WorldWideScience

Sample records for program conducting nation-wide

  1. [Experiences of a nation-wide integrated program for healthy body weight among students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chiang, Li-Chi; Chien, Li-Yin; Chang, Po-Lun; Hung, Yung-Tai

    2007-10-01

    Taiwan has good support systems for obesity prevention and management. The percentage of elementary school students with normal body weight, however, has undergone a sustained decrease to 55%. Many factors are associated with this trend, such as lack of physical activity, dissatisfaction with body image, unbalanced dietary pattern, and unsupportive environment. Even though the rate of overweight and obesity is under control, the rate of underweight among girls has undergone a sustained increase, to 28%. Nurses therefore organized the "Aid students to fit" project, which emphasizes the bipolar issue of overweight and underweight. This national project is sponsored by the Ministry of Education and is expected to establish a beneficial environment, in which students can easily adopt healthy lifestyles and increase self-esteem. The program incorporates the AID triangle concept (Active, Image, Diet) and five strategies for achieving the goals. These strategies are: 1. Develop a persuasive statement to fit in with the philosophies of parents, students and teachers. 2. Set up measurable behavior indices and slogans. (Active life: 210 minutes per week. Image: confident and elegant. Diet: balanced and wise choice of low fat and high fiber foods.) 3. Establish a nation-wide interactive surveillance system for body weight control. 4. Develop an internet system that emphasizes tailored case management for overweight students. 5. Develop a supportive teaching plan, material, and aids to promote a healthy school environment. Five modeling schools, moreover, can be used to demonstrate the program. Educators can also download a free teaching plan, material, and aids at the website for healthy weight management (www.ym.edu.tw/active/aid). The authors brought together scholars from eight universities to accomplish the program. In support of the program, the Taiwan Ministry of Education addressed the new recommendation for physical activity which is to engage in moderate intensity

  2. The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental Science Graduate Programs: Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Troy E; Engebretson, Jesse; O'Rourke, Michael; Piso, Zach; Whyte, Kyle; Valles, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Professionals in environmental fields engage with complex problems that involve stakeholders with different values, different forms of knowledge, and contentious decisions. There is increasing recognition of the need to train graduate students in interdisciplinary environmental science programs (IESPs) in these issues, which we refer to as "social ethics." A literature review revealed topics and skills that should be included in such training, as well as potential challenges and barriers. From this review, we developed an online survey, which we administered to faculty from 81 United States colleges and universities offering IESPs (480 surveys were completed). Respondents overwhelmingly agreed that IESPs should address values in applying science to policy and management decisions. They also agreed that programs should engage students with issues related to norms of scientific practice. Agreement was slightly less strong that IESPs should train students in skills related to managing value conflicts among different stakeholders. The primary challenges to incorporating social ethics into the curriculum were related to the lack of materials and expertise for delivery, though challenges such as ethics being marginalized in relation to environmental science content were also prominent. Challenges related to students' interest in ethics were considered less problematic. Respondents believed that social ethics are most effectively delivered when incorporated into existing courses, and they preferred case studies or problem-based learning for delivery. Student competence is generally not assessed, and respondents recognized a need for both curricular materials and assessment tools.

  3. Conductive spacecraft materials development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide design criteria, techniques, materials, and test methods to ensure control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces. The control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft cannot be effected without the development of new and improved or modified materials or techniques that will provide electrical continuity over the surface of the spacecraft. The materials' photoemission, secondary emission, thermooptical, physical, and electrical properties in the space vacuum environment both in the presence and absence of electrical stress and ultraviolet, electron, and particulate radiation, are important to the achievement of charge control. The materials must be stable or have predictable response to exposure to the space environment for long periods of time. The materials of interest include conductive polymers, paints, transparent films and coatings as well as fabric coating interweaves.

  4. Building Nation-Wide Information Infrastructures in Healthcare through Modular Implementation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanestad, Margunn; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2011-01-01

    initiatives, where a national project failed to deliver interoperable Electronic Patient Record (EPR) systems while a small, local solution grew and now offers a nation-wide solution for sharing patient record information. We apply II theory, specifically the five design principles proposed by Hanseth......Initiatives that seek to realize the vision of nation-wide information infrastructures (II) in healthcare have often failed to achieve their goals. In this paper, we focus on approaches used to plan, conduct, and manage the realization of such visions. Our empirical material describes two Danish...... and Lyytinen, to contrast the organization and implementation strategies of the two projects. Our findings highlight how implementation strategies differ with respect to how stakeholders are mobilized. We argue that the realization of nation-wide IIs for healthcare not only requires a gradual transition...

  5. Compilation of a soil map for Nigeria: a nation-wide soil resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a nation-wide soil and land form inventory of Nigeria. The data compilation was conducted in the framework of two projects with the objective to calculate agricultural production potential under different input levels and assess the water erosion hazard. The information on spatial distribution ...

  6. 13 CFR 126.400 - Who will conduct program examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who will conduct program... PROGRAM Program Examinations § 126.400 Who will conduct program examinations? SBA field staff or others designated by the D/HUB will conduct program examinations. ...

  7. Conducting a SWOT Analysis for Program Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a teacher education program, or any program, can be the driving force for implementing change. A SWOT analysis is used to assist faculty in initiating meaningful change in a program and to use the data for program improvement. This tool is useful in any undergraduate or degree…

  8. Lessons Learned While Conducting Educational Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Olivia; Jones, Irma S.; Pena, Eli E.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment, accountability, and strategic planning are all processes that are included in accreditation for colleges and universities. For most colleges and universities, starting the reaffirmation process means identifying current assessment practices and reports from academic units and programs. This paper discusses the lessons learned during a…

  9. Nation-Wide Mobile Network Energy Evolution Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Eva; Frank, Philipp; Micallef, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    be supported. In most cases, these upgrades increase the energy consumption of the network even further. This paper presents a nation-wide case study, based on a commercial network of a leading European operator, intended to provide a clear understanding of how the energy consumption of mobile networks......Mobile network operators are facing a challenging dilemma. While on the one hand they are committed to reducing their carbon emissions, and energy consumption, they are also required to continuously upgrade existing networks, ensuring that the relentless growth in data traffic can still...

  10. 75 FR 25320 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 1465-2 through 1465-4. OMB Control...

  11. 75 FR 9277 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment.... Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 1465-2 through 1465-4. OMB Control Number...

  12. 77 FR 64382 - Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nation-Wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 10-1465- 2 through 10-1465...

  13. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys) Activity: Comment... forms of information technology. Title: Nation-wide Customer Satisfaction Surveys, VA Forms 10-1465- 2...

  14. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A

    2013-10-12

    Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtaining accurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted to researchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulation studies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a) the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b) the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c) the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates through bootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided.

  15. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Hallgren

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtainingaccurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted toresearchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulationstudies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates throughbootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided.

  16. Expendable Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth System (XCTD) development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-30

    thermistor (or RT) and conductivity cell (or Rd) resistances are calculated as RT4 and RdI, respectively. Next, the pre-launch equations are used to...conductivity of the water that flows through the conductivity cell , convert the resistance of the sensors to frequency, and drive the frequency along the ST wire...AFTERSODY AFTERSODY WIRE $POOL INSULATOR INNER ELECTROOE (2) THERMISTOR, -PACER "FLEX CIRCUOUTER ELECTRODE (2) "SEAWATER SWITCH CONDUCTIVITY CELL P2

  17. Use and benefits of public access defibrillation in a nation-wide network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are known to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study was to examine the use and benefit of public-access defibrillation (PAD) in a nation-wide network. We primarily sought to assess survival at 1 month...

  18. Conducting Culturally Competent Evaluations of Child Welfare Programs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Fong, Rowena

    2011-01-01

    As the population of the United States has changed over the last two decades, so has the population of children who come to the attention of the child welfare system, resulting in increasing calls for cultural competence in all aspects of child welfare programming and practice. Given the changing demographics among children involved in the child…

  19. Energy saving techniques applied over a nation-wide mobile network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Eva; Frank, Philipp; Micallef, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Traffic carried over wireless networks has grown significantly in recent years and actual forecasts show that this trend is expected to continue. However, the rapid mobile data explosion and the need for higher data rates comes at a cost of increased complexity and energy consumption of the mobile...... on the energy consumption based on a nation-wide network of a leading European operator. By means of an extensive analysis, we show that with the proposed techniques significant energy savings can be realized....

  20. 5 CFR 410.301 - Scope and general conduct of training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TRAINING Establishing and Implementing Training Programs § 410.301 Scope and general conduct of training programs. (a) Authority. The requirements for establishing training programs and plans are found... other human resource functions. Training programs established by agencies under chapter 41 of title 5...

  1. Multilevel Resistance Programming in Conductive Bridge Resistive Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalanabis, Debayan

    This work focuses on the existence of multiple resistance states in a type of emerging non-volatile resistive memory device known commonly as Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) or Conductive Bridge Random Access Memory (CBRAM), which can be important for applications such as multi-bit memory as well as non-volatile logic and neuromorphic computing. First, experimental data from small signal, quasi-static and pulsed mode electrical characterization of such devices are presented which clearly demonstrate the inherent multi-level resistance programmability property in CBRAM devices. A physics based analytical CBRAM compact model is then presented which simulates the ion-transport dynamics and filamentary growth mechanism that causes resistance change in such devices. Simulation results from the model are fitted to experimental dynamic resistance switching characteristics. The model designed using Verilog-a language is computation-efficient and can be integrated with industry standard circuit simulation tools for design and analysis of hybrid circuits involving both CMOS and CBRAM devices. Three main circuit applications for CBRAM devices are explored in this work. Firstly, the susceptibility of CBRAM memory arrays to single event induced upsets is analyzed via compact model simulation and experimental heavy ion testing data that show possibility of both high resistance to low resistance and low resistance to high resistance transitions due to ion strikes. Next, a non-volatile sense amplifier based flip-flop architecture is proposed which can help make leakage power consumption negligible by allowing complete shutdown of power supply while retaining its output data in CBRAM devices. Reliability and energy consumption of the flip-flop circuit for different CBRAM low resistance levels and supply voltage values are analyzed and compared to CMOS designs. Possible extension of this architecture for threshold logic function computation using the CBRAM devices as re

  2. Data on nation-wide activity in intensive cardiac care units in France in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Roubille

    2017-08-01

    A French nation-wide database on 277,845 admissions in 270 ICCUs”.(10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.04.002 (Roubille et al., 2017 [1]: the main characteristics of the pathologies managed in the intensive cardiac care units (ICCUs, the details on the interventions performed and the main differences between centers following the size of the centers and a figure presenting the monthly variations of admissions in the ICCUs in France in a total of 277,845 patients in 270 centers admitted at least one time in the ICCUs in 2014 (exhaustive data.

  3. Data mining analysis of factors influencing children's blood pressure in a nation-wide health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiewicz, Piotr; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Litwin, Mieczyslaw

    2009-06-01

    Blood pressure in childhood and adolescents is important indicator of good health and strong predictor of BP in adulthood. Genetic susceptibility, environmental and socioeconomic factors are related both with life style, obesity and cardiovascular risk including elevated BP. Increased body mass index is strictly correlated with BP, and obesity and overweight is main intermediate phenotype of childhood hypertension. However, despite current obesity epidemic available data do not fully support the hypothesis that it has resulted in increase of BP in children. We analysed data obtained from 7591 children participating in nation-wide health survey using data mining methodology. Results reveal relationships of obesity and high blood pressure with school environment characteristics.

  4. Nation-wide, web-based, geographic information system for the integrated surveillance and control of dengue fever in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Rodríguez, Mario-Henry; Santos-Luna, René; Sánchez-Castañeda, Veronica; Román-Pérez, Susana; Ríos-Salgado, Víctor Hugo; Salas-Sarmiento, Jesús Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases.

  5. Nation-wide, web-based, geographic information system for the integrated surveillance and control of dengue fever in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eugenio Hernández-Ávila

    Full Text Available Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases.

  6. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure: a nation-wide survey among Danish doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, H

    1997-01-01

    ). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...... doctors. Non-compliance with UP was associated with an increased risk of exposure and efforts to improve compliance with UP as well as implementation and evaluation of other preventive measures are needed.......Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6...

  7. 34 CFR 658.11 - What projects and activities may a grantee conduct under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Conducting pre-service teacher training and in-service teacher professional development; (c) Expanding the... studies and foreign languages; (b) Teaching, research, curriculum development, faculty training in the... specific degree programs; (i) Developing model programs to enrich or enhance the effectiveness of...

  8. Family aggregation and risk factors in substance use disorders over three generations in a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2017-01-01

    This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often substance use disorders (SUD) and co-morbid disorders occurred in affected families compared to control families. A total of N = 2504 child and adolescent psychiatric participants who were born between 1969 and 1986 and were registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) had a mental disorder before the age of 18 and developed SUD at some point during their life-time. In addition, N = 7472 controls without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18 and matched for age, sex, and residential region were included. Psychiatric diagnoses of the first-degree relatives were also obtained. A family load component was assessed. SUD occurred significantly more often in case families than in control families. SUD risk factors included SUD, depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, or conduct disorders in the family. Furthermore, male sex, more recent year of birth, and living in the capital city of Copenhagen were also significantly associated with having SUD. The family load explained 30% of the SUD manifestation in the case-probands. The findings in the total SUD group were mostly replicated in the two major subgroups of pure alcohol or multiple substance use disorders. These findings based on a very large and representative dataset provide additional evidence for the strong family aggregation and further risk factors in SUD. The pattern of risk factors is largely the same for the total group of SUD and the major subgroups of pure alcohol and multiple substance use disorders.

  9. Wind resource assessment handbook: Fundamentals for conducting a successful monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, B.H.; McDonald, S.L.; Bernadett, D.W.; Markus, M.J.; Elsholz, K.V. [AWS Scientific, Inc., Albany, NY (US)

    1997-04-01

    This handbook presents industry-accepted guidelines for planning and conducting a wind resource measurement program to support a wind energy feasibility initiative. These guidelines, which are detailed and highly technical, emphasize the tasks of selecting, installing, and operating wind measurement equipment, as well as collecting and analyzing the associated data, once one or more measurement sites are located. The handbook's scope encompasses state-of-the-art measurement and analysis techniques at multiple heights on tall towers (e.g., 40 m) for a measurement duration of at least one year. These guidelines do not represent every possible method of conducting a quality wind measurement program, but they address the most important elements based on field-proven experience. The intended audience for this handbook is any organization or individual who desires the planning framework and detailed procedures for conducting a formally structured wind measurement program. Personnel from the management level to field technicians will find this material applicable. The organizational aspects of a measurement program, including the setting of clear program objectives and designing commensurate measurement and quality assurance plans, all of which are essential to ensuring the program's successful outcome, are emphasized. Considerable attention is also given to the details of actually conducting the measurement program in its many aspects, from selecting instrumentation that meets minimum performance standards to analyzing and reporting on the collected data. 5 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Quantification of diabetes comorbidity risks across life using nation-wide big claims data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klimek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial progress in the study of diabetes, important questions remain about its comorbidities and clinical heterogeneity. To explore these issues, we develop a framework allowing for the first time to quantify nation-wide risks and their age- and sex-dependence for each diabetic comorbidity, and whether the association may be consequential or causal, in a sample of almost two million patients. This study is equivalent to nearly 40,000 single clinical measurements. We confirm the highly controversial relation of increased risk for Parkinson's disease in diabetics, using a 10 times larger cohort than previous studies on this relation. Detection of type 1 diabetes leads detection of depressions, whereas there is a strong comorbidity relation between type 2 diabetes and schizophrenia, suggesting similar pathogenic or medication-related mechanisms. We find significant sex differences in the progression of, for instance, sleep disorders and congestive heart failure in diabetic patients. Hypertension is a highly sex-sensitive comorbidity with females being at lower risk during fertile age, but at higher risk otherwise. These results may be useful to improve screening practices in the general population. Clinical management of diabetes must address age- and sex-dependence of multiple comorbid conditions.

  11. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure: a nation-wide survey among Danish doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, H

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6.......6-3.1 PCE/pry and 6.0-6.9 MCE/pry). Finally Pathology, Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a considerable risk (0.8-1.3 PCE/pry and 1.3-2.9 MCE/pry). Potential risk factors were examined by Poisson regression. Employment as senior as compared to junior doctor was associated with a higher risk...... of PCE (RR 2.2) and MCE (RR up to 2.7 depending on experience) among surgeons and an increased risk of PCE in anaesthetists (RR 1.7). In contrast, senior physicians in Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a several fold lower risk of PCE (RR 0.6) and MCE (RR 0.6 in males, 0.3 in females...

  12. Prognostic impact of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients: A national-wide longitudinal study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yueh-An; Tu, Kun-Hua; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Wu, Patricia W; Chang, Chee-Jen; Tian, Ya-Chung; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2017-01-01

    Peritonitis has been independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. However, there are few reports on peritonitis in hemodialysis patients. We aim at investigating both the risk profiles and prognostic impact of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients. This nation-wide longitudinal study uses claims data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 80,733 incident hemodialysis patients of age ≥ 20 years without a history of peritonitis were identified between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2009. Predictors of peritonitis events were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratio for mortality attributed to peritonitis exposure. Of 80,733 incident hemodialysis patients over a 13-year study period, peritonitis was diagnosed in 935 (1.16%), yielding an incidence rate of 2.91 per 1000 person-years. Female gender, liver cirrhosis and polycystic kidney disease were three of the most significant factors for peritonitis in both non-diabetic and diabetic hemodialysis patients. The cumulative survival rate of patients with peritonitis was 38.8% at 1 year and 10.1% at 5 years. A time-dependent Cox multivariate analysis showed that peritonitis had significantly increased hazard ratio for all cause mortality. Additionally, the risk of mortality remained significantly higher for non-diabetic hemodialysis patients that experienced peritonitis. The risk of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients is higher in female gender, liver cirrhosis and polycystic kidney disease. Although peritonitis is a rare condition, it is associated with significantly poorer outcome in hemodialysis patients.

  13. Prognostic impact of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients: A national-wide longitudinal study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-An Lu

    Full Text Available Peritonitis has been independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. However, there are few reports on peritonitis in hemodialysis patients. We aim at investigating both the risk profiles and prognostic impact of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients.This nation-wide longitudinal study uses claims data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 80,733 incident hemodialysis patients of age ≥ 20 years without a history of peritonitis were identified between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2009. Predictors of peritonitis events were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratio for mortality attributed to peritonitis exposure.Of 80,733 incident hemodialysis patients over a 13-year study period, peritonitis was diagnosed in 935 (1.16%, yielding an incidence rate of 2.91 per 1000 person-years. Female gender, liver cirrhosis and polycystic kidney disease were three of the most significant factors for peritonitis in both non-diabetic and diabetic hemodialysis patients. The cumulative survival rate of patients with peritonitis was 38.8% at 1 year and 10.1% at 5 years. A time-dependent Cox multivariate analysis showed that peritonitis had significantly increased hazard ratio for all cause mortality. Additionally, the risk of mortality remained significantly higher for non-diabetic hemodialysis patients that experienced peritonitis.The risk of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients is higher in female gender, liver cirrhosis and polycystic kidney disease. Although peritonitis is a rare condition, it is associated with significantly poorer outcome in hemodialysis patients.

  14. Red blood cell alloimmunization in pregnancy during the years 1996-2015 in Iceland: a nation-wide population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollason, Gunnar; Hjartardottir, Hulda; Jonsson, Thorbjorn; Gudmundsson, Sveinn; Kjartansson, Sveinn; Halldorsdottir, Anna Margret

    2017-11-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization during pregnancy is still a major problem. Historically, anti-D antibodies are most likely to cause severe hemolysis, but other antibodies are also important. In Iceland, postnatal RhIg prophylaxis was implemented in 1969, universal RBC antibody screening was implemented in 1978, but antenatal RhIg prophylaxis is not yet routine. This nation-wide population study gathered data on alloimmunized pregnancies in Iceland between 1996 and 2015. Blood bank alloimmunization data were linked to Icelandic Medical Birth Registry data. RBC antibodies were classified as either clinically significant or clinically nonsignificant. In total, 912 positive antibody screens from 87,437 births were identified (1.04% prevalence). The most frequent antibodies were anti-M (19.4%), anti-E (19.0%), and anti-D (12.5%). Anti-D prevalence among D-negative mothers was 1.1%. Icelandic Medical Birth Registry data were available for 881 (96.6%) pregnancies. In the clinically significant group (n = 474), anti-E (27%) and anti-D (20%) were most common, whereas anti-M was most frequent (53%) in the clinically nonsignificant group (n = 407). Mothers in the clinically significant group were older, more often multigravidae, had more abortions and stillbirths, and had shorter gestational length. Newborns in the clinically significant group were less healthy, had lower weight and Apgar scores, and required more treatment. Among specificities in the clinically significant group, anti-D antibodies were most strongly associated with severe hemolysis. In this study, the prevalence of alloimmunization was similar to that in previous reports. Of all clinically significant antibodies, anti-D was most strongly associated with severe hemolysis, requiring phototherapy or exchange transfusions. Our data emphasize the importance of implementing an antenatal prophylactic RhIg program in Iceland in the near future. © 2017 AABB.

  15. Diffusion of an e-learning programme among Danish General Practitioners: A nation-wide prospective survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Steenstrup, Annette Plesner; Nielsen, Bente; Rubak, Jens; Bro, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Background We were unable to identify studies that have considered the diffusion of an e-learning programme among a large population of general practitioners. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of an e-learning programme introduced to General Practitioners as part of a nation-wide disseminated dementia guideline. Methods A prospective study among all 3632 Danish GPs. The GPs were followed from the launching of the e-learning programme in November 2006 and 6 months forward. Main outcome measures: Use of the e-learning programme. A logistic regression model (GEE) was used to identify predictors for use of the e-learning programme. Results In the study period, a total of 192 different GPs (5.3%) were identified as users, and 17% (32) had at least one re-logon. Among responders at first login most have learnt about the e-learning programme from written material (41%) or from the internet (44%). A total of 94% of the users described their ability of conducting a diagnostic evaluation as good or excellent. Most of the respondents used the e-learning programme due to general interest (90%). Predictors for using the e-learning programme were Males (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.0) and members of Danish College of General Practice (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.5; 3.1), whereas age, experience and working place did not seem to be influential. Conclusion Only few Danish GPs used the e-learning programme in the first 6 months after the launching. Those using it were more often males and members of Danish College of General Practice. Based on this study we conclude, that an active implementation is needed, also when considering electronic formats of CME like e-learning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00392483. PMID:18439279

  16. 34 CFR 86.101 - What review of IHE drug prevention programs does the Secretary conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What review of IHE drug prevention programs does the Secretary conduct? 86.101 Section 86.101 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.101 What review of IHE drug prevention...

  17. Quality Assurance of Non-Local Accounting Programs Conducted in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Ai; Leung, Noel W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the current government policy and institutional practice on quality assurance of non-local accounting programs conducted in Hong Kong. Both international guidelines, national regulations and institutional frameworks in higher education and transnational higher education, and professional practice in accounting education are…

  18. 78 FR 32228 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding 1990 Amendments to the Cotton Research and Promotion Act AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... among producers and importers on continuation of the 1990 amendments to the Cotton Research and...

  19. Conducting Program Evaluation with Hispanics in Rural Settings: Ethical Issues and Evaluation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Claudia X. Aguado; McDermott, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting evaluations that are both valid and ethical is imperative for the support and sustainability of programs that address underserved and vulnerable populations. A key component is to have evaluators who are knowledgeable about relevant cultural issues and sensitive to population needs. Hispanics in rural settings are vulnerable for many…

  20. Assessing multiple goods and services derived from livestock farming on a nation-wide gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschawy, J; Disenhaus, C; Bertrand, S; Allaire, G; Aznar, O; Plantureux, S; Josien, E; Guinot, C; Lasseur, J; Perrot, C; Tchakerian, E; Aubert, C; Tichit, M

    2017-10-01

    Livestock farming is an essential activity in many rural areas, where it contributes to the maintenance of soil fertility and farmland biodiversity, as well as to a set of social public goods including food security, rural vitality and culture. However, livestock sustainability assessments tend to focus primarily on environmental and economic dimensions; therefore, these valuations might be limited because they do not consider the complete set of associated goods and services (GS). Hence, a need exists to recognise the multiple contributions provided by livestock to human well-being and society. The objective of this study was to analyse the provision of multiple GS derived from livestock across regions in France and empirically demonstrate sets of GS that repeatedly appeared together. We designated these multiple GS provided by livestock as contributions to productive, environmental, rural vitality and cultural benefits that human populations derive directly or indirectly from livestock agroecosystems. First, we combined expert knowledge with results of a literature review to define a bundle of GS provided by livestock. We then described indicators that quantified each good or service and screened national databases to determine the availability of supporting data. Finally, we assessed the GS and their relationships (synergies or trade-offs) on a nation-wide gradient in France at the department level (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics 3). Four main categories of GS were considered: provisioning (e.g. food quantity and quality), environmental quality (e.g. biodiversity, landscape heterogeneity, water quality), rural vitality (e.g. employment, rural dynamism) and culture (e.g. gastronomy and landscape heritage). Four major types of GS bundles were identified, which suggested strong contrasts among French rural areas in terms of the nature of the GS that occurred together and their levels of provision. GS bundles in France had a non-random spatial

  1. A nation-wide study of the family aggregation and risk factors in anorexia nervosa over three generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Helenius, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often anorexia nervosa (AN) and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared with control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors...

  2. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

  3. Stop the pain! A nation-wide quality improvement programme in paediatric oncology pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernikow, Boris; Hasan, Carola; Hechler, Tanja; Huebner, Bettina; Gordon, Deb; Michel, Erik

    2008-10-01

    Little is known about the impact of translation of pain management clinical practice guidelines on pain control in paediatrics. In an effort to overcome this, a longitudinal, nation-wide, multi-centre paediatric quality improvement (QI) study was initiated by the German Society of Pediatric Haematology and Oncology (GPOH) entitled Schmerz-Therapie in der Onkologischen Paediatrie (STOP). The project's primary major aims were to improve paediatric oncology pain control in Germany, and to evaluate the project's impact on the pain management quality. To achieve these aims, STOP encompassed six sequential phases to evaluate present practice, develop recommendations for practical pain control, actively engage participants in improvement strategies, and assess change. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe STOP in its entirety, report on comparisons between active quality management (QM) departments that actively participated in the project and non-active QM departments regarding differences in pain control, patients' and parents' perspectives on pain control and health professionals' knowledge, and to discuss the impact of STOP as a whole. Four hypotheses were examined: (1) changes in health care professionals' knowledge on pain in paediatric oncology and pain management after a three-year period (2) impact of active participation in the STOP-project; (3) differences in patients' and parents' perspective in active QM versus non-active QM departments; (4) impact of the STOP-project on the health care professionals' knowledge in active QM versus non-active QM departments. Data included surveys, interviews, and standardised pre-/post-intervention documentation of pain control. All German paediatric oncology departments were invited to participate. The prime means of intervention was education (printed material, passive participation; additional lectures and feed-back, active participation). Quality indicators were defined and compared with regards to the four

  4. Development of thickness measurement program for transparent conducting oxide thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Aya; Umeda, Yoshihiro; Ikegami, Tomoaki; ミツギ, フミアキ; マツオカ, アヤ; ウメダ, ヨシヒロ; イケガミ, トモアキ; 光木, 文秋; 松岡, 綾; 梅田, 佳宏; 池上, 知顯

    2010-01-01

    The gallium doped zinc oxide has been one of the candidates for the transparent conducting oxide thin film electrode. It is not suitable to use a conventional light interference method to measure the thickness of the gallium doped zinc oxide thin film because the refractive index and extinction coefficient of the thin film is unknown during the optimization of the deposition conditions. In this paper, we report on the details of the film thickness program which uses the measured optical and e...

  5. COYOTE : a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part I, theoretical background.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.

    2010-03-01

    The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction

  6. Preceptor Recruitment, Training, and Retention--A Nation-Wide Survey of Colleges of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes surrounding the profession of pharmacy resulted in a growing number of new pharmacy programs as well as expansion of existing class sizes. This extreme growth, coupled with changes to accreditation standards which require volunteer licensed pharmacists to supervise student interns for a minimum of thirty percent of the Doctor of…

  7. Estimated nation wide effects of pesticide spray drift on terrestrial habitats in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de F.M.W.; Snoo, de G.R.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study estimated the potential effects of pesticide drift on terrestrial ecosystems outside target areas, for the Dutch situation. A series of field trials was conducted to estimate the effects of drift on different species groups at different distances from a treated plot for different

  8. Enrollment and attendance in a parent training prevention program for conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Courtney N; Arnold, David H; Meagher, Susan

    2011-06-01

    Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parent training programs present major problems for researchers and clinicians. The literature on enrollment and attendance in prevention programs is especially limited, and these constructs may be particularly difficult to address in this context. Further, most previous research has not made the distinction between enrollment and attendance. This study describes predictors of enrollment and attendance in a behavioral parent training program intended to prevent conduct problems in preschoolers. Information was gathered from 106 preschoolers, their parents, and their teachers. Parent socioeconomic status (SES), single parent status, ethnicity, child externalizing behavior, parent depressive symptoms, and parent social support were investigated as possible predictors of families' enrollment and attendance. Only 48% of the families that had already provided informed consent and completed demographic questionnaires actually enrolled in the parent training program; parents with lower incomes and lower levels of social support were less likely to enroll. In addition, African-American and Puerto Rican families were less likely to enroll than Caucasian families. The average attendance rate for enrolled parents was 61%; dual parents and parents with children evidencing externalizing behavior problems attended more parent training sessions. Parent depression was not associated with enrollment or attendance. Significant relationships were maintained when controlling for other predictors including SES and when accounting for center-level variance. In addition, three distinct patterns of attendance were observed, which may have practical implications related to retention strategies.

  9. Two decades of nation-wide community-based stroke support - The Singapore National Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Yin, Ann; Lee, Lay B; De Silva, Deidre A

    2017-04-01

    The Singapore National Stroke Association, registered in 1996, offers support and information to stroke survivors and caregivers, and aims to raise public stroke awareness. In the last 20 years, we have developed programs to equip stroke survivors and caregivers with knowledge, life skills, comfort, and opportunities for socialization and reintegration. We have on-going public education and advocacy initiatives. Obtaining funding, member recruitment, volunteer retention, and leadership renewal are on-going challenges. Singapore National Stroke Association will continue to strive for the betterment of stroke survivors, their caregivers, and the public.

  10. Nonmedical economic consequences attributable to visual impairment: a nation-wide approach in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuma, Antoine; Brezin, Antoine; Fagnani, Francis; Mimaud, Viviane; Mesbah, Mounir; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2006-09-01

    The nonmedical costs of visual impairment are crucial when allocating resources for prevention or treatment programs. Were analyzed the data from two representative nationwide French surveys aimed at documenting impairments that included 14,603 subjects living in institutions and 16,945 in the community. Three groups were identified: blind (light perception), low vision (loss of shape perception, LV), and controls. Item consumption was standardized on confounding factors using logistic regression. Costs attributable to visual impairment were estimated from control subjects. National nonmedical costs due to visual impairment were euro 9,806 million, arising mostly from LV (euro 8,735 million). The annual average cost/subject was euro 7,242 for LV and euro 15,679 for blindness. Loss of family income was euro 4,552 million, the burden on the caregiver euro 2,525 million, paid assistance euro 2,025 million, social allowances euro 0,942 million, and unmet needs euro 5,553 million. Resource allocation strategies aimed at controlling visual impairment should cover all relevant economic dimensions, including nonmedical items.

  11. Impact of the fast track prevention program on health services use by conduct-problem youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Damon; Godwin, Jennifer; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John D; Greenberg, Mark T; Lochman, John E; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2010-01-01

    We tested the impact of the Fast Track conduct disorder prevention program on the use of pediatric, general health, and mental health services in adolescence. Participants were 891 public kindergarten boys and girls screened from a population of 9594 children and found to be at risk for conduct disorder. They were assigned randomly (by school) to intervention or control conditions and were followed for 12 years. Intervention lasted 10 years and included parent training, child social-cognitive skills training, reading tutoring, peer-relations enhancement, and classroom curricula and management. Service use was assessed through annual interviews of parents and youth. Youth assigned to preventive intervention had significantly reduced use of professional general health, pediatric, and emergency department services relative to control youth on the basis of parent-report data. For control-group youth, the odds of greater use of general health services for any reason and general health services use for mental health purposes were roughly 30% higher and 56% higher, respectively. On the basis of self-report data, the intervention reduced the likelihood of outpatient mental health services among older adolescents for whom odds of services use were more than 90% higher among control-group youth. No differences were found between intervention and control youth on the use of inpatient mental health services. Statistical models controlled for key study characteristics, and potential moderation of the intervention effect was assessed. Random assignment to the Fast Track prevention program is associated with reduced use of general health and outpatient mental health services in adolescents. Future studies should examine the mechanism of this impact and service use patterns as subjects reach young adulthood.

  12. Instruction in the responsible conduct of research: an inventory of programs and materials within CTSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, James M; Schilling, Debie A; Heitman, Elizabeth; Steneck, Nicholas H; Kon, Alexander A

    2010-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) require instruction in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as a component of any Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). The Educational Materials Group of the NIH CTSA Consortium's Clinical Research Ethics Key Function Committee (CRE-KFC) conducted a survey of the 38 institutions that held CTSA funding as of January 2009 to determine how they satisfy RCR training requirements. An 8-item questionnaire was sent by email to directors of the Clinical Research Ethics, the Educational and Career Development, and the Regulatory Knowledge cores. We received 78 completed surveys from 38 CTSAs (100%). We found that there is no unified approach to RCR training across CTSAs, many programs lack a coherent plan for RCR instruction, and most CTSAs have not developed unique instructional materials tailored to the needs of clinical and translational scientists. We recommend collaboration among CTSAs and across CTSA key function committees to address these weaknesses. We also requested that institutions send electronic copies of original RCR training materials to share among CTSAs via the CTSpedia website. Twenty institutions submitted at least one educational product. The CTSpedia now contains more than 90 RCR resources.

  13. Family aggregation and risk factors in substance use disorders over three generations in a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2017-01-01

    Abstract View references (39) Objective This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often substance use disorders (SUD) and co-morbid disorders occurred in affected families compared to control families. Method A total of N = 2504 child and adolescent psychiatric participants who were...... born between 1969 and 1986 and were registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) had a mental disorder before the age of 18 and developed SUD at some point during their life-Time. In addition, N = 7472 controls without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18 and matched...... for age, sex, and residential region were included. Psychiatric diagnoses of the first-degree relatives were also obtained. A family load component was assessed. Results SUD occurred significantly more often in case families than in control families. SUD risk factors included SUD, depression, anxiety...

  14. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder: A nation-wide population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Knudsen, Nikoline N.

    2017-01-01

    /bipolar disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. RESULTS: The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania......OBJECTIVE: Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development...... of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long...

  15. A Nation-Wide Study on the Percentage of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Patients Who Earn Minimum Wage or Above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael; Kapara, Ori; Goldberg, Shira; Yoffe, Rinat; Noy, Shlomo; Weiser, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although it is undisputable that patients with severe mental illness have impaired ability to work, the extent of this is unclear. This is a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of patients who have been hospitalized with severe mental illness earning minimum wage or above. Method: Data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry were linked with nation-wide data from the National Insurance Institute (the equivalent of US Social Security) on personal income. Hospitalization data were obtained on all consecutive admissions to any psychiatric hospital in the country between 1990–2008 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder (N = 35 673). Earning minimum wage or more was defined as earning at least 1000 USD/month, which was equivalent to minimum wage in Israel in December 2010. Results: The percentages of patients with only 1 admission who were earning minimum wage or above in December 2010 were as follows: 10.6% of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia; 21.6% of patients with a diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 24.2% of patients with bipolar disorder. The percentages of patients with multiple admissions who were earning minimum wage or above were as follows: 5.8% of patients with schizophrenia; 11.2% of patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 19.9% of patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusions: Despite potential confounders, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia, nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder have a poor employment outcome, even if they have only been admitted once. These results emphasize the importance of improving interventions to re-integrate these individuals into the work force. PMID:25796051

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Four Parenting Programs and Bibliotherapy for Parents of Children with Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Filipa; Enebrink, Pia; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Feldman, Inna

    2016-12-01

    Parenting programs and self-help parenting interventions employing written materials are effective in reducing child conduct problems (CP) in the short-term compared to control groups, however evidence on the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is insufficient. Few studies have looked at the differences in effects between interventions in the same study design. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of four parenting programs: Comet, Incredible Years (IY), Cope and Connect, and bibliotherapy, compared to a waitlist control (WC), with a time horizon of 4 months, targeting CP in children aged 3-12 years. This economic evaluation was conducted alongside an RCT of the four parenting interventions and bibliotherapy compared to a WC. The study sample consisted of 961 parents of 3-12 year-old children with CP. CP was measured by the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Effectiveness was expressed as the proportion of "recovered" cases of CP. The time horizon of the study was four months with a limited health sector perspective, including parents' time costs. We performed an initial comparative cost analysis for interventions whose outcomes differed significantly from the WC, and later a cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions whose outcomes differed significantly from both the WC and each other. Secondary analyses were performed: (i) joint outcome "recovered and improved", (ii) intervention completers, (iii) exclusion of parents' time costs, (iv) exclusion of training costs. All interventions apart from Connect significantly reduced CP compared to the WC. Of the other interventions Comet resulted in a significantly higher proportion of recovered cases compared to bibliotherapy. A comparative cost analysis of the effective interventions rendered an average cost per recovered case for bibliotherapy of USD 483, Cope USD 1972, Comet USD 3741, and IY USD 6668. Furthermore, Comet had an ICER of USD 8375 compared to bibliotherapy. Secondary analyses of

  17. Financial Resources for Conducting Athletic Training Programs in the Collegiate and High School Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of resources to athletic training programs varies greatly, depending on the size and scope of the athletic program. No research has been found that assesses the differences in dollars allocated within various athletic training settings or assesses whether the different program levels allocate similar proportions of their resources to like categories of expenditures. In this study, I assessed the financial resources available to athletic training programs at major football NCA...

