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Sample records for progerin previous studies

  1. New look at the role of progerin in skin aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoczyńska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current literature data indicate that progerin, which is a mutant of lamin A, may be one of several previously known physiological biomarkers of the aging process which begins at the age of 30. Lamins belong to the family of intermediate filaments type V and are an important component of the nuclear envelope (NE. The physiological processes of an alternative splicing of LMNA (lamin A/C gene and posttranslational processing result in the formation of different variants of this gene. Prelamin A is generated in cytosol and modified by respective enzymes. In the final step, 15-aa peptide is released at the C-terminus, resulting in mature lamin A. Point mutation of cytosine to thymine at position 1824 in exon 11 of LMNA gene causes a truncated form of lamin A, which is defined as progerin. In the course of time, progerin is mainly found in skin fibroblasts and reticular layers of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Changes take place in the nucleus and they are similar to those observed in patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and refer mainly to an increase in the amount of reactive oxygen species which reduce the level of antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and histone modification. There are still pending studies on working out new anti-aging strategies and the skin is the main area of research. Biomimetic peptides (analogues of elafin are used in cosmetics to reduce the formation of progerin.

  2. New look at the role of progerin in skin aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzisz, Elżbieta; Dana, Agnieszka; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Current literature data indicate that progerin, which is a mutant of lamin A, may be one of several previously known physiological biomarkers of the aging process which begins at the age of 30. Lamins belong to the family of intermediate filaments type V and are an important component of the nuclear envelope (NE). The physiological processes of an alternative splicing of LMNA (lamin A/C) gene and posttranslational processing result in the formation of different variants of this gene. Prelamin A is generated in cytosol and modified by respective enzymes. In the final step, 15-aa peptide is released at the C-terminus, resulting in mature lamin A. Point mutation of cytosine to thymine at position 1824 in exon 11 of LMNA gene causes a truncated form of lamin A, which is defined as progerin. In the course of time, progerin is mainly found in skin fibroblasts and reticular layers of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Changes take place in the nucleus and they are similar to those observed in patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and refer mainly to an increase in the amount of reactive oxygen species which reduce the level of antioxidant enzymes, DNA damage and histone modification. There are still pending studies on working out new anti-aging strategies and the skin is the main area of research. Biomimetic peptides (analogues of elafin) are used in cosmetics to reduce the formation of progerin. PMID:26327889

  3. Promotion of tumor development in prostate cancer by progerin

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    Nie Daotai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progerin is a truncated form of lamin A. It is identified in patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, a disease characterized by accelerated aging. The contribution of progerin toward aging has been shown to be related to increased DNA damages. Since aging is one major risk factor for carcinogenesis, and genomic instability is a hallmark of malignant cancers, we investigated the expression of progerin in human cancer cells, and whether its expression contributes to carcinogenesis. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting, we detected the expression of progerin in prostate PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP cells at mRNA and protein levels. Ectopic progerin expression did not cause cellular senescence in PC-3 or MCF7 cells. PC-3 cells progerin transfectants were sensitized to DNA damage agent camptothecin (CPT; and persistent DNA damage responses were observed, which might be caused by progerin induced defective DNA damage repair. In addition, progerin transfectants were more tumorigenic in vivo than vector control cells. Our study for the first time describes the expression of progerin in a number of human cancer cell lines and its contributory role in tumorigenesis.

  4. Longwave UV light induces the aging-associated progerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hirotaka; Rünger, Thomas M

    2013-07-01

    Premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by a mutation of the LMNA gene that activates a cryptic splice site. This results in expression of a truncated form of Lamin A, called progerin. Accumulation of progerin in the nuclei of HGPS cells impairs nuclear functions and causes abnormal nuclear morphology. Progerin accumulation has not only been described in HGPS, but also during normal intrinsic aging. We hypothesized that accumulation of progerin with abnormal nuclear shapes may also be accelerated by UV and with that contribute to photoaging of the skin. We exposed neonatal or aged cultured fibroblasts to single or repeated doses of longwave or shortwave UV (UVA or UVB) and found that UVA, but not UVB, induces progerin expression and HGPS-like abnormal nuclear shapes in all cells, but more in aged cells. The induction of progerin is mediated by UVA-induced oxidative damage and subsequent alternative splicing of the LMNA transcript, as progerin induction was suppressed by the singlet oxygen quencher sodium azide, and as mRNA expression of LMNA was not induced by UVA. These data suggest a previously unreported pathway of photoaging and support the concept that photoaging is at least in part a process of damage-accelerated intrinsic aging.

  5. Antisense oligonucleotide induction of progerin in human myogenic cells.

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    Yue-Bei Luo

    Full Text Available We sought to use splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides to produce a model of accelerated ageing by enhancing expression of progerin, translated from a mis-spliced lamin A gene (LMNA transcript in human myogenic cells. The progerin transcript (LMNA Δ150 lacks the last 150 bases of exon 11, and is translated into a truncated protein associated with the severe premature ageing disease, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS. HGPS arises from de novo mutations that activate a cryptic splice site in exon 11 of LMNA and result in progerin accumulation in tissues of mesodermal origin. Progerin has also been proposed to play a role in the 'natural' ageing process in tissues. We sought to test this hypothesis by producing a model of accelerated muscle ageing in human myogenic cells. A panel of splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides were designed to anneal across exon 11 of the LMNA pre-mRNA, and these compounds were transfected into primary human myogenic cells. RT-PCR showed that the majority of oligonucleotides were able to modify LMNA transcript processing. Oligonucleotides that annealed within the 150 base region of exon 11 that is missing in the progerin transcript, as well as those that targeted the normal exon 11 donor site induced the LMNA Δ150 transcript, but most oligonucleotides also generated variable levels of LMNA transcript missing the entire exon 11. Upon evaluation of different oligomer chemistries, the morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligonucleotides were found to be more efficient than the equivalent sequences prepared as oligonucleotides with 2'-O-methyl modified bases on a phosphorothioate backbone. The morpholino oligonucleotides induced nuclear localised progerin, demonstrated by immunostaining, and morphological nuclear changes typical of HGPS cells. We show that it is possible to induce progerin expression in myogenic cells using splice-switching oligonucleotides to redirect splicing of LMNA. This may offer a model

  6. Antisense-Based Progerin Downregulation in HGPS-Like Patients’ Cells

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    Karim Harhouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progeroid laminopathies, including Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS, OMIM #176670, are premature and accelerated aging diseases caused by defects in nuclear A-type Lamins. Most HGPS patients carry a de novo point mutation within exon 11 of the LMNA gene encoding A-type Lamins. This mutation activates a cryptic splice site leading to the deletion of 50 amino acids at its carboxy-terminal domain, resulting in a truncated and permanently farnesylated Prelamin A called Prelamin A Δ50 or Progerin. Some patients carry other LMNA mutations affecting exon 11 splicing and are named “HGPS-like” patients. They also produce Progerin and/or other truncated Prelamin A isoforms (Δ35 and Δ90 at the transcriptional and/or protein level. The results we present show that morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (AON prevent pathogenic LMNA splicing, markedly reducing the accumulation of Progerin and/or other truncated Prelamin A isoforms (Prelamin A Δ35, Prelamin A Δ90 in HGPS-like patients’ cells. Finally, a patient affected with Mandibuloacral Dysplasia type B (MAD-B, carrying a homozygous mutation in ZMPSTE24, encoding an enzyme involved in Prelamin A maturation, leading to accumulation of wild type farnesylated Prelamin A, was also included in this study. These results provide preclinical proof of principle for the use of a personalized antisense approach in HGPS-like and MAD-B patients, who may therefore be eligible for inclusion in a therapeutic trial based on this approach, together with classical HGPS patients.

  7. Novel LMNA mutations cause an aggressive atypical neonatal progeria without progerin accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soria-Valles, Clara; Carrero, Dido; Gabau, Elisabeth; Velasco, Gloria; Quesada, Víctor; Bárcena, Clea; Moens, Marleen; Fieggen, Karen; Möhrcken, Silvia; Owens, Martina; Puente, Diana A.; Asensio, Óscar; Loeys, Bart; Pérez, Ana; Benoit, Valerie; Wuyts, Wim; Lévy, Nicolas; Hennekam, Raoul C.; de Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; López-Otín, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Progeroid syndromes are genetic disorders that recapitulate some phenotypes of physiological ageing. Classical progerias, such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), are generally caused by mutations in LMNA leading to accumulation of the toxic protein progerin and consequently,

  8. Differential temporal and spatial progerin expression during closure of the ductus arteriosus in neonates.

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    Regina Bökenkamp

    Full Text Available Closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA at birth is essential for the transition from fetal to postnatal life. Before birth the DA bypasses the uninflated lungs by shunting blood from the pulmonary trunk into the systemic circulation. The molecular mechanism underlying DA closure and degeneration has not been fully elucidated, but is associated with apoptosis and cytolytic necrosis in the inner media and intima. We detected features of histology during DA degeneration that are comparable to Hutchinson Gilford Progeria syndrome and ageing. Immunohistochemistry on human fetal and neonatal DA, and aorta showed that lamin A/C was expressed in all layers of the vessel wall. As a novel finding we report that progerin, a splicing variant of lamin A/C was expressed almost selectively in the normal closing neonatal DA, from which we hypothesized that progerin is involved in DA closure. Progerin was detected in 16.2%±7.2 cells of the DA. Progerin-expressing cells were predominantly located in intima and inner media where cytolytic necrosis accompanied by apoptosis will develop. Concomitantly we found loss of α-smooth muscle actin as well as reduced lamin A/C expression compared to the fetal and non-closing DA. In cells of the adjacent aorta, that remains patent, progerin expression was only sporadically detected in 2.5%±1.5 of the cells. Data were substantiated by the detection of mRNA of progerin in the neonatal DA but not in the aorta, by PCR and sequencing analysis. The fetal DA and the non-closing persistent DA did not present with progerin expressing cells. Our analysis revealed that the spatiotemporal expression of lamin A/C and progerin in the neonatal DA was mutually exclusive. We suggest that activation of LMNA alternative splicing is involved in vascular remodeling in the circulatory system during normal neonatal DA closure.

  9. Differential temporal and spatial progerin expression during closure of the ductus arteriosus in neonates.

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    Bökenkamp, Regina; Raz, Vered; Venema, Andrea; DeRuiter, Marco C; van Munsteren, Conny; Olive, Michelle; Nabel, Elizabeth G; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C

    2011-01-01

    Closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) at birth is essential for the transition from fetal to postnatal life. Before birth the DA bypasses the uninflated lungs by shunting blood from the pulmonary trunk into the systemic circulation. The molecular mechanism underlying DA closure and degeneration has not been fully elucidated, but is associated with apoptosis and cytolytic necrosis in the inner media and intima. We detected features of histology during DA degeneration that are comparable to Hutchinson Gilford Progeria syndrome and ageing. Immunohistochemistry on human fetal and neonatal DA, and aorta showed that lamin A/C was expressed in all layers of the vessel wall. As a novel finding we report that progerin, a splicing variant of lamin A/C was expressed almost selectively in the normal closing neonatal DA, from which we hypothesized that progerin is involved in DA closure. Progerin was detected in 16.2%±7.2 cells of the DA. Progerin-expressing cells were predominantly located in intima and inner media where cytolytic necrosis accompanied by apoptosis will develop. Concomitantly we found loss of α-smooth muscle actin as well as reduced lamin A/C expression compared to the fetal and non-closing DA. In cells of the adjacent aorta, that remains patent, progerin expression was only sporadically detected in 2.5%±1.5 of the cells. Data were substantiated by the detection of mRNA of progerin in the neonatal DA but not in the aorta, by PCR and sequencing analysis. The fetal DA and the non-closing persistent DA did not present with progerin expressing cells. Our analysis revealed that the spatiotemporal expression of lamin A/C and progerin in the neonatal DA was mutually exclusive. We suggest that activation of LMNA alternative splicing is involved in vascular remodeling in the circulatory system during normal neonatal DA closure.

  10. Naïve adult stem cells from patients with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome express low levels of progerin in vivo

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    Vera Wenzel

    2012-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670 is a rare disorder characterized by segmental accelerated aging and early death from coronary artery disease or stroke. Nearly 90% of HGPS sufferers carry a G608G mutation within exon 11 of LMNA, producing a truncated form of prelamin A, referred to as “progerin”. Here, we report the isolation of naïve multipotent skin-derived precursor (SKP cells from dermal fibroblast cultures from HGPS donors. These cells form spheres and express the neural crest marker, nestin, in addition to the multipotent markers, OCT4, Sox2, Nanog and TG30; these cells can self-renew and differentiate into smooth muscle cells (SMCs and fibroblasts. The SMCs derived from the HGPS-SKPs accumulate nuclear progerin with increasing passages. A subset of the HGPS-naïve SKPs express progerin in vitro and in situ in HGPS skin sections. This is the first in vivo evidence that progerin is produced in adult stem cells, and implies that this protein could induce stem cells exhaustion as a mechanism contributing to aging. Our study provides a basis on which to explore therapeutic applications for HGPS stem cells and opens avenues for investigating the pathogenesis of other genetic diseases.

  11. Neonatal progeria: increased ratio of progerin to lamin A leads to progeria of the newborn.

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    Reunert, Janine; Wentzell, Rüdiger; Walter, Michael; Jakubiczka, Sibylle; Zenker, Martin; Brune, Thomas; Rust, Stephan; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2012-09-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an important model disease for premature ageing. Affected children appear healthy at birth, but develop the first symptoms during their first year of life. They die at an average age of 13 years, mostly because of myocardial infarction or stroke. Classical progeria is caused by the heterozygous point mutation c.1824C>T in the LMNA gene, which activates a cryptic splice site. The affected protein cannot be processed correctly to mature lamin A, but is modified into a farnesylated protein truncated by 50 amino acids (progerin). Three more variations in LMNA result in the same mutant protein, but different grades of disease severity. We describe a patient with the heterozygous LMNA mutation c.1821G>A, leading to neonatal progeria with death in the first year of life. Intracellular lamin A was downregulated in the patient's fibroblasts and the ratio of progerin to lamin A was increased when compared with HGPS. It is suggestive that the ratio of farnesylated protein to mature lamin A determines the disease severity in progeria.

  12. Novel LMNA mutations cause an aggressive atypical neonatal progeria without progerin accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Valles, Clara; Carrero, Dido; Gabau, Elisabeth; Velasco, Gloria; Quesada, Víctor; Bárcena, Clea; Moens, Marleen; Fieggen, Karen; Möhrcken, Silvia; Owens, Martina; Puente, Diana A; Asensio, Óscar; Loeys, Bart; Pérez, Ana; Benoit, Valerie; Wuyts, Wim; Lévy, Nicolas; Hennekam, Raoul C; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara; López-Otín, Carlos

    2016-06-22

    Progeroid syndromes are genetic disorders that recapitulate some phenotypes of physiological ageing. Classical progerias, such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), are generally caused by mutations in LMNA leading to accumulation of the toxic protein progerin and consequently, to nuclear envelope alterations. In this work, we describe a novel phenotypic feature of the progeria spectrum affecting three unrelated newborns and identify its genetic cause. Patients reported herein present an extremely homogeneous phenotype that somewhat recapitulates those of patients with HGPS and mandibuloacral dysplasia. However, pathological signs appear earlier, are more aggressive and present distinctive features including episodes of severe upper airway obstruction. Exome and Sanger sequencing allowed the identification of heterozygous de novo c.163G>A, p.E55K and c.164A>G, p.E55G mutations in LMNA as the alterations responsible for this disorder. Functional analyses demonstrated that fibroblasts from these patients suffer important dysfunctions in nuclear lamina, which generate profound nuclear envelope abnormalities but without progerin accumulation. These nuclear alterations found in patients' dermal fibroblasts were also induced by ectopic expression of the corresponding site-specific LMNA mutants in control human fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate the causal role of p.E55K and p.E55G lamin A mutations in a disorder which manifests novel phenotypic features of the progeria spectrum characterised by neonatal presentation and aggressive clinical evolution, despite being caused by lamin A/C missense mutations with effective prelamin A processing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. An exploratory study on the perceptions of previously educationally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an exploratory study and focuses on the high failure rate amongst first year learners at South African universities. A trend that is significantly higher at HBU's (historically black universities). A cause for this problem can probably be found in the inadequate school education of these learners. Some of the ...

  14. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  15. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  16. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells...... also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation...... of hippocampal neurons of HGPS animals, there were only negligible changes in gene expression after 63 weeks of transgenic expression. Behavioral analysis and neurogenesis assays, following long-term expression of the HGPS mutation, did not reveal significant pathology. Our results suggest that certain tissues...

  17. Previous abortion and risk of pre-term birth: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Chan, Annabelle; Tucker, Graeme; Street, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    This population study was undertaken to determine whether previous abortion is an independent risk factor for pre-term birth and to calculate population-attributable risks for risk factors. All South Australian first singleton births in 1998-2003 (n = 42 269) were included in a multivariable logistic regression analysis, comparing pre-term births with term births. Risk factors for pre-term birth were found to be: being indigenous, single, a smoker [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.41], age 40 years or older, reproductive technology assistance, threatened miscarriage, antepartum haemorrhage, urinary tract infection, pregnancy hypertension and suspected intra-uterine growth restriction. A previous spontaneous abortion was of borderline statistical significance, whereas a previous induced abortion (AOR 1.25, 1.13-1.40) was an independent risk factor. A dose-response relationship was found with increasing number of previous spontaneous or induced abortions. Population-attributable risks were highest for pregnancy hypertension (12.4%) and antepartum haemorrhage (9.2%). Smoking and previous induced abortion had risks of 4.7% and 2.7%, respectively. Among indigenous women, 51% of whom smoked, 16.4% of pre-term birth could be attributed to smoking. A previous induced abortion and smoking during pregnancy (particularly among indigenous women) are preventable risk factors for pre-term birth. Their population-attributable risks are likely to be under-estimates from under-reporting.

  18. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

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    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  19. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

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    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  20. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    response) at all time points investigated; this was also found when only nonobese glucose-tolerant women were examined. Low insulin secretion during pregnancy together with a high fasting plasma glucose level at the diagnostic OGTT in pregnancy and hyperglycemia during the postpartum OGTT were predictive......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...

  1. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

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    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  2. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  3. Previous stress and acute psychological defence as predictors of perinatal grief - An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Hunfeld (Joke); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); F. Verhage; J. Passchier (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe evaluated whether the emotional reactions of women at 2–6 weeks after the prenatal diagnosis of a lethal anomaly and at 3 months after perinatal loss might be predicted by previous stress and acute psychological defence reactions to the diagnosis. Previous stress was defined

  4. A Phase II Study of Flavopiridol in Patients With Previously Untreated Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma

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    Don G. Morris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Flavopiridol is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitor that has preclinical activity in many tumours. This synthetic flavonoid was tested in a phase II nonrandomized, nonblinded multicentre clinical trial to determine its activity and toxicity in patients with previously untreated metastatic or locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Methods. A total of 18 patients with histologically confirmed nonoperable soft tissue was treated with flavopiridol administered at a dose of 50 mg/m2 IV over 1 hour daily ×3 days every 3 weeks. Results. Eighteen patients were accrued to the study over a period of 6 months. No objective responses were noted in the seventeen evaluable patients. Eight patients (47% exhibited stable disease after 2 cycles (median duration of 4.3 months (range 1.4–6.9 months. Kaplan-Meier estimates for 3- and 6-month progression-free survivial rates were 44 percent and 22 percent, respectively. The only grade 3 toxicities were diarrhea (N=2, nausea (N=2, gastritis (N=1, and fatigue (N=1. Ninety-four percent of patients received ≥ 90% of the planned dose intensity, during 55 treatment cycles. Conclusions. Flavopiridol was well tolerated at the dose and schedule used in this study, however, no objective treatment responses were seen and thus our results do not support further exploration of flavopiridol as a monotherapy at this dose and schedule in soft tissue sarcomas.

  5. Biosystematic studies on Dactylis L. l. Review of the previous studies. 1.2. Cytology, genetics, experimental studies, and evolution

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    Marta Mizianty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents a review of the previous studies on Dactylis L., dealing with cytology,genetics, experimental studies and evolution. Following cytotypes of Dactylis are distributed mostly in Central Europe: 16 diploids, 7 tetraploids and also 2 hexaploids in North Africa. Some aneuploids and accessory chromosomes were also found in this genus. Data dealing with karyotypes of some taxa, and geographical distribution of cytotypes are also listed. Selected problems concerning crossing within diploids as well as tetraploids and also between diploids and teraploids were presented. Some opinions regarding the evolution in the genus Dactylis were also demonstrated. In all these hypotheses the following diploids are considered to be the oldest: D. smithii Link subsp. smithii, D. g. subsp. aschersoniana (Greabn. Thell. and D. g. subsp. himalayensis Dom.

  6. Is previous hyperthyroidism associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction? A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Petersen, Inge; Christensen, Kaare; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism has been suggested to adversely affect cognitive function. However, this association could also be caused by genetic and environmental factors affecting both the development of hyperthyroidism and cognitive functioning. By investigating twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism, this potential confounding can be minimized. The aim of the study was to examine whether hyperthyroidism is associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction. Twin case-control study. Twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism were identified by record linkage between The Danish National Patient Registry and 3036 twin pairs from The Danish Twin Registry, who had participated in nationwide surveys on health conditions. Among other investigations, survey participants had carried out cognitive tests including a Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and six separate cognitive tests. Based on five of the tests, a composite cognitive score was calculated. Fifty-five of 3036 twin pairs were discordant for hyperthyroidism. The mean time from diagnosis until survey participation was 7·3 years (range: 0-24·1 years). In both the intrapair and individual-level analyses, the hyperthyroid twin scored significantly better in the MMSE than did the healthy co-twin (P = 0·023 and P = 0·038, respectively). The same tendency was found in the other cognitive tests, and after analysing twins diagnosed with hyperthyroidism more than 2 years before participating, although none were statistically significant. Utilizing discordant twin pairs to control for genetic as well as early environmental factors, we could not demonstrate any clinically relevant negative impact of previous hyperthyroidism on long-term cognitive function. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Previous Knowledge, Mental Models and Problem Solving. A Study with High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Josep Solaz-Portolés

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experiment was carried out to test the theory of mental models of Johnson-Laird, which classifies subjects according to their previous knowledge. The subjects of the experiment were high school students of Valencia (Spain, to whom a problem solving test was administered. The results found seem to confirm that an inverse relation between the number of mental models implied in the problem and the percentage of subjects that solve it correctly, as the theory predicts. Moreover, subjects of higher previous knowledge do not always solve problems significantly better.

  8. Previous emergency department use among homicide victims and offenders: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Cameron S; Jost, Peter F; Broidy, Lisa M; Daday, Gerhard; Sklar, David P

    2004-12-01

    We differentiate risk factors for future homicide victimization and offending, and we measure emergency department (ED) use among homicide victims, offenders, and controls. The design was a matched case-control study conducted in Bernalillo County, NM, and its university-affiliated health sciences center and hospital. All Bernalillo County homicide victims (N=124) and offenders (N=138) identified between January 1996 and December 2001 who were linked to university physician billing records and who had health care use during the 3 years before the homicide incident were included as cases. Randomly selected age-matched (+/-1 year) and sex-matched subjects with health care use within 3 years of their matched pair's homicide were included as controls. Main outcome measures were the number and type of ED visits by cases and controls. Among the 124 victims and 138 offenders who used health care, most were men (80%) and averaged 27.7 years of age. Victims and offenders had similar health care use and were grouped for final analyses. Cases (victims and offenders) were more likely to have had an ED visit within 3 years of the homicide (85%) compared with controls (59%) (odds ratio [OR] 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0 to 6.2). Within previous ED visits, assault (OR 4.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 7.0), firearm injury (OR 13.6; 95% CI 4.9 to 37.7), and substance abuse (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.2 to 6.0) were associated with future homicide. ED visits clustered closer to the homicide incident for cases (median days before the homicide -402 days; 95% CI -434 to -364) compared with controls (median -487 days; 95% CI -498 to -474). Patients with ED visits for assault, firearm injuries, and substance abuse are at increased risk for homicide and often have an escalating number of visits leading up to the homicide event. ED-based identification and referral programs similar to those used for intimate partner violence or other preventive strategies should be considered for this high-risk population.

  9. DO PREVIOUS OFFENCES PREDICT VIOLENT ACTS IN PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS? A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY IN HUNGARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Brigitta; Szabó, Ferenc Ádám; Kara, Borbála; Kovács, Magdolna; Uzonyi, Adél; Antal, Albert; Ungvári, Gábor S; Gazdag, Gábor

    2015-03-30

    To investigate the presence of offences in the previous past history of perpetrators of violent acts who have undergone forced medical treatment. The documentation of all patients released over a 10-year period from the National Institute of Forensic Psychiatry (IMEI) was reviewed. A comparison was drawn between patients who were convicted of any type of offense before the violent act (patients with previous offences-PPO) and those who were not (patients with no previous offences-PNO). Eighty-six (29%) and 208 (71%) patients formed the PPO and PNO groups, respectively. Prior contact with psychiatric services was significantly higher in the PPO group (p=0.038) and this group was also more likely to offend under the influence of a psychoactive substance (p<0.001). Exceptional brutality and other qualifying factors were more frequent in the PNO group (p=0.019). As IMEI is the only forensic institution in Hungary, the picture presented here reflects the situation in the entire country. A recidivism rate of 29% is within the internationally published range.

  10. Effectiveness of Previous Initiatives Similar to Programs of Study: Tech Prep, Career Pathways, and Youth Apprenticeships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    The federal career and technical legislation reauthorized in 2006 required the recipients of its funding to offer at least one Program of Study (POS). All states have developed some components of POS through earlier initiatives, primarily Tech Prep, career pathways, and youth apprenticeship, that attempted to ease the transition of students from…

  11. A time marker instrument for kinematics movement studies: a development of previous versions

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    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a time marker to study movements in kinematics. It contributes to elaborate a version of time marker which low cost and more efficient in comparison with the marker presented in another work as well as the earlier commercial version.

  12. A review of previous studies on the Sri Lankan echinoid fauna, with an updated species list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachchige, Gayashan M; Jayakody, Sevvandi; Mooi, Rich; Kroh, Andreas

    2017-02-09

    A comprehensive review and analysis of the literature on echinoids from Sri Lankan waters were conducted to compile an annotated list that integrates the existing published data with original data from recent research. According to the published literature, 115 echinoid species and one subspecies have been reported from Sri Lanka to date. However, the current study revealed that only 66 echinoid species and one subspecies belonging to 20 families can be verified to occur in Sri Lankan waters. According to the present analysis, 49 species were excluded from the list due to uncertain records (16) or synonymy (33) with other taxa known from the region. Of the 66 species and one subspecies occurring in Sri Lankan waters, 11 were first described from type material collected from this region. Six of the type specimens are "regular" echinoids and five are Irregularia. Out of these 11, Araeosoma coriaceum indicum has been recorded only from and appears to be endemic to Sri Lankan waters. However, 34 species of Sri Lankan echinoids have not been recorded in the last 90 years. Echinoid species recorded from Sri Lankan waters represent 6.7% of the currently accepted species of extant echinoids and include representatives of 28% of the extant echinoid families. Forty-five percent (45%) of echinoids recorded from the Indian coast (113 species and subspecies) are present in Sri Lankan waters. The current study highlights the need for systematic revision of echinoid records in Sri Lanka through field surveys and reconciliation of discrepancies in the existing literature. Offshore sampling is also needed due to lack of recent information on local deep-sea echinoids.

  13. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-07

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail: almakhsme@gmail.com; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  15. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

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    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  16. Comparative study of the clinical, histological, and biological characteristics of squamous cell carcinomas in areas previously treated with photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia Cazaña, Tamara; Salazar, Nerea; Vera-Álvarez, Jesús; González, Salvador; Juarranz, Angeles; Gilaberte, Yolanda

    2017-12-01

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment option for non-melanoma skin cancer, the development of aggressive tumours in PDT-treated areas has been described. To evaluate the clinical, histological, and biological characteristics of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in areas previously treated with PDT vs those arising in areas never treated with this therapeutic modality. A retrospective observational study was designed. We collected all cases of invasive SCCs in areas previously treated with PDT. The control group consisted of an equivalent number of SCCs randomly selected from the database of our pathology department. Expression of specific markers implicated in SCC progression, including p53, Ki67, COX-2, cyclin D1, E-cadherin, EGFR, survivin, and pERK, was analysed. A total of 699 patients were treated with PDT for non-melanoma skin cancer during the course of the study. Ten invasive SCCs arising in areas previously treated with methylaminolevulinate-PDT were diagnosed in six patients. The control group consisted of 10 invasive SCCs from 10 patients never treated with PDT. In the PDT group, the mean tumour size was significantly lower and the absence of ulceration was more frequent than in the control group (pareas previously treated with PDT was very low and did not differ significantly from that of SCCs developing in non-PDT-treated areas.

  17. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study.

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    Jamshid Gadoev

    Full Text Available TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors.A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010.Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%, adolescents (4% and elderly patients (19%. Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure.Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and call for better TB

  18. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadoev, Jamshid; Asadov, Damin; Tillashaykhov, Mirzagolib; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Isaakidis, Petros; Dadu, Andrei; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Gudmund Hinderaker, Sven; Parpieva, Nargiza; Ulmasova, Dilrabo; Jalolov, Avazbek; Hamraev, Atadjan; Ali, Engy; Boom, Martin van den; Hammerich, Asmus; Gozalov, Ogtay; Dara, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures) and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors. A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010. Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%), adolescents (4%) and elderly patients (19%). Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB) was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure. Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and call for better TB surveillance and

  19. Changes in association between previous therapeutic abortion and preterm birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: a historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Williams, Clare; Fleming, Michael; Monteath, Kirsten; Wood, Angela M; Smith, Gordon C S

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion) is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008. We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk), adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]) of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09-1.16]). When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980-1983 (1.32 [1.21-1.43]), progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000-2003 (0.98 [0.91-1.05]) or 2004-2008 (1.02 [0.95-1.09]). A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (pabortions among nulliparous women in Scotland 1992-2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%. Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related, we could not test this directly as the data on the method of prior abortions were not

  20. Changes in association between previous therapeutic abortion and preterm birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: a historical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Oliver-Williams

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008.We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk, adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09-1.16]. When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980-1983 (1.32 [1.21-1.43], progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000-2003 (0.98 [0.91-1.05] or 2004-2008 (1.02 [0.95-1.09]. A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (p<0.001. Analysis of data for abortions among nulliparous women in Scotland 1992-2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%.Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related, we could not test this directly as the data on

  1. Changes in Association between Previous Therapeutic Abortion and Preterm Birth in Scotland, 1980 to 2008: A Historical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Williams, Clare; Fleming, Michael; Monteath, Kirsten; Wood, Angela M.; Smith, Gordon C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have demonstrated that therapeutic termination of pregnancy (abortion) is associated with an increased risk of subsequent preterm birth. However, the literature is inconsistent, and methods of abortion have changed dramatically over the last 30 years. We hypothesized that the association between previous abortion and the risk of preterm first birth changed in Scotland between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 2008. Methods and Findings We studied linked Scottish national databases of births and perinatal deaths. We analysed the risk of preterm birth in relation to the number of previous abortions in 732,719 first births (≥24 wk), adjusting for maternal characteristics. The risk (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]) of preterm birth was modelled using logistic regression, and associations were expressed for a one-unit increase in the number of previous abortions. Previous abortion was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (1.12 [1.09–1.16]). When analysed by year of delivery, the association was strongest in 1980–1983 (1.32 [1.21–1.43]), progressively declined between 1984 and 1999, and was no longer apparent in 2000–2003 (0.98 [0.91–1.05]) or 2004–2008 (1.02 [0.95–1.09]). A statistical test for interaction between previous abortion and year was highly statistically significant (pScotland 1992–2008 demonstrated that the proportion that were surgical without use of cervical pre-treatment decreased from 31% to 0.4%, and that the proportion of medical abortions increased from 18% to 68%. Conclusions Previous abortion was a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Scotland in the 1980s and 1990s, but the association progressively weakened and disappeared altogether by 2000. These changes were paralleled by increasing use of medical abortion and cervical pre-treatment prior to surgical abortion. Although it is plausible that the two trends were related, we could not test this directly as the data on the method of prior

  2. Previous fractures at multiple sites increase the risk for subsequent fractures: the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hooven, Fred H; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D; Compston, Juliet E; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Netelenbos, J Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S; Watts, Nelson B; Lindsay, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women aged ≥55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures, respectively, since age 45 years. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no previous fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.3) and hip (HR = 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, and previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture. Women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

  3. A description of training characteristics and its association with previous musculoskeletal injuries in recreational runners: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz C; Costa, Leonardo O P; Carvalho, Aline C A; Lopes, Alexandre D

    2012-01-01

    Running is one of the most popular physical activities in the world and the number of runners has increased over the past 40 years. One of the consequences of the growing running popularity is the increase of musculoskeletal injuries. To describe the routines, training characteristics and history of injury in recreational runners and to evaluate possible associations between the routines and training characteristics with previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries. A total of 200 runners participated in this study. The participants completed an electronic form containing questions about personal characteristics, running experience, training characteristics, type of running shoes, foot type and previous injuries history over the last 12 months. The data were analyzed descriptively as well as by using logistic regression models. The majority of the runners was male, aged 43.0 (SD=10.5) years-old, have a body mass index of 24.2 (IQR=4.3) kg/m², and had training volume of 35.0 (IQR=28.0) kilometers per week. Fifty-five percent of runners had injuries over the last 12 months. The most prevalent injuries observed were tendinopathies and muscle injuries. The variable that showed an association with previous running-related injuries was running experience from 5 to 15 years (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.2; 95%CI=0.1 to 0.9). The prevalence of running-related injuries over the last 12 months was 55%. The variable running experience was associated with the absence of previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries.

  4. Sample size determination for a t test given a t value from a previous study: A FORTRAN 77 program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, R

    2001-11-01

    When uncertain about the magnitude of an effect, researchers commonly substitute in the standard sample-size-determination formula an estimate of effect size derived from a previous experiment. A problem with this approach is that the traditional sample-size-determination formula was not designed to deal with the uncertainty inherent in an effect-size estimate. Consequently, estimate-substitution in the traditional sample-size-determination formula can lead to a substantial loss of power. A method of sample-size determination designed to handle uncertainty in effect-size estimates is described. The procedure uses the t value and sample size from a previous study, which might be a pilot study or a related study in the same area, to establish a distribution of probable effect sizes. The sample size to be employed in the new study is that which supplies an expected power of the desired amount over the distribution of probable effect sizes. A FORTRAN 77 program is presented that permits swift calculation of sample size for a variety of t tests, including independent t tests, related t tests, t tests of correlation coefficients, and t tests of multiple regression b coefficients.

  5. Longitudinal determination of antiphospholipid antibodies in lupus patients without previous manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bandt, M; Benali, K; Guillevin, L; Hachulla, E; Job, C; Fautrel, B; Fournié, G; Bonnet, C; Fournié, B; Le Goff, P; Jorgensen, C; Meyer, O

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether serial anticardiolipin determination contributes to the clinical management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with no previous sign of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). In 90 patients with SLE with no previous clinical manifestations of the APS, repeated clinical evaluations were performed, and serial blood samples (obtained over a 30 month period, range 13-53 mo) were screened for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were detected using an ELISA and considered positive if the result was >25 GPL on 2 separate occasions. Patients were not required to be on a specific treatment regimen during the study. Thirty-four patients (37%) had at least one positive ELISA and 11 (11/90, 12%) 2 positive ELISA for IgG aCL during the study. Lupus anticoagulant (LAC) was found in 16 patients, and a false positive VDRL in 5. At study completion, the total number of clinical or laboratory events associated with APS was 30. In univariate analysis, aCL was significantly associated only with LAC (paCL also correlated with hemoglobin level, anti-DNA antibody, leukocyte count, and the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). LAC and aCL were significantly associated with each other (OR 5.17; 95% CI 1.5-17.7), but LAC had a better positive predictive value than aCL for arterial thrombosis and neurological events. Among our patients with SLE without previous clinical manifestations of APS, positive aCL did not predict the occurrence of APS within the next 3 years, but was statistically related to the clinical disease activity (SLEDAI).

