The LoopTools code is included in the distribution package. Nature of problem: A future high-energy e+e- linear collider will be the best environment for the precise measurements of masses, cross sections, branching ratios, etc. Experimental accuracies are expected at the per-cent down to the per-mile level. These must be matched from the theoretical side. Therefore higher order calculations are mandatory. Solution method: This program package calculates all MSSM Higgs two-body decay widths and the corresponding branching ratios at full one-loop level. The renormalization is done in the DR scheme following the SUSY Parameter Analysis convention. The program supports the SUSY Les Houches Accord input and output format. Running time: The example provided takes only a few seconds to run.

  6. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Elderly Health Examination Program: The Example of Hypertension Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Hwa Deng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Health Insurance (NHI and social welfare agencies have implemented the Elderly Health Examination Program (EHEP for years. No study has ever attempted to evaluate whether this program is cost-effective. The purposes of this study were, firstly, to understand the prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension and, secondly, to estimate the cost and effectiveness of the EHEP, focusing on hypertension screening. The data sources were: (1 hypertension and clinical information derived from the 1996 and 1997 EHEP, which was used to generate prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension; and (2 claim data of the NHI that included treatment costs of stroke patients (in-and outpatients. Hypothetical models were used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the hypertension screening program in various conditions. Sensitivity analysis was also employed to evaluate the effect of each estimation indicator on the cost and effectiveness of the hypertension screening program. A total of 28.3% of the elderly population in Kaohsiung (25,174 of 88,812 participated in the 1996 EHEP; 14,915 of them participated in the following 1997 EHEP, with a retention rate of 59.3%. Criteria from the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI (systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure ≥ 160/95mmHg or taking antihypertensive drugs were used; we found that prevalence and incidence rates of hypertension were 24.6% and 6.6%, respectively. Hypertension rates are increasing in the aging process as shown in both prevalence and incidence models. In comparison with non-participants, the prevalence model indicates that each hypertension patient who had attended the EHEP not only saved NT$34,570–34,890 in medical and associated costs, but also increased their lifespan by 128 days. The present findings suggest that the EHEP is a cost-effective program with health and social welfare policy

  8. Cost and Time Overruns for Major Defense Acquisition Programs: An Annotated Brief

    OpenAIRE

    Berteau, David; Ben-Ari, Guy; Hofbauer, Joachim; Sanders, Gregory; Ellman, Jesse; Morrow, David

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Cost and time overruns in Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) have become a high-profile problem attracting the interest of Congress, government, and watchdog groups. According to the GAO, the 98 MDAPs from FY2010 collectively ran $402 billion over budget and were an average of 22 months behind schedule since their first full estimate. President Obama''s memorandum on government contracting of 4 March 2009 also highlighted this i...

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in China: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Hui; Zhang, Luo; Tobe, Ruo-Yan Gai; Qi, Fang-Hua; Sun, Long; Teng, Yue; Ke, Qing-Lin; Mai, Fei; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Ru-Lan; Tu, Lin; Li, Hong-Hui; Gu, Yan-Qing; Xu, Sai-Nan; Yue, Xiao-Yan; Li, Xiao-Dong; Qi, Bei-Er; Cheng, Xiao-Huan; Tang, Wei; Xu, Ling-Zhong; Han, De-Min

    2012-04-17

    Neonatal hearing screening (NHS) has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This study also showed that both strategies especially universal strategy

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This

  11. A cost-reducing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) program model: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarocchi, N C; Wallace, S; Hong, E Y; Tropea, A; Byrne, J; Pitcher, H T; Hirose, H

    2015-03-01

    The worldwide demand for ECMO support has grown. Its provision remains limited due to several factors (high cost, complicated technology, lack of expertise) that increase healthcare cost. Our goal was to assess if an intensive care unit (ICU)-run ECMO model without continuous bedside perfusionists would decrease costs while maintaining patient safety and outcomes. A new ECMO program was implemented in 2010, consisting of dedicated ICU multidisciplinary providers (ICU-registered nurses, mid-level providers and intensivists). In year one, we introduced an education platform, new technology and dedicated space. In year two, continuous bedside monitoring by perfusionists was removed and new management algorithms designating multidisciplinary providers as first responders were established. The patient safety and cost benefit from the removal of the continuous bedside monitoring of the perfusionists of this new ECMO program was retrospectively reviewed and compared. During the study period, 74 patients (28 patients in year 1 and 46 patients in year 2) were placed on ECMO (mean days: 8 ± 5.7). The total annual hospital expenditure for the ECMO program was significantly reduced in the new model ($234,000 in year 2 vs. $600,264 in year 1), showing a 61% decrease in cost. This cost decrease was attributed to a decreased utilization of perfusion services and the introduction of longer lasting and more efficient ECMO technology. We did not find any significant changes in registered nurse ratios or any differences in outcomes related to ICU safety events. We demonstrated that the ICU-run ECMO model managed to lower hospital cost by reducing the cost of continuous bedside perfusion support without a change in outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. What linear programming contributes: world food programme experience with the "cost of the diet" tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frega, Romeo; Lanfranco, Jose Guerra; De Greve, Sam; Bernardini, Sara; Geniez, Perrine; Grede, Nils; Bloem, Martin; de Pee, Saskia

    2012-09-01

    Linear programming has been used for analyzing children's complementary feeding diets, for optimizing nutrient adequacy of dietary recommendations for a population, and for estimating the economic value of fortified foods. To describe and apply a linear programming tool ("Cost of the Diet") with data from Mozambique to determine what could be cost-effective fortification strategies. Based on locally assessed average household dietary needs, seasonal market prices of available food products, and food composition data, the tool estimates the lowest-cost diet that meets almost all nutrient needs. The results were compared with expenditure data from Mozambique to establish the affordability of this diet by quintiles of the population. Three different applications were illustrated: identifying likely "limiting nutrients," comparing cost effectiveness of different fortification interventions at the household level, and assessing economic access to nutritious foods. The analysis identified iron, vitamin B2, and pantothenic acid as "limiting nutrients." Under the Mozambique conditions, vegetable oil was estimated as a more cost-efficient vehicle for vitamin A fortification than sugar; maize flour may also be an effective vehicle to provide other constraining micronutrients. Multiple micronutrient fortification of maize flour could reduce the cost of the "lowest-cost nutritious diet" by 18%, but even this diet can be afforded by only 20% of the Mozambican population. Within the context of fortification, linear programming can be a useful tool for identifying likely nutrient inadequacies, for comparing fortification options in terms of cost effectiveness, and for illustrating the potential benefit of fortification for improving household access to a nutritious diet.

  13. Economic impact of dengue illness and the cost-effectiveness of future vaccination programs in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R Carrasco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue illness causes 50-100 million infections worldwide and threatens 2.5 billion people in the tropical and subtropical regions. Little is known about the disease burden and economic impact of dengue in higher resourced countries or the cost-effectiveness of potential dengue vaccines in such settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimate the direct and indirect costs of dengue from hospitalized and ambulatory cases in Singapore. We consider inter alia the impacts of dengue on the economy using the human-capital and the friction cost methods. Disease burden was estimated using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and the cost-effectiveness of a potential vaccine program was evaluated. The average economic impact of dengue illness in Singapore from 2000 to 2009 in constant 2010 US$ ranged between $0.85 billion and $1.15 billion, of which control costs constitute 42%-59%. Using empirically derived disability weights, we estimated an annual average disease burden of 9-14 DALYs per 100 000 habitants, making it comparable to diseases such as hepatitis B or syphilis. The proportion of symptomatic dengue cases detected by the national surveillance system was estimated to be low, and to decrease with age. Under population projections by the United Nations, the price per dose threshold for which vaccines stop being more cost-effective than the current vector control program ranged from $50 for mass vaccination requiring 3 doses and only conferring 10 years of immunity to $300 for vaccination requiring 2 doses and conferring lifetime immunity. The thresholds for these vaccine programs to not be cost-effective for Singapore were $100 and $500 per dose respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue illness presents a serious economic and disease burden in Singapore. Dengue vaccines are expected to be cost-effective if reasonably low prices are adopted and will help to reduce the economic and disease burden of dengue in Singapore substantially.

  14. CONC/11: A computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The CONC/11 computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems is discussed. This program is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. The CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended FORTRAN (similar to FORTRAN 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers. A user's manual is also provided for this program.

  15. THE APPLICATION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING ARE: ELIMINATION IN THE CALCULATION OF COST OF PRODUCTION PT SEMEN TONASA (PERSERO, PANGKEP REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Menne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic conditions should be viewed as the catalyst for developing the ability to intelligently manage resources so that the people of Indonesia can be out of the condition. Effective management and efficiency is reflected in good planning and good planning requires good information. In order to plan well the utilization of company resources to fold the duplicate spiders, company management requires system information revealed by clearly and precisely the facts relating to the activity. PT Semen Tonasa is a fabrication company doing business in the field of cement industry and produces two types of cement, cement or Portland cement type 1 can (OPC and Portland cement (PPC Pazzolan. The benefits that can be gained if the company implemented the system of Activity-Based Costing are: elimination is obtained more accurate information, among others, to improve the quality of decision making. In the ABC product only burdened costs of resources and activities that are used and does not burdened by the cost of the resources and activities. This method causes the cost per unit of a more stable and consistent with the purposes of the imposition of costs to the product result in activity.

  16. Multithreaded transactions in scientific computing: New versions of a computer program for kinematical calculations of RHEED intensity oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuszek, Marcin; Daniluk, Andrzej

    2006-11-01

    Writing a concurrent program can be more difficult than writing a sequential program. Programmer needs to think about synchronisation, race conditions and shared variables. Transactions help reduce the inconvenience of using threads. A transaction is an abstraction, which allows programmers to group a sequence of actions on the program into a logical, higher-level computation unit. This paper presents multithreaded versions of the GROWTH program, which allow to calculate the layer coverages during the growth of thin epitaxial films and the corresponding RHEED intensities according to the kinematical approximation. The presented programs also contain graphical user interfaces, which enable displaying program data at run-time. New version program summaryTitles of programs:GROWTHGr, GROWTH06 Catalogue identifier:ADVL_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVL_v2_0 Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Catalogue identifier of previous version:ADVL Does the new version supersede the original program:No Computer for which the new version is designed and others on which it has been tested: Pentium-based PC Operating systems or monitors under which the new version has been tested: Windows 9x, XP, NT Programming language used:Object Pascal Memory required to execute with typical data:More than 1 MB Number of bits in a word:64 bits Number of processors used:1 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:20 931 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 311 268 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of physical problem: The programs compute the RHEED intensities during the growth of thin epitaxial structures prepared using the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The computations are based on the use of kinematical diffraction theory [P.I. Cohen, G.S. Petrich, P.R. Pukite, G.J. Whaley, A.S. Arrott, Surf. Sci. 216 (1989) 222. [1

  17. The effect of repair costs on the profitability of a ureteroscopy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Ludwig, Wesley; Sopko, Nikolai; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Matlaga, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    Ureteroscopy (URS) is a common treatment for patients with stone disease. One of the disadvantages of this approach is the great capital expense associated with the purchase and repair of endoscopic equipment. In some cases, these costs can outpace revenues and lead to an unprofitable and unsustainable enterprise. We sought to characterize the profitability of our URS program when accounting for endoscope maintenance and repair costs. We identified all URS cases performed at a single hospital during fiscal year 2013 (FY2013). Charges, collection rates, and fixed and variable costs including annual equipment repair costs were obtained. The net margin and break-even point of URS were derived on a per-case basis. For 190 cases performed in FY2013, total endoscope repair costs totaled $115,000, resulting in an average repair cost of $605 per case. The vast majority of cases (94.2%) were conducted in the outpatient setting, which generated a net margin of $659 per case, while inpatient cases yielded a net loss of $455. URS was ultimately associated with a net positive margin approaching $600 per case. On break-even analysis, URS remained profitable until repair costs reached $1200 per case. Based on these findings, an established URS program can sustain profitability even with large equipment repair costs. Nonetheless, our findings serve to emphasize the importance of controlling costs, particularly in the current setting of decreasing reimbursement. A multifaceted approach, based on improving endoscope durability and exploring digital and disposable platforms, will be critical in maintaining the sustainability of URS.

  18. Community Partnership to Address Snack Quality and Cost in After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert G.; Jones, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Policies call on after-school programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Methods: Four large-scale ASPs (serving ~500 children, aged 6-12?years,…

  19. Analysis of the Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education Program Fund Allocations for Indirect Medical Education Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Barbara O.; Kawata, Jennifer

    This study analyzed issues related to estimating indirect medical education costs specific to pediatric discharges. The Children's Hospital Graduate Medical Education (CHGNE) program was established to support graduate medical education in children's hospitals. This provision authorizes payments for both direct and indirect medical education…

  20. 78 FR 6140 - Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... BUDGET Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs AGENCY: Office of Management... and Budget revised Circular A-94 in 1992. The revised Circular specified certain discount rates to be... States Government were changed. These discount rates are found in Appendix C of the revised Circular. The...

  1. 77 FR 1743 - Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... BUDGET Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs AGENCY: Office of Management... and Budget revised Circular A-94 in 1992. The revised Circular specified certain discount rates to be... States Government were changed. These discount rates are found in Appendix C of the revised Circular. The...

  2. 76 FR 7881 - Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... BUDGET Discount Rates for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Federal Programs AGENCY: Office of Management... and Budget revised Circular A-94 in 1992. The revised Circular specified certain discount rates to be... States Government were changed. These discount rates are found in Appendix C of the revised Circular. The...

  3. A Fresh Look at the Benefits and Costs of the US Acid Rain Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Acid Rain Program (Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments) has achieved substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States. We compare new estimates of the benefits and costs of Title IV to th...

  4. 77 FR 57074 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... resolved matters for the purpose of applying the revised rates in this policy for these fiscal years. For..., costs will be recalculated using the revised rates in this policy for these fiscal years. Where a..., and Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  5. Age 26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; White, Barry A. B.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Robertson, Dylan L.

    2011-01-01

    Using data collected up to age 26 in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, this cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) is the first for a sustained publicly funded early intervention. The program provides services for low-income families beginning at age 3 in 20 school sites. Kindergarten and school-age services are provided up to age 9…

  6. West Coast tree improvement programs: a break-even, cost-benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Richard L Porterfield

    1981-01-01

    Three tree improvement programs were analyzed by break-even, cost-benefit technique: one for ponderosa pine in the Pacific Northwest, and two for Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest-one of low intensity and the other of high intensity. A return of 8 percent on investment appears feasible by using short rotations or by accompanying tree improvement with thinning....