  18. Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samonis Georgios

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage of resistant strains in healthy preschool children attending daycare centers. Methods A study group was organized with the responsibility to collect nasopharyngeal samples from children. Questionnaires provided demographic data, data on antibiotic consumption, family and household data, and medical history data. Pneumococcal isolates were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and resistant strains were serotyped. Results Between February and May 2004, from a total population of 2536 healthy children, a yield of 746 pneumococci was isolated (carriage rate 29.41%. Resistance rates differed among geographic regions. Recent antibiotic use in the last month was strongly associated with the isolation of resistant pneumococci to a single or multiple antibiotics. Serotypes 19F, 14, 9V, 23F and 6B formed 70.6% of the total number of resistant strains serotyped. Conclusion Recent antibiotic use is a significant risk factor for the colonization of otherwise healthy children's nasopharynx by resistant strains of S pneumoniae. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide coverage for a significant proportion of resistant strains in the Greek community. A combined strategy of vaccination and prudent antibiotic use could provide a means for combating pneumococcal resistance.

  19. Family Aggregation and Risk Factors in Phobic Disorders over Three-Generations in a Nation-Wide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Steinhausen

    Full Text Available This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often phobic disorders (PHO and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors.A total of N = 746 child and adolescent psychiatric participants born between 1969 and 1986 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR with a diagnosis of a mental disorder before the age of 18, and developed PHO at some point during their life-time until a maximum age of 40 years were included. In addition, N = 2229 controls without any diagnosis of mental disorders before age 18 and that were matched for age, sex, and residential region were included. Diagnoses of mental disorders were also obtained from the first- degree relatives as a part of the Danish Three Generation Study (3GS. A family load component was obtained by using various mixed regression models.PHO occurred significantly more often in case than in control families, in particular, in mothers and siblings. Substance use disorders (SUD, Depressive disorders (DEP, anxiety disorders (ANX and personality disorders (PERS in the family were significantly associated with specific phobia in the case-probands. After controlling for various mental disorders comorbid to PHO it was found that some of the family transmission could be caused by various other mental disorders in family members rather than the PHO itself. Female sex and more recent year of birth were further risk factors while region of residence was not related to the manifestation of PHO. Case-relatives did not develop PHO earlier than control relatives. After adjusting for various additional explanatory variables, the family load explained only 0.0013% of the variance in the manifestation of PHO in the case-probands.These findings, based on a very large and representative dataset, provide evidence for the family

  20. Profile of subjective quality of life and its correlates in a nation-wide sample of high school students in an Arab setting using the WHOQOL-Bref

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohaeri Jude U

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upsurge of interest in the quality of life (QOL of children is in line with the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stressed the child's right to adequate circumstances for physical, mental, and social development. The study's objectives were to: (i highlight how satisfied Kuwaiti high school students were with life circumstances as in the WHOQOL-Bref; (ii assess the prevalence of at risk status for impaired QOL and establish the QOL domain normative values; and (iii examine the relationship of QOL with personal, parental, and socio-environmental factors. Method A nation-wide sample of students in senior classes in government high schools (N = 4467, 48.6% boys; aged 14-23 years completed questionnaires that included the WHOQOL-Bref. Results Using Cummins' norm of 70% - 80%, we found that, as a group, they barely achieved the well-being threshold score for physical health (70%, social relations (72.8%, environment (70.8% and general facet (70.2%, but not for psychological health (61.9%. These scores were lower than those reported from other countries. Using the recommended cut-off of SD of population mean, the prevalence of at risk status for impaired QOL was 12.9% - 18.8% (population age-adjusted: 15.9% - 21.1%. In all domains, boys had significantly higher QOL than girls, mediated by anxiety/depression; while the younger ones had significantly higher QOL (p Conclusion Poorer QOL seemed to reflect a circumstance of social disadvantage and poor psychosocial well-being in which girls fared worse than boys. The findings indicate that programs that address parental harmony and school programs that promote study-friendly atmospheres could help to improve psychosocial well-being. The application of QOL as a school population health measure may facilitate risk assessment and the tracking of health status.

  1. Profile of subjective quality of life and its correlates in a nation-wide sample of high school students in an Arab setting using the WHOQOL-Bref.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U

    2011-04-25

    The upsurge of interest in the quality of life (QOL) of children is in line with the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stressed the child's right to adequate circumstances for physical, mental, and social development. The study's objectives were to: (i) highlight how satisfied Kuwaiti high school students were with life circumstances as in the WHOQOL-Bref; (ii) assess the prevalence of at risk status for impaired QOL and establish the QOL domain normative values; and (iii) examine the relationship of QOL with personal, parental, and socio-environmental factors. A nation-wide sample of students in senior classes in government high schools (N = 4467, 48.6% boys; aged 14-23 years) completed questionnaires that included the WHOQOL-Bref. Using Cummins' norm of 70% - 80%, we found that, as a group, they barely achieved the well-being threshold score for physical health (70%), social relations (72.8%), environment (70.8%) and general facet (70.2%), but not for psychological health (61.9%). These scores were lower than those reported from other countries. Using the recommended cut-off of divorce and father's low socio-economic status, the most important predictors of poorer QOL were perception of poor emotional relationship between the parents, poor self-esteem and difficulty with studies. Poorer QOL seemed to reflect a circumstance of social disadvantage and poor psychosocial well-being in which girls fared worse than boys. The findings indicate that programs that address parental harmony and school programs that promote study-friendly atmospheres could help to improve psychosocial well-being. The application of QOL as a school population health measure may facilitate risk assessment and the tracking of health status.

  2. Parent Education Programs as a Psychiatric Approach to Children with Conduct Disorder: An Evaluation through Two Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Arkan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a category to describe the behaviors which have an adverse affect on the individual, family or society, violate the basic rights of other people and ignore the age-appropriate social norms and rules. Parental behaviors should be shaped as well as those of the children in order for conduct disorder to be treated. The reason for this is that parental attitudes play a key role in emergence of anti-social behaviors among children. Therefore, parent programs have been undertaken for the last thirty years. It has been proved that parent programs are effective in children with conduct disorder who display highly disruptive behaviors. The two best parent programs implemented on the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder are Triple P and Incredible Years which cooperate with families and the society, reduce the risk factors, support the protective factors, have a multi-disciplinary approach (psychiatrist, psychologist, nurse, child development and educationalist, social service specialist, psychological consultant, teacher, etc., having high evidence standards, use randomized controlled studies and yield long-term results. For that reason, this literature review was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of these two programs, to determine the differences, what is known about the issue.

  3. 15 CFR 923.133 - Procedure for conducting continuing reviews of approved State CZM programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approved CZM program; (B) The management agency is effectively playing a leadership role in coastal issues..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS... performance of coastal States with respect to coastal management. Each review shall include a written...

  4. Large-scale machine learning of media outlets for understanding public reactions to nation-wide viral infection outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwoon; Lee, Jangho; Kang, Min-Gyu; Min, Hyeyoung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Yoon, Sungroh

    2017-10-01

    From May to July 2015, there was a nation-wide outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Korea. MERS is caused by MERS-CoV, an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. Despite expert opinions that the danger of MERS might be exaggerated, there was an overreaction by the public according to the Korean mass media, which led to a noticeable reduction in social and economic activities during the outbreak. To explain this phenomenon, we presumed that machine learning-based analysis of media outlets would be helpful and collected a number of Korean mass media articles and short-text comments produced during the 10-week outbreak. To process and analyze the collected data (over 86 million words in total) effectively, we created a methodology composed of machine-learning and information-theoretic approaches. Our proposal included techniques for extracting emotions from emoticons and Internet slang, which allowed us to significantly (approximately 73%) increase the number of emotion-bearing texts needed for robust sentiment analysis of social media. As a result, we discovered a plausible explanation for the public overreaction to MERS in terms of the interplay between the disease, mass media, and public emotions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How to Conduct a Qualitative Program Evaluation in the Light of Eisner’s Educational Connoisseurship and Criticism Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yüksel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe quantitative methodologies have been traditionally employed in the educational research so far. However, as long as with the appreciation and widespread use of the qualitative methodologies in many disciplines, many different educational areas have started to be examined in terms of qualitative research aspects. Particularly, the qualitative evaluation of the education programs has received considerable interest and there have been recently some attempts to develop a qualitative methodology for evaluating educational programs based upon the tenets of program evaluation. The evaluators have underlined the benefits of qualitative methods to boost the information shared with decision-makers and policy makers. The most inclusive endeavour has been carried out by Eisner. Eisner’s program evaluation model presents the role of educational connoisseurship and criticism in educational evaluation in terms of qualitative evaluation. This study aims at examining how a qualitative program evaluation is conducted in relation with the Eisner’s evaluation model.

  6. Conduct Problems and Peer Rejection in Childhood: A Randomized Trial of the Making Choices and Strong Families Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark W.; Day, Steven H.; Galinsky, Maeda J.; Hodges, Vanessa G.; Smokowski, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention designed to disrupt developmental processes associated with conduct problems and peer rejection in childhood. Compared with 41 children randomized to a wait list control condition, 45 children in an intervention condition received a social skills training program. At the…

  7. Comparing an Emotion- and a Behavior-Focused Parenting Program as Part of a Multsystemic Intervention for Child Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.

  8. A nation-wide study of the family aggregation and risk factors in anorexia nervosa over three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Jakobsen, Helle; Helenius, Dorte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Strober, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This nation-wide register-based study investigated how often anorexia nervosa (AN) and co-morbid disorders occur in affected families compared with control families. Furthermore, the study addressed the impact of sex, year of birth, and degree of urbanization in terms of risk factors. A total of N = 2,370 child and adolescent psychiatric subjects born between 1951 and 1996 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (DPCRR) had any mental disorder before the age of 18 and developed AN at some point during their life-time. In addition, N = 7,035 controls without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18 and matched for age, sex, and residential region were included. Psychiatric diagnoses were also obtained on the first-degree relatives as a part of the Danish Three Generation Study (3GS). A family load component was obtained by using various mixed regression models. AN occurred significantly more often in case than in control families. AN Risk factors included having a sibling with AN, affective disorders in family members, and co-morbid affective, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, personality, or substance use disorders. Furthermore, female sex, and ascending year of birth were significantly associated with having AN. Urbanization was not related to the family load of AN and case-relatives did not develop AN earlier than control relatives. These findings based on a very large and representative dataset provide evidence for the family aggregation and further risk factors in AN. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Current treatment modalities of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee joint: results of a nation-wide German survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, J; Hoffstetter, I; Reer, R

    1996-06-01

    In a nation-wide survey 350 knee surgeons were asked for their current diagnostic and treatment modalities in patients with osteochondritis dissecans (OD) of the knee joint: 255 questionnaires were analyzed. With respect to the different imaging techniques, standard xray studies were performed by all surgeons. Other techniques were used in the following decreasing order of preference: xray tomography, MRI, CT-scan, ultrasound, bone scan, and arthrography. The indication for surgery was primarily influenced by the standard xray, and secondarily by xray tomography, then by MRI, and CT-scan. Regarding cartilage-inducing treatment methods, Pridie drilling (antegrade) was by far predominant over abrasion arthroplasties and Beck drilling (retrograde). Cartilage or perichondrium transplantation was performed rarely. For fixation of a loose fragment most of the surgeons preferred "Ethipins" followed by screws and K wires. Only one-third of the surgeons used MRI as one of the first diagnostic tools, but a higher percentage of surgeons recommended MRI in special cases. Especially in young patients MRI was used as often as plain xray, whereas the use of MRI in older patients was remarkably reduced. Concerning treatment modalities, the majority of surgeons treated young patients with protection from weight bearing. For cartilage stabilization, "Ethipins" were preferred, whereas screws were rarely recommended. Approximately 25% of the physicians would not treat asymptomatic patients at all. Even patients with typical symptoms were not treated by less than 15% of the surgeons. In general, adults with OD still embedded in the cartilage bed are treated more aggressively. In cases with a loose body the cartilage-inducing procedures are preferred. Perichondrium or cartilage transplantations are only rarely performed.

  10. "Spike" in acute asthma exacerbations during enterovirus D68 epidemic in Japan: A nation-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korematsu, Seigo; Nagashima, Kengo; Sato, Yasunori; Nagao, Mizuho; Hasegawa, Shunji; Nakamura, Haruna; Sugiura, Shiro; Miura, Katsushi; Okada, Kenji; Fujisawa, Takao

    2018-01-01

    In September 2015, Japan experienced an unusual increase in acute asthma hospitalizations of children that coincided with an enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) epidemic. The objective of this study is to investigate whether EV-D68 had a causal relationship with the spike in asthma hospitalizations. A nation-wide retrospective survey of asthma hospitalizations of children was performed for the period from January 2010 through October 2015. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology asked its affiliated hospitals to report monthly numbers of hospitalizations, ICU admissions and mechanical ventilations due to acute asthma exacerbation. The data were retrieved from medical databases using predefined search criteria: diagnosis of asthma or asthmatic bronchitis, admission, and age asthma exacerbation. A total of 157 hospitals reported 87,189 asthma hospitalizations, including 477 ICU admissions and 1193 mechanical ventilations, during the survey period of 5 years and 10 months. The numbers of these events increased drastically in September 2015. The Granger causality test verified the association between EV-D68 and asthma hospitalizations/mechanical ventilations. The most-affected age group was 3-6 years old. The spike in pediatric asthma hospitalizations in Japan in September 2015 was found to be associated with the EV-D68 epidemic. Respiratory pathogens can cause "epidemics" of asthma exacerbation. Coordinated surveillance of infectious diseases and asthma may be beneficial for prevention and better control of both illnesses. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder: A nation-wide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N; Jørgensen, Lisbeth F; Kristiansen, Søren M; Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Andersen, Per K; Ersbøll, Annette K

    2017-11-01

    Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder (12.7 μg/L; interquartile range [IQR]: 7.9-15.5 μg/L) and controls (12.5 μg/L; IQR: 7.6-15.7 μg/L; P=.2). Further, the incidence rate ratio of mania/bipolar disorder did not decrease with higher long-term lithium exposure, overall, or within age categories (0-40, 41-60 and 61-100 years of age). Higher long-term lithium exposure from drinking water was not associated with a lower incidence of bipolar disorder. The association should be investigated in areas with higher lithium levels than in Denmark. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Madagascar’s Mangroves: Quantifying Nation-Wide and Ecosystem Specific Dynamics, and Detailed Contemporary Mapping of Distinct Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G. Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems help mitigate climate change, are highly biodiverse, and provide critical goods and services to coastal communities. Despite their importance, anthropogenic activities are rapidly degrading and deforesting mangroves world-wide. Madagascar contains 2% of the world’s mangroves, many of which have undergone or are starting to exhibit signs of widespread degradation and deforestation. Remotely sensed data can be used to quantify mangrove loss and characterize remaining distributions, providing detailed, accurate, timely and updateable information. We use USGS maps produced from Landsat data to calculate nation-wide dynamics for Madagascar’s mangroves from 1990 to 2010, and examine change more closely by partitioning the national distribution in to primary (i.e., >1000 ha ecosystems; with focus on four Areas of Interest (AOIs: Ambaro-Ambanja Bays (AAB, Mahajamba Bay (MHJ, Tsiribihina Manombolo Delta (TMD and Bay des Assassins (BdA. Results indicate a nation–wide net-loss of 21% (i.e., 57,359 ha from 1990 to 2010, with dynamics varying considerably among primary mangrove ecosystems. Given the limitations of national-level maps for certain localized applications (e.g., carbon stock inventories, building on two previous studies for AAB and MHJ, we employ Landsat data to produce detailed, contemporary mangrove maps for TMD and BdA. These contemporary, AOI-specific maps provide improved detail and accuracy over the USGS national-level maps, and are being applied to conservation and restoration initiatives through the Blue Ventures’ Blue Forests programme and WWF Madagascar West Indian Ocean Programme Office’s work in the region.

  13. [Prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal sepsis in Hungary in 2012. Preliminary data of a nation-wide survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziller, István; Szabó, Miklós; Valek, Andrea; Rigó, Barbara; Ács, Nándor

    2014-07-20

    At present, there is no obligatory guideline for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease in Hungary. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the spontaneously developed preventive strategy of the domestic obstetric divisions and departments in Hungary. Standardized questionnaire was sent out to each of the 71 obstetric divisions and departments in Hungary. Overall, 20 (27.4%) of the chairpersons replied, and thus, 39.9% of the total number of live births in Hungary were included in the study. Despite missing public health guidelines, each of the divisions and departments developed their own strategy to prevent neonatal group B streptococcal disease. In 95% of cases, bacterial culture of the lower vagina was the method of identifying pregnant women at risk. In 5% of the cases intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis was based on risk assessment only. Of the departments using culture-based prophylaxis, 58% departments sampled women after completion of 36th gestational weeks. Antibiotic of choice was penicillin or ampicillin in 100% of cases. Of the study participants, 80% reported on multiple administration of colonized pregnant women after onset of labor or rupture of the membranes. The authors concluded that the rate of participation in the study was low. However, prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection is a priority of obstetric care in Hungary. Lack of a nation-wide public health policy did not prevent obstetric institutions in this country to develop their own prevention strategy. In the majority of cases and institutions, the policy is consistent with the widely accepted international standards.

  14. Nation-wide assessment of pesticide leaching to groundwater in Germany: comparison of indicator and metamodel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborght, Jan; Kuhr, Petra; Tiktak, Aaldrik; Wendland, Frank; Vereecken, Harry; Corsten, Karin

    2010-05-01

    In order to estimate the risk op groundwater contamination by surface applied pesticides, the fate of pesticides in the unsaturated zone needs to be evaluated. Process models that describe relevant processes such as transport of dissolved pesticides, sorption, degradation and root uptake, in combination with water and heat fluxes in the soil have been developed and used for regulatory purposes. Regional assessments are required to indentify regions with higher risks of groundwater contamination. A major problem for the application of process models for a regional, EU-member state, or EU-scale assessment of pesticide leaching risk is the availability of regional databases of input parameters and boundary conditions that are required to run these models. Therefore, procedures that can assess pesticide leaching risk based on databases with regional coverage are required. In this presentation, we compare two different approaches for a regional estimation of pesticide leaching risk to groundwater in Germany. The first method uses an indicator approach to evaluate the risk of pesticide leaching as a function of a number of categorized soil, climate and pesticide properties. The result is a map of categorized risks. In the second approach, a metamodel is used to estimate the leached pesticide concentrations based on nation-wide available data of yearly average precipitation, temperature, soil organic matter content, soil texture, and pesticide parameters. The metamodel represents a synthesis of relations between climate, soil, and pesticide properties on one hand and leaching concentrations that are simulated by a more detailed process model on the other hand. The obtained maps of leaching risks and leaching concentrations were compared with the locations of anomynized pesticide findings in groundwater. The use of databases of pesticide findings in groundwater for the validation of leaching risks assessments is discussed.

  15. Disaggregation of nation-wide dynamic population exposure estimates in The Netherlands: Applications of activity-based transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckx, Carolien; Int Panis, Luc; Uljee, Inge; Arentze, Theo; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert

    Traditional exposure studies that link concentrations with population data do not always take into account the temporal and spatial variations in both concentrations and population density. In this paper we present an integrated model chain for the determination of nation-wide exposure estimates that incorporates temporally and spatially resolved information about people's location and activities (obtained from an activity-based transport model) and about ambient pollutant concentrations (obtained from a dispersion model). To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that such an integrated exercise was successfully carried out in a fully operational modus for all models under consideration. The evaluation of population level exposure in The Netherlands to NO 2 at different time-periods, locations, for different subpopulations (gender, socio-economic status) and during different activities (residential, work, transport, shopping) is chosen as a case-study to point out the new features of this methodology. Results demonstrate that, by neglecting people's travel behaviour, total average exposure to NO 2 will be underestimated by 4% and hourly exposure results can be underestimated by more than 30%. A more detailed exposure analysis reveals the intra-day variations in exposure estimates and the presence of large exposure differences between different activities (traffic > work > shopping > home) and between subpopulations (men > women, low socio-economic class > high socio-economic class). This kind of exposure analysis, disaggregated by activities or by subpopulations, per time of day, provides useful insight and information for scientific and policy purposes. It demonstrates that policy measures, aimed at reducing the overall (average) exposure concentration of the population may impact in a different way depending on the time of day or the subgroup considered. From a scientific point of view, this new approach can be used to reduce exposure misclassification.

  16. Body mass index and breast cancer: analysis of a nation-wide population-based prospective cohort study on 1 393 985 Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M-J; Wu, W Y-Y; Yen, A M-F; Fann, J C-Y; Chen, S L-S; Chiu, S Y-H; Chen, H-H; Chiou, S-T

    2016-03-01

    Asian women have a younger age at onset of breast cancer and a lower body mass index (BMI) than Western women. The link between obesity and risk of breast cancer in Asian women is still elusive. We aimed to investigate the effect of BMI on the risk of incident breast cancer in Taiwanese women. A total of 1,393,985 women who had been cancer-free before recruitment and attended a nation-wide Taiwanese breast cancer-screening program between 1999 and 2009 were enrolled using a prospective cohort study. Obesity and other relevant variables (such as menopause status and other biochemical markers) were collected through in-person interviews, anthropometric measurements and blood samples at first screen. Incident breast cancers during follow-up were ascertained through the linkage of the cohort with the National Cancer Registry and the National Death Certification System. A total of 6969 and 7039 incident breast cancer cases were identified among women enrolled before and after menopause, respectively. Compared with a BMI range of 18.5-23.9 kg m(-)(2), the incremental level of BMI in the enrolled women before menopause revealed a lack of statistically significant association with the risk of incident breast cancer (adjusted hazard ratio=0.94, 0.98, 1.02, 1.01 and 0.82 for BMI women after menopause led to a statistically significant incremental increase in the risk of breast cancer (adjusted hazard ratio=0.78, 1.19, 1.31, 1.53 and 1.65 for BMI breast cancer after menopause in Taiwanese women.

  17. Improving preschooler conduct adaptation by using a social learning program based on motion games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Szilárda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Being aware of the changes which occur under the influence of environmental conditions, education, culture and social roles upon the child is indispensable with a view to build up a conduct adapted to the social environment. For any preschooler child, entering kindergarten is an important social event and getting adapted to the new situation is not easy. Broadening the relational framework with objects, other individuals, with one’s own self, results in disciplining preschooler conducts and increasing the number of socially desirable conducts. Relying upon the above statements, this study is aimed at working out a social learning programme made up of motion games involving socialization/cooperation elements intended for inducing amelioration in terms of the child’s conduct during the process of adaptation to the kindergarten environment. The experiment was conducted using a sample of “little group” preschoolers (children 3-4 years of age. As research methods, the following have been used: studying the reference literature, the method of pedagogical observation, the method of experiment and the method of playing. Further to the practical application of the programme worked out with a view to enhance the adaptation conduct in the said subjects, the experimental group proved to have undergone a significant positive evolution and each subject showed improvements considering the conduct of adaptation to kindergarten conditions, as highlighted by the change i.e. higher values in terms of the individual scores achieved at the final test. Preschool education is meant to provide all possible ways and means to enable any child’s integration into groups of children of a peer age, to develop sociability in children and to create favorable conditions for building out inter-children networks.

  18. Generic radiological characterization protocol for surveys conducted for DOE remedial action programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berven, B.A.; Cottrell, W.D.; Leggett, R.W.; Little, C.A.; Myrick, T.E.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes goals and methodology that can be used by radiological survey contractors in surveys at properties associated with the Department of Energy's remedial action programs. The description includes: (1) a general discussion of the history of the remedial action programs; (2) the types of surveys that may be employed by the Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) contractor; (3) generic survey methods that may be used during radiological surveys; and (4) a format for presenting information and data in a survey report. 9 refs.

  19. FitKids360: Design, Conduct, and Outcomes of a Stage 2 Pediatric Obesity Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M. Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes FitKids360, a stage 2 pediatric weight management program. FitKids360 is a physician-referred, multicomponent, low-cost healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese youth 5–16 years of age and their families. FitKids360 provides an evidence-based approach to the treatment of pediatric overweight by targeting patients’ physical activity, screen time, and dietary behaviors using a family-centered approach. The intervention begins with a two-hour orientation and assessment period followed by six weekly sessions. Assessments include lifestyle behaviors, anthropometry, and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA survey, which screens for obesogenic risk factors in the home environment. Outcomes are presented from 258 patients who completed one of 33 FitKids360 classes. After completing FitKids360, patients increased moderate to vigorous physical activity by 14 minutes (P=0.019, reduced screen time by 44 minutes (P<0.001, and improved key dietary behaviors. Overall, FNPA scores increased by 9% (P<0.001 and 69% of patients with “high risk” FNPA scores at baseline dropped below the “high risk” range by followup. Patients also lowered BMIs (P=0.011 and age- and sex-adjusted BMI z-scores (P<0.001 after completing the 7-week program. We hope this report will be useful to medical and public health professionals seeking to develop stage 2 pediatric obesity programs.

  20. Institutional training programs for research personnel conducted by laboratory-animal veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Melissa C; Rush, Howard G

    2012-01-01

    Research institutions are required by federal law and national standards to ensure that individuals involved in animal research are appropriately trained in techniques and procedures used on animals. Meeting these requirements necessitates the support of institutional authorities; policies for the documentation and enforcement of training; resources to support and provide training programs; and high-quality, effective educational material. Because of their expertise, laboratory-animal veterinarians play an essential role in the design, implementation, and provision of educational programs for faculty, staff, and students in biomedical research. At large research institutions, provision of a training program for animal care and use personnel can be challenging because of the animal-research enterprise's size and scope. At the University of Michigan (UM), approximately 3,500 individuals have direct contact with animals used in research. We describe a comprehensive educational program for animal care and use personnel designed and provided by laboratory-animal veterinarians at UM and discuss the challenges associated with its implementation.

  1. Assessing and Treating Aggression and Conduct Problems in Schools: Implications from the Coping Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Nicole P.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Baden, Rachel; Stromeyer, Sara; Minney, Jessica A.; Mushtaq, Asia; Lochman, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior and conduct problems create major management problems in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates and with their own academic achievement. A contextual social-cognitive model can provide a framework for understanding risk factors involved in the development and…

  2. Parent Education Programs as a Psychiatric Approach to Children with Conduct Disorder: An Evaluation through Two Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Arkan

    2009-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a category to describe the behaviors which have an adverse affect on the individual, family or society, violate the basic rights of other people and ignore the age-appropriate social norms and rules. Parental behaviors should be shaped as well as those of the children in order for conduct disorder to be treated. The reason for this is that parental attitudes play a key role in emergence of anti-social behaviors among children. Therefore, parent programs have been undertake...

  3. THERM3D -- A boundary element computer program for transient heat conduction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingber, M.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The computer code THERM3D implements the direct boundary element method (BEM) to solve transient heat conduction problems in arbitrary three-dimensional domains. This particular implementation of the BEM avoids performing time-consuming domain integrations by approximating a ``generalized forcing function`` in the interior of the domain with the use of radial basis functions. An approximate particular solution is then constructed, and the original problem is transformed into a sequence of Laplace problems. The code is capable of handling a large variety of boundary conditions including isothermal, specified flux, convection, radiation, and combined convection and radiation conditions. The computer code is benchmarked by comparisons with analytic and finite element results.

  4. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: rationale and methodology for Argonne-conducted reviews of site characterization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Tisue, M.W.; Hambley, D.F.; Fenster, D.F.; Rote, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    Both regulatory and technical concerns must be addressed in Argonne-conducted peer reviews of site characterization programs for individual sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository in salt. This report describes the regulatory framework within which reviews must be conducted and presents background information on the structure and purpose of site characterization programs as found in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 4.17 and Title 10, Part 60, of the Code of Federal Regulations. It also presents a methodology to assist reviewers in addressing technical concerns relating to their respective areas of expertise. The methodology concentrates on elements of prime importance to the US Department of Energy's advocacy of a given salt repository system during the NRC licensing process. Instructions are given for reviewing 12 site characterization program elements, starting with performance objectives, performance issues, and levels of performance of repository subsystem components; progressing through performance assessment; and ending with plans for data acquisition and evaluation. The success of a site characterization program in resolving repository performance issues will be determined by judging the likelihood that the proposed data acquisition activities will reduce uncertainties in the performance predictions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Non-physiological increase of AV conduction time in sinus disease patients programmed in AAIR-based pacing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabo, Philippe; Cebron, Jean-Pierre; Solnon, Aude; Tassin, Aude; Graindorge, Laurence; Gras, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The EVOCAV(DS) trial aimed to quantify the paradoxal atrioventricular (AV) conduction time lengthening in sinus node (SD) patients (pts) paced in AAIR-based pacing mode. SD pts, implanted with dual-chamber pacemaker programmed in AAIR-based pacing mode, were randomized in two arms for a 1-month period: the low atrial pacing (LAP; basic rate at 60 bpm, dual sensor with minimal slope) and the high atrial pacing (HAP; basic rate at 70 bpm, dual sensor with optimized slope, overdrive pacing) arm. At 1 month, crossover was performed for an additional 1-month period. AV conduction time, AV block occurrence and AV conduction time adaptation during exercise were ascertained from device memories at each follow-up. Seventy-nine pts participated to the analysis (75 ± 8 years; 32 male; PR = 184 ± 38 ms; bundle branch block n = 12; AF history n = 36; antiarrhythmic treatment n = 53; beta-blockers n = 27; class III/Ic n = 18; both n = 8). The mean AV conduction time was significantly greater during the HAP (275 ± 51 ms) vs. LAP (263 ± 49 ms) period (p AAIR-based pacing in SD pts may induce a significant lengthening of pts' AV conduction time, including frequent abnormal adaptation of AV conduction time during exercise.

  6. Treatment of a permeable non-conducting medium with the EMI-BOR program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamatava, Irma; O'Neill, K.; Shubitidze, Fridon; Sun, Keli; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2005-06-01

    Near field (~1 m) electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensing, from 10's of Hz up to 100's of kHz, has shown significant success in detecting subsurface metallic targets. However, the discrimination of buried unexploded ordinance (UXO) from innocuous objects still remains a challenging and very expensive problem. The problem is particularly complicated in many field surveys where the data are highly contaminated with noise and clutter. In EMI data the noise and clutter are generated by the sensor, surrounding media (magnetic soil), sensor operation (motion and rotation) etc. Understanding and taking into account noise associated with the ambient environment are particularly important for developing a new generation of geological electromagneticc induction sensors as well for identification and discrimination of UXO. To address these critical issues, this paper investigates EMI scattering from a highly permeable and conducting objects subject to the state of the art of sensors placed in an infinite permeable non-conducting medium. The numerical calculation is done via the method of auxiliary sources combined with thin skin depth approximation algorithm (MAS-MAS/TSA). Using the image theory, the formulation is extended for magnetic half spaces. First the accuracy of the proposed method is checked against available analytical data for a sphere. Then several numerical results are shown and analyzed to assess the permeable soils effect on object responses, including object-soil surface interation effects and surface roughness effects. Ultimately, a user friendly EMI body of revolution code is put forward that combines these two features. It is available in the public domain, for the solution of EMI problems with single and multi (heterogeneous) objects buried inside an infinite magnetic space or in magnetic half space, subject to state of the art of sensor excitation. The code produces results in both time and frequency domains.

  7. FORTRAN 77 programs for conductive cooling of dikes with temperature-dependent thermal properties and heat of crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    Temperature histories obtained from transient heat-conduction theory are applicable to most dikes despite potential complicating effects related to magma flow during emplacement, groundwater circulation, and metamorphic reaction during cooling. Here. machine-independent FORTRAN 77 programs are presented to calculate temperatures in and around dikes as they cool conductively. Analytical solutions can treat thermal-property contrasts between the dike and host rocks, but cannot address the release of magmatic heat of crystallization after the early stages of cooling or the appreciable temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and diffusivity displayed by most rock types. Numerical solutions can incorporate these additional factors. The heat of crystallization can raise the initial temperature at the dike contact, ??c1, about 100??C above that which would be estimated if it were neglected, and can decrease the rate at which the front of solidified magma moves to the dike center by a factor of as much as three. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of rocks increase with decreasing temperature and, at low temperatures, these properties increase more if the rocks are saturated with water. Models that treat these temperature dependencies yield estimates of ??c1 that are as much as 75??C beneath those which would be predicted if they were neglected. ?? 1988.

  8. Treating conduct disorder: An effectiveness and natural language analysis study of a new family-centred intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Ronan, Prof Kevin; Davies, Gene

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports on a new family-centred, feedback-informed intervention focused on evaluating therapeutic outcomes and language changes across treatment for conduct disorder (CD). The study included 26 youth and families from a larger randomised, controlled trial (Ronan et al., in preparation). Outcome measures reflected family functioning/youth compliance, delinquency, and family goal attainment. First- and last-treatment session audio files were transcribed into more than 286,000 words and evaluated through the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Analysis program (Pennebaker et al., 2007). Significant outcomes across family functioning/youth compliance, delinquency, goal attainment and word usage reflected moderate-strong effect sizes. Benchmarking findings also revealed reduced time of treatment delivery compared to a gold standard approach. Linguistic analysis revealed specific language changes across treatment. For caregivers, increased first person, action-oriented, present tense, and assent type words and decreased sadness words were found; for youth, significant reduction in use of leisure words. This study is the first using lexical analyses of natural language to assess change across treatment for conduct disordered youth and families. Such findings provided strong support for program tenets; others, more speculative support. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Financial crisis and collapsed banks: psychological distress and work related factors among surviving employees--a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorradóttir, Ásta; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjörg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn

    2013-09-01

    The study considered psychological distress among surviving bank employees differently entangled in downsizing and restructuring following the financial crisis of 2008. A cross-sectional, nationwide study was conducted among surviving employees (N = 1880, response rate 68%). Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with psychological distress. In the banks, where all employees experienced rapid and unpredictable organizational changes, psychological distress was higher among employees most entangled in the downsizing and restructuring process. Being subjected to downsizing within own department, salary cut, and transfer to another department, was directly related to increased psychological distress, controlling for background factors. The associations between downsizing, restructuring, and distress were reduced somewhat by adding job demands, job control, and empowering leadership to the model, however, adding social support had little effect on these associations. Employees most entangled in organizational changes are the most vulnerable and should be prioritized in workplace interventions during organizational changes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Een sociaal-cognitief interventieprogramma voor gedragsgestoorde kinderen, een vooronderzoek. / A social cognitive intervention program for children with a conduct disorder, a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Conducted a pilot study on the efficacy of a social-cognitive group intervention program based on social information-processing theory (K. A. Dodge, 1986) for children with a conduct disorder. Human Ss: 16 Dutch school-age children and adolescents (aged 10-13 yrs) (conduct disorder). Ss participated

  11. 3-D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problems with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofronov, I.D.; Voronin, B.L.; Butnev, O.I. [VNIIEF (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the work performed is to develop a 3D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problem with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS), satisfying the condition of numerical result independence from the number of processors involved. Two basically different approaches to the structure of massive parallel computations have been developed. The first approach uses the 3D data matrix decomposition reconstructed at temporal cycle and is a development of parallelization algorithms for multiprocessor CS with shareable memory. The second approach is based on using a 3D data matrix decomposition not reconstructed during a temporal cycle. The program was developed on 8-processor CS MP-3 made in VNIIEF and was adapted to a massive parallel CS Meiko-2 in LLNL by joint efforts of VNIIEF and LLNL staffs. A large number of numerical experiments has been carried out with different number of processors up to 256 and the efficiency of parallelization has been evaluated in dependence on processor number and their parameters.

  12. Designing and Assessing the Validity and Reliability of the Hospital Readiness Assessment Tools to Conducting Quality Improvement Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Gholipoor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Identifying the readiness of hospital and its strengths and weaknesses can be useful in developing appropriate planning and situation analyses and management to getting effective in clinical audit programs. The aim of this study was to design and assess the validity of the Hospital Readiness Assessment Tools to conduct quality improvement and clinical audit programs. Material and Methods: In this study, based on the results of a systematic review of literature, an initial questionnaire with 77 items was designed. Questionnaire content validity was reviewed by experts in the field of hospital management and quality improvement in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. For this purpose, 20 questionnaires were sent to experts. Finally, 15 participants returned completed questionnaire. Questionnaire validity was reviewed and confirmed based on Content Validity Index and Content Validity Ratio. Questionnaire reliability was confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha index (α = 0.96 in a pilot study by participation of 30 hospital managers. Results: The results showed that the final questionnaire contains 54 questions as nine category as: data and information (9 items, teamwork (12 questions, resources (5 questions, patient and education (5, intervention design and implementation (5 questions, clinical audit management (4 questions, human resources (6 questions, evidence and standard (4 items and evaluation and feedback (4 items. The final questionnaire content validity index was 0.91 and final questionnaire Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.96. Conclusion: Considering the relative good validity and reliability of the designed tool in this study, it appears that the questionnaire can be used to identify and assess the readiness of hospitals for quality improvement and clinical audit program implementation

  13. Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches For Conduct of Site Planning and Built Environment Studio in Spatial Planning Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valliappan Alagappan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning education is multi-disciplinary in nature and particularly site planning needs exposure to Engineering, Architectural, Landscape, Sociological, Economic, and Infrastructural aspects. The curriculum of the spatial planning program introduces the site-planning studio (multi-level design and planning at the initial semesters without introduction of single space design and planning. Due to inadequate exposure the students find it difficult to plan and design residential layouts in the planning studio. The site-planning studio provides a good understanding of how the articulation of density can modify the built form and environment. There are considerable lacunae in the adopted approaches of site planning studios in various planning schools. The author discusses in detail the varied methodologies and approaches adopted in site planning and built environment studio programs. The two pedagogical studios methods experimented in the site-planning studio were discussed at length. One method discusses from unit level planning and designing to block and neighborhood level and other method discusses from neighborhood to block and unit level. Within these two studio pedagogical methodologies, for conduct of site planning exercises two approaches were generally adopted i.e block-based approach and Design based approach. The characteristic features, outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of each methodologies /approach offer an understanding of how site-planning studios have to be taught in the planning program. The author emphasizes the importance of a gradual progression from a single space design and planning to multi-level design and planning for enhanced comprehension of students.