  6. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  7. Studies on ergometer exercise testing. II. Effect of previous myocardial infarction, digoxin, and beta-blockade on exercise electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellinen, T J; Virtanen, K S; Valle, M; Frick, M H

    1986-10-01

    The results of exercise electrocardiography were studied in a random sample of 317 subjects with clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease. In 278 patients with coronary artery disease the rate of false negative tests was 18% with and 12% without previous myocardial infarction. If ST elevation was considered a negative response, the corresponding values were 25% and 13%, respectively, p less than 0.01. The greatest prevalence of negative tests was seen after anterior myocardial infarction: 27% or 42% when ST elevation was not included into positive responses. The sensitivity of exercise-induced ST depression for the presence of multivessel disease was lower after anterior infarction (67%) than in other patients with previous infarction (86%), p less than 0.01. The corresponding specificities were 71% and 22%, respectively, p less than 0.005. If ST elevation was included into positive responses these differences were abolished. In subjects without myocardial infarction the sensitivity was 89% and specificity 43%. Digitalized patients had somewhat higher sensitivity in the exercise electrocardiogram than those without digoxin, 90% vs. 81% (p less than 0.05), but the difference was not seen with exclusion of ST elevation. The specificity was not influenced by digitalis. beta-blockade had no effect on the sensitivity or specificity, but the prevalence of postexercise ST evolution was lower with (11%) than without (30%) beta-blockade. The prevalence of slowly ascending ST depression was reduced by three factors: the presence of digitalis in patients without previous myocardial infarction, infarction itself, and the extent of coronary artery disease. We conclude that exercise electrocardiography has only a limited value in prediction of multivessel disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Dalberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers.Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7.It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  9. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... discontinuation of therapy from prescription data. Furthermore, we compared to results based on self-reported duration of HT from the Danish Nurse Cohort.Finally, we analysed the effect of HT exposure on time to breast cancer for the different prescription based exposure variables as well as for self-reported HT...... use. RESULTS: The results of time to discontinuation varied strongly across the different HT assessments. However, misclassification of HT exposure at baseline was limited and hence analysis of the effect of HT on time to breast cancer showed stability across the different exposure assessments...

  10. Predicting DUI recidivism of male drunken driving: a prospective study of the impact of alcohol markers and previous drunken driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Eriksson, P; Alho, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2010-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the alcohol biomarkers CDT, GGT, the biomarker gamma-CDT index and previous drunken driving contributed significantly to the prediction of DUI recidivism. The subjects consisted of two different samples of drivers, viz. drivers who were found to have a positive breath alcohol concentration during random breath testing surveys (n=237), and drunken drivers who were apprehended during ordinary police work (n=193). The drunken driving events were monitored using a data-base both retrospectively and prospectively. It was found that the biomarker index, gamma-CDT, emerged as a notable predictor of recidivism in the group of random breath tested drivers. Measurement of gamma-CDT and its impact on DUI recidivism has not to our knowledge been applied to random breath tested drivers before. The apprehended drunken drivers, on the other hand, did not show a significant relationship between gamma-CDT and DUI recidivism. However, in both groups of drivers it was found that a previous conviction for drunken driving strongly predicted DUI recidivism. More attention should be paid by both physicians and the police to the high risk of recidivism among those convicted of drunken driving. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych YeM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg, control ones are fed to saline. In a week all animals were injected intracutaneously 0,2 ml each of corresponding antigenic preparation. The findings testify to decreasing manifestation tendency of rabbit skin reactions on antigenic preparations.

  12. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  13. Gain of employment and depressive symptoms among previously unemployed workers: a longitudinal cohort study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Muntaner, Carles; Kim, Hyun; Jeon, Christie Y; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the association between gain of employment and depressive symptoms among previously unemployed workers in South Korea. Using data from the on-going Korean Welfare Panel Study, we determined four different employment statuses (i.e., unemployment, part-time precarious, full-time precarious, full-time permanent employment) at follow up (2008 or 2010) among the unemployed at baseline (2007 or 2009) and examined their association with depressive symptoms after excluding the people with depressive symptoms at baseline (N = 308). Depressive symptoms were assessed annually using the 11-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. After adjusting for covariates including health-related variables, unemployed individuals who gained full-time permanent employment (RR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.83) and those who gained full-time precarious employment (RR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.63) were less likely to have depressive symptoms compared to those with persistent unemployment. In a subpopulation analysis conducted after additionally excluding the people with depressive symptoms 1 year before baseline, only the association between gaining full-time permanent employment and depressive symptoms was significant (RR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.86). Our findings highlight the benefits of full-time permanent employment on worker's mental health. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A comprehensive study of oculocutaneous albinism type 1 reveals three previously unidentified alleles on the TYR gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ying; Wei, Ai-Hua; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Lian, Shi; Zhu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a congenital genetic disorder characterized by defects in melanin production. OCA type 1 (OCA1) is the most serious and common type of OCA. This study characterized mutations associated with OCA1 in a series of Chinese patients. We recruited 41 unrelated patients with OCA and 100 healthy subjects from the Chinese Han population. Genomic DNA was extracted from their blood samples. Mutational analysis of tyrosinase (TYR) genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing, specifically to test the 100 control subjects and exclude the possibility of polymorphism. Mutational analysis and bioinformatics study were performed in TYR mutations. Among the 24 (58.5%) patients with OCA1, 21 different TYR mutations were identified, including three previously unidentified alleles (PUAs): one frameshift mutation (c.216delA) and two missense mutations (A241T and N364K). The proband mutation A241T carries three possible mutations in complex OCA. The findings of this study expand current knowledge and data of mutations associated with OCA1 in China and allow us to estimate or explore the mutation spectrum and relative frequencies of the TYR gene in the Chinese population.

  15. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  16. Previous Exposure to Anesthesia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Puerto Rican Population-Based Sibling Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, O; Torres, H; Rivera, K; Morales-Franqui, M; Altieri-Acevedo, G; Warner, D

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior, that begins usually before a child is three years old.(1) Researchers have shown that prevalence rates in the U.S. may be as high as 1 in 68.(52) A number of studies have examined the effects of early exposure to anesthesia on brain development and subsequent impairment in neurocognitive function; yet, little is known about the possible effects of anesthetic agents on social-behavioral functioning. The association between exposure to anesthesia either in uterus, during the first years of life, or later and development of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or its severity was determined in a retrospective population based cohort study. Identify if children who had previous exposure to anesthesia either in uterus, first years of life during their developing brain years, or later, are at risk of developing ASD and its severe form of the disease. Data was obtained from structured interviews administered to a sample of 515 parents/guardians distributed in two groups: ASD = 262 children diagnosed with this condition and Non-ASD: 253 children (siblings of ASD group) without diagnosis (95% confidence interval) that freely decided to participate and agreed to a consent form. Variables studied include: demographics, diagnosis and severity of ASD, exposure to anesthesia, method of childbirth, and age of exposure Children less than 2 years of age were considered into have developing brain period. Data was analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher exact test. In contrast to non-ASD group, most of the children within ASD group were male, 76% (p=0.0001). With regards to methods of childbirth, 64% of the ASD population were vaginal delivery (VD; Non-anesthesia exposure group) and 36% cesarean delivery (CD) compared to non-autistic population with 71% VD and 29% CD, which demonstrates no statistical difference between both groups (p=0.1113). Out of

  17. Using previously genotyped controls in genome-wide association studies (GWAS: application to the Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braxton D Mitchell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are widely applied to identify susceptibility loci for a variety of diseases using genotyping arrays that interrogate known polymorphisms throughout the genome. A particular strength of GWAS is that it is unbiased with respect to specific genomic elements (e.g., coding or regulatory regions of genes, and it has revealed important associations that would have never been suspected based on prior knowledge or assumptions. To date, the discovered SNPs associated with complex human traits tend to have small effect sizes, requiring very large sample sizes to achieve robust statistical power. To address these issues, a number of efficient strategies have emerged for conducting GWAS, including combining study results across multiple studies using meta-analysis, collecting cases through electronic health records, and using samples collected from other studies as controls that have already been genotyped and made publicly available (e.g., through deposition of de-identified data into dbGaP or EGA.In certain scenarios, it may be attractive to use already genotyped controls and divert resources to standardized collection, phenotyping, and genotyping of cases only. This strategy, however, requires that careful attention be paid to the choice of public controls and to the comparability of genetic data between cases and the public controls to ensure that any allele frequency differences observed between groups is attributable to locus-specific effects rather than to a systematic bias due to poor matching (population stratification or differential genotype calling (batch effects.The goal of this paper is to describe some of the potential pitfalls in using previously genotyped control data. We focus on considerations related to the choice of control groups, the use of different genotyping platforms, and approaches to deal with population stratification when cases and controls are genotyped across different platforms.

  18. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Results Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Conclusion Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate. PMID:28451031

  19. Genome-wide association study of electrocardiographic parameters identifies a new association for PR interval and confirms previously reported associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Motoaki; Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Hong, Kyung-Won; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Jong Wook; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2014-12-15

    Previous reports have described several associations of PR, QRS, QT and heart rate with genomic variations by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). In the present study, we examined the association of ∼2.5 million SNPs from 2994 Japanese healthy volunteers obtained from the JPDSC database with electrocardiographic parameters. We confirmed associations of PR interval, QRS duration and QT interval in individuals of Japanese ancestry with 11 of the 45 SNPs (6 of 20 for QT, 5 of 19 for PR and 0 of 6 for QRS) observed among individuals of European, African and Asian (Indian and Korean) ancestries. Those results indicate that many of the electrocardiographic associations with genes are shared by different ethnic groups including Japanese. Possible novel associations found in this study were validated by Korean data. As a result, we identified a novel association of SNP rs4952632[G] (maps near SLC8A1, sodium-calcium exchanger) (P = 7.595 × 10(-6)) with PR interval in Japanese individuals, and replication testing among Koreans confirmed the association of the same SNP with prolonged PR interval. Meta-analysis of the Japanese and Korean datasets demonstrated highly significant associations of SNP rs4952632[G] with a 2.325-ms (95% CI, 1.693-2.957 ms) longer PR interval per minor allele copy (P = 5.598 × 10(-13)). Cell-type-specific SLC8A1 knockout mice have demonstrated a regulatory role of sodium-calcium exchanger in automaticity and conduction in sinoatrial node, atrium and atrioventricular node. Our findings support a functional role of sodium-calcium exchanger in human atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction as suggested by genetically modified mouse models. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Re-using text from one's own previously published papers: an exploratory study of potential self-plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Miguel

    2005-08-01

    A preliminary, two-part study explored the extent to which authors reuse portions of their own text from previously published papers. All 9 articles from a recent issue of a psychology journal were selected as target papers. Up to 3 of the most recent references cited in each of the target articles and written by the same authors were also obtained. All target articles and their corresponding references were stored digitally. Then, using specialized software, each reference was compared to its target article to assess the number of strings of text identical to both papers. Only one of the nine target articles reused significant amounts of text from one of its references. To explore further the possibility of additional text reuse, the references in each of the 9 sets of papers were compared against each other. The new comparison identified 5 pairs of papers with a substantial number of identical strings of text of 6 consecutive words in length or longer, but most of the reused text was confined to the Method section. The results suggest that some of these authors reuse their own text with some frequency, but this was largely confined to complex methodological descriptions of a research design and procedure.

  1. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  2. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  3. Using a pregnancy decision support program for women choosing birth after a previous caesarean in Japan: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigoe, Ikuyo; Shorten, Allison

    2018-02-01

    Opportunities for women and providers to use decision aids and share decisions about birth after caesarean in practice are currently limited in Japan. This is despite known benefits of decision aids to support value-sensitive healthcare decisions. To explore Japanese women's decision making experiences using a decision aid program for birth choices after caesarean. A mixed methods study was conducted among 33 consenting pregnant women with previous caesarean in five obstetrics institutions located in the western part of Japan. Outcome measures included change in level of decisional conflict, change in knowledge, and preference for birth method. Semi-structured interviews examined women's decision making experiences, and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The participants in the program experienced a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and reduction in decisional conflict about birth after caesarean. Four themes were identified in the qualitative data related to decision making: change in women's knowledge about birth choices, clarifying women's birth preference, feelings about shared decision making, and contrasting feelings after receiving information. This study confirmed potential benefits of using the decision aid program. However, uncertainty about mode of birth continued for some women immediately prior to the birth. This finding emphasized the need to identify additional ways to support women emotionally throughout the process of decision making about birth after caesarean. It was feasible to adapt the decision aid for use in clinical practice. Future research is necessary to examine its effectiveness when implemented in Japanese clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Previous injuries and some training characteristics predict running-related injuries in recreational runners: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2013-12-01

    What is the incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs) in recreational runners? Which personal and training characteristics predict RRIs in recreational runners? Prospective cohort study. A total of 200 recreational runners answered a fortnightly online survey containing questions about their running routine, races, and presence of RRI. These runners were followed-up for a period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was running-related injury. The incidence of injuries was calculated taking into account the exposure to running and was expressed by RRI/1000 hours. The association between potential predictive factors and RRIs was estimated using generalised estimating equation models. A total of 84 RRIs were registered in 60 (31%) of the 191 recreational runners who completed all follow-up surveys. Of the injured runners 30% (n=18/60) developed two or more RRIs, with 5/18 (28%) being recurrences. The incidence of RRI was 10 RRI/1000 hours of running exposure. The main type of RRI observed was muscle injuries (30%, n=25/84). The knee was the most commonly affected anatomical region (19%, n=16/84). The variables associated with RRI were: previous RRI (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.51), duration of training although the effect was very small (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02), speed training (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.10), and interval training (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.88). Physiotherapists should be aware and advise runners that past RRI and speed training are associated with increased risk of further RRI, while interval training is associated with lower risk, although these associations may not be causative. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistence of cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous preeclampsia: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykas, Fatma; Solak, Yalcin; Erden, Abdulsamet; Bulut, Kadir; Dogan, Selcuk; Sarli, Bahadr; Acmaz, Gokhan; Afsar, Baris; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Covic, Adrian; Sharma, Shailendra; Johnson, Richard J; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factor, and lifestyle modifications are recommended. It was suggested that preeclampsia may increase the prevalence of various CV disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance, microalbuminuria, and endothelial dysfunction, among others. Here, we investigate the role of serum uric acid in preeclampsia in the development of CV complications. This was an observational case-control study that compared women with history of preeclampsia (n = 25) with age-matched controls with uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 20) who were followed for at least 5 years. Measurements included clinical and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ultrasound-measured flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), microalbuminuria, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and serum uric acid, as well as clinical and demographic features. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were compared in women with and without previous preeclampsia. At the time of index gestation, preeclamptic women had higher serum uric acid values (4.36 ± 0.61 vs 2.27 ± 0.38 mg/dL, P preeclampsia were more likely to have hypertension and had higher serum uric acid levels, higher microalbuminuria and CIMT levels, and lower FMD values than did the patients who did not have preeclampsia. The 2 groups were similar with regard to various ambulatory blood pressure parameters. Univariate associates of FMD were history of preeclampsia and the current hypertension status. Microalbuminuria correlated with gestational uric acid levels (coefficient of correlation of 0.40, P = 0.01 for FMD and coefficient of correlation of 0.37, P = 0.01 for CIMT, respectively). Preeclampsia might be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular risk factors at least 5 years after index pregnancy. Serum uric acid and microalbuminuria may be mechanistic mediators of heightened risk, along with impaired endothelial function in preeclampsia.

  6. PCNL - a comparative study in nonoperated and in previously operated (open nephrolithotomy/pyelolithotomy patients - a single-surgeon experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Re-procedure in patients with history of open stone surgery is usually challenging due to the alteration in the retroperitoneal anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine the possible impact of open renal surgery on the efficacy and morbidity of subsequent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2009 until September 2010, 120 patients underwent PCNL. Of these, 20 patients were excluded (tubeless or bilateral simultaneous PCNL. Of the remaining 100, 55 primary patients were categorized as Group 1 and the remaining (previous open nephrolithotomy as Group 2. Standard preoperative evaluation was carried out prior to intervention, Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v. 11 with the chi-square test, independent samples t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. A p-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: Both groups were similar in demographic profile and stone burden. Attempts to access the PCS was less in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (1.2 + 1 2 vs 3 + 1.3 respectively and this was statistically significant (p < 0.04. However, the mean operative time between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.44. Blood transfusion rate was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.24. One patient in Group 2 developed hemothorax following a supra-11th puncture. Remaining complications were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with past history of renal stone surgery may need more attempts to access the pelvicaliceal system and have difficulty in tract dilation secondary to retroperitoneal scarring. But overall morbidity and efficacy is same in both groups.

  7. Efficacy and safety of nivolumab in Japanese patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma: A phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Naoya; Kiyohara, Yoshio; Uhara, Hisashi; Uehara, Jiro; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takenouchi, Tatsuya; Otsuka, Masaki; Uchi, Hiroshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Minami, Hironobu

    2017-06-01

    Treating advanced or recurrent melanoma remains a challenge. Cancer cells can evade the immune system by blocking T-cell activation through overexpression of the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) ligands. The PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab blocks the inhibitory signal in T cells, thus overcoming the immune resistance of cancer cells. Nivolumab has shown promising anticancer activity in various cancers. We carried out a single-arm, open-label, multicenter, phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in previously untreated Japanese patients with advanced melanoma. Twenty-four patients with stage III/IV or recurrent melanoma were enrolled and received i.v. nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall response rate evaluated by an independent radiology review committee. The independent radiology review committee-assessed overall response rate was 34.8% (90% confidence interval, 20.8-51.9), and the overall survival rate at 18 months was 56.5% (90% confidence interval, 38.0-71.4). Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) of grade 3 or 4 only occurred in three patients (12.5%). Two patients discontinued nivolumab because of AEs, but all AEs were considered manageable by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Subgroup analyses showed that nivolumab was clinically beneficial and tolerable regardless of BRAF genotype, and that patients with treatment-related select AEs and with vitiligo showed tendency for better survival. In conclusion, nivolumab showed favorable efficacy and safety profiles in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent melanoma, with or without BRAF mutations. (Trial registration no. JapicCTI-142533.). © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. Outcome after arthroscopic labral surgery in patients previously treated with periacetabular osteotomy: a follow-up study of 43 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Torsten G; Lund, Bent; Søballe, Kjeld; Lind, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To identify factors predicting failure after hip arthroscopy in patients with previous periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) defined as a conversion to total hip replacement (THR) and to evaluate the patient reported outcome scores. Of 55 hips treated with hip arthroscopy after PAO from Aug 2008 to 2012 at Aarhus University Hospital, 43 hips were included (median age: 36.1 yrs, range 16.3-56.9 yrs). Indications were unacceptable pain, a positive FABER and impingement test and signs of labral damage on MR-arthrography. Outcomes were evaluated with mHHS and HOS. Failure was defined as conversion to a THR. Nine hips were converted to a THR. Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 52.8% (95% CI, 10%-83.8%) at 6.5 years follow-up. Statistically significant predictors of failure: joint space width after PAO hips needed revision hip arthroscopy. Labral damage was present in 84% of the hips. In 42% of the hips cartilage lesions of Becks grade >3 were found. Mean mHHS and HOS were 65.7 and 68.8 respectively at follow-up. A NRS pain score of >3 in rest and during activity were present in respectively, 43% and 62% of the patients. Hip arthroscopy after PAO demonstrated limited clinical benefit with no decrease in pain levels and 21% of patients needing reoperation to THR. Radiographic signs of joint degeneration after PAO are predictors of faiElure. Further studies are needed to clarify what role hip arthroscopy should play in this patient group.

  9. Sitagliptin added to previously taken antidiabetic agents on insulin resistance and lipid profile: a 2-year study evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Ragonesi, Pietro Dario; Fogari, Elena; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Bianchi, Lucio; Bonaventura, Aldo; Romano, Davide; Maffioli, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the positive effects of sitagliptin on glycemic control and insulin resistance were maintained also after 2 years of therapy and whether sitagliptin could be effective also in improving lipid profile. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 205 patients with type 2 diabetes in therapy with different antidiabetic drugs were randomized to add sitagliptin 100 mg once a day or placebo to their current therapy. We evaluated at the baseline and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months the following parameters: body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (Tg). Sitagliptin, added to previously taken antidiabetic agents, proved to be effective in improving glycemic profile, reducing HbA1c by -17.5%, FPG by -12.7%, PPG by -20.5%. Regarding insulin resistance, sitagliptin decreased FPI by -8.3% and HOMA-IR by -20.0%, confirming that what have been already reported in short-term studies can be applied also after 2 years of treatment. Sitagliptin also reduced body weight by -4.3%. Our study also showed the positive effect of sitagliptin on lipid profile; in particular, sitagliptin decreased TC by -13.3%, LDL-C by -20.4%, and Tg by -32.3%, and also increased HDL-C by + 13.6%. Sitagliptin proved to be effective on glycemic profile and insulin resistance even after 2 years of therapy and to be effective in improving body weight and lipid profile. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  10. Using spinopelvic parameters to estimate residual lumbar lordosis assuming previous lumbosacral fusion-a study of normative values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Tan, Kimberly-Anne; Kantharajanna, Shashidhar Bangalore; Teo, Alex Quok An; Chan, Chloe Xiaoyun; Liu, Ka-Po Gabriel; Wong, Hee-Kit

    2017-08-16

    Pelvic incidence (PI)=pelvic tilt (PT)+sacral slope (SS) is an established trigonometric equation which can be expanded from studying the fixed pelvis with the spine to a fixed spinopelvic complex with the remnant spine, in scenarios of spinopelvic fusion or ankylosis. For a fixed spinopelvic complex, we propose the equation termed: lumbar incidence (LI)=lumbar tilt (LT)+lumbar slope (LS). This study aimed to establish reference values for LI, LT, and LS at each lumbar vertebral level, and to show how LI can be used to determine residual lumbar lordosis (rLL). This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data, conducted at a single academic tertiary health-care center. The study included 53 healthy patients aged 19-35 with first episode mechanical low back pain for a period of <3 months. Patients with previous spinal intervention, those with known or suspected spinal pathologies, and those who were pregnant, were excluded. Radiological measurements of LI, LT, LS, and rLL. All patients had full-body lateral standing radiographs obtained via a slot scanner. Basic global and regional radiographic parameters, spinopelvic parameters, and the aforementioned new parameters were measured. LI was correlated with rLL at each level by plotting LI against rLL on scatter plots and drawing lines-of-best-fit through the datapoints. The mean value of L5I was 22.82°, L4I was 6.52°, L3I was -0.92°, L2I was -5.56°, and L1I was -5.95°. LI turns negative at L3, LS turns negative at the L3/L4 apex, and LT remains positive throughout the lumbar spine. We found that the relationship of LI with its corresponding rLL follows a parabolic trend. Thus, rLL can be determined from the linear equations of the tangents to the parabolic lumbar spine. We propose the LI-rLL method for determining rLL as the LI recalibrates via spinopelvic compensation post instrumentation, and thus the predicted rLL will be based on this new equilibrium, promoting restoration of harmonized lordosis

  11. HO_x chemistry during INTEX-A 2004: Observation, model calculation, and comparison with previous studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Xinrong; Olson, Jennifer R; Crawford, James H.; Brune, William H.; Mao, Jingqiu; Long, Robert B.; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Gao; Avery, Melody A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Barrick, John D; Diskin, Glenn S.; Huey, L. Greg; Fried, Alan; Cohen, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    OH and HO_2 were measured with the Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS) as part of a large measurement suite from the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-A (INTEX-A). This mission, which was conducted mainly over North America and the western Atlantic Ocean in summer 2004, was an excellent test of atmospheric oxidation chemistry. The HOx results from INTEX-A are compared to those from previous campaigns and to results for other related ...

  12. Outcome after arthroscopic labral surgery in patients previously treated with periacetabular osteotomy: a follow-up study of 43 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hartig-Andreasen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Torsten G.; Lund, Bent; S?balle, Kjeld; Lind, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To identify factors predicting failure after hip arthroscopy in patients with previous periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) defined as a conversion to total hip replacement (THR) and to evaluate the patient reported outcome scores. Of 55 hips treated with hip arthroscopy after PAO from Aug 2008 to 2012 at Aarhus University Hospital, 43 hips were included (median age: 36.1 yrs, range 16.3?56.9 yrs). Indications were unacceptable pain, a positive FABER and impingement test and signs of labra...

  13. Clear Identification of Previously Unresolved Overlapping Resonances in Dissociative Electron Attachment: A Case Study on Chlorine Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Nag, Pamir

    2015-01-01

    An observed broad resonance peak in dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross sections to a molecule might be due to either closely lying or overlapping resonances involved in the process. We developed a state-of-the-art experimental approach that enables us to identify unambiguously both the closely lying and the overlapping resonances based on kinetic energy and/or angular distribution measurements of fragment negative ion(s) generated from DEA process. Experimental observations strongly supported by theoretical potential energy curve calculations unambiguously identify previously unresolved overlapping resonances in DEA to chlorine molecule.

  14. Phase II Study of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor MGCD0103 in Patients with Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kristie A.; Advani, Anjani; Fernandez, Louis; Van Der Jagt, Richard; Brandwein, Joseph; Kambhampati, Suman; Kassis, Jeannine; Davis, Melanie; Bonfils, Claire; Dubay, Marja; Dumouchel, Julie; Drouin, Michel; Lucas, David M.; Martell, Robert E.; Byrd, John C.

    2009-01-01

    MGCD0103, an orally available class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, was examined for pre-clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). A phase II clinical trial was performed, starting at a dose of 85 mg/day, three times per week. Dose escalation to 110 mg or the addition of rituximab was permitted in patients without a response after 2 or more cycles. MGCD0103 demonstrated pre-clinical activity against CLL cells with a LC50 (concentration lethal to 50%) of 0.23 μM and increased acetylation of the HDAC class I specific target histone H3. Twenty-one patients received a median of 2 cycles of MGCD0103 (range, 0–12). All patients had previously received fludarabine, 33% were fludarabine refractory, and 71% had del(11q22.3) or del(17p13.1). No responses according to the National Cancer Institutes 1996 criteria were observed. Three patients received 110 mg and 4 patients received concomitant rituximab, with no improvement in response. Grade 3–4 toxicity consisted of infections, thrombocytopenia, anemia, diarrhea, and fatigue. HDAC inhibition was observed in 6 out of 9 patients on day 8. Limited activity was observed with single agent MGCD0103 in high risk patients with CLL. Future investigations in CLL should focus on broad HDAC inhibition, combination strategies, and approaches to diminish constitutional symptoms associated with this class of drugs. PMID:19747365

  15. Phase II study of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kristie A; Advani, Anjani; Fernandez, Louis; Van Der Jagt, Richard; Brandwein, Joseph; Kambhampati, Suman; Kassis, Jeannine; Davis, Melanie; Bonfils, Claire; Dubay, Marja; Dumouchel, Julie; Drouin, Michel; Lucas, David M; Martell, Robert E; Byrd, John C

    2009-11-01

    MGCD0103, an orally available class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, was examined for pre-clinical activity in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). A phase II clinical trial was performed, starting at a dose of 85 mg/d, three times per week. Dose escalation to 110 mg or the addition of rituximab was permitted in patients without a response after two or more cycles. MGCD0103 demonstrated pre-clinical activity against CLL cells with a LC(50) (concentration lethal to 50%) of 0.23 micromol/l and increased acetylation of the HDAC class I specific target histone H3. Twenty-one patients received a median of two cycles of MGCD0103 (range, 0-12). All patients had previously received fludarabine, 33% were fludarabine refractory, and 71% had del(11q22.3) or del(17p13.1). No responses according to the National Cancer Institutes 1996 criteria were observed. Three patients received 110 mg and four patients received concomitant rituximab, with no improvement in response. Grade 3-4 toxicity consisted of infections, thrombocytopenia, anaemia, diarrhoea, and fatigue. HDAC inhibition was observed in six out of nine patients on day 8. Limited activity was observed with single agent MGCD0103 in high risk patients with CLL. Future investigations in CLL should focus on broad HDAC inhibition, combination strategies, and approaches to diminish constitutional symptoms associated with this class of drugs.

  16. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin on previously formed PAH/PSS multilayer: a stagnation point optical reflectometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primorac, Elena; Dapić, Irena; Strbe, Nina; Kovacević, Davor

    2010-03-01

    The method of stagnation point optical reflectometry was applied for investigation of adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on previously formed poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulphonate) (PAH/PSS) multilayer with PAH being a terminal layer. The solid substrate was silica in the form of silicon wafers carrying an oxide layer. In order to interpret the adsorption of BSA, the build-up mechanism of PAH/PSS multilayers was examined with special emphasis on the effect of electrolyte concentration, pH of solution, and the anchoring (precursor) layer on that process. Additionally, the effect of BSA concentration and of the anchoring layer on BSA adsorption was investigated. It was shown that in all investigated systems the adsorption of BSA depends on conditions under which the multilayer was formed (ionic strength, pH and presence of an anchoring layer), as well as on BSA concentration. It follows that adsorption of BSA could be controlled not only by choosing suitable BSA concentration, but also by modifying the preformed multilayer.

  17. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Harold David McIntyre; Ann Peacock; Miller, Yvette D; Denise Koh; Marshall, Alison L

    2012-01-01

    Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n = 13) versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone su...

  18. A cross-sectional study of personality traits in women previously treated or untreated for alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundh Valter

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationship between treatment-seeking for alcohol problems and personality traits could give useful insight in factors promoting or hindering treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between treatment-seeking for AUD, personality traits, and psychiatric co-morbidity in women. The study was based on pooled cross-sectional data from three population based samples and one clinical sample (n = 1,339. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated women with AUD, and between those with resolved and unresolved AUD. Results A stepwise logistic regression model showed that treatment-seeking for AUD was not associated with personality traits. Among women with lifetime AUD (n = 217, those who had been treated (n = 42 had significantly higher scores than untreated women (n = 175 on three personality traits of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP; somatic anxiety, muscular tension, and guilt. Women with resolved AUD, who had received treatment (n = 23 had significantly higher scores on scales measuring somatic anxiety, psychic anxiety, muscular tension, irritability, and guilt than untreated women with resolved AUD. The latter group resembled women without AUD on most personality traits. There were no differences in occurrence of lifetime psychiatric disorders between the treated and the untreated women, whereas treated women with current AUD had increased risk of lifetime anxiety (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1–8.7. Conclusion Treatment-seeking was not associated with personality traits in this study. Still, it can be concluded that women with resolved AUD who had received treatment had high scores on the KSP-scales measuring psychic and somatic anxiety, tension, irritability, and feelings of guilt. This suggests that personality assessment might be a useful tool in tailoring individual treatment programs for women with AUD. Future studies need to

  19. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  20. A genome-wide association study confirms previously reported loci for type 2 diabetes in Han Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association study (GWAS has identified more than 30 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D in Caucasians. However, genomic understanding of T2D in Asians, especially Han Chinese, is still limited. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A two-stage GWAS was performed in Han Chinese from Mainland China. The discovery stage included 793 T2D cases and 806 healthy controls genotyped using Illumina Human 660- and 610-Quad BeadChips; and the replication stage included two independent case-control populations (a total of 4445 T2D cases and 4458 controls genotyped using TaqMan assay. We validated the associations of KCNQ1 (rs163182, p = 2.085×10(-17, OR 1.28 and C2CD4A/B (rs1370176, p = 3.677×10(-4, OR 1.124; rs1436953, p = 7.753×10(-6, OR 1.141; rs7172432, p = 4.001×10(-5, OR 1.134 in Han Chinese. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our study represents the first GWAS of T2D with both discovery and replication sample sets recruited from Han Chinese men and women residing in Mainland China. We confirmed the associations of KCNQ1 and C2CD4A/B with T2D, with the latter for the first time being examined in Han Chinese. Arguably, eight more independent loci were replicated in our GWAS.

  1. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole

    2015-01-01

    .... 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy...

  2. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  3. Knowledge of stroke risk factors among primary care patients with previous stroke or TIA: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76% responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors". The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%. Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension

  4. The prevalence and factors associated with previous surgery for pelvic organ prolapse and/or urinary incontinence in a cross-sectional study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Slieker-ten Hove, M.C.; Burger, C.W.; Kluivers, K.B.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and identify the factors associated with previous pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and/or incontinence surgery. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, all women who were aged 45-85 years and registered in eight general practices were invited to participate. They

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  6. The utility of low frequency heart rate variability as an index of sympathetic cardiac tone : A review with emphasis on a reanalysis of previous studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes del Paso, Gustavo A.; Langewitz, Wolf; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Van Roon, Arie; Duschek, Stefan

    This article evaluates the suitability of low frequency (LF) heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of sympathetic cardiac control and the LF/high frequency (HF) ratio as an index of autonomic balance. It includes a comprehensive literature review and a reanalysis of some previous studies on

  7. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  8. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  9. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  10. Feasibility and safety of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of total extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair after previous open groin hernia repair: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Da; Wu, Chih-Hsuan; Liu, Ying-Buh; Tsai, Yao-Chou

    2016-05-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the feasibility and safety of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for totally extraperitoneal (TEP) endoscopic hernia surgery after previous open groin hernia repair that may hamper preperitoneal dissection. This prospective cohort study included 213 consecutive patients undergoing LESS TEP hernia repair between January 2009 and December 2013. The study group consisted of 36 patients with a history of previous open inguinal hernia repair before undergoing LESS TEP hernia repair. The study enrolled the other 177 patients who underwent LESS TEP during the same period and were enrolled as the control group. We obtained perioperative data for all patients including demographic data, operation time, length of hospital stay, narcotic dose, conversions, and complications. A total of 213 patients with inguinal hernia underwent LESS TEP repair. One case in the control group (0.56 %) required conversion to LESS transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair, while no cases in the study group required conversion. We observed no differences between the two groups in terms of operative time, analgesic use, hospital stay, and postoperative complications. LESS TEP hernia repair for patients with previous open inguinal hernia repair can be performed safely by experienced surgeons. Operative outcomes were comparable between both the primary inguinal and recurrent hernia groups.

  11. Contact dermatitis in hairdressers, 10 years later: patch-test results in 300 hairdressers (1994 to 2003) and comparison with previous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valks, Ruud; Conde-Salazar, Luis; Malfeito, Juan; Ledo, Silvia

    2005-03-01

    In the last 20 years, the hairdressing profession has undergone important modifications, mainly because of a change in the substances and techniques used and improved occupational education. To evaluate the modifications in the hairdressing profession and its actual risk of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD). We studied all 300 hairdressers seen in our department from 1994 to 2003 and compared the results with those of a previous study of 379 hairdressers who attended our department from 1980 to 1993. All were patch-tested with the European Standard series and specific hairdressing products. As previously, most of the workers were women (93%), with a mean age (23.7 years) slightly higher than that of the workers in our previous study. We found a significant increase in the frequency of positive patch-test responses (78.3% vs 58.8%) and OACD (58% vs 48.8%) with respect to our previous study. We also observed a significant increase in sensitization to most allergens, including p-phenylenediamine base (54% vs 45.9%), 4-aminobenzene (40.7% vs 31.9%), ammonium thioglycolate (2.7% to 12.3%), ammonium persulfate (7.9% to 14.3%), p-toluenediamine sulfate (6.8% to 15.3%), p-aminodiphenylamine (2.9% to 7.7%), o-nitro-4-phenylenediamine (2.1% to 7.3%), and aminophenols (0% to 9%), whereas a decrease was found in sensitization to Disperse Orange (17% vs 32.7%) and thioglycolic acid (15.3% to 3%). The high frequency and increase of sensitizations among hairdressers require urgent measures to improve protective measures and their application.

  12. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.

  13. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2015-02-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  14. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years......, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality...... associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95...

  15. Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study

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    Freire Claudia Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS and to healthy controls (CG to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc, and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity. Results cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P  0.05 and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P  Conclusions Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with MS and regardless the presence of established cardiovascular risk factors.