  7. Hospital-centered violence intervention programs: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Vincent E; Smith, Randi; Garcia, Arturo; Lee, Wayne S; Ashley, Linnea; Marks, Anne; Liu, Terrence H; Victorino, Gregory P

    2015-04-01

    Hospital-centered violence intervention programs (HVIPs) reduce violent injury recidivism. However, dedicated cost analyses of such programs have not yet been published. We hypothesized that the HVIP at our urban trauma center is a cost-effective means for reducing violent injury recidivism. We conducted a cost-utility analysis using a state-transition (Markov) decision model, comparing participation in our HVIP with standard risk reduction for patients injured because of firearm violence. Model inputs were derived from our trauma registry and published literature. The 1-year recidivism rate for participants in our HVIP was 2.5%, compared with 4% for those receiving standard risk reduction resources. Total per-person costs of each violence prevention arm were similar: $3,574 for our HVIP and $3,515 for standard referrals. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for our HVIP was $2,941. Our HVIP is a cost-effective means of preventing recurrent episodes of violent injury in patients hurt by firearms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost Savings From the Provision of Specific Methods of Contraception in a Publicly Funded Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostovtseva, Daria P.; Brindis, Claire D.; Biggs, M. Antonia; Hulett, Denis; Darney, Philip D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the cost-effectiveness of contraceptive methods dispensed in 2003 to 955 000 women in Family PACT (Planning, Access, Care and Treatment), California's publicly funded family planning program. Methods. We estimated the number of pregnancies averted by each contraceptive method and compared the cost of providing each method with the savings from averted pregnancies. Results. More than half of the 178 000 averted pregnancies were attributable to oral contraceptives, one fifth to injectable methods, and one tenth each to the patch and barrier methods. The implant and intrauterine contraceptives were the most cost-effective, with cost savings of more than $7.00 for every $1.00 spent in services and supplies. Per $1.00 spent, injectable contraceptives yielded savings of $5.60; oral contraceptives, $4.07; the patch, $2.99; the vaginal ring, $2.55; barrier methods, $1.34; and emergency contraceptives, $1.43. Conclusions. All contraceptive methods were cost-effective—they saved more in public expenditures for unintended pregnancies than they cost to provide. Because no single method is clinically recommended to every woman, it is medically and fiscally advisable for public health programs to offer all contraceptive methods. PMID:18703437

  9. Fitting of full Cobb-Douglas and full VRTS cost frontiers by solving goal programming problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, B.; Mahaboob, B.; Subbarami Reddy, C.; Madhusudhana Rao, B.

    2017-11-01

    The present research article first defines two popular production functions viz, Cobb-Douglas and VRTS production frontiers and their dual cost functions and then derives their cost limited maximal outputs. This paper tells us that the cost limited maximal output is cost efficient. Here the one side goal programming problem is proposed by which the full Cobb-Douglas cost frontier, full VRTS frontier can be fitted. This paper includes the framing of goal programming by which stochastic cost frontier and stochastic VRTS frontiers are fitted. Hasan et al. [1] used a parameter approach Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) to examine the technical efficiency of the Malaysian domestic banks listed in the Kuala Lumpur stock Exchange (KLSE) market over the period 2005-2010. AshkanHassani [2] exposed Cobb-Douglas Production Functions application in construction schedule crashing and project risk analysis related to the duration of construction projects. Nan Jiang [3] applied Stochastic Frontier analysis to a panel of New Zealand dairy forms in 1998/99-2006/2007.

  10. Public health sealant delivery programs: optimal delivery and the cost of practice acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Christina R; Griffin, Paul M; Swann, Julie L

    2007-01-01

    The greatest unmet health need for US children is dental care. School-based sealant programs target low-income, high-risk second graders and are effective in preventing caries for as long as the sealant material remains in place. However, it is not clear whether such programs make efficient use of available resources and staffing. The authors used discrete event simulation to determine the optimal combinations of staffing levels and sealant stations for school-based sealant programs. Using data provided by state programs and the literature, they modeled different-sized programs under different practice act constraints and determined times and associated costs. A detailed economic analysis was done for Wisconsin. For general, direct, or indirect supervision, it is optimal to have only 1 dentist or no dentists for no supervision. For general supervision, it is optimal to have the dentist and dental assistant to come on separate days to screen. The cost savings for adding an assistant and chair averaged over all of the program sizes and travel distances ranged from 4.50% (SE= 0.89) to 10.94% (SE= 0.56). Significant cost savings also result from reducing the required supervision level (8.72% [SE = 1.61] to 29.96% [SE= 1.67]). The cost of the practice act for the state of Wisconsin for 2003 was from USD 83,041 to USD 346,156, significantly more than its annual budget. States could save money by relaxing restrictions on the type of personnel who can deliver sealants in public health settings and by productivity gains through proper consideration of staffing. The savings could be used to improve access to sealant programs and further reduce disparities in oral health.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of a Family Planning Voucher Program in Rural Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ivor Broughton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study reports on the effectiveness and efficiency from the program funder’s perspective of the Suraj Social Franchise (SSF voucher program in which private health-care providers in remote rural areas were identified, trained, upgraded, and certified to deliver family planning services to underserved women of reproductive age in 29 districts of Sindh and 3 districts of Punjab province, Pakistan between October 2013 and June 2016.MethodA decision tree compared the cost of implementing SSF to the program funder and its effects of providing additional couple years of protection (CYPs to targeted women, compared to business-as-usual. Costs included vouchers given to women to receive a free contraceptive method of their choice from the SSF provider. The vouchers were then reimbursed to the SSF provider by the program.ResultsA total of 168,206 married women of reproductive age (MWRA received SSF vouchers between October 2013 and June 2016, costing $3,278,000 ($19.50/recipient. The average effectiveness of the program per voucher recipient was an additional 1.66 CYPs, giving an incremental cost-effectiveness of the program of $4.28 per CYP compared to not having the program (95% CI: $3.62–5.31.ConclusionThe result compares favorably to other interventions with similar objectives and appears affordable for the Pakistan national health-care system. It is therefore recommended to help address the unmet need for contraception among MWRA in these areas of Pakistan and is worthy of trial implementation in the country more widely.

  12. General Purpose Cost Distribution Model for Computer Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeller, Rick

    To compare the unit cost of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs, there must be a standard model for calculating the cost of computer services. Such cost can be classified into direct costs--expenditures made directly by the group in charge of CAI programs, and indirect costs--expenditures made by other groups in support of CAI services.…

  13. Assessing Programming Costs of Explicit Memory Localization on a Large Scale Shared Memory Multiprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Picano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We present detailed experimental work involving a commercially available large scale shared memory multiple instruction stream-multiple data stream (MIMD parallel computer having a software controlled cache coherence mechanism. To make effective use of such an architecture, the programmer is responsible for designing the program's structure to match the underlying multiprocessors capabilities. We describe the techniques used to exploit our multiprocessor (the BBN TC2000 on a network simulation program, showing the resulting performance gains and the associated programming costs. We show that an efficient implementation relies heavily on the user's ability to explicitly manage the memory system.

  14. Cost analysis of a domiciliary program of supportive and palliative care for patients with hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartoni, Claudio; Brunetti, Gregorio Antonio; D'Elia, Gianna Maria; Breccia, Massimo; Niscola, Pasquale; Marini, Maria Giulia; Nastri, Antonio; Alimena, Giuliana; Mandelli, Franco; Foà, Robin

    2007-05-01

    The costs of home care (HC) programs may be tailored to the specific needs of patients with hematological malignancies. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of resources and the costs of a program of HC for four different prognostic groups of patients subdivided according to disease status. Over 2 years, 144 patients with hematological malignancies were assisted at home. Patients were subdivided according to disease status and life expectancy in the following groups: (i) terminal phase, with a life expectancy of 3 months or less; (ii) advanced phase, with a life expectancy of 6 months or less; (iii) chronic phase, with a life expectancy of more than 6 months; (iv) discharged early from the hospital with curable disease, following anticancer chemotherapy. Median mean monthly costs (MMC) in Euro (x) have been compared with the costs of hospitalization (DRG). Among the 4 groups of patients, those discharged early and in terminal phase required the highest mean monthly number of home visits (27.2 and 24.1), transfusions (6.1 and 6.8) and days of care (22.8 and 19.7) respectively. MMC were affected by the following variables: disease status and transfusion requirements. MMC for terminal patients (4,232.50x) and those discharged early (3,986.40x) were higher than those for advanced (2,303.80x) and chronic patients (1,488,30x). The cost of HC was lower than the corresponding DRG charges, but exceeded the district fares for HC of cancer patients. In hematological patients, the costs of HC differ according to disease status and transfusion requirements. For some categories of patients, costs of HC are lower than those of hospitalization, although higher than the current national fares for HC programs.

  15. Calculating the Social Costs of Carbon without knowing preferences : Comment on “A rapid assessment model for understanding the social cost of carbon”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.

    The Social Costs of Carbon (SCC) equals the marginal welfare loss associated with one unit of emitted CO2, divided by the marginal welfare gain associated with one unit of consumption. In stochastic assessments, both the nominator and denominator can depend on uncertain parameters; specifically they

  16. Contract case managers prove cost effective in federal workers' compensation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Timothy Michael; Cloeren, Marianne; Firestone, Lisa Michelle; Burch, Helen Christine

    2008-03-01

    This pilot study examined whether contract case managers are cost effective in reducing workers' compensation (WC) costs and preventing injuries. We placed contract medical case managers at four installations where they employed private industry best practices. A needs assessment was performed and site-specific targeted interventions were developed. Case managers improved WC program effectiveness by ensuring command support, and strengthening the case management process. They minimized lost work time and provided the WC team resources to review the oldest cases. Case managers cost $1.25 million and they generated $4.4 million in savings for a 3.52 return on investment. Case managers removed 73 workers from long-term rolls by making use of vocational rehabilitation, finding modified duty jobs, offering workers medical retirement, and terminating benefits when workers refused to work after being offered a job. This study of medical case managers demonstrates they can reduce WC costs.

  17. The cost-effectiveness of a school-based overweight program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the net benefit and the cost-effectiveness of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH intervention program, using parameter estimates from the El Paso trial. There were two standard economic measures used. First, from a societal perspective on costs, cost-effectiveness ratios (CER were estimated, revealing the intervention costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs saved. QALY weights were estimated using National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data. Second, the net benefit (NB of CATCH was estimated, which compared the present value of averted future costs with the cost of the CATCH intervention. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES and NHANES follow-up data, we predicted the number of adult obesity cases avoided for ages 40–64 with a lifetime obesity progression model. Results The results show that CATCH is cost-effective and net beneficial. The CER was US$900 (US$903 using Hispanic parameters and the NB was US$68,125 (US$43,239 using Hispanic parameters, all in 2004 dollars. This is much lower than the benchmark for CER of US$30,000 and higher than the NB of US$0. Both were robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusion Childhood school-based programs such as CATCH are beneficial investments. Both NB and CER declined when Hispanic parameters were included, primarily due to the lower wages earned by Hispanics. However, both NB and CER for Hispanics were well within standard cost-effectiveness and net benefit thresholds.

  18. Costs of implementing a behavioral weight-loss and lifestyle-change program for individuals with serious mental illnesses in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbo, Scott P; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Yarborough, Micah T; Janoff, Shannon L; Stevens, Victor J; Lewinsohn, Mark; Green, Carla A

    2015-09-01

    Little research has examined costs of adopting a successful lifestyle intervention for people with serious mental illnesses in community clinics. The study aims to calculate the real-world costs of implementing a group-based weight-loss and lifestyle intervention in community settings. We used empirically derived costs to estimate implementation costs and conducted sensitivity analyses to estimate costs: (1) when implementing the intervention in high/low resource-intensive environments and (2) assuming variability in participant enrollment. To implement the STRIDE program for 15 individuals with serious mental illnesses, we estimated costs for the 12-month (30-session) intervention, with materials available in the public domain, at $16,427 or $1095 per participant. The majority of costs, $12,767, were associated with direct labor costs. Replication costs are largely associated with labor. Community health centers offer an untapped resource for implementing behavioral-lifestyle interventions, particularly under the Affordable Care Act, though additional payment reforms or incentives may be needed.

  19. Cost, utilization, and quality of care: an evaluation of illinois' medicaid primary care case management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert L; Han, Meiying; Petterson, Stephen M; Makaroff, Laura A; Liaw, Winston R

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, Illinois established Illinois Health Connect (IHC), a primary care case management program for Medicaid that offered enhanced fee-for-service, capitation payments, performance incentives, and practice support. Illinois also implemented a complementary disease management program, Your Healthcare Plus (YHP). This external evaluation explored outcomes associated with these programs. We analyzed Medicaid claims and enrollment data from 2004 to 2010, covering both pre- and post-implementation. The base year was 2006, and 2006-2010 eligibility criteria were applied to 2004-2005 data to allow comparison. We studied costs and utilization trends, overall and by service and setting. We studied quality by incorporating Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures and IHC performance payment criteria. Illinois Medicaid expanded considerably between 2006 (2,095,699 full-year equivalents) and 2010 (2,692,123). Annual savings were 6.5% for IHC and 8.6% for YHP by the fourth year, with cumulative Medicaid savings of $1.46 billion. Per-beneficiary annual costs fell in Illinois over this period compared to those in states with similar Medicaid programs. Quality improved for nearly all metrics under IHC, and most prevention measures more than doubled in frequency. Medicaid inpatient costs fell by 30.3%, and outpatient costs rose by 24.9% to 45.7% across programs. Avoidable hospitalizations fell by 16.8% for YHP, and bed-days fell by 15.6% for IHC. Emergency department visits declined by 5% by 2010. The Illinois Medicaid IHC and YHP programs were associated with substantial savings, reductions in inpatient and emergency care, and improvements in quality measures. This experience is not typical of other states implementing some, but not all, of these same policies. Although specific features of the Illinois reforms may have accounted for its better outcomes, the limited evaluation design calls for caution in making causal inferences. © 2014 Annals of

  20. Costs and cost-effectiveness of hypertension screening and treatment in adults with hypertension in rural Nigeria in the context of a health insurance program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosendaal, N.T.A. (Nicole T. A.); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Verhagen, M.D. (Mark D.); O.A. Bolarinwa (Oladimeji Akeem); Sanya, E.O. (Emmanuel O.); Kolo, P.M. (Philip M.); P. Adenusi (Peju); K. Agbede (Kayode); Van Eck, D. (Diederik); S.S. Tan (Siok Swan); T.M. Akande (Tanimola); W.K. Redekop (Ken); C. Schultsz (Constance); Gomez, G.B. (Gabriela B.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of hypertension care provided within the Kwara State Health Insurance (KSHI) program in rural Nigeria. Methods: A Markov model was

  1. QEDMOD: Fortran program for calculating the model Lamb-shift operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaev, V. M.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Yerokhin, V. A.

    2018-02-01

    We present Fortran package QEDMOD for computing the model QED operator hQED that can be used to account for the Lamb shift in accurate atomic-structure calculations. The package routines calculate the matrix elements of hQED with the user-specified one-electron wave functions. The operator can be used to calculate Lamb shift in many-electron atomic systems with a typical accuracy of few percent, either by evaluating the matrix element of hQED with the many-electron wave function, or by adding hQED to the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian.