  14. [Usefulness of the Biofeedback Diacontrol module in the automatic programming of plasmatic conductivity and ionic mass transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jaras, J; García-Pérez, H; Torregrosa, E; Calvo, C; Cerrillo, V

    2003-01-01

    Programmed variable sodium in the dialysate can improve hypotension during hemodialysis but may also alter sodium balance and thus resulting in a increase of water intake and weight gain between dialysis sessions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes on plasma volume (PV), Ionic Mass Transfer (IMT) and plasma conductivity (PC) with two different hemodialysis techniques. We studied 10 patients during a four-period protocol (one week each: PF1-DC1-DC2PF2): 120 dialysis sessions. During periods PF1 and PF2, the dialysis procedure was as usual, with exponential decrease of dialysate conductivity (DC) profile (15.7 mS/cm at start, 14.4 mS/cm at middle and 13.8 mS/cm at the end of the session) and UF profile (1.7 1/h at start and 0.1 1/h at the end). During periods DC1 and DC2, DC was automatically determined by a biofeedback modulae (Diacontrol) in order to reach a plasma water conductivity fixed at 14 mS/cm. All hemodialysis parameters were the same for the four periods: duration, blood and dialysate flow rates, dialysis membrane. A lower reduction of PV was evident on PF1 and PF2 (104 +/- 3.26% and -4.36 +/- 2.7%) compared with DC 1 and DC2 (-6.53 +/- 3.31% and -6.67 +/- 3.12%) (p 0.001 PF1 and PF2 vs. DC1 and DC2). Diacontrol determines automatically an individualized DC profile for each patient, and accurately reaches the prescribed PC target. By reaching both the dry weight and PC settings, the water and sodium pool is maintained lower in the hemodialysis session using a biofeedback module. Clinical tolerance was similar in the two different dialysis procedures.

  15. Do Health Reforms Impact Cost Consciousness of Health Care Professionals? Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Vukovic, Mira; Chen, Chia-Ching; Antunovic, Mirjana; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Velickovic-Radovanovic, Radmila; Djendji, Mladenovic Siladji; Jankovic, Nikola; Rankovic, Ana; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Antunovic, Marko; Milovanovic, Olivera; Markovic, Veroljub; Dasari, Babu N S; Yamada, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Serbia, as the largest market of the Western Balkans, has entered socioeconomic transition with substantial delay compared to most of Eastern Europe. Its health system reform efforts were bold during the past 15 years, but their results were inconsistent in various areas. The two waves of global recession that hit Balkan economies ultimately reflected to the financial situation of healthcare. Serious difficulties in providing accessible medical care to the citizens became a reality. A large part of the unbearable expenses actually belongs to the overt prescription of pharmaceuticals and various laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures requested by physicians. Therefore, a broad national survey was conducted at all levels of the healthcare system hierarchy to distinguish the ability of cost containment strategies to reshape clinician's mindsets and decision-making in practice. Assessment of healthcare professionals' judgment on economic consequences of prescribed medical interventions and evaluation of responsiveness of healthcare professionals to policy measures targeted at increasing cost-consciousness. Cross-sectional study. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted through a hierarchy of medical facilities across diverse geographical regions before and after policy action, from January 2010 to April 2013. In the middle of the observed period, the National Health Insurance Fund (RFZO) adopted severe cost-containment measures. Independently, pharmacoeconomic guidelines targeted at prescribers were disseminated. Administration in large hospitals and community pharmacies was forced to restrict access to high budget-impact medical care. Economic Awareness of Healthcare Professionals Questionnaire-29 (EAHPQ-29), developed in Serbian language, was used in face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire documented clinician's attitudes on: Clinical-Decision-Making-between-Alternative-Interventions (CDMAI), Quality-of-Health-Care (QHC), and Cost

  16. Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An impedimetric NOx dosimeter based on the NOx sorption material KMnO4 is proposed. In addition to its application as a low level NOx dosimeter, KMnO4 shows potential as a precious metal free lean NOx trap material (LNT for NOx storage catalysts (NSC enabling electrical in-situ diagnostics. With this dosimeter, low levels of NO and NO2 exposure can be detected electrically as instantaneous values at 380 °C by progressive NOx accumulation in the KMnO4 based sensitive layer. The linear NOx sensing characteristics are recovered periodically by heating to 650 °C or switching to rich atmospheres. Further insight into the NOx sorption-dependent conductivity of the KMnO4-based material is obtained by the novel eTPD method that combines electrical characterization with classical temperature programmed desorption (TPD. The NOx loading amount increases proportionally to the NOx exposure time at sorption temperature. The cumulated NOx exposure, as well as the corresponding NOx loading state, can be detected linearly by electrical means in two modes: (1 time-continuously during the sorption interval including NOx concentration information from the signal derivative or (2 during the short-term thermal NOx release.

  17. Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groβ, Andrea; Kremling, Michael; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jacobus H.; Tuller, Harry L.; Moos, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    An impedimetric NOx dosimeter based on the NOx sorption material KMnO4 is proposed. In addition to its application as a low level NOx dosimeter, KMnO4 shows potential as a precious metal free lean NOx trap material (LNT) for NOx storage catalysts (NSC) enabling electrical in-situ diagnostics. With this dosimeter, low levels of NO and NO2 exposure can be detected electrically as instantaneous values at 380 °C by progressive NOx accumulation in the KMnO4 based sensitive layer. The linear NOx sensing characteristics are recovered periodically by heating to 650 °C or switching to rich atmospheres. Further insight into the NOx sorption-dependent conductivity of the KMnO4-based material is obtained by the novel eTPD method that combines electrical characterization with classical temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The NOx loading amount increases proportionally to the NOx exposure time at sorption temperature. The cumulated NOx exposure, as well as the corresponding NOx loading state, can be detected linearly by electrical means in two modes: (1) time-continuously during the sorption interval including NOx concentration information from the signal derivative or (2) during the short-term thermal NOx release. PMID:23549366

  18. A framework for conducting a national study of substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Moore, Laurie A; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E

    2012-09-01

    Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n ≈ 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies.

  19. Amendments to Accreditation of Third-Party Certification Bodies To Conduct Food Safety Audits and To Issue Certifications To Provide for the User Fee Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is amending its regulations on accreditation of third-party certification bodies to conduct food safety audits and to issue certifications to provide for a reimbursement (user fee) program to assess fees for the work FDA performs to establish and administer the third-party certification program under the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA).

  20. Designing and conducting MD/MPH dual degree program in the Medical School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Alireza; Hashemi, Neda; Saber, Mahboobeh; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have focused on the need of health systems to educated physicians in the clinical prevention, research methodology, epidemiology and health care management and emphasize the important role of this training in the public health promotion. On this basis, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) has established MD/MPH dual degree program since the year 2012. In the current study, Delphi technique was used. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in the Delphi process. The Delphi team members including experts with extensive experience in teaching, research and administration in the field of educational management and health/medical education reached consensus in almost 86% of the questionnaire items through three Delphi rounds. MD/MPH program for SUMS was designed based on the items agreed and thematic analysis used in these rounds. The goals, values, mission and program requirements including the period, the entrance condition, and the number of units, and certification were determined. Accordingly, the courses of the program are presented in parallel with the MD education period. MPH courses consist of 35 units including 16 obligatory and 15 voluntary ones. Designing MD/MPH program in SUMS based on the existent models in the universities in different countries, compatible with educational program of this university and needs of national health system in Iran, can be a beneficial measure towards promoting the students' knowledge and theoretical/practical skills in both individual and social level. Performing some additional research to assess the MD/MPH program and some cohort studies to evaluate the effect of this program on the students' future professional life is recommended.

  1. Designing and conducting MD/MPH dual degree program in the Medical School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIREZA SALEHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many studies have focused on the need of health systems to educated physicians in the clinical prevention, research methodology, epidemiology and health care management and emphasize the important role of this training in the public health promotion. On this basis, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS has established MD/MPH dual degree program since the year 2012. Methods: In the current study, Delphi technique was used. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in the Delphi process. The Delphi team members including experts with extensive experience in teaching, research and administration in the field of educational management and health/medical education reached consensus in almost 86% of the questionnaire items through three Delphi rounds. MD/MPH program for SUMS was designed based on the items agreed and thematic analysis used in these rounds. Results: The goals, values, mission and program requirements including the period, the entrance condition, and the number of units, and certification were determined. Accordingly, the courses of the program are presented in parallel with the MD education period. MPH courses consist of 35 units including 16 obligatory and 15 voluntary ones. Conclusion: Designing MD/MPH program in SUMS based on the existent models in the universities in different countries, compatible with educational program of this university and needs of national health system in Iran, can be a beneficial measure towards promoting the students’ knowledge and theoretical/ practical skills in both individual and social level. Performing some additional research to assess the MD/MPH program and some cohort studies to evaluate the effect of this program on the students’ future professional life is recommended.

  2. CARL: a LabVIEW 3 computer program for conducting exposure therapy for the treatment of dental injection fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, S E; Getz, T; Milgrom, P; Prall, C W; Spadafora, A; Ramsay, D S

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes CARL (Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning), a computerized, exposure-based therapy program for the treatment of dental injection fear. The CARL program operates primarily in two different modes; in vitro, which presents a video-taped exposure hierarchy, and in vivo, which presents scripts for a dentist or hygienist to use while working with a subject. Two additional modes are used to train subjects to use the program and to administer behavioral assessment tests. The program contains five different modules, which function to register a subject, train subjects to use physical and cognitive relaxation techniques, deliver an exposure hierarchy, question subjects about the helpfulness of each of the therapy components, and test for memory effects of anxiolytic medication. Nine subjects have completed the CARL therapy program and 1-yr follow-up as participants in a placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the effects of alprazolam on exposure therapy for dental injection phobia. All nine subjects were able to receive two dental injections, and all reduced their general fear of dental injections. Initial results therefore indicate that the CARL program successfully reduces dental injection fear.

  3. Using MMPI-A Profiles to Predict Success in a Military-Style Residential Treatment Program for Adolescents with Academic and Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert; Crockett, Thomas E.; Vieth, Sasha

    2004-01-01

    Military-style residential treatment for adolescents with academic and conduct problems is an increasingly popular alternative to traditional school-based services. However, dropout from "boot camp" programs is a primary reason for their high cost. Social-emotional functioning before referral may differentiate adolescents who…

  4. Nursing staff and euthanasia in the Netherlands. A nation-wide survey on attitudes and involvement in decision making and the performance of euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Anneke L; Albers, Gwenda; Bilsen, Johan; de Veer, Anke J E; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2016-05-01

    To give insight into Dutch nursing staff's attitudes and involvement regarding euthanasia. The sample was recruited from a nation-wide existent research panel of registered nurses and certified nursing assistants. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. 587 respondents (response of 65%) completed the questionnaire. The majority (83%) state that physicians have to discuss the decision about euthanasia with the nurses involved. Besides, 69% state that a physician should discuss a euthanasia request with nurses who have regular contact with a patient. Nursing staff who have religious or other beliefs that they consider important for their attitude towards end-of-life decisions, and staff working in a hospital or home care, are most likely to have this opinion. Being present during the euthanasia is quite unusual: only a small group (7%) report that this has ever been the case in their entire working life. Seven% (incorrectly) think they are allowed to administer the lethal drugs. The majority want to be involved in decision-making processes about euthanasia. Not all are aware that they are not legally allowed to administer the lethal drugs. Nursing staff should be informed of relevant existing legislation and professional guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A short-term follow-up study of a surgeon-customised fully-coated hydroxyapatite femoral stem using a nation-wide joint registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Aneesh; Jang, Bob; Bruce, Warwick

    2016-06-01

    To compare revision rates between otherwise-identical fully-coated and proximally-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) femoral stems using a nation-wide registry. 249 proximally-coated stems (50 μm HA) and 225 fully-coated stems (100 μm HA and 50 μm titanium) were followed over a mean of 34.9 and 23.2 months respectively. Four proximally-coated (rate: 1.61%) and five fully-coated stem revisions (rate: 2.20%) were reported, with no statistical difference between groups (p = 1.0, OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.20-3.97). Registry data showed no difference in performance between fully-coated and proximally-coated stems nationwide (rate: 2.22%, p = 0.82). There is no statistical difference in survival between fully-coated and proximally-coated HA prostheses in the short-term.

  6. Suicides in Visually Impaired Persons: A Nation-Wide Register-Linked Study from Finland Based on Thirty Years of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno; Hakko, Helinä; Ojamo, Matti; Uusitalo, Hannu; Timonen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on seasonality, gender, age, and suicide methods a Finnish nation-wide cohort-based study was carried out to compare suicide data between sighted, visually-impaired (WHO impairment level I-II, i.e., visual acuity >0.05, but blind (WHO impairment level III-V, i.e., visual acuity blind. Mortality was significantly increased in the visually impaired (SMR = 1.3; 95% CI 1.07–1.61), but in gender-stratified analyses the increase only affected males (1.34; 95% CI = 1.06–1.70) and not females (1.24; 95% CI 0.82–1.88). Age-stratified analyses identified blind males of working age rather than older men (as in the general population) as a high risk group that requires particular attention. The statistically significant spring suicide peak in blind subjects mirrors that of sighted victims and its possible cause in the blind is discussed. PMID:26509899

  7. Benzodiazepine, z-drug and pregabalin prescriptions and mortality among patients in opioid maintenance treatment-A nation-wide register-based open cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Tove; Berge, Jonas; Öjehagen, Agneta; Håkansson, Anders

    2017-05-01

    Use of sedatives may increase risk of death in opioid users. The aim of the study was to assess whether prescription of sedatives may be associated with mortality in patients in opioid maintenance treatment. This retrospective register-based open cohort study included nation-wide register data including all individuals who were dispensed methadone or buprenorphine as opioid maintenance treatment for opioid dependence between July, 2005 and December, 2012 (N=4501). Outcome variables were overdose mortality and non-overdose mortality, respectively. Extended Cox regression analyses examined associations between type of sedative prescriptions and death, controlling for sex, age, previous overdoses and suicide attempts, psychiatric in-patient treatment and opioid maintenance treatment status. Opioid maintenance was assumed to last for 90days (or 30days in a sensitivity analysis) after the last methadone or buprenorphine prescription. Benzodiazepine prescriptions were associated with non-overdose death (HR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.29-3.18) but not significantly associated with overdose death (1.49, 0.97-2.29). Z-drug (1.60, 1.07-2.39) and pregabalin prescriptions (2.82, 1.79-4.43) were associated with overdose death. In the sensitivity analysis, all categories of sedatives, including benzodiazepines, were significantly associated with overdose death. Caution is advised when prescribing sedative drugs, including benzodiazepines, z-drugs and pregabalin, to patients in opioid maintenance treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-management programs conducted within a practice setting: who participates, who benefits and what can be learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Tanya L; Boldy, Duncan; Ghahari, Setareh; Melling, Lauren; Parsons, Richard; Osborne, Richard H

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the impact of generic and diabetes-specific self-management programs offered in a real world context. A quasi-experimental design with 12-week follow-up compared Living with a Chronic Condition and Living with Diabetes. Self-report data collected included: Self-management Knowledge and Skills; Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL); Depression; Social Isolation; Loneliness; Self-efficacy; and Health Behaviours. Participants (N=458) in the two programs differed on almost all baseline measures. Both demonstrated statistically significant improvements in Self-management Knowledge and Skills, as well as reductions in depression. In addition to younger age, low HRQOL, high self-efficacy and Positive and Active Engagement in Life, were the clinical factors most likely to lead to improvements in HRQOL and self-efficacy. Changes in different characteristics predicted different outcomes. Both generic and disease-specific programs led to improved outcomes, despite the two programs attracting significantly different participants. Referral patterns also differed but GP referral rates were low for both. Positive participant outcomes can be achieved in real life clinical settings. While younger people with a positive attitude may appear to gain more, it is important to encourage people from low socio-economic status to enter these programs so that social inequalities in health are not worsened. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of a Health Professionals' Training Program to Conduct Research in New York City's Asian American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pao San Lucy; Sim, Shao-Chee; Pong, Perry; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Li, Shijian; Tsang, Thomas; Rey, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because health disparities among Asian Americans are understudied, a partnership program between the Charles B. Wang Community Health Center and the Center for the Study of Asian American Health was created to increase awareness and interest in Asian American research. Purpose: To evaluate the process, outcome, and impact of a health…

  10. Conduct Disorders in African American Adolescent Males: The Perceptions that Lead to Overdiagnosis and Placement in Special Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eddie, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    African American adolescent males are significantly more likely than their Caucasian peers to receive a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder. In contrast, their Caucasian peers are more often diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder. Discrepancies in the way diagnosis is made cause more African American adolescent males to be classified …

  11. Enhanced monitoring of hazardous waste site remediation: Electrical conductivity tomography and citizen monitoring of remediation through the EPA's community advisory group program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, Ryan D.

    conductivity could not be related to concentrations of permanganate or reaction products. Additionally, EPA Superfund sites participating in the Community Advisory Group (CAG) program were examined to determine how communities may have benefitted from the program. While CAG participation was correlated with slower achievement of EPA cleanup milestones, many CAGs successfully achieved five standardized social goals. CAGs that achieved these social goals varied in composition but were similar in their focus on community outreach and ability to extend their influence beyond CAG meetings.

  12. Assessing the accuracy and feasibility of a refractive error screening program conducted by school teachers in pre-primary and primary schools in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanlaya Teerawattananon

    Full Text Available As part of the development of a system for the screening of refractive error in Thai children, this study describes the accuracy and feasibility of establishing a program conducted by teachers.To assess the accuracy and feasibility of screening by teachers.A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted in 17 schools in four provinces representing four geographic regions in Thailand. A two-staged cluster sampling was employed to compare the detection rate of refractive error among eligible students between trained teachers and health professionals. Serial focus group discussions were held for teachers and parents in order to understand their attitude towards refractive error screening at schools and the potential success factors and barriers.The detection rate of refractive error screening by teachers among pre-primary school children is relatively low (21% for mild visual impairment but higher for moderate visual impairment (44%. The detection rate for primary school children is high for both levels of visual impairment (52% for mild and 74% for moderate. The focus group discussions reveal that both teachers and parents would benefit from further education regarding refractive errors and that the vast majority of teachers are willing to conduct a school-based screening program.Refractive error screening by health professionals in pre-primary and primary school children is not currently implemented in Thailand due to resource limitations. However, evidence suggests that a refractive error screening program conducted in schools by teachers in the country is reasonable and feasible because the detection and treatment of refractive error in very young generations is important and the screening program can be implemented and conducted with relatively low costs.

  13. Assessing the accuracy and feasibility of a refractive error screening program conducted by school teachers in pre-primary and primary schools in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Kanlaya; Myint, Chaw-Yin; Wongkittirux, Kwanjai; Teerawattananon, Yot; Chinkulkitnivat, Bunyong; Orprayoon, Surapong; Kusakul, Suwat; Tengtrisorn, Supaporn; Jenchitr, Watanee

    2014-01-01

    As part of the development of a system for the screening of refractive error in Thai children, this study describes the accuracy and feasibility of establishing a program conducted by teachers. To assess the accuracy and feasibility of screening by teachers. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted in 17 schools in four provinces representing four geographic regions in Thailand. A two-staged cluster sampling was employed to compare the detection rate of refractive error among eligible students between trained teachers and health professionals. Serial focus group discussions were held for teachers and parents in order to understand their attitude towards refractive error screening at schools and the potential success factors and barriers. The detection rate of refractive error screening by teachers among pre-primary school children is relatively low (21%) for mild visual impairment but higher for moderate visual impairment (44%). The detection rate for primary school children is high for both levels of visual impairment (52% for mild and 74% for moderate). The focus group discussions reveal that both teachers and parents would benefit from further education regarding refractive errors and that the vast majority of teachers are willing to conduct a school-based screening program. Refractive error screening by health professionals in pre-primary and primary school children is not currently implemented in Thailand due to resource limitations. However, evidence suggests that a refractive error screening program conducted in schools by teachers in the country is reasonable and feasible because the detection and treatment of refractive error in very young generations is important and the screening program can be implemented and conducted with relatively low costs.

  14. Aquatic monitoring programs conducted during environmental impact assessments in Canada: preliminary assessment before and after weakened environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Brynn; Walker, Tony R

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic monitoring programs are imperative for the functioning of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process and a cornerstone for industrial compliance in Canada. However, in 2012, several leading pieces of federal environmental legislation (e.g., Canadian Environmental Assessment Act c.19, s. 52, 2012) were drastically altered, effectively weakening levels of environmental protection for aquatic ecosystems during project developments. This paper assesses the impact of CEAA 2012 on aquatic monitoring programs (and subsequent monitoring data reporting) across Canada for ten projects (five completed pre-CEAA 2012 and five completed post-CEAA 2012). Projects included four energy and six mining projects and were selected based on the following criteria: (i) representative of Canada's resource economy; (ii) project information was publicly available; and (iii) strong public interest. Projects pre- and post-CEAA 2012 exhibited few apparent differences before and after environmental regulatory changes. However, wide discrepancies exist in numbers and types of parameters reported, along with a lack of consistency in reporting. Projects pre-CEAA 2012 provided more follow-up monitoring commitments. Although qualitative differences remain inconclusive, this paper highlights requirements for further assessment of aquatic monitoring and follow-up programs in Canada. Recommendations for the government to consider during reviews of the federal environmental assessment processes include (i) improved transparency on the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency website ( https://www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/ ); (ii) creation of a legally binding standardized aquatic monitoring program framework to ensure that all Canadian aquatic ecosystems are monitored with equal rigour; and (iii) commitments and justification related to frequency of aquatic monitoring of water quality.

  15. Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches For Conduct of Site Planning and Built Environment Studio in Spatial Planning Education Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Valliappan Alagappan

    2015-01-01

    Spatial planning education is multi-disciplinary in nature and particularly site planning needs exposure to Engineering, Architectural, Landscape, Sociological, Economic, and Infrastructural aspects. The curriculum of the spatial planning program introduces the site-planning studio (multi-level design and planning) at the initial semesters without introduction of single space design and planning. Due to inadequate exposure the students find it difficult to plan and design residential layouts ...

  16. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  17. Family load estimates of schizophrenia and associated risk factors in a nation-wide population study of former child and adolescent patients up to forty years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Dorte; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2012-08-01

    This nation-wide register-based study investigates the family load of schizophrenia (SZ) across three generations in affected families compared to control families. Furthermore the study compares the family load in case vs. control families considering the age of onset of the disorder in the cases. In addition, the study addresses the impact of certain socio-demographic risk factors, i.e. sex, region of residence, year of birth, month of birth, and maternal and paternal age at birth. A total of N=2020 child and adolescent psychiatric cases born between 1969 and 1985 registered in the Danish Central Psychiatric Register (DCPR) before the age of 18 developed SZ before the age of 40. N=5982 controls without any psychiatric diagnosis before age 18 were matched for age, sex, and residential region. Psychiatric diagnoses were also obtained on the first-degree relatives, i.e. parents, siblings, and offspring as a part of the Danish Three Generation Study (3GS). A family load was obtained by using various mixed regression models. SZ did occur more often in case than in control families. Having a mother, father or a sibling with the disorder was proven to be a risk factor. The year of birth, the region of residence, and paternal age at birth (≥ 35) were associated with SZ. However, the family load was not dependent on age of onset of the case-proband. Furthermore, case relatives did not develop SZ earlier than control relatives. These findings based on a very large and representative dataset provide further and solid evidence for the high family aggregation of SZ. The year of birth, the region of residence, and paternal age at birth play an additional role in the development of the disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nation-wide assessment of climate change impacts on crops in the Philippines and Peru as part of multi-disciplinary modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko; Kanamaru, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture is vulnerable to environmental changes, and climate change has been recognized as one of the most devastating factors. In many developing countries, however, few studies have focused on nation-wide assessment of crop yield and crop suitability in the future, and hence there is a large pressure on science to provide policy makers with solid predictions for major crops in the countries in support of climate risk management policies and programmes. FAO has developed the tool MOSAICC (Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change) where statistical climate downscaling is combined with crop yield projections under climate change scenarios. Three steps are required to get the results: 1. The historical meteorological data such as temperature and precipitation for about 30 years were collected, and future climates were statistically downscaled to the local scale, 2. The historical crop yield data were collected and regression functions were made to estimate the yield by using observed climatic data and water balance during the growing period for each crop, and 3. The yield changes in the future were estimated by using the future climate data, produced by the first step, as an input to the yield regression functions. The yield was first simulated at sub-national scale and aggregated to national scale, which is intended to provide national policies with adaptation options. The methodology considers future changes in characteristics of extreme weather events as the climate projections are on daily scale while crop simulations are on 10-daily scale. Yields were simulated with two greenhouse gas concentration pathways (RCPs) for three GCMs per crop to account for uncertainties in projections. The crop assessment constitutes a larger multi-disciplinary assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture and vulnerability of livelihoods in terms of food security (e.g. water resources, agriculture market, household-level food security from socio

  19. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Courtney, J.C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Duff, M.J. [Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Walkersville, MD (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m{sup 3} (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein.

  20. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Courtney, J.C. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)); Duff, M.J. (Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Walkersville, MD (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m{sup 3} (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein.

  1. Material studies in the frame of CLIC Accelerating structures production conducted within the Mechanics program together with Metso Oy

    CERN Document Server

    Nurminen, Janne

    2012-01-01

    MeChanICs (Marie Curie Linking Industry to CERN) is an Industry to Academia Partnership and Pathways (IAPP) platform for precision manufacturing knowledge exchange bringing together five Finnish manufacturing companies with Helsinki Insitute of Physics (HIP) and CERN. The scientific objective of MeChanICs project is to contribute to the manufacturing RTD of CLIC enabling technologies. The focus is on the design, materials, machining, brazing and assembly of A CLIC accelerating structure. This study deals with the materials work package of the program and wants to explore the following items: 1) producing copper accelerating structures for CLIC from raw copper powder by near net shape hot isostatic pressing (HIP). 2) The feasibility to use HIP diffusion bonding of the accelerator structures as a function of surface quality and applied temperature and pressure. 3) Brazing for CLIC AS auxiliary systems, like water cooling or damping manifolds, to the disc stack by coating one of the brazing partners with an enab...

  2. Global Positioning System data collection, processing, and analysis conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica R.; Svarc, Jerry L.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center collects and processes Global Positioning System (GPS) data throughout the western United States to measure crustal deformation related to earthquakes and tectonic processes as part of a long‐term program of research and monitoring. Here, we outline data collection procedures and present the GPS dataset built through repeated temporary deployments since 1992. This dataset consists of observations at ∼1950 locations. In addition, this article details our data processing and analysis procedures, which consist of the following. We process the raw data collected through temporary deployments, in addition to data from continuously operating western U.S. GPS stations operated by multiple agencies, using the GIPSY software package to obtain position time series. Subsequently, we align the positions to a common reference frame, determine the optimal parameters for a temporally correlated noise model, and apply this noise model when carrying out time‐series analysis to derive deformation measures, including constant interseismic velocities, coseismic offsets, and transient postseismic motion.

  3. Preventing conduct problems and improving school readiness: evaluation of the Incredible Years Teacher and Child Training Programs in high-risk schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Jamila Reid, M; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2008-05-01

    School readiness, conceptualized as three components including emotional self-regulation, social competence, and family/school involvement, as well as absence of conduct problems play a key role in young children's future interpersonal adjustment and academic success. Unfortunately, exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children will demonstrate increased emotional dysregulation, fewer social skills, less teacher/parent involvement and more conduct problems. Consequently intervention offered to socio-economically disadvantaged populations that includes a social and emotional school curriculum and trains teachers in effective classroom management skills and in promotion of parent-school involvement would seem to be a strategic strategy for improving young children's school readiness, leading to later academic success and prevention of the development of conduct disorders. This randomized trial evaluated the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management and Child Social and Emotion curriculum (Dinosaur School) as a universal prevention program for children enrolled in Head Start, kindergarten, or first grade classrooms in schools selected because of high rates of poverty. Trained teachers offered the Dinosaur School curriculum to all their students in bi-weekly lessons throughout the year. They sent home weekly dinosaur homework to encourage parents' involvement. Part of the curriculum involved promotion of lesson objectives through the teachers' continual use of positive classroom management skills focused on building social competence and emotional self-regulation skills as well as decreasing conduct problems. Matched pairs of schools were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Results from multi-level models on a total of 153 teachers and 1,768 students are presented. Children and teachers were observed in the classrooms by blinded observers at the beginning and the end of the school year. Results indicated that

  4. Results of the 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys Conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Cooper, Christy [U.S. Department of Energy; Chew, Andrea [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCT) conducts comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of fuel cells in diverse sectors of the economy - with emphasis on applications that will most effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment. Expanding the use of fuel cells requires a sustained education effort to lay the foundation for future commercial market introduction. The FCT education subprogram seeks to facilitate fuel cell demonstrations and support future commercialization by providing technically accurate and objective information to key target audiences both directly and indirectly involved in the use of fuel cells today. These key target audiences include a public that is familiar and comfortable with using a new fuel, state and local government officials who understand the near-term realities and long-term potential of the technology, an educated business and industry component, and trained safety and codes officials. With this in mind, the DOE FCT program established an education key activity to address the training and informational needs of target audiences that have a role in the near-term transition and the long-term development of a hydrogen economy. Whether or not changes can be attributed to the program, designing and maintaining an effective education program entails measuring baseline awareness and periodically measuring what has been learned. The purpose of this report is to document the data and results of statistical surveys undertaken in 2008 and 2009 to measure and establish changes in understanding and awareness about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies since a baseline survey was conducted in 2004. This report is essentially a data book, a digest of the survey data and an exposition of changes in knowledge of and opinions about hydrogen and fuel cell technology since 2004. Many conclusions can be made from the survey data. However

  5. The triple P-positive parenting program: a comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M R; Markie-Dadds, C; Tully, L A; Bor, W

    2000-08-01

    Three variants of a behavioral family intervention (BFI) program known as Triple P were compared using 305 preschoolers at high risk of developing conduct problems. Families were randomly assigned to enhanced BFI (EBFI), standard BFI (SBFI), self-directed BFI (SDBFI), or wait list (WL). At postintervention, the 2 practitioner-assisted conditions were associated with lower levels of parent-reported disruptive child behavior, lower levels of dysfunctional parenting, greater parental competence, and higher consumer satisfaction than the SDBFI and WL conditions. Overall, children in EBFI showed greater reliable improvement than children in SBFI, SDBFI, and WL. By 1-year follow-up, children in all 3 conditions achieved similar levels of clinically reliable change in observed disruptive behavior. However, the EBFI and SBFI conditions showed greater reliable improvement on parent-observed disruptive child behavior.

  6. Anionic Conducting Oxide Ceramics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunn, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    This program has emphasized the interrelationships among synthesis, microstructure and properties for oxygen ion conducting ceramics based on copper-substituted bismuth vanadate (Bi V Cu O ), known as BICUVOX...

  7. The challenge of comprehensively mapping children's health in a nation-wide health survey: design of the German KiGGS-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Bärbel-Maria; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Hölling, Heike; Schlaud, Martin; Dölle, Rüdiger; Ellert, Ute; Kahl, Heidrun; Knopf, Hiltraud; Lange, Michael; Mensink, Gert Bm; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Schenk, Liane; Schlack, Robert; Stolzenberg, Heribert; Thamm, Michael; Thierfelder, Wulf; Wolf, Ute

    2008-06-04

    From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination survey was to collect comprehensive data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. Participants were enrolled in two steps: first, 167 study locations (sample points) were chosen; second, subjects were randomly selected from the official registers of local residents. The survey involved questionnaires filled in by parents and parallel questionnaires for children aged 11 years and older, physical examinations and tests, and a computer assisted personal interview performed by study physicians. A wide range of blood and urine testing was carried out at central laboratories. A total of 17 641 children and adolescents were surveyed - 8985 boys and 8656 girls. The proportion of sample neutral drop-outs was 5.3%. The response rate was 66.6%. The response rate showed little variation between age groups and sexes, but marked variation between resident aliens and Germans, between inhabitants of cities with a population of 100 000 or more and sample points with fewer inhabitants, as well as between the old West German states and the former East German states. By analysing the short non-responder questionnaires it was proven that the collected data give comprehensive and nationally representative evidence on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years.

  8. The challenge of comprehensively mapping children's health in a nation-wide health survey: Design of the German KiGGS-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Bärbel-Maria; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Hölling, Heike; Schlaud, Martin; Dölle, Rüdiger; Ellert, Ute; Kahl, Heidrun; Knopf, Hiltraud; Lange, Michael; Mensink, Gert BM; Neuhauser, Hannelore; Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Schenk, Liane; Schlack, Robert; Stolzenberg, Heribert; Thamm, Michael; Thierfelder, Wulf; Wolf, Ute

    2008-01-01

    Background From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination survey was to collect comprehensive data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. Methods/Design Participants were enrolled in two steps: first, 167 study locations (sample points) were chosen; second, subjects were randomly selected from the official registers of local residents. The survey involved questionnaires filled in by parents and parallel questionnaires for children aged 11 years and older, physical examinations and tests, and a computer assisted personal interview performed by study physicians. A wide range of blood and urine testing was carried out at central laboratories. A total of 17 641 children and adolescents were surveyed – 8985 boys and 8656 girls. The proportion of sample neutral drop-outs was 5.3%. The response rate was 66.6%. Discussion The response rate showed little variation between age groups and sexes, but marked variation between resident aliens and Germans, between inhabitants of cities with a population of 100 000 or more and sample points with fewer inhabitants, as well as between the old West German states and the former East German states. By analysing the short non-responder questionnaires it was proven that the collected data give comprehensive and nationally representative evidence on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. PMID:18533019

  9. The challenge of comprehensively mapping children's health in a nation-wide health survey: Design of the German KiGGS-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlack Robert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS. Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination survey was to collect comprehensive data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. Methods/Design Participants were enrolled in two steps: first, 167 study locations (sample points were chosen; second, subjects were randomly selected from the official registers of local residents. The survey involved questionnaires filled in by parents and parallel questionnaires for children aged 11 years and older, physical examinations and tests, and a computer assisted personal interview performed by study physicians. A wide range of blood and urine testing was carried out at central laboratories. A total of 17 641 children and adolescents were surveyed – 8985 boys and 8656 girls. The proportion of sample neutral drop-outs was 5.3%. The response rate was 66.6%. Discussion The response rate showed little variation between age groups and sexes, but marked variation between resident aliens and Germans, between inhabitants of cities with a population of 100 000 or more and sample points with fewer inhabitants, as well as between the old West German states and the former East German states. By analysing the short non-responder questionnaires it was proven that the collected data give comprehensive and nationally representative evidence on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years.

  10. Awareness and use of evidence-based medicine information among patients in Croatia: a nation-wide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejašmić, Danijel; Miošić, Ivana; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Permozer Hajdarović, Snježana; Tomičić, Marion; Gmajnić, Rudika; Diminić Lisica, Ines; Sironić Hreljanović, Jelena; Pleh, Vlatka; Cerovečki, Venija; Tomljenović, Anita; Bekić, Sanja; Jerčić, Minka; Tuđa, Karla; Puljak, Livia

    2017-08-31

    To determine the use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) information and the level of awareness and knowledge of EBM among patients in Croatia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 987 patients in 10 family medicine practices in Croatia. Patients from both urban (n=496) and rural (n=482) areas were surveyed. A 27-item questionnaire was used to collect data about sources that patients searched for medical information, patient awareness and use of Cochrane systematic reviews and other EBM resources, and their demographic characteristics. Half of the patients searched for medical information from sources other than physician. Internet was the most common place they searched for information. Very few patients indicated using EBM sources for medical information; one fifth of patients heard of EBM and 4% of the patients heard of the Cochrane Collaboration. Patients considered physician's opinion as the most reliable source of medical information. A logistic regression model showed that educational level and urban vs rural residence were the predictors of awareness about EBM and systematic reviews (P<0.001 for both). Our finding that patients consider a physician's opinion to be the most reliable source of health-related information could be used for promotion of high-quality health information among patients. More effort should be devoted to the education of patients in rural areas and those with less formal education. New avenues for knowledge translation and dissemination of high-quality health information among patients are necessary.

  11. Using Mobile Devices in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development—Comparing Theory and Practice in a Nation Wide Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schaal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile electronic devices (MED with integrated GPS receivers are increasingly popular in environmental education (EE and education for sustainable development (ESD. This paper aims at identifying the possible applications of these devices, as well as identifying obstacles to such utilities. Therefore, a two-part study was conducted: An expert Delphi study and a nationwide online survey in Germany and Austria. In this paper, the results of the online survey are reported and compared to the findings of the Delphi study. The questionnaire of the online survey was based on a theoretical framework comprising different dimensions for the use of MED. Overall, 120 projects were included in the study. The most common target groups were school classes and the devices most frequently used were GPS receivers. The projects addressed the criteria of ESD, such as elaboration of local/global perspectives of sustainability and competencies of EE like pro-environmental behavior or attitudes. All projects were classified according to their educational design in a 2 × 2-scheme. The most common activities were predefined routes within a narrow instructional setting. Divergences between expert views and practical realization are identified and discussed.

  12. Conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... involve defiant or impulsive behavior, drug use, or criminal activity. Causes Conduct disorder has been linked to: ... 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 23. Review Date 2/21/2017 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...