  16. Accuracy of pre operative real time dynamic transvaginal ultrasound sliding sign in prediction of pelvic adhesions in women with previous abdominopelvic surgery. A prospective multicenter double blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayachi, Amira; Bouchahda, Rim; Derouich, Sadok; Mkaouer, Lassaad; Kehila, Mehdi; Abouda, Hassine; Channoufi, Badis; Bouyahia, Maha; Braham, Marouen; Zhioua, Fethi; Bouchahda, Haifa; Mourali, Mechaal

    2017-03-13

    To highlight the role of the transvaginal ultrasound sliding sign in predicting pelvic adhesions in women with a previous history of abdominopelvic surgery. Multicenter prospective, interventional, double blinded study. Patients were examined before the laparoscopy or laparotomy, in gynaecological position, with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) probe to assess vesico uterine pouch, uterus, ovaries, pouch of Douglas by analysing the gliding between two structures. Ultrasounds findings, medical and surgical data were recorded. Accuracy of preoperative TVU sliding sign in diagnosis of pelvic adhesions for each compartment were calculated using sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR- and ROC curves were analysed. During the study period, complete TVU sliding sign and laparoscopic or laparotomy data were available for 107 women. The mean age of our patients in this study was 43.96 (95% CI 41.56-46.35) (range 20 to 79 years). The mean parity was 1.97 (95% CI 1.66-2.29) (range 0 to 9). The mean number of previous abdominal surgeries was 1.33 (95% CI 1.20-1.45) (range 0 to 4). Adhesions were noted at 27/107 (25.23 %) patients with history of abdominopelvic surgery. In our study, the sliding sign technique had a total sensitivity of 96.3% and a total specificity of 92.6%. A significant relationship was noticed between adhesions in each compartment and the ultrasound pelvic sliding sign (p sign could help in the planning and counselling of the surgery for patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Acceleration and Orientation Jumping Performance Differences Among Elite Professional Male Handball Players With or Without Previous ACL Reconstruction: An Inertial Sensor Unit-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setuain, Igor; González-Izal, Miriam; Alfaro, Jesús; Gorostiaga, Esteban; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-12-01

    Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations can be observed in athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Commonly identified jumping biomechanical alterations have been described by the use of laboratory technologies. However, portable and easy-to-handle technologies that enable an evaluation of jumping biomechanics at the training field are lacking. To analyze unilateral/bilateral acceleration and orientation jumping performance differences among elite male handball athletes with or without previous ACL reconstruction via a single inertial sensor unit device. Case control descriptive study. At the athletes' usual training court. Twenty-two elite male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) handball players were evaluated. The participants performed a vertical jump test battery that included a 50-cm vertical bilateral drop jump, a 20-cm vertical unilateral drop jump, and vertical unilateral countermovement jump maneuvers. Peak 3-dimensional (X, Y, Z) acceleration (m·s(-2)), jump phase duration and 3-dimensional orientation values (°) were obtained from the inertial sensor unit device. Two-tailed t-tests and a one-way analysis of variance were performed to compare means. The P value cut-off for significance was set at P handball athletes with previous ACL reconstruction demonstrated a jumping biomechanical profile similar to control players, including similar jumping performance values in both bilateral and unilateral jumping maneuvers, several years after ACL reconstruction. These findings are in agreement with previous research showing full functional restoration of abilities in top-level male athletes after ACL reconstruction, rehabilitation and subsequent return to sports at the previous level. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  19. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrard François

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding, as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI, as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds. Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders, breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI  Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study.

  20. Impact of Availability and Use of ART/PMTCT Services on Fertility Desires of Previously Pregnant Women in Rakai, Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Lindsay E; Makumbi, Frederick E; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-07-01

    To assess fertility desires by availability and use of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai, Uganda. Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai was defined in three periods: (1) pre-ART/PMTCT (2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by χ. "Modified" Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRRs were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. A total of 4227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout [adjusted (adj.) PRR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13] and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.14) compared with pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and nonusers in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.14) and 1 year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.94). Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women.

  1. The contribution of previous lameness events and body condition score to the occurrence of lameness in dairy herds: A study of 2 herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Green, L E; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Huxley, J N

    2017-11-22

    It has been demonstrated that low body condition and previous occurrence of lameness increase the risk of future lameness in dairy cows. To date the population attributable fraction (PAF), which provides an estimate of the contribution that a risk factor makes toward the total number of disease events in a population, has not been explored for lameness using longitudinal data with repeated measures. Estimation of PAF helps to identify control measures that could lead to the largest improvements on-farm. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal data to evaluate the proportion of lameness that could be avoided in 2 separate herds (2 populations) through (1) reduced recurrence of previous lameness events, (2) and moving body condition score (BCS) into more optimal ranges. Data were obtained from 2 UK dairy herds: herd A, a 200-cow herd with 8 yr of data from a total of 724 cows where lameness events were based on weekly locomotion scores (LS; 1 to 5 scale), and herd B, a 600-cow herd with data recorded over 44 mo from a total of 1,040 cows where treatment of clinical cases was used to identify lameness events. The PAF for categories of BCS were estimated using a closed equation appropriate for multiple exposure categories. Simulation models were used to explore theoretical scenarios to reflect changes in BCS and recurrence of previous lameness events in each herd. For herd A, 21.5% of the total risk periods (cow-weeks) contained a lameness event (LS 3, 4, or 5), 96% of which were repeat events and 19% were recorded with BCS events were based on 2 consecutive weeks of LS 4 or 5, 4% of risk periods were recorded as lame, of which 89.5% were repeat events. For herd B, 16.3% of the total risk periods (consecutive 30 d) contained a lameness event (72.6% were repeat events) and 20% were recorded with BCS ≤2 (0 to 120 d previously). The median PAF for all previous lameness was between 79 and 83% in the 2 herds. Between 9 and 21% of lameness events could be attributed

  2. Genome-wide association study for birth weight in Nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625

  3. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  4. Reduced live-birth rates after IVF/ICSI in women with previous unilateral oophorectomy: results of a multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Tekla; Holte, Jan; Olofsson, Jan I; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Nedstrand, Elizabeth; Lood, Mikael; Berglund, Lars; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny

    2018-02-01

    Is there a reduced live-birth rate (LBR) after IVF/ICSI treatment in women with a previous unilateral oophorectomy (UO)? A significantly reduced LBR after IVF/ICSI was found in women with previous UO when compared with women with intact ovaries in this large multicentre cohort, both crudely and after adjustment for age, BMI, fertility centre and calendar period and regardless of whether the analysis was based on transfer of embryos in the fresh cycle only or on cumulative results including transfers using frozen-thawed embryos. Similar pregnancy rates after IVF/ICSI have been previously reported in case-control studies and small cohort studies of women with previous UO versus women without ovarian surgery. In all previous studies multiple embryos were transferred. No study has previously evaluated LBR in a large cohort of women with a history of UO. This research was a multicentre cohort study, including five reproductive medicine centres in Sweden: Carl von Linné Clinic (A), Karolinska University Hospital (B), Uppsala University Hospital (C), Linköping University Hospital (D) and Örebro University Hospital (E). The women underwent IVF/ICSI between January 1999 and November 2015. Single embryo transfer (SET) was performed in approximately 70% of all treatments, without any significant difference between UO exposed women versus controls (68% versus 71%), respectively (P = 0.32), and a maximum of two embryos were transferred in the remaining cases. The dataset included all consecutive treatments and fresh and frozen-thawed cycles. The exposed cohort included 154 women with UO who underwent 301 IVF/ICSI cycles and the unexposed control cohort consisted of 22 693 women who underwent 41 545 IVF/ICSI cycles. Overall, at the five centres (A-E), the exposed cohort underwent 151, 34, 35, 41 and 40 treatments, respectively, and they were compared with controls of the same centre (18 484, 8371, 5575, 4670 and 4445, respectively). The primary outcome was LBR, which was

  5. [Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Monteiro, Gina Torres Rego

    2012-10-01

    This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010) aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal), sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate), and previous Pap smear (proximal). Odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384) after adjusting for selected variables. The results highlight the importance of preventive gynecological examination for reducing the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize the need to increase adherence to the guidelines of the Brazilian program, besides identifying and scheduling women that have proven reluctant to submit to cervical cancer screening.

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN WOMEN WITH RECURRENT PREECLAMPSIA TO WOMEN WITH PRE-ECLAMPSIA WHO WERE NORMOTENSIVE DURING THEIR PREVIOUS PREGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Guhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Pre-eclampsia is a systemic syndrome that occurs in 3-5% of the pregnant women and is the leading cause of maternal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. We designed a study to compare perinatal outcome in women with recurrent preeclampsia to women with women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive during their previous pregnancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode for a period of 1 year from March 2013 to February 2014. We conducted this study in multiparous women who developed pre-eclampsia in index pregnancy (n=110. Among these, women who had pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies (n=55 were compared to those who remained normotensive during their prior pregnancies (n=55. Maternal and foetal variables were compared. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to examine the impact of pre-eclampsia on foetal outcome, preterm delivery, IUGR, still births adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS No statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in terms of age, gravida, parity. Women who experienced recurrent pre-eclampsia were at elevated risk for early onset of pre-eclampsia, deranged laboratory investigations (Hepatic and Renal parameters, Coagulation Profile, higher chances of maternal complications, foetal mortality and morbidity (Statistically significant P <0.05. Foetal loss was higher in women with recurrent pre-eclampsia (14.5% than in women with pre-eclampsia who had normotensive pregnancy history (1.8%. CONCLUSION Women with recurrent pre-eclampsia had a higher rate of perinatal loss compared to women with pre-eclampsia who were normotensive in their prior pregnancies.

  7. A longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Esa, Ab Rahman; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Mey, See Ching; Aziz, Rosniza Abdul; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that emotional intelligence, previous academic achievement (i.e. cumulative grade point average (GPA)) and personality are associated with success in various occupational settings. This study evaluated the relationships of these variables with psychological health of first year medical students during stressful periods. A 1-year prospective study was done with students accepted into the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Information on emotional intelligence, GPA and personality traits were obtained prior to admission. The validated Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory and Universiti Sains Malaysia Personality Inventory were used to measure emotional intelligence and personality traits, respectively. Stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale during the end-of-course (time 1) and final (time 2) examinations. At the less stressful period (time 1), stress level was associated with agreeableness and the final GPA, anxiety level was associated with emotional control and emotional conscientiousness and depression level was associated with the final GPA and extraversion. At the more stressful period (time 2), neuroticism associated with stress level, anxiety level was associated with neuroticism and emotional expression, and depression level was associated with neuroticism. This study found that neuroticism was the strongest associated factor of psychological health of medical students during their most stressful testing period. Various personality traits, emotional intelligence and previous academic performance were associated factors of psychological health during a less stressful period. These data suggest that early identification of medical students who are vulnerable to the stressful environment of medical schools might help them maintain psychological well-being during medical training.

  8. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, pdiabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More homogenous data is needed to confirm these findings.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  10. Trial of labour and vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A population based study of Eastern African immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-03-01

    Variations in caesarean section (CS) between some immigrant groups and receiving country populations have been widely reported. Often, African immigrant women are at higher risk of CS than the receiving population in developed countries. However, evidence about subsequent mode of birth following CS for African women post-migration is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine differences in attempted and successful vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC) for Eastern African immigrants (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) compared with Australian-born women. A population-based observational study was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to generate adjusted odds ratios for attempted and successful VBAC. Victoria, Australia. 554 Eastern African immigrants and 24,587 Australian-born eligible women with previous CS having singleton births in public care. 41.5% of Eastern African immigrant women and 26.1% Australian-born women attempted a VBAC with 50.9% of Eastern African immigrants and 60.5% of Australian-born women being successful. After adjusting for maternal demographic characteristics and available clinical confounding factors, Eastern African immigrants were more likely to attempt (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) but less likely to succeed (ORadj 0.54 95% CI 0.41-0.71) in having a VBAC. There are disparities in attempted and successful VBAC between Eastern African origin and Australian-born women. Unsuccessful VBAC attempt is more common among Eastern African immigrants, suggesting the need for improved strategies to select and support potential candidates for vaginal birth among these immigrants to enhance success and reduce potential complications associated with failed VBAC attempt. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaginal progesterone pessaries for pregnant women with a previous preterm birth to prevent neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (the PROGRESS Study): A multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Caroline A; Ashwood, Pat; McPhee, Andrew J; Flenady, Vicki; Tran, Thach; Dodd, Jodie M; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, as a consequence of preterm birth, is a major cause of early mortality and morbidity. The withdrawal of progesterone, either actual or functional, is thought to be an antecedent to the onset of labour. There remains limited information on clinically relevant health outcomes as to whether vaginal progesterone may be of benefit for pregnant women with a history of a previous preterm birth, who are at high risk of a recurrence. Our primary aim was to assess whether the use of vaginal progesterone pessaries in women with a history of previous spontaneous preterm birth reduced the risk and severity of respiratory distress syndrome in their infants, with secondary aims of examining the effects on other neonatal morbidities and maternal health and assessing the adverse effects of treatment. Women with a live singleton or twin pregnancy between 18 to placebo (n = 389). Participants and investigators were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was respiratory distress syndrome and severity. Secondary outcomes were other respiratory morbidities; other adverse neonatal outcomes; adverse outcomes for the woman, especially related to preterm birth; and side effects of progesterone treatment. Data were analysed for all the 787 women (100%) randomised and their 799 infants. Most women used their allocated study treatment (740 women, 94.0%), with median use similar for both study groups (51.0 days, interquartile range [IQR] 28.0-69.0, in the progesterone group versus 52.0 days, IQR 27.0-76.0, in the placebo group). The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was similar in both study groups-10.5% (42/402) in the progesterone group and 10.6% (41/388) in the placebo group (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-1.49, p = 0.912)-as was the severity of any neonatal respiratory disease (adjusted treatment effect 1.02, 95% CI 0.69-1.53, p = 0.905). No differences were seen between study groups for

  12. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-10-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] "top scoring pairs" polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible.

  13. A Feasibility Study on Adaptive 18F-FDG-guided Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer in the Previously Irradiated Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.

  14. Effect of treatment of a previous ectopic pregnancy on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Yan, Lei; Liu, Wen; Xu, Xinxin; Li, Miao; Ding, Lingling; Ma, Jinlong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of previous ectopic pregnancies (EP) and different EP treatment methods on in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. University-based reproductive medicine center. Women undergoing 51,268 fresh cycles of IVF-ICSI. In women who had had an EP before the IVF treatment and women who were diagnosed with fallopian disease without an EP (control group), division into three treatment subgroups: subgroup 1, conservative treatment; subgroup 2, salpingostomy; and subgroup 3 salpingectomy. Estimates of IVF-ICSI outcome and ovarian function based on number of antral follicles and rates of implantation, EP, clinical pregnancy, and delivery. For the experimental group and the control group, there were no statistically significant differences in the rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, or delivery. However, the risk of recurrent EP was statistically significantly higher in the experimental group compared with the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in IVF-ICSI outcomes between the three treatment subgroups in terms of the basic antral follicle number or the dominant antral follicle numbers (>1.0 cm) after surgical treatment of EP. Our results suggest that women with a prior history of EP have a higher recurrence risk of EP after IVF in comparison with women with no history of EP. Previous EP has no effect on the main IVF-ICSI outcomes. For the treatment of EP, salpingostomy and salpingectomy do not statistically significantly affect ovarian function. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adverse events, bone mineral density and discontinuation associated with generic alendronate among postmenopausal women previously tolerant of brand alendronate: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Alexandra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rise in gastrointestinal (GI adverse events (AEs and a decline in bone mineral density (BMD was observed in patients previously tolerant to brand alendronate shortly after generic versions were introduced in July 2005 to the Canadian market. The objective of our study was to quantify changes in AE rates and BMD scores, as well as associated alendronate discontinuation among patients before and after switch from brand to generic alendronate. Methods A chart review of postmenopausal women 50 years of age and older between 2003 and 2007 was conducted in two specialized tertiary care referral centers. Patients on alendronate both before and after July 2005 were included. The change in the number of AEs, changes in BMD and associated alendronate discontinuation was compared before and after the switch from brand to generic alendronate. Results 301 women with an average age of 67.6 years (standard deviation (SD = 9.5 had a total of 47 AEs between July 2003 and December 2007 that resulted in discontinuation of the medication. There was a significant increase in the rate of AEs per patient-months-at-risk from 0.0001 before to 0.0044 after October 2005 (p Conclusions Patients who were previously stable on doses of brand alendronate experienced an increase in AEs causing discontinuation after introduction of automatic substitution to generic alendronate. In addition, reductions in BMD were observed in some patients who had stable BMDs before January 2006. Given the substantial increase in AEs, generic alendronate may not be as well tolerated as brand alendronate.

  16. A pilot study on the effect of a symbiotic mixture in irritable bowel syndrome: an open-label, partially controlled, 6-month extension of a previously published trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, C; Tremolaterra, F; Gallotta, S; Fortunato, A; Cappello, C; Ciacci, C; Iovino, P

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, the efficacy of probiotics has received considerable attention in the treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this regard, a symbiotic mixture (Probinul(®)) has shown beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to extend the previously published 4-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of this symbiotic mixture. This is an open-label prospective, partially controlled, 6-month extension period pilot study in which patients continued to receive the symbiotic mixture (Group 1) or were switched from placebo to symbiotic mixture (Group 2) using cyclic administration (last 2 weeks/month). The primary endpoints were the overall satisfactory relief of bloating and flatulence (assessed as proportions of responders). The secondary endpoints were evaluation of the symptom severity scores (bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency) and bowel function scores (frequency, consistency and incomplete evacuation). Twenty-six IBS patients completed the 6-month extension period (13 patients in Group 1 and 13 patients in Group 2). In the per-protocol analysis, the proportions of responders across time were not significantly different in the groups but in Group 2, there was an increased percentage of responders for flatulence (p = 0.07). In addition, the score of flatulence was reduced significantly during the 6-month treatment period in Group 2 (p symbiotic mixture was associated with persistence of relief from flatulence or new reduction in flatulence in the present 6-month long extension study. These results need to be more comprehensively assessed in large, long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled studies.

  17. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The priming effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 influenza vaccination in children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Kyeong; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Lim, Jung Sub; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho

    2016-08-22

    The effect of previous natural pandemic H1N1 (H1N1 pdm09) influenza infection on the immunogenicity to subsequent inactivated influenza vaccination in children has not been well studied. We aimed to evaluate the effect of H1N1 pdm09 natural infection and vaccination on the immunogenicity to subsequent 2010-2011 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccination in children. From October 2010 to May 2011, we conducted an open-label, multi-center study in children aged 6 months -18 years in Korea. We measured antibody titers with a hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months after vaccination with trivalent split or subunit vaccines containing H1N1 pdm, A/H3N2, and B. The subjects were classified into 4 groups depending on the presence of laboratory-confirmed H1N1 pdm09 infection and/or vaccination in the 2009-2010 season; Group I: vaccination (-)/infection(-), Group II: vaccination (-)/infection(+), Group III: vaccination (+)/infection(-), Group IV: vaccination (+)/infection(+). Among the subjects in group I, 47 subjects who had a baseline titer >1:10 were considered to have an asymptomatic infection. They were included into the final group II (n = 80). We defined the new group II as the infection-primed (IP) group and group III as the vaccine-primed (VP) group. Seroconversion rate (57.5 % vs 35.9 %, p = 0.001), seroprotection rate at 6 months after vaccination (70.8 % vs 61.8 %, p = 0.032), and GMT at 1 month after vaccination (129.9 vs 66.5, p = 0.002) were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. In the 9-18 year-old group, seroconversion rate and immunogenicity at 1 and 6 months were significantly higher in the IP group than in the VP group. However in the 1-7 year-old age group, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Previous H1N1 pdm09 infection appears to have positive effects on immunogenicity of subsequent inactivated influenza vaccines against H1N1 pdm09 in older

  19. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreinemachers Dina M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher level of spring wheat farming than in counties with lower levels of this crop. Spring wheat, one of the major field crops in these four states, was treated for 85% or more of its acreage with chlorophenoxy herbicides. In the current study NHANES III data were reviewed for associations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D exposure, one of the most frequently used chlorophenoxy herbicides, with risk factors that are linked to the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes, such as dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism. Methods To investigate the toxicity pattern of chlorophenoxy herbicides, effects of a previous 2,4-D exposure were assessed by comparing levels of lipids, glucose metabolism, and thyroid stimulating hormone in healthy adult NHANES III subjects with urinary 2,4-D above and below the level of detection, using linear regression analysis. The analyses were conducted for all available subjects and for two susceptible subpopulations characterized by high glycosylated hemoglobin (upper 50th percentile and low thyroxine (lower 50th percentile. Results Presence of urinary 2,4-D was associated with a decrease of HDL levels: 8.6% in the unadjusted data (p-value = 0.006, 4.8% in the adjusted data (p-value = 0.08, and 9% in the adjusted data for the susceptible subpopulation with low thyroxine (p-value = 0.02. An effect modification of the inverse triglycerides-HDL relation was observed in association with 2,4-D. Among subjects with low HDL, urinary 2,4-D was associated with increased levels of triglycerides, insulin, C-peptide, and thyroid stimulating hormone, especially in the susceptible subpopulations. In contrast, subjects with

  20. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  1. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on nocturia and quality of life in men with hypogonadism: a subanalysis of a previous prospective randomized controlled study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Koji; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on nocturia and general health among men with hypogonadism and nocturia. From our previous EARTH study population, 64 patients with a clinical diagnosis of nocturia (two or more times per one night) and hypogonadism, comprising the TRT group (n = 31) and controls (n = 33), were included in this analysis. The TRT group was administered 250 mg of testosterone enanthate as an intramuscular injection every 4 weeks for 6 months. All patients responded to the following questionnaires: International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) score and Short Form-36 health survey at baseline and 6-month visit. These categories were compared based on changes from baseline to the 6-month visit between TRT and control groups. At the 6-month visit, the TRT group had a significant decrease in IPSS question no. 7 and AMS question no. 4, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Additionally, role limitation because of health program, vitality and mental health domains were significantly improved in the TRT group. Six-month TRT may improve nocturia, sleep conditions and quality of life among men with hypogonadism and nocturia.

  2. Sensory Processing of Motor Inaccuracy Depends on Previously Performed Movement and on Subsequent Motor Corrections: A Study of the Saccadic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panouillères, Muriel; Urquizar, Christian; Salemme, Roméo; Pélisson, Denis

    2011-01-01

    When goal-directed movements are inaccurate, two responses are generated by the brain: a fast motor correction toward the target and an adaptive motor recalibration developing progressively across subsequent trials. For the saccadic system, there is a clear dissociation between the fast motor correction (corrective saccade production) and the adaptive motor recalibration (primary saccade modification). Error signals used to trigger corrective saccades and to induce adaptation are based on post-saccadic visual feedback. The goal of this study was to determine if similar or different error signals are involved in saccadic adaptation and in corrective saccade generation. Saccadic accuracy was experimentally altered by systematically displacing the visual target during motor execution. Post-saccadic error signals were studied by manipulating visual information in two ways. First, the duration of the displaced target after primary saccade termination was set at 15, 50, 100 or 800 ms in different adaptation sessions. Second, in some sessions, the displaced target was followed by a visual mask that interfered with visual processing. Because they rely on different mechanisms, the adaptation of reactive saccades and the adaptation of voluntary saccades were both evaluated. We found that saccadic adaptation and corrective saccade production were both affected by the manipulations of post-saccadic visual information, but in different ways. This first finding suggests that different types of error signal processing are involved in the induction of these two motor corrections. Interestingly, voluntary saccades required a longer duration of post-saccadic target presentation to reach the same amount of adaptation as reactive saccades. Finally, the visual mask interfered with the production of corrective saccades only during the voluntary saccades adaptation task. These last observations suggest that post-saccadic perception depends on the previously performed action and that the

  3. Phase Ib study of the mitochondrial inhibitor ME-344 plus topotecan in patients with previously treated, locally advanced or metastatic small cell lung, ovarian and cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jennifer R; Goff, Barbara; Forster, Martin D; Bendell, Johanna C; Britten, Carolyn D; Gordon, Michael S; Gabra, Hani; Waterhouse, David M; Poole, Mark; Ross Camidge, D; Hamilton, Erika; Moore, Kathleen M

    2017-10-01

    Background This multicenter, open-label, phase Ib study was designed to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy of ME-344, a mitochondrial inhibitor, administered in combination with the topoisomerase I inhibitor, topotecan, in patients with previously treated, locally advanced or metastatic small cell lung (SCLC), ovarian and cervical cancers. Patients and methods In Part 1, patients received ME-344 10 mg/kg intravenously weekly on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 in combination with topotecan 4 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28 day cycle. Cycles were repeated until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients were evaluated for dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in cycle 1 and ME-344 pharmacokinetic samples were obtained. In Part 2, patients with locally advanced or metastatic SCLC and ovarian cancer were enrolled in expansion cohorts treated at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) determined in Part 1. Results Fourteen patients were enrolled in Part 1 and no DLTs were observed. The RP2D of ME-344 in combination with topotecan was established as 10 mg/kg. In Part 2, 32 patients were enrolled. The most common treatment-emergent all-grade and grade 3/4 toxicities included fatigue (65.2%, 6.5%), neutropenia (56.5%, 43.5%) and thrombocytopenia (50%, 23.9%). One patient with recurrent ovarian cancer experienced a partial response by RECIST 1.1 and 21 patients achieved stable disease as best response. Conclusions The combination of ME-344 10 mg/kg weekly and topotecan 4 mg/m2 was tolerable, however, the degree of anti-cancer activity does not support further investigation of the combination in unselected patients with SCLC, ovarian and cervical cancers.

  4. Phase II study of a novel taxane (Cabazitaxel-XRP 6258) in previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ankit; Jones, Benjamin S; Bordoni, Rodolfo; Saleh, Mansoor N; Jerome, Mary S; Miley, Deborah K; Jackson, Bradford E; Robert, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Given the success of cabazitaxel in patients with prostate cancer who progressed after receiving prior chemotherapy, its preclinical efficacy in various cell lines and possible ability to cross blood-brain barrier, cabazitaxel was hypothesized to increase objective response rate (ORR) in second-line setting in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This was a phase II 2-stage trial in 28 patients using two different treatment schedules (A: 20 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks intravenously and B: 8.4 mg/m(2) intravenously weekly) to determine the ORR of cabazitaxel with secondary end points including progression-free survival (PFS), safety, and overall survival (OS). There was one objective response in schedule B. PFS and OS of schedule A was 3 and 6 months, respectively. PFS and OS of schedule B was 3 and 13 months, respectively. The stable disease rate was higher in schedule A (SD = 69.23 %; 95 % CL 38.57, 90.90) as compared to schedule B (SD = 38.46 %; 95 % CL 13.86, 68.42), but this difference was not statistically significant (P value = 0.1156). There were two grade 5 toxicities from sepsis. Hematuria of any grade developed in greater percentage of patients (35%) as compared to previous cabazitaxel phase 3 trial and led to change in our protocol. Response to cabazitaxel in NSCLC was not as robust as seen in prostate cancer and not superior to currently used agents such as docetaxel, pemetrexed, and erlotinib. In absence of significant objective responses, the second stage of the study was not undertaken.

  5. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  6. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Cause-Specific Mortality in Individuals Without Previous Cardiovascular Conditions: The CANHEART Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dennis T; Alter, David A; Guo, Helen; Koh, Maria; Lau, Geoffrey; Austin, Peter C; Booth, Gillian L; Hogg, William; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Lee, Douglas S; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Wilkins, John T; Tu, Jack V

    2016-11-08

    The prognostic importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as a specific risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease has been challenged by recent clinical trials and genetic studies. This study sought to reappraise the association of HDL-C level with CV and non-CV mortality using a "big data" approach. An observational cohort study was conducted using the CANHEART (Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team) dataset, which was created by linking together 17 different individual-level data sources. People were included if they were between 40 and 105 years old on January 1, 2008, living in Ontario, Canada, without previous CV conditions or severe comorbidities, and had an outpatient fasting cholesterol measurement in the year prior to the inception date. The primary outcome was cause-specific mortality. A total of 631,762 individuals were included. The mean age of our cohort was 57.2 years, 55.4% were women, and mean HDL-C level was 55.2 mg/dl. There were 17,952 deaths during a mean follow-up of 4.9 ± 0.4 years. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 8.1 per 1,000 person-years for men and 6.6 per 1,000 person-years for women. Individuals with lower HDL-C levels were more likely to have low incomes, unhealthy lifestyle, higher triglycerides levels, other cardiac risk factors, and medical comorbidities. Individuals with lower HDL-C levels were independently associated with higher risk of CV, cancer, and other mortality compared with individuals in the reference ranges of HDL-C levels. In addition, individuals with higher HDL levels (>70 mg/dl in men, >90 mg/dl in women) had increased hazard of non-CV mortality. Complex associations exist between HDL-C levels and sociodemographic, lifestyle, comorbidity factors, and mortality. HDL-C level is unlikely to represent a CV-specific risk factor given similarities in its associations with non-CV outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.V. Meerten (Esther Van); M. Franckena (Martine); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik); L.V. Doorn (Lena Van); J. Kraan (Jaco); A.M. Westermann (Anneke); S. Sleijfer (Stefan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and

  8. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerten, Esther; Franckena, Martine; Wiemer, Erik; van Doorn, Lena; Kraan, Jaco; Westermann, Anneke; Sleijfer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and HER2 is frequently seen in

  9. A phase II study of a human anti-PDGFRα monoclonal antibody (olaratumab, IMC-3G3) in previously treated patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A J; Kindler, H; Gelderblom, H; Schöffski, P; Bauer, S; Hohenberger, P; Kopp, H-G; Lopez-Martin, J A; Peeters, M; Reichardt, P; Qin, A; Nippgen, J; Ilaria, R L; Rutkowski, P

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated tumor response to olaratumab (an anti-PDGFRα monoclonal antibody) in previously treated patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with or without PDGFRα mutations (cohorts 1 and 2, respectively). Patients received olaratumab 20 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days until disease progression, death, or intolerable toxicity occurred. Outcome measures were 12-week tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Of 30 patients enrolled, 21 patients received ≥1 dose of olaratumab. In the evaluable population (cohort 1, n = 6; cohort 2, n = 14), no complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) was observed. Stable disease (SD) was observed in 3 patients (50.0%) in cohort 1 and 2 patients (14.3%) in cohort 2. Progressive disease (PD) was observed in 3 patients (50.0%) in cohort 1 and 12 patients (85.7%) in cohort 2. The 12-week clinical benefit rate (CR + PR + SD) (90% CI) was 50.0% (15.3-84.7%) in cohort 1 and 14.3% (2.6-38.5%) in cohort 2. SD lasted beyond 12 weeks in 5 patients (cohort 1, n = 3; cohort 2, n = 2). Median PFS (90% CI) was 32.1 (5.0-35.9) weeks in cohort 1 and 6.1 (5.7-6.3) weeks in cohort 2. Median OS was not reached in cohort 1 and was 24.9 (14.4-49.1) weeks in cohort 2. All patients in cohort 1 and 9 (64.3%) in cohort 2 experienced an olaratumab-related adverse event (AE), most commonly fatigue (38.1%), nausea (19.0%), and peripheral edema (14.3%). Two grade ≥3 olaratumab-related events were reported (cohort 1, syncope; cohort 2, hypertension). Olaratumab had an acceptable AE profile in patients with GIST. While there was no apparent effect on PFS in patients without PDGFRα mutations, patients with PDGFRα-mutant GIST (all with D842V mutations) treated with olaratumab had longer disease control compared with historical data for this genotype. NCT01316263.

  10. Highly visible street-based HIV rapid testing: is it an attractive option for a previously untested population? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; de la Fuente, Luis; Hoyos, Juan; Rosales-Statkus, M Elena; Barrio, Gregorio; Belza, María-José

    2014-03-01

    Given the shortage of community-based HIV testing initiatives in resource-rich countries not targeting most-at-risk populations, we aimed to evaluate whether a highly visible mobile programme promoting and offering rapid HIV testing in the street can attract persons at risk for infection who have never been tested. Between 2008 and 2011, the programme served 7552 persons in various Spanish cities who answered a brief questionnaire while awaiting their results. The factors associated with being tested for the first time were analysed using two logistic regression models, one for men who have sex with men (MSM) and the other for only heterosexual men (MSW) and women. 3517 participants (47%) were first-time testers (24% of MSM, 56% of MSW and 60% of women). Among them, 22 undiagnosed HIV infections were detected with a global prevalence of 0.6% and 3.1% in MSM. Undergoing a first HIV test was independently associated with age gay community. Among those tested for the first time, 22% had never thought of being tested and 62% decided to be tested when they passed by and noticed the programme, regardless of their previous intentions. This community programme attracted a substantial number of persons previously untested and particularly hard to reach, such as those with low education and MSM who were least involved in the gay community. Programme visibility was a decisive factor for almost two of every three persons who had never been tested.

  11. Timing of dose relative to sexual intercourse attempt in previous sildenafil citrate users treated with tadalafil: a geographical comparison from a single arm, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Glina, Sidney; Abdo, Carmita H N; Hernandez-Serrano, Ruben; Rampazzo, Claudia; Sotomayor, Mariano; West, Teena M; Gallagher, Gabrielle L; Lenero, Enrique

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that sildenafil citrate users alter dosing-sexual attempt behavior when switched to tadalafil. The impact of geography and culture on sexual behavior with phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor treatment has not been fully investigated. To describe and compare the changes in dosing-sexual attempt behavior with sildenafil citrate vs. tadalafil treatment across four distinct geographies: Asia, Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Central Eastern Europe/Middle East (CEE/ME), and Latin America (LA). Data from a single-arm, open-label clinical trial conducted in 21 countries from November 2002 to May 2004 were used in this analysis. Men with erectile dysfunction and a history of > or =6-week prior sildenafil citrate use continued sildenafil citrate treatment for 4 weeks then switched to tadalafil for 8 weeks. Dosing instructions were provided. Timing of dose and sexual intercourse was assessed through patient diaries for the final 4 weeks of each treatment period. A total of 2,760 men were enrolled: Asia 15.8%; ANZ 29.4%; CEE/ME 19.7%; LA 35.1%. The median time from dosing to intercourse was significantly increased during tadalafil treatment across all geographical regions; however, the magnitude of increase differed significantly by geography (P geography. However, the extent to which sexual behavior alters is not uniform across geographical regions, suggesting that dosing instructions and duration of drug effectiveness, in combination with personal and cultural preferences, may determine sexual behavior with PDE5 inhibitor use.

  12. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  14. Update of the pompe disease mutation database with 60 novel GAA sequence variants and additional studies on the functional effect of 34 previously reported variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroos, Marian; Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marianne; Michelakakis, Helen; Pomponio, Robert; Van der Ploeg, Ans; Halley, Dicky; Reuser, Arnold

    2012-08-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal glycogen storage disorder, characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (EC; 3.2.1.20/3) can be caused by numerous pathogenic variants in the GAA gene. The Pompe Disease Mutation Database at http://www.pompecenter.nl aims to list all variants and their effect. This update reports on 94 variants. We examined 35 novel and 34 known mutations by site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression in COS-7 cells or HEK293T cells. Each of these mutations was given a severity rating using a previously published system, based on the level of acid α-glucosidase activity in medium and transfected cells and on the quantity and quality of the different molecular mass species in the posttranslational modification and transport of acid α-glucosidase. This approach enabled to classify 55 missense mutations as pathogenic and 13 as likely nonpathogenic. Based on their nature and the use of in silico analysis (Alamut® software), 12 of the additional 25 novel mutations were predicted to be pathogenic including 4 splicing mutations, 6 mutations leading to frameshift, and 2 point mutations causing stop codons. Seven of the additional mutations were considered nonpathogenic (4 silent and 3 occurring in intron regions), and 6 are still under investigation. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Recommendations for Conducting Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analyses for Students with Disabilities Based on Previous DIF Studies. Research Report. ETS RR-11-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzick, Heather; Stone, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to help ensure that strategies for differential item functioning (DIF) detection for students with disabilities are appropriate and lead to meaningful results. We surveyed existing DIF studies for students with disabilities and describe them in terms of study design, statistical approach, sample characteristics, and…

  16. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  17. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia A. Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595 and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589. The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.

  18. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A; Dias, João M D; Silva, Silvia L A; Dias, Rosângela C

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa = 0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa = 0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35 ± 1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.