  2. Adoption of robotics in a general surgery residency program: at what cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaffey, J Hunter; Michaels, Alex D; Mullen, Matthew G; Yount, Kenan W; Meneveau, Max O; Smith, Philip W; Friel, Charles M; Schirmer, Bruce D

    2017-06-01

    Robotic technology is increasingly being utilized by general surgeons. However, the impact of introducing robotics to surgical residency has not been examined. This study aims to assess the financial costs and training impact of introducing robotics at an academic general surgery residency program. All patients who underwent laparoscopic or robotic cholecystectomy, ventral hernia repair (VHR), and inguinal hernia repair (IHR) at our institution from 2011-2015 were identified. The effect of robotic surgery on laparoscopic case volume was assessed with linear regression analysis. Resident participation, operative time, hospital costs, and patient charges were also evaluated. We identified 2260 laparoscopic and 139 robotic operations. As the volume of robotic cases increased, the number of laparoscopic cases steadily decreased. Residents participated in all laparoscopic cases and 70% of robotic cases but operated from the robot console in only 21% of cases. Mean operative time was increased for robotic cholecystectomy (+22%), IHR (+55%), and VHR (+61%). Financial analysis revealed higher median hospital costs per case for robotic cholecystectomy (+$411), IHR (+$887), and VHR (+$1124) as well as substantial associated fixed costs. Introduction of robotic surgery had considerable negative impact on laparoscopic case volume and significantly decreased resident participation. Increased operative time and hospital costs are substantial. An institution must be cognizant of these effects when considering implementing robotics in departments with a general surgery residency program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and calculated performance and cost of the ECAS Phase II open cycle MHD power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    A 2000 MWe MHD/steam plant for central station applications has been designed and costed as part of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). This plant is fueled by Illinois No. 6 coal, rejects heat through mechanical draft wet cooling towers, and includes coal processing equipment, seed reprocessing, electrical inversion of the MHD generator output and emission controls to current EPA standards. It yields an estimated overall efficiency of 0.483 (7066 Btu/kWe-hr), a capital cost of $718 per kWe (1975 dollars), and a cost of electricity at 65% capacity factor of 32 mills per kWe-hr. If the assumed life and reliability could be achieved with these performance parameters, the MHD system should prove attractive.

  4. Cost-effectiveness outcomes of the national gastric cancer screening program in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun; Kang, Moon Hae; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Although screening is necessary where gastric cancer is particularly common in Asia, the performance outcomes of mass screening programs have remained unclear. This study was conducted to evaluate cost-effectiveness outcomes of the national cancer screening program (NCSP) for gastric cancer in South Korea. People aged 40 years or over during 2002-2003 (baseline) were the target population. Screening recipients and patients diagnosed with gastric cancers were identified using the NCSP and Korea Central Cancer Registry databases. Clinical outcomes were measured in terms of mortality and life-years saved (LYS) of gastric cancer patients during 7 years based on merged data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation and National Statistical Office. We considered direct, indirect, and productivity-loss costs associated with screening attendance. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) estimates were produced according to screening method, sex, and age group compared to non-screening. The age-adjusted ICER for survival was 260,201,000-371,011,000 Korean Won (KW; 1USD=1,088 KW) for the upper-gastrointestinal (UGI) tract over non-screening. Endoscopy ICERs were lower (119,099,000-178,700,000 KW/survival) than UGI. To increase 1 life-year, additional costs of approximately 14,466,000-15,014,000 KW and 8,817,000-9,755,000 KW were required for UGI and endoscopy, respectively. Endoscopy was the most cost-effective strategy for males and females. With regard to sensitivity analyses varying based on the upper age limit, endoscopy NCSP was dominant for both males and females. For males, an upper limit of age 75 or 80 years could be considered. ICER estimates for LYS indicate that the gastric cancer screening program in Korea is cost-effective. Endoscopy should be recommended as a first-line method in Korea because it is beneficial among the Korean population.

  5. Mathematical simulation of processes in horizontal steam generator and the program of calculation of its characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, V.F.; Zorin, V.M.; Gorburov, V.I. [OKB Gidropress, Moscow Energy Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of mathematical models describing the processes in horizontal steam generator (SG) the code giving the possibility to calculate the hydrodynamical characteristics in any point of water volume, has been developed. The code simulates the processes in SG in the stationary (or quasi-stationary) mode or operation only. The code may be used as a next step to calculations of the SG characteristics in the non-stationary modes of operation.

  6. Telemedicine-based diabetic retinopathy screening programs: an evaluation of utility and cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuadros JA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jorge A Cuadros Optometry/Vision Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: Diabetes is the main cause of blindness among working age adults, although treatment is highly effective in preventing vision loss. Eye examinations are recommended on a yearly basis for most patients for timely detection of retinal disease. Telemedicine-based diabetic retinopathy screening (TMDRS programs have been developed to identify patients with sight-threatening diabetic eye disease because patients are often noncompliant with recommended live eye examinations. This article reviews the cost-effectiveness of the various forms of TMDRS. A review of relevant articles, mostly published since 2008, shows that societal benefits generally outweigh the costs of TMDRS. However, advances in technology to improve efficacy, lower costs, and broaden screening to other sight-threatening conditions, such as glaucoma and refractive error, are necessary to improve the sustainability of TMDRS within health care organizations. Patient satisfaction with these telemedicine programs is generally high. New models of shared care with primary care providers and staff are emerging to improve patient engagement and follow-up care when individuals are found to have sight-threatening eye disease. TMDRS programs are growing and provide valuable clinical benefit. The cost-utility is currently well proven in locations with limited access to regular eye care services, such as rural areas, poor communities, and prison systems; however, improvements over time are necessary for these programs to be cost-effective in mainstream medical settings in the future. Keywords: telemedicine, diabetes, retinopathy, retinal imaging

  7. Use of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to calculate the impact of obesity and diabetes on cost and prevalence of urolithiasis in 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Jodi A; Maalouf, Naim M; Pearle, Margaret S; Lotan, Yair

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of urolithiasis and its risk factors such as obesity and diabetes have increased over time. Determine the future cost and prevalence of kidney stones using current and projected estimates for stones, obesity, diabetes, and population rates. The stone prevalence in 2000 was estimated from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 and 2007-2010. The cost per percentage prevalence of stones in 2000, calculated using Urologic Diseases in America Project data, was used to estimate the annual cost of stones in 2030, adjusting for inflation and increases in population, stone prevalence, obesity and diabetes rates. The primary outcome was prevalence and cost of stones in 2030. The secondary outcomes were the impact of obesity and diabetes on these values, calculated using odds ratios for stones by body mass index and diabetes status. The annual cost of stone disease in 2000, adjusted for inflation to 2014 US dollars, was approximately $2.81 billion. After accounting for increases in population and stone prevalence from 2000, the estimated cost of stones in 2007 in 2014 US dollars was $3.79 billion. Future population growth alone would increase the cost of stone disease by $780 million in 2030. Based on projected estimates for 2030, obesity will independently increase stone prevalence by 0.36%, with an annual cost increase of $157 million. Diabetes will independently increase stone prevalence by 0.72%, associated with a cost increase of $308 million annually by 2030. NHANES data, however, capture patient self-assessment rather than medical diagnosis, which is a potential bias. The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes, together with population growth, is projected to contribute to dramatic increases in the cost of urolithiasis, with an additional $1.24 billion/yr estimated by 2030. Obesity, diabetes, and population rates will contribute to an estimated $1.24 billion/yr increase in the cost of kidney stones by 2030. Copyright

  8. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  9. Benefits and costs of intensive lifestyle modification programs for symptomatic coronary disease in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu; Stason, William B; Fournier, Stephen; Razavi, Moaven; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K; Bhalotra, Sarita M; Shepard, Donald S

    2013-05-01

    This study reports outcomes of a Medicare-sponsored demonstration of two intensive lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease: the Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute (MBMI) and the Dr Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease® (Ornish). This multisite demonstration, conducted between 2000 and 2008, enrolled Medicare beneficiaries who had had an acute myocardial infarction or a cardiac procedure within the preceding 12 months or had stable angina pectoris. Health and economic outcomes are compared with matched controls who had received either traditional or no cardiac rehabilitation following similar cardiac events. Each program included a 1-year active intervention of exercise, diet, small-group support, and stress reduction. Medicare claims were used to examine 3-year outcomes. The analysis includes 461 elderly, fee-for-service, Medicare participants and 1,795 controls. Cardiac and non-cardiac hospitalization rates were lower in participants than controls in each program and were statistically significant in MBMI (P < .01). Program costs of $3,801 and $4,441 per participant for the MBMI and Ornish Programs, respectively, were offset by reduced health care costs yielding non-significant three-year net savings per participant of about $3,500 in MBMI and $1,000 in Ornish. A trend towards lower mortality compared with controls was observed in MBMI participants (P = .07). Intensive, year-long LMPs reduced hospitalization rates and suggest reduced Medicare costs in elderly beneficiaries with symptomatic coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MSTor: A program for calculating partition functions, free energies, enthalpies, entropies, and heat capacities of complex molecules including torsional anharmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Mielke, Steven L.; Clarkson, Kenneth L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2012-08-01

    We present a Fortran program package, MSTor, which calculates partition functions and thermodynamic functions of complex molecules involving multiple torsional motions by the recently proposed MS-T method. This method interpolates between the local harmonic approximation in the low-temperature limit, and the limit of free internal rotation of all torsions at high temperature. The program can also carry out calculations in the multiple-structure local harmonic approximation. The program package also includes six utility codes that can be used as stand-alone programs to calculate reduced moment of inertia matrices by the method of Kilpatrick and Pitzer, to generate conformational structures, to calculate, either analytically or by Monte Carlo sampling, volumes for torsional subdomains defined by Voronoi tessellation of the conformational subspace, to generate template input files, and to calculate one-dimensional torsional partition functions using the torsional eigenvalue summation method. Catalogue identifier: AEMF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 77 434 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 264 737 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90, C, and Perl Computer: Itasca (HP Linux cluster, each node has two-socket, quad-core 2.8 GHz Intel Xeon X5560 “Nehalem EP” processors), Calhoun (SGI Altix XE 1300 cluster, each node containing two quad-core 2.66 GHz Intel Xeon “Clovertown”-class processors sharing 16 GB of main memory), Koronis (Altix UV 1000 server with 190 6-core Intel Xeon X7542 “Westmere” processors at 2.66 GHz), Elmo (Sun Fire X4600 Linux cluster with AMD Opteron cores), and Mac Pro (two 2.8 GHz Quad-core Intel Xeon

  11. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Bob S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 151 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of a micronutrient supplementation and early childhood stimulation program in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Boo, Florencia; Palloni, Giordano; Urzua, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the cost-benefit ratio for an integrated early childhood development program in Nicaragua (PAININ). Using longitudinal data, we estimate the average treatment effects of PAININ including micronutrient sprinkles on the prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin levels among disadvantaged children aged 6-36 months. We also estimate the effects of PAININ excluding sprinkles on cognitive outcomes among children aged 2.5-5 years. In the younger age group the program reduced anemia by 4 percentage points after 8 months and nearly 6 percentage points after 1 year; the latter is a 26% decrease in anemia. In the older age group, the program improved verbal and numeric memory after a year and a half, but the effects were modest (0.13 SD). When analyzing its potential impact on earnings, we conclude that the discounted annual costs of the program per child are less than the discounted annual increase in beneficiary earnings. Specifically, we estimate a cost-benefit ratio of 1.50 from the PAININ plus sprinkles package. Our sensitivity analysis suggests a range for this ratio between 1.30 and 2.30. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. 78 FR 5781 - Cost-Sharing Rates for Pharmacy Benefits Program of the TRICARE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... benefits program as $5 for generic medications, $17 for formulary medications and $44 for non-formulary medications for not more than a 30-day supply obtained through retail pharmacies, and $0 for generic medications, $13 for formulary medications, and $43 for non-formulary medications for not more than a 90-day...

  14. Defense Acquisitions: Better Approach Needed to Account for Number, Cost, and Performance of Non-Major Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and equipment. About 40 percent of that total is for major defense acquisition programs or ACAT I programs. DOD also invests in other, non-major... ACAT II and III programs that are generally less costly at the individual program level. These programs typically have fewer reporting requirements...and are overseen at lower organizational levels than ACAT I programs, although they may have annual funding needs that are just as significant

  15. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program: Cost-Benefit Analysis Using Data from the Age-40 Followup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive R.; Nores, Milagros; Barnett, Steve; Schweinhart, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an updated cost-benefit analysis of the High/Scope Perry preschool Program, using data on individuals aged 40. Children were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Program costs are compared against treatment impacts on educational resources, earnings, criminal activity, and welfare receipt. Net present values are…

  16. A stump-to-truck cost estimating program for cable logging young-growth Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1989-01-01

    WCOST is a computer program designed to estimate the stump-to-truck logging cost of cable logging young-growth Douglas-fir. The program uses data from stand inventory, cruise data, and the logging plan for the tract in question to produce detailed stump-to-truck cost estimates for specific proposed timber sales. These estimates are then used, in combination with...

  17. [Quality management (TQM) in public health-care (PHC): principles for cost-performance calculations and cost reductions with better quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, W

    2008-11-01

    In many high-tech industries, quality management (QM) has enabled improvements of quality by a factor of 100 or more, in combination with significant cost reductions. Compared to this, the application of QM methods in health care is in its initial stages. It is anticipated that stringent process management, embedded in an effective QM system will lead to significant improvements in health care in general and in the German public health service in particular. Process management is an ideal platform for controlling in the health care sector, and it will significantly improve the leverage of controlling to bring down costs. Best practice sharing in industry has led to quantum leap improvements. Process management will enable best practice sharing also in the public health service, in spite of the highly diverse portfolio of services that the public health service offers in different German regions. Finally, it is emphasised that "technical" QM, e.g., on the basis of the ISO 9001 standard is not sufficient to reach excellence. It is necessary to integrate soft factors, such as patient or employee satisfaction, and leadership quality into the system. The EFQM model for excellence can serve as proven tool to reach this goal.

  18. DITTY - a computer program for calculating population dose integrated over ten thousand years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.