  13. Linking of primary care records to census data to study the association between socioeconomic status and cancer incidence in Southern Europe: a nation-wide ecological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Garcia-Gil

    -based deprivation index for analyses of the SIDIAP database. This information will be useful to improve screening programs, cancer prevention and management strategies, to reach patients more effectively, particularly in deprived urban areas.

  14. Protocol: Evaluating the impact of a nation-wide train-the-trainer educational initiative to enhance the quality of palliative care for children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widger, Kimberley; Friedrichsdorf, Stefan; Wolfe, Joanne; Liben, Stephen; Pole, Jason D; Bouffet, Eric; Greenberg, Mark; Husain, Amna; Siden, Harold; Whitlock, James A; Rapoport, Adam

    2016-01-27

    There are identified gaps in the care provided to children with cancer based on the self-identified lack of education for health care professionals in pediatric palliative care and in the perceptions of bereaved parents who describe suboptimal care. In order to address these gaps, we will implement and evaluate a national roll-out of Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Pediatrics (EPEC®-Pediatrics), using a 'Train-the-Trainer' model. In this study we are using a pre- post-test design and an integrated knowledge translation approach to assess the impact of the educational roll-out in four areas: 1) self-assessed knowledge of health professionals; 2) knowledge dissemination outcomes; 3) practice change outcomes; and 4) quality of palliative care. The quality of palliative care will be assessed using data from three sources: a) parent and child surveys about symptoms, quality of life and care provided; b) health record reviews of deceased patients; and c) bereaved parent surveys about end-of-life and bereavement care. After being trained in EPEC®-Pediatrics, 'Master Facilitators' will train 'Regional Teams' affiliated with 16 pediatric oncology programs in Canada. Each team will consist of three to five health professionals representing oncology, palliative care, and the community. Each team member will complete online modules and attend one of two face-to-face conferences, where they will receive training and materials to teach the EPEC®-Pediatrics curriculum to 'End-Users' in their region. Regional Teams will also choose a Tailored Implementation of Practice Standards (TIPS) Kit to guide implementation of a quality improvement project in their region; support will be provided via quarterly meetings with Co-Leads and via a listserv and webinars with other teams. Through this study we aim to raise the level of pediatric palliative care education amongst health care professionals in Canada. Our study will be a significant step forward in evaluation of

  15. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polymer backbone), exhibit semiconducting behavior. The discovery of dopingl led to a further dramatic increase in the conductivity of such conjugated polymers to values as ..... CERF's Comments on Modem Science. • If it's incomprehensible, it's mathematics. • If it doesn't make sense, it's either economics or psychology.

  16. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Conducting Polymers - From a Laboratory Curiosity to the Market Place. S Ramakrishnan. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1254-1265. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Moderating effects of parental well-being on parenting efficacy outcomes by intervention delivery model of the early risers conduct problems prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, Timothy F; Lee, Susanne S; Bloomquist, Michael L; August, Gerald J

    2014-10-01

    Parent-focused preventive interventions for youth conduct problems are efficacious when offered in different models of delivery (e.g., individual in-home, group center-based). However, we know little about the characteristics of parents associated with a positive response to a particular model of delivery. We randomly assigned the parents of an ethnically diverse sample of kindergarten through second grade students (n = 246) displaying elevated levels of aggression to parent-focused program delivery models emphasizing receiving services in a community center largely with groups (Center; n = 121) or receiving services via an individualized in-home strategy (Outreach; n = 125). In both delivery models, parents received parent skills training and goal setting/case management/referrals over an average of 16 months. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant interaction between parental well-being at baseline and intervention delivery model in predicting parenting efficacy at year 2, while controlling for baseline levels of parenting efficacy. Within the Outreach model, parents with lower levels of well-being as reported at baseline appeared to show greater improvements in parenting efficacy than parents with higher levels of well-being. Within the Center model, parental well-being did not predict parenting efficacy outcomes. The strong response of low well-being parents within the Outreach model suggests that this may be the preferred model for these parents. These findings provide support for further investigation into tailoring delivery model of parent-focused preventive interventions using parental well-being in order to improve parenting outcomes.

  18. Conduction apraxia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ochipa, C; Rothi, L J; Heilman, K M

    1994-01-01

    A left hemisphere damaged patient with ideomotor apraxia is described, whose performance on pantomime to verbal command was superior to pantomime imitation. His reception of these same gestures (gesture naming) was spared. This syndrome has been named conduction apraxia. To account for this selective impaired performance on gesture imitation, a separation of the representations for gesture production and reception is proposed and a non-lexical gesture processing route for gesture imitation is...

  19. The Role of Logic Modeling in a Collaborative and Iterative Research Process: Lessons from Research and Analysis Conducted with the Federal Voting Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    include reaching and meet- ing the nutritional needs of an eligible population. The logic model can also be used to identify program boundaries and... programs to gauge progress in meeting the corresponding goals and objectives. If the goal is to reach and meet the nutritional needs of an eligible...Model SOURCE: RAND staff analysis. RAND RR882/1-3.1 Develop benchmark logic model with program leadership and staffTime Test, validate , and rene logic

  20. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Conducted Vasoreactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Neganova, A Y; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Conducted vasodilation is part of the physiological response to increasing metabolic demand of the tissue. Similar responses can be elicited by focal electrical or chemical stimulation. Some evidence suggests an endothelial pathway for nondecremental transmission of hyperpolarizing pulses. However...... a theoretical analysis as well as numerical simulations of both single- and multiunit bistable systems mimicking endothelial cells to investigate the self-consistence and stability of the proposed mechanism. We find that the individual cell may switch readily between two stable potentials. An array of coupled...

  2. On-Going International Research Program on Irradiated Concrete Conducted by DOE, EPRI and Japan Research Institutions. Roadmap, Achievements and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pape, Yann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rosseel, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Program (Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program–Material Pathway–Concrete and Long-Term Operation (LTO) Program) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) research studies aim at understanding the most prominent degradation modes and their effects on the long-term operation of concrete structures to nuclear power generation. Based on the results of the Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), (NUREG/CR-7153, ORNL/TM-2011/545), irradiated concrete and alkali-silica reaction (ASR)-affected concrete structures are the two prioritized topics of on-going research. This report focuses specifically on the topic of irradiated concrete and summarizes the main accomplishments obtained by this joint program, but also provides an overview of current relevant activities domestically and internationally. Possible paths forward are also suggested to help near-future orientation of this program.

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2013 (NCEI Accession 0161327)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  8. A Functional Assessment of the Use of Virtual Simulations to Train Distance Preservice Special Education Teachers to Conduct Individualized Education Program Team Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee Landrum

    2011-01-01

    The individualized education program (IEP) is a critical component of providing special education services to children with disabilities, outlining the services and modifications that will be provided to help them make progress towards the general curriculum. While simulations have been shown to be an effective means of teaching special education…

  9. Approach for conducting the longitudinal program evaluation of the US Department of Health and Human Services National Action Plan to prevent healthcare-associated infections: roadmap to elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Katherine L; Mendel, Peter; Weinberg, Daniel A; Leuschner, Kristin J; Gall, Elizabeth M; Siegel, Sari

    2014-02-01

    In response to mounting evidence about skyrocketing morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), in 2009, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issued the HHS HAI Action Plan to enhance collaboration and coordination and to strengthen the impact of national efforts to address HAIs. To optimize timely understanding of the Action Plan's approach and outcomes, as well as improve the likely success of this effort, HHS requested an independent longitudinal and formative program evaluation. This article describes the evaluation approach to assessing HHS's progress and the challenges encountered as HHS attempted to transform the national strategy to HAI elimination. The Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP) model, a structured-yet-flexible formative and summative evaluation tool, supported the assessment of: (1) the Context in which the Action Plan developed, (2) the Inputs and decisions made about selecting activities for implementation, (3) Processes or implementation of selected activities, and (4) Products and outcomes. A system framework consisting of 4 system functions and 5 system properties. The CIPP evaluation model provides a structure for tracking the components of the program, the relationship between components, and the way in which components change with time. The system framework allows the evaluation team to understand what the Action Plan is doing and how it aims to facilitate change in the healthcare system to address the problem of HAIs. With coordination and alignment becoming increasingly important among large programs within healthcare and other fields, program evaluations like this can inform the policy community about what works and why, and how future complex large-scale programs should be evaluated.

  10. Electrically Conductive Paints for Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. E.; Wolf, R. E.; Ray, C.

    1977-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop and test electrically conductive paint coatings for spacecraft. A wide variety of organic and inorganic coatings were formulated using conductive binders, conductive pigments, and similar approaches. Z-93, IITRI's standard specification inorganic thermal control coating, exhibits good electrical properties and is a very space-stable coating system. Several coatings based on a conductive pigment (antimony-doped tin oxide) in silicone and silicate binders offer considerable promise. Paint systems using commercially available conductive polymers also appear to be of interest, but will require substantial development. Evaluations were made based on electrical conductivity, paint physical properties, and the stability of spectral reflectance in space environment testing.

  11. Low sustainability, poor governance, and other challenges encountered by grassroots non-governmental organizations targeting HIV prevention for men who have sex with men in China - a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Kim, Yoona; Li, Jinghua; Gu, Jing; Mo, Phoenix K H; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Grassroots non-governmental organizations (NGOs) played pivotal roles in HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Their governance and sustainability issues were under-studied. This nation-wide study surveyed leaders of 202 of the HIV related NGOs in China.58.4% of the leaders believed that their NGO would last for ≤5 years; which was negatively associated with perceived good relationship with CDC. 65.3% mentioned ≥3 non-sustainability issues; associated factors included perceived inadequacies in prevention skills, management skills, policy support, technical support, operational support, and CDC's support; a reverse association was found for frequent collaboration with organizations in China. 30.6% of the leaders mentioned ≥7 governance issues; a stepwise model found a positive association with having no office and negative associations with number of full-time staff and core volunteers. These problems would severely limit the effectiveness of HIV prevention among MSM. Related improvements and support are warranted.

  12. Learning about Manatees: A Collaborative Program between New College of Florida and Mote Marine Laboratory to Conduct Laboratory Research for Manatee Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Gordon B.; Colbert, Debborah E.; Gaspard III, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Research with captive manatees initiated as part of a New College of Florida class project at MoteMarine Laboratory has yielded a wide range of research with substantive implications formanagement and conservation. Our training program directly supported investigations of bloodchemistry, immune function, stress-related physiology, respiration, thermoregulation, and behavioralecology. Our investigations of sensory processes included studies of visual acuity, color vision,passive and active tou...

  13. Results of the 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys Conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoyer, R. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Truett, Tykey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooper, Christy [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Chew, Andrea [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This report presents results of a 2008/2009 survey of hydrogen and fuel cell awareness conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 2008/2009 survey follows up on a similar DOE survey conducted in 2004, measuring levels of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in four populations: (1) the general public, (2) students, (3) personnel in state and local governments, and (4) potential end users of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in business and industry. The 2008/2009 survey includes these four groups and adds a fifth group, safety and code officials. The same survey methods were used for both surveys; the 2008/2009 survey report includes a comparison of 2004 and 2008/2009 findings. Information from these surveys will be used to enhance hydrogen and fuel cell education strategies.

  14. Guidance for Planning and Conduct of Field Exercises at the Maneuver Company Level. Improved Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP) Methods for Unit Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    side for evaluation indepen- dent of the task force missions. In the process of completing steps 1-7 above , the planning/writing team should also develop...example of the result of using the above process for developing an Initial Evaluation Plan Sketch. 6 2.3. Conducting Traininj Area Reconnaissance if The...and possible target locations, e.g., treelines . All ammunition except TOW and DRAGON will have some effect on targets in the area being fired on

  15. Impact of a Pharmacist Conducted Educational Program on Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination Rates in a Low Socioeconomic Population in the City of Lares, PR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quiñones, Edda Marie; Melin, Kyle; Jiménez-Ramírez, Francisco Javier

    2017-06-01

    To observe whether local vaccination rates are improved by a patient and physician education program on the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in Farmacia San José, Lares. According to the Puerto Rico Immunization Registry, the HPV vaccine is currently underutilized. Patients within the ages of 18 and 26 years who are current patients of Farmacia San José were contacted by phone and approached in person at the pharmacy. Once contacted, patients were provided with educational materials and counseling regarding the risks and benefits of HPV vaccination. The primary outcome for this study is HPV vaccination rates at 4 months after starting the educational program. Only 79 of the 200 attempted patients who were candidates to receive the HPV vaccine were able to be reached by phone. Out of 79 patients, 24 reported they had previously been vaccinated against HPV. After all educational efforts, 4 patients (all insured by government) received vaccination against HPV at the pharmacy. In addition, 16 physicians near the pharmacy were contacted and visited by the pharmacist resident. The physicians agreed to receive educational information regarding the ACIP recommendations for their patients. Although the total number of HPV vaccination administered at the pharmacy during the study period was low, we found an individual patient counseling approach to be much more successful than attempting to coordinate group educational interventions.

  16. The non-synonymous Arg230Cys variant (R230C) of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 is associated with low HDL cholesterol concentrations in Mexican adults: a population based nation wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mehta, Roopa; Rodriguez-Guillén, Rosario; Ordoñez-Sanchez, María Luisa; Riba, Laura; Tusié-Luna, María Teresa

    2011-05-01

    To search for an association between the non-synonymous Arg230Cys variant (R230C) of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and low HDL cholesterol levels in a Mexican, population-based nation wide survey. The 2000 National Health Survey is a cross sectional study that included individuals from 400 cities. All individuals who had a 9-12-h fasted blood sample and a DNA sample were selected (n = 1729). These cases were randomly distributed; no bias was detected for sex, education, region or socioeconomic status. The R230C variant was genotyped using TaqMan assays. In individuals with the R230C/C230C genotypes (39.03 mg/dl (36.63-41.43)) lower HDL-C levels (p cholesterol levels between alleles was 5.73 ± 1.4 mg/dl. The magnitude of the effect was significantly greater in males. The C230 allele of ABCA1 was associated with an increased risk for hypoalphalipoproteinemia (OR 1.66 (95%CI 1.08-2.54), p effect of waist circumference and gender, was 12.2% (95%CI 1.4-24.2%). The non-synonymous Arg230Cys variant of ABCA1 is associated with low levels of HDL cholesterol levels in Mexican adults. The HDL cholesterol lowering effect of the variant is greater in males. The size of the effect is greater compared to that reported for other ABCA1 variants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. COUPLEFLO: a computer program for coupled creeping viscous flow and conductive-convective heat transfer. Part II. User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, P.F.; Dawson, P.R.

    1978-11-01

    COUPLEFLO is a two-dimensional finite element code for plane strain or axisymmetric analyses of thermomechanically coupled systems. It is capable of analyzing the creeping flow of non-Newtonian fluids or the secondary creep of solids. COUPLEFLO solves equations for conductive-convective heat transfer to determine the thermal response of a system. Thermomechanical coupling between the flow field and temperature distribution can exist in terms of temperature dependent material properties, temperature dependent body forces, viscous dissipation, material convection, and changing system geometry. Either transient or steady-state problems can be analyzed in Eulerian or quasi-Lagrangian reference frames. Part I - Theoretical Background contains the governing equation, finite element formulation, and verification of the code capabilities. Part II - User's Manual contains instructions for code use. Currently, COUPLEFLO is available at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque on the 7600, 6600, and NOS systems.

  18. Heat conduction in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danza, T. M.; Fesler, L. W.; Mongan, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Multidimensional heat conduction program computes transient temperature history and steady state temperatures of complex body geometries in three dimensions. Emphasis is placed on type of problems associated with Space Shuttle thermal protection system, but program could be used in thermal analysis of most three dimensional systems.

  19. Drug adherence and multidisciplinary care in patients with multiple sclerosis: protocol of a prospective, web-based, patient-centred, nation-wide, Dutch cohort study in glatiramer acetate treated patients (CAIR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Peter J; Hengstman, Gerald; Hupperts, Raymond; Schrijver, Hans; Gilhuis, Job; Vliegen, Joseph H; Hoogervorst, Erwin; van Huizen, Marc; van Munster, Eric; Samijn, Johnny; de Schryver, Els; Siepman, Theodora; Tonk, Martijn; Zandbergen, Eveline; ten Holter, Jacques; van der Kruijk, Ruud; Borm, George

    2011-03-30

    -based, patient-centred, nation-wide cohort study in the Netherlands.The primary objective is to investigate whether GA adherence is associated with specific disciplines of care or quantities of specific care. The secondary objective is to investigate whether GA adherence is associated with specific aspects of the socio-economic situation, health care and caregivers, disease, treatment or patient characteristics.All data are acquired on-line via a study website. All RRMS patients in the Netherlands starting GA treatment are eligible. Patients are informed by neurologists, nurses, and websites from national MS patient organisations. All data, except on disability, are obtained by patient self-reports on pre-defined and random time points. The number of missed doses and the number of patients having discontinued GA treatment at 6 and 12 months are measures of adherence. Per care discipline the number of sessions and the total duration of care are measures of received care. The full spectrum of non-experimental care that is available in the Netherlands is assessed. Care includes 'physical' contacts, contacts by telephone or internet, health-promoting activities and community care activities. Care received over the preceding 14 days is assessed by patients at baseline and every other week thereafter up to month 12. Every 3 months neurologists and nurses record care disciplines to which patients have been referred.The Dutch Adherence Questionnaire-90 (DAQ-90) is a 90-item questionnaire based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) 2003 report on adherence and comprehensively assesses five domains of evidence-based determinants of adherence: socio-economic, health care and caregivers, disease, treatment, and patient-related factors. In addition, self-efficacy is assessed by the MS Self-Efficacy Scale (MSSES), and mood and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQoL-54). Relapses and adverse events probably or definitively

  20. Human health and ecological assessment programs for Hebei Spirit oil spill accident of 2007: Status, lessons, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Kim, Jung-Ah; Park, Myung-Sook; Yim, Un Hyuk; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-04-01

    Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) of December 2007 is one of the worst oil spill accidents that occurred in Yellow Sea. The affected coastline along the west coast of Korean Peninsula hosts one of the largest tidal flats worldwide, and is home to tens of thousands of human residents. Based on nation-wide concerns on ecosystem damages and adverse human health effects, two separate surveillance programs on ecosystem and human health were initiated: a 10-year follow-up program by Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries to assess ecological impacts of the oil spill, and an exposure and health effect assessment program by Ministry of Environment for the residents of Taean and its vicinity. For the past eight years, extensive monitoring and surveillance data on ecosystem and humans have been accumulated through these programs. But these studies have been conducted mostly independently, and collaborations were seldom made between two programs. The lack of communication resulted in gaps and overlaps between the programs which led to loss of critical information and efficiency. As oil spill can affect both humans and ecosystem through various pathways, collaboration and communication between human and ecosystem health surveillance programs are necessary, and will synergize the success of both programs. Such concerted efforts will provide better platform for understanding the status of impact, and for developing approaches to address human and ecosystem health challenges that may be faced following environmental disasters like HSOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The "AMA-Brazil" cooperative project: a nation-wide assessment of the clinical and epidemiological profile of AIDS-related deaths in Brazil in the antiretroviral treatment era Projeto cooperativo AMA-Brasil: um estudo nacional do perfil clinico e epidemiológico dos óbitos relacionados à AIDS na era da terapia antirretroviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amelia de Sousa Mascena Veras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the profile of AIDS-related deaths in the post antiretroviral therapy (ART scale up period in Brazil. A case-control study was conducted including a nationally probabilistic sample of AIDS deaths and living controls. Data were abstracted from medical records and nation-wide databases of AIDS cases, mortality, ART care, and laboratory testing. Interrupted (adjusted odds ratio - AOR 4.35, 95%CI: 3.15-6.00 or no use of ART (AOR 2.39, 95%CI: 1.57-3.65 was the strongest predictor of death, followed by late diagnosis (AOR 3.95, 95%CI: 2.68-5.82. Criterion other than CD4 Analisou-se o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dos óbitos relacionados à AIDS no período posterior à implementação da terapia antirretroviral (TARV no Brasil, em um estudo caso-controle, com amostra representativa de óbitos por AIDS e de pessoas vivendo com AIDS, utilizando dados secundários. Abandono (odds ratio ajustada - AOR = 4,35, IC95%: 3,15-6,00 ou não uso da TARV (AOR = 2,39, IC95%: 1,57-3,65 foi o mais forte preditor de morte, seguido de diagnóstico tardio (AOR = 3,95, IC95%: 2,68-5,82. Critério de definição de AIDS que não o "CD4 < 350" esteve associado a uma maior probabilidade de morte (AOR = 1,65, IC95%: 1,14-2,40. Pacientes que não receberam vacinas recomendadas (AOR = 1,76, 95%CI: 1,21-2,56, apresentando doenças associadas à AIDS (AOR = 2,19, IC95%: 1,22-3,93 e com tuberculose (AOR = 1,50, IC95%: 1,14-1,97, tiveram maior risco de morte. A categoria de exposição UDI apresentou maior chance de óbito. Apesar do sucesso com as introduções precoces da TARV, brasileiros continuaram a morrer de AIDS no período posterior à implementação da terapia, e muitas das causas subjacentes a essa mortalidade são preveníveis.

  2. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  3. Effectiveness of the “What’s Up!” Intervention to Reduce Stigma and Psychometric Properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ: Results from a Cluster Non-randomized Controlled Trial Conducted in Catalan High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrés-Rodríguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental disorders are highly prevalent in the general population, and people who experience them are frequently stigmatized. Stigma has a very negative impact on social, academic/professional, and personal life. Considering the high rates of mental disorders among children and adolescents (13.4% and how critical this age is in the formation of nuclear beliefs, many campaigns to combat stigma have been developed in the last decade, with mixed results. The OBERTAMENT initiative has produced various anti-stigma campaigns in Catalonia (Spain. In the present study, the main objective was to report on the effectiveness of the OBERTAMENT “What’s up!” intervention, a curricular intervention including education and social contact conducted by the teachers in the classroom with teenagers aged between 14 and 18. Prior to this, we examined the psychometric properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ, our main outcome measure, in terms of dimensionality, reliability, and validity. A cluster non-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess this intervention, which was tested in nine high schools situated in the Barcelona region. A convenience sample of 261 students formed the intervention group and 132 the control group (52% women, mean age = 14, SD = 0.47. The assignment to study conditions was conducted by Departament d’Ensenyament (Department of Education, Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan Government. Participants were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention, and 9-month follow-up. The main outcome measure of this study was the YPQ. The Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS was used as secondary outcome measure. The statistical analysis indicated that the YPQ possesses a two-factor structure (stereotypical attitudes and intended behavior and sound psychometric properties. The multilevel mixed-effects models revealed statistically significant interactions for both study measures and post hoc intragroup analyses revealed a

  4. Conducting Research With Community Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2015-10-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. Although several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This article presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African American women; (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women; and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research-intensive academic environments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. A Case Study of Dual Language Program Administrators: The Teachers We Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Joan R.

    2017-01-01

    In support of growing numbers of dual language programs nation-wide, dual language school administrators seek to find teachers who are specifically prepared to work with dual language learners for additive biliteracy. For this research the author utilized a case study design to explore practicing dual language administrators' perspectives…

  6. Psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the home-care setting: A nation-wide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayakawa, Makoto; Ogawa, Asao; Konno, Michiko; Kurata, Akiko; Hamano, Jun; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Aoyama, Maho; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-12-01

    The psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill cancer patients are highly problematic and have been associated with greater burden among caregivers. Until now, the extent of these problems in the home care setting was unclear. This retrospective study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan (J-HOPE3). The bereaved family members rated the symptoms of delirium and suicidal ideation of patients with cancer, and the sleeplessness and depressed mood of family caregivers utilizing home care services in the one month before the patients' deaths. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with caregivers' sleeplessness or depressed mood. Of the 532 subjects analyzed, between 17% and 65% of patients experienced various symptoms of delirium, and 27% suicidal ideation. Among family caregivers, 60% experienced sleeplessness and 35% experienced depressed mood at least once during the week. Caregivers' psychological symptoms were associated with their own poor health status, being the spouse of the patient, and the patients' psychological or psychiatric symptoms. To manage patients' symptoms, 11% of caregivers had consulted psychiatrists or psychologists while another 11% wanted to do so. Psychological problems assessed were common among patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the one month of home care prior to the patient's death. An effective complementary care system, run by home-visit physicians, nurses, and experts in mental disorders, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...

  8. Cardiac conduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the ... contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of ...

  9. The Conductivity of Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical background and modern explanations for the popular demonstration of showing conductivity of solutions through the insertion of a light-bulb conductivity tester into deionized water and water with salt in it. (PR)

  10. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, Victor V.

    2011-11-01

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  11. Conducting polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers represent a very interesting group of polymer materials Investigation of the synthesis, structure and properties of these materials has been the subject of considerable research efforts in the last twenty years. A short presentating of newer results obtained by investigating of the synthesis, structure and properties of two basic groups of conducting polymers: a conducting polymers the conductivity of which is the result of their molecular structure, and b conducting polymer composites (EPC, is given in this paper. The applications and future development of this group of polymer materials is also discussed.

  12. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  13. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements......, demonstrated on graphene for the first time, provide valuable statistical insight into the influence of microscale defects on the conductance, while THz-TDS has potential as a fast, non-contact metrology method for mapping of the spatially averaged nanoscopic conductance on wafer-scale graphene with scan times......, dominating the microscale conductance of the investigated graphene film....

  14. Codes of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code…

  15. Conductance eigenchannels in nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1997-01-01

    . The conductance as a function of contact elongation exhibits a step structure. For the smallest contact areas of one or a few atom diameters, the conductance is typically quantized, and a specific number of almost open eigenchannels can be ascribed. For larger contact areas the scattering leads to partly open...

  16. Conductivities from attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Johanna [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Goulart, Prieslei [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista,R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, São Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Witkowski, Piotr [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-28

    In the context of applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to condensed matter physics, we compute conductivities for field theory duals of dyonic planar black holes in 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories at zero temperature. We combine the near-horizon data obtained via Sen’s entropy function formalism with known expressions for conductivities. In this way we express the conductivities in terms of the extremal black hole charges. We apply our approach to three different examples for dilaton theories for which the background geometry is not known explicitly. For a constant scalar potential, the thermoelectric conductivity explicitly scales as α{sub xy}∼N{sup 3/2}, as expected. For the same model, our approach yields a finite result for the heat conductivity κ/T∝N{sup 3/2} even for T→0.

  17. Conductive fabric seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesay, Ronald Jason; Mason, Brandon William; Kuhn, Michael Joseph; Rowe, Nathan Carl

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed are several examples of a system and method for detecting if an article is being tampered with. Included is a covering made of a substrate that is coated with a layer of an electrically conductive material that forms an electrically conductive surface having an electrical resistance. The covering is configured to at least partially encapsulate the article such that the article cannot be tampered with, without modifying the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A sensing device is affixed to the electrically conductive surface of the covering and the sensing device monitors the condition of the covering by producing a signal that is indicative of the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A measured electrical resistance that differs from a nominal electrical resistance is indicative of a covering that is being tampered with and an alert is communicated to an observer.

  18. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both

  19. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed......, they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across...... contexts (home, day care, part-time foster family) and in relation to other co-participants....

  20. Simulating Block-Level Urban Expansion for National Wide Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Long

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale models are generally associated with large spatial modelling units, for example, counties or super grids (several to dozens of km2. Few applied urban models can achieve a large spatial coverage with irregular spatial units due to data availability and computation load. The framework of automatic identification and characterization of blocks developed by Liu and Long (2016 makes such an ideal model possible by establishing the existing urban blocks using road networks and points of interest for very large areas (e.g., a country or a continent. In this study, we develop a mega-vector-blocks cellular automata model (MVB-CA to simulate urban expansion at the block level for 654 Chinese cities. The existing urban blocks in 2012 were used for initiating the MVB-CA and are generated using multi-levelled road networks and ubiquitous points of interest. We then simulate block-based urban expansion of all the cities from 2012 to 2017. The national spatial development strategies of China are discussed extensively by academia and policy makers, while the baseline scenario and other simulated urban expansion scenarios have been tested and compared horizontally. As one of the first block-based urban expansion models at a national scale, its academic contributions, practical applications, and potential biases are also discussed in this paper. The developed MVB-CA using general approaches is also applicable for other counties.

  1. Hepatitis E in Israel: A nation-wide retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez-Granat, Ortal; Lachish, Tamar; Daudi, Nili; Shouval, Daniel; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-06-28

    To investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in Israel, an industrialized country. A retrospective analysis of acute HEV cases diagnosed in Israel from 1993 to 2013. Acute HEV was defined by ALT/AST elevation and a positive HEV PCR test or positive anti-HEV-IgM serology. HEV RNA was tested by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Antibodies to HEV were tested retrospectively using an ELISA assay. HEV-RNA was sequenced using RT-PCR of ORF1 and ORF2 regions to diagnose genotype of the virus. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected by reviewing the clinical files and through a telephone interview according to a structured questionnaire. Acute HEV was diagnosed in 68 patients. Among the 59 patients who gave an informed consent and were interviewed, 41% of infections were autochthonous (acquired in Israel), 44% travel-related and 15% imported by foreign workers. Autochthonous patients were mainly females (62.5%), more than half of them pregnant, 26% recalled consuming food or water in areas with poor sanitation, 44% ate non-kosher meat. Fulminant hepatitis developed in 3 patients (5%), all of them were females, two of them with post-partum infection, all acquired the disease in Israel (autochthonous). Israeli travelers with imported infection were predominantly males (73%), acquired the disease in the Indian subcontinent (81%), with 100% reporting having consumed fresh vegetables and drinks with ice cubes abroad. Six patients' sera were tested for genotype and revealed HEV genotype 1 (all cases acquired in the Indian subcontinent). This is the first report which highlights the existence of hepatitis E as an autochthonous infection in Israel. Imported HEV originates mostly from the Indian subcontinent.

  2. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern......The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...

  3. Solution Conductivity Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Daniel T.; Bartelt, Mark R.; Kenney, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction of a conductivity meter that includes a timer and a readout display that provides semiquantitative information. The meter can be made into a hand-held or lecture hall (demonstration) version. (WRM)

  4. Conductive open frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2016-02-23

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  5. Proton conduction in phosphatidylethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, N; Gonda, K; Kagami, I; Koga, S

    1977-08-01

    The dc conductivity of polycrystalline phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was measured in the temperature range 60-120 degrees C. Since no conclusive evidence had so far been obtained for the presence of proteon conduction in this phospholipid, hydrogen gas was shown in the present experiment to evolve during the electrolysis in its premelted state between 91 and 124 degrees C. In this temperature range molecules assume rotation around the molecular axes and proton conduction of the Grotthus type takes place possibly along two chains of intermolecular hydrogen bonds running in parallel. Zwitter-ions behave cooperatively as proton donors and acceptors in transferring proton from molecule and molecule via the hydrogen bond networks. This efficient push-pull way of proton transferring seems to account for the fact that no polarization was observed in the dc conduction experiments. The amount of devolved gas appears to be not exactly in accordance with Faraday's law and discussions are made on possible causes for this slight deviation.

  6. Program Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-09-01 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0161171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-24 to 2014-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0161168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  9. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  10. Responsible conduct of research

    CERN Document Server

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the ...

  11. Quantum Conductivity of Nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhar, Liudmila

    2004-03-01

    Quantum statistical mechanical method of Bogoliubov-Tyablikov two-time Green's functions (TTGFs) suggested by Zubarev and Tserkovnikov is generalized to include spatially inhomogeneous systems, such as small semiconductor quantum dots, artificial atoms, etc. The developed formalism is applied to derive a fundamental quantum theory of conductivity of spatially inhomogeneous systems in weak external electromagnetic fields. Conservation equations for the charge and current densities are derived and analyzed. Explicit expressions for the linear (in the field potentials) longitudal and transverse quantum conductivity, dielectric and magnetic susceptibilities are also derived in terms of the equilibrium/steady state charge density - charge density and microcurrent-microcurrent retarded TTGFs. The obtained results are used in conjunction with quantum computations of electronic energy spectra of small clusters of In, Ga and As atoms to predict the quantum conductivity of such clusters.

  12. Electrochemistry of conductive polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Shin Hyo; Kim, Duhwan [Department of Chemistry and Center for Integrated Molecular Systems, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su-Moon [Department of Chemistry and Center for Integrated Molecular Systems, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: smpark@postech.edu

    2008-04-20

    Effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of a few different aminothiophenols (ATPs) on growth, morphology, and electrical properties of polyaniline have been studied at gold electrodes employing current sensing atomic force microscopy. The 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) SAM showed the best capability of shuttling electrons from the gold electrode to the solution species, and the 4-ATP SAM covered electrode not only showed the best kinetics for the film growth but also produced the film of the highest electrical conductivity. The vertical conductivity of the film ranged from 58 S cm{sup -1} for a film prepared at a bare gold electrode to as high as 148 S cm{sup -1} for a film obtained at the 4-ATP SAM covered electrode. The conductivity was shown to depend on the thickness of the films as well as how they were prepared.

  13. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  15. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.; Xu, K.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1999-10-05

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  16. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  17. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and energy. If the temperature is below certain characteristic values then the lattice vibration will be able to give up this energy and momentum to another conduction electron. Thus though one electron loses its energy and momentum, another. The electron moves with acceleration inbetween collisions with the lattice and.

  18. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  19. Conducting Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  20. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  1. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  2. Conducting educational design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings-not laboratories-to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is

  3. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 9. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity. Suresh V Vettoor. General Article Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/09/0041-0048 ...

  4. Super ionic conductive glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  5. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  6. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  8. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  9. Thermally conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  10. High-Thermal-Conductivity Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibante, L. P. Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Heat management with common textiles such as nylon and spandex is hindered by the poor thermal conductivity from the skin surface to cooling surfaces. This innovation showed marked improvement in thermal conductivity of the individual fibers and tubing, as well as components assembled from them. The problem is centered on improving the heat removal of the liquid-cooled ventilation garments (LCVGs) used by astronauts. The current design uses an extensive network of water-cooling tubes that introduces bulkiness and discomfort, and increases fatigue. Range of motion and ease of movement are affected as well. The current technology is the same as developed during the Apollo program of the 1960s. Tubing material is hand-threaded through a spandex/nylon mesh layer, in a series of loops throughout the torso and limbs such that there is close, form-fitting contact with the user. Usually, there is a nylon liner layer to improve comfort. Circulating water is chilled by an external heat exchanger (sublimator). The purpose of this innovation is to produce new LCVG components with improved thermal conductivity. This was addressed using nanocomposite engineering incorporating high-thermalconductivity nanoscale fillers in the fabric and tubing components. Specifically, carbon nanotubes were added using normal processing methods such as thermoplastic melt mixing (compounding twin screw extruder) and downstream processing (fiber spinning, tubing extrusion). Fibers were produced as yarns and woven into fabric cloths. The application of isotropic nanofillers can be modeled using a modified Nielsen Model for conductive fillers in a matrix based on Einstein s viscosity model. This is a drop-in technology with no additional equipment needed. The loading is limited by the ability to maintain adequate dispersion. Undispersed materials will plug filtering screens in processing equipment. Generally, the viscosity increases were acceptable, and allowed the filled polymers to still be

  11. Expanding Public Outreach: The Solar System Ambassadors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, K. A.

    2000-12-01

    links and information. Integrating nation-wide volunteers in a public-engagement program helps optimize project funding set aside for education and outreach purposes. At the same time, members of communities across the country become an extended part of each mission's team and an important interface between the space exploration community and the general public at large.

  12. Infrared transparent conductive oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Linda F.; Moran, Mark B.

    2001-09-01

    A novel class of complex metal oxides that have potential as transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) for the electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding on IR-seeker windows and missile domes has been identified. These complex metal oxides exhibit the rhombohedral (R3m) crystalline structure of naturally occurring delafossite, CuFeO2. The general chemical formula is ABO2 where A is a monovalent metal (Me+1 such as Cu, Ag, Au, Pt or Pd, and B is a trivalent metal (Me3+) such as Al,Ti,Cr,Co,Fe,Ni,Cs,Rh,Ga,Sn,In,Y,La,Pr,Nd,Sm or Eu. By adjusting the oxygen content, the conductivity can be varied over a wide range so that the delafossites behave as insulators, semiconductors or metals. This paper presents results for films of p-type CuxAlyOz and n-type CuxCryOz deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering from high-purity-metal targets. Films have been deposited using conventional RF- and DC-power supplies, and a new asymmetric-bipolar-pulsed- DC-power supply. Similar to the high-temperature-copper- oxide superconductors, the presence of Cu-O bonds is critical for the unique properties. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) are used to understand the relationship between the optoelectornic properties and the molecular structure of the films. For example, FTIR absorption bands at 1470 and 1395cm-1 are present only in CuxAlyOz films that exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity. When these bands are absent, the CuxAlyOz films have high values of resistivity. In addition to the 1470 and 1395cm-1 bands observed in CuxAlyOz films, another pair of bands at 1040 and 970cm-1 is present in CuxCryOz films.

  13. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  14. Electrically Conductive Porous Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electrically conductive membrane that can be configured to be used in fuel cell systems to act as a hydrophilic water separator internal to the fuel cell, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a capillary structure in a thin head pipe evaporator, or as a hydrophobic gas diffusion layer covering the fuel cell electrode surface in a fuel cell.