  19. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne

    2015-03-12

    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  20. A Prospective Study Comparing Distance-based vs. Time-based Exercise Prescriptions of Walking and Running in Previously Sedentary Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cody E; Garner, John C; Owens, Scott G; Valliant, Melinda W; Debusk, Hunter; Loftin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Prior work has reported that the declines observed in body mass index (BMI) and circumference measurements in their cross-sectional data were twice as large when calculated from distance energy expenditure estimations compared to energy expenditure estimations based on time and intensity. The primary purpose of this study was to compare walking/running for distance to walking/running for time as part of an exercise intervention. This study followed a between-subjects, repeated measures design. Fifteen overweight, but otherwise healthy participants completed the study. The time-based group walked/ran for self-reported time while the distance-based group walked/ran for self-reported distance. A mixed-factor repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare all dependent variables both within-subjects and between-subjects. Weekly adherence rates to the exercise program did not exhibit a significant difference ( p > 0.05). Significant interactions were shown for mean body mass loss between groups as well as mean blood glucose level ( p exercise program for walking and running for improvement of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The results of this study would suggest that a distance-based exercise prescription of walking or running should provide a clinician or researcher with a closer estimation of overall accumulated exercise and resultant weight loss.

  1. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  2. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  3. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Polymorphism and Eating Disorders: Data From a New Biobank and Meta-Analysis of Previously Published Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantoni, Enrico; Solmi, Marco; Gallicchio, Davide; Santonastaso, Paolo; Meneguzzo, Paolo; Carvalho, Andrè F; Stubbs, Brendon; Clementi, Maurizio; Pinato, Claudia; Forzan, Monica; Cassina, Matteo; Fontana, Francesca; Piva, Ivana; Siani, Roberta; Salvo, Pierandrea; Tenconi, Elena; Veronese, Nicola; Correll, Christoph U; Favaro, Angela

    2017-11-01

    We investigated whether catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism is associated with eating disorders (EDs). We conducted a systematic literature search of studies published until 15 January 2017 and added data from the Italian 'Biobanca Veneta per i Disturbi Alimentari' biobank, performing a meta-analysis comparing COMT Val158Met genotype and allele frequencies in EDs and anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) patients versus controls. Ten studies plus Biobanca Veneta per i Disturbi Alimentari (ED: n = 920, controls: n = 261 controls) with 3541 ED patients (AN = 2388; BN = 233) and 3684 controls were included. There were no significant group differences in COMT Val158Met alleles and genotype frequencies between patients and controls, for all EDs pooled together [range of odds ratios (ORs): 0.96-1.04, p-values: 0.46-0.97, I2  = 0%] and when analysing separately patients with AN (ORs: 0.94-1.04, p-values: 0.31-0.61, I2  = 0%) or BN (ORs: 0.80-1.09, p-values: 0.28-0.64, I2  = 0-44%). Meta-analysing data results from 11 studies and 7225 subjects show that COMT Val158Met polymorphism is not associated with EDs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Can electroporation previous to radiofrequency hepatic ablation enlarge thermal lesion size? A feasibility study based on theoretical modelling and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Macarena; Castellví, Quim; Burdío, Fernando; Sánchez Velazquez, Patricia; Ivorra, Antoni; Andaluz, Anna; Berjano, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a hybrid ablative technique based on applying electroporation (EP) pulses just before conducting radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The rationale was that the EP-induced reduction in blood perfusion could be sufficient to reduce the thermal sink effect and hence to increase the coagulation volume in comparison to that created exclusively by RFA. A modelling study and in vivo experimental study were used. A Cool-tip RF applicator was used both for EP and RFA. Overall, the results did not show any synergy effect from using the hybrid technique. Applying EP pulses prior to RFA did not increase the coagulation zone obtained and the lesions were almost identical. Additional computer simulations provided an explanation for this; the effect of reducing blood perfusion by thermal damage during RFA completely masks the effect of reducing blood perfusion by EP. This is because both thermal damage and EP affect the same zone, i.e. the tissue around the electrode. Our computer modelling and in vivo experimental findings suggest that the combination of EP and RFA with monopolar applicators does not provide an additional benefit over the use of RFA alone.

  5. A randomised, phase II study of nintedanib or sunitinib in previously untreated patients with advanced renal cell cancer: 3-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, T; Loembé, A-B; Shparyk, Y; MacLeod, N; Jones, R J; Mazurkiewicz, M; Temple, G; Dressler, H; Bondarenko, I

    2015-10-20

    This exploratory study evaluated the safety/efficacy of nintedanib or sunitinib as first-line therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Ninety-six patients were randomised (2:1) to either nintedanib (200 mg twice daily) or sunitinib (50 mg kg(-1) once daily (4 weeks on treatment; 2 weeks off)). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 9 months. P-values reported are descriptive only; the study was not powered for such comparisons. Progression-free survival at 9 months was comparable between nintedanib and sunitinib (43.1% vs 45.2%, respectively; P=0.85). Median PFS was 8.4 months in each group (hazard ratio (HR), 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.80; P=0.64). Median overall survival was 20.4 and 21.2 months for nintedanib and sunitinib, respectively (HR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.54-1.56; P=0.76). Overall incidence of any grade adverse events (AEs) was comparable (90.6% vs 93.8%); AEs grade ⩾ 3 were lower with nintedanib than sunitinib (48.4% vs 59.4%). Nintedanib was associated with lower incidences of some AEs typical of antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs): hypertension, hypothyroidism, hand-foot syndrome, cardiac disorders and haematological abnormalities. In patients with advanced RCC, nintedanib has promising efficacy and similar tolerability to sunitinib, and a manageable safety profile with fewer TKI-associated AEs.

  6. The first PTPN1 1 mutations in hotspot exons reported in Moroccan children with Noonan syndrome and comparison of mutation rate to previous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bouchikhi, Ihssane; Samri, Imane; Iraqui Houssaini, Mohammed; Trhanint, Saaid; Bouguenouch, Laila; Sayel, Hanane; Hida, Moustapha; Atmani, Samir; Ouldim, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with an incidence of 1/1000-2500. It results from protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 11 (PTPN11) mutations in roughly 50% of cases. Mutational screening of PTPN11 has been carried out in different populations. Thus, the aim of this study was to screen, for the first time, PTPN11 mutations in a series of Moroccan Noonan syndrome patients. We used bidirectional sequencing of exons 3 and 8, considered as PTPN11 mutation hot spots, and then compared the rate of mutational events of these exons between different populations using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. We detected 3 heterozygous mutations (Asp6lGly, Tyr63Cys, and Asn308Ser) in 4 individuals of 16 sporadic patients (25%). The rate of mutation in our cohort did not differ from that of other populations. However, we found significant differences in the mutation rate of exon 8 between one Japanese cohort and some populations, which requires more investigations to be explained. The present study allowed identification of mutations clustered in exons 3 and 8 of the PTPN11 gene in a Moroccan Noonan syndrome cohort and enabled us to give appropriate genetic counseling to the mutation-positive patients.

  7. Tendon Length, Calf Muscle Atrophy, and Strength Deficit After Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Long-Term Follow-up of Patients in a Previous Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Juuso; Lantto, Iikka; Piilonen, Juuso; Flinkkilä, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Pajala, Ari; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2017-09-20

    In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture. From 1998 to 2001, 60 patients at our center underwent surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture followed by early functional postoperative rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients were reexamined after a minimum duration of follow-up of 13 years (mean, 14 years), and 52 of them were included in the present study. Outcome measures included Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and fatty degeneration measured with MRI of both the affected and the uninjured leg. The isokinetic plantar flexion strength of both calves was measured and was correlated with the structural findings. The Achilles tendon was, on average, 12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.6 to 15.6 mm; p Achilles tendon length correlated substantially with the strength deficit (ρ = 0.51, p Achilles tendon length is associated with smaller calf muscle volumes and persistent plantar flexion strength deficits after surgical repair of Achilles tendon rupture. Strength deficits and muscle volume deficits are partly compensated for by FHL hypertrophy, but 11% to 13% deficits in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle volumes and 12% to 18% deficits in plantar flexion strength persist even after long-term follow-up. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Lone; Hyldegaard, Ole; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack; Specht, Lena; Andersen, Elo; Jansen, Erik C; Hillerup, Søren; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2011-06-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Eighty patients eligible for HBO treatment on the indication of prevention/treatment of osteoradionecrosis or soft tissue radiation injury were consecutively sampled, of whom 45 had hyposalivation (i.e. unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate hyposalivation achieved an increased UWS flow rate after HBO. In 12 of these, the flow rates increased to levels not associated with hyposalivation. Patient-assessed improvement of xerostomia and slightly increased UWS and SWS secretion after HBO treatment suggest that HBO may have a beneficial effect on radiation-induced salivary gland damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren

    2007-01-01

    exposed to torture in their home country were interviewed at a Danish rehabilitation clinic on average 8 years after their final release from confinement and re-interviewed 10 years later. Interviews focused on history of exposure to physical and mental torture and on pain in the head, back and feet...... prevalent at study. RESULTS: The mean number of times imprisoned was 2.5 and the mean cumulative duration of imprisonment 19.4 months. The most frequent physical torture method reported was beating (95.0%) and the main mental torture method deprivation (88.5%). Pain reported at follow-up was strongly...... associated with the type and bodily focus of the torture. This presents a considerable challenge to future evidence-based development of effective treatment programs....

  10. Responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccines in participants previously vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccine: a randomized, observer-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Van der Most, Robbert; Li, Ping; Vaughn, David W

    2014-11-01

    Prior receipt of a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) can affect hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines. We investigated the effect of TIV priming on humoral responses to AS03-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, the role of AS03 on cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and vaccine safety. Healthy adults (aged 19-40 years) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive TIV or saline followed 4 months later by 2 doses, 3 weeks apart, of adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and followed up to study end (day 507). Pre- and postvaccination responses of HI and neutralizing antibody, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts were assessed. Ninety-nine of the 133 participants enrolled completed the study. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. In TIV-primed participants, A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibody and CD4(+) T-cell and memory B-cell responses to the pandemic vaccine tended to be diminished. Vaccine adjuvantation led to increased responses of vaccine-homologous and -heterologous HI and neutralizing antibodies and CD4(+) T cells, homologous memory B cells, and plasmablasts. In healthy adults, prior TIV administration decreased humoral and CMI responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Adjuvantation of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigen helped to overcome immune interference between the influenza vaccines. No safety concerns were observed. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00707967. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Score Is Associated With Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Previously Diagnosed Heart Failure: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Yang, Wei; Roy, Jason; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Chen, Jing; DeFilippi, Christopher; Delafontaine, Patrice; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Rosas, Sylvia E; Go, Alan S; Shlipak, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for heart failure (HF). Patients with chronic kidney disease without diagnosed HF have an increased burden of symptoms characteristic of HF. It is not known whether these symptoms are associated with occurrence of new onset HF. We studied the association of a modified Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire with newly identified cases of hospitalized HF among 3093 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study who did not report HF at baseline. The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was categorized into quartiles (Q1-4) with the lower scores representing the worse symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted repeated measure logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors for HF, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide level and left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Over a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.3±1.6 years, there were 211 new cases of HF hospitalizations. The risk of HF hospitalization increased with increasing symptom quartiles; 2.62, 1.85, 1.14, and 0.74 events per 100 person-years, respectively. The median number of annual Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire assessments per participant was 5 (interquartile range, 3-6). The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was independently associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models (odds ratio, 3.30 [1.66-6.52]; P=0.001 for Q1 compared with Q4). Symptoms characteristic of HF are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with higher short-term risk for new hospitalization for HF, independent of level of kidney function, and other known HF risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 skin cancer prevention study of DFMO in subjects with previous history of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, HH; Kim, K; Verma, A; Sielaff, K; Larson, PO; Snow, S; Lenaghan, T; Viner, JL; Douglass, J; Dreckschmidt, N; Hamielec, M; Pomplun, M; Sharata, HH; Puchalsky, D; Berg, ER; Havighurst, T; Carbone, PP

    2009-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and resultant decreases in tissue concentrations of polyamines (putrescine & spermidine) prevents neoplastic developments in many tissue types. Clinical studies of oral DFMO at 500 mg/m2/day revealed it to be safe and tolerable and resulted in significant inhibition of phorbol ester-induced skin ODC activity. Two hundred and ninety-one participants (mean 61 y.o., 60% male) with a history of prior non-melanoma skin cancer (mean 4.5 skin cancers) were randomized to oral DFMO (500 mg/m2/day) or placebo for 4–5 years. There was a trend toward a history of more prior skin cancers in subjects randomized to placebo, but all other characteristics including sunscreen and NSAID use were evenly distributed. Evaluation of 1200-person years of follow-up revealed a new non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) rate of 0.5 events/person/year. The primary endpoint, new NMSC’s, was not significantly different between subjects taking DFMO and placebo (260 vs. 363 cancers, p=0.069, two-sample t test). Evaluation of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell (SCC) cancers separately revealed very little difference in SCC between treatment groups but a significant difference in new BCC (DFMO 163 cancers; Placebo 243 cancers; expressed as event rate 0.28 BCC/person/year vs. 0.40 BCC/person/year, p=0.03). Compliance with DFMO was >90% and it appeared to be well tolerated with evidence of mild ototoxicity as measured by serial audiometric examination when compared to placebo subjects. Analysis of normal skin biopsies revealed a significant (pskin cancer taking daily DFMO had an insignificant reduction (p=0.069), in new NMSC that was predominantly due to a marked reduction in new BCC. Based on these data, the potential of DFMO, alone or in combination, to prevent skin cancers should be explored further. PMID:20051371

  13. The effects of ACE inhibitor therapy on left ventricular myocardial mass and diastolic filling in previously untreated hypertensive patients: a cine MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U; Globits, S; Stefenelli, T; Loewe, C; Kostner, K; Frank, H

    2001-07-01

    Cardiac remodeling in case of hypertension induces hypertrophy of myocytes and elevated collagen content and, subsequently, impaired diastolic filling of the left ventricle. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate changes of left ventricular (LV) myocardial mass, as well as diastolic filling properties, in hypertensive patients treated with the ACE inhibitor fosinopril. Sixteen hypertensive patients with echocardiographically documented LV hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction received fosinopril (10-20 mg daily). Measurements of LV myocardial mass and properties of diastolic filling (peak filling fraction (PFF); peak filling rate (PFR)) were performed prior to medication, as well as after 3 and 6 months of therapy using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten healthy subjects served as a control group. LV myocardial mass (g/m2) decreased continuously within 3-6 months of follow-up by 32% (148 +/- 40 vs. 120 +/- 26 vs. 101 +/- 22 g/m2; P Cine MRI can be used to assess the time course of pharmacological effects on cardiac remodeling in the course of hypertension. ACE inhibitor therapy results in a significant reduction of LV mass within 3 months and is accompanied by a normalization of diastolic filling that is completed after 6 months. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Can a Repeated Sprint Ability Test Help Clear a Previously Injured Soccer Player for Fully Functional Return to Activity? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Attene, Giuseppe; Ardigò, Luca P; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Maffulli, Nicola; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Dello Iacono, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effects of fatigue induced by a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test on the neuromuscular responses of soccer players with a recent history of lower limb injuries (CH) and a matched control group in good fitness condition (GH). This was a case-control study. Nine CH and 9 GH. Allocation to CH or GH. Each player was assessed for blood lactate concentration and jumping performance [squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)] before/after RSA. Post-RSA rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to calculate RSA sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between CH and GH. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. No baseline differences were found for any variable. ΔSJ before/after RSA was -14 ± 2% and -5 ± 2% in CH and GH, respectively (P RSA was -15 ± 2% and -7 ± 2% in CH and GH, respectively (P RSA) area under curve (AUC) resulted in 0.90 ± 0.07 and 0.86 ± 0.09, respectively, with both AUCs differentiating between CH and GH with 77.78% sensitivity and 88.89% specificity. Pooled AUC resulted in 0.88 ± 0.06. Intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.85/0.97). Repeated sprint ability is a simple, low-cost field test potentially able to assist in clinical decision making for return to sport.

  15. A phase II study of bortezomib added to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone in patients with previously untreated indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathon B; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Koff, Jean L; Sinha, Rajni; Kaufman, Jonathan L; Khoury, H Jean; Bumpers, Nassoma; Colbert, Amanda; Hutchison-Rzepka, Amanda; Nastoupil, Loretta J; Heffner, Leonard T; Langston, Amelia A; Lechowicz, Mary Jo; Lonial, Sagar; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-11-01

    Bortezomib-containing combinations are active in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) although peripheral neuropathy can limit their dose intensity. Based on our phase I findings, we conducted a phase II trial of bortezomib in combination with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) with a modified dose of vincristine. Patients with untreated indolent NHL received bortezomib (1·6 mg/m(2) ) on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles and R-CHOP with a 1·5 mg cap of vincristine. Patients achieving a complete response (CR) received maintenance rituximab, and remaining patients received maintenance rituximab and bortezomib. The primary endpoint was CR rate; secondary survival analyses were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Among 29 eligible patients, NHL morphologies included follicular (n = 20), marginal zone (n = 5) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (n = 4). Nineteen patients had CR (66%) and 10 had partial response (34%), yielding a 100% overall response rate. With a median follow-up of 48·7 months, the 4-year progression-free and overall survivals were 83% and 93%. Twenty-two patients experienced peripheral neuropathy of any grade, and two had grade 3 neuropathy. The combination of bortezomib with R-CHOP is effective for indolent NHL, and we plan to evaluate therapies incorporating novel proteasome inhibitors in future studies in NHL. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Phase II Study of Bortezomib Added to Rituximab, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone in Patients with Previously Untreated Indolent non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathon B.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Koff, Jean L.; Sinha, Rajni; Kaufman, Jonathan L.; Khoury, H. Jean; Bumpers, Nassoma; Colbert, Amanda; Hutchison-Rzepka, Amanda; Nastoupil, Loretta J.; Heffner, Leonard T.; Langston, Amelia; Lechowicz, Mary Jo; Lonial, Sagar; Flowers, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bortezomib-containing combinations are active in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) although peripheral neuropathy can limit its dose intensity. Based on our phase I findings, we conducted a phase II trial of bortezomib in combination with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) with a modified dose of vincristine. Patients with untreated indolent NHL received bortezomib (1.6 mg/m2) on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle for up to 8 cycles and R-CHOP with a 1.5 mg cap of vincristine. Patients achieving a complete response (CR) received maintenance rituximab, and remaining patients received maintenance rituximab and bortezomib. The primary endpoint was CR rate; secondary survival analyses were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Among 29 eligible patients, NHL morphologies included follicular (n=20), marginal zone (n=5) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (n=4). Nineteen patients had CR (66%) and 10 had partial response (34%), yielding a 100% overall response rate. With a median follow-up of 48.7 months, the 4-year progression-free and overall survivals were 83% and 93%. Twenty-two patients experienced peripheral neuropathy of any grade, and 2 had grade 3 neuropathy. The combination of bortezomib with R-CHOP is effective for indolent NHL, and we plan to evaluate therapies incorporating novel proteasome inhibitors in future studies in NHL. PMID:26248505

  17. Medical and social prognoses of non-specific building-related symptoms (Sick Building Syndrome): a follow-up study of patients previously referred to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, B; Stenberg, B; Bergdahl, J; Eriksson, N; Lindén, G; Widman, L

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the medical and social prognoses of patients with non-specific building-related symptoms. A follow-up questionnaire focusing on current medical and social status, care, treatment, other actions taken and personality traits was sent to 239 patients with non-specific building-related symptoms assessed during the period between 1986 and 1998 at University Hospital in Umeå, Sweden. The response rate was 79%. Fatigue, irritation of the eyes, and facial erythema were the most common weekly symptoms reported at follow-up. As females constituted 92% of the respondents, statistical analyses were restricted to women. The level and severity of symptoms decreased over time, although nearly half of the patients claimed that symptoms were more or less unchanged after 7 years or more, despite actions taken. Twenty-five percent of the patients were on the sick-list, and 20% drew disability pension due to persistent symptoms at follow-up. The risk of having no work capabilities at follow-up was significantly increased if the time from onset to first visit at the hospital clinic was more than 1 year. This risk was also significantly higher if the patient at the first visit had five or more symptoms. All risk assessments were adjusted for length of follow-up. Symptoms were often aggravated by different situations in everyday life. Long-lasting symptoms aggravated by environmental factors exist within this group of patients. The results support that early and comprehensive measures for rehabilitation are essential for the patients.

  18. Transport and production of NO{sub x} in electrified thunderstorms: survey of previous studies and new observations at mid-latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntrieser, H.; Schlager, H.; Feigl, C.; Hoeller, H.

    1998-08-01

    First airborne NO{sub x} (NO+NO{sub 2}) measurements in anvils of active thunderstorms in Europe were performed in summer 1996 over southern Germany and Switzerland (47-49 N). This field experiment LINOX (lightning produced NO{sub x}) was designed to study the production of NO{sub x} by lightning discharges and the transport in convective storms. With the DLR research aircraft Falcon about 20 anvil penetrations were performed including measurements of NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and meteorological parameters. In thunderstorm anvils mean NO{sub x} mixing ratios between 0.8-2.2 ppbv were measured with peak values reaching up to 4 ppbv. A considerable part of these enhancements could be attributed to the transport of polluted air from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using CO{sub 2} as tracer for PBL air. NO{sub x} produced by lightning can be obtained by subtracting the fraction of NO{sub x} transported from the PBL from total NO{sub x} measured in the anvil. However, during LINOX no direct NO{sub x} measurements below cloud base were performed. Instead the NO{sub x}/CO{sub 2} correlation in cumulus congestus clouds (where no lightning was detected) was used as reference for the transport of PBL air in the anvils. In smaller LINOX thunderstorms the contribution from lightning, respectively PBL-transport to anvil NO{sub x} was about equal. However, in medium and large LINOX thunderstorms the contribution from lightning dominated (60-75%). For these kind of thunderstorms it was estimated that {proportional_to}1.0 {+-} 0.5 ppbv NO{sub x} resulted from lightning production. (orig.) 86 refs.

  19. Phase 2 study of tabalumab, a human anti-B-cell activating factor antibody, with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Noopur S; Moreau, Philippe; Terpos, Evangelos; Benboubker, Lotfi; Grząśko, Norbert; Holstein, Sarah A; Oriol, Albert; Huang, Shang-Yi; Beksac, Meral; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Tai, Datchen F; Wooldridge, James E; Conti, Ilaria; Kaiser, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tuan S; Cronier, Damien M; Palumbo, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In this double-blind, Phase 2 study, 220 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive placebo (N = 72), tabalumab 100 mg (N = 74), or tabalumab 300 mg (N = 74), each in combination with dexamethasone 20 mg and subcutaneous bortezomib 1·3 mg/m(2) on a 21-day cycle. No significant intergroup differences were observed among primary (median progression-free survival [mPFS]) or secondary efficacy outcomes. The mPFS was 6·6, 7·5 and 7·6 months for the tabalumab 100, 300 mg and placebo groups, respectively (tabalumab 100 mg vs. placebo Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1·13 [0·80-1·59], P = 0·480; tabalumab 300 mg vs. placebo HR [95% CI] = 1·03 [0·72-1·45], P = 0·884). The most commonly-reported treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (37%), fatigue (37%), diarrhoea (35%) and constipation (32%). Across treatments, patients with low baseline BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) expression (n = 162) had significantly longer mPFS than those with high BAFF expression (n = 55), using the 75th percentile cut-off point (mPFS [95% CI] = 8·3 [7·0-9·3] months vs. 5·8 [3·7-6·6] months; HR [95% CI] = 1·59 [1·11-2·29], P = 0·015). Although generally well tolerated, PFS was not improved during treatment with tabalumab compared to placebo. A higher dose of 300 mg tabalumab did not improve efficacy compared to the 100 mg dose. Nonetheless, BAFF appears to have some prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levchenko, O.V.; Neprochnov, Y; Rao, D.G.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. Previous preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and delivery of a small for gestational age infant and the risk of unexplained stillbirth in the second pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study, Scotland, 1992-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon C S; Shah, Imran; White, Ian R; Pell, Jill P; Dobbie, Richard

    2007-01-15

    Women with a previous stillbirth are known to be at increased risk of stillbirth in subsequent pregnancies. However, few studies have addressed the association between other complications of pregnancy and the future risk of stillbirth. Using linkage of national pregnancy and perinatal death registries, the authors performed a retrospective cohort study of 133,163 women having a second birth in Scotland between 1992 and 2001 whose first infant was liveborn. The risk of unexplained stillbirth was increased among women with a previous preterm birth (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 3.11), previous delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA) infant (HR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.59, 2.87), and previous preeclampsia (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.62). The associations were similar after adjustment for maternal age, height, marital and smoking status, and interpregnancy interval. There was a statistically significant positive interaction between previous delivery of a SGA infant and previous preeclampsia (p = 0.01): Women with this combination in their first pregnancy had an approximately fivefold risk of unexplained stillbirth in the second pregnancy (HR = 4.95, 95% CI: 2.63, 9.32). Associations were stronger with SGA unexplained stillbirths. The authors conclude that complicated first births of liveborn infants are associated with an increased risk of unexplained stillbirth in the next pregnancy.

  2. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  3. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borg Vilhelm

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care workers have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP. Although physical exposures in the working environment are linked to an increased risk of LBP, it has been suggested that individual coping strategies, for example fear-avoidance beliefs, could also be important in the development and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1 the association between physical work load and LBP, (2 the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3 the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP among cases with and without previous LBP. Methods A questionnaire survey among 5696 newly qualified health care workers who completed a baseline questionnaire shortly before completing their education and a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. Participants were selected on the following criteria: (a being female, (b working in the health care sector (n = 2677. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of physical work load and fear-avoidance beliefs on the severity of LBP. Results For those with previous LBP, physical work load has an importance, but not among those without previous LBP. In relation to fear-avoidance beliefs, there is a positive relation between it and LBP of than 30 days in both groups, i.e. those without and with previous LBP. No moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP was found among cases with and without LBP. Conclusion Both physical work load and fear-avoidance beliefs matters in those with previous LBP. Only fear-avoidance beliefs matters in those without previous LBP. The study did not find a moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP.

  4. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  5. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  6. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  7. Is the predictive power of previous fractures for new spine and non-spine fractures associated with biochemical evidence of altered bone remodelling? The EPOS study. European Prospective Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, P; Lunt, M; Scheidt-Nave, C; Poor, G; Gennari, C; Hoszowski, K; Vaz, A Lopes; Reid, D M; Benevolenskaya, L; Grazio, S; Weber, K; Miazgowski, T; Stepan, J J; Masaryk, P; Galan, F; Armas, J Bruges; Lorenc, R; Havelka, S; Perez Cano, R; Seibel, M; Armbrecht, G; Kaptoge, S; O'Neill, T W; Silman, A J; Felsenberg, D; Reeve, J; Delmas, P D

    2002-08-01

    In the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study (EPOS), a past spine fracture increased risk of an incident fracture 3.6 - 12-fold even after adjusting for BMD. We examined the possibility that biochemical marker levels were associated with this unexplained BMD-independent element of fracture risk. Each of 182 cases in EPOS of spine or non-spine fracture that occurred in 3.8 years of follow-up was matched by age, sex and study centre with two randomly assigned never-fractured controls and one case of past fracture. Analytes measured blind were: osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, total alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphate and albumin, together with the collagen cross-links degradation products serum CTS and urine CTX. Most subjects also had bone density measured by DXA. Cases who had recent fractures did not differ in marker levels from cases who had their last fracture more than 3 years previously. No statistically significant effect of recent fracture was found for any marker except osteocalcin, which was 17.6% lower in recent peripheral cases compared to unfractured controls (pfracture as a risk indicator for future fracture is not strongly mediated through increased bone turnover. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    according to the parameterisation of the collision-controlled binary nucleation rate proposed by Weber et al. (1996, H2O vapour does not explicitly affect the particle formation. Since the H2SO4 concentration is overpredicted in the simulations presented in Paper III, the nucleation rates are too high compared to previous estimations. Therefore, the results are not directly comparable to measurements. Especially NPF events, where organics are suspected to play a key role, such as those observed at the boreal forest station in Hyytiälä (Southern Finland or at Hohenpeissenberg (mountain site in Southern Germany, can not be explained by employing simple sulphur/ammonia chemistry. However, some valuable hints regarding the role of CBL turbulence in NPF can be obtained. In the literature a number of observations on the link between turbulence and NPF can be found, whose burst patterns support a strong contribution of CBL turbulence to the NPF burst evolution simulated here. Observations, that do not correspond to the scenarios are discussed with respect to possible reasons for the differences between model and observation. The model simulations support some state-of-the-art hypotheses on the contribution of CBL turbulence to NPF. Considering the application of box models, the present study shows, that CBL turbulence, not explicitly considered in such models, can strongly affect the spatio-temporal NPF burst evolution. The columnar high-order model presented here is a helpful tool to elucidate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions, especially the genesis of NPF bursts in the CBL. An advanced description of the cluster formation and condensation growth is required as well as a comprehensive verification/validation study using observed high-order moments. Further scenario simulations remain to be performed.

  9. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh RP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  10. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  11. Can the previous therapeutic control of the main risk factors of cerebrovascular disease influence the acetylsalicylic Acid-nonresponsive status in acute ischemic stroke patients? Results from a portuguese prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Silva, Margarida; Gonçalves, Luciana; Medeiros, Rui; Nunes, José Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a complex disease, and the therapeutic control of its risk factors may influence the efficacy of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and the occurrence of new vascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential in vivo properties of a previous treatment controlling the main risk factors of cerebrovascular disease, in the ASA-nonresponsive status in a Portuguese population. We conducted a prospective cohort study with the recruitment of 90 patients diagnosed with AIS and a follow-up protocol was set up with recurrent stroke as the main clinical end point under evaluation. At admission, PFA-100 (platelet function analyzer) test was evaluated in blood samples from AIS patients treated with 100 mg/day of ASA and previously treated with antihypertensive, antidiabetic, or statin drugs. We observed that 30% of patients were ASA nonresponders. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that the previous treatment with antihypertensive drugs emerged with a significant risk reduction of an ASA-nonresponsive status (odds ratio, .119; 95% confidence interval, .026-.538; P = .006). Furthermore, our results indicated an influence of ASA-nonresponsive status in a decreased period to a new recurrent stroke event in the time frame of 24 months (P = .005, log-rank test). ASA is an important part of treatment of AIS, and its efficacy may be improved in previous high-risk cerebrovascular patients, particularly with antihypertensive therapeutic control. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Controlled, prospective, observational study on the efficiency and tolerability of a combination of potential Nrf2-inducing antioxidants and micronutrients as pre-treatment for ICSI in dyspermic patients with previous failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, R; Gallo, M; Dal Lago, A; Licata, E; Paciotti, G; Amodei, M; Meneghini, C; Fabiani, C; Dani, G; Liberanome, C; Antonaci, D; Corno, R; Miriello, D; Giuffrida, G; Giammusso, B

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of pre-treatment in dyspermic males in IVF couples with a combination of micronutrients, for the purpose of improving the fertilization rate, the implantation rate and the outcome of the pregnancy. This controlled prospective clinical study was performed in two medically assisted reproduction centers. 59 males with mild oligo-astheno-teratospermia (OAT) were admitted to the study. All of them had a history of previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) attempts with female partners aged micronutrients in dyspermic subjects can improve the reproductive outcome of the IVF procedure.

  13. Comparison of the inpatients admitted during the recent 5 years (January 1994-December 1998) with those admitted during the previous 5 years (January 1989-December 1993): a clinico-statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, R; Ohishi, S; Koga, C; Nagao, Y; Okinaga, S; Kusukawa, J; Kameyama, T

    2000-01-01

    As society ages, the composition of the diseases that occur within it changes accordingly. With that in mind, we examined the characteristics and trends in the recent inpatients and compared these recent inpatients with those of a previous report to identify the changes that accompany the aging of society. Subjects were 1,534 cases (men 56.9%, female 43.1%, average age 47.1 years) who were hospitalized at Kurume University Hospital for treatment during the 5-year period from January 1st, 1994 through December 31st, 1998. The ratio of inpatients over 65 years old was about 1.8 times higher than in the previous study, showing a clear trend toward an increased overall age of inpatients. As for the types of disease observed, the most common malignancies were epithelial tumor, followed by other benign tumors, as well as 76 cases which included diseases resembling tumor (epulis and exostosis etc.). A majority of the patients (55.6%) were directed to the Hospital by their dentist, a finding similar to that of the previous report. As for geographical distribution, 93.3% of the inpatients lived within 40 km of the center of Kurume City where our oral surgery is located, an increase of about 10% from the last report. In other words, our results showed a reduction in the sphere of treatment distribution.

  14. Studies of the Ala/Val98 polymorphism of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha gene and the relationship to beta-cell function during an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, J; Damm, P; Ek, J

    2004-01-01

    In pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) an increased demand for insulin is not met due to beta-cell dysfunction. An Ala/Val polymorphism at codon 98 of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene has been associated with decreased serum insulin and C......-peptide responses during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in glucose-tolerant subjects. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of the polymorphism on the serum insulin and C-peptide responses to an OGTT in glucose-tolerant women with and without previous GDM and to investigate...

  15. Comparison of preference for NovoPen(®) 4 with previous insulin pen treatments after 12 weeks in adult patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a multicenter observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israël-Bultman, Harma; Hyllested-Winge, Jacob; Kolaczynski, Marcin; Steindorf, Jörg; Garon, Jean

    2011-03-01

    In separate randomized, crossover trials, patients with diabetes reported a preference for durable insulin pen NovoPen(®) 4 compared with NovoPen 3 and OptiClik(®). This large post-marketing observational study evaluated treatment satisfaction with NovoPen 4 versus previous treatments, which included NovoPen 3 and other devices, in insulin-treated and insulin-naive patients. During regular clinical practice in Canada, Germany, and the Netherlands, health care professionals assigned adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes to treatment with insulin administered via NovoPen 4 after training according to the device's instruction manual. The primary end point was change in treatment satisfaction as determined by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire given to patients at the beginning and after 12 weeks of treatment. Two additional questionnaires were used at study end to identify why patients preferred either NovoPen 4 or their previously used insulin devices, which included NovoPen 3 and other devices (eg, HumaPen(®) Ergo and OptiPen(®) Pro). Adverse events were also recorded. Two thousand eighteen participants (mean age, 55 years; males, 53%; type 1/type 2 diabetes, 28%/71%; mean duration of disease, 13 years; previously on insulin, 89.8%; insulin-naïve, 2.9%) participated. NovoPen 3 was previously used by 1059, HumaPen Ergo by 256, OptiPen Pro by 217, and other devices by 385 patients. Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire scores increased from a mean (SD) baseline of 26.5 (7.2) to 30.5 (5.0) at study end for a median difference of 4.0 (95% CI, 3.5-4.5; Wilcoxon test score: 22.7; P < 0.0001). Over 70% of patients found NovoPen 4 easier to set, read, correct, inject the dose, and change the insulin cartridge than with their previously used device (P < 0.0001). A total of 83.8% rated NovoPen 4 easier to use overall (P < 0.0001). Health care professionals (97.2%) would recommend NovoPen 4 to other patients. No adverse events associated

  16. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Hu

    Full Text Available Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125 mg tablet, three times per day. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety.From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9-6.6 m and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1-7.9 m, respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127, diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127 and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127.In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354.

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of a meningococcal quadrivalent conjugate vaccine in Saudi Arabian adolescents previously vaccinated with one dose of bivalent and quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines: a phase III, controlled, randomized, and modified blind-observer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob; Khalil, Mohamed; Findlow, Helen; Chadha, Helen; Bosch Castells, Valerie; Johnson, David R; Borrow, Ray

    2012-07-01

    Reduced immune responses to repeated polysaccharide vaccination have been previously reported, but there are limited immunogenicity data on the use of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PSV) followed by meningococcal conjugate vaccine. Saudi Arabian adolescents (aged 16 to 19 years) who had previously been vaccinated with ≥1 dose of bivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 1 dose of quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide (MPSV4) were enrolled in a controlled, randomized, and modified observer-blind study (collectively termed the PSV-exposed group). The PSV-exposed group was randomized to receive either quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) (n = 145 PSV-exposed/MCV4 group) or MPSV4 (n = 142 PSV-exposed/MPSV4 group), and a PSV-naïve group received MCV4 (n = 163). Serum samples collected prevaccination and 28 days postvaccination were measured by baby rabbit serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) assay, and vaccine tolerability and safety were also evaluated. For each serogroup, the postvaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) were significantly higher in the PSV-naïve group than in either group comprised of the PSV-exposed participants. The postvaccination serogroup C rSBA GMT was significantly higher in the PSV-MCV4 group than in the PSV-MPSV4 group after adjusting for prevaccination GMTs. Although not statistically significant, similar differences were observed for serogroups A, Y, and W-135. No worrisome safety signals were detected. This study demonstrated MCV4 to be safe and immunogenic in those who had previously received polysaccharide vaccination, and it suggests that conjugate vaccine can partially compensate for the hyporesponsiveness seen with repeated doses of polysaccharide vaccine.