    1986-03-01

    The computer program DITTY (Dose Integrated Over Ten Thousand Years) was developed to determine the collective dose from long term nuclear waste disposal sites resulting from the ground-water pathways. DITTY estimates the time integral of collective dose over a ten-thousand-year period for time-variant radionuclide releases to surface waters, wells, or the atmosphere. This document includes the following information on DITTY: a description of the mathematical models, program designs, data file requirements, input preparation, output interpretations, sample problems, and program-generated diagnostic messages.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Four Parenting Programs and Bibliotherapy for Parents of Children with Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Filipa; Enebrink, Pia; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Feldman, Inna

    2016-12-01

    Parenting programs and self-help parenting interventions employing written materials are effective in reducing child conduct problems (CP) in the short-term compared to control groups, however evidence on the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is insufficient. Few studies have looked at the differences in effects between interventions in the same study design. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of four parenting programs: Comet, Incredible Years (IY), Cope and Connect, and bibliotherapy, compared to a waitlist control (WC), with a time horizon of 4 months, targeting CP in children aged 3-12 years. This economic evaluation was conducted alongside an RCT of the four parenting interventions and bibliotherapy compared to a WC. The study sample consisted of 961 parents of 3-12 year-old children with CP. CP was measured by the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Effectiveness was expressed as the proportion of "recovered" cases of CP. The time horizon of the study was four months with a limited health sector perspective, including parents' time costs. We performed an initial comparative cost analysis for interventions whose outcomes differed significantly from the WC, and later a cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions whose outcomes differed significantly from both the WC and each other. Secondary analyses were performed: (i) joint outcome "recovered and improved", (ii) intervention completers, (iii) exclusion of parents' time costs, (iv) exclusion of training costs. All interventions apart from Connect significantly reduced CP compared to the WC. Of the other interventions Comet resulted in a significantly higher proportion of recovered cases compared to bibliotherapy. A comparative cost analysis of the effective interventions rendered an average cost per recovered case for bibliotherapy of USD 483, Cope USD 1972, Comet USD 3741, and IY USD 6668. Furthermore, Comet had an ICER of USD 8375 compared to bibliotherapy. Secondary analyses of

  20. Comparison of CFD-calculations of centrifugal compressor stages by NUMECA Fine Turbo and ANSYS CFX programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerkin, Y. B.; Voinov, I. B.; Drozdov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods are widely used for centrifugal compressors design and flow analysis. The calculation results are dependent on the chosen software, turbulence models and solver settings. Two of the most widely applicable programs are NUMECA Fine Turbo and ANSYS CFX. The objects of the study were two different stages. CFD-calculations were made for a single blade channel and for full 360-degree flow paths. Stage 1 with 3D impeller and vaneless diffuser was tested experimentally. Its flow coefficient is 0.08 and loading factor is 0.74. For stage 1 calculations were performed with different grid quality, a different number of cells and different models of turbulence. The best results have demonstrated the Spalart-Allmaras model and mesh with 1.854 million cells. Stage 2 with return channel, vaneless diffuser and 3D impeller with flow coefficient 0.15 and loading factor 0.5 was designed by the known Universal Modeling Method. Its performances were calculated by the well identified Math model. Stage 2 performances by CFD calculations shift to higher flow rate in comparison with design performances. The same result was obtained for stage 1 in comparison with measured performances. Calculated loading factor is higher in both cases for a single blade channel. Loading factor performance calculated for full flow path (“360 degrees”) by ANSYS CFX is in satisfactory agreement with the stage 2 design performance. Maximum efficiency is predicted accurately by the ANSYS CFX “360 degrees” calculation. “Sector” calculation is less accurate. Further research is needed to solve the problem of performances mismatch.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Disease Management Programs for Cardiovascular Risk and COPD in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiachristas, Apostolos; Burgers, Laura; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2015-12-01

    Disease management programs (DMPs) for cardiovascular risk (CVR) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are increasingly implemented in The Netherlands to improve care and patient's health behavior. The aim of this study was to provide evidence about the (cost-) effectiveness of Dutch DMPs as implemented in daily practice. We compared the physical activity, smoking status, quality-adjusted life-years, and yearly costs per patient between the most and the least comprehensive DMPs in four disease categories: primary CVR prevention, secondary CVR prevention, both types of CVR prevention, and COPD (N = 1034). Propensity score matching increased comparability between DMPs. A 2-year cost-utility analysis was performed from the health care and societal perspectives. Sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate the impact of DMP development and implementation costs on cost-effectiveness. Patients in the most comprehensive DMPs increased their physical activity more (except for primary CVR prevention) and had higher smoking cessation rates. The incremental QALYs ranged from -0.032 to 0.038 across all diseases. From a societal perspective, the most comprehensive DMPs decreased costs in primary CVR prevention (certainty 57%), secondary CVR prevention (certainty 88%), and both types of CVR prevention (certainty 98%). Moreover, the implementation of comprehensive DMPs led to QALY gains in secondary CVR prevention (certainty 92%) and COPD (certainty 69%). The most comprehensive DMPs for CVR and COPD have the potential to be cost saving, effective, or cost-effective compared with the least comprehensive DMPs. The challenge for Dutch stakeholders is to find the optimal mixture of interventions that is most suited for each target group. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Awareness of pharmaceutical cost-assistance programs among inner-city seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Alex D; Safran, Dana Gelb; Keyhani, Salomeh; Cole, Helen; Halm, Ethan A; Siu, Albert L

    2009-04-01

    Lack of awareness may be a significant barrier to participation by low- and middle-income seniors in pharmaceutical cost-assistance programs. The goal of this study was to determine whether older adults' awareness of 2 major state and federal pharmaceutical cost-assistance programs was associated with the seniors' ability to access and process information about assistance programs. Data were gathered from a cross-sectional study of independently living, English- or Spanish-speaking adults aged > or =60 years. Participants were interviewed in 30 community-based settings (19 apartment complexes and 11 senior centers) in New York, New York. The analysis focused on adults aged > or =65 years who lacked Medicaid coverage. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model program awareness as a function of information access (family/social support, attendance at senior or community centers and places of worship, viewing of live health insurance presentations, instrumental activities of daily living, site of medical care, computer use, and having a proxy decision maker for health insurance matters) and information-processing ability (education level, English proficiency, health literacy, and cognitive function). The main outcome measure was awareness of New York's state pharmaceutical assistance program (Elderly Pharmaceutical Insurance Coverage [EPIC

  3. Program LATTICE for Calculation of Parameters of Targets with Heterogeneous (Lattice) Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bznuni, S A; Soloviev, A G; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    Program LATTICE, with which help it is possible to describe lattice structure for the program complex CASCAD, is created in the C++ language. It is shown that for model-based electronuclear system on a basis of molten salt reactor with graphite moderator at transition from homogeneous structure to heterogeneous at preservation of a chemical compound there is a growth of k_{eff} by approximately 6 %.

  4. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee; Sabouini, Ridah; Evans, Tracy

    2013-07-01

    Industrial companies are seeking to manage energy consumption and costs, mitigate risks associated with energy, and introduce transparency into reports of their energy performance achievements. Forty industrial facilities are participating in the U.S. DOE supported Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program in which facilities implement an energy management system based on the ISO 50001 standard, and pursue third-party verification of their energy performance improvements. SEP certification provides industrial facilities recognition for implementing a consistent, rigorous, internationally recognized business process for continually improving energy performance and achievement of established energy performance improvement targets. This paper focuses on the business value of SEP and ISO 50001, providing an assessment of the costs and benefits associated with SEP implementation at nine SEP-certified facilities across a variety of industrial sectors. These cost-benefit analyses are part of the U.S. DOE?s contribution to the Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP) partnership, a multi-country effort to demonstrate, using facility data, that energy management system implementation enables companies to improve their energy performance with a greater return on investment than business-as-usual (BAU) activity. To examine the business value of SEP certification, interviews were conducted with SEP-certified facilities. The costs of implementing the SEP program, including internal facility staff time, are described and a marginal payback of SEP certification has been determined. Additionally, more qualitative factors with regard to the business value and challenges related to SEP and ISO 50001 implementation are summarized.

  5. CAL3JHH: a Java program to calculate the vicinal coupling constants (3J H,H) of organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Valderrama, Alonso; Dobado, José A

    2008-12-01

    Here, we present a free web-accessible application, developed in the JAVA programming language for the calculation of vicinal coupling constant (3J(H,H)) of organic molecules with the H-Csp3-Csp3-H fragment. This JAVA applet is oriented to assist chemists in structural and conformational analyses, allowing the user to calculate the averaged 3J(H,H) values among conformers, according to its Boltzmann populations. Thus, the CAL3JHH program uses the Haasnoot-Leeuw-Altona equation, and, by reading the molecule geometry from a protein data bank (PDB) file format or from multiple pdb files, automatically detects all the coupled hydrogens, evaluating the data needed for this equation. Moreover, a "Graphical viewer" menu allows the display of the results on the 3D molecule structure, as well as the plotting of the Newman projection for the couplings.

  6. The Cost and Threshold Analysis of Retention in Care (RiC): A Multi-Site National HIV Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulsby, Catherine; Jain, Kriti M; Weir, Brian W; Enobun, Blessing; Riordan, Maura; Charles, Vignetta E; Holtgrave, David R

    2017-03-01

    Persons diagnosed with HIV but not retained in HIV medical care accounted for the majority of HIV transmissions in 2009 in the United States (US). There is an urgent need to implement and disseminate HIV retention in care programs; however little is known about the costs associated with implementing retention in care programs. We assessed the costs and cost-saving thresholds for seven Retention in Care (RiC) programs implemented in the US using standard methods recommended by the US Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Data were gathered from accounting and program implementation records, entered into a standardized RiC economic analysis spreadsheet, and standardized to a 12 month time frame. Total program costs for from the societal perspective ranged from $47,919 to $423,913 per year or $146 to $2,752 per participant. Cost-saving thresholds ranged from 0.13 HIV transmissions averted to 1.18 HIV transmission averted per year. We estimated that these cost-saving thresholds could be achieved through 1 to 16 additional person-years of viral suppression. Across a range of program models, retention in care interventions had highly achievable cost-saving thresholds, suggesting that retention in care programs are a judicious use of resources.

  7. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    st, Ruben M. W. A; Paulus, Agnes; Jander, Astrid F; Mercken, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Ruwaard, Dirk; Evers, Silvia M. A. A

    2016-01-01

    .... Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing...

  8. Resource and cost adjustment in the design of allocation funding formulas in public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M; Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    Multiple federal public health programs use funding formulas to allocate funds to states. To characterize the effects of adjusting formula-based allocations for differences among states in the cost of implementing programs, the potential for generating in-state resources, and income disparities, which might be associated with disease risk. Fifty US states and the District of Columbia. Formula-based funding allocations to states for 4 representative federal public health programs were adjusted using indicators of cost (average salaries), potential within-state revenues (per-capita income, the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage, per-capita aggregate home values), and income disparities (Theil index). Percentage of allocation shifted by adjustment, the number of states and the percentage of US population living in states with a more than 20% increase or decrease in funding, maximum percentage increase or decrease in funding. Each adjustor had a comparable impact on allocations across the 4 program allocations examined. Approximately 2% to 8% of total allocations were shifted, with adjustments for variations in income disparity and housing values having the least and greatest effects, respectively. The salary cost and per-capita income adjustors were inversely correlated and had offsetting effects on allocations. With the exception of the housing values adjustment, fewer than 10 states had more than 20% increases or decreases in allocations, and less than 10% of the US population lived in such states. Selection of adjustors for formula-based funding allocations should consider the impacts of different adjustments, correlations between adjustors and other data elements in funding formulas, and the relationship of formula inputs to program objectives.

  9. Age-26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; White, Barry A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Robertson, Dylan L.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) early childhood intervention. Using data collected up to age 26 on health and well-being, the study is the first adult economic analysis of a sustained large-scale and publicly-funded intervention. As part of the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a complete cohort of 900 low-income children who enrolled in 20 CPCs beginning at age 3 were compared to 500 well-matched low-income children who participated in the usual educational interventions for the economically disadvantaged in Chicago schools. School-age services were provided up to age 9 (third grade). Findings indicated that the three components of CPC had economic benefits in 2007 dollars that exceeded costs. The preschool program provided a total return to society of $10.83 per dollar invested (net benefits per participant of $83,708). Benefits to the public (other than program participants and families) were $7.20 per dollar invested. The primary sources of benefits were increased earnings and tax revenues, averted criminal justice system and victim costs, and savings for child welfare, special education, and grade retention. The school-age program had a societal return of $3.97 per dollar invested and a $2.11 public return. The extended intervention program (4 to 6 years of participation) had a societal return of $8.24 and public return of $5.21. Estimates were robust across a wide range of discount rates and alternative assumptions, and were consistent with the results of Monte Carlo simulations. Males, 1-year preschool participants, and children from higher risk families had greater economic benefits. Findings provide strong evidence that sustained early childhood programs can contribute to well-being for individuals and society. PMID:21291448

  10. ORBITALES. A program for the calculation of wave functions with an analytical central potential; ORBITALES. Programa de calculo de Funciones de Onda para una Potencial Central Analitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunta Carretero; Rodriguez Mayquez, E.

    1974-07-01

    In this paper is described the objective, basis, carrying out in FORTRAN language and use of the program ORBITALES. This program calculate atomic wave function in the case of ths analytical central potential (Author) 8 refs.

  11. golem95: A numerical program to calculate one-loop tensor integrals with up to six external legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binoth, T.; Guillet, J.-Ph.; Heinrich, G.; Pilon, E.; Reiter, T.

    2009-11-01

    We present a program for the numerical evaluation of form factors entering the calculation of one-loop amplitudes with up to six external legs. The program is written in Fortran95 and performs the reduction to a certain set of basis integrals numerically, using a formalism where inverse Gram determinants can be avoided. It can be used to calculate one-loop amplitudes with massless internal particles in a fast and numerically stable way. Catalogue identifier: AEEO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 50 105 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 241 657 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran95 Computer: Any computer with a Fortran95 compiler Operating system: Linux, Unix RAM: RAM used per form factor is insignificant, even for a rank six six-point form factor Classification: 4.4, 11.1 External routines: Perl programming language (http://www.perl.com/) Nature of problem: Evaluation of one-loop multi-leg tensor integrals occurring in the calculation of next-to-leading order corrections to scattering amplitudes in elementary particle physics. Solution method: Tensor integrals are represented in terms of form factors and a set of basic building blocks ("basis integrals"). The reduction to the basis integrals is performed numerically, thus avoiding the generation of large algebraic expressions. Restrictions: The current version contains basis integrals for massless internal particles only. Basis integrals for massive internal particles will be included in a future version. Running time: Depends on the nature of the problem. A rank 6 six-point form factor at a randomly chosen kinematic point takes 0.13 seconds on an Intel Core 2 Q9450 2.66 GHz processor

  12. Rapid Calculation Program of Certain Sizes used in design of Synchronous Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a program of rapid determination of certain sizes required in the design of synchronous machines using Mathcad software. During the design of electrical machines are phases in which certain sizes are extracted from different tables depending on certain variables. This operation is difficult and sometimes hard to do. To eliminate this problem and greatly shorten the time of determination of sizes and to ensure accurate values we have designed a program allowing even interpolation between two known values. The program developed applied, in this paper, to quickly determine the value of the voltage form factor kB and the value of the ideal polar coverage coefficient αi of polar step τ.

  13. The Euler’s Graphical User Interface Spreadsheet Calculator for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations by Visual Basic for Application Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaik Tay, Kim; Cheong, Tau Han; Foong Lee, Ming; Kek, Sie Long; Abdul-Kahar, Rosmila

    2017-08-01

    In the previous work on Euler’s spreadsheet calculator for solving an ordinary differential equation, the Visual Basic for Application (VBA) programming was used, however, a graphical user interface was not developed to capture users input. This weakness may make users confuse on the input and output since those input and output are displayed in the same worksheet. Besides, the existing Euler’s spreadsheet calculator is not interactive as there is no prompt message if there is a mistake in inputting the parameters. On top of that, there are no users’ instructions to guide users to input the derivative function. Hence, in this paper, we improved previous limitations by developing a user-friendly and interactive graphical user interface. This improvement is aimed to capture users’ input with users’ instructions and interactive prompt error messages by using VBA programming. This Euler’s graphical user interface spreadsheet calculator is not acted as a black box as users can click on any cells in the worksheet to see the formula used to implement the numerical scheme. In this way, it could enhance self-learning and life-long learning in implementing the numerical scheme in a spreadsheet and later in any programming language.