  15. Conducting Elite Performance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Elliott; Tucker, Scott A; Imsdahl, Solveig; Charles, Justin A; Stellato, Mallory A; Wagner, Mercy D; Brown, Kimberly M

    2015-08-01

    Training to excellence in the conduct of surgical procedures has many similarities to the acquisition and mastery of technical skills in elite-level music and sports. By using coaching techniques and strategies gleaned from analysis of professional music ensembles and athletic training, surgical educators can set conditions that increase the success rate of training to elite performance. This article describes techniques and strategies used in both music and athletic coaching, and it discusses how they can be applied and integrated into surgical simulation and education. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Impact of a Home-Based Physical and Nutritional Intervention Program Conducted by Lay-Volunteers on Handgrip Strength in Prefrail and Frail Older Adults: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Sandra; Dorner, Thomas E; Luger, Eva; Kapan, Ali; Titze, Sylvia; Lackinger, Christian; Schindler, Karin E

    2017-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the effects of a home-based physical and nutritional intervention program carried out by lay-volunteers to home visits with social support alone. Buddies visited 80 prefrail or frail older persons at home twice a week for 12 weeks. The physical training and nutrition group (PTN, n = 39) performed two sets of six strength exercises, discussed nutritional topics and received social support. The social support group (SoSu, n = 41) received home visits with social support only. In the PTN group, handgrip strength increased significantly by 2.4 kg (95% CI: 1.0-3.8). In the SoSu group we did not see a significant improvement. However, no significant between-group difference was found. Physical performance increased in both groups, although with a higher increase of 1.0 point (95% CI: 0.1-2.0) in the PTN group. In none of the groups muscle mass changed. Further results showed that frail individuals benefit more from the intervention than prefrail individuals (OR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.01-7.66). Handgrip strength in the intervention group increased by a clinically relevant value and this effect is comparable to that obtained by health-care professionals. Therefore, home visits with a physical training and nutritional program could offer a new perspective in the care of community-dwelling prefrail and frail older persons.

  17. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard L.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2016-06-21

    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums and pyridiniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  18. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin K [Albuquerque, NM; Carroll, Malcolm S [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  19. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  20. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard I.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2017-02-28

    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums, pyridiniums, pyrazoliums, pyrrolidiniums, pyrroliums, pyrimidiums, piperidiniums, indoliums, and triaziniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  1. A societal challenge for Japanese geological disposal program of HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuboya, Takao [Radioactive Waste Mangement Funding and Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The Japanese deep underground repository development program was entered into an implementation phase in 2000 when a legislative basis as well as a scientific and technical basis was developed. Since NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan), the implementer, commenced open solicitation for the first step for selection of a repository candidate site in 2002, the first application was filed and cancelled in 2007 by Toyo cho, a municipality, in Kochi Prefecture. As the result of lesson learned political difficulty on repository site selection, governmental committees compiled reports to promote Japanese repository development program to gain understanding nation wide public as well as people of local communities.

  2. Robust mixed conducting membrane structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a membrane structure, comprising in said order a first electronically conducting layer, an ionically conducting layer, and a second electronically conducting layer, characterized in that the first and second electronically conducting layers are internally short...... circuited. The present invention further provides a method of producing the above membrane structure, comprising the steps of : providing a ionically conducting layer; applying at least one layer of electronically conducting material on each side of said ionically conducting layer; sintering the multilayer...

  3. A high mean-HbA1c value 3-15 months after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in childhood is related to metabolic control, macroalbuminuria, and retinopathy in early adulthood--a pilot study using two nation-wide population based quality registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Ulf; Steineck, Isabelle; Gubbjornsdottir, Soffia

    2014-05-01

    Intensive treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes delays the onset of long-term complications. On the basis of the information from two nation-wide quality registers, we investigated to which extent HbA1c values 3-15 months after diagnosis in childhood are related to metabolic control, albuminuria, and retinopathy in early adulthood. In Sweden, physicians register all children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Swedish Pediatric Quality Registry. After 18 yr of age, people with diabetes are followed by the Swedish National Diabetes Register. We identified 1543 children and adolescents with a mean age of 13.9 yr at diagnosis and a mean duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus of 7.1 yr. Children and adolescents with poor metabolic control (mean HbA1c ≥ 70 mmol/mol (8.6 %)) adjacent to diagnosis had a significantly higher mean HbA1c value years later as adults than did patients with a good metabolic control [metabolic group. Patients with a high mean HbA1c 3-15 months after diagnosis had significantly more often macroalbuminuria and retinopathy in early adulthood. Metabolic control adjacent to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in childhood or adolescence can predict metabolic control in early adulthood. It is therefore very important that pediatric diabetes teams identify key factors for successful early metabolic control. Actively using quality registries may be one such factor. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Conduct disorder: a biopsychosocial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassarath, L

    2001-09-01

    To review published works on the epidemiology, risk factors, protective factors, typologies, and genetic aspects of conduct disorder (CD). Findings from refereed journal articles and current texts in the field are briefly summarized. CD is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Factors strongly predictive of future delinquency include past offenses, antisocial peers, impoverished social ties, early substance use, male sex, and antisocial parents. Factors that moderately predict recidivism include early aggression, low socioeconomic status (SES), psychological variables such as risk taking and impulsivity, poor parent-child relationships, poor academic performance, early medical insult, and neuropsychological variables such as poor verbal IQ. Mildly predictive variables include other family characteristics such as large family size, family stress, discord, broken home, and abusive parenting, particularly neglect. Protective factors include individual factors such as skill competence (in social and other arenas), adult relationships, prosocial and proeducational values, and strong social programs and supports. We know a great deal about psychosocial risk factors for CD. Some research into protective factors and genetic contributions exists but is in its early stages. Future work will increase our knowledge about subtypes, developmental pathways, and CD treatment.

  5. Symmetrical two dimensional scattering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J.; Rusch, W. V. T.

    1971-01-01

    Computer program solves integral equation for currents induced by electric or magnetic plane wave incident upon one or more conducting cylinders with a midplane of symmetry. Program utilizes symmetry of the geometry. Restrictions on the program are given.

  6. Child restraint device loaner programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The child restraint device (CRD) loaner programs in Tennessee were evaluated. In-Lerviews were conducted with loaner program clients in Memphis, Chattanooga, and Knoxville. Administrators of programs in all three sites also were interviewed. The prog...

  7. Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, Winfried; Huffcutt, Allen I; Arthur, Winfred

    2001-01-01

    Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS reviews the meta-analysis statistical procedure and shows the reader how to conduct one using SAS. It presents and illustrates the use of the PROC MEANS procedure in SAS to perform the data computations called for by the two most commonly used meta-analytic procedures, the Hunter & Schmidt and Glassian approaches. This book serves as both an operational guide and user's manual by describing and explaining the meta-analysis procedures and then presenting the appropriate SAS program code for computing the pertinent statistics. The practical, step-by-step instru

  8. National Assessment of Quality Programs in Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlener, Michael; Olivieri, Patrick; Loo, George T; Munjal, Kevin; Hilton, Michael T; Potkin, Katya Trudeau; Levy, Michael; Rabrich, Jeffrey; Gunderson, Michael R; Braithwaite, Sabina A

    2018-01-03

    This study aims to understand the adoption of clinical quality measurement throughout the United States on an EMS agency level, the features of agencies that do participate in quality measurement, and the level of physician involvement. It also aims to barriers to implementing quality improvement initiatives in EMS. A 46-question survey was developed to gather agency level data on current quality improvement practices and measurement. The survey was distributed nationally via State EMS Offices to EMS agencies nation-wide using Surveymonkey©. A convenience sample of respondents was enrolled between August and November, 2015. Univariate, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to describe demographics and relationships between outcomes of interest and their covariates using SAS 9.3©. A total of 1,733 surveys were initiated and 1,060 surveys had complete or near-complete responses. This includes agencies from 45 states representing over 6.23 million 9-1-1 responses annually. Totals of 70.5% (747) agencies reported dedicated QI personnel, 62.5% (663) follow clinical metrics and 33.3% (353) participate in outside quality or research program. Medical director hours varied, notably, 61.5% (649) of EMS agencies had quality measures compared to fire-based agencies. Agencies in rural only environments were less likely to follow clinical quality metrics. (OR 0.47 CI 0.31 -0.72 p quality improvement resources, medical direction and specific clinical quality measures. More research is needed to understand the impact of this variation on patient care outcomes.

  9. Conductive Bands Diminish Electrostatic Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Philip L.; Whittlesey, Albert

    1992-01-01

    Electrostatic discharges on surfaces covered with electrically insulating paints reduced by connecting edges of painted surfaces to electrical grounds with band of conductive material. Prevents charge build up on paint which eventually arcs to conductive surface, damaging structures and equipment.

  10. Thermal conductivity of porous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braginsky, L.; Shklover, V.; Witz, G.; Bossmann, H.-P.

    2007-03-01

    Thermal conductivity of porous media is considered. The model permits regular power-series expansion of the expression for thermal conductivity as a function of porosity. The coefficients of the expansion depend on two-site correlation function of local thermal conductivities, which can be calculated from the microscopy image of the structure. Thermal conductivities of some model two-dimensional structures as well as a real porous yttria-stabilized zirconia film are calculated and discussed.

  11. Nerve Conduction Studies and Electromyography

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    Nerve conduction studies and electromyography can aid in the diagnosis of peripheral nervous system disease. The author reviews various techniques used during electromyography and nerve conduction studies. He reviews briefly peripheral nerve and muscle neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. The author defines terms used in nerve conduction studies and electromyography and relates terminology to the underlying pathophysiology and histopathology. He also reviews briefly typical nerve conduction and ...

  12. Positive impact of agglomeration in nanocomposite conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlton, Taylor; Sullivan, Ethan; Derosa, Pedro

    CNTs are embedded in an insulating matrix to form composites to improve its mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. However, CNTs tend to clump together forming agglomerates and thus Experimental studies on CNT composites normally describe significant effort in dispersing CNT for a more effective performance. Although the main concern is on the impact agglomeration has on mechanical strength, it is accepted that agglomeration will also negatively affect conductivity. In this workg computer simulations are used to study this effect in detail and it is found that some level of agglomeration actually improves conductivity by a better use of the available volume. Agglomerates leave voids in the sample in favor of other areas where the CNT-CNT distance is smaller than it would be if their distribution were uniform thus improving conductivity. More uniform samples have more conduction paths, but CNT-CNT distance is in average larger leading to a lower mobility. The opposite happen when some agglomeration is present and thus there is a tradeoff that above, but near, percolation leads to higher conductivity in the case where some agglomeration is present. At higher concentrations, the effect of mobility seems to be larger as there are enough conduction paths already available. This work is supported by Air Force Research Collaboration Program; contract FA8650-13-C-5800 from the Air Force Research Laboratory,.

  13. A pore water conductivity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electrical permittivity and conductivity of the bulk soil are a function of the permittivity and conductivity of the pore water. For soil water contents higher than 0.10 both functions are equal, facilitating in situ conductivity measurements of the pore water. A novel method is described, based

  14. Conductive nanomaterials for printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamyshny, Alexander; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2014-09-10

    This is a review on recent developments in the field of conductive nanomaterials and their application in printed electronics, with particular emphasis on inkjet printing of ink formulations based on metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene sheets. The review describes the basic properties of conductive nanomaterials suitable for printed electronics (metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene), their stabilization in dispersions, formulations of conductive inks, and obtaining conductive patterns by using various sintering methods. Applications of conductive nanomaterials for electronic devices (transparent electrodes, metallization of solar cells, RFID antennas, TFTs, and light emitting devices) are also briefly reviewed.

  15. Measuring skin conductance over clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-11-01

    We propose a new method that measures skin conductance over clothes to nonintrusively monitor the changes in physiological conditions affecting skin conductance during daily activities. We selected the thigh-to-thigh current path and used an indirectly coupled 5-kHz AC current for the measurement. While varying the skin conductance by the Valsalva maneuver method, the results were compared with the traditional galvanic skin response (GSR) measured directly from the fingers. Skin conductance measured using a 5-kHz current displayed a highly negative correlation with the traditional GSR and the current measured over clothes reflected the rate of change of the conductance of the skin beneath.

  16. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall program objective is to develop a high temperature variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) backup radiator, and integrate it into a Stirling radioisotope...

  17. Design and methods for a cluster-controlled trial conducted at sixty-eight daycare facilities evaluating the impact of "JolinchenKids - Fit and Healthy in Daycare", a program for health promotion in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbock, Berit; Zeeb, Hajo; Rach, Stefan; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-07-11

    The prevention of overweight and obesity during infancy is a highly relevant public health topic given the significant impact of childhood obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, and well-being in later stages of life. Apart from the family setting, daycare facilities (DFs) represent a key setting for health promotion among children under the age of six years. "JolinchenKids - Fit and Healthy in Daycare" is a multi-component program promoting physical activity (PA), healthy eating, and mental well-being in 3- to 6-year-old preschoolers at DFs, originally designed by the German health insurance AOK. To evaluate program effectiveness, a cluster-controlled trial involving 68 DFs is currently conducted. The objective of this article is to describe the background, study design, and aims of this trial. Sixty-eight DFs across Germany will be recruited to take part in the study, half of them serving as intervention DFs and half of them as delayed intervention control DFs (which receive the program upon completion of the study). At each DF, height, weight, and body composition, as well as motor skills, will be assessed in twenty 3- to 6-year-old children. Children's eating and PA habits, and mental well-being will be assessed via parental questionnaires. A subsample of children (i.e., at 24 DFs which are randomly selected within a geographic region) will be asked to wear accelerometers at their wrists to objectively measure PA over the course of seven days. To compare changes in body composition, motor skills, eating and PA habits, and mental well-being of children at intervention DFs with those observed among children at delayed intervention control DFs over one year, all measurements will take place at baseline and twelve months after the launch of the program at all DFs. This study investigates the influence of a health promotion program in the daycare setting on various outcomes, including body composition and objectively measured PA, in a nationwide

  18. Design and methods for a cluster-controlled trial conducted at sixty-eight daycare facilities evaluating the impact of “JolinchenKids – Fit and Healthy in Daycare”, a program for health promotion in 3- to 6-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Steenbock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention of overweight and obesity during infancy is a highly relevant public health topic given the significant impact of childhood obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, and well-being in later stages of life. Apart from the family setting, daycare facilities (DFs represent a key setting for health promotion among children under the age of six years. “JolinchenKids – Fit and Healthy in Daycare” is a multi-component program promoting physical activity (PA, healthy eating, and mental well-being in 3- to 6-year-old preschoolers at DFs, originally designed by the German health insurance AOK. To evaluate program effectiveness, a cluster-controlled trial involving 68 DFs is currently conducted. The objective of this article is to describe the background, study design, and aims of this trial. Methods/design Sixty-eight DFs across Germany will be recruited to take part in the study, half of them serving as intervention DFs and half of them as delayed intervention control DFs (which receive the program upon completion of the study. At each DF, height, weight, and body composition, as well as motor skills, will be assessed in twenty 3- to 6-year-old children. Children’s eating and PA habits, and mental well-being will be assessed via parental questionnaires. A subsample of children (i.e., at 24 DFs which are randomly selected within a geographic region will be asked to wear accelerometers at their wrists to objectively measure PA over the course of seven days. To compare changes in body composition, motor skills, eating and PA habits, and mental well-being of children at intervention DFs with those observed among children at delayed intervention control DFs over one year, all measurements will take place at baseline and twelve months after the launch of the program at all DFs. Discussion This study investigates the influence of a health promotion program in the daycare setting on various outcomes

  19. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  20. Teaching Module for One-Dimensional, Transient Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribando, Robert J.; O'Leary, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a PC-based teaching module designed to instruct engineering students in transient one-dimensional conduction heat transfer analysis. The discussion considers problem formulation, nondimensionalization, discretization, numerical stability and the time-step restriction, program operation, and program verification. (MES)

  1. NASA's Technology Utilization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    NASA's Technology Utilization Program is described, illustrating how it can be useful in achieving improved productivity, providing more jobs, solving public sector challenges, and strengthening the international competitive situation. Underlying the program is the fact that research and development conducted in NASA's aeronautics and space programs have generated much technical information concerning processes, products, or techniques which may be useful to engineers, doctors, or to others. The program is based on acquisition and publication, working with the user, and applications engineering.

  2. Fluctuation conductivity in cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The modification suggested by Ramallo et al [4] where by the conductivity is enhanced due to the presence of two superconducting layers in each unit cell is also not adequate. We suggest the fluctuation conductivity to be reduced due to the reduction in the density of states (DOS) of the quasiparticles which results due to ...

  3. Improving the firm's environmental conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2001-01-01

      It has recently been argued that growing societal pressures for better environmental conduct could induce environmental innovation, thereby entailing lower costs due to increased value and/or more efficient resource allocation. This has led to the claim that improved environmental conduct may...

  4. Does the atrioventricular node conduct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Fisch, C.

    1989-01-01

    It is difficult to be certain wh en the term "conduction" was first applied to the transfer of atrial activation to the ventricles .' In 1894, Engelmann used the word "Leitung", which can be translated as "connection" or as "conduction" .2 In 1906, Tawara described the atrioventricular node,

  5. Theoretical approaches to superionic conductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mode coupling and jump relaxation theories account for the non-Debye relaxation observed in a.c. conductivity of these glasses. The theory of conductivity in polymer electrolytes-still in its infancy-involves their complex structure and glass transition behaviour. Preparative and thermal history, composition and crystallinity ...

  6. 25 CFR 39.405 - How will verifications be conducted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will verifications be conducted? 39.405 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Accountability § 39.405 How will verifications be conducted? The eligibility of every student shall be verified. The ELO will take a random sampling of five days with a minimum of one day per...

  7. 10 CFR 708.25 - Who will conduct the hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who will conduct the hearing? 708.25 Section 708.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Investigation, Hearing and Decision Process § 708.25 Who will conduct the hearing? (a) The OHA Director will appoint a Hearing Officer from the...

  8. An inverse heat conduction problem of estimating thermal conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Shidfar, S

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we consider an inverse heat conduction problem. We define the inverse and direct problem and solve the direct problem by method of Lines. We estimated the thermal conductivity k(u) which is assumed k(u)=k sub o +k sub 1 u+...+k sub N u sup N and contiguously in the direction normal to the surface of a sample plate.

  9. Cartilage Conduction Hearing Aids for Severe Conduction Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tadashi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Saito, Osamu; Shimokura, Ryota; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    To assess the benefits of a new type of hearing aid using cartilage conduction (CC) in patients with severe conduction hearing loss and evaluate its potential for practical use. Consecutive, prospective case series. Forty-one subjects (21 with bilateral aural atresia; 15 with unilateral aural atresia; and 5 others) participated in this study. Fitting and gain adjustments of the CC hearing aids were performed to the ear(s) with conduction hearing loss. The function gains were measured. Evaluation of the measurements of speech performance-intensity functions, speech recognition scores, tolerance of environmental noise, and subject questionnaires were also performed, and judged according to the "Guidelines for the evaluation of hearing aid fitting" established by the Japan Audiological Society. The thresholds were significantly improved by CC hearing aids. The functional gains for CC hearing aids were nearly equivalent to that for their previously used hearing aids. The style of the transducer fixation and the type of aural atresia had no significant influence on the functional gains. Most of the assessment results were judged to be sufficient. Before the trial, bone conduction hearing aids had been used most frequently by bilateral aural atresia subjects. However, after the trial, most subjects continued to use CC hearing aids instead of reverting back to their original device. Overall, 39 subjects continued use of the CC hearing aids. No severe adverse effects were noted in the trial. Cartilage conduction hearing aids could be an additional and beneficial option for severe conduction hearing loss from aural atresia.

  10. Calibration-free electrical conductivity measurements for highly conductive slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACDONALD,CHRISTOPHER J.; GAO,HUANG; PAL,UDAY B.; VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MELGAARD,DAVID K.

    2000-05-01

    This research involves the measurement of the electrical conductivity (K) for the ESR (electroslag remelting) slag (60 wt.% CaF{sub 2} - 20 wt.% CaO - 20 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) used in the decontamination of radioactive stainless steel. The electrical conductivity is measured with an improved high-accuracy-height-differential technique that requires no calibration. This method consists of making continuous AC impedance measurements over several successive depth increments of the coaxial cylindrical electrodes in the ESR slag. The electrical conductivity is then calculated from the slope of the plot of inverse impedance versus the depth of the electrodes in the slag. The improvements on the existing technique include an increased electrochemical cell geometry and the capability of measuring high precision depth increments and the associated impedances. These improvements allow this technique to be used for measuring the electrical conductivity of highly conductive slags such as the ESR slag. The volatilization rate and the volatile species of the ESR slag measured through thermogravimetric (TG) and mass spectroscopy analysis, respectively, reveal that the ESR slag composition essentially remains the same throughout the electrical conductivity experiments.

  11. Thermal conductivity of graphene laminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, H; Chang, K-H; Chen, J-C; Lu, C-Y; Nika, D L; Novoselov, K S; Balandin, A A

    2014-09-10

    We have investigated thermal conductivity of graphene laminate films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Two types of graphene laminate were studied, as deposited and compressed, in order to determine the physical parameters affecting the heat conduction the most. The measurements were performed using the optothermal Raman technique and a set of suspended samples with the graphene laminate thickness from 9 to 44 μm. The thermal conductivity of graphene laminate was found to be in the range from 40 to 90 W/mK at room temperature. It was found unexpectedly that the average size and the alignment of graphene flakes are more important parameters defining the heat conduction than the mass density of the graphene laminate. The thermal conductivity scales up linearly with the average graphene flake size in both uncompressed and compressed laminates. The compressed laminates have higher thermal conductivity for the same average flake size owing to better flake alignment. Coating plastic materials with thin graphene laminate films that have up to 600× higher thermal conductivity than plastics may have important practical implications.

  12. Edge conduction in vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

  13. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  14. Conducting polymers: Synthesis and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Conducting Polymer project funded by the AIM Program has developed new methods for the synthesis of conducting polymers and evaluated new industrial applications for these materials which will result in significant reductions in energy usage or industrial waste. The applications specifically addressed during FY 1996 included two ongoing efforts on membranes for gas separation and on electrochemical capacitors and a third new application: electrochemical reactors (ECRs) based on polymeric electrolytes. As a gas separation membrane, conducting polymers offer high selectivity and the potential to chemically or electrically adapt the membrane for specific gas combinations. Potential energy savings in the US for this application are estimated at 1 to 3 quads/yr. As an active material in electrochemical capacitors, electronically conducting polymers have the potential of storing large amounts of electric energy in low cost materials. Potential energy savings estimated at 1 quad/yr would result from introduction of electrochemical capacitors as energy storage devices in power trains of electric and hybrid vehicles, once such vehicles reach 20% of the total transportation market in the US. In the chlor-alkali industry, electrochemical reactors based on polymer electrolyte membranes consume around 1 % of the total electric power in the US. A new activity, started in FY 1996, is devoted to energy efficient ECRs. In the case of the chlor-alkali industry, energy savings as high as 50% seem possible with the novel ECR technology demonstrated by the author in 1996.

  15. Protocols for conducting Environmental Management Assessments of DOE organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of DOE`s environmental programs, the Office of Environmental Audit conducts Environmental Management Assessments of DOE programs and facilities. These assessments take a broad programmatic view of environmental systems which may cover multiple sites. The focus of the assessment is on the infrastructure, systems, programs, and tools to manage environmental issues, not on the compliance issues themselves. Protocols have been developed to assist in the conduct of Environmental Management Assessments. The protocols are, based on and serve as implementing guidelines for the Environmental Management Section of ``Performance Objectives and Criteria for Conducting DOE Environmental Audits`` (DOE/EH-022). They are intended to provide guidance to the Assessment Team in conducting these reviews.

  16. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K. Fawcett... Office (USPTO) is conducting a voluntary pilot program to incentivize the distribution of patented...

  17. Conductivity of a relativistic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.

    1989-03-01

    The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.

    1984-08-01

    The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

  19. Transparent, Conductive Carbon Nanotube Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhuangchun Wu; Zhihong Chen; Xu Du; Jonathan M. Logan; Jennifer Sippel; Maria Nikolou; Katalin Kamaras; John R. Reynolds; David B. Tanner; Arthur F. Hebard; Andrew G. Rinzler

    2004-01-01

    We describe a simple process for the fabrication of ultrathin, transparent, optically homogeneous, electrically conducting films of pure single-walled carbon nanotubes and the transfer of those films...

  20. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  1. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Conductivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have conductivity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  2. Database for hydraulically conductive fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammisto, E.; Palmen, J.; Ahokas, H. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    2009-05-15

    Posiva flow logging (PFL) with a 0.5 m test interval and made in 10 cm steps can be used for the determination of the depth of hydraulically conductive fractures. Together with drillhole wall images and fracture data from core logging, PFL provides possibilities to detect individual conductive fractures. In this report, the results of PFL are combined with fracture data on drillholes OL-KR1 - OL-KR40, OL-KR15B - KR20B, OL-KR22B - KR23B, OL-KR25B, OL-KR27B, OL-KR29B, OL-KR31B, OLKR33B, OL-KR37B and OL-KR39B - KR40B and pilot holes OL-PH1 and ONK-PH2 - ONK-PH7. The conductive fractures were first recognised from PFL data and digital drillhole images and then the fractures from the core logging that correspond to the ones picked from the digital drillhole images were identified. The conductive fractures were primarily recognised in the images based on the openness of fractures or a visible flow in the image. In most of the cases, no tails of flow were seen in the image. In these cases the conductive fractures were recognised in the image based on the openness of fractures and a matching depth. On the basis of the results hydraulically conductive fractures/zones could in most cases be distinguished in the drillhole wall images. An important phase in the work is the calibration of the depth of the image and flow logging with the sample length. Hydraulic conductivity is clearly higher in the upper part of the bedrock in the depth range 0-150 m below sea level than deeper in the bedrock. The frequency of hydraulically conductive fractures (T > 10-10-10-9 m2/s) in depth range 0-150 m varies between 0.06 and 0.78 fractures/metre of sample length. Deeper in the rock conductive fractures are less frequent, but often occur in groups of a few fractures. About 10% of the conductive fractures are within HZ-structures and 6% within BFZ-structures. 3% of the conductive fractures are within HZ- and BFZ-structures. (orig.)

  3. Good Conduct in the Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2006-01-01

    What is scientific dishonesty? How to handle the problem? How to prevent it? These three questions are discussed in an international perspective, focusing on ways of achieving and maintaining good conduct in the sciences.......What is scientific dishonesty? How to handle the problem? How to prevent it? These three questions are discussed in an international perspective, focusing on ways of achieving and maintaining good conduct in the sciences....

  4. Thermal conductivity of US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrin, J.M.; Deming, D. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-11-10

    Coal samples in the form of randomly oriented aggregates were obtained from the Pennsylvania State University Coal Bank for the purpose of thermal conductivity measurements. Samples represented 55 locations from throughout the United States and included 6 lignites, 10 subbituminous coals, 36 bituminous coals, and 3 anthracite samples. Matrix thermal conductivities measured at 22{degree}C in the laboratory ranged from 0.22 to 0.55 W/m degree K, with an arithmetic mean of 0.33 W/m degrees K and a standard deviation of 0.07 W/m degrees K. The thermal conductivity of lignites, subbituminous, and bituminous coals is controlled by composition and can be predicted by a three-component (Moisture, ash, and carbon + volatiles) geometric mean model with a rns residual of 6.1%. The thermal conductivity of bituminous and anthracite samples was found to be positively correlated with matrix density. With the exception of three anthracite samples, rank was not correlated with thermal conductivity nor was the ratio of carbon to volatiles. The relatively high thermal conductivity of three anthracite samples (mean of 0.49 W/m degrees K) may have been related to graphitization.

  5. Identifying Innovative Agricultural Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayfield, John; Murphy, Tim; Briers, Gary; Lewis, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Researchers identified innovative agricultural education programs across the United States. A Delphi study was conducted with the teachers in innovative programs. According to the teachers, innovative programs in 2020 will use hands-on activities and will be run by highly motivated teachers. The purpose of innovative programs in the future will be…

  6. DSC and conductivity studies on PVA based proton conducting gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An attempt has been made in the present work to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based proton conducting gel electrolytes in ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) solution and characterize them. DSC studies affirm the formation of gels along with the presence of partial complexes. The cole–cole plots exhibit maximum ionic ...

  7. DSC and conductivity studies on PVA based proton conducting gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    electrolytes exhibit liquid like nature at low polymer concentrations while the behaviour is seen to be affected by the formation of PVA–NH4SCN ... category of polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity is polymeric gel electrolyte ..... Tager A 1978 Physical chemistry of polymers (Moscow: MIR. Publishers). Wieczorek W ...

  8. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  9. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  10. Ethics: problems of clinical conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglié, P F; Campus, G; Lai, V

    2005-09-01

    The study provides a framework for ethical medical conduct. A number of articles of International Law, the Italian Constitution, the Penal Code and the Medical Code of Conduct have therefore been taken into consideration. Art. 32 of the Italian Constitution, relating to the ''right to health'' is examined, paying particular attention to certain parts, and is related to Art. 35 of the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights. In considering Art. 43 of the Penal Code, which addresses the psychological element of criminal acts, reference is made to the Medical Code of Conduct and to the Hippocratic Oath. The considerations made point up the importance of a relationship of trust and esteem between doctor and patient in clinical practice, and that this approach must be cultivated starting from the first year of university studies.

  11. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  12. Who Is Conducting Teacher Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; Yanowitz, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Few researchers have gone beyond case studies to examine characteristics of teachers who engage in research activities. Results from the authors' logistic regression models provide evidence that teaching in private schools, teaching in a midsize or large city, participating in professional development programs, and receiving support from the…

  13. Ionic Conductivity of Polyelectrolyte Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Jung; Wu, Haiyan; Hu, Yang; Young, Megan; Wang, Huifeng; Lynch, Dylan; Xu, Fujian; Cong, Hongbo; Cheng, Gang

    2018-01-31

    Polyelectrolytes have many important functions in both living organisms and man-made applications. One key property of polyelectrolytes is the ionic conductivity due to their porous networks that allow the transport of water and small molecular solutes. Among polyelectrolytes, zwitterionic polymers have attracted huge attention for applications that involve ion transport in a polyelectrolyte matrix; however, it is still unclear how the functional groups of zwitterionic polymer side chains affect their ion transport and swelling properties. In this study, zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine), and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) hydrogels were synthesized and their ionic conductivity was studied and compared to cationic, anionic, and nonionic hydrogels. The change of the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic and nonionic hydrogels in different saline solutions was investigated in detail. Zwitterionic hydrogels showed much higher ionic conductivity than that of the widely used nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate hydrogel in all tested solutions. For both cationic and anionic hydrogels, the presence of mobile counterions led to high ionic conductivity in low salt solutions; however, the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic hydrogels surpassed that of cationic and ionic hydrogels in high salt solutions. Cationic and anionic hydrogels showed much higher water content than that of zwitterionic hydrogels in deionized water; however, the cationic hydrogels shrank significantly with increasing saline concentration. This work provides insight into the effects of polyelectrolyte side chains on ion transport. This can guide us in choosing better polyelectrolytes for a broad spectrum of applications, including bioelectronics, neural implants, battery, and so on.

  14. Conductive Composites Made Less Expensively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.

    2005-01-01

    The use of electrically conductive composite structures for electrostatic dissipation, electromagnetic interference shielding, and ground return planes could save between 30 and 90 percent of the mass of the structure, in comparison to aluminum. One strategy that has been shown to make conducting composites effectively uses intercalated graphite fiber as the reinforcement. Intercalation--the insertion of guest atoms or molecules between the graphene planes--can lower the electrical resistivity of graphite fibers by as much as a factor of 10, without sacrificing mechanical or thermal properties.

  15. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  16. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  17. 30 CFR 48.4 - Cooperative training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative training program. 48.4 Section 48.4... program. (a) An operator of a mine may conduct his own training programs, or may participate in training programs conducted by MSHA, or may participate in MSHA approved training programs conducted by State or...

  18. Characterization and Conduction Mechanism of Highly Conductive Vanadate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuaki Nishida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent studies of highly conductive barium iron vanadate glass with a composition of 20 BaO ∙ 10 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 (in mol %. Isothermal annealing of the vanadate glass for several ten minutes at a given temperature, higher than glass transition temperature or crystallization temperature, caused an increase in σ. Substitution of CuI (3d10, ZnII (3d10 and CuII (3d9 for FeIII (3d5 was investigated to elucidate the effect of electron configuration on the conductivity (σ. A marked decrease in the activation energy of conduction (Ea was also observed after the annealing. Values of Ea were correlated to the energy gap between the donor level and the conduction band (CB in the n-type semiconductor model. Isothermal annealing of ZnII-substituted vanadate glass (20 BaO ∙ 5 ZnO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 at 450 °C for 30 min showed an increase in σ from 2.5 × 10–6 to 2.1 × 10–1 S cm–1, which was one order of magnitude larger than that of non-substituted vanadate glass (3.4 × 10–2 S cm–1. Under the same annealing condition, σ’s of 2.0 × 10–1 and 3.2 × 10–1 S cm–1 were observed for 20 BaO ∙ 5 Cu2O ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 and 20 BaO ∙ 5 CuO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 glasses, respectively. These results demonstrate an increase in the carrier (electron density in the CB, primarily composed of anti-bonding 4s-orbitals.

  19. Theoretical approaches to superionic conductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the AgI family are apparently triggered by cluster formation and strong mobile ion interaction within the clusters. Anomalous conductivity and related physical properties are explained in the cluster induced distor- tion model. Ionic composites such as AgX : Al2O3 (X ...... the relaxation mode at wavenumber 'q' for branch 'ε'.

  20. Thermal conductivity of niobium diselenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeske, F. Jr.

    1976-10-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements have been used to study the temperature dependence of the various scattering mechanisms present in single crystals of NbSe in a temperature range from 1 to 10/sup 0/K. Phonons are found to contribute a substantial fraction of the conduction in this temperature range and, in general, the results agree well with standard theoretical models for three-dimensional metals. The presence of van der Waals boundaries beween the layers introduces no significant boundary scattering for phonons. In addition to the usual electron and point defect scattering terms which are present in the phonon conductivity, a term which has a linear temperature dependence was found. This linear term may be caused by stacking fault scattering centers. A linear field dependence of the electrical magnetoresistance is reported and it is suggested this term may arise from magnetic breakdown at energy gaps in the Fermi surface induced by charge-density waves as suggested by Overhauser. It is noted that the ratio of the superconducting to normal state thermal conductivity is consistent with a BCS-like superconducting energy gap.

  1. Fluctuation conductivity in cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    superconducting layers in each unit cell is also not adequate. We suggest the fluctuation conductivity to be reduced due to the reduction in the density of states (DOS) of the quasiparticles which results due to the formation of Cooper pairs at the onset of the fluctuations. The data agrees with the theory proposed by Dorin et al ...

  2. Phonon conduction in silicon nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woosung; Shin, Dongsuk D.; Kim, Soo Jin; Katz, Joseph S.; Park, Joonsuk; Ahn, Chae Hyuck; Kodama, Takashi; Asheghi, Mehdi; Kenny, Thomas W.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2017-05-01

    Despite extensive studies on thermal transport in thin silicon films, there has been little work studying the thermal conductivity of single-crystal rectangular, cross-sectional nanobeams that are commonly used in many applications such as nanoelectronics (FinFETs), nano-electromechanical systems, and nanophotonics. Here, we report experimental data on the thermal conductivity of silicon nanobeams of a thickness of ˜78 nm and widths of ˜65 nm, 170 nm, 270 nm, 470 nm, and 970 nm. The experimental data agree well (within ˜9%) with the predictions of a thermal conductivity model that uses a combination of bulk mean free paths obtained from ab initio calculations and a suppression function derived from the kinetic theory. This work quantifies the impact of nanobeam aspect ratios on thermal transport and establishes a criterion to differentiate between thin films and beams in studying thermal transport. The thermal conductivity of a 78 nm × 65 nm nanobeam is ˜32 W m-1 K-1, which is roughly a factor of two smaller than that of a 78 nm thick film.

  3. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  4. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  5. Electronic conductivity of mechanochemically synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 67, No. 2. — journal of. August 2006 physics pp. 331–340. Electronic conductivity of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline Ag1−xCuxI system using DC polarization technique∗ .... 0.15, 0.25 were synthesized by mechanical grinding in a 6 agate mortar and pestle for 5 h at room temperature in an ...

  6. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  7. Korea space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jai-Hak

    Though Korea's space activities are just in the infant stage, we are looking forward to joining the advanced countries in the space field. We have three on-going space programs: the KOREASAT Program, a sounding rocket program, and the KITSAT Program. And, we have three more programs that we are in the process of formulating: a small remote sensing satellite program, a data receiving station construction program, and the second generation KOREASAT program. We have several organizations which are involved with space-related activities: KARI, ETRI, SERI, and KAIST. KARI was founded in 1989 in accordance with the Aerospace Industry Development & Promotion Act for the purpose of conducting research on aicraft, satellites and scientific rockets, and supporting national aerospace development projects.

  8. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidalov, Sergey V.; Shakhov, Fedor M.

    2009-01-01

    A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K) and 400 W/(m·K), respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differs markedly from those of the materials employed in semiconductor electronics (mostly silicon); one should add here the low electrical resistivity metals possess. By contrast, natural single-crystal diamond is known to feature the highest thermal conductivity of all the bulk materials studied thus far, as high as 2,200 W/(m·K). Needless to say, it cannot be applied in heat removal technology because of high cost. Recently, SiC- and AlN-based ceramics have started enjoying wide use as heat sink materials; the thermal conductivity of such composites, however, is inferior to that of metals by nearly a factor two. This prompts a challenging scientific problem to develop diamond-based composites with thermal characteristics superior to those of aluminum and copper, adjustable thermal expansion coefficient, low electrical conductivity and a moderate cost, below that of the natural single-crystal diamond. The present review addresses this problem and appraises the results reached by now in studying the possibility of developing composites in diamond-containing systems with a view of obtaining materials with a high thermal conductivity.