  18. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Narvekar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  19. Subareolar injection of technetium-99m nanocolloid yields reliable data on the axillary lymph node tumour status in breast cancer patients with previous manipulations on the primary tumour: a prospective study of 117 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, Sofiane; Richter, Matthias; Kroessin, Thomas; Geworski, Lilli; Zander, Andreas; Munz, Dieter L. [Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Charite-University Medicine Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20-21, 10117, Berlin (Germany); Thomas, Anke; Winzer, Klaus J.; Huettner, Christine; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Hauschild, Maik [Breast Center, Charite-University Medicine Berlin (Germany); Guski, Hans [Institute of Pathology, Charite-University Medicine Berlin (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    According to recently published guidelines, histological clarification by interventional techniques should be undertaken before planning the surgical management of patients with breast carcinoma. In patients with previous manipulations on the primary tumour, peritumoural injection in the context of preoperative scintigraphic detection of the sentinel lymph nodes is not possible. The aim of this prospective study was to clarify whether subareolar injection of nanocolloid can yield reliable data on the axillary lymph node tumour status in breast cancer patients with previous manipulations on the primary tumour. To date, 117 women (age 31-80 years) with breast carcinoma have been enrolled. All of these patients had undergone a biopsy (n=88) or surgery on the primary tumour (n=29) and were without clinical suspicion of lymph node metastases. Subareolar injection of 40 MBq technetium-99m nanocolloid was carried out in at least eight deposits around the areolar margin [one deposit in the middle of each quadrant and one deposit at each quadrant intersection (0.05 ml/deposit)]. Immediately after injection, dynamic and static lymphoscintigraphy of the axillary, thoracic and cervical areas was performed in various views with a gamma camera (LEAP collimator, 256 x 256 matrix). Lymphatic drainage was directed exclusively to the ipsilateral axilla. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and elective dissection of axillary lymph nodes were performed in all patients. All lymph nodes removed were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. In 26 patients, lymph node metastases were found in the sentinel lymph nodes. In six of them, non-sentinel lymph nodes also showed tumour involvement. In the remaining 91 patients, lymph node metastases could be found neither in sentinel lymph nodes nor in non-sentinel lymph nodes. In conclusion, subareolar nanocolloid injection can yield reliable information on the axillary lymph node tumour status in patients with previous manipulations on the primary

  20. Phase 1/2 study of ocaratuzumab, an Fc-engineered humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, in low-affinity FcγRIIIa patients with previously treated follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjoo, Kristen N; de Vos, Sven; Pohlman, Brad L; Flinn, Ian W; Forero-Torres, Andres; Enas, Nathan H; Cronier, Damien M; Dang, Nam H; Foon, Kenneth A; Carpenter, Susan P; Slapak, Christopher A; Link, Brian K; Smith, Mitchell R; Mapara, Markus Y; Wooldridge, James E

    2015-01-01

    This phase 2 study assessed the safety and efficacy of ocaratuzumab, a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. Fifty patients with previously treated follicular lymphoma (FL) and a low-affinity genotype of FcγRIIIa received ocaratuzumab 375 mg/m(2) weekly for 4 weeks. Grade 3/4/5 adverse events (AEs) were reported in 11/1/1 patients, respectively. Serious AEs were reported by 11/50 patients, and three discontinued due to AEs. One patient died from aspiration pneumonia due to possibly drug-related nausea and vomiting. Investigator-assessed response rate was 30% (15/50), including four complete responses (CR), three CR unconfirmed (CRu) and eight partial responses (PR). Investigator-assessed median Progression-free survivial (PFS) was 38.3 weeks. Ocaratuzumab's pharmacokinetic profile was similar to that reported for rituximab. Lymphocyte subset analysis showed significant, selective reduction of B-cells during and after ocaratuzumab treatment. Ocaratuzumab at this dose and schedule is active and well tolerated in patients with previously treated FL with low affinity FcγRIIIa genotypes. ClinTrials registry number: NCT00354926.

  1. Phase III Multinational, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Tivantinib (ARQ 197) Plus Erlotinib Versus Erlotinib Alone in Previously Treated Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliotti, Giorgio; von Pawel, Joachim; Novello, Silvia; Ramlau, Rodryg; Favaretto, Adolfo; Barlesi, Fabrice; Akerley, Wallace; Orlov, Sergey; Santoro, Armando; Spigel, David; Hirsh, Vera; Shepherd, Frances A; Sequist, Lecia V; Sandler, Alan; Ross, Jeffrey S; Wang, Qiang; von Roemeling, Reinhard; Shuster, Dale; Schwartz, Brian

    2015-08-20

    Tivantinib, a MET receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrated increased anticancer activity in preclinical and early clinical studies when combined with erlotinib. Our study aimed to confirm efficacy and safety of the combination in previously treated patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC previously treated with one to two systemic regimens, including a platinum doublet, were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive erlotinib 150 mg daily plus oral tivantinib 360 mg twice daily (E + T) or erlotinib plus placebo (E + P) until disease progression. Tumor specimens were evaluated for EGFR and KRAS mutations, MET expression, and MET gene amplification. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary and exploratory objectives included progression-free survival (PFS), OS in molecular subgroups, and safety. The study enrolled 1,048 patients and was discontinued for futility at the interim analysis. OS did not improve with E + T versus E + P (median OS, 8.5 v 7.8 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.15; P = .81), even though PFS increased (median PFS, 3.6 v 1.9 months; HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.89; P < .001). Exploratory subgroup analyses suggested OS improvement in patients with high MET expression (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.49 to 1.01). Most common adverse events occurring with E + T versus E + P were rash (33.1% v 37.3%, respectively), diarrhea (34.6% v 41.0%), asthenia or fatigue (43.5% v 38.1%), and neutropenia (grade 3 to 4; 8.5% v 0.8%). E + T was well tolerated and increased PFS but did not improve OS in the overall nonsquamous NSCLC population. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. Effect of a quality-controlled fermented nutraceutical on skin aging markers: An antioxidant-control, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuccelli, Giuseppe; Zerbinati, Nicola; Marcellino, Massimiliano; Nanda Kumar, Navalpur Shanmugam; He, Fang; Tsepakolenko, Vladimir; Cervi, Joseph; Lorenzetti, Aldo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether oral supplementation with a fermented papaya preparation (FPP-treated group) or an antioxidant cocktail (antioxidant-control group, composed of 10 mg trans-resveratrol, 60 µg selenium, 10 mg vitamin E and 50 mg vitamin C) was able to improve the skin antioxidant capacity and the expression of key skin genes, while promoting skin antiaging effects. The study enrolled 60 healthy non-smoker males and females aged 40-65 years, all of whom showed clinical signs of skin aging. The subjects were randomly divided into two matched groups, and were administered FPP or antioxidant treatment of a 4.5 g/day sachet sublingually twice a day for 90 days in a double-blind fashion. The parameters investigated were: Skin surface, brown spots, skin evenness, skin moisturization, elasticity (face), redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) concentration, and the expression levels of key genes (outer forearm sample). As compared with the baseline (day 0) and antioxidant-control values, FPP-treated subjects showed a significant improvement in skin evenness, moisturization and elasticity. The two treatments improved the MDA and SOD skin concentrations, but only the FPP-treated group showed a higher SOD level and a significant NO increase, along with significant upregulation of acquaporin-3 and downregulation of the potentially pro-aging/carcinogenetic cyclophilin-A and CD147 genes (P<0.05). Progerin was unaffected in both treatment groups. In conclusion, these findings suggest that orally-administered FPP showed a consistent biological and gene-regulatory improvement in the skin, as was also demonstrated in previous experimental and clinical trials testing other tissues, while common oral antioxidants had only a minor effect.

  3. Diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases with CT, MR imaging, FDG PET, and/or FDG PET/CT: a meta-analysis of prospective studies including patients who have not previously undergone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niekel, Maarten Christian; Bipat, Shandra; Stoker, Jaap

    2010-12-01

    To obtain diagnostic performance values of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and FDG PET/CT in the detection of colorectal liver metastases in patients who have not previously undergone therapy. A comprehensive search was performed for articles published from January 1990 to January 2010 that fulfilled the following criteria: a prospective study design was used; the study population included at least 10 patients; patients had histopathologically proved colorectal cancer; CT, MR imaging, FDG PET, or FDG PET/CT was performed for the detection of liver metastases; intraoperative findings or those from histopathologic examination or follow-up were used as the reference standard; and data for calculating sensitivity and specificity were included. Study design characteristics, patient characteristics, imaging features, reference tests, and 2 × 2 tables were recorded. Thirty-nine articles (3391 patients) were included. Variation existed in study design characteristics, patient descriptions, imaging features, and reference tests. The sensitivity estimates of CT, MR imaging, and FDG PET on a per-lesion basis were 74.4%, 80.3%, and 81.4%, respectively. On a per-patient basis, the sensitivities of CT, MR imaging, and FDG PET were 83.6%, 88.2%, and 94.1%, respectively. The per-patient sensitivity of CT was lower than that of FDG PET (P = .025). Specificity estimates were comparable. For lesions smaller than 10 mm, the sensitivity estimates for MR imaging were higher than those for CT. No differences were seen for lesions measuring at least 10 mm. The sensitivity of MR imaging increased significantly after January 2004. The use of liver-specific contrast material and multisection CT scanners did not provide improved results. Data about FDG PET/CT were too limited for comparisons with other modalities. MR imaging is the preferred first-line modality for evaluating colorectal liver

  4. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther

    2013-01-01

    .... A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory...

  5. Which surgery should be offered for carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient who was previously treated for recurrence on the contralateral side? Preliminary study of 13 patients with the Canaletto(®) implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, I; Seigle-Murandi, F; Gouzou, S; Fabacher, T; Facca, S; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Liverneaux, P

    2017-10-16

    There are no published studies on the management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients who have already been operated for recurrent CTS on the contralateral side. The aim of this study was to evaluate 13 patients with CTS who underwent primary release using a Canaletto(®) implant. The 13 patients had all been operated for recurrent CTS previously. On the contralateral side, they all had subjective signs, and two of them already had complications. All were operated with the Canaletto(®) implant according to Duché's technique, in a mean of 20minutes. After a mean 19.3-month follow-up, paresthesia, pain, and QuickDASH scores were significantly improved, even in one patient who underwent revision at another facility. This preliminary study suggests that use of a Canaletto(®) implant as first-line treatment for CTS in patients who already underwent revision surgery on the other side is a simple and safe technique, without worsening of symptoms. These findings should be assessed with a prospective randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Species diversity can be overestimated by a fixed empirical threshold: insights from DNA barcoding of the genus Cletus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and the meta-analysis of COI data from previous phylogeographical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Guang; Lv, Min-Hua; Yi, Wen-Bo; Zhu, Wei-Bing; Bu, Wen-Jun

    2017-03-01

    The use of genetic distances to identify species within the framework of DNA barcoding has to some extent improved the development of biodiversity studies. However, using a fixed empirical threshold to delimit species may lead to overestimating species diversity. In this study, we use a new data set of COI sequences for 366 specimens within the genus of Cletus as well as conduct an analysis on the same genetic data for collected morphologically defined species from previous phylogeographical studies, to test whether high intraspecific genetic divergences are common with the premises of comprehensive sampling. The results indicate C. graminis Hsiao & Cheng , is the same species with C. punctiger (Dallas, 1852) and should be synonymized and that the distributional record of C. pugnator (Fabricius, 1787) in China is correct. High intraspecific genetic differentiations (0%-4.35%) were found in C. punctiger. Furthermore, as to the mined data, the maximum intraspecific K2P distances of 186 species (48.44% of 384) exceed 3%, and 101 species (26.30%) can be divided into two or more clusters with a threshold of 3% in cluster analysis. If genetic distance is used to delimit species boundaries, the minimum interspecific K2P distance of the congeneric species should be considered rather than only using the fixed empirical value; otherwise, the species richness may be overestimated in some cases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Phase II study of the effectiveness and safety of trastuzumab and paclitaxel for taxane- and trastuzumab-naïve patients with HER2-positive, previously treated, advanced, or recurrent gastric cancer (JFMC45-1102).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Takaishi, Hiromasa; Miki, Akira; Noshiro, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Nishida, Yasunori; Iwasa, Satoru; Miwa, Hiroto; Masuishi, Toshiki; Boku, Narikazu; Yamada, Yasuhide; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Junichi; Saji, Shigetoyo; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a standard second-line gastric cancer treatment in Japan. Trastuzumab could be active as second-line chemotherapy for taxane/trastuzumab-naïve patients with epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive advanced gastric cancer. Patients aged ≥20 years with HER2-positive, previously treated (except for trastuzumab and taxane), unresectable or recurrent gastric adenocarcinoma underwent combined trastuzumab (first and subsequent doses of 8 and 6 mg kg(-1) , respectively, every 3 weeks) and paclitaxel (days 1, 8, 15, every 4 weeks) treatment. Study endpoints were best overall response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. From September 2011 to March 2012, 47 Japanese patients were enrolled. Forty patients discontinued treatment after a median of 128.5 (range 4-486) days. Complete and partial responses were obtained in one and 16 patients (response rate of 37% [95% CI 23-52]), respectively. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 5.1 (95% CI 3.8-6.5) and 17.1 (95% CI 13.5-18.6) months, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (32.6%), leukopenia (17.4%), anemia (15.2%) and hypoalbuminemia (8.7%). There was no clinically significant cardiotoxicity or cumulative toxicity. Three (disturbed consciousness, pulmonary fibrosis, and rapid disease progression) grade 5 events occurred. In conclusion, trastuzumab combined with paclitaxel was well tolerated and was a promising regimen for patients with HER2-positive, previously treated, advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  8. Cardiac Safety of Rupatadine in a Single-Ascending-Dose and Multiple-Ascending-Dose Study in Healthy Japanese Subjects, Using Intensive Electrocardiogram Assessments-Comparison With the Previous White Caucasian Thorough QT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täubel, J; Ferber, G; Fernandes, S; Santamaría, E; Izquierdo, I

    2017-08-01

    A thorough QT/QTc study in healthy white Caucasian subjects demonstrated that rupatadine has no proarrhythmic potential and raised no cardiac safety concerns. The present phase 1 study aimed to confirm the cardiac safety of rupatadine in healthy Japanese subjects. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 27 healthy Japanese subjects were administered single and multiple escalating rupatadine doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg or placebo. Triplicate electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were performed on days -1, 1, and 5 at several points, and time-matched pharmacokinetic samples were also collected. Concentration-effect analysis based on the change in the QT interval corrected using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) from average baseline was performed. Data from the formal TQT study in white Caucasian subjects was used for a comparison analysis. The ECG data for rupatadine at doses up to 40 mg did not show an effect on the QTc interval of regulatory concern. The sensitivity of this study to detect small changes in the QTc interval was confirmed by demonstrating a significant shortening of QTcF on days 1 and 5 four hours after a standardized meal. The data from this study exhibited no statistically significant differences in the QTc effect between Japanese and white Caucasian subjects. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P recidivism of drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index recidivism risk (ROAD index recidivism of drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism.

  10. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  11. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... digital submission of all data and certifications is available via HUD's secure Internet systems. However...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 . Description...

  12. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  13. Surgery of intracranial aneurysms previously treated endovascularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Sure, Ulrich; Yin, Yuhua; Benes, Ludwig; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2007-11-01

    To perform a retrospective study on the patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment. We performed a retrospective study on eight patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment (-attempts) with gugliemi detachable coils (GDCs). The indications for surgery, surgical techniques and clinical outcomes were analyzed. The indications for surgical treatment after GDC coiling of aneurysm were classified into three groups. First group: surgery of incompletely coiled aneurysms (n=4). Second group: surgery of mass effect on the neural structures due to coil compaction or rebleeding (n=2). Third group: surgery of vascular complications after endovascular procedure due to parent artery occlusion or thrombus propagation from aneurysm (n=2). Aneurysm obliterations could be performed in all cases confirmed by postoperative angiography. Six patients had an excellent outcome and returned to their profession. Patient's visual acuity was improved. One individual experienced right hemiparesis (grade IV/V) and hemihypesthesia. Microsurgical clipping is rarely necessary for previously coiled aneurysms. Surgical treatment is uncommonly required when an acute complication arises during endovascular treatment, or when there is a dynamic change of a residual aneurysm configuration over time that is considered to be insecure.

  14. Carboplatin plus weekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in elderly patients with previously untreated advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer selected based on Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form scores: a multicenter phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Tamiya, Motohiro; Minami, Seigo; Takata, So; Masuhiro, Kentaro; Futami-Nishijima, Yu; Uenami, Takeshi; Mori, Masahide; Koba, Taro; Matsuki, Takanori; Takimoto, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Komuta, Kiyoshi; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Kijima, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    This multicenter, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study assessed the efficacy and safety of carboplatin plus weekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in elderly patients with previously untreated advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer, selected based on the Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form scores (MNA-SF). Patients received carboplatin (area under the curve: 6) on Day 1, and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (100 mg/m2) on Days 1, 8, and 15, every 28 days for ≤4 cycles. Eligibility criteria included an MNA-SF score of ≥8 points. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate. Thirty patients with a median age of 76 (range 70-83) years were enrolled. The objective response rate was 50.0% (95% confidence interval: 31.3-68.7%), which met the primary objective of this study. The disease control rate was 73.3% (95% CI: 54.1-87.7%). At a median follow-up of 15.0 months, the median progression-free and overall survival was 7.1 and 19.1 months, respectively. The most common treatment-related adverse event of Grade ≥3 was neutropenia (66.7%). Non-hematological adverse events of Grade ≥3 were minor. Well-nourished patients, based on the MNA-SF, experienced fewer adverse events of Grade ≥3 compared to patients at risk of malnutrition. All treatment-related adverse events were tolerable and reversible. There were no treatment-related deaths. Carboplatin plus weekly nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel is effective and well tolerated as a first-line treatment for elderly patients with advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Eligibility based on MNA-SF screening may be useful in determining acceptable toxicity.

  15. Trastuzumab emtansine versus taxane use for previously treated HER2-positive locally advanced or metastatic gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GATSBY): an international randomised, open-label, adaptive, phase 2/3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuss-Patience, Peter C; Shah, Manish A; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Van Cutsem, Eric; Ajani, Jaffer A; Castro, Hugo; Mansoor, Wasat; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Bodoky, Gyorgy; Shitara, Kohei; Phillips, Gail D Lewis; van der Horst, Tina; Harle-Yge, Marie-Laurence; Althaus, Betsy L; Kang, Yoon-Koo

    2017-05-01

    Although trastuzumab plus chemotherapy is the standard of care for first-line treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer, there is no established therapy in the second-line setting. In GATSBY, we examined the efficacy and tolerability of trastuzumab emtansine in patients previously treated for HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer (unresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic gastric cancer, including adenocarcinoma of the gastro-oesophageal junction). This is the final analysis from GATSBY, a randomised, open-label, adaptive, phase 2/3 study, done at 107 centres (28 countries worldwide). Eligible patients had HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer and progressed during or after first-line therapy. In stage one of the trial, patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (2:2:1) to receive intravenous trastuzumab emtansine (3·6 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 2·4 mg/kg weekly) or physician's choice of a taxane (intravenous docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks or intravenous paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) weekly). In stage two, patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (2:1) to receive the independent data monitoring committee (IDMC)-selected dose of trastuzumab emtansine (2·4 mg/kg weekly) or a taxane (same regimen as above). We used permuted block randomisation, stratified by world region, previous HER2-targeted therapy, and previous gastrectomy. The primary endpoint (overall survival) was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01641939. Between Sept 3, 2012, and Oct 14, 2013, 70 patients were assigned to receive trastuzumab emtansine 3·6 mg/kg every 3 weeks, 75 to receive trastuzumab emtansine 2·4 mg/kg weekly, and 37 to receive a taxane in the stage 1 part of the trial. At the pre-planned interim analysis (Oct 14, 2013), the IDMC selected trastuzumab emtansine 2·4 mg/kg weekly as the dose to proceed to stage 2. By Feb 9, 2015, a further 153 patients had been randomly assigned to receive

  16. Myocardial adaption to HI(RT in previously untrained men with a randomized, longitudinal cardiac MR imaging study (Physical adaptions in Untrained on Strength and Heart trial, PUSH-trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scharf

    Full Text Available Although musculoskeletal effects in resistance training are well described, little is known about structural and functional cardiac adaption in formerly untrained subjects. We prospectively evaluated whether short term high intensity (resistance training (HI(RT induces detectable morphologic cardiac changes in previously untrained men in a randomized controlled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study.80 untrained middle-aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(RT-group (n = 40; 43.5±5.9 years or an inactive control group (n = 40; 42.0±6.3 years. HI(RT comprised 22 weeks of training focusing on a single-set to failure protocol in 2-3 sessions/week, each with 10-13 exercises addressing main muscle groups. Repetitions were decreased from 8-10 to 3-5 during study period. Before and after HI(RT all subjects underwent physiologic examination and cardiac MRI (cine imaging, tagging.Indexed left (LV and right ventricular (RV volume (LV: 76.8±15.6 to 78.7±14.8 ml/m2; RV: 77.0±15.5 to 78.7±15.1 ml/m2 and mass (LV: 55.5±9.7 to 57.0±8.8 g/m2; RV: 14.6±3.0 to 15.0±2.9 g/m2 significantly increased with HI(RT (all p<0.001. Mean LV and RV remodeling indices of HI(RT-group did not alter with training (0.73g/mL and 0.19g/mL, respectively [p = 0.96 and p = 0.87], indicating balanced cardiac adaption. Indexed LV (48.4±11.1 to 50.8±11.0 ml/m2 and RV (48.5±11.0 to 50.6±10.7 ml/m2 stroke volume significantly increased with HI(RT (p<0.001. Myocardial strain and strain rates did not change following resistance exercise. Left atrial volume at end systole slightly increased after HI(RT (36.2±7.9 to 37.0±8.4 ml/m2, p = 0.411, the ratio to end-diastolic LV volume at baseline and post-training was unchanged (0.47 vs. 0.47, p = 0.79.22 weeks of HI(RT lead to measurable, physiological changes in cardiac atrial and ventricular morphologic characteristics and function in previously untrained men.The PUSH-trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health

  17. Randomized Phase II Study of R-CHOP With or Without Bortezomib in Previously Untreated Patients With Non-Germinal Center B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, John P; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Reeves, James A; Tulpule, Anil; Flinn, Ian W; Kolevska, Tatjana; Robles, Robert; Flowers, Christopher R; Collins, Robert; DiBella, Nicholas J; Papish, Steven W; Venugopal, Parameswaran; Horodner, Andrew; Tabatabai, Amir; Hajdenberg, Julio; Park, Jaehong; Neuwirth, Rachel; Mulligan, George; Suryanarayan, Kaveri; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; de Vos, Sven

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of the addition of bortezomib to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) on outcomes in previously untreated patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods After real-time determination of non-GCB DLBCL using the Hans immunohistochemistry algorithm, 206 patients were randomly assigned (1:1; stratified by International Prognostic Index [IPI] score) to six 21-day cycles of standard R-CHOP alone or R-CHOP plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 4 (VR-CHOP). The primary end point, progression-free survival (PFS), was evaluated in 183 patients with centrally confirmed non-GCB DLBCL who received one or more doses of study drug (91 R-CHOP, 92 VR-CHOP). Results After a median follow-up of 34 months, with 25% (R-CHOP) and 18% (VR-CHOP) of patients having had PFS events, the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was 0.73 (90% CI, 0.43 to 1.24) with VR-CHOP ( P = .611). Two-year PFS rates were 77.6% with R-CHOP and 82.0% with VR-CHOP; they were 65.1% versus 72.4% in patients with high-intermediate/high IPI (HR, 0.67; 90% CI, 0.34 to 1.29), and 90.0% versus 88.9% (HR, 0.85; 90% CI, 0.35 to 2.10) in patients with low/low-intermediate IPI. Overall response rate with R-CHOP and VR-CHOP was 98% and 96%, respectively. The overall survival HR was 0.75 (90% CI, 0.38 to 1.45); 2-year survival rates were 88.4% and 93.0%, respectively. In the safety population (100 R-CHOP and 101 VR-CHOP patients), grade ≥ 3 adverse events included neutropenia (53% v 49%), thrombocytopenia (13% v 29%), anemia (7% v 15%), leukopenia (26% v 25%), and neuropathy (1% v 5%). Conclusion Outcomes for newly diagnosed, prospectively enrolled patients with non-GCB DLBCL were more favorable than expected with R-CHOP and were not significantly improved by adding bortezomib.

  18. Knowledge and Previous Contraceptive Use by Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information obtained included demographic characteristics, knowledge of and previous use of contraception. Results: Respondents displayed a high level of contraceptive knowledge, as 277 (91.7%) were aware of it. The condom and the combined oral pill were the two contraceptive methods most commonly known, by 254 ...

  19. Randomized Phase II Study of Docetaxel plus Personalized Peptide Vaccination versus Docetaxel plus Placebo for Patients with Previously Treated Advanced Wild Type EGFR Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Takayama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV combined with chemotherapy for patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Patients and Methods. Previously treated PS0-1 patients with IIIB/IV EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor wild genotype NSCLC were randomly assigned to docetaxel (60 mg/m2 on Day 1 plus PPV based on preexisting host immunity or docetaxel plus placebo. Docetaxel administration was repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression. Personalized peptides or placebo was injected subcutaneously weekly in the first 8 weeks and biweekly in subsequent 16 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS. Results. PPV related toxicity was grade 2 or less skin reaction. The median PFS for placebo arm and PPV arm was 52 days and 59 days, respectively. There was no significant difference between two arms by log-rank test (p=0.42. Interestingly, PFS and overall survival (OS in humoral immunological responder were significantly longer than those in nonresponder. Conclusion. PPV did not improve the survival in combination with docetaxel for previously treated advanced NSCLC. However, PPV may be efficacious for the humoral immunological responders and a further clinical investigation is needed.

  20. Similar outcome despite slight clinical differences between lumbar radiculopathy induced by lateral versus medial disc herniations in patients without previous foraminal stenosis: a prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérot, Oriane A; Maugars, Yves M; Berthelot, Jean-Marie M

    2014-08-01

    It has been claimed that lumbar radiculopathy induced by foraminal disc herniations had poorer outcome and different clinical features, including: 1-more progressive onset, but shorter duration between the first sign and request of medical care; 2-more severe radiculopathy; 3-less frequent/severe back pain; 4-less limitation of straight leg raising (SLR); 5-more frequent neurologic deficiencies; 6-poorer outcome. To check whether this still holds true when including only patients without other reasons for foraminal stenosis, that is, whether patients with medial disc herniations had different features and outcome than those with more lateral disc herniations. All patients hospitalized to treat a lumbar radiculopathy within a 6-month period in two French rheumatology units in 2012 were included in this prospective study each time computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging had already been performed and showed clear disc bulging/herniation but no features of medial or lateral spinal stenosis. Fifty-nine patients (31 males, 49 with sciatica only) were included: 31 (53%) had medial disc herniations and 28 (47%) had more lateral herniations (posterolateral in 3, foraminal in 20, and far lateral in 5). Outcome was assessed by a phone call 1 year after the baseline assessment using a standardized questionnaire. Patients were asked whether they experienced a relapse of their radiculopathy after discharge from the hospital; whether they had been operated or not; whether they felt it had improved or not; whether they felt cured or not; to assess their level of pain radiating in the leg when standing on a 0 to 10 verbal scale; and how long they could walk. Features of patients with medial disc herniations were compared with patients with more lateral herniations. No significant differences according to the location of herniations were noticed for the speed of radiculopathy onset, time elapsed since onset, back pain (both lying or standing), and leg pain (both

  1. Influence of the physico-chemical process as previous treatment to the electrocoagulation. Study with leachate of a landfill; Influencia del proceso fisicoquimico como tratamiento previo a la electrocoagulacion. Estudio con lixiviados de un relleno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Martinez, I. D.; Reyes Avila, D.

    2007-07-01

    This article has as purpose to show the influence of the method physico-chemical as previous process to the novel technique of electrocoagulation, presenting as a new alternative to depurate wastewaters. to obtain it, was done tests measuring the very parameters to leachates so much affluent as effluent from treatment plant of the Sanitary Landfill La Esmeralda, situated near to the Manizales city(Colombia), and so much before as later to apply this electrochemical technology, looking for this way to compare the obtained removals. (Author)

  2. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans; Olsson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema,

  3. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  4. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Bueno, Héctor; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Betriu, Amadeo; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; Heras, Magda; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Azpitarte, José; Sanz, Ginés; Chamorro, Angel; López-Palop, Ramón; Sionis, Alex; Arós, Fernando; García-Fernández, Eulogio; Rubio, Rafael; Hernández, Felipe; Tascón, Juan Carlos; Moreu, José; Betriu, Amadeu; Heras, Magda; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Morís, César; de Posada, Ignacio Sánchez; Cequier, Ángel; Esplugas, Enrique; Melgares, Rafael; Bosa, Francisco; García-González, Martín Jesús; Lezáun, Román; Carmona, José Ramón; Vázquez, José Manuel; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Picart, Joan García; de Rozas, José Domínguez; Fernández, José Díaz; Vázquez, Felipe Fernández; Alonso, Norberto; Zueco, José Javier; San José, José María; San Román, Alberto; Hernández, Carolina; García, José María Hernández; Alcántara, Ángel García; Bethencourt, Armando; Fiol, Miquel; Mancisidor, Xabier; Mancisidor, Xabier; Ruiz, Rafael; Hidalgo, Rafael; Sobrino, Nicolás; Maqueda, Isidoro González; Torres, Alfonso; Arós, Fernando; Amaro, Antonio; Jaquet, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Aims To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Methods and results Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enroling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Conclusion Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00257309. PMID:20971744

  5. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J; López-Sendón, José L; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enrolling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45-0.91). Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available.

  6. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  7. Blood pressure control and weight loss in overweight or obese patients with previously treated or untreated mild to moderate hypertension given valsartan: An open-label study comparing pretreatment and posttreatment values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villecco, Aldo S.; Cocci, Cinzia; Di Emidio, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is associated with obesity. Recent studies have indicated that therapy with an angiotensin II antagonist, in addition to having an antihypertensive effect, may cause a reduction in body weight. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of valsartan in the treatment of overweight or obese patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Methods: Overweight or obese outpatients aged 18 to Clinica Medica II, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi (Bologna, Italy). After a 1-week pharmacologic washout period, patients were treated with valsartan capsules at a fixed dosage of 80 mg once daily for 8 weeks. The dosage was increased to 160 mg once daily if, at 8 weeks, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was not normalized; otherwise, the 80-mg/d dosage was maintained. Treatment was continued for an additional 16 weeks. Patients' heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were measured/calculated at baseline (week 0) and 8, 16, and 24 weeks. Patients were asked to maintain a 1600-kcal/d diet throughout the study. Results: Forty-eight patients (28 men, 20 women; mean [SD] age, 57 [9] years) were included in the study. In the 45 patients (93.8%) who completed the study, mean SBP, DBP, and BMI were significantly decreased compared with baseline (all P < 0.001), but WHR was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After 24 weeks of treatment, 71.1 % of patients had SBP/DBP ≤ 140/≤90 mm Hg. Three patients (6.3%) withdrew from the study due to treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion: In this population of overweight or obese patients with mild to moderate hypertension, valsartan was well tolerated, and could be effective in controlling blood pressure and achieving weight loss in such patients. PMID:24936115

  8. INDEXES OF OBESITY AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS NATIONAL SURVEY DATA IN 9-YEAR-OLD AND 10-YEAR-OLD BLACK-AND-WHITE GIRLS - THE NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CAMPAIGNE, BN; MORRISON, JA; SCHUMANN, BC; FALKNER, F; LAKATOS, E; SPRECHER, D; SCHREIBER, GB

    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  9. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    with asthma uncontrolled on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). In a 12-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients (>or=12 years of age) were randomized to MF/F 200/10 microg, MF/F 400/10 microg, or MF 400 microg, b.i.d. after a 2- to 3-week open-label run in with MF 400...

  10. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Health care workers have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). Although physical exposures in the working environment are linked to an increased risk of LBP, it has been suggested that individual coping strategies, for example fear-avoidance beliefs, could also be important in the development...... and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical...

  11. Rebound Of Previously Compressed O-Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carleton J.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents theoretical and experimental analysis of relaxation characteristics of O-ring of vinylidene fluoride/hexafluoropropylene copolymer of same composition used in solid rocket boosters on Space Shuttle flight 51-L. Study covers range of temperatures from 10 to 120 degree F. Presents one-dimensional mathematical model of response provided for both elastic response and creep.

  12. Docking and Molecular Dynamics Calculations of Some Previously Studied and newly Designed Ligands to Catalytic Core Domain of HIV-1 Integrase and an Investigation to Effects of Conformational Changes of Protein on Docking Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ercan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, AIDS still remains as a worldwide pandemic and continues to cause many death which arise from HIV-1 virus. For nearly 35 years, drugs that target various steps of virus life cycle have been developed. HIV-1 integrase is the one of these steps which is essential for virus life cycle. Computer aided drug design is being used in many drug design studies as also used in development of the first HIV-1 integrase inhibitor Raltegravir. In this study 3 ligands which are used as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and 4 newly designed ligands were docked to catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase. Each of ligands docked to three different conformations of protein. Prepared complexes (21 item were carried out by 50 ns MD simulations and results were analyzed. Finally, the binding free energies of ligands were calculated. Hereunder, it was determined that designed ligands L01 and L03 gave favorable results. The questions about the ligands which have low docking scores in a conformation of protein could give better scores in another conformation of protein and if the MD simulations carry the different oriented and different localized ligands in same position at the end of simulation were answered.

  13. Twenty-six-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg combination treatment in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving medium-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, Robert A; Nolte, Hendrik; Pearlman, David S

    2010-01-01

    with MF/F 200/10 microg reduced asthma deteriorations and clinically judged deteriorations (i.e., deterioration resulting in emergency treatment, hospitalization, or treatment with additional excluded asthma medication [i.e., systemic corticosteroids]). The proportion of patients experiencing asthma......Asthma is a heterogeneous condition characterized by reduced lung function, chronic inflammation, and periodic asthma deteriorations. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of mometasone furoate (MF)/formoterol (F) combination, 200/10 microg, administered twice daily (b.i.d.) on asthma...... deteriorations and pulmonary function in patients with asthma uncontrolled on medium-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). After 2- to 3-week open-label run-in with MF 200 microg b.i.d., patients (>or=12 years) were randomized to 26 weeks of treatment with MF/F 200/10 microg, MF 200 microg, F 10 microg, or placebo...

  14. Efficacy and safety of daclatasvir plus pegylated-interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin in previously untreated HCV subjects coinfected with HIV and HCV genotype-1: a Phase III, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Mark S; Fessel, Walford J; Lazzarin, Adriano; Berenguer, Juan; Zakharova, Natalia; Cheinquer, Hugo; Côté, Pierre; Dieterich, Douglas; Gadano, Adrian; Matthews, Gail; Molina, Jean-Michel; Moreno, Christophe; Pineda, Juan Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Rivero, Antonio; Rockstroh, Jurgen; Hernandez, Dennis; McPhee, Fiona; Eley, Timothy; Liu, Zhaohui; Mendez, Patricia; Hughes, Eric; Noviello, Stephanie; Ackerman, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Daclatasvir (DCV) is a potent, pangenotypic, hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A inhibitor with low potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of DCV plus peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in HIV-1/HCV genotype-1-coinfected patients. AI444043 (NCT01471574), an open-label, Phase III, single-arm, response-guided treatment (RGT) study included 301 patients. They received DCV doses of 30, 60 or 90 mg once daily (depending on concomitant ART), plus weight-based RBV (<75 kg, 1000 mg/day; or ≥75 kg, 1200 mg/day), and once-weekly PegIFN 180 μg, for 24 weeks. If required by RGT, PegIFN/RBV without DCV was extended for an additional 24 weeks of therapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with sustained virologic response at post-treatment Week 12 (SVR12). Overall, 224 (74%) patients achieved SVR12 and the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval was higher than the historic SVR rate with PegIFN/RBV alone (70 vs. 29%). Most common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue, neutropenia, anemia, asthenia and headache. On-treatment serious AEs occurred in 24/301 (8%) patients; 18/301 (6%) discontinued treatment due to AE. DCV + PegIFN/RBV led to sustained HCV virologic response in the majority of HIV-1-HCV-coinfected patients, regardless of concomitant ART. HIV control was not compromised and no new safety signals were identified. This study supports DCV use in HIV-1-HCV-coinfected patients, while allowing the vast majority of patients to remain on their existing ART regimen.