  14. The cost-effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Results from a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bullying affects around 3-5 percent of adolescents in secondary school and is related to various mental health problems. Many different anti-bullying programmes are currently available, but economic evaluations are lacking. The aim of this study is to identify the cost effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP). We constructed a decision-tree model for a Swedish secondary school, using a public payer perspective, and retrieved data on costs and effects from the published literature. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis to reflect the uncertainty in the model was conducted. The base-case analysis showed that using the OBPP to reduce the number of victims of bullying costs 131,250 Swedish kronor (€14,470) per victim spared. Compared to a relevant threshold of the societal value of bullying reduction, this indicates that the programme is cost-effective. Using a relevant willingness-to-pay threshold shows that the OBPP is a cost-effective intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementation of a shared-savings program for surgical supplies decreases inventory cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiferman, Daniel; Bhakta, Ankur; Khan, Safdar

    2015-10-01

    Management of operating room inventory has substantial cost-saving opportunities if surgeons agree to standardize supplies used to perform procedures; however, there is no incentive for surgeons to participate in these decisions, because the cost-savings are realized only by the hospital, not the practitioner. In an attempt to engage surgeons with the management of the operating room supply chain, a shared-savings programs was instituted that returned 50% of money saved to the surgery divisions. Opportunities for savings in the use of biologic mesh, cranial plating systems, and neurostimulators was identified. Each item was assigned a physician champion responsible for ensuring that there was clinical equipoise between the products being used. Any cost-savings realized during the fiscal year were shared 50-50 between the hospital and the surgery divisions. The total cost-savings was $893,865 with $446,932 being shared across 15 surgery divisions. Standardization of cranial plating systems ($374,805) generated the greatest amounts of savings followed by neurostimulators ($278,404) and biologic mesh ($240,655). Aligning hospital and surgeon incentives led to dramatic cost-savings and standardization of the operative inventory used. Quality of care is not compromised by this approach, and no conflicts of interest are created. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SCINFI II A program to calculate the standardization curve in liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1985-07-01

    A code, SCINFI II, written in BASIC, has been developed to compute the efficiency-quench standardization curve for any beta radionuclide. The free parameter method has been applied. The program requires the standardization curve for 3{sup H} and the polynomial or tabulated relating counting efficiency as figure of merit for both 3{sup H} and the problem radionuclide. The program is applied to the computation, of the counting efficiency for different values of quench when the problem is 14{sup C}. The results of four different computation methods are compared. (Author) 17 refs.

  17. MODELS SELECTED FOR CALCULATION OF DOSES, HEALTH EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC COSTS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL RADIONUCLIDE RELEASES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D L; Baker, D A; Droppo, J G; McPherson, R B; Napier, B A; Nieves, L A; Soldat, J K

    1980-05-01

    Models are described for use in site-specific environmental consequence analysis of nuclear reactor accidents of Classes 3 through 9. The models presented relate radioactivity released to resulting doses, health effects, and costs of remedial actions. Specific models are presented for the major exposure pathways of airborne releases, waterborne releases and direct irradiation from activity within the facility buildings, such as the containment. Time-dependent atmospheric dispersion parameters, crop production parameters and other variable parameters are used in the models. The environmental effects are analyzed for several accident start times during the year.

  18. Program realization of mathematical model of kinematic calculation of flat lever mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Vasechkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of kinematic mechanisms is very time-consuming work. Due to the content of a large number of similar operations can be automated using computers. Forthis purpose, it is necessary to implement a software implementation ofthe mathematical model of calculation of kinematic mechanisms of the second class. In the article on Turbo Pascal presents the text module to library procedures all kinematic studies of planar lever mechanisms of the second class. The determination of the kinematic characteristics of the mechanism and the construction of its provisions, plans, plans, speeds and accelerations carried out on the example of the six-link mechanism. The beginning of the motionless coordinate system coincides with the axis of rotation of the crank AB. It is assumed that the known length of all links, the positions of all additional points of links and the coordinates of all kinematic pairs rack mechanism, i.e. this stage of work to determine the kinematics of the mechanism must be preceded by a stage of synthesis of mechanism (determining missing dimensions of links. Denote the coordinates of point C and considering that the analogues of velocities and accelerations of this point is 0 (stationary point, appeal to the procedure that computes the kinematics group the Assyrians (GA third. Specify kinematic parameters of point D, taking the beginning of the guide slide E at point C, the angle, the analogue of the angular velocity and the analogue of the angular acceleration of the guide is zero, knowing the length of the connecting rod DE and the length of link 5, refer to the procedure for the GA of the second kind. The use of library routines module of the kinematic calculation, makes it relatively simple to organize a simulation of the mechanism motion, to calculate the projection analogues of velocities and accelerations of all links of the mechanism, to build plans of the velocities and accelerations at each position of the mechanism.

  19. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Emily R; Agarwal, Smisha; L'Engle, Kelly; Lasway, Christine; Zan, Trinity; van Beijma, Hajo; Orkis, Jennifer; Karam, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth") can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH), a national text-message (SMS) based health communication service in Tanzania. We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320) and at any possible break-even volume. In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively) from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS) was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs. These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners. While this

  20. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Mangone

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth" can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH, a national text-message (SMS based health communication service in Tanzania.We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320 and at any possible break-even volume.In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs.These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners

  1. SuSeFLAV: A program for calculating supersymmetric spectra and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Abstract. The program \\mathnormal S u S e F L A V is introduced for computing supersymmetric mass spectra with flavour violation in various supersymmetric breaking scenarios with/without see-saw mechanism. A short user guide summarizing the compilation, executables and the input files is provided.

  2. SuSeFLAV: A program for calculating supersymmetric spectra and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-03

    Oct 3, 2012 ... E-mail: rgarani@cts.iisc.ernet.in. Abstract. The program SuSeFLAV is introduced for computing supersymmetric mass spec- tra with flavour violation in various supersymmetric breaking scenarios with/without see-saw mechanism. A short user guide summarizing the compilation, executables and the input ...

  3. DVT surveillance program in the ICU: analysis of cost-effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai K Malhotra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venous Thrombo-embolism (VTE--Deep venous thrombosis (DVT and/or pulmonary embolism (PE--in traumatized patients causes significant morbidity and mortality. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of DVT surveillance in reducing PE, and performs a cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: All traumatized patients admitted to the adult ICU underwent twice weekly DVT surveillance by bilateral lower extremity venous Duplex examination (48-month surveillance period--SP. The rates of DVT and PE were recorded and compared to the rates observed in the 36-month pre-surveillance period (PSP. All patients in both periods received mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis unless contraindicated. Total costs--diagnostic, therapeutic and surveillance--for both periods were recorded and the incremental cost for each Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY gained was calculated. RESULTS: 4234 patients were eligible (PSP--1422 and SP--2812. Rate of DVT in SP (2.8% was significantly higher than in PSP (1.3% - p<0.05, and rate of PE in SP (0.7% was significantly lower than that in PSP (1.5% - p<0.05. Logistic regression demonstrated that surveillance was an independent predictor of increased DVT detection (OR: 2.53 - CI: 1.462-4.378 and decreased PE incidence (OR: 0.487 - CI: 0.262-0.904. The incremental cost was $509,091/life saved in the base case, translating to $29,102/QALY gained. A sensitivity analysis over four of the parameters used in the model indicated that the incremental cost ranged from $18,661 to $48,821/QALY gained. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance of traumatized ICU patients increases DVT detection and reduces PE incidence. Costs in terms of QALY gained compares favorably with other interventions accepted by society.

  4. The SmokingPaST Framework: illustrating the impact of quit attempts, quit methods, and new smokers on smoking prevalence, years of life saved, medical costs saved, programming costs, cost effectiveness, and return on investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael P; Roizen, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Describe the specifications of the Smoking Prevalence, Savings, and Treatment (SmokingPaST) Framework and show how it can illustrate the impact of quit attempts, quit method, number of new smokers, smoking rates of immigrants and emigrants, and death rates of smokers and nonsmokers on future smoking prevalence rates, program costs, years of life saved, medical costs saved, cost effectiveness of programs, and return on investment (ROI). FRAMEWORK SPECIFICATIONS: Mathematical relationships among factors in SmokingPaST are described. Input variables include baseline smoking rates among current adults, new adults, immigrants, and emigrants; population counts for these groups; annual quit attempts; and distribution of quit methods. Assumption variables include success rate by quit method, death rates of smokers and nonsmokers, annual medical costs of smoking, costs per person for four tobacco treatment methods, age distribution of quitters, and distribution of medical cost funding by source. Output variables include year-end adult smoking rates, successful quitters, years of life saved by quitting, medical costs saved by quitting and by not hiring smokers, total costs of smoking treatment programs, cost per quitter, cost per life-year saved, distribution of medical cost savings from quitting, and ROI of treatment costs. The Framework was applied at the employer, county, state, and national levels. The SmokingPaST Framework provides a conceptually simple framework that can be applied to any population. It illustrates that significant drops in smoking rates can be achieved and significant savings in medical costs can be captured by employers as well as state and federal governments through tobacco treatment and prevention programs. Savings are especially important for reducing state and federal government deficits and enhancing job competitiveness.

  5. The cost of a pediatric neurocritical care program for traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven W; Zhang, Zidong; Buchanan, Paula; Bernell, Stephanie L; Williams, Christine; Pearson, Lindsey; Huetsch, Michael; Gill, Jeff; Pineda, Jose A

    2018-01-12

    Inpatient care for children with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is expensive, with inpatient charges averaging over $70,000 per case (Hospital Inpatient, Children Only, National Statistics. Diagnoses- clinical classification software (CCS) principal diagnosis category 85 coma, stupor, and brain damage, and 233 intracranial injury. Diagnoses by Aggregate charges [ https://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/#setup ]). This ranks sTBI in the top quartile of pediatric conditions with the greatest inpatient costs (Hospital Inpatient, Children Only, National Statistics. Diagnoses- clinical classification software (CCS) principal diagnosis category 85 coma, stupor, and brain damage, and 233 intracranial injury. Diagnoses by Aggregate charges [ https://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/#setup ]). The Brain Trauma Foundation developed sTBI intensive care guidelines in 2003, with revisions in 2012 (Kochanek, Carney, et. al. PCCM 3:S1-S2, 2012). These guidelines have been widely disseminated, and are associated with improved health outcomes (Pineda, Leonard. et. al. LN 12:45-52, 2013), yet research on the cost of associated hospital care is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the costs of providing hospital care to sTBI patients through a guideline-based Pediatric Neurocritical Care Program (PNCP) implemented at St. Louis Children's Hospital, a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwest United States. This is a retrospective cohort study. We used multi-level regression to estimate pre-/post-implementation effects of the PNCP program on inflation adjusted total cost of in-hospital sTBI care. The study population included 58 pediatric patient discharges in the pre-PNCP implementation group (July 15, 1999 - September 17, 2005), and 59 post-implementation patient discharges (September 18, 2005 - January 15, 2012). Implementation of the PNCP was associated with a non-significant difference in the cost of care between the pre- and post-implementation periods (eβ = 1.028, p = 0

  6. Test tasks for verification of program codes for calculation of neutron-physical characteristics of the BN series reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Georgy; Ternovikh, Mikhail; Smirnov, Anton; Saldikov, Ivan; Bahdanovich, Rynat; Gerasimov, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    System of test tasks is presented with the fast reactor BN-1200 with nitride fuel as prototype. The system of test tasks includes three test based on different geometric models. Model of fuel element in homogeneous and in heterogeneous form, model of fuel assembly in height-heterogeneous and full heterogeneous form, and modeling of the active core of BN-1200 reactor. Cross-verification of program codes was performed. Transition from simple geometry to more complex one allows to identify the causes of discrepancies in the results during the early stage of cross-verification of codes. This system of tests can be applied for certification of engineering programs based on the method of Monte Carlo to the calculation of full-scale models of the reactor core of the BN series. The developed tasks take into account the basic layout and structural features of the reactor BN-1200. They are intended for study of neutron-physical characteristics, estimation of influence of heterogeneous structure and influence of diffusion approximation. The development of system of test tasks allowed to perform independent testing of programs for calculation of neutron-physical characteristics: engineering programs JARFR and TRIGEX, and codes MCU, TDMCC, and MMK based on the method of Monte Carlo.

  7. The Swift Project Contamination Control Program: A Case Study of Balancing Cost, Schedule and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Day, Diane T.; Secunda, Mark S.; Rosecrans, Glenn P.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory will be launched in early 2004 to examine the dynamic process of gamma ray burst (GRB) events. The multi-wavelength Observatory will study the GRB afterglow characteristics, which will help to answer fundamental questions about both the structure and the evolution of the universe. The Swift Observatory Contamination Control Program has been developed to aid in ensuring the success of the on-orbit performance of two of the primary instruments: the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT). During the design phase of the Observatory, the contamination control program evolved and trade studies were performed to assess the risk of contaminating the sensitive UVOT and XRT optics during both pre-launch testing and on-orbit operations, within the constraints of the overall program cost and schedule.

  8. Cost Analysis of Physician Assistant Home Visit Program to Reduce Readmissions After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabagiez, John P; Shariff, Masood A; Molloy, William J; Demissie, Seleshi; McGinn, Joseph T

    2016-09-01

    A physician assistant home care (PAHC) program providing house calls was initiated to reduce hospital readmissions after adult cardiac surgery. The purpose of our study was to compare 30-day PAHC and pre-PAHC readmission rate, length of stay, and cost. Patients who underwent adult cardiac surgery in the 48 months from September 2008 through August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed using pre-PAHC patients as the control group. Readmission rate, length of stay, and health care cost, as measured by hospital billing, were compared between groups matched with propensity score. Of the 1,185 patients who were discharged directly home, 155 (13%) were readmitted. Total readmissions for the control group (n = 648) was 101 patients (16%) compared with the PAHC group (n = 537) total readmissions of 54 (10%), a 38% reduction in the rate of readmission (p = 0.0049). Propensity score matched groups showed a rate reduction of 41% with 17% (62 of 363) for the control compared with 10% (37 of 363) for the PAHC group (p = 0.0061). The average hospital bill per readmission was $39,100 for the control group and $56,600 for the PAHC group (p = 0.0547). The cost of providing home visits was $25,300 for 363 propensity score matched patients. The PAHC program reduced the 30-day readmission rate by 41% for propensity score matched patients. Analysis demonstrated a savings of $977,500 at a cost of $25,300 over 2 years, or $39 in health care saved, in terms of hospital billing, for every $1 spent. Therefore, a home visit by a cardiac surgical physician assistant is a cost-effective strategy to reduce readmissions after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Building evidence for peer-led interventions: assessing the cost of the Adolescent Asthma Action program in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otim, Michael E; Jayasinha, Ranmalie; Forbes, Hayley; Shah, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among adolescents in Australia. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents, in particular, face substantial inequalities in asthma-related outcomes. Triple A (Adolescent Asthma Action) is a peer-led education intervention, which aims to improve asthma self-management and reduce the uptake of smoking among adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of implementing the Triple A program in Australia. Standard economic costing methods were used. It involved identifying the resources that were utilised (such as personnel and program materials), measuring them and then valuing them. We later performed sensitivity analysis so as to identify the cost drivers and a stress test to test how the intervention can perform when some inputs are lacking. Results indicate that the estimated cost of implementing the Triple A program in five schools was $41060, assuming that the opportunity cost of all the participants and venues was accounted for. This translated to $8212 per school or $50 per target student. From sensitivity analysis and a stress test, it was identified that the cost of the intervention (in practice) was $14 per student. This appears to be a modest cost, given the burden of asthma. In conclusion, the Triple A program is an affordable intervention to implement in high schools. The potential asthma cost savings due to the program are significant. If the Triple A program is implemented nation-wide, the benefits would be substantial.