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor M. Shakhov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K and 400 W/(m·K, respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differs markedly from those of the materials employed in semiconductor electronics (mostly silicon; one should add here the low electrical resistivity metals possess. By contrast, natural single-crystal diamond is known to feature the highest thermal conductivity of all the bulk materials studied thus far, as high as 2,200 W/(m·K. Needless to say, it cannot be applied in heat removal technology because of high cost. Recently, SiC- and AlN-based ceramics have started enjoying wide use as heat sink materials; the thermal conductivity of such composites, however, is inferior to that of metals by nearly a factor two. This prompts a challenging scientific problem to develop diamond-based composites with thermal characteristics superior to those of aluminum and copper, adjustable thermal expansion coefficient, low electrical conductivity and a moderate cost, below that of the natural single-crystal diamond. The present review addresses this problem and appraises the results reached by now in studying the possibility of developing composites in diamond-containing systems with a view of obtaining materials with a high thermal conductivity.

  10. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In comparison with these competing finishes, the present nanocomposite finishes are expected to cost 50

  11. Programs That Educate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    The essays in this collection reflect on effective practices conducted in Catholic schools. Essays were written by participants in the 2000 principals' academy. Under "Section 1: Religious Education" are the following essays: "Kingdom Builders" (Sr. M. Joseph); "Sacramental Programs, Parish Programs" (J. Thaler); and…

  12. An analysis of traditional operational testing to project how testing will be conducted in the future

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Lawrence L.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this thesis is to analyze current operational testing and to alert the reader to how testing will be conducted in the future. This analysis is conducted from a tester's point of view and is targeted at program offices so that Program Managers will be able to ensure that beneficial operational testing is conducted on their programs. The thesis also provides a detailed description of current and future systems used to inst...

  13. Innovative Space Sciences Education Programs for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, T.

    2002-01-01

    The future of the world is greatly depends on space. Through space sciences education programs with the main focus is on young people, the society, as a whole will gain in the years to come. The Weizmann Institute of Science is the leading scientific research center in Israel. After the need for science education programs for young students was recognized, the institute established its Youth Activities Section, which serves as the institute's outreach for the general population of school children nation-wide. The youth activities section holds courses, seminars, science camps etc. for almost 40 years. As an instructor in the youth activities section since 1990, my focus is space sciences programs, such as rocketry courses, planetarium demonstrations, astronomical observations and special events - all in the creed of bringing the space science to everyone, in a enjoyable, innovative and creative way. Two of the courses conducted combines' scientific knowledge, hands-on experience and a glimpse into the work of space programs: the rocketry courses offered a unique chance of design, build and fly actual rockets, to height of about 800 meters. The students conduct research on the rockets, such as aerial photography, environmental measurements and aerodynamic research - using student built wind tunnel. The space engineering course extend the high frontier of the students into space: the objective of a two year course is to design, build an launch an experiments package to space, using one of NASA's GAS programs. These courses, combined with special guest lectures by Weizmann institute's senior researchers, tours to facilities like satellite control center, clean rooms, the aeronautical industry, give the students a chance to meet with "the real world" of space sciences applications and industry, and this - in turn - will have payback effect on the society as a whole in years to come. The activities of space sciences education include two portable planetariums, 4

  14. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  15. Conduct of operations implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.K.; Hall, R.L.

    1991-02-20

    This implementation plan describes the process and provides information and schedules that are necessary to implement and comply with the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes} (CoOp). This plan applies to all Pinellas Plant operations and personnel. Generally, this Plan discusses how DOE Order 5480.19 will be implemented at the Pinellas Plant.

  16. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Fedor M. Shakhov; Kidalov, Sergey V.

    2009-01-01

    A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K) and 400 W/(m·K), respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differ...

  17. Electrically conductive black optical paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, M. M.; Metzler, E. C.; Cleland, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    An electrically conductive flat black paint has been developed for use on the Galileo spacecraft which will orbit Jupiter in the late 1980s. The paint, designed for equipment operating in high-energy radiation fields, has multipurpose functions. Its electrical conductivity keeps differential charging of the spacecraft external surfaces and equipment to a minimum, preventing the buildup of electrostatic fields and arcing. Its flat black aspect minimizes the effects of stray light and unwanted reflectances, when used in optical instruments and on sunshades. Its blackness is suitable, also, for thermal control, when the paint is put on spacecraft surfaces. The paint has good adherence properties, as measured by tape tests, when applied properly to a surface. The electrically conductive paint which was developed has the following characteristics: an electrical resistivity of 5 x 10 to the 7th ohms per square; a visual light total reflectance of approximately 5 percent; an infrared reflectance of 0.13 measured over a spectrum from 10 to the (-5.5) power to 0.001 meter; a solar absorptivity, alpha-s, of 0.93, and a thermal emissivity, epsilon, of 0.87, resulting in an alpha-s/epsilon of 1.07. The formula for making the paint and the process for applying it are described.

  18. Proton-conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Coffey, G.W.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Single-cell solid oxide fuel cells were constructed using strontium cerate as the electrolyte and their performance tested. Like certain zirconates, hafnates, and tantalates, the cerate perovskites are among a class of solid electrolytes that conduct protons at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature and chemical environment, these ceramics also support electronic and oxygen ion currents. A maximum power output of {approx}100 mW per cm{sup 2} electrolyte surface area was obtained at 900{degrees}C using 4% hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. A series of rare earth/ceria/zirconia were prepared and their electrical properties characterized. Rare earth dopants included ytterbia, yttria, terbia, and europia. Ionic conductivities were highest for rare earth/ceria and rare earth zirconia compositions; a minimum in ionic conductivity for all series were found for equimolar mixtures of ceria and zirconia. Cerium oxysulfide is of interest in fossil energy applications because of its high chemical stability and refractory nature. An alternative synthesis route to preparing cerium oxysulfide powders has been developed using combustion techniques.

  19. CONDUCTIVE CHANNEL FOR ENERGY TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of super long ionized channels with a characteristic diameter of ~100  µ  in atmosphere along the  beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below  10 ⋅ 16 cm–3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0,5–1,0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation.  In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J. An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m.Not so long ago scientific group from P. N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap – 1 m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result  –  16 m long conducting channel controlled by a  laser spark at the voltage  –  3 MV  – was obtained more than 20 years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2  laser with energy  –  0,5 kJ. An average electric field strength  was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  20. 25 CFR 12.51 - Must Indian country law enforcement officers follow a code of conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... code of conduct? 12.51 Section 12.51 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW... follow a code of conduct? All law enforcement programs receiving Bureau of Indian Affairs funding or commissioning must establish a law enforcement code of conduct which establishes specific guidelines for conduct...

  1. Strengthening preventive care programs: a permanent challenge for healthcare systems; lessons from PREVENIMSS México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Sonia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001, the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS carried out a major reorganization to provide comprehensive preventive care to reinforce primary care services through the PREVENIMSS program. This program divides the population into programmatic age groups that receive specific preventive services: children (0-9 years, adolescents (10-19 years, men (20-59 years, women (20-59 years and older adults (> = 60 years. The objective of this paper is to describe the improvement of the PREVENIMSS program in terms of the increase of coverage of preventive actions and the identification of unmet needs of unsolved and emergent health problems. Methods From 2003 to 2006, four nation-wide cross-sectional probabilistic population based surveys were conducted using a four stage sampling design. Thirty thousand households were visited in each survey. The number of IMSS members interviewed ranged from 79,797 respondents in 2003 to 117,036 respondents in 2006. Results The four surveys showed a substantial increase in coverage indicators for each age group: children, completed schemes of vaccination (> 90%, iron supplementation (17.8% to 65.5%, newborn screening for metabolic disorders (60.3% to 81.6%. Adolescents, measles - rubella vaccine (52.4% to 71.4%, hepatitis vaccine (9.3% to 46.2%, use of condoms (17.9% to 59.9%. Women, measles-rubella vaccine (28.5% to 59-2%, cervical cancer screening (66.7% to 75%, breast cancer screening (> 2.1%. Men, type 2 diabetes screening (38.6% to 57.8% hypertension screening (48-4% to 64.0%. Older adults, pneumococcal vaccine (13.2% to 24.9%, influenza vaccine (12.6% to 52.9 Regarding the unmet needs, the prevalence of anemia in children was 30% and a growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension was found in men, women and older adults. Conclusion PREVENIMSS showed an important increase in the coverage of preventive services and stressed the magnitude of the old and

  2. Localising, Translating and Stretching Conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    and translated in and across nexus of practice. In order to do this, conversation analysis (CA) and mediated discourse analysis (MDA) are drawn upon in combination with actor-network theory (ANT) and contemporary theories of space, governmentality and agential realism. I will assume a knowledge of conversation...... and experience - are deeply problematic. If they are, then simply invoking ‘a context’ in analysis is troubling. Instead, I suggest that we need to examine more closely how participants translate and circulate conduct at the non-scalar interface between technologies of power and technologies of the self. I...

  3. 76 FR 5821 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for... Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of the program for...

  4. Multifractal conductance fluctuations in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bid, Aveek; Rafsanjani Amin, Kazi; Pal, Nairita; Sankar Ray, Samriddhi; Pandit, Rahul

    A multifractal (MF) system is characterized by scaling laws involving an infinite number of exponents. In condensed-matter systems, signatures of multifractality have typically been found in the structure of the critical wave functions at localization delocalization (LD) transitions. We report here the first experimental observation of MF statistics in the transport coefficients of a quantum-condensed matter system. We unearth this through a careful investigation of the magneto-conductance fluctuations in ultra-high mobility single layer graphene at ultra-low temperatures. We obtain the MF spectra over a wide range of temperature and doping levels and show that the multifractality decreases as the temperature increases or as the doping moves the system away from the Dirac point. We show that the fractal exponents are a universal function of the phase coherence length of the carriers. We propose that a probable origin of the MF magneto-conductance fluctuations observed by us is an incipient Anderson LD transition in graphene near the charge neutrality point - a phenomenon predicted but never observed in single layer graphene. We also explore alternate possibilities of the origin of the multifractality namely relativistic quantum scars. AB acknowledges funding from Nanomission, DST, Govt. of India and SERB, DST, Govt. of India.

  5. Conduction-coupled Tesla transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J L

    2015-03-01

    A proof-of-principle Tesla transformer circuit is introduced. The new transformer exhibits the high voltage-high power output signal of shock-excited transformers. The circuit, with specification of proper circuit element values, is capable of obtaining extreme oscillatory voltages. The primary and secondary portions of the circuit communicate solely by conduction. The destructive arcing between the primary and secondary inductors in electromagnetically coupled transformers is ubiquitous. Flashover is eliminated in the new transformer as the high-voltage inductors do not interpenetrate and so do not possess an annular volume of electric field. The inductors are remote from one another. The high voltage secondary inductor is isolated in space, except for a base feed conductor, and obtains earth by its self-capacitance to the surroundings. Governing equations, for the ideal case of no damping, are developed from first principles. Experimental, theoretical, and circuit simulator data are presented for the new transformer. Commercial high-temperature superconductors are discussed as a means to eliminate the counter-intuitive damping due to small primary inductances in both the electromagnetic-coupled and new conduction-coupled transformers.

  6. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1989-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  7. 12 CFR 568.3 - Security program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security program. 568.3 Section 568.3 Banks and... program. (a) Contents of security program. The security program shall: (1) Establish procedures for... officers and employees in their responsibilities under the security program and in proper employee conduct...

  8. Conducting psychotherapy with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuay, Justin; Chopra, Prem; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study assessed how clinicians prepared and used interpreters during psychotherapeutic sessions and investigated the strategies they used to manage the dynamics of this process. Ten therapists were interviewed at the Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture (VFST). A semi-structured interview format was used. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcripts of recorded interviews to identify key themes. Factors affecting the provision of psychotherapy with interpreters agreed with general guidelines for working with interpreters but there were exceptions. The possible roles of the interpreter as a cultural consultant, community advocate and co-therapist were explored. Specific troubleshooting strategies were identified for improving empathy, redefining roles, and adjusting interactions with interpreters. Working with interpreters in psychotherapy is a complex process. These findings may benefit clinicians providing psychotherapy to patients using interpreters. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Thermal conductivity of molten metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta-Martinez, Maria Vita

    2000-02-01

    A new instrument for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of molten metals has been designed, built and commissioned. The apparatus is based on the transient hot-wire technique and it is intended for operation over a wide range of temperatures, from ambient up to 1200 K, with an accuracy approaching 2%. In its present form the instrument operates up to 750 K. The construction of the apparatus involved four different stages, first, the design and construction of the sensor and second, the construction of an electronic system for the measurement and storage of data. The third stage was the design and instrumentation of the high temperature furnace for the melting and temperature control of the sample, and finally, an algorithm was developed for the extraction of the thermal conductivity from the raw measurement data. The sensor consists of a cylindrical platinum-wire symmetrically sandwiched between two rectangular plane sheets of alumina. The rectangular sensor is immersed in the molten metal of interest and a voltage step is applied to the ends of the platinum wire to induce heat dissipation and a consequent temperature rise which, is in part, determined by the thermal conductivity of the molten metal. The process is described by a set of partial differential equations and appropriate boundary conditions rather than an approximate analytical solution. An electronic bridge configuration was designed and constructed to perform the measurement of the resistance change of the platinum wire in the time range 20 {mu}s to 1 s. The resistance change is converted to temperature change by a suitable calibration. From these temperature measurements as a function of time the thermal conductivity of the molten metals has been deduced using the Finite Element Method for the solution of the working equations. This work has achieved its objective of improving the accuracy of the measurement of the thermal conductivity of molten metals from {+-}20% to {+-}2%. Measurements

  11. 38 CFR 21.362 - Satisfactory conduct and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C... services which VR&E staff can assist the veteran in securing through non-VA programs; and (3) The specific... determining satisfactory conduct and cooperation. VR&E staff with case management responsibility in the...

  12. Electrical Conductivity of milk: ability to predict mastitis status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norberg, E.; Hogeveen, H.; Korsgaard, I.R.; Friggens, N.C.; Sloth, K.H.M.N.; Lovendahl, P.

    2004-01-01

    Electrical conductivity (EC) of milk has been introduced as an indicator trait for mastitis over the last decade, and it may be considered as a potential trait in a breeding program where selection for improved udder health is included. In this study, various EC traits were investigated for their

  13. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407...

  14. Genetic influences on conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Dick, Danielle M

    2016-06-24

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a moderately heritable psychiatric disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by aggression toward people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules. Genome-wide scans using linkage and association methods have identified a number of suggestive genomic regions that are pending replication. A small number of candidate genes (e.g., GABRA2, MAOA, SLC6A4, AVPR1A) are associated with CD related phenotypes across independent studies; however, failures to replicate also exist. Studies of gene-environment interplay show that CD genetic predispositions also contribute to selection into higher-risk environments, and that environmental factors can alter the importance of CD genetic factors and differentially methylate CD candidate genes. The field's understanding of CD etiology will benefit from larger, adequately powered studies in gene identification efforts; the incorporation of polygenic approaches in gene-environment interplay studies; attention to the mechanisms of risk from genes to brain to behavior; and the use of genetically informative data to test quasi-causal hypotheses about purported risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Perry, David; Unwin, Patrick R

    2017-04-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential-time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science.

  16. The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcock, Harry R.; Benesi, Alan; Macdonald, Digby D.

    2010-08-27

    The research carried out under grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46371, "The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes", during the period June 1, 2008 - May 31, 2010 was comprised of three related parts. These are: 1. An examination of the state of water in classical proton conduction membranes with the use of deuterium T1 NMR spectroscopy (Allcock and Benesi groups). 2. A dielectric relaxation examination of the behavior of water in classical ionomer membranes (Macdonald program). 3. Attempts to synthesize new proton-conduction polymers and membranes derived from the polyphosphazene system. (Allcock program) All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

  17. Teaching scientific integrity and the responsible conduct of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, G A; Siegler, M

    1993-12-01

    Since 1990, federal guidelines have required "instruction about the responsible conduct of research" for science trainees who are supported by certain National Research Service Award (NRSA) training grants. This article reports how one school, The University of Chicago, responded to this requirement by developing a two-year "scientific integrity" program, targeted for but not limited to trainees on NRSA grants. The program features lectures the first year and seminars the next on a variety of topics related to the responsible conduct of research. This arrangement allows trainees to benefit both from the presentations of important university and outside speakers and from the intimate exchange possible only in smaller group settings. The program is an ongoing course rather than an intensive one- or two-day effort, and is intended not as an effort to reform dishonest persons who are likely to commit outright fraud but to serve the large group of honest trainees by helping them learn the important ethical issues and norms in the practice of good science, recognize areas of ethical conflict in research and scientific training, and understand their own values better. The authors discuss some major structural, procedural, and philosophical questions that had to be faced as the program was developed. They report the difficulties of evaluating such a program but believe that it and programs like it can have a variety of benefits, which they describe, for both the trainees themselves and the larger research community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. A nursing bioethics program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrizio, M A; Ozuna, J; Mattheis, R; Saunders, J

    1992-01-01

    In 1985 the Seattle Veterans' Administration Medical Center nursing service implemented a nursing program for bioethics with three goals: (1) to expand the nurse's knowledge of bioethical principles, (2) to develop the nurse's ability and confidence in analyzing bioethical dilemmas, and (3) to increase bioethical application at the bedside. Two psychosocial clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) led this highly successful nursing program that prepared nurses to more actively and responsibly participate in bioethical decision making within the medical center. The program offers an annual workshop for new members, holds a monthly discussion group, conducts a yearly enrichment program, and completes an annual evaluation report. This article describes nursing service bioethics program from planning through evaluation and the role of the CNS as program coordinator, facilitator, and educator in the expanding field of bioethics.

  19. Composites incorporated a conductive polymer nanofiber network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, Lilo Danielle; Newbloom, Gregory

    2017-04-11

    Methods of forming composites that incorporate networks of conductive polymer nanofibers are provided. Networks of less-than conductive polymers are first formed and then doped with a chemical dopant to provide networks of conductive polymers. The networks of conductive polymers are then incorporated into a matrix in order to improve the conductivity of the matrix. The formed composites are useful as conductive coatings for applications including electromagnetic energy management on exterior surfaces of vehicles.

  20. Program specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  1. Program Pemberdayaan Guru

    OpenAIRE

    Wardani, I G. A.K

    1999-01-01

    Although there are many aspects responsible for the quality of education, teachers are usually considered as the most responsible ones for the low students' achievement. To help the teachers perform professionally, an empowerment program for teachers should be conducted. Based on the analysis on some aspects related to teachers, an empowerment program consisting of two components is developed. The first component, competency empowerment, proposes six ideas, i.e. improve the student recruitmen...

  2. Program Pemberdayaan Guru

    OpenAIRE

    Wardani, I G. A.K

    2016-01-01

    Although there are many aspects responsible for the quality of education, teachers are usually considered as the most responsible ones for the low students' achievement. To help the teachers perform professionally, an empowerment program for teachers should be conducted. Based on the analysis on some aspects related to teachers, an empowerment program consisting of two components is developed. The first component, competency empowerment, proposes six ideas, i.e. improve the student recruitmen...

  3. A Qualitative Program Evaluation of a Structured Leadership Mentoring Program at a Large Aerospace Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Romney P.

    2011-01-01

    The researcher utilized a qualitative approach to conduct a program evaluation of the organization where he is employed. The study intended to serve as a program evaluation for the structured in-house mentoring program at a large aerospace corporation (A-Corp). This program evaluation clarified areas in which the current mentoring program is…

  4. 49 CFR 385.315 - Where will the safety audit be conducted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where will the safety audit be conducted? 385.315... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.315 Where will the safety audit be conducted? The safety audit will generally be conducted at the new entrant's business premises. ...

  5. 49 CFR 385.313 - Who will conduct the safety audit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who will conduct the safety audit? 385.313 Section... FITNESS PROCEDURES New Entrant Safety Assurance Program § 385.313 Who will conduct the safety audit? An individual certified under the FMCSA regulations to perform safety audits will conduct the safety audit. ...

  6. Design and methods for a cluster-controlled trial conducted at sixty-eight daycare facilities evaluating the impact of “JolinchenKids - Fit and Healthy in Daycare”, a program for health promotion in 3- to 6-year-old children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berit Steenbock; Hajo Zeeb; Stefan Rach; Hermann Pohlabeln; Claudia R Pischke

    2017-01-01

    ...” is a multi-component program promoting physical activity (PA), healthy eating, and mental well-being in 3- to 6-year-old preschoolers at DFs, originally designed by the German health insurance AOK...

  7. Loss of conductivity in operating room shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, E; Newell, J C

    1978-01-01

    The effect of dirt encountered during normal use on the conductivity of operating room footwear has been studied. Booties, sneakers, and shoes having relatively larger conductive area remained conductive throughout the testing period. Shoes and clogs having relatively smaller conductive contact area were found to lose conductivity sooner, and, in more cases, than any other type of footwear tested. The size of the conductive contact area appears to correlate with the length of time that conductive footwear will remain within resistance specification during use.

  8. Program Evaluation for Sexually Transmitted Disease Programs: In Support of Effective Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion W

    2016-02-01

    Program evaluation is a key tool for gathering evidence about the value and effectiveness of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs and interventions. Drawing from published literature, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluation framework, and program examples, this article lays out some of the key principles of program evaluation for STD program staff. The purpose is to offer STD program staff a stronger basis for talking about, planning, conducting, and advocating for evaluation within their respective program contexts.

  9. Crisis intervention: program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simington, J A; Cargill, L; Hill, W

    1996-11-01

    Crisis intervention is based upon crisis theory and is defined as a short-term active mode of therapy that focuses on solving the client's immediate problem and reestablishing psychological equilibrium. The crisis intervention program was the first phase in the development of a broader mental health program with advancement decisions being based upon evaluation results of this initial phase. An evaluation methodology using the Stufflebeam Goal-Stakeholder Model (1980) was designed and implemented. A satisfaction survey was conducted to develop a database relative to the program's process. The Mental Health Category Measure, and the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale were used to capture outcome data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicate that stakeholders are satisfied with the program. outcome data demonstrates that the program produces the intended outcomes. Triangulation, a method of comparing the qualitative and quantitative findings revealed consistency, and thus provides confidence in the accuracy of the findings.

  10. 28 CFR 524.23 - Program reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program reviews. 524.23 Section 524.23... TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Youth Corrections Act (YCA) Programs § 524.23 Program reviews. Staff shall conduct periodic reviews of the inmate's program plan and shall modify the plan in accordance with...

  11. Dynamic Conductivity and Partial Ionization in Warm, Dense Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghoo, M.; Silvera, I. F.

    2017-10-01

    A theoretical description for optical conduction experiments in dense fluid hydrogen is presented. Different quantum statistical approaches are used to describe the mechanism of electron transport in hydrogen's high-temperature dense phase. We show that at the onset of the metallic transition, optical conduction could be described by a strong rise in the atomic polarizability, resulting from increased ionization; whereas in the highly degenerate limit, the Ziman weak-scattering model better describes the observed saturation of reflectance. In the highly degenerate region, the inclusion of partial ionization effects provides excellent agreement with experimental results. Hydrogen's fluid metallic state is revealed to be a partially ionized free-electron plasma. These results provide a crucial benchmark for ab initio calculations as well as an important guide for future experiments. Research supported by DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656, and NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Award NNX14AP17H.

  12. Mental Retardation: Construction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    Federally funded construction programs for the retarded included are the following: 12 research centers in which biological, medical, social, and behavioral research is conducted to investigate the causes and prevention of mental retardation; 18 university-affiliated facilities for inter-disciplinary training of professional and technical…

  13. Program summaries for 1979: energy sciences programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the objectives of the various research programs being conducted by the Chemical Sciences, Metallurgy and Materials Science, and Process Science divisions of the BNL Dept. of Energy and Environment. Some of the more significant accomplishments during 1979 are also reported along with plans for 1980. Some of the topics under study include porphyrins, combustion, coal utilization, superconductors, semiconductors, coal, conversion, fluidized-bed combustion, polymers, etc. (DLC)

  14. Wiring for space applications program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Ahmad

    1994-01-01

    The insulation testing and analysis consists of: identifying and prioritizing NASA wiring requirements; selecting candidate wiring constructions; developing test matrix and formulating test program; managing, coordinating, and conducting tests; and analyzing and documenting data, establishing guidelines and recommendations.

  15. Conduct of operations: The foundation of safety -- An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, D.J.; Hertel, N.E.

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses issues and approaches dealing with conceptualizing, implementing, and maintaining configuration control commensurate with the conduct of operations approach defined by DOE ORDER 5480.19. Specific topics reviewed will include key elements of assessments to determine the status quo such as assessment criteria, assessment personnel, and assessment scope; administrative programs to maintain the status quo such as organizational definition, responsibilities, interfaces, and priorities; oversight to determine control effectiveness via compliance and performance assessment.

  16. Program Pemberdayaan Guru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. A.K. Wardani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many aspects responsible for the quality of education, teachers are usually considered as the most responsible ones for the low students' achievement. To help the teachers perform professionally, an empowerment program for teachers should be conducted. Based on the analysis on some aspects related to teachers, an empowerment program consisting of two components is developed. The first component, competency empowerment, proposes six ideas, i.e. improve the student recruitment system, improve teachers' reading ability and reading interest, presenting models, focus the training program on teachers' needs, encourage teachers to conduct classroom action research, and develop habit of scientific discussion. The second component, teachers' welfare empowerment, proposes reasonable incentive for teachers

  17. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  18. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  19. Process evaluation of two environmental nutrition programmes and an educational nutrition programme conducted at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H.M. Steenhuis; P. van Assema (Patricia); A. Reubsaet; G.J. Kok (Gerjo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article describes the process evaluation of two environmental programs and a educational nutrition program, implemented at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias. Studies conducted earlier, indicated that the programs had no effect on consumers’ eating behavior. Consequently, the more

  20. Synthesis of novel electrically conducting polymers: Potential conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films and conducting polymers on defined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Based on previous results involving thiophene derived electrically conducting polymers in which it was shown that thiophene, 3-substituted thiophenes, furans, and certain oligomers of these compounds showed electrical conductivity after polymerization. The conductivity was in the order of up to 500 S/cm. In addition, these polymers showed conductivity without being doped and most of all they were practically inert toward ambient conditions. They even could be used in aqueous media. With these findings as a guide, a number of 3-long-chain-substituted thiophenes and 1-substituted-3-long-chain substituted pyrrols were synthesized as monomers for potential polymeric electrically conducting Langmuir-Blodgett films.

  1. Controlling conductivity of asphalt concrete with graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has a huge potential for various multifunctional applications such as : self-healing, self-sensing, and deicing. In order to utilize the full spectrum of applications of electrically conductive : asphalt compo...

  2. The making of a nation-wide campaign fighting the nursing caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden-Stoelinga, van M.S.E.; Koelen, M.A.; Hielkema-de Meij, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Although, in the Netherlands, the fight against tooth decay has been successful over the past decades, in 1994, the incidence of nursing caries made the Ivory Cross*, the Dutch National Association for the Promotion of Oral Hygiene, decide to develop and implement a campaign to address the

  3. A nation-wide fetal RHD screening programme for targeted antenatal and postnatal anti-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, M. de; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Scheffer, P.G.; Verlinden, D.A.; Hirschberg, H.; Abbink, F.; Schoot, C.E. van der

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, since 1 July 2011, both antenatal anti-D immunoprophylaxis (1000 IU in the 30th week of gestation) and postnatal prophylaxis (1000 IU) is administered to only those women for whom a fetal RHD typing, performed in week 27 of pregnancy, predicts the presence of a D-positive child.

  4. Anaesthesia and post-operative morbidity after elective groin hernia repair: a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Nielsen, Morten; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    30 days post-operatively, prolonged length of stay (>2 days post-operatively) or death. RESULTS: Complications after groin hernia repair were more frequent in patients 65+ years (4.5%), compared with younger patients (2.7%) (P... after regional anaesthesia (1.17%), compared with general anaesthesia (0.59%) (P=0.003) and urological complications were more frequent after regional anaesthesia (0.87%), compared with local infiltration anaesthesia (0.09%) (P=0.006). Seventeen prostatectomies occurred after post-operative urinary...... retention, but with no case after local anaesthesia. Mortality within 30 days after elective groin hernia repair was 0.12%. Regional anaesthesia was disproportionately more often used in patients dying within 1 week post-operatively. CONCLUSION: Choice of the anaesthetic technique should be adjusted...

  5. Organized nation-wide implementation of sentinel lymph node biopsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, E.; Galatius, H.; Garne, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    patient load in the individual surgical unit, a minimum surgical training in the sentinel node biopsy technique and a minimum quality outcome in a validating learning series of SNLB procedures. A working group assisted departments in meeting these terms and later audited and certified departments before...... they could include patients into the study. As a result of this strategy the sentinel lymph node staging was fully implemented in all Danish surgical breast cancer centres within three years and all sentinel node biopsies in the period were recorded in the DBCG data centre. Furthermore, the strategy...

  6. A nation-wide study of prevalence and risk factors for fecal impaction in nursing homes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people. OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with fecal impaction on a representative sample of the institutionalized elderly population. DESIGN: Two-phase study. Phase 1: pilot study validating the methodology in which all residents of a single nursing home participated. Phase 2: national multi-center cross-sectional study. SETTING: 34 randomly selected nursing homes. MEASUREMENTS: The presence of fecal impaction and associated factors were evaluated using three different tools: data collected from medical records; a self-completion questionnaire filled out by the subjects or a proxy; and a rectal examination. SUBJECTS: Older subjects living in nursing homes. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic constipation was 70.7% (95%CI: 67.3-74.1%, of which 95.9% of patients were properly diagnosed and 43.1% were properly controlled. The prevalence of FI according to patient history was 47.3% (43.6-51.0% and 6.6% (4.7-8.5% according to rectal examination. Controlled constipation (OR: 9.8 [5.2-18.4] and uncontrolled constipation (OR: 37.21 [19.7-70.1], the number of medications (OR: 1.2 [1.1-1.3], reduced functional capacity (OR: 0.98 [0.97-0.99] and the occasional use of NSAIDs were independent risk factors for fecal impaction. CONCLUSIONS: Constipation affects more than 70% of people living in nursing homes. Although it is properly diagnosed in more than 95% of cases, the disease is only controlled in less than 50%. Constipation, especially when not controlled, is the most significant risk factor leading to fecal impaction, which is prevalent in almost 50% of this population.

  7. Nation-wide Salmonella enterica surveillance and control in Danish slaughter swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Jan; Jensen, P.T.; Halgaard, C.

    1997-01-01

    . enterica O-antigens, and allows detection of antibody response after a variety of different S. enterica serovar infections. Results are transferred to a central database, which each month (based on meat-juice tests obtained in the previous 13 weeks) assigns all herds into three S. enterica infection levels...... management hygiene precautions must be taken. If a herd is categorized in Level 3, the finishers from the herd must additionally be slaughtered under special hygiene precautions. This is supervised by the veterinary authorities. During 1995, 604 000 samples were tested for S. enterica, corresponding to 3...

  8. Implementing a Nation-Wide Mental Health Care Reform: An Analysis of Stakeholders' Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorant, Vincent; Grard, Adeline; Nicaise, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Belgium has recently reformed its mental health care delivery system with the goals to strengthen the community-based supply of care, care integration, and the social rehabilitation of users and to reduce the resort to hospitals. We assessed whether these different reform goals were endorsed by stakeholders. One-hundred and twenty-two stakeholders ranked, online, eighteen goals of the reform according to their priorities. Stakeholders supported the goals of social rehabilitation of users and community care but were reluctant to reduce the resort to hospitals. Stakeholders were averse to changes in treatment processes, particularly in relation to the reduction of the resort to hospitals and mechanisms for more care integration. Goals heterogeneity and discrepancies between stakeholders' perspectives and policy priorities are likely to produce an uneven implementation of the reform process and, hence, reduce its capacity to achieve the social rehabilitation of users.

  9. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes. a nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovesen, Per Glud; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Rasmussen, Steen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in Denmark. A population-based cohort study including all singleton pregnancies in Denmark from 2004 to 2010 (n = 403 092). Maternal complications during pregnancy and delivery and fetal complications were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision. The final study population consisted of 398 623 women. Of these, 9014 (2.3%) had GDM. Data were adjusted for maternal age, parity, smoking, gestational age, birth weight, BMI, gender of the fetus and calendar year. The risk of preeclampsia, caesarean section (both planned and emergency) and shoulder dystocia was increased in women with GDM. In the unadjusted analysis, the risk of thrombosis was increased by a factor 2 in the GDM patients, but in the adjusted analysis this association disappeared. Post-partum hemorrhage was similar in the two groups. The GDM women had an increased risk of giving birth to a macrosomic neonate although the unadjusted analysis did not show any difference between the two groups. Low Apgar score was increased in the GDM, but this association disappeared in the adjusted analysis. Stillbirth was comparable in the two groups. Women with GDM still have increased incidence of obstetric and neonatal complications, which could imply that treatment of women with GDM should be tightened.

  10. New market labor and obesity: A nation-wide Italian cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Barbadoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of obesity among different types of employment status in the Italian working population, and to examine associated risk factors. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 36 814 people that declared to have been occupied with the same type of contract for at least 5 years was analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models were built considering workers’ sex, age, education, family body mass index (BMI category, leisure time and occupational physical activity, weight control habits, smoking habit, use of drugs, number of working hours per week, and type of working contract. Results: After adjusting for covariates, the importance of temporary-employment was confirmed by multivariate analysis, with odds ratio (OR = 1.32 for obesity (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.07–1.63 with respect to employed persons; the association was even more important in workers occupied for more than 40 h/week (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.07–2.66; moreover, shiftwork was confirmed as a risk factor for obesity in workers (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.94–1.2. Dealing with different occupational group, some categories were associated with obesity; in particular, this phenomenon involved people employed in agriculture (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.22–1.7, transportation (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.26–1.85, and public administration (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.1–1.55. Conclusions: Our analysis suggest that obesity is strongly correlated with temporary employment. Maybe the way out this pathway to obesity in the future might be working better, choosing organizational flexibility rather than fixed term. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:903–914

  11. Nepalese Homebrewed Alcoholic Beverages: Types, Ingredients, and Ethanol Concentration from a Nation Wide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, N; Aryal, K K; Paudel, M; Puri, R; Thapa, P; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S; Stray-Pedersen, B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the enormous public health problems related to traditional alcohol consumption practice in Nepal, this area has been ignored and the information at the national level is limited. Thus this study is designed to explore the readily available commonly practiced Nepalese homebrewed alcoholic beverages, the ingredients used and alcohol strength (ethanol concentration). This study was carried out as a part of ongoing household survey on "Alcohol consumption practice among married women of reproductive age in Nepal". A total of 284 homebrewed alcoholic beverage (distilled 175, non-distilled:109) samples were collected from the 16 survey districts of Nepal during the period of April to August, 2013. Ethanol percentage was tested in research lab by using standard procedure. Readily available homebrewed alcoholic beverages in practice were mainly of two types "Distilled" (local Raksi) and "Non-distilled" (Jand, Chhyang, Tumba). Rice, wheat, barley, millet, maize, fruits, and pure sugar were the commonly used ingredients to prepare alcohol. Ethanol concentration in homebrewed alcohol was 14.0% (IQR: 10.0-19.0) ranging from 3% to 40% for distilled, and 5.2% (IQR: 3.5-9.8) ranging from 1% to 18.9% for nondistilled. A significant difference (Pbeverages in Nepal was more than the strength of factory produced beer. The alcohol strength varies across their types, ingredients used, residence and regions.

  12. Current practices in percutaneous nephrolithotomy in Mexico: results of a nation-wide electronic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christian I Villeda; Roca, Benjamin E Montaño; Molina, Ricardo A Castillejos; Mendez-Probst, Carlos E

    2015-11-01

    Practice patterns and choice of technological instruments in PCNL are not always standardized. There are no previous reports on the PCNL practice tendencies and patterns in Latin America. The aim of the study is to describe the current practice patterns of PCNL among the members of the Mexican Society of Urology ("Sociedad Mexicana de Urologia"). Observational and descriptive study. A 9-item closed questionnaire on PCNL practice patterns was answered by members of the Mexican Society of Urology in a secure website hosted survey after e-mail invitation. A descriptive numerical and graphical analysis was performed. A total of 90 contestants were registered out of 492 potential participants. PCNL is performed by 80% of the participants, with an average of 16 procedures per year. Percutaneous tracts are commonly obtained by urologists on the same day of the procedure. Sequential and telescopic dilators are equally preferred over balloons. The pneumatic litotriptor is the most common choice and CT scan and X-ray are equally used as follow-up. The practice patterns of PCNL from Mexican urologists are different from other international reports. Influence of socio-economic circumstances is inferred.