  15. Hypoparathyroidism after total thyroidectomy in patients with previous gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droeser, Raoul A; Ottosson, Johan; Muth, Andreas; Hultin, Hella; Lindwall-Åhlander, Karin; Bergenfelz, Anders; Almquist, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Case reports suggest that patients with previous gastric bypass have an increased risk of severe hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy, but there are no population-based studies. The prevalence of gastric bypass before thyroidectomy and the risk of hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy in patients with previous gastric bypass were investigated. By cross-linking The Scandinavian Quality Registry for Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal Surgery with the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry patients operated with total thyroidectomy without concurrent or previous surgery for hyperparathyroidism were identified and grouped according to previous gastric bypass. The risk of treatment with intravenous calcium during hospital stay, and with oral calcium and vitamin D at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively was calculated by using multiple logistic regression in the overall cohort and in a 1:1 nested case-control analysis. We identified 6115 patients treated with total thyroidectomy. Out of these, 25 (0.4 %) had undergone previous gastric bypass surgery. In logistic regression, previous gastric bypass was not associated with treatment with i.v. calcium (OR 2.05, 95 % CI 0.48-8.74), or calcium and/or vitamin D at 6 weeks (1.14 (0.39-3.35), 1.31 (0.39-4.42)) or 6 months after total thyroidectomy (1.71 (0.40-7.32), 2.28 (0.53-9.75)). In the nested case-control analysis, rates of treatment for hypocalcemia were similar in patients with and without previous gastric bypass. Previous gastric bypass surgery was infrequent in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy and was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative hypocalcemia.

  16. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brichtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  17. RESOLVING THE CONFLICTS BETWEEN PREVIOUS MEAT GENERIC ADVERTISING STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Coulibaly, Nouhoun; Brorsen, B. Wade

    1998-01-01

    Past research disagrees about the effectiveness of generic meat advertising. The conflicting findings are shown to be due to the data transformation used by Ward and Lambert. The results support Brester and Schroeder's findings that the effect of generic meat advertising is small.

  18. Elijah Watt Sells Award: A Study of Previous Winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Susan; Pinto, Joann; Romero, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of winners of the Elijah Watt Sells award. We ask them about the determinants of their success, which might be useful to other students preparing for the CPA exam. The winners graduated from different universities, not necessarily the ones ranked top, and almost all of them participated in a review…

  19. Corneal biomechanical properties in eyes with no previous surgery, with previous penetrating keratoplasty and with deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Banu Torun; Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Acar, Suphi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of the cornea in eyes with no previous surgery, with keratoconus with previous penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and with keratoconus with previous deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). One hundred twenty eyes of 120 patients were included in this prospective comparative study. Forty eyes were with no previous ocular surgery (group 1), 40 eyes were with previous PK for keratoconus (group 2), and 40 eyes were with previous DALK for keratoconus (group 3). Corneal hysteresis (CH) and the corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured with ORA. The CH and CRF values in group 2 were significantly lower than in group 1 and group 3 (p = 0.001). The CH and CRF values were similar in group 1 and group 3. There was no statistically significant difference between group 1 and 3. Although the post-PK keratoconus cornea has weaker biomechanical properties, post-DALK keratoconus cornea is similar to normal cornea. A cornea weakened by keratoconus can be strengthened with lamellar keratoplasty.

  20. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Effective contraceptive use is important after a caesarean or operative delivery because of the possible risks a woman may face in subsequent pregnancies. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to determine the uptake and choices of contraception among women with previous operative delivery.

  1. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  2. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, C.J.; Smith, M.R.; Bono, J. De; Molina, A.; Logothetis, C.J.; Souza, P. de; Fizazi, K.; Mainwaring, P.; Piulats, J.M.; Ng, S.; Carles, J.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Basch, E.; Small, E.J.; Saad, F.; Schrijvers, D.; Poppel, H. van; Mukherjee, S.D.; Suttmann, H.; Gerritsen, W.R.; Flaig, T.W.; George, D.J.; Yu, E.Y.; Efstathiou, E.; Pantuck, A.; Winquist, E.; Higano, C.S.; Taplin, M.E.; Park, Y.; Kheoh, T.; Griffin, T.; Scher, H.I.; Rathkopf, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. METHODS: In this double-blind study, we

  3. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satis- faction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed- methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues ...

  4. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  5. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  6. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  7. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI......). The mean reduction in CFT was 14% (95% CI 4-24%, p = 0.01). Sixteen eyes (48.5%) became devoid of oedema on the last OCT scan. Despite the significant reduction in CFT, the visual acuity remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal ranibizumab can be effective in previously vitrectomized eyes with diabetic...

  8. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Evaluation of cleansing methods for previously worn prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R Thomas; Conrad, Robert S; Bullard, James W; Goodson, Leigh B; Mehta, Naresh; Lech, Stanley J; Loewy, Zvi G

    2011-04-01

    Although there are many product claims that address the issue of denture sanitization, controlled scientific studies on previously worn dentures have not been performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate procedures directed at sanitizing previously worn contaminated dentures from two regions of the United States. This study examined 51 previously worn dentures from two regions. An established method of denture retrieval, sectioning, and culturing was used, including isolation of anaerobes. Evaluation of microbial contamination posttreatment was used to determine the effects of soaking dentures in Polident (US and European formulations) for varying periods of times/temperatures, microwaving dentures with varying temperatures, sonicating dentures, and immersing the dentures while using a vacuum. A combination of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and general linear model (GLM) of the SPSS was used to analyze the data with P sanitization rather than sterilization. Denture-borne microorganisms can be significantly reduced by using a Polident solution for 8 hours at room temperature or for 5 minutes at 65 degrees C. Microwaving, sonication, and use of a vacuum were less effective. ClLINICAL IMPLICATIONS The importance of daily use of Polident solution for 8 hours or for 5 minutes at 65 degrees C to sanitize worn prostheses must be stressed.

  10. A theoretical explanation for previously infertile mothers' vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    To present a theoretical approach to understanding the potential vulnerability to depression in previously infertile new mothers. This approach was developed by synthesizing results of a series of grounded theory studies of experiences of infertility and pregnancy and of parenting after infertility. These results were further synthesized with the relational cultural theory (RCT). Previously infertile new mothers have experienced repeated and sustained interferences with significant relationships over the course of their infertility, which could lead to depression. Implications of this theoretical perspective include: (a) it is a new approach to understanding a significant and sometimes minimized issue in women's health; (b) it is a basis for designing an intervention for women coping with infertility and its aftermath; and (c) it might be applied to other women's health issues.

  11. Atrial fibrillation after taser exposure in a previously healthy adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multerer, Sara; Berkenbosch, John W; Das, Bibhuti; Johnsrude, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    We are reporting a previously healthy adolescent who developed atrial fibrillation after being tased. He has a structurally normal heart on echocardiogram, normal electrolyte level and thyroid function test results, and a urine toxicology screen positive for marijuana. The patient ultimately required external defibrillation to convert his cardiac rhythm to normal sinus rhythm and has had no recurrent arrhythmias since hospital discharge (approximately 1 year). This is the first reported case of atrial fibrillation developing after a Taser shot, occurring in an adolescent without other risk factors. This case illustrates the arrhythmogenic potential of a Taser in otherwise healthy young individuals, and further study of occurrence of Taser-induced arrhythmias is warranted.

  12. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  13. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  14. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co......-up (>10 years) as well as control for co-morbidity and genetic confounding. The results provide a number of interesting insights into the long-term consequences of hyperthyroidism. Firstly, hyperthyroidism is associated with an approximately 30% increased all-cause mortality. The all-cause mortality does...

  15. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  16. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone infarction involving the orbit in sickle cell disease is not common. Bilateral orbital infarction in a previously undiagnosed sickle cell hemoglobinopathy has not been previously reported. In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral ...

  17. Does previous healthcare experience increase success in physician assistant training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegmann, Theresa; Iverson, Katie

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare experience is used by many physician assistant (PA) programs to rank applicants. Despite a large healthcare literature base evaluating admissions factors, little information is available on the relationship of healthcare experience and educational outcomes. We aimed to test whether previous healthcare experience is associated with increased success during the clinical portion of the PA educational process. Hours of direct healthcare experience reported on Central Application Service for Physician Assistants applications for 124 students in the classes of 2009 through 2013 were associated with a calculated average preceptor evaluation score for each student and with average standardized-patient examination scores for a subset of students. Average student age was 28.7 years and median healthcare experience was 2,257 hours (range 390-16,400). Previous healthcare experience was not significantly correlated with preceptor evaluations or standardized-patient examination scores. This 5-year single institution pilot study did not support the hypothesis that healthcare experience is associated with improved clinical year outcomes.

  18. Suicidal imagery in a previously depressed community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Catherine; Shah, Dhruvi; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Holmes, Emily A

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to replicate previous findings of vivid suicide-related imagery in previously suicidal patients in a community sample of adults with a history of depression. Twenty-seven participants were interviewed regarding suicidal imagery. Seventeen participants reported prior suicidal ideation or behaviour in the clinical assessment, and the vast majority of these also reported experiencing suicide-related imagery when at their most depressed and despairing, in many cases in the form of flash-forwards to imagined future suicidal acts. Interestingly, five of the 10 participants who did not report suicidal ideation or behaviour in the clinical interview also described prominent imagery related to themes of death and suicide, but in several cases, these images were associated with meanings that seemed to act to reduce the likelihood of subsequent suicidal acts. Severity of prior suicidality was associated with lower levels of imagery-related distress and higher levels of imagery-related comfort. These findings support the idea that suicide-related imagery is an important component in the phenomenology of depression and despair and hint at potentially important differences in the meaning associated with such imagery between those individuals who report experiencing suicidal ideation or behaviour when depressed and those who do not. The findings are consistent with Joiner's model of acquired capability for suicide through habituation to pain and fear of suicide and suggest that it may be useful to tackle such imagery directly in the treatment of suicidal patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  20. Malignant tumor formation in dogs previously irradiated for acanthomatous epulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Margaret C; Page, Rodney L; Théon, Alain; Erb, Hollis N; Thrall, Donald E

    2004-01-01

    In this retrospective study of 57 dogs irradiated for oral acanthomatous epulis, 2 (3.5%) dogs developed a second tumor (sarcoma, osteosarcoma) in the radiation treatment field at 5.2 and 8.7 years after the end of radiation therapy. As opposed to previous reports, no second epithelial tumors developed in the radiation treatment field. There is a risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, but it appears that it is a relatively low risk and an event that occurs years after radiation therapy. Radiation-induced tumors are of more concern in younger dogs that undergo radiation therapy for tumors that are radioresponsive, such as acanthomatous epulis, where long-term survival is expected. The only statistically significant variable in the survival analysis was age, with dogs less than 8.3 years old having a significantly longer median overall survival (2322 days) than dogs older than 8.3 years (1106 days; P<0.0001).

  1. Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Caroline; Long, Georgina V; Brady, Benjamin; Dutriaux, Caroline; Maio, Michele; Mortier, Laurent; Hassel, Jessica C; Rutkowski, Piotr; McNeil, Catriona; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Savage, Kerry J; Hernberg, Micaela M; Lebbé, Celeste; Charles, Julie; Mihalcioiu, Catalin; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Mauch, Cornelia; Cognetti, Francesco; Arance, Ana; Schmidt, Henrik; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gogas, Helen; Lundgren-Eriksson, Lotta; Horak, Christine; Sharkey, Brian; Waxman, Ian M; Atkinson, Victoria; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2015-01-22

    Nivolumab was associated with higher rates of objective response than chemotherapy in a phase 3 study involving patients with ipilimumab-refractory metastatic melanoma. The use of nivolumab in previously untreated patients with advanced melanoma has not been tested in a phase 3 controlled study. We randomly assigned 418 previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation to receive nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks and dacarbazine-matched placebo every 3 weeks) or dacarbazine (at a dose of 1000 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks and nivolumab-matched placebo every 2 weeks). The primary end point was overall survival. At 1 year, the overall rate of survival was 72.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.5 to 78.9) in the nivolumab group, as compared with 42.1% (95% CI, 33.0 to 50.9) in the dacarbazine group (hazard ratio for death, 0.42; 99.79% CI, 0.25 to 0.73; Psurvival was 5.1 months in the nivolumab group versus 2.2 months in the dacarbazine group (hazard ratio for death or progression of disease, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.56; Psurvival benefit with nivolumab versus dacarbazine was observed across prespecified subgroups, including subgroups defined by status regarding the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Common adverse events associated with nivolumab included fatigue, pruritus, and nausea. Drug-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 11.7% of the patients treated with nivolumab and 17.6% of those treated with dacarbazine. Nivolumab was associated with significant improvements in overall survival and progression-free survival, as compared with dacarbazine, among previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 066 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01721772.).

  2. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  3. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  4. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    OpenAIRE

    H. Heathcote

    1999-01-01

    No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respond...

  5. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  6. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  7. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been registered...

  8. 2 CFR 220.40 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 220.40 Section 220.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.40 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  9. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  10. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  11. Large Bowel Obstruction Caused by Adhesions without Previous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Large bowel obstruction is rarely caused by adhesions. To our knowledge, the few cases reported in literature are secondary to previous abdomino-pelvic surgery, and are in female patients. Case Reports: We report two cases of large bowel obstruction due to adhesions in males with no previous abdominal ...

  12. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday...

  13. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Charles J; Smith, Matthew R; de Bono, Johann S; Molina, Arturo; Logothetis, Christopher J; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mainwaring, Paul; Piulats, Josep M; Ng, Siobhan; Carles, Joan; Mulders, Peter F A; Basch, Ethan; Small, Eric J; Saad, Fred; Schrijvers, Dirk; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Mukherjee, Som D; Suttmann, Henrik; Gerritsen, Winald R; Flaig, Thomas W; George, Daniel J; Yu, Evan Y; Efstathiou, Eleni; Pantuck, Allan; Winquist, Eric; Higano, Celestia S; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Park, Youn; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas; Scher, Howard I; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2013-01-10

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned 1088 patients to receive abiraterone acetate (1000 mg) plus prednisone (5 mg twice daily) or placebo plus prednisone. The coprimary end points were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival. The study was unblinded after a planned interim analysis that was performed after 43% of the expected deaths had occurred. The median radiographic progression-free survival was 16.5 months with abiraterone-prednisone and 8.3 months with prednisone alone (hazard ratio for abiraterone-prednisone vs. prednisone alone, 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.62; Pchemotherapy, opiate use for cancer-related pain, prostate-specific antigen progression, and decline in performance status. Grade 3 or 4 mineralocorticoid-related adverse events and abnormalities on liver-function testing were more common with abiraterone-prednisone. Abiraterone improved radiographic progression-free survival, showed a trend toward improved overall survival, and significantly delayed clinical decline and initiation of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development, formerly Cougar Biotechnology; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00887198.).

  14. Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or Monotherapy in Previously Untreated Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, James; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Gonzalez, Rene; Grob, Jean Jacques; Cowey, C. Lance; Lao, Christopher D.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Dummer, Reinhard; Smylie, Michael; Rutkowski, Piotr; Ferrucci, Pier Francesco; Hill, Andrew; Wagstaff, John; Carlino, Matteo S.; Haanen, John B.; Maio, Michele; Marquez-Rodas, Ivan; McArthur, Grant A.; Ascierto, Paolo A.; Long, Georgina V.; Callahan, Margaret K.; Postow, Michael A.; Grossmann, Kenneth; Sznol, Mario; Dreno, Brigitte; Bastholt, Lars; Yang, Arvin; Rollin, Linda M.; Horak, Christine; Hodi, F. Stephen; Wolchok, Jedd D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The results of phase 1 and phase 2 studies suggest that nivolumab (a PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor) and ipilimumab (a CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibitor) have complementary activity in metastatic melanoma. In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, nivolumab alone or nivolumab combined with ipilimumab versus ipilimumab alone were evaluated in patients with metastatic melanoma. Methods We randomly assigned 945 previously untreated patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma, in 1:1:1 ratio, to nivolumab alone (3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks), or to nivolumab (at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram) plus ipilimumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram) every 3 weeks for 4 doses followed by nivolumab (3 mg per kilogram every 2 weeks), or to ipilimumab alone (3 mg per kilogram every 3 weeks for 4 doses). Progression-free and overall survival were co-primary end points. Patients continue to be followed for overall survival. Results Median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.9 to 16.7) for nivolumab plus ipilimumab as compared with 2.9 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 3.4) for ipilimumab alone (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.57; Pnivolumab alone (hazard ratio in the comparison with ipilimumab alone, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.76; Pnivolumab plus ipilimumab and nivolumab alone groups, but in PD-L1-negative patients, progression-free survival was longer with the combination as compared with nivolumab alone (11.2 months [95% CI, 8.0 to not reached] versus 5.3 months [95% CI, 2.8 to 7.1]). Grade 3–4 drug-related adverse events occurred in 16.3%, 55.0%, and 27.3% of patients in the nivolumab, nivolumab plus ipilimumab, and ipilimumab alone groups, with 1, 0, and 1 drug-related deaths, respectively. Conclusions Nivolumab alone or combined with ipilimumab significantly improved progression-free survival, as compared with ipilimumab, among previously untreated patients with metastatic melanoma. Results with the combination

  15. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  16. Previously unidentified morbidity in patients with intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Helen; Lowe, Kathy; Houston, Helen; Jones, Glyn; Felce, David; Kerr, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background Adults with a learning disability frequently have unmet health needs. The cause for this is complex and may be related to difficulties in accessing usual primary care services. Health checks have been widely recommended as a solution to this need. Aim To determine the likelihood that a structured health check by the primary care team supported by appropriate education would identify and treat previously unrecognised morbidity in adults with an intellectual disability. Design of study Individuals were identified within primary care teams and a structured health check performed by the primary care team. This process was supported by an educational resource. Face-to-face audit with the team was performed 3 months following the check. Setting Forty general practices within three health authorities in south and mid-Wales participated. They had a combined registered patient population of 354 000. Method Health checks were conducted for 190 (60%) of 318 identified individuals; 128 people moved, died, withdrew from the study, or refused to participate. Results Complete data were available on 181 health checks; 51% had new needs recognised, of whom 63% had one health need, 25% two health needs, and 12% more than two. Sixteen patients (9%) had serious new morbidity discovered. Management had been initiated for 93% of the identified health needs by the time of audit. This study is the first to identify new disease findings in a primary care population and the likelihood that such disease will be treated. Conclusions The findings reflect a concern that current care delivery leaves adults with an intellectual disability at risk of both severe and milder illness going unrecognised. Health checks present one mechanism for identifying and treating such illness in primary care. PMID:16464321

  17. Induction of labour in women with one previous caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P; Elmardi, A; Bathula, U; Chandru, S; Charlesworth, D

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a postal survey of NHS obstetric consultants working in England regarding their own practice and views on induction of labour in women with one previous caesarean section. Out of 480 consultant obstetricians across England, 322 replied, giving a response rate of 67%. Our survey has revealed a wide variation in practice of consultants across England, regarding induction of labour at term or post-term in women with one previous caesarean section. Hence, we feel that there is a need for a national audit of induction of labour in women with one previous caesarean section, with uterine rupture following induction of labour in such women as an auditable standard.

  18. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  19. Estudios previos cursados y género de los maestros de primaria en formación: efectos sobre la resolución de problemas / Pre-service primary teachers' gender and studies previously undertaken: effects on problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Caballer Alonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo analiza la influencia del género y los estudios previos cursados en la resolución de problemas. Se utilizó un diseño experimental con dos variables independientes (género y estudios previos y una variable dependiente (puntuación en los problemas. Se administró un cuadernillo con dos problemas de diferente estructura a 66 estudiantes de tercer curso del Grado de Maestro en Educacion Primaria de la misma Facultad (Facultad de Magisterio de la Universidad de Valencia, España. Los resultados de los análisis de varianza simple muestran que: a los estudiantes de sexo masculino resuelven el problema difícil con más éxito que las estudiantes, b los estudiantes que han cursado bachillerato no resuelven los problemas significativamente mejor que los que no lo han cursado y, c los estudiantes que siguieron un itinerario en 4º de la ESO con Física y Química resuelven significativamente mejor los problemas que los restantes. Abstract: This study analyses the influence of gender and studies previously undertaken on problem-solving. An experimental design was used with two independent variables (gender and studies previously undertaken and one dependent variable (scores in the problems. A booklet containing two word problems that differ from each other in structure was administered to 66 third-year pre-service primary teachers from the same Faculty (Faculty of Teacher Training, University of Valencia, Spain. The results of the analyses of variance simple showed that: a men undergraduate students solve the difficult problem more successfully than women undergraduate students, b students who had completed post-compulsory secondary education do not solve the problems significantly better than the others, and c students who had studied physics and chemistry in the tenth grade at high school solve the problems significantly better than the others.

  20. Use of robotic colonoscopy in patients with previous incomplete colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, E; Parisi, G; Bertoni, M; Bertini, M; Metrangolo, S; Ierardi, E; Cervelli, R; Bresci, G; Sacco, R

    2017-02-01

    Conventional colonoscopy (CC) is the gold standard to diagnostic and therapeutic approach to colon. However, in few cases, cecal intubation could fail due to colon anatomy, patient compliance and physician expertise. Endotics robotic colonoscopy is a novel, safe, mini-invasive modality to explore the entire colon. Our aim was to assess, in a retrospective study, Endotics ability of cecal intubation in all cases in which CC failed. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 276 Endotics robotic colonscopy examinations were performed at the Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases Unit of Pisa University Hospital, Pisa, Italy, in a series of consecutive patients who had undergone CC and failed cecal intubation. We assessed the cecal intubation rate in 102 patients addressed to Endotics after previous incomplete CC. Overall, endotics system was successful in 93.1% of the incomplete conventional colonoscopy cases (95% performance). Whenever the intended exploration of the entire colon with CC failed, the endotics robotic endoscopy represented a useful tool as it helped examine the entire colon in almost all cases.

  1. Pleomorphic dermal sarcoma: a more aggressive neoplasm than previously estimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardío, Juan C; Pinedo, Fernando; Aramburu, José A; Suárez-Massa, Dolores; Pampín, Ana; Requena, Luis; Santonja, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) is a rare neoplasm sharing pathological features with atypical fibroxanthoma, but adding tumor necrosis, invasion beyond superficial subcutis or vascular or perineural infiltration. Although its metastatic risk has been estimated to be less than 5%, its real outcome is presently uncertain because of its rarity and to the lack of homogeneous criteria used in reported cases. Retrospective clinicopathological study of 18 cases of PDS. The lesions presented as tumors or plaques (size: 7-70 mm) on the head of elderly patients (median: 81 years), without a gender predominance. Histopathologically, they consisted of spindle cells arranged in a fascicular pattern, containing pleomorphic epithelioid and giant multinucleated cells in varying proportions, and usually exhibiting numerous mitotic figures and infiltrative tumor margins. No immunoexpression for cytokeratins, S100 protein, desmin or CD34 was observed. Necrosis and venous invasion were found in three tumors each (17%). Follow-up was available in 15 cases (median: 33 months). Three patients (20%) had local recurrences, all with incomplete primary surgical resections. Three patients (20%) developed distant metastases in the skin, regional lymph nodes and/or lungs and died from the disease. Our data suggest that PDS may be a more aggressive neoplasm than previously estimated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  3. Ulcerative colitis may not necessarily be rare as previously thought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ulcerative colitis may not necessarily be rare as previously thought in tropical and subtropical Africa. With increasing westernized life style, greater utilization and accessibility to modern medical practice,availability of tertiary level health care di.

  4. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  5. [Surgery for bronchial carcinoma after treatment of a previous cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordant, P; Pages, P-B; Foucault, C; Badia, A; Fabre, E; Dujon, A; Le Pimpec Barthes, F; Riquet, M

    2013-05-01

    The increase in the number of cancer survivors, together with the improvement of their follow-up, lead to the frequent diagnosis of resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with history of previous malignancy. We sought to analyse the outcomes of these patients. Patients undergoing surgical resection for NSCLC between January 1980 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. For each patient, the presence of previous malignancy was noted, and classified into five groups: oro-pharyngeal cancer, lung cancer, haematopoietic malignancy, other organ malignancy, and more than two cancers. The overall population included 5846 patients. Among them, 1243 (21%) had a history of previous malignancy, of whom 383 (31%) presented with synchronous cancer. Patients with history of previous malignancy were more often female, older, with more adenocarcinomas, more limited disease, less pneumonectomies, but higher postoperative morbidity and mortality. Overall survival was worse in patients with a history of previous malignancy than in patients without (median, 5 and 10 year: 33 months, 34.3%, 17.8% versus 47 months, 44.6%, 28.8%). A history of previous malignancy impacted significantly the prognosis of patients operated on for limited NSCLC. However, only surgical resection led to improved long-term survival at 5 years. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  7. Rosiglitazone and myocardial infarction in patients previously prescribed metformin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R Dormuth

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rosiglitazone was found associated with approximately a 43% increase in risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI in a two meta-analyses of clinical trials. Our objective is to estimate the magnitude of the association in real-world patients previously treated with metformin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case control study in British Columbia using health care databases on 4.3 million people. Our cohort consisted of 158,578 patients with Type 2 diabetes who used metformin as first-line drug treatment. We matched 2,244 cases of myocardial infarction (AMI with up to 4 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate matched odds ratios for AMI associated with treatment with rosiglitazone, pioglitazone and sulfonylureas. RESULTS: In our cohort of prior metformin users, adding rosiglitazone for up to 6 months was not associated with an increased risk of AMI compared to adding a sulfonylurea (odds ratio [OR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-2.10, or compared to adding pioglitazone (OR for rosi versus pio 1.41; 95% CI, 0.74-2.66. There were also no significant differences between rosiglitazone, pioglitazone and sulfonylureas for longer durations of treatment. Though not significantly different from sulfonylureas, there was a transient increase in AMI risk associated with the first 6 months of treatment with a glitazone compared to not using the treatment (OR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.13-2.07 CONCLUSIONS: In our British Columbia cohort of patients who received metformin as first-line pharmacotherapy for Type 2 diabetes mellitus, further treatment with rosiglitazone did not increase the risk of AMI compared to patients who were treated with pioglitazone or a sulfonylurea. Though not statistically significantly different compared from each other, an increased risk of AMI observed after starting rosiglitazone or sulfonylureas is a matter of concern that requires more research.

  8. Anisometropia magnitude and visual deficits in previously untreated anisometropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Bin Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To assess the quantitative association between anisometropia magnitude and the losses of resolution and contrast sensitivity; and to exemplify how the function of fusion and stereopsis vary with anisometropia magnitude (AM in previously untreated anisometropic amblyopes.METHODS:A total of 57 patients with previously untreated anisometropic amblyopia without strabismus (range:8-35 years, were measured refractive error, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, fusion and stereopsis, and 48 patients have completed contrast sensitivity function test. AM was determined by dioptric vector addition model, and the amblyopia depth was determined by the difference of BCVA in logMAR units between the amblyopic and fellow eyes.RESULTS: AM was significantly correlated with both amblyopia depth (Pearson R=0.728, PPPCONCLUSION: In the patients with previously untreated anisometropia amblyopia, higher degree of anisometropia is significantly associated with deeper amblyopia, worse contrast sensitivity, fusion and stereopsis functions.

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of erlotinib with or without a c-Met inhibitor tivantinib (ARQ 197) in Asian patients with previously treated stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous nonsmall-cell lung cancer harboring wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (ATTENTION study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, H; Azuma, K; Yamamoto, N; Takahashi, T; Nishio, M; Katakami, N; Ahn, M J; Hirashima, T; Maemondo, M; Kim, S W; Kurosaki, M; Akinaga, S; Park, K; Tsai, C M; Tamura, T; Mitsudomi, T; Nakagawa, K

    2015-10-01

    A previous randomized phase II study demonstrated that the addition of a c-Met inhibitor tivantinib to an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib might prolong progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with previously treated, nonsquamous nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). On a subset analysis, the survival benefit was greater in patients with wild-type EGFR (WT-EGFR) than in those with activating EGFR mutations. Herein, this phase III study compared overall survival (OS) between Asian nonsquamous NSCLC patients with WT-EGFR who received erlotinib plus tivantinib (tivantinib group) or erlotinib plus placebo (placebo group). A total of 460 NSCLC patients were planned to be randomized to the tivantinib or placebo group. Primary end point was OS. Secondary end points were PFS, tumor response, and safety. Tissue was collected for biomarker analysis, including c-Met and HGF expression. Enrollment was stopped when 307 patients were randomized, following the Safety Review Committee's recommendation based on an imbalance in the interstitial lung disease (ILD) incidence between the groups. ILD developed in 14 patients (3 deaths) and 6 patients (0 deaths) in the tivantinib and the placebo groups, respectively. In the enrolled patients, median OS was 12.7 and 11.1 months in the tivantinib and the placebo groups, respectively [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.891, P = 0.427]. Median PFS was 2.9 and 2.0 months in the tivantinib and the placebo groups, respectively (HR = 0.719, P = 0.019). The commonly observed grade ≥ 3 adverse events in the tivantinib group were neutropenia (24.3%), leukopenia (18.4%), febrile neutropenia (13.8%), and anemia (13.2%). This study was prematurely terminated due to the increased ILD incidence in the tivantinib group. Although this study lacked statistical power because of the premature termination and did not demonstrate an improvement in OS, our results suggest that tivantinib plus erlotinib might improve PFS than

  10. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Bertelsen, C A

    1992-01-01

    of previous patients with gestational diabetes mellitus in whom plasma insulin was measured during an oral glucose tolerance test in late pregnancy a low insulin response at diagnosis was found to be an independent predictive factor for diabetes development. CONCLUSIONS: Women with previous dietary......OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non...

  11. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea). F Salmerón, J.C. Báez, D Macías, L Fernandez-Peralta, A Ramos ...

  12. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  13. Recovery of Previously Uncultured Bacterial Genera from Three Mediterranean Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis; McPherson, Kyle; Passel, van Mark W.J.; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2017-01-01

    Sponges often harbour a dense and diverse microbial community. Presently, a large discrepancy exists between the cultivable bacterial fraction from sponges and the community in its natural environment. Here, we aimed to acquire additional insights into cultivability of (previously uncultured)

  14. Snowfall in coastal West Antarctica much greater than previously assumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van de Berg, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611; van Meijgaard, E.

    2006-01-01

    A new Antarctic accumulation distribution, based on regional model output calibrated with 1900 in-situ observations, is used to re-assess accumulation in 24 Antarctic ice drainage basins. When compared to the previous compilation, good agreement is found for 19 of the 24 basins, representing 93% of

  15. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  16. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Certification... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously accepted state filings. 1710.552 Section 1710.552 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  17. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  18. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  19. The impact of previous knowledge and experience on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of previous knowledge and experience on the entrepreneurial attitudes of Grade 12 learners. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  20. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  1. A previously undescribed coronavirus associated with respiratory disease in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); N.G. Hartwig (Nico); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); B. Niemeyer (Berend); J.H. Simon (James); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.C. de Jong (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe etiology of acute respiratory tract illnesses is sometimes unclear due to limitations of diagnostic tests or the existence of as-yet-unidentified pathogens. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a not previously recognized coronavirus obtained from an 8-mo-old

  2. 31 CFR 202.5 - Previously designated depositaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Previously designated depositaries. 202.5 Section 202.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DEPOSITARIES AND FINANCIAL AGENTS...

  3. Spectroscopy of asteroid pairs - new observations support previous conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishook, David; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara Anna; None Kwiatkowski, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid pairs were split due to fast rotation of a strengthless body. Study them can reveal fundamental principles in asteroid interiors and evolution. We continue our spectroscopic survey of asteroid pairs in the near-IR range (IRTF) and work on completing the spectral coverage in the visible wavelength (SALT, NOT).Our new observations support our previous conclusions (Polishook et al. 2014):1. Primary and secondary members have very similar reflectance spectra supporting the claim that every pair originated from a single progenitor. We measured 2 more pairs that present the same taxonomy (4905-7813, 15107-291188). This increases to 22 the number of asteroid pairs with spectral similarities and supports the claim of a single progenitor for each pair to a significance of over 5 sigma.2. Rotational fission is not a function of the asteroid composition rather the asteroid’s structure. We present new reflectance spectra of S- and C-complex pairs that differ in their composition.3. Some asteroid pairs present spectral parameters that imply a fresh, non-weathered surface. This includes spectral slope, and a deep and wide absorption band at 1 micron. Among these, the asteroid 8306 can now be re-classified as a Q-type asteroid, a common class in the near-Earth environment, but rare in the main belt. 8306 is the 4th Q-type discovered within asteroid pairs (all locate in the main belt).4. A secondary member of an asteroid pair composed of ordinary chondrite (S-complex) might present a reflectance spectrum with lower spectral slope compared to its primary member. This is seen in the new measured reflectance spectrum of secondary 291188). This result supports the theory of Jacobson & Scheeres (2011) of continuous disintegration of the secondaries while still in the vicinity of their primaries.5. With time, the fresh surface becomes weathered. Dynamical calculations limit the disintegration time of the progenitor of the pair 4905-7813 to 1.65 millions years ago, what makes

  4. The Yellowstone magma reservoir is 50% larger than previously imaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, J.; Smith, R. B.; Husen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier tomographic studies of the Yellowstone crustal magma system have revealed a low P-wave crustal anomaly beneath the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera that has been interpreted to be the magma reservoir of partial melt that provides the thermal energy for Yellowstone's youthful volcanic and hydrothermal systems. The Yellowstone seismic network has evolved over the last decade into a modern real-time volcano monitoring system that consists of 36 short-period, broadband, and borehole seismometers that cover the entire Yellowstone volcanic field and surrounding tectonic areas. Until recently, limited seismograph coverage did not provide for adequate resolution of the velocity structure northeast of the caldera, an area of the largest negative Bouguer gravity field of -60 mGal whose 3D density model reveals a shallow, low density body that extends ~20 km northeast of the caldera. Recent upgrades to the Yellowstone Seismic Network (YSN), including the addition of nine 3-component and broadband seismic stations providing much better ray coverage of the entire Yellowstone area with greater bandwidth data. This allows much-expanded and improved resolution coverage of the Yellowstone crustal velocity structure. We have compiled waveforms for the Yellowstone earthquake catalog from 1984-2011 with 45,643 earthquakes and 1,159,724 waveforms to analyze P-wave arrival times with an automatic picker based on an adaptive high-fidelity human mimicking algorithm. Our analysis reduced the data to the 4,520 best-located earthquakes with 48,622 P-wave arrival times to invert for the velocity structure. The resulting 3D P-wave model reveals a low Vp body (up to -7% ΔVp) that is interpreted to be the Yellowstone crustal magma reservoir and is ~50% larger than previously imaged. It extends as an oblong shaped anomalous body ~90 km NE-SW, ~20 km NE of the 0.64 Ma caldera, and up to 30 km wide and markedly shallowing from 15 km depth beneath the caldera to less than ~2 km deep northeast of

  5. Impaired insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism in glucose-tolerant women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Vestergaard, H; Kühl, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Twelve women with previous gestational diabetes and 11 controls were examined by oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests and a hyperinsulinemic....... RESULTS: Women with previous gestational diabetes had a decreased glucose disposal rate (p..., and hexokinase were similar in the two groups. The first-phase insulin response to the intravenous glucose tolerance test was, in absolute terms, comparable in the two groups. However, when the decreased insulin sensitivity was taken into account, women with previous gestational diabetes had a relative insulin...