  10. A Computer Program to Calculate Two-Stage Short-Run Control Chart Factors for (X,MR Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E. Elam

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second in a series of two papers that fully develops two-stage short-run (X, MR control charts. This paper describes the development and execution of a computer program that accurately calculates first- and second-stage short-run control chart factors for (X, MR charts using the equations derived in the first paper. The software used is Mathcad. The program accepts values for number of subgroups, α for the X chart, and α for the MR chart both above the upper control limit and below the lower control limit. Tables are generated for specific values of these inputs and the implications of the results are discussed. A numerical example illustrates the use of the program.

  11. Improving Maternal Care through a State-Wide Health Insurance Program: A Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Study in Rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gabriela B; Foster, Nicola; Brals, Daniella; Nelissen, Heleen E; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A; Hendriks, Marleen E; Boers, Alexander C; van Eck, Diederik; Rosendaal, Nicole; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Wit, Ferdinand W; Hankins, Catherine A; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI) in rural Nigeria. We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program's scale up within the State's healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted) is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730). Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible interval 21

  12. Cost-effective early childhood development programs from preschool to third grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A

    2008-01-01

    Although findings on the positive effects of early childhood development programs have been widely disseminated, less attention has been given to program impacts across the entire period of early childhood. This review summarizes evidence on the effects and cost-effectiveness of programs and services from ages 3 to 9. The major focus is preschool programs for 3- and 4-year-olds, full-day kindergarten, school-age programs including reduced class sizes, and preschool-to-third-grade interventions. Participation in preschool programs was found to have relatively large and enduring effects on school achievement and child well-being. High-quality programs for children at risk produce strong economic returns ranging from about $4 per dollar invested to over $10 per dollar invested. Relative to half-day kindergarten, the positive effects of full-day kindergarten have been found to be relatively small and generally do not last for more than a year. Although no formal economic analyses have been conducted, the economic return per dollar invested would be expected to be close to zero. Among early-school-age programs, preschool plus school-age interventions (PK-3) for children at risk are linked to higher levels of school performance into adolescence. The Child-Parent Center PK-3 Program shows a return of $6 to $9 per dollar invested. Class-size reductions show evidence of positive effects, with economic returns of roughly $3 per dollar invested. The causal mechanisms of long-term effects are discussed. Key principles to promote intervention effectiveness are offered.

  13. Calculating inspector probability of detection using performance demonstration program pass rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumblidge, Stephen; D'Agostino, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been working since the 1970's to ensure that nondestructive testing performed on nuclear power plants in the United States will provide reasonable assurance of structural integrity of the nuclear power plant components. One tool used by the NRC has been the development and implementation of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI Appendix VIII[1] (Appendix VIII) blind testing requirements for ultrasonic procedures, equipment, and personnel. Some concerns have been raised, over the years, by the relatively low pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification testing. The NRC staff has applied statistical tools and simulations to determine the expected probability of detection (POD) for ultrasonic examinations under ideal conditions based on the pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification tests for the ultrasonic testing personnel. This work was primarily performed to answer three questions. First, given a test design and pass rate, what is the expected overall POD for inspectors? Second, can we calculate the probability of detection for flaws of different sizes using this information? Finally, if a previously qualified inspector fails a requalification test, does this call their earlier inspections into question? The calculations have shown that one can expect good performance from inspectors who have passed appendix VIII testing in a laboratory-like environment, and the requalification pass rates show that the inspectors have maintained their skills between tests. While these calculations showed that the PODs for the ultrasonic inspections are very good under laboratory conditions, the field inspections are conducted in a very different environment. The NRC staff has initiated a project to systematically analyze the human factors differences between qualification testing and field examinations. This work will be used to evaluate and prioritize

  14. Cost-Effectiveness and Cost Thresholds of Generic and Brand Drugs in a National Chronic Hepatitis B Treatment Program in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehlika Toy

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease and liver cancer associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB are leading causes of death among adults in China. Although newborn hepatitis B immunization has successfully reduced the prevalence of CHB in children, about 100 million Chinese adults remain chronically infected. If left unmanaged, 15-25% will die from liver cancer or liver cirrhosis. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for all patients with CHB, but when it is indicated, good response to treatment would prevent disease progression and reduce disease mortality and morbidity, and costly complications. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of generic and brand antiviral drugs for CHB treatment in China, and assessing various thresholds at which a highly potent, low resistance antiviral drug would be cost-saving and/or cost-effective to introduce in a national treatment program. We developed a Markov simulation model of disease progression using effectiveness and cost data from the medical literature. We measured life-time costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs, and clinical outcomes. The no treatment strategy incurred the highest health care costs ($12,932-$25,293 per patient, and the worst health outcomes, compared to the antiviral treatment strategies. Monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir yielded the most QALYs (14.10-19.02 for both HBeAg-positive and negative patients, with or without cirrhosis. Threshold analysis showed entercavir or tenofovir treatment would be cost saving if the drug price is $32-75 (195-460 RMB per month, highly cost-effective at $62-110 (379-670 RMB per month and cost-effective at $63-120 (384-734 RMB per month. This study can support policy decisions regarding the implementation of a national health program for chronic hepatitis B treatment in China at the population level.

  15. AlterBBN: A program for calculating the BBN abundances of the elements in alternative cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    We describe AlterBBN, a public C program for evaluating the abundances of the elements generated by Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). This program enables the user to compute the abundances of the elements in the standard model of cosmology, and additionally provides possibilities to alter the assumptions of the cosmological model in order to study their consequences on the abundances of the elements. In particular the baryon-to-photon ratio and the effective number of neutrinos, as well as the expansion rate and the entropy content of the Universe during BBN can be modified in AlterBBN. Such features allow the user to test the cosmological models by confronting them to BBN constraints. A presentation of the physics of BBN and the features of AlterBBN is provided here under the form of a manual.

  16. A Computer Program to Calculate the Supersonic Flow over a Solid Cone in Air or Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Pascals or about 11.1 Rilo- tars. lypical values for p, , the upstream pressure, are on the cider cf 1 tc pextaps a few tens of bars. Thus, it can be...PostGraduate School, the tolicwirG StE S sust le acccmplished iL the cider given: (1) The program must he compiled using the comianc: FCRTHX CCNEILOW This

  17. Computer program TRACK_TEST for calculating parameters and plotting profiles for etch pits in nuclear track materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K. N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called TRACK_TEST for calculating parameters (lengths of the major and minor axes) and plotting profiles in nuclear track materials resulted from light-ion irradiation and subsequent chemical etching is described. The programming steps are outlined, including calculations of alpha-particle ranges, determination of the distance along the particle trajectory penetrated by the chemical etchant, calculations of track coordinates, determination of the lengths of the major and minor axes and determination of the contour of the track opening. Descriptions of the program are given, including the built-in V functions for the two commonly employed nuclear track materials commercially known as LR 115 (cellulose nitrate) and CR-39 (poly allyl diglycol carbonate) irradiated by alpha particles. Program summaryTitle of the program:TRACK_TEST Catalogue identifier:ADWT Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWT Computer:Pentium PC Operating systems:Windows 95+ Programming language:Fortran 90 Memory required to execute with typical data:256 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2739 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:204 526 Distribution format:tar.gz External subprograms used:The entire code must be linked with the MSFLIB library Nature of problem: Fast heavy charged particles (like alpha particles and other light ions etc.) create latent tracks in some dielectric materials. After chemical etching in aqueous NaOH or KOH solutions, these tracks become visible under an optical microscope. The growth of a track is based on the simultaneous actions of the etchant on undamaged regions (with the bulk etch rate V) and along the particle track (with the track etch rate V). Growth of the track is described satisfactorily by these two parameters ( V and V). Several models have been presented in the past describing

  18. A fuzzy inventory model with unit production cost, time depended holding cost, with-out shortages under a space constraint: a parametric geometric programming approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sahidul Islam; Wasim Akram Mandal

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an Inventory model with unit production cost, time depended holding cost, with-out shortages is formulated and solved. We have considered here a single objective inventory model. In most real world situation, the objective and constraint function of the decision makers are imprecise in nature, hence the coefficients, indices, the objective function and constraint goals are imposed here in fuzzy environment. Geometric programming provides a powerful tool for solving a variety of...

  19. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Hypertension Screening and Treatment in Adults with Hypertension in Rural Nigeria in the Context of a Health Insurance Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole T A Rosendaal

    Full Text Available High blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death and disability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. We evaluated the costs and cost-effectiveness of hypertension care provided within the Kwara State Health Insurance (KSHI program in rural Nigeria.A Markov model was developed to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of population-level hypertension screening and subsequent antihypertensive treatment for the population at-risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD within the KSHI program. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY averted in the KSHI scenario compared to no access to hypertension care. We used setting-specific and empirically-collected data to inform the model. We defined two strategies to assess eligibility for antihypertensive treatment based on 1 presence of hypertension grade 1 and 10-year CVD risk of >20%, or grade 2 hypertension irrespective of 10-year CVD risk (hypertension and risk based strategy and 2 presence of hypertension in combination with a CVD risk of >20% (risk based strategy. We generated 95% confidence intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the reference scenario.Screening and treatment for hypertension was potentially cost-effective but the results were sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions with a wide range of uncertainty. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the first and second strategy respectively ranged from US$ 1,406 to US$ 7,815 and US$ 732 to US$ 2,959 per DALY averted, depending on the assumptions on risk reduction after treatment and compared to no access to antihypertensive treatment.Hypertension care within a subsidized private health insurance program may be cost-effective in rural Nigeria and public-private partnerships such as the KSHI program may provide opportunities

  20. Program WALKMAN: A code designed to perform electron single collision elastic scattering Monte Carlo calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1994-08-01

    The computer code WALKMAN performs electron single collision elastic scattering Monte Carlo calculations in spherical or planar geometry. It is intended as a research tool to obtain results that can be compared to the results of condensed history calculations. This code is designed to be self documenting, in the sense that the latest documentation is included as comment lines at the beginning of the code. Printed documentation, such as this document, is periodically published and consists mostly of a copy of the comment lines from the code. The user should be aware that the comment lines within the code are continually updated to reflect the most recent status of the code and these comments should always be considered to be the most recent documentation for the code and may supersede published documentation, such as this document. Therefore, the user is advised to always read the documentation within the actual code. The remainder of this report consists of example results and a listing of the documentation which appears at the beginning of the code.

  1. Community partnership to address snack quality and cost in after-school programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Weaver, Robert G; Jones, Sonya

    2014-08-01

    Policies call on after-school programs (ASPs) to serve more nutritious snacks. A major barrier for improving snack quality is cost. This study describes the impact on snack quality and expenditures from a community partnership between ASPs and local grocery stores. Four large-scale ASPs (serving ˜500 children, aged 6-12 years, each day) and a single local grocery store chain participated in this study. The nutritional quality of snacks served was recorded preintervention (18 weeks spring/fall 2011) and postintervention (7 weeks spring 2012) via direct observation, along with cost/child/snack/day. Preintervention snacks were low-nutrient-density salty snacks (eg, chips, 3.0 servings/week), sugar-sweetened beverages (eg, powdered-lemonade, 1.9 servings/week), and desserts (eg, cookies, 2.1 servings/week), with only 0.4 servings/week of fruits and no vegetables. By postintervention, fruits (3.5 servings/week) and vegetables (1.2 servings/week) were increased, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts were eliminated. Snack expenditures were $0.26 versus $0.24 from preintervention to postintervention. Partnership savings versus purchasing snacks at full retail cost was 24.5% or $0.25/serving versus $0.34/serving. This innovative partnership can serve as a model in communities where ASPs seek to identify low-cost alternatives to providing nutritious snacks. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  2. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer.

  3. A program for the Calculation of the Correlated colour Temperature. Application for Characterising Colour Changes in Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rosillo, F.; Balenzategui, J. L. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a program for the calculation of the Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT) of any source of radiation. The methodology of calculating the colour coordinated and the corresponding CCT value of any light source is briefly reviewed. Sample program codes, including one to obtain the colour coordinates of blackbody radiators at different temperatures, have been also listed. This will allow to engineers and researchers to calculate and to obtain adequate solutions for their own illuminance problems. As an application example, the change in CCT values and colour coordinates of a reference spectrum when passing through semitransparent solar photovoltaic modules designed for building integration applications has been studied. This is used to evaluate the influence on the visual comfort of the building inner rooms. Several samples of different glass models used as covers in photovoltaic modules have been tested. Results show that all the samples tested do not modify substantially the initial characteristics of the sunlight, as otherwise expected. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Calculation of the exchange ratio for the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, F.; Erzberger, H.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements were made to the Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) computer program, a computer-generated, air-to-air combat opponent. The primary improvement was incorporating a measure of performance, the exchange ratio, defined as the statistical measure of number of enemy kills divided by number of friendly losses. This measure was used to test a new modification of the AML's combat tactics. When the new version of the AML competed against the old version, the new version won with an exchange ratio of 1.4.

  5. Computer Programs for Calculating Partially Cavitating Blunt Trailing Edged Cascade Flows in Nonlinear Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    thickness of the foil which was used for the plano -convex foil case in the previous project [1] is now a dummy input in these programs. 8 3.1 INPUT DATA...the plano -convex foil (dummy variable). XXDD End of the normalized foil =1. YYDD Y coordinate of upper end of the normalized foil. 16 R Specifies the...6)’CAVLEN’( 1.-UU22).C1.-CAVLEN) 00 25 LG:1,LPM CI~NO CPC?.SIP) NEXT* FOR THE FIRST wETTE3 ARC PORTION Sl-- CP IS BASED ON Ul AND Pie 140 LP:1 IS

  6. PRECO-D2: program for calculating preequilibrium and direct reaction double differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbach, C.