  13. Surgical management of acute cholecystitis. Results of a nation-wide survey among Spanish surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Josep M; Nve, Esther; Jimeno, Jaime; Guirao, Xavier; Figueras, Joan; Arias-Díaz, Javier

    2014-10-01

    There is a wide variability in the management of acute cholecystitis. A survey among the members of the Spanish Association of Surgeons (AEC) analyzed the preferences of Spanish surgeons for its surgical management. The majority of the 771 responders didn't declare any subspecialty (41.6%), 21% were HPB surgeons, followed by colorectal and upper-GI specialities. Early cholecystectomy during the first admission is the preferred method of management of 92.3% of surgeons, but only 42.7% succeed in adopting this practice. The most frequent reasons for changing their preferred practice were: Patients not fit for surgery (43.6%) and lack of availability of emergency operating room (35.2%). A total of 88.9% perform surgery laparoscopically. The majority of AEC surgeons advise index admission cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, although only half of them succeed in its actual implementation. There is room for improvement in the management of acute cholecystitis in Spanish hospitals. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. A Nation-Wide Study of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Fecal Impaction in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Enrique; Barcelo, Marta; Jiménez Cebrián, Maria Jose; Alvarez-Sanchez, Angel; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel; Rocha, Alberto Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people. Objective Estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with fecal impaction on a representative sample of the institutionalized elderly population. Design Two-phase study. Phase 1: pilot study validating the methodology in which all residents of a single nursing home participated. Phase 2: national multi-center cross-sectional study. Setting 34 randomly selected nursing homes. Measurements The presence of fecal impaction and associated factors were evaluated using three different tools: data collected from medical records; a self-completion questionnaire filled out by the subjects or a proxy; and a rectal examination. Subjects Older subjects living in nursing homes. Results The prevalence of chronic constipation was 70.7% (95%CI: 67.3–74.1%), of which 95.9% of patients were properly diagnosed and 43.1% were properly controlled. The prevalence of FI according to patient history was 47.3% (43.6–51.0%) and 6.6% (4.7–8.5%) according to rectal examination. Controlled constipation (OR: 9.8 [5.2–18.4]) and uncontrolled constipation (OR: 37.21 [19.7–70.1]), the number of medications (OR: 1.2 [1.1–1.3]), reduced functional capacity (OR: 0.98 [0.97–0.99]) and the occasional use of NSAIDs were independent risk factors for fecal impaction. Conclusions Constipation affects more than 70% of people living in nursing homes. Although it is properly diagnosed in more than 95% of cases, the disease is only controlled in less than 50%. Constipation, especially when not controlled, is the most significant risk factor leading to fecal impaction, which is prevalent in almost 50% of this population. PMID:25148393

  15. Epidemiology of Uromodulin-Associated Kidney Disease – Results from a Nation-Wide Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lhotta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Uromodulin-associated kidney disease (UAKD is caused by uromodulin mutations and leads to end-stage renal disease. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of UAKD. Methods: Data from all UAKD families in Austria were collected. Patients included in the Austrian Dialysis and Transplantation Registry (OEDTR with unclear diagnoses or genetic diseases were asked whether they had (1 a family history of kidney disease or (2 had suffered from gout. Patients with gout and autosomal dominant renal disease underwent mutational analysis. Kaplan-Meier and Cox analysis was employed to estimate time to renal failure. Results: Of the 6,210 patients in the OEDTR, 541 were approached with a questionnaire; 353 patients answered the questionnaire. Nineteen of them gave two affirmative answers. In 7 patients, an autosomal dominant renal disease was found; in 1 patient a UMOD mutation was identified. One family was diagnosed through increased awareness as a consequence of the study. At present, 14 UAKD patients from 5 families are living in Austria (1.67 cases per million, and 6 of them require renal replacement therapy (0.73 per 1,000 patients. Progression to renal failure was significantly associated with UMOD genotype. Conclusion: UAKD patients can be identified by a simple questionnaire. UMOD genotype may affect disease progression.

  16. A nation-wide study of prevalence and risk factors for fecal impaction in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Enrique; Barcelo, Marta; Jiménez Cebrián, Maria Jose; Alvarez-Sanchez, Angel; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel; Rocha, Alberto Lopez

    2014-01-01

    There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people. Estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with fecal impaction on a representative sample of the institutionalized elderly population. Two-phase study. Phase 1: pilot study validating the methodology in which all residents of a single nursing home participated. Phase 2: national multi-center cross-sectional study. 34 randomly selected nursing homes. The presence of fecal impaction and associated factors were evaluated using three different tools: data collected from medical records; a self-completion questionnaire filled out by the subjects or a proxy; and a rectal examination. Older subjects living in nursing homes. The prevalence of chronic constipation was 70.7% (95%CI: 67.3-74.1%), of which 95.9% of patients were properly diagnosed and 43.1% were properly controlled. The prevalence of FI according to patient history was 47.3% (43.6-51.0%) and 6.6% (4.7-8.5%) according to rectal examination. Controlled constipation (OR: 9.8 [5.2-18.4]) and uncontrolled constipation (OR: 37.21 [19.7-70.1]), the number of medications (OR: 1.2 [1.1-1.3]), reduced functional capacity (OR: 0.98 [0.97-0.99]) and the occasional use of NSAIDs were independent risk factors for fecal impaction. Constipation affects more than 70% of people living in nursing homes. Although it is properly diagnosed in more than 95% of cases, the disease is only controlled in less than 50%. Constipation, especially when not controlled, is the most significant risk factor leading to fecal impaction, which is prevalent in almost 50% of this population.

  17. A Nation-Wide Study of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Fecal Impaction in Nursing Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Rey; Marta Barcelo; Maria Jose Jiménez Cebrián; Angel Alvarez-Sanchez; Manuel Diaz-Rubio; Alberto Lopez Rocha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are no existing studies that provide data regarding the epidemiology of, and risk factors for, fecal impaction, either in the general population or in any sub-group of people. OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with fecal impaction on a representative sample of the institutionalized elderly population. DESIGN: Two-phase study. Phase 1: pilot study validating the methodology in which all residents of a single nursing home participated. Phase 2: natio...

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Multiple Victimization in a Nation-Wide Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Bell, Tessa; Billette, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Adolescents often experience different types of victimization across a specified period of time in different situations. These multiple victimization experiences can have a number of deleterious effects on psychosocial well-being. To expand on research gathered primarily from US samples, the current study estimated the prevalence of…

  19. 75 FR 78915 - Conduct on Postal Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... 232 Conduct on Postal Property AGENCY: Postal Service. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Postal Service is updating its regulations concerning Conduct on Postal Property (COPP) to correct or eliminate...-3484. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The current rules governing Conduct on Postal Property contain a...

  20. Ionic conduction of lithium hydride single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilipenko, G.I.; Oparin, D.V.; Zhuravlev, N.A.; Gavrilov, F.F.

    1987-09-01

    Using the electrical-conductivity- and NMR-measurement- methods, the ionic-conduction mechanism is established in stoichiometric lithium hydride single crystals. The activation energies of migration of anion- and cation-vacancies and the formation of Schottky-pair defects are determined. They assume that the mechanisms of self-diffusion and conductivity are different in lithium hydride.

  1. Shrink-wrapping water to conduct protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, George K. H.

    2017-11-01

    For proton-conducting metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to find application as the electrolyte in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, materials with better stability and conductivity are required. Now, a structurally flexible MOF that is also highly stable is demonstrated to possess high proton conductivity over a range of humidities.

  2. Hopping models for ion conduction in noncrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Ion conduction in noncrystals (glasses, polymers, etc) has a number of properties in common. In fact, from a purely phenomenological point of view, these properties are even more widely observed: ion conduction behaves much like electronic conduction in disordered materials (e.g., amorphous semic...

  3. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    www.mhseriestacticalheadsets.com PerCom / Audio Communicatio ns HB-1 (communication system); 31MIT, 17MIT, inertial teardrop (bone conduction transducers...www.tacticalcommand.com Savox Communicatio ns HS-C (helmet communication with bone conduction microphone); E-C (ear bone conduction microphone and

  4. 12 CFR 13.3 - Business conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business conduct. 13.3 Section 13.3 Banks and....3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of its business as a...

  5. 12 CFR 368.3 - Business conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business conduct. 368.3 Section 368.3 Banks and... SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES § 368.3 Business conduct. A bank that is a government securities broker or dealer... conduct of its business as a government securities broker or dealer. ...

  6. A CAI Study Skills Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.

    This paper describes a computer assisted instruction (CAI) study skills program and reports the results of a study conducted to determine its effectiveness. The program consists of ten CAI study skills modules, a CAI study skills notebook, and a CAI study skills test. The modules address (1) managing time, (2) improving memory, (3) taking lecture…

  7. 30 CFR 48.24 - Cooperative training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative training program. 48.24 Section 48... Surface Areas of Underground Mines § 48.24 Cooperative training program. (a) An operator of a mine may conduct his own training programs, or may participate in training programs conducted by MSHA, or may...

  8. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  9. Making Complex Electrically Conductive Patterns on Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew; Fink, Patrick W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.; Scully, Robert C.; Trevino, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A method for automated fabrication of flexible, electrically conductive patterns on cloth substrates has been demonstrated. Products developed using this method, or related prior methods, are instances of a technology known as 'e-textiles,' in which electrically conductive patterns ar formed in, and on, textiles. For many applications, including high-speed digital circuits, antennas, and radio frequency (RF) circuits, an e-textile method should be capable of providing high surface conductivity, tight tolerances for control of characteristic impedances, and geometrically complex conductive patterns. Unlike prior methods, the present method satisfies all three of these criteria. Typical patterns can include such circuit structures as RF transmission lines, antennas, filters, and other conductive patterns equivalent to those of conventional printed circuits. The present method overcomes the limitations of the prior methods for forming the equivalent of printed circuits on cloth. A typical fabrication process according to the present method involves selecting the appropriate conductive and non-conductive fabric layers to build the e-textile circuit. The present method uses commercially available woven conductive cloth with established surface conductivity specifications. Dielectric constant, loss tangent, and thickness are some of the parameters to be considered for the non-conductive fabric layers. The circuit design of the conductive woven fabric is secured onto a non-conductive fabric layer using sewing, embroidery, and/or adhesive means. The portion of the conductive fabric that is not part of the circuit is next cut from the desired circuit using an automated machine such as a printed-circuit-board milling machine or a laser cutting machine. Fiducials can be used to align the circuit and the cutting machine. Multilayer circuits can be built starting with the inner layer and using conductive thread to make electrical connections between layers.

  10. High Thermal Conductivity Functionally Graded Heat Sinks for High Power Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase I program proposes the development of a high thermal conductivity (400 W/mK), low coefficient of thermal expansion (7-10 ppm/?K), and light...

  11. Novel Conductive Water Removal Membrane (CWRM) for PEM Passive Fuel Cell Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ElectroChem proposes a Phase II program to advance its Phase I effort, to develop a conductive water removal membrane to enable passive, high current density PEMFC...

  12. Parenting Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martín-Quintana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed at emphasizing the importance of using parenting programs to promote parental competences. There is a need for this support taking into account the complexity of the parenting task in our modern societies. Following the European recommendation on positive parenting, those parenting programs are considered important measures to support parents in their educational role. Forward, several generations of parenting programs at the international context were briefly described and some examples of programs within the national context, as well. This paper provides some reflection on three models of parental education, and shows the results of an experiential parenting programs addressed to parents in psychosocial risk situation in two Spanish communities. A new program “Crecer felices en familia”, still in the implementation phase, was also described. As a conclusion, the paper emphasized the importance of evaluating programs in order to know more about their efficacy and to improve the way of implementation in real settings.

  13. A case study of the Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV) program from a program management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Scott R.

    1999-01-01

    This research effort focused on the program management issues of the U.S. Marine Corps' Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV) Program. The research answered the primary question of what were the critical program management decisions during the early phases of the program and how would an analysis of these decisions affect the future of the AAAV program. Interviews were conducted with key personnel from the AAAV office and General Dynamics Land Systems. Additionally, program documents and...

  14. Design and methods for a cluster-controlled trial conducted at sixty-eight daycare facilities evaluating the impact of “JolinchenKids – Fit and Healthy in Daycare”, a program for health promotion in 3- to 6-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Berit Steenbock; Hajo Zeeb; Stefan Rach; Hermann Pohlabeln; Claudia R. Pischke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevention of overweight and obesity during infancy is a highly relevant public health topic given the significant impact of childhood obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, and well-being in later stages of life. Apart from the family setting, daycare facilities (DFs) represent a key setting for health promotion among children under the age of six years. “JolinchenKids – Fit and Healthy in Daycare” is a multi-component program promoting physical activi...

  15. Sensitive bridge circuit measures conductance of low-conductivity electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K.

    1967-01-01

    Compact bridge circuit measures sensitive and accurate conductance of low-conductivity electrolyte solutions. The bridge utilizes a phase sensitive detector to obtain a linear deflection of the null indicator relative to the measured conductance.

  16. 77 FR 14568 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of... Commerce to establish an Earned Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct...

  17. 78 FR 16297 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... fourth annual review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the... an Earned Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of...

  18. Origin of conductivity anomalies in the asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, T.; Zhang, B.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical conductivity anomalies with anisotropy parallel to the plate motion have been observed beneath the oceanic lithosphere by electromagnetic studies (e.g., Evans et al., 2005; Baba et al., 2010; Naif et al., 2013). Electrical conductivity of the oceanic asthenosphere at ~100 km depth is very high, about 10-2 to 10-1 S/m. This zone is also known in seismology as the low velocity zone. Since Karato (1990) first suggested that electrical conductivity is sensitive to water content in NAMs, softening of asthenosphere has been regarded as a good indicator for constraining the distribution of water. There are two difficulties to explain the observed conductivity features in the asthenosphere. Recent publications on electrical conductivity of hydrous olivine suggested that olivine with the maximum soluble H2O content at the top of the asthenosphere has much lower conductivity less than 0.1 S/m (e.g., Yoshino et al., 2006; 2009a; Poe et al., 2010; Du Frane and Tyburczy, 2012; Yang, 2012), which is a typical value of conductivity anomaly observed in the oceanic mantle. Partial melting has been considered as an attractive agent for substantially raising the conductivity in this region (Shankland and Waff, 1977), because basaltic melt has greater electrical conductivity (> 100.5 S/m) and high wetting properties. However, dry mantle peridotite cannot reach the solidus temperature at depth 100 km. Volatile components can dramatically reduce melting temperature, even if its amount is very small. Recent studies on conductivity measurement of volatile-bearing melt suggest that conductivity of melt dramatically increases with increasing volatile components (H2O: Ni et al., 2010a, b; CO2: Gaillard et al., 2008; Yoshino et al., 2010; 2012a). Because incipient melt includes higher amount of volatile components, conductivity enhancement by the partial melt is very effective at temperatures just above that of the volatile-bearing peridotite solidus. In this study, the electrical

  19. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  20. A Platform for Functional Conductive Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hoffmann, Christian; Lind, Johan Ulrik

    Conductive polymers have been studied extensively during recent years. In order to broaden the application field of conductive polymers different methods have been tested and recently an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-N3) was developed(1, 2). The azide functional...... conductive polymer can be postpolymerization functionalized to introduce a large number of functionalities through click chemistry(3). Through selection of reaction conditions it is possible control the depth of the reaction into the polymer film to the upper surface or the entire film(4). Thus a conductive...... polymer can be prepared with a subsurface layer of highly conductive polymer where only the upper surface has been grafted with functional groups to ensure selectivity of the surface layer for e.g. interaction with specific biospecies. The conductive polymer can be patterned using selective etching, which...

  1. Electrical conductivity and impedance behaviour of hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Holly; in het Panhuis, Marc

    2014-08-01

    The impedance and electrical conductivity behavior of gellan gum hydrogels containing the conducting fillers poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and vapour grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNF) is presented. Impedance analysis showed that an equivalent circuit consisting of a Warburg element in series with a resistor could be used to model the gels' behavior. It is demonstrated that the addition of the conducting fillers PEDOT:PSS and VGCNFs can result in a measurable improvement in the conductivity of hydrogels with high water content and swelling ratios. Incorporation of combinations of these conducting fillers resulted in an improvement of the conductivity of gellan gum-containing hydrogels with water content (swelling ratio) of at least 97.5% (40) from 1.2 +/- 0.1 mS/cm to 4 +/- 0.6 mS/cm.

  2. Modeling Classical Heat Conduction in FLAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hendon, Raymond Cori [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory FLAG code contains both electron and ion heat conduction modules; these have been constructed to be directly relevant to user application problems. However, formal code verification of these modules requires quantitative comparison to exact solutions of the underlying mathematical models. A wide variety of exact solutions to the classical heat conduction equation are available for this purpose. This report summarizes efforts involving the representation of the classical heat conduction equation as following from the large electron-ion coupling limit of the electron and ion 3T temperature equations, subject to electron and ion conduction processes. In FLAG, this limiting behavior is quantitatively verified using a simple exact solution of the classical heat conduction equation. For this test problem, both heat conduction modules produce nearly identical spatial electron and ion temperature profiles that converge at slightly less than 2nd order to the corresponding exact solution.

  3. Influence of conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conductive electroactive polymer polyaniline is utilized to substitute conductive additive acetylene black in the LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 cathode for lithium ion batteries. Results show that LiMn1.95Al0.05O4 possesses stable structure and good performance. Percolation theory is used to optimize the content of conductive additive ...

  4. The electronic thermal conductivity of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Yun; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Marzari, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Graphene, as a semimetal with the largest known thermal conductivity, is an ideal system to study the interplay between electronic and lattice contributions to thermal transport. While the total electrical and thermal conductivity have been extensively investigated, a detailed first-principles study of its electronic thermal conductivity is still missing. Here, we first characterize the electron-phonon intrinsic contribution to the electronic thermal resistivity of graphene as a function of d...

  5. Thermal Conduction in Graphene and Graphene Multilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Suchismita

    2009-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in thermal conductivity of materials motivated by the heat removal issues in electronics and by the need of fundamental science to understand heat conduction at nanoscale. This dissertation reports the results of the experimental investigation of heat conduction in graphene and graphene multilayers. Graphene is a planar single sheet of sp2–bonded carbon atoms arranged in honeycomb lattice. It reveals many unique properties, including the extraordinaril...

  6. Thermistor-based thermal conductivity measurement system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkins, R.T; Wright, E.A

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a patented method for using commercially available thermistors to make in-situ thermal conductivity measurements with commonly available electronic equipment such as digital voltmeters...

  7. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of graphene wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Y; Li, L; Tan, H

    2014-06-07

    In this paper, the anisotropic thermal conductivity characteristics of graphene wrinkles are observed for the first time using a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method. Our results reveal that the wrinkling level has little effect on the thermal conductivity along the wrinkling direction. However, the wrinkling level plays an important role in the reduction of thermal conductivity along the texture direction, which results from the contributions of increased bond length, von Mises stress, broadening of phonon modes and G-band redshift. These results indicate that graphene wrinkles can be a promising candidate to modulate thermal conductivity properties in nanoscale thermal managements and thermoelectric devices.

  8. Thermal conductivity of iron at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, S.; Ohta, K.; Yagi, T.; Hirose, K.

    2016-12-01

    Earth generates and preserves a dipole magnetic field by self-sustained dynamo action in its liquid outer core for geologic timescale. Secular cooling of the core induces growth of the solid inner core that contributes additional buoyant source for the core convection. The electrical and thermal conductivities of core are fundamental physical parameters for knowing the dynamics inside the Earth. Direct measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivities of iron (Fe) at the Earth's core conditions have been recently reported (Konôpková et al., 2016; Ohta et al., 2016). Measurements of Fe thermal conductivity at the core conditions suggested thermal conductivity of the outer core was 18-32 W/m/K (Konôpková et al., 2016). On the other hand, Ohta et al. (2016) experimentally determined electrical conductivity of Fe at the core conditions, and estimated the core conductivity to be 75-117 W/m/K from obtained electrical conductivity and Wiedemann-Franz relation (κ = σLT; κ: thermal conductivity, σ: electrical conductivity, L: Lorenz number, T: absolute temperature) with ideal Lorenz number. Such large discrepancy in the estimated core thermal conductivity throw doubt on the validity of the Wiedemann-Franz relation at extremely high P-T conditions. In this study, we performed thermal conductivity measurements on Fe up to 130 GPa at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell using the pulsed light heating thermoreflectance technique (Ohta et al., 2012). The obtained thermal conductivity of Fe is in good agreement with calculated thermal conductivity via high-P/room-T Fe electrical conductivity and the Wiedemann-Franz law with constant Lorenz number up to around 50 GPa. However, the obtained thermal conductivity deviated downward from the calculated thermal conductivity profile above 50 GPa. Our results suggest pressure-dependent Lorenz number of Fe,which could be due to pressure- induced electronic topological transition in hcp Fe (Glazyrin et al., 2013). Kon

  9. Conduction velocity of antigravity muscle action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, L; Kosarov, D; Christova, P

    1992-01-01

    The conduction velocity of the impulses along the muscle fibers is one of the parameters of the extraterritorial potentials of the motor units allowing for the evaluation of the functional state of the muscles. There are no data about the conduction velocities of antigravity muscleaction potentials. In this paper we offer a method for measuring conduction velocity of potentials of single MUs and the averaged potentials of the interference electromiogram (IEMG) lead-off by surface electrodes from mm. sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, deltoideus (caput laterale) and vastus medialis. The measured mean values of the conduction velocity of antigravity muscles potentials can be used for testing the functional state of the muscles.

  10. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    , and color, but additionally being capable of sensing, actuating, and computing. Indeed, computers will not be things in and by themselves, but embedded into the materials that make up our surroundings. This also means that the way we interact with computers and the way we program them, will change....... Consequently we ask what the practice of programming and giving form to such materials would be like? How would we be able to familiarize ourselves with the dynamics of these materials and their different combinations of cause and effect? Which tools would we need and what would they look like? Will we program...... these computational composites through external computers and then transfer the code them, or will the programming happen closer to the materials? In this feature we outline a new research program that floats between imagined futures and the development of a material programming practice....

  11. 14 CFR 120.221 - Consequences for employees engaging in alcohol-related conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after the alcohol test result or refusal to test date. After the covered employee obtains this airman... alcohol-related conduct. 120.221 Section 120.221 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.221...

  12. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  13. Program Fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  14. Electrical Conductivity of Micas at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T.

    2008-12-01

    Electrical conductivity, along with seismic velocity, gives us clues to infer constituent materials and temperatures in the Earth's interior. Dry rocks have been considered to be electrically insulating at crustal temperatures. Observed high conductivity has been ascribed to the existence of fluids. However, Fuji-ta et al. (2007) recently reported that a dry gneiss shows relatively high conductivity (10-4-10-3 S/m) at the temperature of 300-400°C, and that it is strongly anisotropic in conductivity. They suggested that the alignment of biotite grains governs conductivity of the gneiss sample. Electrical properties of rock forming minerals are still poorly understood. We thus have measured electrical properties of biotite single crystals up to 700°C. In order to get a good understanding of conduction mechanisms, measurements have been also made on phlogopite and muscovite, which are common micas with similar crystallographic structures. Thin plates parallel to cleavages (thickness~0.1mm) were prepared from mica single crystals. Electrical impedance was measured by 2-electrode method. The specimen was kept in nitrogen or argon atmosphere. The conductivity measured parallel to cleavages is higher than that measured perpendicular to cleavages by 3-4 orders of magnitude. However, no significant difference in the activation energy of conductivity was observed between two directions. The activation energy of conductivity is ~50 kJ/mol for biotite and ~100 kJ/mol for phlogopite and muscovite. The conductivity of biotite is higher than those of phlogopite and muscovite by several orders of magnitude at the same temperature. The conductivity of biotite parallel to cleavages is ~10-1 S/m at 400°C. The conductivity of biotite increases irreversibly by heating. The irreversible change was not significant below 450°C. Remarkable increase is observed at the temperature of 450-550°C. No significant change was observed in the second heating. Such an increase in conductivity

  15. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  16. Programming F#

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Why learn F#? This multi-paradigm language not only offers you an enormous productivity boost through functional programming, it also lets you develop applications using your existing object-oriented and imperative programming skills. With Programming F#, you'll quickly discover the many advantages of Microsoft's new language, which includes access to all the great tools and libraries of the .NET platform. Learn how to reap the benefits of functional programming for your next project -- whether it's quantitative computing, large-scale data exploration, or even a pursuit of your own. With th

  17. Thermal conductivity of some common forest fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.M. Byram; W.L. Fons

    1952-01-01

    This study was designed to obtain thermal conductivity of som common forest fuels which hitherto had defied such efforts because of their shape, size, or structure. Dry leaves and decayed. wood (punk) were modified so that conductivity measurements could be made by a thin plate uni-directional heat flow calibration stand, Resultss of these measurements are compatible...

  18. Thermal conductivity of unsaturated clay-rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jougnot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters used to describe the electrical conductivity of a porous material can be used to describe also its thermal conductivity. A new relationship is developed to connect the thermal conductivity of an unsaturated porous material to the thermal conductivity of the different phases of the composite, and two electrical parameters called the first and second Archie's exponents. A good agreement is obtained between the new model and thermal conductivity measurements performed using packs of glass beads and core samples of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rocks at different saturations of the water phase. We showed that the three model parameters optimised to fit the new model against experimental data (namely the thermal conductivity of the solid phase and the two Archie's exponents are consistent with independent estimates. We also observed that the anisotropy of the effective thermal conductivity of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rock was mainly due to the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity of the solid phase.

  19. Effective thermal conductivity of condensed polymeric nanofluids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... scattering at matrix–particle boundaries. These two mechanisms are combined to arrive at an expression for their effective thermal conductivity. Analysis of the results reveals the possibility to tune the thermal conductivity of such nanosolids over a wide range using the right types of nanoparticles and right concentration.

  20. Transforming Hierarchical Relationships in Student Conduct Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kelly A.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict transformation theory provided a philosophical lens for this critical cultural, constructivist study, wherein four student conduct administrators who engage in leveling hierarchical relationships with students in conduct processes shared ways they make meaning of their professional practice. Through informal, unstructured interviews, a…

  1. Conduct Systems Designed to Promote Moral Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, those responsible for administration of student conduct resolution in U.S. higher education have sought some manner of moral development for students, whether labeled as such or not. It is clear that contemporary conduct officers are more deeply concerned with such student development as an extension of their practice. Many such…

  2. Simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of twin pellets of Se80Te20–xInx. (x = 2, 4, 6 and 10) glasses, prepared under a load of 5 tons were carried out at room temperature using transient plane source (TPS) technique. The measured values of both thermal conductivity and diffusivity were used ...

  3. Suboccipital neuropathy after bone conduction device placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, H.T.; Ru, J.A. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of a 70-year-old female with occipital neuropathy following bone conduction device surgery. DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old woman underwent bone conduction device placement surgery on the left temporal bone. Postoperatively she progressively developed

  4. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 2 : Data Analyses and Report Writing. Book cover Designing and Conducting Health ... Ebola Crisis: Improving Science-Based Communication and Local Journalism in Emergency and Post-outbreak Periods. The World Federation of Science Journalists ...

  5. Determination of saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of hydraulic conductivity indicates how fluids flow through a substance and thus determine the water balance in the soil profile. In determining the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil, five plots of 5.0 x 4.0 m were prepared with a PVC access tube installed in each plot. The plots were ...

  6. Gd crystals by using conductivity measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    is very little data available on trivalent cations doped in alkali halides (Prizbram 1975; Beniere and Rokbani 1977). The nature of lattice defects can be studied by using vari- ous techniques like ionic conductivity, thermally stimu- lated depolarization currents, dielectric relaxation etc. Among these, ionic conductivity provides ...

  7. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our group has been actively working towards the application of conducting polymers to Schottky diodes, metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) devices and biosensors for the past 10 years. This paper is a review of some of the results obtained at our laboratory in the area of conducting polymer biomolecular electronics.

  8. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our group has been actively working towards the application of conducting polymers to Schottky diodes, metal– insulator–semiconductor (MIS) devices and biosensors for the past 10 years. This paper is a review of some of the results obtained at our laboratory in the area of conducting polymer biomolecular electronics.

  9. Documentation of the heat conduction code TRANCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1975-08-08

    A transient heat conduction code used for thermal, thermoelastic, thermoelastic/plastic, and thermo/viscoelastic analyses is presented. The code can solve two-dimensional X-Y and axially symmetric R-theta-z thermal problems with the following conditions: constant temperature, constant flux, convective, or adiabatic boundary conditions; time-dependent or constant internal heat generation; and anisotropic thermal conductivities. (DLC)

  10. Dysgraphia in Two Forms of Conduction Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V.

    2005-01-01

    Recent clinical observations, in the absence of experimental data, appear to suggest that written expression in conduction aphasics parallels their speech (Goodglass, 1992). The current study undertakes an analysis of word level writing in two conduction aphasics, and attempts to explore the posited 'parallel' relationship between speech…

  11. An experimental investigation of electrical conductivities in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 4. An experimental ... polymers doped with inorganic salts. The ion transference number of these biopolymers show their superionic nature of electrical conduction. The overall conduction mechanism seems to be protonic in nature rather than electronic one.

  12. Thermal conductivity of different colored compomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Cigdem; Keles, Ali; Guler, Mehmet S; Karagoz, Sendogan; Cora, Ömer N; Keskin, Gul

    2017-11-10

    Compomers are mostly used in primary dentition. The thermal conductivity properties of traditional or colored compomers have not been investigated in detail so far. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the thermal conductivities of traditional and colored compomers. Two sets of compomers - namely, Twinky Star (available in berry, lemon, green, silver, blue, pink, gold and orange shades) and Dyract Extra (available in B1, A3 and A2 shades) - were included in this study. All of the traditional and colored compomers were applied to standard molds and polymerized according to the manufacturers' instructions. Three samples were prepared from each compomer. Measurements were conducted using a heat conduction test setup, and the coefficient of heat conductivity was calculated for each material. The heat conductivity coefficients were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Duncan tests. Uncertainty analysis was also performed on the calculated coefficients of heat conductivity. Statistically significant differences were found (pconductivity properties of the traditional and colored compomers examined. Among all of the tested compomers, the silver shade compomer exhibited the highest coefficient of heat conductivity (p<0.05), while the berry shade exhibited the lowest coefficient (p<0.05). Uncertainty analyses revealed that 6 out of 11 samples showed significant differences. The silver shade compomer should be avoided in deep cavities. The material properties could be improved for colored compomers.

  13. Variable Thermal Conductivity on Compressible Boundary Layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, variable thermal conductivity on heat transfer over a circular cylinder is presented. The concept of assuming constant thermal conductivity on materials is however not efficient. Hence, the governing partial differential equation is reduced using non-dimensionless variables into a system of coupled non-linear ...

  14. Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of Si nanocrystal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Meldrum, A.; Jepsen, P. Uhd

    2012-01-01

    The terahertz conductivity of silicon nanoparticles embedded in glass with varying density is studied with ultra-broadband terahertz spectroscopy on picosecond time scales following fs optical excitation. The transition from relatively isolated charge carriers to densities which allow inter...... the applicability of this simple model to the conductivity of nanoparticle ensembles over the entire THz spectral window....

  15. Ionic conduction in the solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conductivity depends on a number of factors such as presence of interstitial sites, ion size, temperature, crystal structure etc. We discuss the recent results from atomistic computer simulations on the dependence of conductivity in NASICONs as a function of composition, temperature, phase change and cation among others.

  16. Challenges in conducting clinical trials in nephrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baigent, Colin; Herrington, William G; Coresh, Josef

    2017-01-01

    to detect treatment effects of a magnitude that would be realistic to achieve with a single intervention. Therefore, KDIGO convened an international, multidisciplinary controversies conference titled "Challenges in the Conduct of Clinical Trials in Nephrology" to identify the key barriers to conducting...

  17. Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 2: Data Analyses and Report Writing. Book cover Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects Volume 2: Data Analyses and Report. Author(s):. Corlien M. Varkevisser, Indra Pathmanathan, and Ann Brownlee. Publisher(s):. KIT, IDRC.

  18. Conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gets, A. V.; Krainov, V. P., E-mail: vpkrainov@mail.ru [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperatures is calculated. It is shown that it is much higher than the well-known conductivity of a model 1D Fermi system. This is a purely quantum-mechanical effect.

  19. Conduction Mechanism in a Molecular Hydrogen Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2005-01-01

    We present first principles calculations for the conductance of a hydrogen molecule bridging a pair of Pt electrodes. The transmission function has a wide plateau with Tapproximate to1 which extends across the Fermi level and indicates the existence of a single, robust conductance channel with ne...

  20. Conductive elastomers by a new latex process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrically conductive polymers such as polyaniline can be used to in production of light-emitting diodes, printed circuit board components, antistatic materials, etc. Highly filled elastomers, such as those filled with metallic powders, can also conduct electricity. However, limitations due to co...

  1. Crystal fields and conduction electrons in praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, K.N.; Aagaard Sørensen, S.; McEwen, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The interactions between the crystal-field excitations, the phonons and the conduction electrons in Pr have been studied further. The low-energy satellites to the crystal-field excitations, which are believed to be associated with propagating paramagnon modes in the conduction-electron gas, appea...

  2. 7 CFR 1486.511 - What is the general policy regarding ethical conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETS PROGRAM Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1486.511 What is the general policy regarding ethical conduct? (a) The Recipient shall maintain written standards of conduct governing the performance... which employs or is about to employ any of the parties indicated herein, has a financial or other...

  3. An Analysis on Distance Education Computer Programming Students' Attitudes Regarding Programming and Their Self-Efficacy for Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the attitudes of students studying computer programming through the distance education regarding programming, and their self-efficacy for programming and the relation between these two factors. The study is conducted with 104 students being thought with distance education in a university in the north region of Turkey in…

  4. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F., E-mail: Ferdinando-Bruno@uml.edu [US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center, Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Bernabei, Manuele [ITAF, Test Flight Centre, Chemistry Dept. Pratica di Mare AFB, 00071 Pomezia (Rome), Italy (UE) (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  5. Conducting international nursing research: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opollo, Jackline Gloria; Opollo, Diana Alaka; Gray, Jennifer; Spies, Lori

    2014-11-01

    To describe practical experiences before, during and after gaining entry into research fields in Kenya and Uganda. Planning, conducting and implementing international research can be an arduous task. Novice researchers need practical guides to accessing international fields and mitigating challenges met in the field. The researchers conducted three different studies in two developing nations. This paper reviews challenges encountered when conducting international research. Solutions used to overcome these challenges are discussed. Establishing and maintaining effective partnerships is critical to the success of international research efforts. Researchers must be tactful, flexible and creative when handling methodological, ethical and logistical challenges encountered in settings poor in resources. International research provides opportunities for increasing dedication, building cross-cultural competence and advancing health professional practice globally. This paper contributes to nursing scholarship by highlighting the practical challenges of conducting international research. Illustrations aimed at lending insight and encouraging others to expand their dedication to conducting international research are offered.

  6. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  7. Universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The striking similarity of ac conduction in quite different disordered solids is discussed in terms of experimental results, modeling, and computer simulations. After giving an overview of experiment, a macroscopic and a microscopic model are reviewed. For both models the normalized ac conductivity...... as a function of a suitably scaled frequency becomes independent of details of the disorder in the extreme disorder limit, i.e., when the local randomly varying mobilities cover many orders of magnitude. The two universal ac conductivities are similar, but not identical; both are examples of unusual non......-power-law universalities. It is argued that ac universality reflects an underlying percolation determining dc as well as ac conductivity in the extreme disorder limit. Three analytical approximations to the universal ac conductivities are presented and compared to computer simulations. Finally, model predictions...

  8. Macrophages Facilitate Electrical Conduction in the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsmans, Maarten; Clauss, Sebastian; Xiao, Ling; Aguirre, Aaron D; King, Kevin R; Hanley, Alan; Hucker, William J; Wülfers, Eike M; Seemann, Gunnar; Courties, Gabriel; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Sun, Yuan; Savol, Andrej J; Sager, Hendrik B; Lavine, Kory J; Fishbein, Gregory A; Capen, Diane E; Da Silva, Nicolas; Miquerol, Lucile; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Seidman, Christine E; Seidman, Jonathan G; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Naxerova, Kamila; Mitchell, Richard N; Brown, Dennis; Libby, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K; Kohl, Peter; Vinegoni, Claudio; Milan, David J; Ellinor, Patrick T; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2017-04-20

    Organ-specific functions of tissue-resident macrophages in the steady-state heart are unknown. Here, we show that cardiac macrophages facilitate electrical conduction through the distal atrioventricular node, where conducting cells densely intersperse with elongated macrophages expressing connexin 43. When coupled to spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes via connexin-43-containing gap junctions, cardiac macrophages have a negative resting membrane potential and depolarize in synchrony with cardiomyocytes. Conversely, macrophages render the resting membrane potential of cardiomyocytes more positive and, according to computational modeling, accelerate their repolarization. Photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2-expressing macrophages improves atrioventricular conduction, whereas conditional deletion of connexin 43 in macrophages and congenital lack of macrophages delay atrioventricular conduction. In the Cd11b(DTR) mouse, macrophage ablation induces progressive atrioventricular block. These observations implicate macrophages in normal and aberrant cardiac conduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  10. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S [South Jordan, UT; Nair, Balakrishnan G [Sandy, UT; Small, Troy [Midvale, UT; Heck, Brian [Salt Lake City, UT

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  11. Conductive ink containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide and method a conductive circuit using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A conductive ink containing a conductive polymer, wherein the conductive polymer contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, and it use in a method for making a conductive circuit.

  12. 14 CFR 91.1023 - Program operating manual requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... English language. If the program manager furnishes all or part of the manual in other than printed form... maintenance information and instructions in the English language. (h) If a program manager conducts aircraft... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1023 Program operating manual requirements. (a) Each program...

  13. Complex conductivity of organic-rich shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, W. F.; Revil, A.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    2013-12-01

    We can accurately determine the intrinsic anisotropy and material properties in the laboratory, providing empirical evidence of transverse isotropy and the polarization of the organic and metallic fractions in saturated and unsaturated shales. We develop two distinct approaches to obtain the complex conductivity tensor from spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements. Experimental results indicate clear anisotropy, and characterize the effects of thermal maturation, TOC, and pyrite, aiding in the calibration and interpretation of geophysical data. SIP is a non-intrusive measurement, sensitive to the surface conductance of mineral grains, frequency-dependent polarization of the electrical double layer, and bulk conductivity of the pore water. The in-phase and quadrature components depend upon parameters of principal importance in unconventional shale formation evaluation (e.g., the distribution of pore throat sizes, formation factor, permeability, salinity and cation exchange capacity (CEC), fluid saturation and wettability). In addition to the contribution of the electrical double layer of non-conducting minerals to surface conductivity, we have observed a clear relaxation associated with kerogen pyrolysis, pyrite distribution, and evidence that the CEC of the kerogen fraction may also contribute, depending on thermal maturation history. We utilize a recent model for anisotropic complex conductivity, and rigorous experimental protocols to quantify the role of kerogen and pyrolysis on surface and quadrature conductivity in mudrocks. The complex conductivity tensor σ* describes the directional dependence of electrical conduction in a porous medium, and accounts for both conduction and polarization. The complex-valued tensor components are given as σ*ij , where σ'ij represents in-phase and σ"ij denotes quadrature conductivities. The directional dependence of the complex conductivity tensor is relegated to the textural properties of the material. The

  14. TFE Verification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of the semiannual progress report is to summarize the technical results obtained during the latest reporting period. The information presented herein will include evaluated test data, design evaluations, the results of analyses and the significance of results. The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full-power life of 7 years. The TFE Verification Program builds directly on the technology and data base developed in the 1960s and early 1970s in an AEC/NASA program, and in the SP-100 program conducted in 1983, 1984 and 1985. In the SP-100 program, the attractive features of thermionic power conversion technology were recognized but concern was expressed over the lack of fast reactor irradiation data. The TFE Verification Program addresses this concern.