  6. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Performed after Previous Suprapubic Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Johnson F; Feuerstein, Michael; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Samadi, David B

    2016-01-01

    Operative management of prostate cancer in a patient who has undergone previous open suprapubic simple prostatectomy poses a unique surgical challenge. Herein, we describe a case of intermediate risk prostate cancer in a man who had undergone simple prostatectomy ten years prior to presentation. The patient was found to have Gleason 7 prostate cancer on MRI fusion biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA and underwent an uncomplicated robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

  7. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Performed after Previous Suprapubic Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson F. Tsui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Operative management of prostate cancer in a patient who has undergone previous open suprapubic simple prostatectomy poses a unique surgical challenge. Herein, we describe a case of intermediate risk prostate cancer in a man who had undergone simple prostatectomy ten years prior to presentation. The patient was found to have Gleason 7 prostate cancer on MRI fusion biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA and underwent an uncomplicated robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

  8. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  9. A previously unidentified host protein protects retroviral DNA from autointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung Soo; Craigie, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Integration of a DNA copy of the viral genome into a host chromosome is an essential step in the retrovirus life cycle. The machinery that carries out the integration reaction is a nucleoprotein complex derived from the core of the infecting virion. To successfully integrate into host DNA, the viral DNA within this complex must avoid self-destructive integration into itself, a reaction termed autointegration. We have previously shown [Lee, M. S. and Craigie, R. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U...

  10. Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973

  11. Subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David B; Casey, Brian M; McIntire, Donald D; Cunningham, F Gary

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously identified during an index pregnancy to have subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). From 2000 to 2003, thyroid analytes were measured in 17,298 women. Using their index pregnancy thyroid-analyte classification, pregnancy outcomes were compared between the returning cohorts. There were 6,985 women previously screened and subsequently delivered at our hospital though 2011 with 230 (3.3%) designated to have SCH and 6,645 (95.1%) euthyroid. Significant differences between the two cohorts included risk for diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.7, p = 0.005), gestational diabetes (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.69, p = 0.015), and stillbirth (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.05 to 11.68, p = 0.042). After adjustment, the increased likelihood of diabetes (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40, p = 0.032) and stillbirth (adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.49, p = 0.048) persisted. Women identified during a previous pregnancy with SCH are at increased risk for some adverse perinatal outcomes during a subsequent pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Object files across eye movements: Previous fixations affect the latencies of corrective saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Martijn J; Fabius, Jasper H; Van der Stoep, Nathan; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    One of the factors contributing to a seamless visual experience is object correspondence-that is, the integration of pre- and postsaccadic visual object information into one representation. Previous research had suggested that before the execution of a saccade, a target object is loaded into visual working memory and subsequently is used to locate the target object after the saccade. Until now, studies on object correspondence have not taken previous fixations into account. In the present study, we investigated the influence of previously fixated information on object correspondence. To this end, we adapted a gaze correction paradigm in which a saccade was executed toward either a previously fixated or a novel target. During the saccade, the stimuli were displaced such that the participant's gaze landed between the target stimulus and a distractor. Participants then executed a corrective saccade to the target. The results indicated that these corrective saccades had lower latencies toward previously fixated than toward nonfixated targets, indicating object-specific facilitation. In two follow-up experiments, we showed that presaccadic spatial and object (surface feature) information can contribute separately to the execution of a corrective saccade, as well as in conjunction. Whereas the execution of a corrective saccade to a previously fixated target object at a previously fixated location is slowed down (i.e., inhibition of return), corrective saccades toward either a previously fixated target object or a previously fixated location are facilitated. We concluded that corrective saccades are executed on the basis of object files rather than of unintegrated feature information.

  13. ATLANTIC DIP: simplifying the follow-up of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2013-11-01

    Previous gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with a significant lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we assessed the performance of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measurements against that of 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) for the follow-up screening of women with previous GDM.

  14. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  15. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  16. Does the patients′ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications′ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.

  17. História prévia de realização de teste de Papanicolaou e câncer do colo do útero: estudo caso-controle na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Previous history of Pap smears and cervical cancer: a case-control study in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caso-controle hospitalar foi realizado de 2007 a 2010 para estimar a associação de história prévia de colpocitologia e câncer do colo do útero na Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A amostra consistiu de 152 casos histologicamente confirmados e 169 controles selecionados no mesmo hospital dos casos. A análise foi feita de acordo com um modelo em três níveis hierárquicos; considerando as variáveis sociodemográficas (nível distal, sexual/reprodutivas e de estilo de vida (nível intermediário e a história prévia de colpocitologia (nível proximal. Odds ratios (OR e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95% foram calculados pela regressão logística não condicional. Ter história prévia de três ou mais colpocitologias conferiu uma proteção de 84% (OR = 0,16; IC95%: 0,074; 0,384 após ajuste pelas variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados acentuam a importância do exame preventivo ginecológico no risco desse câncer e fortalecem a necessidade de aumentar a aderência às normas do programa brasileiro, bem como de identificar e capturar mulheres relutantes para o rastreamento da doença.This hospital-based case-control study (2007-2010 aimed to estimate the association between previous Pap smear and cervical cancer diagnosis in the Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 152 histologically confirmed cases and 169 controls from the same hospital as the cases. The analysis was conducted according to a model in three hierarchical levels considering sociodemographic characteristics (distal, sexual/reproductive and lifestyle factors (intermediate, and previous Pap smear (proximal. Odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. History of three or more Pap smears was associated with an 84% reduction in cervical cancer risk (OR = 0.16; 95%CI: 0.074; 0.384 after adjusting for selected variables. The

  18. Women with previous stress fractures show reduced bone material strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Sosa, Daysi; Fink Eriksen, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Background and purpose - Bone fragility is determined by bone mass, bone architecture, and the material properties of bone. Microindentation has been introduced as a measurement method that reflects bone material properties. The pathogenesis of underlying stress fractures, in particular the role of impaired bone material properties, is still poorly understood. Based on the hypothesis that impaired bone material strength might play a role in the development of stress fractures, we used microindentation in patients with stress fractures and in controls. Patients and methods - We measured bone material strength index (BMSi) by microindentation in 30 women with previous stress fractures and in 30 normal controls. Bone mineral density by DXA and levels of the bone markers C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type-1 collagen (CTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type-1 procollagen (P1NP) were also determined. Results - Mean BMSi in stress fracture patients was significantly lower than in the controls (SD 72 (8.7) vs. 77 (7.2); p = 0.02). The fracture subjects also had a significantly lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than the controls (0.9 (0.02) vs. 1.0 (0.06); p = 0.03). Bone turnover-as reflected in serum levels of the bone marker CTX-was similar in both groups, while P1NP levels were significantly higher in the women with stress fractures (55 μg/L vs. 42 μg/L; p = 0.03). There was no correlation between BMSi and BMD or bone turnover. Interpretation - BMSi was inferior in patients with previous stress fracture, but was unrelated to BMD and bone turnover. The lower values of BMSi in patients with previous stress fracture combined with a lower BMD may contribute to the increased propensity to develop stress fractures in these patients.

  19. Sofosbuvir, Velpatasvir, and Voxilaprevir for Previously Treated HCV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlière, Marc; Gordon, Stuart C; Flamm, Steven L; Cooper, Curtis L; Ramji, Alnoor; Tong, Myron; Ravendhran, Natarajan; Vierling, John M; Tran, Tram T; Pianko, Stephen; Bansal, Meena B; de Lédinghen, Victor; Hyland, Robert H; Stamm, Luisa M; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Svarovskaia, Evguenia; Zhang, Jie; Huang, K C; Subramanian, G Mani; Brainard, Diana M; McHutchison, John G; Verna, Elizabeth C; Buggisch, Peter; Landis, Charles S; Younes, Ziad H; Curry, Michael P; Strasser, Simone I; Schiff, Eugene R; Reddy, K Rajender; Manns, Michael P; Kowdley, Kris V; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Patients who are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and who do not have a sustained virologic response after treatment with regimens containing direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have limited retreatment options. We conducted two phase 3 trials involving patients who had been previously treated with a DAA-containing regimen. In POLARIS-1, patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had previously received a regimen containing an NS5A inhibitor were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir, and the protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (150 patients) or matching placebo (150 patients) once daily for 12 weeks. Patients who were infected with HCV of other genotypes (114 patients) were enrolled in the sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir group. In POLARIS-4, patients with HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3 infection who had previously received a DAA regimen but not an NS5A inhibitor were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir (163 patients) or sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (151 patients) for 12 weeks. An additional 19 patients with HCV genotype 4 infection were enrolled in the sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir group. In the three active-treatment groups, 46% of the patients had compensated cirrhosis. In POLARIS-1, the rate of sustained virologic response was 96% with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir, as compared with 0% with placebo. In POLARIS-4, the rate of response was 98% with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir and 90% with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir. The most common adverse events were headache, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea. In the active-treatment groups in both trials, the percentage of patients who discontinued treatment owing to adverse events was 1% or lower. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir taken for 12 weeks provided high rates of sustained virologic response among patients across HCV genotypes in whom treatment with a DAA regimen

  20. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  1. Moyamoya disease in a child with previous acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taik-Kun; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Kim, Baek Hyun; Chung, Hwan Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516 Kojan-Dong, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do 425-020 (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin [Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-09-01

    A previously healthy 24-day-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and had a convulsion on the day of admission. MRI showed abnormal signal in the thalami, caudate nuclei and central white matter. Acute necrotising encephalopathy was diagnosed, other causes having been excluded after biochemical and haematological analysis of blood, urine and CSF. He recovered, but with spastic quadriparesis. At the age of 28 months, he suffered sudden deterioration of consciousness and motor weakness of his right limbs. MRI was consistent with an acute cerebrovascular accident. Angiography showed bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis or frank occlusion with numerous lenticulostriate collateral vessels consistent with moyamoya disease. (orig.)

  2. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Melanoma diagnosed in lesions previously treated by laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delker, Sarah; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Schimming, Tobias; Schadendorf, Dirk; Griewank, Klaus G

    2017-01-01

    Laser therapy has become a routine procedure in dermatological practice and is frequently also used for pigmented lesions. Few reports exist of melanomas diagnosed in lesions previously treated by laser therapy. Between 2007 and 2014, we identified 11 patients who presented to our department with a melanoma diagnosed in a region previously treated by laser therapy. The course of events until the diagnosis of melanoma was assessed as well as patient outcome including treatment for disease progression. No histological assessment had been performed prior to laser therapy in nine of 11 (82%) cases. Benign melanocytic lesions had been diagnosed by biopsy prior to laser therapy in the other two cases. Time from laser therapy to diagnosis of melanoma ranged from less than 1 to 10 years. Stage of disease at diagnosis varied from stage IA to IIIC. Four patients progressed to stage IV disease, of whom at least one died of melanoma. We conclude that laser treatment of pigmented lesions can complicate the diagnosis of melanoma and lead to diagnosis delay with potentially fatal consequences. Considering this risk, we believe laser therapy for pigmented lesions should either be avoided entirely or at a minimum performed only after prior histological assessment. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  5. Are previous suicide attempts a risk factor for completed suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Sarriés, Adriana; Blanco, Miriam; Azcárate, Leire; Peinado, Rubén; López-Goñi, José J

    2018-02-01

    A previous suicide attempt is a clinically relevant factor for completed suicide. In this paper people who committed suicide on their first attempt are compared with those who did so after previous attempts. A review of the Computerised Clinical Histories in the Navarro Health Service-Osasunbidea (2010-2013) in Spain. Of the 166 cases, 31.9% (n = 53) presented at least one prior attempt. Of these 53, 65.3% modified the method of suicide. Women presented significantly more attempts (χ2 = 14.3; df = 3; p = .002). Three sub-samples were identified according to the attempts and diagnoses. The diagnoses of personality disorders (90.9%; n = 10) and women under 51 years of age with a diagnosis of affective, anxiety, or substance abuse disorders (82.4%; n = 14) presented the highest numbers of attempts. People without a psychiatric diagnosis and with psychotic or organic mental disorders presented the smallest proportion of attempts (13.2%; n = 10) together with people over 51 years of age diagnosed with affective, anxiety, or substance abuse disorders (22.5%; n = 9). Prior attempts are suicide risk factors only in specific clinical sub-samples. Prevention and intervention programs should consider these results.

  6. Perfil das características do treinamento e associação com lesões musculoesqueléticas prévias em corredores recreacionais: um estudo transversal A description of training characteristics and its association with previous musculoskeletal injuries in recreational runners: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Hespanhol Junior

    2012-02-01

    the routines, training characteristics and history of injury in recreational runners and to evaluate possible associations between the routines and training characteristics with previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries. METHODS: A total of 200 runners participated in this study. The participants completed an electronic form containing questions about personal characteristics, running experience, training characteristics, type of running shoes, foot type and previous injuries history over the last 12 months. The data were analyzed descriptively as well as by using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The majority of the runners was male, aged 43.0 (SD=10.5 years-old, have a body mass index of 24.2 (IQR=4.3 kg/m², and had training volume of 35.0 (IQR=28.0 kilometers per week. Fifty-five percent of runners had injuries over the last 12 months. The most prevalent injuries observed were tendinopathies and muscle injuries. The variable that showed an association with previous running-related injuries was running experience from 5 to 15 years (Odds Ratio (OR=0.2; 95%CI=0.1 to 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of running-related injuries over the last 12 months was 55%. The variable running experience was associated with the absence of previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries.

  7. MISSE Thermal Control Materials with Comparison to Previous Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Pippin, H. Gary; Frey, George

    2008-01-01

    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including inorganic coatings, anodized aluminum, and multi-layer insulation materials. These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was limited for some samples. Materials flown on MISSE-1 and MISSE-2 were exposed to the space environment for nearly four years. Materials flown on MISSE-3, MISSE-4, and MISSE-5 were exposed to the space environment for one year. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. Effects of short duration versus long duration exposure on ISS are explored, as well as comparable data from previous flight experiments, such as the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA), Optical Properties Monitor (OPM), and Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  8. Lessons from Previous Expeditions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuster, J.

    Anecdotal comparisons frequently are made between expeditions of the past and future space missions. From an engineering perspective, the differences between future and past expeditions are considerable. Spacecraft are far more complex than sailing ships, and one of the factors that drives the complexity is the requirement to support the crew in the hostile environment of space. The technological differences are significant, but from a behavioral perspective, are the differences really that great between confinement in a small wooden ship locked in the polar ice cap and confinement in a small high-technology ship hurtling through interplanetary space? The psychological differences probably are few. This paper discusses some of the most salient behavioral and technical lessons from previous expeditions that can be applied to facilitate the human explora- tion of Mars.

  9. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold(®) DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  11. Effect of previous abdominal surgery on outcomes following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Junji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Kondo, Keisaku; Asai, Keiko; Kayano, Hajime; Masubuchi, Shinsuke; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2013-03-01

    The impact of previous abdominal surgeries on the need for conversion to open surgery and on short-term outcomes during/after laparoscopic colectomy was retrospectively investigated. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from December 1996 through December 2009. This study was conducted at Osaka Medical College Hospital. A total of 1701 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic resection of the colon and rectum were classified as not having previous abdominal surgery (n = 1121) or as having previous abdominal surgery (n = 580). Short-term outcomes were recorded, and risk factors for conversion to open surgery were analyzed. There were no significant differences in operative time, blood loss, number of lymph nodes removed, or conversion rate between the groups. The rate of inadvertent enterotomy was significantly higher in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (0.9% versus 0.1%; p = 0.03), and the postoperative recovery time was significantly longer in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group. Ileus was more frequent in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (3.8% versus 2.1%; p = 0.04). Significant risk factors for conversion to open surgery were T stage ≥3 (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.89-3.75), median incision (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.23-9.41), upper median incision (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.29-5.42), lower median incision (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.12), and transverse colectomy (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.29-2.41). The incidence of successfully completed laparoscopic colectomy after previous abdominal surgery remains high, and the short-term outcomes are acceptable.

  12. Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung im Medizinstudium: Querschnittstudie zu Präferenzen, Haltungen und Vorkenntnissen von Studierenden [Prevention and health promotion in undergraduate medical education: Preferences, attitudes and previous knowledge of medical students - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The interdisciplinary topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10 was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum, it is helpful to know student preferences concerning teaching-formats, attitudes and self-estimated previous knowledge. Little is known concerning student perception of “prevention and health promotion” in Germany. Thus, this explorative cross-sectional study aims to provide a first step for closing this gap.Methods: Medical students (n=220 in the fifth academic year were asked to fill in a standardized questionnaire prior to the Q10 curriculum. Questions focused on preferences for teaching and testing formats and self-estimated previous knowledge as well as on rating the importance of prevention topics and health risks. The questions were multiple choice, five-point Likert scales and open-ended questions. Results: A total of 94 students filled questionnaires (42% response rate. Prevention and health promotion was rated as “important” or “very important” for their “own medical professionalism” by 68% of students. Ratings showed preferences for self-directed teaching and learning strategies, including case-based learning, and 78% wished for predominantly oral examinations. The self-estimated knowledge about prevention and health promotion is rated as “rather poor”. The most favored training aim was “decision making within the physician-patient-relationship”. Regarding medical health consultation, students frequently estimate “lifestyle factors” and “psychological disease” as being "very important". Conclusion: Students’ self-estimated poor previous knowledge of prevention and health promotion creates special challenges for curriculum development. High ratings of relevance assigned to prevention-related topics point to a motivational potential which should be utilized through

  13. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The... Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously The...

  14. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  15. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  16. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingzhao Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans. Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  17. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  18. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  19. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  20. A 12-week, multicenter, randomized, partially blinded, active-controlled, parallel-group study of budesonide inhalation suspension in adolescents and adults with moderate to severe persistent asthma previously receiving inhaled corticosteroids with a metered-dose or dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Noonan, Michael; Silkoff, Philip E; Uryniak, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    Nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) is approved in the United States for children with asthma aged 1 to 8 years. The primary objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of BIS 0.5 mg QD and 2.0 mg BID in terms of the mean change from baseline to end of treatment in predose forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). In this 12-week, partially blinded, randomized study, subjects aged >or=12 years with moderate to severe persistent asthma previously receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) by dry powder inhaler (DPI) or metered-dose inhaler (MDI) continued therapy during a 2- to 3-week run-in period and then switched to BIS 0.5 mg QD, 1.0 mg QD, 1.0 mg BID, or 2.0 mg BID, or budesonide DPI 400 microg BID (active reference arm). Besides FEV1 (the primary variable), other outcome variables included changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) from baseline to weeks 4, 8, and 12 and to the average over the treatment period; as well as changes from baseline to the end of treatment in diary-collected daytime and nighttime asthma symptom scores, rescue medication use, nighttime awakenings due to asthma, morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEF), percentages of symptom-free and medication-free periods, and the incidence of predefined asthma events. Adverse events were recorded by subjects. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of budesonide were assessed in all treatment arms. Efficacy analyses included data in a modified intent-to-treat approach. Differences in the change from baseline to end of treatment in FEV1 were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). For secondary variables, changes from baseline to each visit or to the treatmentperiod average were compared among groups using an ANCOVA model. P or=65 years. There was no significant difference in mean change in predose FEV1 between BIS 0.5 mg QD and BIS 2.0 mg BID (0.02 vs 0.01 L). On average, mean values for the BIS dosage groups did not indicate any deterioration from baseline to the treatment

  1. Influence of Sex and Previous Concussion History on Postconcussive Recovery in Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Manisha R; Kanwar, Sumit; Calvo, Cecilia; Peck, Evan

    2017-12-14

    To determine whether concussed female athletes with a previous history of concussion have longer postconcussive recovery than that of male counterparts. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatient sports medicine clinic in an academic practice. Male and female youth, high school, and collegiate athletes (n = 431; ages = 10-21 years) who sustained a sport-related concussion (SRC). The clinical courses of young athletes treated for concussion by 1 provider at an outpatient sports medicine clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Recovery time was compared after an SRC with relationship to sex and previous concussion history. When comparing male and female athletes with a previous history of concussion, there were no differences found (P = 0.820) in SRC recovery time. Regardless of previous concussion history, males recovered faster from an SRC compared with their female counterparts (P = 0.0002). Without regard to sex, those with no previous history of concussion recovered faster than those with a previous concussion history, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.668). Athletes with a previous history of concussion were more likely to require neuropsychology referral than those with no previous concussion history (P = 0.021), and females, without regard to concussion history, were more likely to require neuropsychology referral than males (P = 0.001). A previous concussion history does not appear to significantly influence postconcussive recovery time in young athletes, although it does increase the probability of neuropsychological referral. Without regard to a previous concussion history, young female athletes recover slower than males from concussion and are also more likely to require neuropsychological referral.

  2. Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…

  3. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  4. DoD Weapon Systems Software Management Study. Appendix A. Findings and Recommendations of Previous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Agreement by all parties on software tasks and software specifications. L. Evaluation of software development progress related to sat - isfying operational...would not operate continuously but would lie dormant with on ly part of its code being exercised un- der norma ’ conditions. Once an anomaly was

  5. Investigation of previously implicated genetic variants in chronic tic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulkadir, Mohamed; Londono, Douglas; Gordon, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Genetic studies in Tourette syndrome (TS) are characterized by scattered and poorly replicated findings. We aimed to replicate findings from candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our cohort included 465 probands with chronic tic disorder (93% TS) and both parents from 412 fam...

  6. Greater priming for previously distracting information in young than older adults when suppression is ruled out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emma V; de Mornay Davies, Paul; Politimou, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The use of previously distracting information on memory tests with indirect instructions is usually age-equivalent, while young adults typically show greater explicit memory for such information. This could reflect qualitatively distinct initial processing (encoding) of distracting information by younger and older adults, but could also be caused by greater suppression of such information by younger adults on tasks with indirect instructions. In Experiment 1, young and older adults read stories containing distracting words, which they ignored, before studying a list of words containing previously distracting items for a free recall task. Half the participants were informed of the presence of previously distracting items in the study list prior to recall (direct instruction), and half were not (indirect instruction). Recall of previously distracting words was age-equivalent in the indirect condition, but young adults recalled more distracting words in the direct condition. In Experiment 2, participants performed the continuous identification with recognition task, which captures a measure of perceptual priming and recognition on each trial, and is immune to suppression. Priming and recognition of previously distracting words was greater in younger than older adults, suggesting that the young engage in more successful suppression of previously distracting information on tasks in which its relevance is not overtly signaled.

  7. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor skills (FMS) of children between the ages of 9 and 12 years old.

  8. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study observed that social, economic, institutional and ecological factors have positive and negative impact on sustainable agriculture and development. The understanding among participants is that there exists a strong relationship between the ecological factors, farm practices, productivity, income and institutional ...

  9. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An association between chronic airflow limitation (CAL) and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) has been confirmed in epidemiological studies, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unclear. It is debated whether CAL in this context should be viewed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...

  10. Reflections of Distraction in Memory: Transfer of Previous Distraction Improves Recall in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruthann C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting…

  11. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... directive (AD): Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing... Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously The Lancair...

  12. Is previous hyperthyroidism associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Petersen, Inge; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hyperthyroidism has been suggested to adversely affect cognitive function. However, this association could also be caused by genetic and environmental factors affecting both the development of hyperthyroidism and cognitive functioning. By investigating twin pairs discordant...... for hyperthyroidism, this potential confounding can be minimized. The aim of the study was to examine if hyperthyroidism is associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction. DESIGN: Twin case-control study. PATIENTS: Twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism were identified by record-linkage between The Danish...... tests. Based on five of the tests a composite cognitive score was calculated. RESULTS: 55 out of 3036 twin pairs were discordant for hyperthyroidism. The mean time from diagnosis until survey participation was 7.3 years (range: 0-24.1 years). In both the intra-pair and individual level analyses...

  13. Preliminary findings of a previously unrecognized porcine primary immunodeficiency disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, A G Cino; Rowland, R R R; Nietfeld, J C; Kerrigan, M A; Dekkers, J C M; Wyatt, C R

    2013-01-01

    Weaned pigs from a line bred for increased feed efficiency were enrolled in a study of the role of host genes in the response to infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV). Four of the pigs were euthanatized early in the study due to weight loss with illness and poor body condition; 2 pigs before PRRSV infection and the other 2 pigs approximately 2 weeks after virus inoculation. The 2 inoculated pigs failed to produce PRRSV-specific antibodies. Gross findings included pneumonia, absence of a detectable thymus, and small secondary lymphoid tissues. Histologically, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches were sparsely cellular with decreased to absent T and B lymphocytes.

  14. The incidence of congenital heart disease: Previous findings and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Miranović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common of all congenital anomalies, and represent a significant global health problem. Involvement of medical professionals of different profiles has led to drastic changes in survival and quality of life of children with CHD. The motivation for the implementation of the first large population studies on this subject was not only to obtain answers to the question on the level of incidence of CHD, but the harmoniza...

  15. Rice is more sensitive to salinity than previously thought

    OpenAIRE

    Grattan, Stephen R.; Zeng, Linghe; Shannon, Michael C.; Roberts, Stacy R.

    2002-01-01

    Field studies conducted by UC and under controlled greenhouse conditions by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service indicate that rice is more sensitive to salinity than current guidelines suggest. This information is particularly important to rice growers who have experienced salinity problems after holding water on fields for longer time periods to reduce pesticide loading into the Sacramento River. Our field experiments show that an average seasonal salinity of t...

  16. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Post-AGB Evolution Much Faster Than Previously Phought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    For 32 central stars of PNe we present their parameters interpolated among new evolutionary sequences. The derived stellar final masses are confined between 0.53 and 0.58 M⊙ in good agreement with the peak in the white dwarf mass distribution. Consequently, the inferred star formation history of the Galactic bulge is well restricted between 3 and 11 Gyr and is compatible with other published studies. The new evolutionary tracks proved very good as a tool for analysis of late stages of stars life. The results provide a compelling confirmation of the accelerated post-AGB evolution.

  18. Renal transplant in children with previous inferior vena cava thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Urrutia, Maria Jose; Pereira, Pedro Lopez; Ramirez, Luis Avila; Romera, Roberto Lobato; Melgar, Angel Alonso; Monereo, Enrique Jaureguizar; Larrucea, Juan Tovar

    2007-06-01

    Our experience with renal transplantation in children with inferior vena cava thrombosis is presented in this study. Of the 238 children who have received renal transplants at our institution, four had IVC thrombosis (discovered during pretransplant evaluation: three patients; found at surgery: one patient). The pretransplant US evaluation diagnosis of IVC thrombosis in three patients was confirmed by transjugular retrograde cavography. There were no signs of hypercoagulability or IVC thrombosis symptoms prior to diagnosis in any patient. The graft was implanted in a left orthotopic position in three patients. Venous drainage was attained to the infrahepatic vena cava or native renal vein after ipsilateral nephrectomy. The renal artery of the graft was anastomosed to the aorta. In one patient, the graft was placed in the left iliac fossa. Patient and graft survival are 100%. Three grafts are functioning normally after a mean follow-up of 3.7 yr. The graft placed in the iliac fossa has moderate dysfunction due to high pressure venous outflow. Children with IVC thrombosis can be successfully transplanted orthotopically. Candidates with any suspicious-looking occlusion on ultrasound should be studied by retrograde venography to confirm diagnosis prior to transplantation.

  19. Disability progression in multiple sclerosis is slower than previously reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremlett, Helen; Paty, Donald; Devonshire, Virginia

    2006-01-24

    To investigate disease progression and risk factors in a large geographically based population with multiple sclerosis (MS), using two different inception points--clinical onset and date of birth. The authors reviewed a database of subjects with definite MS and symptom onset prior to July 1988. The main outcome was sustained progression to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 6 (requires a cane), using the date of birth and date of MS onset as inception points in separate analyses. Risk factors examined were sex, relapsing vs primary progressive course, onset age, and onset symptoms. The study included 2,837 patients, followed prospectively for 22,723 patient years. The median time to EDSS 6 was 27.9 years, 15 years after onset; only 21% reached EDSS 6, and by age 50, 28% required a cane. Men progressed 38% more quickly than women from onset (p men and 60.1 for women (p = 0.082). A younger onset age predicted a slower progression, but those older at onset were consistently older when reaching EDSS 6. A primary progressive course predicted a more rapid progression from both onset (p multiple sclerosis (MS) accrued more slowly than found in earlier longitudinal studies. The authors also challenged two fundamental concepts in MS, demonstrating that neither male sex nor older onset age was associated with worse disease outcome.

  20. [Iatrogeny in intensive care nursing: multidimensional analysis: previous note].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Kátia Grillo

    1988-04-01

    The nursing care in intensive care unit is to recover vital functions with maximum security. Iatrogenic accidents may occur and they will bring many injuries to patient. The number of registered occurence is lower than the incidence that implies on risk factor with interference in the care of critical patient. Iatrogenesis is derived from "iatros" as doctor and "genesis" as original. The term has been used amply to identify harmful actions. LACAZ et alii3 wrote iatrogenic illness is propagated by doctors, assistants, pharmaceutical and nurses. In relation to nursing the iatrogenic illness is derived to: drug administration in incorrect administration, burn by hot pouch, hemorrhage because disconnection of catheters, asphyxia by endotraqueal obstruction, fractures and trauma consequece of fall and others1,2. OGUISSO5 studied legal aspects of nursing record and obtained, in decrescent order: fall of bed, change drug administration, burn, hemorhage as vigilance fault, nasogastric ectopic catheter, change of children. She concluded that the events are grave, there were incorrect recording and without rubric. These incidents will be more possible to occur in special units where there are critical patients with sophisticated procedures like the intensive care units. Many questions will be asked: how many times the incidents occured in those units? What are risk factors associated with these occurence? In this projects, we will study the conditions that they occured, analysis with sistemic approach and determine risk factors inherent in the iatrogenic illness and other connections.

  1. Subsequent pregnancies in women with previous gestational syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebmuller, Marjorie Garlow; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Lago, Eleonor Gastal

    2015-09-01

    This study included data on syphilis-positive pregnant women seen for delivery or miscarriage, between 1997 and 2004, in Sao Lucas Hospital, Porto Alegre, RS. Their subsequent obstetric outcomes were studied, until December 2011, to see if the disease recurred. From 450 pregnant women with positive syphilis serology, seen from 1997 to 2004, 166 had at least one more obstetric attendance until December 2011, with 266 new obstetric outcomes. Congenital syphilis (CS) was demonstrated in 81.9% of the initial pregnancies and in 68.4% of the subsequent ones. The main causes of CS in subsequent pregnancies were a negative VDRL that turned positive at delivery, and undocumented treatment. VDRL titers were higher than 1:4 in 50.4% of the initial and 13.3% of the subsequent pregnancies (p syphilis in a preceding pregnancy. No or inadequate prenatal care was the main risk factor for CS, both in initial and in subsequent pregnancies. These data suggest that non-infected neonates could have been defined as CS cases because of insufficient information about the mother's history.

  2. Previous abortion and the risk of low birth weight and preterm births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J S; Adera, T; Masho, S W

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the association between previous abortion and low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PB). The study examined live, singleton births using data from the United States Collaborative Perinatal Project. Logistic regression was used to control for obstetric and medical history, and lifestyle and demographic factors. Compared with women with no history of abortion, women who had one, two and three or more previous abortions were 2.8 (95% CI 2.48 to 3.07), 4.6 (95% CI 3.94 to 5.46) and 9.5 (95% CI 7.72 to 11.67) times more likely to have LBW, respectively. The risk for PB was also 1.7 (95% CI 1.52 to 1.83), 2.0 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.37) and 3.0 (95% CI 2.47 to 3.70) times higher for women with a history of one, two and three or more previous abortions, respectively. Previous abortion is a significant risk factor for LBW and PB, and the risk increases with the increasing number of previous abortions. Practitioners should consider previous abortion as a risk factor for LBW and PB.

  3. Nutritional Status of Children from Women with Previously Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Jessica Cristina; Nicoletti, Carolina Ferreira; de Souza Pinhel, Marcela Augusta; Cortes-Oliveira, Cristiana; Salgado Júnior, Wilson; Nonino, Carla Barbosa

    2017-10-05

    Number of pregnancies has been increasing in women of childbearing age after the gastric bypass. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of children of women submitted to gastric bypass. We evaluated anthropometric, breastfeeding and biochemical profile, body composition, and dietary intake indicators of children of both sexes who were born alive after the surgery. For statistical analysis, were performed Shapiro-Wilk and ANOVA test (p breastfeeding (65.5 ± 2.1 mg/dL, p artificial and breast milk presented lower fat mass (3.8 ± 1.9 kg; p Breastfeeding may play a protective role in the development of obesity in these children.

  4. Some previous ABL measurements in the Duero and Ebro valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuxart, Joan

    2017-04-01

    Evapotranspiration in semi-arid regimes needs improved understanding and representation in numerical models. Most of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) upper soil in summer becomes dry which makes of it a good area for field campaigning and numerical modeling. The two large basins at the northern IP, Duero (essentially non-irrigated cereals) and Ebro (large irrigated areas surrounded by typical mediterranean vegetation), have already seen some ABL research efforts in the last decades. The CIBA site is located over a plateau in the centre of the Duero basin. The plateau has shallow soil over karstic rock, contrarily to the lower areas that are essentially sedimentary. There radiation and fluxes of biogenic gases have been measured during decades by the University of Valladolid. Since 1998 the renovated 100m tower has been used to study the ABL, focusing essentially in the nocturnal stably stratified regime, the mesoscale low-level jets, the effet of surface heterogeneities and fog events. Studies have been supplemented with use of satellital information and high-resolution mesoscale simulations. The center of the Ebro basin was the site of ABL measurements between 2008 and 2011, when a surface energy budget (SEB) station and a WindRASS were operating in the middle of a large vineyard, occasionally irrigated during the summer season, keeping the soil always with enough water content to sustain the needs of the vines. Similar topics as for the Duero basin were inspected, here supplemented by the effect of the surrounding topography and the wet-dry terrain heterogeneities, both contributing to intensify the strength of low-level circulations. The SEB imbalance was quantified and the terms compared to the ones from the ECMWF model, finding very significant differences. The SEB and WindRASS were installed in 2015 in the large Pyrenean valley of La Cerdanya, through which the Segre river (a main tributary of the Ebro) flows. The soil in this area usually retains enough water

  5. Risk for postterm delivery after previous postterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistka, Zachary A-F; Palomar, Lisanne; Boslaugh, Sarah E; DeBaun, Michael R; DeFranco, Emily A; Muglia, Louis J

    2007-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that the risk for subsequent postterm birth is increased in women with an initial postterm birth. We performed a population-based cohort study of Missouri births (1989-1997) to assess the recurrence of postterm birth using the Missouri Department of Health's maternally linked database. A total of 368,633 births were evaluated, of which 7.6% were postterm (>42 weeks of gestation). Black mothers had a lower risk for all (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.70; 95% CI, 0.67-0.73) or recurrent (adjusted OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67-0.79) postterm birth. Maternal education of 35 kg/m2 (adjusted OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11-1.37) were associated with increased risk for recurrent postterm birth. Mothers with an initial postterm birth were at increased risk for postterm birth (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.79-1.97) in subsequent pregnancies, independent of race. Among mothers who deliver postterm, there is a significant risk for subsequent postterm births. This increased risk suggests that common factors (genetic or other) influence the likelihood of abnormal parturition timing.

  6. Effectiveness of previous mumps vaccination during a summer camp outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffzin, Joshua K; Pollock, Lynn; Schulte, Cynthia; Henry, Kyle; Dayan, Gustavo; Blog, Debra; Smith, Perry

    2007-10-01

    Mumps is a vaccine-preventable disease that may cause outbreaks. In July 2005, an outbreak of mumps occurred during a children's summer camp in upstate New York. An investigation was initiated to describe the cases and evaluate vaccine effectiveness. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 541 children from the United States and abroad who attended a 1- or 2-month overnight summer camp. Patients with mumps were interviewed; serologic analysis was conducted for 6 case patients. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated by retrospective review of immunization records for 507 attendees who were eligible for vaccination and had verified immunization history. Thirty-one camp attendees were identified as having mumps (attack rate: 5.7%); 5 (83%) of 6 patients tested had positivity for mumps immunoglobulin M. Of the 507 participants (including 29 patients) with available immunization history, 440 (including 16 [87%] patients) were 2-dose recipients of mumps vaccine (attack rate: 3.6%); 46 participants (including 4 [9%] patients) were 1-dose recipients (attack rate: 8.7%); and 21 (including 9 [4%] patients) were unvaccinated (attack rate: 42.9%). Vaccine effectiveness was 92% for 2 doses and 80% for 1 dose. Outbreaks of mumps in settings such as summer camps can occur despite high vaccination rates. Vaccine effectiveness for 2 mumps vaccinations was greater than vaccine effectiveness for 1 mumps vaccination. Therefore, recommendation of 2 mumps vaccinations for summer camp participants continues to be appropriate. Control of mumps disease relies on broad vaccination coupled with correct clinical diagnosis and strict control measures.