    1985-02-01

    The code PRECO-D2 uses the exciton model for preequilibrium nuclear reactions to describe the emission of particles with mass numbers of 1 to 4 from an equilibrating composite nucleus. A distinction is made between open and closed configurations in this system and between the multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components of the preequilibrium cross section. Additional MSD components are calculated semi-empirically to account for direct nucleon transfer reactions and direct knockout processes involving cluster degrees of freedom. Evaporation from the equilibrated composite nucleus is included in the full MSC cross section. Output of energy differential and double differential cross sections is provided for the first particle emitted from the composite system. Multiple particle emission is not considered. This report describes the reaction models used in writing PRECO-D2 and explains the organization and utilization of the code. 21 refs.

  7. A simple computer program for calculating PSA recurrence in prostate cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Zhongyue

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most common tumor in men. The most commonly used diagnostic and tumor recurrence marker is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA. After surgical removal or radiation treatment, PSA levels drop (PSA nadir and subsequent elevated or increased PSA levels are indicative of recurrent disease (PSA recurrence. For clinical follow-up and local care PSA nadir and recurrence is often hand calculated for patients, which can result in the application of heterogeneous criteria. For large datasets of prostate cancer patients used in clinical studies PSA measurements are used as surrogate measures of disease progression. In these datasets a method to measure PSA recurrence is needed for the subsequent analysis of outcomes data and as such need to be applied in a uniform and reproducible manner. This method needs to be simple and reproducible, and based on known aspects of PSA biology. Methods We have created a simple Perl-based algorithm for the calculation of post-treatment PSA outcomes results based on the initial PSA and multiple PSA values obtained after treatment. The algorithm tracks the post-surgical PSA nadir and if present, subsequent PSA recurrence. Times to PSA recurrence or recurrence free intervals are supplied in months. Results Use of the algorithm is demonstrated with a sample dataset from prostate cancer patients. The results are compared with hand-annotated PSA recurrence analysis. The strengths and limitations are discussed. Conclusions The use of this simple PSA algorithm allows for the standardized analysis of PSA recurrence in large datasets of patients who have undergone treatment for prostate cancer. The script is freely available, and easily modifiable for desired user parameters and improvements.

  8. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of biomass from dende oil for small communities of Brazilian northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Pacheco, Rafael R.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br, E-mail: rafaelrade@gmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The current environmental problems caused by human activity has been gaining attention in society, i.e., as it has influenced in the growth and development of the global economic. The availability of energy resources is central point to economic development and the generation of energy is responsible for a significant portion of the emissions causing the greenhouse effect nowadays. The Brazil, a developing country, still has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of individuals. In this context, it should think in the sustainable economic development, so the alternative energy sources emerge as an option for power generation. Can highlight biomass as a source in the Brazilian scenario by its wide availability and variety. Therefore, the objective of this work is to estimate the economic viability of the decentralized generation of electricity based on the use of biomass from dende oil in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast considering the environmental costs involved for the source in question. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic evaluation of environmental resources. The biomass from dende oil was adopted in this work by its characteristics and availability in the studied region. The results show that the generation of energy by biomass from dende oil, it will contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the region, already that it will bring gains environmental, social and financial to society. (author)

  9. Dynamic Programming and Error Estimates for Stochastic Control Problems with Maximum Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokanowski, Olivier, E-mail: boka@math.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, Université Paris-Diderot (Paris 7) UFR de Mathématiques - Bât. Sophie Germain (France); Picarelli, Athena, E-mail: athena.picarelli@inria.fr [Projet Commands, INRIA Saclay & ENSTA ParisTech (France); Zidani, Hasnaa, E-mail: hasnaa.zidani@ensta.fr [Unité de Mathématiques appliquées (UMA), ENSTA ParisTech (France)

    2015-02-15

    This work is concerned with stochastic optimal control for a running maximum cost. A direct approach based on dynamic programming techniques is studied leading to the characterization of the value function as the unique viscosity solution of a second order Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation with an oblique derivative boundary condition. A general numerical scheme is proposed and a convergence result is provided. Error estimates are obtained for the semi-Lagrangian scheme. These results can apply to the case of lookback options in finance. Moreover, optimal control problems with maximum cost arise in the characterization of the reachable sets for a system of controlled stochastic differential equations. Some numerical simulations on examples of reachable analysis are included to illustrate our approach.

  10. A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Johanna M; Proper, Karin I; van Wier, Marieke F; van der Beek, Allard J; Bongers, Paulien M; van Mechelen, Willem; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to appraise and summarize the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, NIOSHTIC-2, NHSEED, HTA, and Econlit for studies published up to 14 January 2011. Additionally, we searched for articles by reviewing references, searching authors' databases, and contacting authors of included studies. Two researchers independently selected articles. Articles had to include a cost-effectiveness and/or cost-utility analysis comparing a worksite physical activity and/or nutrition program to usual care or an abridged version of the program. Data were extracted on study characteristics and results. Two researchers independently assessed the risk of bias using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). Ten studies (18 programs) were included. More than 50% of the studies fulfilled 11 (58%) of the 19 CHEC-list items. From various perspectives, worksite nutrition and worksite physical activity and nutrition programs (N=6) were more costly and more effective in reducing body weight than usual care. When only intervention costs were considered, most worksite nutrition (N=4/5) and worksite physical activity and nutrition programs (N=5/6) were more costly and more effective in reducing cholesterol level and cardiovascular disease risks, respectively. The cost-effectiveness of more costly and more effective programs depends on the "willingness to pay" for their effects. It is unknown how much decision-makers are willing to pay for reductions in body weight, cholesterol level, and cardiovascular disease risks. Therefore, conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs cannot be made. There is substantial need for improvement of the methodological quality of studies and particular emphasis should be placed on the handling of uncertainty.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of rapid syphilis screening in prenatal HIV testing programs in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R Schackman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available New rapid syphilis tests permit simple and immediate diagnosis and treatment at a single clinic visit. We compared the cost-effectiveness, projected health outcomes, and annual cost of screening pregnant women using a rapid syphilis test as part of scaled-up prenatal testing to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Haiti.A decision analytic model simulated health outcomes and costs separately for pregnant women in rural and urban areas. We compared syphilis syndromic surveillance (rural standard of care, rapid plasma reagin test with results and treatment at 1-wk follow-up (urban standard of care, and a new rapid test with immediate results and treatment. Test performance data were from a World Health Organization-Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases field trial conducted at the GHESKIO Center Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince. Health outcomes were projected using historical data on prenatal syphilis treatment efficacy and included disability-adjusted life years (DALYs of newborns, congenital syphilis cases, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths. Cost-effectiveness ratios are in US dollars/DALY from a societal perspective; annual costs are in US dollars from a payer perspective. Rapid testing with immediate treatment has a cost-effectiveness ratio of $6.83/DALY in rural settings and $9.95/DALY in urban settings. Results are sensitive to regional syphilis prevalence, rapid test sensitivity, and the return rate for follow-up visits. Integrating rapid syphilis testing into a scaled-up national HIV testing and prenatal care program would prevent 1,125 congenital syphilis cases and 1,223 stillbirths or neonatal deaths annually at a cost of $525,000.In Haiti, integrating a new rapid syphilis test into prenatal care and HIV testing would prevent congenital syphilis cases and stillbirths, and is cost-effective. A similar approach may be beneficial in other resource

  12. Cost-effectiveness of rapid syphilis screening in prenatal HIV testing programs in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Neukermans, Christopher P; Fontain, Sandy N Nerette; Nolte, Claudine; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2007-05-01

    New rapid syphilis tests permit simple and immediate diagnosis and treatment at a single clinic visit. We compared the cost-effectiveness, projected health outcomes, and annual cost of screening pregnant women using a rapid syphilis test as part of scaled-up prenatal testing to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Haiti. A decision analytic model simulated health outcomes and costs separately for pregnant women in rural and urban areas. We compared syphilis syndromic surveillance (rural standard of care), rapid plasma reagin test with results and treatment at 1-wk follow-up (urban standard of care), and a new rapid test with immediate results and treatment. Test performance data were from a World Health Organization-Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases field trial conducted at the GHESKIO Center Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince. Health outcomes were projected using historical data on prenatal syphilis treatment efficacy and included disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of newborns, congenital syphilis cases, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths. Cost-effectiveness ratios are in US dollars/DALY from a societal perspective; annual costs are in US dollars from a payer perspective. Rapid testing with immediate treatment has a cost-effectiveness ratio of $6.83/DALY in rural settings and $9.95/DALY in urban settings. Results are sensitive to regional syphilis prevalence, rapid test sensitivity, and the return rate for follow-up visits. Integrating rapid syphilis testing into a scaled-up national HIV testing and prenatal care program would prevent 1,125 congenital syphilis cases and 1,223 stillbirths or neonatal deaths annually at a cost of $525,000. In Haiti, integrating a new rapid syphilis test into prenatal care and HIV testing would prevent congenital syphilis cases and stillbirths, and is cost-effective. A similar approach may be beneficial in other resource-poor countries

  13. The effect of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and healthcare costs: 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending. Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion.

  14. Online Advertising to Reach and Recruit Latino Smokers to an Internet Cessation Program: Impact and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ye; Moreno, Jose L; Streiff, Shawn L; Villegas, Jorge; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Vallone, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Background Tobacco cessation among Latinos is a public health priority in the United States, particularly given the relatively high growth of this population segment. Although a substantial percentage of American Latinos use the Internet, they have not engaged in Web-based cessation programs as readily as other racial/ethnic subgroups. A lack of culturally specific advertising efforts may partly explain this disparity. Objective Phase I of this study focused on the development of four Spanish-language online banner advertisements to promote a free Spanish-language smoking cessation website (es.BecomeAnEX.org). Phase II examined the relative effectiveness of the four banner ads in reaching and recruiting Latino smokers to the cessation website. Methods In Phase I, 200 Spanish-speaking Latino smokers completed an online survey to indicate their preference for Spanish-language banner ads that incorporated either the cultural value of family (familismo) or fatalism (fatalismo). Ads included variations on message framing (gain vs loss) and depth of cultural targeting (surface vs deep). In Phase II, a Latin square design evaluated the effectiveness of the four preferred ads from Phase I. Ads were systematically rotated across four popular Latino websites (MySpace Latino, MSN Latino, MiGente, and Yahoo! en Español) over four months from August to November 2009. Tracking software recorded ad clicks and registrants on the cessation website. Negative binomial regression and general linear modeling examined the main and interacting effects of message framing and depth of cultural targeting for four outcomes: number of clicks, click-through rate, number of registrants, and cost per registrant. Results In Phase I, smokers preferred the four ads featuring familismo. In Phase II, 24,829,007 impressions were placed, yielding 24,822 clicks, an overall click-through rate of 0.10%, and 500 registrants (2.77% conversion rate). Advertising costs totaled US $104,669.49, resulting in an

  15. Online advertising to reach and recruit Latino smokers to an internet cessation program: impact and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Fang, Ye; Moreno, Jose L; Streiff, Shawn L; Villegas, Jorge; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Vallone, Donna M

    2012-08-27

    Tobacco cessation among Latinos is a public health priority in the United States, particularly given the relatively high growth of this population segment. Although a substantial percentage of American Latinos use the Internet, they have not engaged in Web-based cessation programs as readily as other racial/ethnic subgroups. A lack of culturally specific advertising efforts may partly explain this disparity. Phase I of this study focused on the development of four Spanish-language online banner advertisements to promote a free Spanish-language smoking cessation website (es.BecomeAnEX.org). Phase II examined the relative effectiveness of the four banner ads in reaching and recruiting Latino smokers to the cessation website. In Phase I, 200 Spanish-speaking Latino smokers completed an online survey to indicate their preference for Spanish-language banner ads that incorporated either the cultural value of family (familismo) or fatalism (fatalismo). Ads included variations on message framing (gain vs loss) and depth of cultural targeting (surface vs deep). In Phase II, a Latin square design evaluated the effectiveness of the four preferred ads from Phase I. Ads were systematically rotated across four popular Latino websites (MySpace Latino, MSN Latino, MiGente, and Yahoo! en Español) over four months from August to November 2009. Tracking software recorded ad clicks and registrants on the cessation website. Negative binomial regression and general linear modeling examined the main and interacting effects of message framing and depth of cultural targeting for four outcomes: number of clicks, click-through rate, number of registrants, and cost per registrant. In Phase I, smokers preferred the four ads featuring familismo. In Phase II, 24,829,007 impressions were placed, yielding 24,822 clicks, an overall click-through rate of 0.10%, and 500 registrants (2.77% conversion rate). Advertising costs totaled US $104,669.49, resulting in an overall cost per click of US $4

  16. Treatment calculation program for reverse osmosis facilities; Programa de calculo de tratamiento para instalaciones de osmosis inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adroer, M.; Bodas, J.; Coma, J.

    2001-07-01

    Reverse osmosis if a technique used ever more frequently for the desalination of water. it is very important to maintain the permeability of the membrane as much as possible throughout its life, and in order to do this, is necessary to know the incrustations properties of the water in contact with the membrane. The Adicro program has been developed to calculate the characteristics of this water from the analysis of the intake water, the type of membrane used, and the recovery percentage. It also calculates the necessary inhibitor doses and, finally, whether the supply water is apt for use in the plant under the predicted conditions or whether it should be modified. (Author) 2 refs.

  17. HyPEP-FY 07 Annual Report: A Hydrogen Production Plant Efficiency Calculation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh

    2007-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled to the High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) process is one of two reference integrated systems being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory for the production of hydrogen. In this concept the VHTR outlet temperature of 900 °C provides thermal energy and high efficiency electricity for the electrolysis of steam in the HTSE process. In the second reference system the Sulfur Iodine (SI) process is coupled to the VHTR to produce hydrogen thermochemically. In the HyPEP project we are investigating and characterizing these two reference systems with respect to production, operability, and safety performance criteria. Under production, plant configuration and working fluids are being studied for their effect on efficiency. Under operability, control strategies are being developed with the goal of maintaining equipment within operating limits while meeting changes in demand. Safety studies are to investigate plant response for equipment failures. Specific objectives in FY07 were (1) to develop HyPEP Beta and verification and validation (V&V) plan, (2) to perform steady state system integration, (3) to perform parametric studies with various working fluids and power conversion unit (PCU) configurations, (4) the study of design options such as pressure, temperature, etc. (5) to develop a control strategy and (6) to perform transient analyses for plant upsets, control strategy, etc for hydrogen plant with PCU. This report describes the progress made in FY07 in each of the above areas. (1) The HyPEP code numeric scheme and Graphic User Interface have been tested and refined since the release of the alpha version a year ago. (2) The optimal size and design condition for the intermediate heat exchanger, one of the most important components for integration of the VHTR and HTSE plants, was estimated. (3) Efficiency calculations were performed for a variety of working fluids for

  18. Joint pricing and production management: a geometric programming approach with consideration of cubic production cost function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Hamidi Hesarsorkh, Aghil; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Bonyadi Naeini, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Coordination and harmony between different departments of a company can be an important factor in achieving competitive advantage if the company corrects alignment between strategies of different departments. This paper presents an integrated decision model based on recent advances of geometric programming technique. The demand of a product considers as a power function of factors such as product's price, marketing expenditures, and consumer service expenditures. Furthermore, production cost considers as a cubic power function of outputs. The model will be solved by recent advances in convex optimization tools. Finally, the solution procedure is illustrated by numerical example.