  15. Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  16. Fundamental Aeronautics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    The Overarching Mission of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) is: To advance U.S. technological leadership in aeronautics in partnership with industry, academia, and other government agencies that conduct aeronautics-related research. ARMD supports the Agency's goal of developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics, and ARMD's research plans also directly support the National Aeronautics R&D Policy and accompanying Executive Order 131419.

  17. Marketing the Masters of Executive Management program

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera, Mark A.; Karriker, Timothy W.

    2007-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The purpose of this MBA project was to review the current Masters of Executive Management education curriculum at NPS. An internal analysis of the current program was conducted to fully understand the strategic goals of the program and the existing curriculum. An environmental scan of current and potential military customers was conducted to assess requirements for junior executive education and determine whether the MEM program corresponds with these requiremen...

  18. Choreographic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    , as they offer a concise view of the message flows enacted by a system. For this reason, in the last decade choreographies have been used in the development of programming languages, giving rise to a programming paradigm that in this dissertation we refer to as Choreographic Programming. Recent studies show...... endpoint described in a choreography can then be automatically generated, ensuring that such implementations are safe by construction. However, current formal models for choreographies do not deal with critical aspects of distributed programming, such as asynchrony, mobility, modularity, and multiparty...... sessions; it remains thus unclear whether choreographies can still guarantee safety when dealing with such nontrivial features. This PhD dissertation argues for the suitability of choreographic programming as a paradigm for the development of safe distributed systems. We proceed by investigating its...

  19. Invisible Roles of Doctoral Program Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Eva Burns; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of doctoral program specialists in Big Ten universities. Face-to-face interviews with 20 doctoral program specialists employed in institutions in the Big Ten were conducted. Participants were asked to describe their roles within their work place. The doctoral program specialists reported their…

  20. Conducting network penetration and espionage in a global environment

    CERN Document Server

    Middleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    When it's all said and done, penetration testing remains the most effective way to identify security vulnerabilities in computer networks. Conducting Network Penetration and Espionage in a Global Environment provides detailed guidance on how to perform effective penetration testing of computer networks-using free, open source, and commercially available tools, including Backtrack, Metasploit, Wireshark, Nmap, Netcat, and Nessus. It also considers exploits and other programs using Python, PERL, BASH, PHP, Ruby, and Windows PowerShell.The book taps into Bruce Middleton's decades of experience wi

  1. Magnetism in (Semi)Conducting Macrocycles of pi conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-09

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0006 Magnetism in (Semi)Conducting Macrocycles of pi-conjugated Polymers Andre Persoons KATHOLIEKE UNIVERSITEIT TE LEUVEN INST...Macrocycles of pi-conjugated Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-15-1-4051 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Andre Persoons...the investigation of potential magnetic properties of macrocycles of pi-conjugated polymers . This research was initially motivated by the observation

  2. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  3. Ionomers for Ion-Conducting Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Ralph

    For ionic actuators and battery separators, it is vital to utilize single-ion conducting ionomers that avoid the detrimental polarization of other ions. Single-ion conducting ionomers are synthesized based on DFT calculations, with low glass transition temperatures (facile dynamics) to prepare ion-conducting membranes for battery separators that conduct Li+ or Na+. Characterization by X-ray scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, FTIR, NMR and linear viscoelasticity collectively develop a coherent picture of ionic aggregation and both counterion and polymer dynamics. 7Li NMR diffusion measurements find that diffusion is faster than expected by conductivity using the Nernst-Einstein equation, which means that the majority of Li diffusion occurs by ion pairs moving with the polymer segmental motion. Segmental motion only contributes to ionic conduction in the rare event that one of these ion pairs has an extra Li (a positive triple ion). This leads us to a new metric for ion-conducting soft materials, the product of the cation number density p0 and their diffusion coefficient D; p0D is the diffusive flux of lithium ions. This new metric has a maximum at intermediate ion content that corresponds to the overlap of ion pair polarizability volumes. At higher ion contents, the ion pairs interact strongly and form larger aggregation states that retard segmental motion of both mobile ion pairs and triple ions.

  4. The Electronic Thermal Conductivity of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Yun; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Marzari, Nicola

    2016-04-13

    Graphene, as a semimetal with the largest known thermal conductivity, is an ideal system to study the interplay between electronic and lattice contributions to thermal transport. While the total electrical and thermal conductivity have been extensively investigated, a detailed first-principles study of its electronic thermal conductivity is still missing. Here, we first characterize the electron-phonon intrinsic contribution to the electronic thermal resistivity of graphene as a function of doping using electronic and phonon dispersions and electron-phonon couplings calculated from first-principles at the level of density-functional theory and many-body perturbation theory (GW). Then, we include extrinsic electron-impurity scattering using low-temperature experimental estimates. Under these conditions, we find that the in-plane electronic thermal conductivity κe of doped graphene is ∼300 W/mK at room temperature, independently of doping. This result is much larger than expected and comparable to the total thermal conductivity of typical metals, contributing ∼10% to the total thermal conductivity of bulk graphene. Notably, in samples whose physical or domain sizes are of the order of few micrometers or smaller, the relative contribution coming from the electronic thermal conductivity is more important than in the bulk limit, because lattice thermal conductivity is much more sensitive to sample or grain size at these scales. Last, when electron-impurity scattering effects are included we find that the electronic thermal conductivity is reduced by 30 to 70%. We also find that the Wiedemann-Franz law is broadly satisfied at low and high temperatures but with the largest deviations of 20-50% around room temperature.

  5. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  6. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James; Klett, Lynn; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  7. SOME ASPECTS CONCERNING THE ATTRIBUTES OF CONDUCTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Ciucescu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the management has a millennial existence, during it have been realized multiple progresses which have contributed to the developement of the society in its assembly. The evolution of the human society makes possible the progress in the science of conducting. In all kinds of companies, without keeping into account their domain of activity (industry, trading, tourism, agriculture etc. or their dimensions, it appears the atributes of the conducting. In each organization the attributes of the conducting are present at all hierarchical levels. Each manager disposes on authority, power, responsability; they differ sensibly from a hierarchical level to another.

  8. Conductance Spectra in Graphene-Superconductor Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Shi-Ping; Deng, Zhen-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The conductance spectra of a graphene ribbon and graphene-superconductor (G-S) junctions are investigated, using the tight-binding model and non-equilibrium Green' function formalism. It is found that the quantized conductance related to graphene' edge-states is robust against perturbations in the model parameters for a graphene monolayer ribbon with the zigzag boundary. With appropriate model parameter of the spin-orbit interaction strength, a new bound state with odd-frequency symmetry is found in the G-S junction. An enhancement in the zero-energy conductance amplitude is followed.

  9. Scanning nanoscale multiprobes for conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Kuhn, Oliver

    2000-01-01

    We report fabrication and measurements with two- and four-point probes with nanoscale dimensions, for high spatial resolution conductivity measurements on surfaces and thin films. By combination of conventional microfabrication and additive three-dimensional nanolithography, we have obtained...... electrode spacings down to 200 nm. At the tips of four silicon oxide microcantilevers, narrow carbon tips are grown in converging directions and subsequently coated with a conducting layer. The probe is placed in contact with a conducting surface, whereby the electrode resistance can be determined...

  10. A Program Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Aldemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discover the transformation preschool teacher candidates go through in their perceptions about teacher and teaching during their teacher education program. The participants of the study were 35 senior students enrolled in the preschool teacher education program at a university located in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. A qualitative survey instrument was conducted to examine the preservice teachers’ perceptions. The data collected from the survey were analyzed by adopting a constant comparative coding method. The study revealed a change in the participants’ perceptions about preschool education before and after they enrolled in the program. The hardest parts of teaching in preschool were the need of high level of energy, patience, and skills to manage the classroom while the most pleasurable sides were having fun, play opportunities, and the positive impact teachers make on children. The qualities of an ideal preschool program listed by the participants involved curriculum, physical environment, and social-emotional atmosphere while the themes regarding the ideal preschool teacher were revolved around the personal qualities, professional attitude, and professional knowledge and skills. Hence, the findings of this qualitative study can only be generalized in the context the study was conducted; however, the study could have important implications for preschool teacher education in Turkey and in other countries, and help the international readers perceive preschool teacher education from a different perspective.

  11. Tunneling Conductivity and Piezoresistivity of Composites Containing Randomly Dispersed Conductive Nano-Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Biabangard Oskouyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three-dimensional continuum percolation model was developed based on a Monte Carlo simulation approach to investigate the percolation behavior of an electrically insulating matrix reinforced with conductive nano-platelet fillers. The conductivity behavior of composites rendered conductive by randomly dispersed conductive platelets was modeled by developing a three-dimensional finite element resistor network. Parameters related to the percolation threshold and a power-low describing the conductivity behavior were determined. The piezoresistivity behavior of conductive composites was studied employing a reoriented resistor network emulating a conductive composite subjected to mechanical strain. The effects of the governing parameters, i.e., electron tunneling distance, conductive particle aspect ratio and size effects on conductivity behavior were examined.

  12. Mammography accreditation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, P.

    1993-12-31

    In the mid-1980`s, the movement toward the use of dedicated mammography equipment provided significant improvement in breast cancer detection. However, several studies demonstrated that this change was not sufficient to ensure optimal image quality at a low radiation dose. In particular, the 1985 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends identified the wide variations in image quality and radiation dose, even from dedicated units. During this time period, the American Cancer Society (ACS) launched its Breast Cancer Awareness Screening Campaign. However, there were concerns about the ability of radiology to respond to the increased demand for optimal screening examinations that would result from the ACS program. To respond to these concerns, the ACS and the American College of Radiology (ACR) established a joint committee on mammography screening in 1986. After much discussion, it was decided to use the ACR Diagnostic Practice Accreditation Program as a model for the development of a mammography accreditation program. However, some constraints were required in order to make the program meet the needs of the ACS. This voluntary, peer review program had to be timely and cost effective. It was determined that the best way to address these needs would be to conduct the program by mail. Finally, by placing emphasis on the educational nature of the program, it would provide an even greater opportunity for improving mammographic quality. The result of this effort was that, almost six years ago, in May 1987, the pilot study for the ACR Mammography Accreditation Program (MAP) began, and in August of that year, the first applications were received. In November 1987, the first 3-year accreditation certificates were awarded.

  13. Onset in-river conductivity sonde data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Onset HOBO Model U24-01 in-river sondes were deployed to measure water temperature and electrical conductivity at each of the ISCO sampling sites at 5 min intervals....

  14. Graphene oxide-based transparent conductive films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Qingbin; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Junhe; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2014-01-01

    .... Because of its excellent electrical conductivity, optical transparency and mechanical properties, graphene has been considered an ideal material to replace the existing, expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) as TCFs. Graphene oxide (GO...

  15. Electrical conductivity of the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Robert H.; Boyer, Tim P.; Minami, Takuto; Zweng, Melissa M.; Reagan, James R.

    2017-11-01

    The electrical conductivity of the ocean is a fundamental parameter in the electrodynamics of the Earth System. This parameter is involved in a number of applications ranging from the calibration of in situ ocean flow meters, through extensions of traditional induction studies, and into quite new opportunities involving the remote sensing of ocean flow and properties from space-borne magnetometers such as carried aboard the three satellites of the Swarm mission launched in 2013. Here, the first ocean conductivity data set calculated directly from observed temperature and salinity measurements is provided. These data describe the globally gridded, three-dimensional mean conductivity as well as seasonal variations, and the statistics of spatial and seasonal variations are shown. This "climatology" data set of ocean conductivity is offered as a standard reference similar to the ocean temperature and salinity climatologies that have long been available.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Conductive concrete wins Popular Science prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    A conductive concrete developed by a research team at IRC (Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council of Canada) has won a prize in the home technology category because of its possible use in heating homes. Following the award, there have been a number of inquiries regarding possible applications for the concrete. Greatest interests in the concrete have been in its potential to heat buildings by using it as flooring. Other possible applications included de-icing pavements to building warming pads for parking aircraft. Essentially, carbon fibres and conductive particles are added to a concrete mix in such a quantity that they form a network within the mix, ensuring high electrical conductivity. A demonstration project is underway to build a 20 by 80 foot conductive concrete pad to test the material`s capability as a snow removal and de-icing tool.

  17. Information filtering via biased heat conduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Heat conduction process has recently found its application in personalized recommendation [T. Zhou \\emph{et al.}, PNAS 107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction (BHC), which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2% compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm, and the diversity is also increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.

  18. Information filtering via biased heat conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1000488107107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.

  19. [Gender images and sexual and reproductive conduct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miño-Worobiej, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    To analyze some of the factors associated with material living conditions of adolescents and their means for earning a living, such as idea construction and gender representations, related to sexual and reproductive conduct. The investigation was conducted in Asuncion, Paraguay, in 2000. Qualitative data collection techniques (in-depth interviews) and interpretive analysis were used. A total of 40 interviews were conducted of young people between the ages of 15 and 20, grouped as "schooled" and "not schooled." Gender constructions exist, denominated in this study as "modern" and "traditional," that classify perceptions about gender roles for women and their position in relation to males, as well as for partner relationships and the exercise of power in such contexts. Ideas and representations about maternity are also defined. The distinct gender image "types" associated with the adolescents means for earning a living simultaneously condition certain perceptions about gender roles and reproductive conduct.

  20. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene membrane prepared by plasma polymerization process. BHABESH KUMAR NATH, AZIZ KHAN, JOYANTI CHUTIA. ∗. , ARUP RATAN PAL,. HEREMBA BAILUNG, NEELOTPAL SEN SARMA, DEVASISH CHOWDHURY and NIRAB CHANDRA ADHIKARY.

  1. Apparatus with conductive strip for dust removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, W.N.J.; Van de Vorle-Houben, E.J.J.; De Haar, J.A.W.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides a gas purification system, for instance for agricultural application comprising a corona discharge system, the corona discharge system comprising a counter electrode, a conductive strip with a longitudinal edge comprising tooth structures, wherein the tooth structures have

  2. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Smolenski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    As power systems develop to incorporate renewable energy sources, the delivery systems may be disrupted by the changes involved. The grid’s technology and management must be developed to form Smart Grids between consumers, suppliers and producers. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids considers the specific side effects related to electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by the application of these Smart Grids. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids presents specific EMI conducted phenomena as well as effective methods to filter and handle them once identified. After introduction to Smart Grids, the following sections cover dedicated methods for EMI reduction and potential avenues for future development including chapters dedicated to: •potential system services, •descriptions of the EMI spectra shaping methods, •methods of interference voltage compensation, and theoretical analysis of experimental results.  By focusing on these key aspects, Conducted El...

  3. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  4. Anomalous electrical conductivity of nanoscale colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Padhy, Sourav

    2008-10-28

    The electrical conductivity of colloidal suspensions containing nanoscale conducting particles is nontrivially related to the particle volume fraction and the electrical double layer thickness. Classical electrochemical models, however, tend to grossly overpredict the pertinent effective electrical conductivity values, as compared to those obtained under experimental conditions. We attempt to address this discrepancy by appealing to the complex interconnection between the aggregation kinetics of the nanoscale particles and the electrodynamics within the double layer. In particular, we model the consequent alterations in the effective electrophoretic mobility values of the suspension by addressing the fundamentals of agglomeration-deagglomeration mechanisms through the pertinent variations in the effective particulate dimensions, solid fractions, as well as the equivalent suspension viscosity. The consequent alterations in the electrical conductivity values provide a substantially improved prediction of the corresponding experimental findings and explain the apparent anomalous behavior predicted by the classical theoretical postulates.

  5. Origins of variation in conducted vasomotor responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Welsh, Donald G.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of blood flow in the microcirculation depends on synchronized vasomotor responses. The vascular conducted response is a synchronous dilatation or constriction, elicited by a local electrical event that spreads along the vessel wall. Despite the underlying electrical nature, however......, the efficacy of conducted responses varies significantly between different initiating stimuli within the same vascular bed as well as between different vascular beds following the same stimulus. The differences have stimulated proposals of different mechanisms to account for the experimentally observed...... efficiency-notably depolarization or radial currents reduce electrical spread. Random cell-cell variation, ubiquitous in biological systems, only cause small or no reduction in conduction efficiency. Collectively, our simulations can explain why CVRs from hyperpolarizing stimuli tend to conduct longer than...

  6. Conduction abnormalities during dipyridamole stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massalha, Samia; Reizberg, Ilya; Israel, Ora; Kapeliovich, Michael; Sholy, Haitham; Koskosi, Amjad; Keidar, Zohar; Marai, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Pharmacological stress tests using dipyridamole are considered to be safe. However, cases of atrioventricular (AV) block have been reported. We retrospectively analyzed ECG at baseline and during dipyridamole stress tests of 2010 consecutive patients (patients with second or third degree AV block were excluded). At baseline, 350 (17.4%) patients had conduction abnormalities. Following dipyridamole infusion 16 patients (0.8%) developed a transient change in AV conduction (15 patients) and or sinus arrest (1 patient). Compared to patients without baseline conduction abnormalities, patients with any conduction abnormalities at baseline were at a higher risk for the development of AV block after dipyridamole infusion [0.3% vs 3.14%, respectively; P < .0001].

  7. Electrical conductivity imaging using magnetic resonance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katscher, Ulrich; Voigt, Tobias; Findeklee, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of human tissue could be used as an additional diagnostic parameter or might be helpful for the prediction of the local SAR during MR measurements. In this study, the approach "Electric Properties Tomography" (EPT) is applied, which derives the patient's electric conductivity using a standard MR system. To this goal, the spatial transmit sensitivity distribution of the applied RF coil is measured. This sensitivity distribution represents the positive circularly polarized component of the magnetic field. It can be post-processed utilizing Faraday's and Ampere's law, yielding an estimation of the spatial distribution of the patient's electric conductivity. Thus, EPT does not apply externally mounted electrodes, currents, or RF probes. In this study, phantom experiments underline the principle feasibility of EPT. Furthermore, initial conductivity measurements in the brain allow distinguishing cerebro-spinal fluid from the surrounding grey and white matter.

  8. Conducting qualitative research in audiology: A tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, L.V.; Laplante-Levesque, A.; Jones, L.; Preminger, J.E.; Nielsen, C.; Lunner, T.; Hickson, L.; Naylor, G.; Kramer, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. Design:

  9. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles A [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  10. Conductivity of Holographic Superconductor within Ginzburg ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The frequency-dependant conductivity is shown in Fig. 1. The real part of the con- ductivity Re(σ ) = 1 suggests that the conductivity is in the normal phase, which denotes no condensate at or above the critical temperature Tc. As the Hawking tem- perature T = 3M1/3. 4πL4/3 decreases, a gap in Re(σ ) appears and becomes ...

  11. Apparent Thermal Conductivity Of Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, Glen E.

    1995-01-01

    Mathematical model of apparent or effective thermal conductivity between two successive layers of multilayer thermal insulation (MLI) offers potential for optimizing performance of insulation. One gains understanding of how each physical mechanism contributes to overall flow of heat through MLI blanket. Model helps analyze engineering tradeoffs among such parameters as number of layers, thicknesses of gaps between layers, types of spacers placed in gaps, weight, overall thickness, and effects of foregoing on apparent thermal conductivity through blanket.

  12. Thermal conductivity at different humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Rode, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    The thermal conductivity (the l-value) of several alternative insulation products and a traditional product is determined under different humidity conditions in a specially constructed hot plate apparatus.The hot plate apparatus is constructed with an air gap on each side of the test specimen where...... of the thermal conductivity is 3-8% because of the hygroscopic uptake of humidity from the ambient air....

  13. Time dependent conductivity in disordered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,G.F. Leal; Costa, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    The time dependent current in disordered systems under a step applied voltage for a planar synmetry is deduced according to the continuous time random walk approximation. Known dielectric response functions like Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole, Havriliak-Negami and a few others are used as hopping time distribution functions in order to generate conductive responses. A theoretical relation exists between the dielectric and the conductive response which is the same one prevailing between the time der...

  14. Environment and Structure Influence in DNA Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adessi, C.; Walch, S.; Anantram, M. P.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Results for transmission through the poly(G) DNA molecule are presented. We show that (i) periodically arranged sodium counter-ions in close proximity to dry DNA gives rise to a new conduction channel and aperiodicity in the counter-ion sequence can lead to a significant reduction in conduction, (ii) modification of the rise of B-DNA induces a change in the width of the transmission window, and (iii) specifically designed sequences are predicted to show intrinsic resonant tunneling behavior.

  15. Structure and Environment Influence in DNA Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adessi, C.; Walch, S.; Anantram, M. P.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Results for transmission through a poly(G) DNA molecule are presented. We show that a modification of the rise of a B-DNA form can induce a shift of the conduction channel toward the valence one. We clearly prove that deformation of the backbone of the molecule has a significant influence on hole transport. Finally, we observe that the presence of ionic species, such Na, near the molecule can create new conduction channels.

  16. Active Bone Conduction Prosthesis: BonebridgeTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zernotti, Mario E.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bone conduction implants are indicated for patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss, as well as for patients with single-sided deafness (SSD. The transcutaneous technology avoids several complications of the percutaneous bone conduction implants including skin reaction, skin growth over the abutment, and wound infection. The Bonebridge (MED-EL, Austria prosthesis is a semi-implantable hearing system: the BCI (Bone Conduction Implant is the implantable part that contains the Bone Conduction-Floating Mass Transducer (BC-FMT, which applies the vibrations directly to the bone; the external component is the audio processor Amadé BB (MED-EL, Austria, which digitally processes the sound and sends the information through the coil to the internal part. Bonebridge may be implanted through three different approaches: the transmastoid, the retrosigmoid, or the middle fossa approach. Objective This systematic review aims to describe the world́s first active bone conduction implant system, Bonebridge, as well as describe the surgical techniques in the three possible approaches, showing results from implant centers in the world in terms of functional gain, speech reception thresholds and word recognition scores. Data Synthesis The authors searched the MEDLINE database using the key term Bonebridge. They selected only five publications to include in this systematic review. The review analyzes 20 patients that received Bonebridge implants with different approaches and pathologies. Conclusion Bonebridge is a solution for patients with conductive/mixed hearing loss and SSD with different surgical approaches, depending on their anatomy. The system imparts fewer complications than percutaneous bone conduction implants and shows proven benefits in speech discrimination and functional gain.

  17. Towards electrically conductive, self-healing materials

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Kyle A; Boydston, Andrew J; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    A novel class of organometallic polymers comprising N-heterocyclic carbenes and transition metals was shown to have potential as an electrically conductive, self-healing material. These polymers were found to exhibit conductivities of the order of 10−3 S cm−1 and showed structurally dynamic characteristics in the solid-state. Thin films of these materials were cast onto silicon wafers, then scored and imaged using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scored films were subsequently healed...

  18. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  19. Fabrication of Conductive Polypyrrole Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqun Cong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is employed to prepare conductive polypyrrole nanofibers with uniform morphology and good mechanical strength. Soluble PPy was synthesized with NaDEHS as dopant and then applied to electrospinning with or without PEO as carrier. The PEO contents had great influence on the morphology and conductivity of the electrospun material. The results of these experiments will allow us to have a better understanding of PPy electrospun nanofibers and will permit the design of effective electrodes in the BMIs fields.

  20. Parental style as precursor of conduct disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. Conduct disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed childhood disorders. The prevalence of this disorder has increased over the past few decades, which has ramifications for many facets of society, such as with families, justice systems, institutions involved with the rehabilitation of these children, and society as a whole. Conduct disorder has been found to be stable over time, and is therefore often associated with problems later in life such as violent crime, alcoholism, mari...

  1. Decreased Nerve Conduction Velocity in Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Daryoush Didehdar; S. Mostafa Jazayeri-Shoshtari; Shohreh Taghizade; Haleh Ghaem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active) during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor laten...

  2. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Measuring nanowire thermal conductivity at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Juekuan; Xiong, Yucheng; Huang, Baoling; Xu, Terry T.; Li, Deyu; Xu, Dongyan

    2018-02-01

    This work extends the micro-thermal-bridge method for thermal conductivity measurements of nanowires to high temperatures. The thermal-bridge method, based on a microfabricated device with two side-by-side suspended membranes with integrated platinum resistance heaters/thermometers, has been used to determine thermal conductivity of various nanowires/nanotubes/nanoribbons at relatively low temperatures. However, to date, thermal conductivity characterization of nanowires at temperatures above 600 K has seldom been reported presumably due to several technical difficulties including the instability of the microfabricated thermometers, radiation heat loss, and the effect of the background conductance on the measurement. Here we report on our attempt to address the aforementioned challenges and demonstrate thermal conductivity measurement of boron nanoribbons up to 740 K. To eliminate high temperature resistance instability, the device is first annealed at 1023 K for 5 min in an argon atmosphere. Two radiation shields are installed in the measurement chamber to minimize radiation heat loss from the measurement device to the surroundings; and the temperature of the device at each set point is calibrated by an additional thermocouple directly mounted on the chip carrier. The effect of the background conductance is eliminated by adopting a differential measurement scheme. With all these modifications, we successfully measured the thermal conductivity of boron nanoribbons over a wide temperature range from 27 K to 740 K. The measured thermal conductivity increases monotonically with temperature and reaches a plateau of ~2.5 W m‑1 K‑1 at approximately 400 K, with no clear signature of Umklapp scattering observed in the whole measurement temperature range.

  4. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

    2014-05-27

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  5. Programming Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If you've mastered Python's fundamentals, you're ready to start using it to get real work done. Programming Python will show you how, with in-depth tutorials on the language's primary application domains: system administration, GUIs, and the Web. You'll also explore how Python is used in databases, networking, front-end scripting layers, text processing, and more. This book focuses on commonly used tools and libraries to give you a comprehensive understanding of Python's many roles in practical, real-world programming. You'll learn language syntax and programming techniques in a clear and co

  6. Thermal conductivity of U.S. coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, James M.; Deming, David

    1996-11-01

    Coal samples in the form of randomly oriented aggregates were obtained from the Pennsylvania State University Coal Bank for the purpose of thermal conductivity measurements. Samples represented 55 locations from throughout the United States and included 6 lignites, 10 subbituminous coals, 36 bituminous coals, and 3 anthracite samples. Matrix thermal conductivities measured at 22°C in the laboratory ranged from 0.22 to 0.55 W/m°K, with an arithmetic mean of 0.33 W/m°K and a standard deviation of 0.07 W/m°K. The thermal conductivity of lignites, subbituminous, and bituminous coals is controlled by composition and can be predicted by a three-component (moisture, ash, and carbon + volatiles) geometric mean model with an rms residual of 6.1%. The thermal conductivity of bituminous and anthracite samples was found to be positively correlated with matrix density. With the exception of three anthracite samples, rank was not correlated with thermal conductivity, nor was the ratio of carbon to volatiles. The relatively high thermal conductivity of three anthracite samples (mean of 0.49 W/m°K) may have been related to graphitization.

  7. Stretchable, Porous, and Conductive Energy Textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2010-02-10

    Recently there is strong interest in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronics to meet the technological demands of modern society. Integrated energy storage devices of this type are a key area that is still significantly underdeveloped. Here, we describe wearable power devices using everyday textiles as the platform. With an extremely simple "dipping and drying" process using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ink, we produced highly conductive textiles with conductivity of 125 S cm-1 and sheet resistance less than 1 Ω/sq. Such conductive textiles show outstanding flexibility and stretchability and demonstrate strong adhesion between the SWNTs and the textiles of interest. Supercapacitors made from these conductive textiles show high areal capacitance, up to 0.48F/cm2, and high specific energy. We demonstrate the loading of pseudocapacitor materials into these conductive textiles that leads to a 24-fold increase of the areal capacitance of the device. These highly conductive textiles can provide new design opportunities for wearable electronics and energy storage applications. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Local measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, David H.; Schley, Robert S. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2209 (United States); Khafizov, Marat [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Wendt, Brycen L. [Nuclear Science and Engineering, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th Ave., Pocatello, Idaho 83209-8060 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Simultaneous measurement of local thermal diffusivity and conductivity is demonstrated on a range of ceramic samples. This was accomplished by measuring the temperature field spatial profile of samples excited by an amplitude modulated continuous wave laser beam. A thin gold film is applied to the samples to ensure strong optical absorption and to establish a second boundary condition that introduces an expression containing the substrate thermal conductivity. The diffusivity and conductivity are obtained by comparing the measured phase profile of the temperature field to a continuum based model. A sensitivity analysis is used to identify the optimal film thickness for extracting the both substrate conductivity and diffusivity. Proof of principle studies were conducted on a range of samples having thermal properties that are representatives of current and advanced accident tolerant nuclear fuels. It is shown that by including the Kapitza resistance as an additional fitting parameter, the measured conductivity and diffusivity of all the samples considered agreed closely with the literature values. A distinguishing feature of this technique is that it does not require a priori knowledge of the optical spot size which greatly increases measurement reliability and reproducibility.

  9. Diagrammatic theory of effective hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios T.; Christakos, George

    1997-10-01

    This work presents a stochastic diagrammatic theory for the calculation of the effective hydraulic conductivity of heterogeneous media. The theory is based on the mean-flux series expansion of a log-normal hydraulic conductivity medium in terms of diagrammatic representations and leads to certain general results for the effective hydraulic conductivity of three-dimensional media. A selective summation technique is used to improve low-order perturbation analysis by evaluating an infinite set of diagrammatic terms with a specific topological structure that dominates the perturbation series. For stochastically isotropic media the selective summation yeilds the anticipated exponential expression for the effective hydraulic conductivity. This expression is extended to stochastically anisotropic media. It is also shown that in the case of non homogeneous media the uniform effective hydraulic conductivity is replaced by a non-local tensor kernel, for which general diagrammatic expressions are obtained. The non-local kernel leads to the standard exponential behavior for the effective hydraulic conductivity at the homogeneous limit.

  10. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  11. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is a relative movement between electrical contacts with surfaces of ignoble metal. Avoiding fretting corrosion is therefore extremely challenging in electronic devices with pluggable electrical connections. Gold is one of the most commonly used noble plating materials for high performance electrical contacts because of its high corrosion resistance and its good and stable electrical behavior. The authors have investigated different ways to minimize the consumption of gold for electrical contacts and to improve the performance of gold plating. Other plating materials often used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces are tin, nickel, silver and palladium. This paper will deal with properties and new research results of different plating materials in addition to other means used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces and the testing of corrosion resistance of electrically conductive surfaces.

  12. Stomatal conductance increases with rising temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Josef; Ingwers, Miles; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2017-08-03

    Stomatal conductance directly modifies plant water relations and photosynthesis. Many environmental factors affecting the stomatal conductance have been intensively studied but temperature has been largely neglected, even though it is one of the fastest changing environmental variables and it is rising due to climate change. In this study, we describe how stomata open when the temperature increases. Stomatal conductance increased by ca 40% in a broadleaf and a coniferous species, poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) when temperature was increased by 10 °C, from 30 °C to 40 °C at a constant vapor pressure deficit of 1 kPa. The mechanism of regulating stomatal conductance by temperature was, at least partly, independent of other known mechanisms linked to water status and carbon metabolism. Stomatal conductance increased with rising temperature despite the decrease in leaf water potential, increase in transpiration, increase in intercellular CO2 concentration and was decoupled from photosynthesis. Increase in xylem and mesophyll hydraulic conductance coming from lower water viscosity may to some degree explain temperature dependent opening of stomata. The direct stomatal response to temperature allows plants to benefit from increased evaporative cooling during the heat waves and from lower stomatal limitations to photosynthesis but they may be jeopardized by faster depletion of soil water.

  13. Stretchable, porous, and conductive energy textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangbing; Pasta, Mauro; Mantia, Fabio La; Cui, Lifeng; Jeong, Sangmoo; Deshazer, Heather Dawn; Choi, Jang Wook; Han, Seung Min; Cui, Yi

    2010-02-10

    Recently there is strong interest in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronics to meet the technological demands of modern society. Integrated energy storage devices of this type are a key area that is still significantly underdeveloped. Here, we describe wearable power devices using everyday textiles as the platform. With an extremely simple "dipping and drying" process using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ink, we produced highly conductive textiles with conductivity of 125 S cm(-1) and sheet resistance less than 1 Omega/sq. Such conductive textiles show outstanding flexibility and stretchability and demonstrate strong adhesion between the SWNTs and the textiles of interest. Supercapacitors made from these conductive textiles show high areal capacitance, up to 0.48F/cm(2), and high specific energy. We demonstrate the loading of pseudocapacitor materials into these conductive textiles that leads to a 24-fold increase of the areal capacitance of the device. These highly conductive textiles can provide new design opportunities for wearable electronics and energy storage applications.

  14. Proton conductivity in ampullae of Lorenzini jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josberger, Erik E; Hassanzadeh, Pegah; Deng, Yingxin; Sohn, Joel; Rego, Michael J; Amemiya, Chris T; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In 1678, Stefano Lorenzini first described a network of organs of unknown function in the torpedo ray-the ampullae of Lorenzini (AoL). An individual ampulla consists of a pore on the skin that is open to the environment, a canal containing a jelly and leading to an alveolus with a series of electrosensing cells. The role of the AoL remained a mystery for almost 300 years until research demonstrated that skates, sharks, and rays detect very weak electric fields produced by a potential prey. The AoL jelly likely contributes to this electrosensing function, yet the exact details of this contribution remain unclear. We measure the proton conductivity of the AoL jelly extracted from skates and sharks. The room-temperature proton conductivity of the AoL jelly is very high at 2 ± 1 mS/cm. This conductivity is only 40-fold lower than the current state-of-the-art proton-conducting polymer Nafion, and it is the highest reported for a biological material so far. We suggest that keratan sulfate, identified previously in the AoL jelly and confirmed here, may contribute to the high proton conductivity of the AoL jelly with its sulfate groups-acid groups and proton donors. We hope that the observed high proton conductivity of the AoL jelly may contribute to future studies of the AoL function.

  15. Skylab vibroacoustic test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Vibroacoustic testing was performed on the orbital workshop dynamic test article and the payload assembly, the two major elements of the Skylab payload. The testing was conducted on each of the Skylab elements separately in the reverberation chamber at the Johnson Space Center. The two test configurations were high fidelity flight article simulations. The testing was conducted in two phases; in the first phase, acoustic tests were performed at levels simulating the lift-off and atmospheric flight acoustic criteria. In the second phase, low frequency sinusoidal vibration tests were conducted to obtain modal response data. The objectives of the Skylab vibroacoustic test program were to: verify the vibration design and test criteria; qualify selected flight components to the vibroacoustic criteria; and verify analytical models used for dynamic load analyses. This paper describes the vibroacoustic testing and discusses the results.

  16. The NASA radiowave propagation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    The objectives of the NASA radiowave Propagation Program are to enable new satellite communication applications and to enhance existing satellite communication networks. These objectives are achieved by supporting radio wave propagation studies and disseminating the study results in a timely fashion. Studies initiated by this program in the 1980s enabled the infant concept of conducting mobile communications via satellite to reach a state of relative maturity in 1990. The program also supported the satellite communications community by publishing and revising two handbooks dealing with radio wave propagation effects for frequencies below and above 10 GHz, respectively. The program has served the international community through its support of the International Telecommunications Union. It supports state of the art work at universities. Currently, the program is focusing on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and its propagation needs. An overview of the program's involvement in the ACTS project is given.

  17. Database for Hydraulically Conductive Fractures. Update 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammisto, E.; Palmen, J. (Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2011-02-15

    Posiva flow logging (PFL) with 0.5 m test interval and made in 10 cm steps can be used for exact depth determination of hydraulically conductive fractures. Together with drillhole wall images and fracture data from core logging PFL provides possibilities to detect single conductive fractures. In this report, the results of PFL are combined to the fracture data in drillholes OL-KR49 .. OL-KR53, OL-KR50B, OL-KR52B and OLKR53B and pilot holes ONK-PH11 - ONK-PH13. The results are used mainly in development of hydroDFN- models. The conductive fractures were first recognised from the PFL data and digital drillhole images and then the fractures from the core logging corresponding to the ones picked from the digital drillhole images were identified. The conductive fractures were recognised from the images primarily based on openness of fractures or a visible flow in the image. In most of the cases of measured flow, no tails of flow were seen in the image. In these cases, the conductive fractures were recognised from the image based on openness of fractures and a matching depth. According to the results the hydraulically conductive fractures/zones can be distinguished from the drillhole wall images in most cases. An important phase in the work is to calibrate the depth of the image and the flow logging with the sample length. The hydraulic conductivity is clearly higher in the upper part of the bedrock in the depth range 0-150 m below sea level than deeper in the bedrock. The frequency of hydraulically conductive fractures detected in flow logging (T > 10 -10-10-9 m2/s) in depth range 0-150 m varies from 0.07 to 0.84 fractures/meter of sample length. Deeper in the rock the conductive fractures are less frequent, but occur often in groups of few fractures. In drillholes OL-KR49 .. OL-KR53, OL-KR50B, OL-KR52B and OL-KR53B about 8.5 % of all fractures and 4.4 % of the conductive fractures are within HZ-structures. (orig.)

  18. Programming Python

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 8 9 15 17 20 22 2. A Sneak Preview "Programming Python: The Short Story" The Task Step 1: Representing Records Step 2: Storing Records Persistently Step 3...

  19. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  20. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meihui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na2S4 and Na2S5 were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360°C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.