  19. GPU Linear Algebra Libraries and GPGPU Programming for Accelerating MOPAC Semiempirical Quantum Chemistry Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Julio Daniel Carvalho; Urquiza Carvalho, Gabriel Aires; Mangueira, Carlos Peixoto; Santana, Sidney Ramos; Cabral, Lucidio Anjos Formiga; Rocha, Gerd B

    2012-09-11

    In this study, we present some modifications in the semiempirical quantum chemistry MOPAC2009 code that accelerate single-point energy calculations (1SCF) of medium-size (up to 2500 atoms) molecular systems using GPU coprocessors and multithreaded shared-memory CPUs. Our modifications consisted of using a combination of highly optimized linear algebra libraries for both CPU (LAPACK and BLAS from Intel MKL) and GPU (MAGMA and CUBLAS) to hasten time-consuming parts of MOPAC such as the pseudodiagonalization, full diagonalization, and density matrix assembling. We have shown that it is possible to obtain large speedups just by using CPU serial linear algebra libraries in the MOPAC code. As a special case, we show a speedup of up to 14 times for a methanol simulation box containing 2400 atoms and 4800 basis functions, with even greater gains in performance when using multithreaded CPUs (2.1 times in relation to the single-threaded CPU code using linear algebra libraries) and GPUs (3.8 times). This degree of acceleration opens new perspectives for modeling larger structures which appear in inorganic chemistry (such as zeolites and MOFs), biochemistry (such as polysaccharides, small proteins, and DNA fragments), and materials science (such as nanotubes and fullerenes). In addition, we believe that this parallel (GPU-GPU) MOPAC code will make it feasible to use semiempirical methods in lengthy molecular simulations using both hybrid QM/MM and QM/QM potentials.

  20. Recruitment strategies and costs for a community-based physical activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L

    2008-04-01

    A community-based participatory research project using social marketing strategies was implemented to promote physical activity among women aged 35 to 54 who were insufficiently active or completely inactive. A variety of media were used to disseminate messages about how to enroll in Step Up. Step Out! This article describes the effectiveness and cost of the recruitment strategies and lessons learned in recruiting the women. Of the total inquiries (n = 691), 430 women were eligible and enrolled in the program. Based on data from questionnaires, the most effective method of recruiting women into Step Up. Step Out! was word of mouth (36%). Newspaper ads accounted for 29% of the women's responses. The least effective method was billboards. Mass media was not as effective in recruiting women for the program as interpersonal efforts such as word of mouth. Interpersonal efforts are a valuable and possibly underrated recruitment and promotion tool.

  1. Uses Of Infrared Thermography In The Low-Cost Solar Array Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Stuart D.

    1982-03-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has used infrared thermography extensively in the Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) photovoltaics program. A two-dimensional scanning infrared radiometer has been used to make field inspections of large free-standing photovoltaic arrays and smaller demonstration sites consisting of integrally mounted rooftop systems. These field inspections have proven especially valuable in the research and early development phases of the program, since certain types of module design flaws and environmental degradation manifest themselves in unique thermal patterns. The infrared camera was also used extensively in a series of laboratory tests on photovoltaic cells to obtain peak cell temperatures and thermal patterns during off-design operating conditions. The infrared field inspections and the laboratory experiments are discussed, and sample results are presented.

  2. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.C. [Square Y, Orchard Park, NY (United States); Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Rothman, R. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-02-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISIUND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, semiinteractive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer. The program language is FORTRAN-77. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incidentfree models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionudide inventory and dose conversion factors.

  4. Description of the blocking index programs; Descriptif des programmes de calcul des index de blocage anticyclonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parey, S. [Departement Environnement, Service Applications de l`Electricite et Environnement, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-09-01

    The work is conducted in the framework of the European programme SIDDACLICH (SImulation, Diagnosis and Direction of the Anthropogenic CLImate CHange), co-ordinated by DKRZ (Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum) of Hamburg. This project aims to perform and analyze climatic simulations with coupled models in order to study detection and impact of possible climate change linked to human activities. EDF/R and D D contribution to this project is limited to the delivery of diagnosis programs concerning acetylacetone blocking detection, in order to permit the evaluation of the impact of climate change on this type of situation from the results of coupled simulations performed in the project. First, two blocking indexes had been coded from works of Mullen and Kaas and Branstator, reported in the literature and applied to evaluate the impact of the augmentation of CO{sub 2} gas atmospheric concentration on a situation of this type, staring from the results of different equilibrium simulation results of atmospheric only simulations performed in the framework of a previous programme on Anthropogenic Climate Change. Then, these indexes have been confronted with a more commonly used index, the Tibaldi et al. index, using a long series of data covering the period 1963-1988, in order to have an idea of the situations detected by each index for the Euro-Atlantic sector in winters for which the situation is well known. (authors) 9 refs., 6 figs.

  5. 78 FR 956 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is publishing an updated monetary amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy...

  6. Microcomputer programs for particulate control: section failure; baghouse; plume opacity prediction; and in-stack opacity calculator. Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, L.E.

    1985-09-01

    IBM-PC usable versions of several computer models useful in particulate control are provided. The models were originally written for the TRS-80 Model I-III series of microcomputers and have been translated to run on the IBM-PC. The documentation for the TRS-80 versions applies to the IBM-PC versions. The programs are written in FORTRAN and are provided in both source (FORTRAN) and executable form. Some small machine language routines are used to format the screen for data entry. These routines limit the programs to IBM-PC and close clones. The minimum hardware requirements are 256K IBM-PC or close clone, a monochrome monitor, and a disk drive. A printer is useful but not required. The following computer programs are provided in the four-disk package: (1) ESP section failure model, (2) GCA/EPA baghouse model, (3) Plume opacity prediction model, and (4) In-stack opacity calculator. All the models are documented in EPA report Microcomputer Programs for Particulate Control, EPA-600/8-85-025a (PB86-146529). The models provide useful tools for those involved in particulate control.

  7. micrOMEGAs 2.0: A program to calculate the relic density of dark matter in a generic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, G.; Boudjema, F.; Pukhov, A.; Semenov, A.

    2007-03-01

    micrOMEGAs 2.0 is a code which calculates the relic density of a stable massive particle in an arbitrary model. The underlying assumption is that there is a conservation law like R-parity in supersymmetry which guarantees the stability of the lightest odd particle. The new physics model must be incorporated in the notation of CalcHEP, a package for the automatic generation of squared matrix elements. Once this is done, all annihilation and coannihilation channels are included automatically in any model. Cross-sections at v=0, relevant for indirect detection of dark matter, are also computed automatically. The package includes three sample models: the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the MSSM with complex phases and the NMSSM. Extension to other models, including non-supersymmetric models, is described. Program summaryTitle of program:micrOMEGAs2.0 Catalogue identifier:ADQR_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQR_v2_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested:PC, Alpha, Mac, Sun Operating systems under which the program has been tested:UNIX (Linux, OSF1, SunOS, Darwin, Cygwin) Programming language used:C and Fortran Memory required to execute with typical data:17 MB depending on the number of processes required No. of processors used:1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized:no No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:91 778 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 306 726 Distribution format:tar.gz External routines/libraries used:no Catalogue identifier of previous version:ADQR_v1_3 Journal reference of previous version:Comput. Phys. Comm. 174 (2006) 577 Does the new version supersede the previous version:yes Nature of physical problem:Calculation of the relic density of the lightest stable particle in a generic new model of particle physics. Method

  8. Costs and effects of a state-wide health promotion program in primary schools in Germany - the Baden-Württemberg Study: A cluster-randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Kesztyüs

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the state-wide implementation of the health promotion program "Join the Healthy Boat" in primary schools in Germany.Cluster-randomized intervention trial with wait-list control group. Anthropometric data of 1733 participating children (7.1 ± 0.6 years were taken by trained staff before and after a one year intervention period in the academic year 2010/11. Parents provided information about the health status, and the health behaviour of their children and themselves, parental anthropometrics, and socio-economic background variables. Incidence of abdominal obesity, defined as waist-to-height ratio (WHtR ≥ 0.5, was determined. Generalized linear models were applied to account for the clustering of data within schools, and to adjust for baseline-values. Losses to follow-up and missing data were analysed. From a societal perspective, the overall costs, costs per pupil, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER to identify the costs per case of averted abdominal obesity were calculated.The final regression model for the incidence of abdominal obesity shows lower odds for the intervention group after an adjustment for grade, gender, baseline WHtR, and breakfast habits (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% CI [0.25; 0.94]. The intervention costs per child/year were €25.04. The costs per incidental case of averted abdominal obesity varied between €1515 and €1993, depending on the different dimensions of the target group.This study demonstrates the positive effects of state-wide, school-based health promotion on incidental abdominal obesity, at affordable costs and with proven cost-effectiveness. These results should support allocative decisions of policymakers. An early start to the prevention of abdominal obesity is of particular importance because of its close relationship to non-communicable diseases.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS, Freiburg University, Germany, DRKS-ID: DRKS00000494.

  9. MILDOS - A Computer Program for Calculating Environmental Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.

    1981-04-01

    The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based

  10. Cost and cost-effectiveness of a school-based education program to reduce salt intake in children and their families in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Li

    Full Text Available The School-based Education Program to Reduce Salt Intake in Children and Their Families study was a cluster randomized control trial among grade five students in 28 primary schools and their families in Changzhi, China. It achieved a significant effect in lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP in all family adults by 2.3 mmHg and in elderlies (aged > = 60 years by 9.5 mmHg. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of this salt reduction program.Costs of the intervention were assessed using an ingredients approach to identify resource use. A trial-based incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was estimated based on the observed effectiveness in lowering SBP. A Markov model was used to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and then based on population data, extrapolated to a scenario where the program is scaled up nationwide. Findings were presented in terms of an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY. The perspective was that of the health sector.The intervention cost Int$19.04 per family and yielded an ICER of Int$2.74 (90% CI: 1.17-12.30 per mmHg reduction of SBP in all participants (combining children and adult participants together compared with control group. If scaled up nationwide for 10 years and assumed deterioration in treatment effect of 50% over this period, it would reach 165 million families and estimated to avert 42,720 acute myocardial infarction deaths and 107,512 stroke deaths in China. This would represent a gain of 635,816 QALYs over 10-year time frame, translating into Int$1,358 per QALY gained.Based on WHO-CHOICE criteria, our analysis demonstrated that the proposed salt reduction strategy is highly cost-effective, and if scaled up nationwide, the benefits could be substantial.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01821144.

  11. Cliff´s Delta Calculator: A non-parametric effect size program for two groups of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Macbeth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cliff´s Delta statistic is an effect size measure that quantifies the amount of difference between two non-parametric variables beyond p-values interpretation. This measure can be understood as a useful complementary analysis for the corresponding hypothesis testing. During the last two decades the use of effect size measures has been strongly encouraged by methodologists and leading institutions of behavioral sciences. The aim of this contribution is to introduce the Cliff´s Delta Calculator software that performs such analysis and offers some interpretation tips. Differences and similarities with the parametric case are analysed and illustrated. The implementation of this free program is fully described and compared with other calculators. Alternative algorithmic approaches are mathematically analysed and a basic linear algebra proof of its equivalence is formally presented. Two worked examples in cognitive psychology are commented. A visual interpretation of Cliff´s Delta is suggested. Availability, installation and applications of the program are presented and discussed.

  12. ALPHN: A computer program for calculating ({alpha}, n) neutron production in canisters of high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, R.; Hermann, O.W.

    1992-10-01

    The rate of neutron production from ({alpha}, n) reactions in canisters of immobilized high-level waste containing borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic compositions is significant and must be considered when estimating neutron shielding requirements. The personal computer program ALPHA calculates the ({alpha}, n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the ({alpha}, n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The ({alpha}, n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass and do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister. In a typical application, these cases might represent the same canister of vitrified high-level waste at eight different decay times. Run time for a typical problem containing 20 chemical species, 24 actinides, and 8 decay times was 35 s on an IBM AT personal computer. Results of an example based on an expected canister composition at the Defense Waste Processing Facility are shown.

  13. ALPHN: A computer program for calculating ([alpha], n) neutron production in canisters of high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, R.; Hermann, O.W.

    1992-10-01

    The rate of neutron production from ([alpha], n) reactions in canisters of immobilized high-level waste containing borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic compositions is significant and must be considered when estimating neutron shielding requirements. The personal computer program ALPHA calculates the ([alpha], n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the ([alpha], n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The ([alpha], n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass and do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister. In a typical application, these cases might represent the same canister of vitrified high-level waste at eight different decay times. Run time for a typical problem containing 20 chemical species, 24 actinides, and 8 decay times was 35 s on an IBM AT personal computer. Results of an example based on an expected canister composition at the Defense Waste Processing Facility are shown.

  14. Salty or Sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3–6pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially-flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. METHODS Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The number of days snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. RESULTS Programs served desserts and artificially-flavored salty-snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/wk, respectively. Sugar-sweetened-beverages were served 1.8 days/wk. Of the children (N=383) observed, 75–100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially-flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened-beverages. Desserts and salty-snacks cost $0.27–$0.32/snack vs. $0.38–$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. CONCLUSIONS The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially-flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. PMID:25564980

  15. Salty or sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Weaver, Robert G; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A

    2015-02-01

    Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6 pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary age children. The number of days that snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. Programs served desserts and artificially flavored salty snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/week, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages were served 1.8 days/week. Of the children (N = 383) observed, 75% to 100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened beverages. Desserts and salty snacks cost $0.27-$0.32/snack vs $0.38-$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  16. Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model: A Web-based program designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of disease management programs in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelby D; Neilson, Matthew P; Gardner, Matthew; Li, Yanhong; Briggs, Andrew H; Polsky, Daniel E; Graham, Felicia L; Bowers, Margaret T; Paul, Sara C; Granger, Bradi B; Schulman, Kevin A; Whellan, David J; Riegel, Barbara; Levy, Wayne C

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure disease management programs can influence medical resource use and quality-adjusted survival. Because projecting long-term costs and survival is challenging, a consistent and valid approach to extrapolating short-term outcomes would be valuable. We developed the Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model, a Web-based simulation tool designed to integrate data on demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; use of evidence-based medications; and costs to generate predicted outcomes. Survival projections are based on a modified Seattle Heart Failure Model. Projections of resource use and quality of life are modeled using relationships with time-varying Seattle Heart Failure Model scores. The model can be used to evaluate parallel-group and single-cohort study designs and hypothetical programs. Simulations consist of 10,000 pairs of virtual cohorts used to generate estimates of resource use, costs, survival, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from user inputs. The model demonstrated acceptable internal and external validity in replicating resource use, costs, and survival estimates from 3 clinical trials. Simulations to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of heart failure disease management programs across 3 scenarios demonstrate how the model can be used to design a program in which short-term improvements in functioning and use of evidence-based treatments are sufficient to demonstrate good long-term value to the health care system. The Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure Cost-Effectiveness Model provides researchers and providers with a tool for conducting long-term cost-effectiveness analyses of disease management programs in heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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