  7. Previous Emergency Medical Services Use by Victims of Child Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, Rohit P; Nassif, Anriada; Camp, Elizabeth A; Pereira, Faria A

    2017-03-27

    The medical diagnoses and frequency of emergency department visits made by children who are later given a diagnosis of maltreatment do not differ much from those of nonabused children. However, the type of medical complaints and frequency of emergency medical services (EMS) use by child homicide victims before their death are not known. We compared EMS use between child homicide victims and children who died from natural causes before their death. This was a retrospective case-control study of children 0 to 5 years old who died in Houston, Texas, from 2005 to 2010. Cases were child homicide victims. Controls were children who died from natural causes. We reviewed death data and EMS and child protective services (CPS) encounter information before the victim's death. The association between death type (natural vs homicide) and EMS use was assessed using Poisson regression with EMS count adjusted for exposure time. There were 89 child homicides and 183 natural deaths. Age at death was significantly higher for homicides than natural deaths (1.1 vs 0.2 y, P Homicide victims used EMS services (39% vs 14%, P homicide group had more EMS calls than the natural death group (β = 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-1.07; P = 0.03). However, the EMS use frequency and working assessments were not helpful in identifying maltreatment victims. Child homicide victims use EMS more often and have a higher number of CPS investigations before their death than children who die from natural causes. However, the frequency and nature of EMS medical complaints are not helpful in identifying maltreatment.

  8. Effect of Previous Gastrectomy on the Performance of Postoperative Colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Choi, Jeongmin; Kim, Tae Han; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Im, Jong Pil; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Sang Gyun; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Kim, Joo Sung; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a prior gastrectomy on the difficulty of subsequent colonoscopy, and to identify the surgical factors related to difficult colonoscopies. Materials and Methods Patients with a prior gastrectomy who had undergone a colonoscopy between 2011 and 2014 (n=482) were matched (1:6) to patients with no history of gastrectomy (n=2,892). Cecal insertion time, intubation failure, and bowel clearance score were compared between the gastrectomy and control groups, as was a newly generated comprehensive parameter for a difficult/incomplete colonoscopy (cecal intubation failure, cecal insertion time >12.9 minutes, or very poor bowel preparation scale). Surgical factors including surgical approach, extent of gastrectomy, extent of lymph node dissection, and reconstruction type, were analyzed to identify risk factors for colonoscopy performance. Results A history of gastrectomy was associated with prolonged cecal insertion time (8.7±6.4 vs. 9.7±6.5 minutes; P=0.002), an increased intubation failure rate (0.1% vs. 1.9%; P<0.001), and a poor bowel preparation rate (24.7 vs. 29.0; P=0.047). Age and total gastrectomy (vs. partial gastrectomy) were found to be independent risk factors for increased insertion time, which slowly increased throughout the postoperative duration (0.35 min/yr). Total gastrectomy was the only independent risk factor for the comprehensive parameter of difficult/incomplete colonoscopy. Conclusions History of gastrectomy is related to difficult/incomplete colonoscopy performance, especially in cases of total gastrectomy. In any case, it may be that a pre-operative colonoscopy is desirable in selected patients scheduled for gastrectomy; however, it should be performed by an expert endoscopist each time. PMID:27752394

  9. The incidence of congenital heart disease: previous findings and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranović, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common of all congenital anomalies, and represent a significant global health problem. Involvement of medical professionals of different profiles has led to drastic changes in survival and quality of life of children with CHD. The motivation for the implementation of the first large population studies on this subject was not only to obtain answers to the question on the level of incidence of CHD, but the harmonization of criteria and protocols for monitoring and treatment of certain defects as well as the planning of medical staff dealing with children with CHD. Data on the incidence varies from 4-10/1000 live births. Fetal echocardiography can have potential impact on decrease of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence may be due to the possibility that children with CHD will grow up and have offsprings. Owing to the progress that has been made, an increasing number of patients experiences adulthood, creating an entirely new and growing population of patients: patients with "adult" CHD. Survivors suffer morbidity resulting from their circulatory abnormalities as well as from medical and surgical therapies they have been subjected to. Application of the achievements of human genome projects will in time lead to drastic changes in the approach to the patients with CHD. Until the time when it is possible, the goal will be further improvement of the existing system of service: networking in a unique, multicenter clinical registry of patients with CHD, as well as upgrading of technical and non-technical conditions for the treatment of patients with CHD. We are in an unprecedented time of change, but are actually at the end of the beginning of making pediatric cardiac care a highly reliable institution.

  10. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for previously treated HCV genotype 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdhal, Nezam; Reddy, K Rajender; Nelson, David R; Lawitz, Eric; Gordon, Stuart C; Schiff, Eugene; Nahass, Ronald; Ghalib, Reem; Gitlin, Norman; Herring, Robert; Lalezari, Jacob; Younes, Ziad H; Pockros, Paul J; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M; Arora, Sanjeev; Subramanian, G Mani; Zhu, Yanni; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Yang, Jenny C; Pang, Phillip S; Symonds, William T; McHutchison, John G; Muir, Andrew J; Sulkowski, Mark; Kwo, Paul

    2014-04-17

    Effective treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection in patients who have not had a sustained virologic response to prior interferon-based therapy represents an unmet medical need. We conducted a phase 3, randomized, open-label study involving patients infected with HCV genotype 1 who had not had a sustained virologic response after treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin, with or without a protease inhibitor. Patients were randomly assigned to receive the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir and the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir in a once-daily, fixed-dose combination tablet for 12 weeks, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 12 weeks, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for 24 weeks, or ledipasvir-sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 24 weeks. The primary end point was a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy. Among the 440 patients who underwent randomization and were treated, 20% had cirrhosis and 79% had HCV genotype 1a infection. The rates of sustained virologic response were high in all treatment groups: 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87 to 97) in the group that received 12 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir; 96% (95% CI, 91 to 99) in the group that received 12 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir and ribavirin; 99% (95% CI, 95 to 100) in the group that received 24 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir; and 99% (95% CI, 95 to 100) in the group that received 24 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir and ribavirin. No patient discontinued treatment owing to an adverse event. The most common adverse events were fatigue, headache, and nausea. Treatment with a once-daily, single-tablet regimen of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had not had a sustained virologic response to prior interferon-based treatment. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; ION-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01768286.).

  11. The incidence of congenital heart disease: Previous findings and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects (CHD are the most common of all congenital anomalies, and represent a significant global health problem. Involvement of medical professionals of different profiles has led to drastic changes in survival and quality of life of children with CHD. The motivation for the implementation of the first large population studies on this subject was not only to obtain answers to the question on the level of incidence of CHD, but the harmonization of criteria and protocols for monitoring and treatment of certain defects as well as the planning of medical staff dealing with children with CHD. Data on the incidence varies from 4-10/1000 live births. Fetal echocardiography can have potential impact on decrease of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence may be due to the possibility that children with CHD will grow up and have offsprings. Owing to the progress that has been made, an increasing number of patients experiences adulthood, creating an entirely new and growing population of patients: patients with “adult” CHD. Survivors suffer morbidity resulting from their circulatory abnormalities as well as from medical and surgical therapies they have been subjected to. Application of the achievements of human genome projects will in time lead to drastic changes in the approach to the patients with CHD. Until the time when it is possible, the goal will be further improvement of the existing system of service: networking in a unique, multicenter clinical registry of patients with CHD, as well as upgrading of technical and non-technical conditions for the treatment of patients with CHD. We are in an unprecedented time of change, but are actually at the end of the beginning of making pediatric cardiac care a highly reliable institution.

  12. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  13. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ying Li

    Full Text Available Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  14. Emotional contagion of distress in young pigs is potentiated by previous exposure to the same stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumon, Sébastien; Špinka, Marek

    2016-05-01

    This study tested whether emotional contagion occurs when piglets directly observe a penmate in distress (restraint) and whether there is an effect of previous experience on the response to subsequent restraint or exposure to conspecific distress. Piglets (49.7 ± 0.7 days) were exposed in pairs to two stress phases (SP1 and SP2) in an arena divided into two pens by a wire mesh wall. During SP1, one of the pigs of a pair was either restrained (Stress treatment) or sham-restrained (Control treatment), while the other pig was considered observer. During SP2, the previous observer was restrained, while its penmate took the observer role. Heart rate variability, locomotion, vocalizations, body/head/ear and tail postures were monitored. During SP1, observer pigs responded to conspecific distress with increased indicators of attention (looking at, proximity to and snout contacts with the distressed pigs) and increased indicators of fear (reduced locomotion, increased freezing). During SP2, the observer pigs that had been restrained previously reacted more strongly (through higher proximity, decreased locomotion, increased freezing) to observing the penmate in restraint than pigs without the previous negative experience. This study suggests that young pigs are susceptible to emotional contagion and that this contagion is potentiated by previous exposure to the same stressor. These findings have implications for pig welfare in practical animal husbandry systems.

  15. Emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis: computed tomography features and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0% had more severe (p=0.045 and longer history (p=0.008 of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011, and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001, compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001, which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031, compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.019 lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028, higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013, and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039 were observed. Notably, in patients with

  16. Previous land use alters plant allocation and growth in forest herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Fraterrigo; Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson

    2006-01-01

    Former human practices can persistently influence forest ecosystems, particularly by altering the distribution and abundance of vegetation. Previous research has focused on the role of colonization success in governing plant community patterns in abandoned forests, but few studies have explored how changes in the performance of adult plants may contribute to...

  17. Single and multiple cardiovascular biomarkers in subjects without a previous cardiovascular event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Vaduganathan, Muthiah

    2017-01-01

    population-based cohort study of 1324 subjects without a previous cardiovascular event, who underwent baseline echocardiography and biomarker assessment between 2002 and 2006. The clinical endpoint was the composite of myocardial infarction, invasively treated stable/unstable ischemic heart disease, heart...

  18. Previous miscarriages and GLI2 are associated with anorectal malformations in offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Putte, Romy; Wijers, Charlotte H. W.; de Blaauw, Ivo; Marcelis, Carlo L. M.; Sloots, Cornelius E. J.; Brooks, Alice S.; Broens, Paul M. A.; Roeleveld, Nel; van der Zanden, Loes F. M.; van Rooij, Iris A. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are anorectal malformations (ARMs) associated with previous miscarriages or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) and GLI family zinc finger 2 (GLI2) genes? SUMMARY ANSWER: The SNP rs3738880 in GLI2 and miscarriages were associated with

  19. IgG subclasses in previously healthy adult patients with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has been known for more than 20 years that certain patients with IgG subclass deficiencies may develop recurrent respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia.I...; However, there are few studies of IgG subclass levels in previously healthy adult patients with acute community-acquired pneumonia,~ particularly of patients ...

  20. Facilitation of Taste Memory Acquisition by Experiencing Previous Novel Taste Is Protein-Synthesis Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Maayan; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about the biological and molecular mechanisms that determine the effect of previous experience on implicit learning tasks. In the present study, we first defined weak and strong taste inputs according to measurements in the behavioral paradigm known as latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion. We then demonstrated that…

  1. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target.

  2. A prospective study of radiographic manifestations in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Robert H. [Harvard Medical School, Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Gordon, Leslie B. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesia, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Department of Pediatrics, Hasbro Children' s Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Kleinman, Monica E. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesia, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Miller, David T. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Genetics, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Gordon, Catherine M. [Harvard Medical School, Division of Endocrinology and Adolescent Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Snyder, Brian D. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Nazarian, Ara [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Giobbie-Hurder, Anita [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Boston, MA (United States); Neuberg, Donna [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Kieran, Mark W. [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Children' s Hospital Boston, Division of Pediatric Oncology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Progeria is a rare segmental premature aging disease with significant skeletal abnormalities. Defining the full scope of radiologic abnormalities requires examination of a large proportion of the world's progeria population (estimated at 1 in 4 million). There has been no comprehensive prospective study describing the skeletal abnormalities associated with progeria. To define characteristic radiographic features of this syndrome. Thirty-nine children with classic progeria, ages 2-17 years, from 29 countries were studied at a single site. Comprehensive radiographic imaging studies were performed. Sample included 23 girls and 16 boys - the largest number of patients with progeria evaluated prospectively to date. Eight new and two little known progeria-associated radiologic findings were identified (frequencies of 3-36%). Additionally, 23 commonly reported findings were evaluated. Of these, 2 were not encountered and 21 were present and ranked according to their frequency. Nine abnormalities were associated with increasing patient age (P = 0.02-0.0001). This study considerably expands the radiographic morphological spectrum of progeria. A better understanding of the radiologic abnormalities associated with progeria and improved understanding of the biology of progerin (the molecule responsible for this disease), will improve our ability to treat the spectrum of bony abnormalities. (orig.)

  3. Endometrial scratching for women with previous IVF failure undergoing IVF treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibreel, Ahmed; El-Adawi, Noha; Elgindy, Eman; Al-Inany, Hesham; Allakany, Nasser; Tournaye, Herman

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether endometrial scratching could improve live birth rate in women with previous IVF failure undergoing fresh IVF cycle. In a randomized controlled trial, 387 women with previous IVF failure were divided into two groups. Group A (193 women) was subjected to endometrial biopsy procedure twice. Group B (194 women) was subjected to a placebo procedure. Our results showed no difference in live birth rate between the two groups of women (47.2% versus 38.1%, p = 0.08). However, regression analysis revealed that endometrial scratching was an independent predictor of live birth in the subgroup of women with two or more previous failure after control of other independent predictors (odds ratio (OR) 3.4, p = 0.005). We conclude that endometrial scratching does not improve live birth rate in women undergoing IVF treatment with previous one IVF failure. Nevertheless, it may improve live birth in women with two or more previous IVF failures.

  4. Femoral torsion in patients with Blount's disease: a previously unrecognised component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, J J; Hogg, A; Rollinson, P

    2009-10-01

    In 1937 Blount described a series of 28 patients with 'Tibia vara'. Since then, a number of deformities in the tibia and the femur have been described in association with this condition. We analysed 14 children with Blount's disease who were entered into a cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 10 (2 to 18). They underwent a clinical assessment of the rotational profile of their legs and a CT assessment of the angle of anteversion of their hips (femoral version). We compared our results to previously published controls. A statistically significant increase in femoral anteversion was noted in the affected legs, with on average the femurs in patients with Blount's disease being 26 degrees more anteverted than those in previously published controls. We believe this to be a previously unrecognised component of Blount's disease, and that the marked intoeing seen in the disease may be partly caused by internal femoral version, in addition to the well-recognised internal tibial version.

  5. Impulsivity moderates the relationship between previous quit failure and cue-induced craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erblich, Joel; Michalowski, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Poor inhibitory control has been shown to be an important predictor of relapse to a number of drugs, including nicotine. Indeed, smokers who exhibit higher levels of impulsivity are thought to have impaired regulation of urges to smoke, and previous research has suggested that impulsivity may moderate cue-induced cigarette cravings. To that end, we conducted a study to evaluate the interplay between failed smoking cessation, cue-induced craving, and impulsivity. Current smokers (n=151) rated their cigarette cravings before and after laboratory to exposure to smoking cues, and completed questionnaires assessing impulsivity and previous failed quit attempts. Findings indicated that shorter duration of previous failed quit attempts was related to higher cue-induced cigarette craving, especially among smokers with higher levels of impulsivity. Results underscore the importance of considering trait impulsivity as a factor in better understanding the management of cue-induced cravings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between the public's belief in recovery, level of mental illness stigma, and previous contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    Disbelief exits that individuals who have a mental health condition are able to recover and fully function in life. This study analyzed 1,437 adults from the 2006 General Social Survey. Structural equation modeling (1) examined the relationship between respondents' level of prejudicial attitudes and social distance (i.e., stigma) toward individuals who have a mental health condition and their belief in the potential of recovery (2) tested whether previous contact with an individual who received treatment was a mediator. Findings indicated that the belief in recovery led to lower levels of social distance. Prejudicial attitudes were found to be a predictor of one's level of social distance. Previous contact was not a mediator however; males, minorities and those with less education were less likely to have had previous contact. Results indicated a need to emphasize the probability of recovering from a mental health condition when developing target-specific stigma reducing strategies.

  7. Beneficial effects of previous exercise training on renal changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Liliany S de Brito; Silva, Fernanda A; Correia, Vicente B; Andrade, Clara EF; Dutra, Bárbara A; Oliveira, Márcio V; de Magalhães, Amélia CM; Volpini, Rildo A; Seguro, Antonio C; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise performed both previously and after the induction of diabetes mellitus on changes of renal function and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Female wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (C + Se); trained control (C + Ex); sedentary diabetic (D + Se); trained diabetic (D + Ex) and previously trained diabetic (D + PEx). The previous exercise consisted of treadmill running for four weeks before the induction of diabetes mellitus. After induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin, the D + PEx, D + Ex and C + Ex groups were submitted to eight weeks of aerobic exercise. At the end of the training protocol, we evaluate the serum glucose, insulin and 17β-estradiol levels, renal function and structure, proteinuria, and fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) renal expressions. Induction of diabetes mellitus reduced the insulin and did not alter 17β-estradiol levels, and exercise did not affect any of these parameters. Previous exercise training attenuated the loss of body weight, the blood glucose, the increase of glomerular filtration rate and prevented the proteinuria in the D + PEx group compared to D + Se group. Previous exercise also reduced glomerular hypertrophy, tubular and glomerular injury, as well as the expressions of fibronectin and collagen IV. These expressions were associated with reduced expression of TGF-β1. In conclusion, our study shows that regular aerobic exercise especially performed previously to induction of diabetes mellitus improved metabolic control and has renoprotective action on the diabetic kidney. PMID:26490345

  8. Previous Lung Diseases and Lung Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis From the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R.; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J.; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; McCormack, Valerie; Muscat, Joshua E.; Yang, Ping; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Brueske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Schwartz, Ann G.; Cote, Michele L.; Tjønneland, Anne; Friis, Søren; Le Marchand, Loic; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Zaridze, David; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Bencko, Vladimir; Schejbalova, Miriam; Brennan, Paul; Mates, Ioan N.; Lazarus, Philip; Field, John K.; Raji, Olaide; McLaughlin, John R.; Liu, Geoffrey; Wiencke, John; Neri, Monica; Ugolini, Donatella; Andrew, Angeline S.; Lan, Qing; Hu, Wei; Orlow, Irene; Park, Bernard J.; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the role of previous lung diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia, and tuberculosis) in the development of lung cancer, the authors conducted a pooled analysis of studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Seventeen studies including 24,607 cases and 81,829 controls (noncases), mainly conducted in Europe and North America, were included (1984–2011). Using self-reported data on previous diagnoses of lung diseases, the authors derived study-specific effect estimates by means of logistic regression models or Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and cumulative tobacco smoking. Estimates were pooled using random-effects models. Analyses stratified by smoking status and histology were also conducted. A history of emphysema conferred a 2.44-fold increased risk of lung cancer (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64, 3.62 (16 studies)). A history of chronic bronchitis conferred a relative risk of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.29, 1.68 (13 studies)). Tuberculosis (relative risk = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87 (16 studies)) and pneumonia (relative risk = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.01 (12 studies)) were also associated with lung cancer risk. Among never smokers, elevated risks were observed for emphysema, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. These results suggest that previous lung diseases influence lung cancer risk independently of tobacco use and that these diseases are important for assessing individual risk. PMID:22986146

  9. Induction of labor in grand multiparous women with previous cesarean delivery: how safe is this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibber, Rachana; Al-Harmi, Jehad; Foda, Mohamed; Mohammed K, Zeinab; Al-Saleh, Eyad; Mohammed, Asiya Tasneem

    2015-02-01

    To compare the outcome of induced and spontaneous labor in grand multiparous women with one previous lower segment cesarean section (CS), so that the safety of labor induction could be assessed. In 102 women (study group), labor was induced and the outcome was compared with 280 women (control group) who went into spontaneous labor. All 382 women were grand multiparous and had one previous CS. There were no significant difference in oxytocin augmentation, CS, scar dehiscence, fetal birth weight or apgar scores between groups. There was one neonatal death, two still births, one early neonatal death and one congenital malformation in the study group and this was not significant. There was no significant difference in vaginal birth in the study (80.9%) and the control group (83.8%). In this moderate-sized study, induction of labor may be a safe option in grand multiparous women, if there is no absolute induction for repeating CS.

  10. Association between obstetric complications & previous pregnancy outcomes with current pregnancy outcomes in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepti; Goli, Srinivas; Parsuraman, Sulabha

    2014-01-01

    A substantial proportion of pregnant women in India are at the risk of serious obstetric complications and reliable information on obstetric morbidity is scanty, particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged society. We studied the association between the obstetric complications in women in their current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data from District Level Household Survey (2007-2008) were used for empirical assessment. Bivariate, trivariate and Cox proportional hazard regression model analyses were applied to examine the effect of obstetric complications and previous pregnancy outcome on current pregnancy outcome among currently married women (age group 15-49 yr) in Uttar Pradesh, India. The results of this study showed that the obstetric complications in the current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies were associated with the outcome of the current pregnancy. Cox proportional hazard regression model estimates revealed that the hazard ratio of having stillbirths were significantly higher among women with any obstetric complications compared to women with no obstetric complications. The adverse pregnancy outcome in a previous pregnancy was the largest risk factor for likelihood of developing similar type of adverse pregnancy outcome in the current pregnancy. The findings provided key insights for health policy interventions in terms of prevention of obstetric complications to avoid the adverse pregnancy outcome in women.

  11. 24-hour antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with previous definite stent thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Lisette O; Kaltoft, Anne K; Tilsted, Hans H; Kristensen, Steen D; Grove, Erik L

    2014-08-01

    Once-daily aspirin is standard treatment, but recent studies point towards increased platelet function at the end of the dosing interval. Stent thrombosis (ST) has been linked with reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin, so we investigated if platelet inhibition by aspirin declines through 24 h in patients with previous definite ST. Furthermore, we explored whether increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin are associated with a particularly rapid recovery of platelet function. This case-control study included 50 patients with previous definite ST matched with 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease and 50 healthy volunteers. All participants were on aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was measured 1 and 24 h after aspirin intake using platelet aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer). Cyclooxygenase-1 activity, platelet activation, immature platelets, and thrombopoietin were measured. Platelet aggregation increased by 109±150 (arachidonic acid) and 47±155 (collagen) aggregation units per minute from 1 to 24 h after aspirin intake (p-values aspirin-treated patients with previous definite ST or stable coronary artery disease and in healthy individuals. Increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin were observed in patients with previous definite ST. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional MRI of the visual cortex and visual testing in patients with previous optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Frederiksen, J.L.; Rostrup, Egill

    2002-01-01

    of the activated area and the signal change following ON, and compared the results with results of neuroophthalmological testing. We studied nine patients with previous acute ON and 10 healthy persons served as controls using fMRI with visual stimulation. In addition to a reduced activated volume, patients showed...... to both the results of the contrast sensitivity test and to the Snellen visual acuity. Our results indicate that fMRI is a useful method for the study of ON, even in cases where the visual acuity is severely impaired. The reduction in activated volume could be explained as a reduced neuronal input......The volume of cortical activation as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the visual cortex has previously been shown to be reduced following optic neuritis (ON). In order to understand the cause of this change, we studied the cortical activation, both the size...

  13. Patients with previous definite stent thrombosis have a reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin and a larger fraction of immature platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Grove, Erik; Wulff, Lise Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the platelet response to aspirin and the immature platelet fraction in patients with previous stent thrombosis (ST).......This study sought to evaluate the platelet response to aspirin and the immature platelet fraction in patients with previous stent thrombosis (ST)....

  14. Neonatal progeria: increased ratio of progerin to lamin A leads to progeria of the newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Reunert, Janine; Wentzell, Rüdiger; Walter, Michael; Jakubiczka, Sibylle; Zenker, Martin; Brune, Thomas; Rust, Stephan; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an important model disease for premature ageing. Affected children appear healthy at birth, but develop the first symptoms during their first year of life. They die at an average age of 13 years, mostly because of myocardial infarction or stroke. Classical progeria is caused by the heterozygous point mutation c.1824C>T in the LMNA gene, which activates a cryptic splice site. The affected protein cannot be processed correctly to mature lamin A, bu...

  15. A Previous Miscarriage and a Previous Successful Pregnancy Have a Different Impact on HLA Antibody Formation during a Subsequent Successful Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneugelijk, Kirsten; Hönger, Gideon; van Deutekom, Hanneke Wilhelmina Maria; Hösli, Irene Mathilde; Schaub, Stefan; Spierings, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Inherited paternal HLA antigens from the semi-allogeneic fetus may trigger maternal immune responses during pregnancy, leading to the production of child-specific HLA antibodies. The prevalence of these HLA antibodies increases with the number of successful pregnancies. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a single prior miscarriage on HLA antibody formation during a subsequent successful pregnancy. Women with a successful pregnancy with one or more prior miscarriages (n = 229) and women with a successful pregnancy without a prior miscarriage (n = 58), and their children were HLA typed. HLA antibody analyses were performed in these women to identify whether HLA antibodies were formed against mismatched HLA class-I antigens of the last child. The percentage of immunogenic antigens was significantly lower after a single successful pregnancy that was preceded by a single miscarriage (n = 18 women) compared to a successful pregnancy that was preceded by a first successful pregnancy (n = 62 women). Thus, our data suggest that a previous miscarriage has a different impact on child-specific HLA antibody formation during a subsequent successful pregnancy than a previous successful pregnancy. The lower immunogenicity in these women cannot be explained by reduced numbers of immunogenic B-cell and T-cell epitopes. In conclusion, our observations indicate that increasing gravidity is not related to an increased prevalence of HLA antibodies in a single successful pregnancy that was preceded by a single prior miscarriage.

  16. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  17. Functional MRI of the visual cortex and visual testing in patients with previous optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Frederiksen, J.L.; Rostrup, Egill

    2002-01-01

    The volume of cortical activation as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the visual cortex has previously been shown to be reduced following optic neuritis (ON). In order to understand the cause of this change, we studied the cortical activation, both the size of the activ......The volume of cortical activation as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the visual cortex has previously been shown to be reduced following optic neuritis (ON). In order to understand the cause of this change, we studied the cortical activation, both the size...... of the activated area and the signal change following ON, and compared the results with results of neuroophthalmological testing. We studied nine patients with previous acute ON and 10 healthy persons served as controls using fMRI with visual stimulation. In addition to a reduced activated volume, patients showed...... to both the results of the contrast sensitivity test and to the Snellen visual acuity. Our results indicate that fMRI is a useful method for the study of ON, even in cases where the visual acuity is severely impaired. The reduction in activated volume could be explained as a reduced neuronal input...

  18. Does previous use affect litter box appeal in multi-cat households?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; McGowan, R T S; Martin, F

    2017-08-01

    It is commonly assumed that cats actively avoid eliminated materials (especially in multi-cat homes), suggesting regular litter box cleaning as the best defense against out-of-box elimination. The relationship between previous use and litter box appeal to familiar subsequent users is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between previous litter box use and the identity of the previous user, type of elimination, odor, and presence of physical/visual obstructions in a multi-cat household scenario. Cats preferred a clean litter box to a dirty one, but the identity of the previous user had no impact on preferences. While the presence of odor from urine and/or feces did not impact litter box preferences, the presence of odorless faux-urine and/or feces did - with the presence of faux-feces being preferred over faux-urine. Results suggest neither malodor nor chemical communication play a role in litter box preferences, and instead emphasize the importance of regular removal of physical/visual obstructions as the key factor in promoting proper litter box use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Homicide and domestic violence. Are there different psychological profiles mediated by previous exerted on the victim?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Yepes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 46 men was evaluated with the DAPP (Questionnaire of Domestic Aggressor Psychological Profile. All were inmates convicted for various degrees of violence against their wives in different prisons. The sample was divided into three groups: homicides without previous violence against their wives (H (n=11, homicides with previous violence (VH (n=9 and domestic batterers without previous homicide attempts against their partners (B (n=26. The aim of the study was to analyze the possible existence of three different kinds of profiles and more specifically if it’s possible to obtain an independent profile for domestic homicides with previous episodes of violence against their wives. The results neither confirm the hypothesis as whole nor for the violent homicides. However, differences between groups were obtained in the admission and description of the facts, in the risk of future violence, in some sociodemographical characteristics (i.e., level of education, social status, in the couple relationship, in the dissatisfaction concerning the unachieved ideal woman, in the use of extreme physical force during the aggression, the time of the first aggression, the use of verbal threats during the aggression, explanation of the events to the family and the period of time between the beginning of the romantic relationship and the manifestation of violence. The implications of the results for the theoretical frameworks proposed and future research are discussed.

  20. Biochemical effectiveness of allopurinol and allopurinol-probenecid in previously benzbromarone-treated gout patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Mattheus K; van Roon, Eric N; Houtman, Pieternella M; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Jansen, Tim L Th A

    2007-09-01

    In 2003, the uricosuric drug benzbromarone was withdrawn from the market. The first alternative drug of choice was the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. The purpose was to (1) investigate the efficacy of allopurinol (standard dosage) compared with previous treatment with benzbromarone; and (2) investigate the combination therapy allopurinol-probenecid as an effective alternative treatment compared with previous benzbromarone treatment. A prospective, open study was carried out in a cohort of 51 gout patients who discontinued benzbromarone therapy because of market withdrawal. Patients were given 200-300 mg allopurinol (stage 1). When allopurinol failed to attain the target serum urate (sUr) levels probenecid 1,000 mg/day was added (stage 2). Treatment with benzbromarone monotherapy (range: 100-200 mg/day; mean 138 mg/day) resulted in 92% of patients reaching target levels sUr probenecid combination therapy, which resulted in 86% of patients attaining target sUr levels (after failure on allopurinol monotherapy), which was comparable to previous treatment with benzbromarone (p = 0.81). Decrease in sUr levels was 53[9]% (CI 95%: 48-58%), which was a non-significant difference compared to previous treatment with benzbromarone (p = 0.23). Benzbromarone is a very effective antihyperuricemic drug with 91% success in attainment of target sUr levels probenecid proves to be an effective treatment strategy for attaining sUr target levels (86% success).

  1. Down syndrome screening marker levels in women with a previous aneuploidy pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuckle, Howard S; Spencer, K; Nicolaides, K H

    2005-01-01

    In Down syndrome screening programmes, women with a previous affected pregnancy are assumed to have the same marker distribution as those without a family history. This assumption needs to be tested. Information on previous aneuploidy pregnancies was routinely sought on the test request forms in three centres, Leeds, Romford and the Fetal Medicine Centre, London. For each woman with a previous aneuploidy (case), five unaffected pregnancies to women without a history were selected as controls. The markers tested included maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol and ultrasound nuchal translucency thickness. There were 375 cases: 303 with previous Down syndrome, 63 with Edwards syndrome and 9 with Patau's syndrome. There was a statistically significant difference between cases and controls, in the distribution of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A levels, adjusted for gestation. On average, free beta-hCG was increased by 10% in a subsequent pregnancy after aneuploidy (p pregnancies are available for study, it would be prudent to assume that the same increase as in unaffected pregnancies applies. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Analysis of previous perceptual and motor experience in breaststroke kick learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Bettina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the variables that influence motor learning is the learner’s previous experience, which may provide perceptual and motor elements to be transferred to a novel motor skill. For swimming skills, several motor experiences may prove effective. Purpose. The aim was to analyse the influence of previous experience in playing in water, swimming lessons, and music or dance lessons on learning the breaststroke kick. Methods. The study involved 39 Physical Education students possessing basic swimming skills, but not the breaststroke, who performed 400 acquisition trials followed by 50 retention and 50 transfer trials, during which stroke index as well as rhythmic and spatial configuration indices were mapped, and answered a yes/no questionnaire regarding previous experience. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p = 0.05 and the effect size (Cohen’s d ≥0.8 indicating large effect size. Results. The whole sample improved their stroke index and spatial configuration index, but not their rhythmic configuration index. Although differences between groups were not significant, two types of experience showed large practical effects on learning: childhood water playing experience only showed major practically relevant positive effects, and no experience in any of the three fields hampered the learning process. Conclusions. The results point towards diverse impact of previous experience regarding rhythmic activities, swimming lessons, and especially with playing in water during childhood, on learning the breaststroke kick.

  3. Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Adults With Previous Hospital-Based Psychiatric Inpatient and Outpatient Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Waagstein, Kristine; Winkel, Bo Gregers

    2015-01-01

    hospital contact and was identified using The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. All diagnoses in Danish registries are coded according to ICD-8 or ICD-10. All hospital records were retrieved manually. Results: Among 5,178 deaths, 395 were due to SCD and autopsies were performed on 262 (66......Introduction: Psychiatric patients have premature mortality compared to the general population. The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in psychiatric patients is unknown in a nationwide setting. The aim of this study was to compare nationwide SCD incidence rates in young individuals...... with and without previous psychiatric disease. Method: Nationwide, retrospective cohort study including all deaths in people aged 18–35 years in 2000–2006 in Denmark. The unique Danish death certificates and autopsy reports were used to identify SCD cases. Psychiatric disease was defined as a previous psychiatric...

  4. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v) of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    OpenAIRE

    Graziano, Maurício Uchikawa; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Pinto, Flávia Morais Gomes; Bruna, Camila Quartim de Moraes; Souza, Rafael Queiroz de; Lascala, Cesar Angelo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v) using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection W...

  5. Real increasing incidence of hysterectomy for placenta accreta following previous caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, Mary F

    2013-11-01

    Placenta accreta, morbid adherence to the uterus to the myometrium, is commonest in association with placenta previa in women previously delivered by caesarean section (CS). It has become proportionally a greater cause of major maternal morbidity and mortality as the frequency of other serious obstetric complications has declined. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of placenta accreta in the context of a rising caesarean delivery rate.

  6. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy for surgery patients: A comparison with previous standard of care

    OpenAIRE

    Anjie Yang; Ron Fung; James Brunton; Linda Dresser

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current literature reports that outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs improve cure rates, and reduce length of hospitalization and costs. OPAT programs are still relatively new in Canada.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefits of an OPAT program initiated at a multispecialty tertiary care facility in Toronto, Ontario, compared with the previous standard of care.METHODS: The present retrospective observational study was conducted using data from a group of surgica...

  7. Association between urinary incontinence in women and a previous history of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, S.; Foldspang, Anders; Elving, L.

    1993-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, 85% of 3114 women responded to a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and a history of abdominal, gynaecological and urological surgery. In 1987 the prevalence of urinary incontinence was 17%; 63% had undergone surgery, mainly gynaecological, and almost one......-third of the respondents had had more than one operation. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed stress urinary incontinence to be associated with previous exposure to surgery....

  8. Implants placed in sites of previously failed implants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Perrotti, Vittoria; Piattelli, Adriano; Piemontese, Matteo; Procaccini, Maurizio

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on implant placement in sites of previously failed implants and to assess survival and success rates of the replacement implants to investigate the effectiveness of the procedure. MEDLINE and Cochrane Oral Health Group databases were used to identify articles published between 1985 and 2011. Six articles were selected for a total of 334 patients (338 implants). The survival rate ranged from 71% to 100%. The survival rate for implants placed for the second time (third attempt) in the sites of previously failed implants was 83.75%. No studies included in this review reported the cumulative success rate except for the prospective one, which reported a 93.7% success rate. The main limitations of the present systematic review have been the scarce number of patients and implants in the analyzed studies and the lack of large well-designed case-control long-term trials. Survival rates of implants placed in the areas of previously failed implants are low, although they should not discourage clinicians from a second or even a third attempt.

  9. More rumination and less effective emotion regulation in previously depressed women with preserved executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aker, Martin; Harmer, Catherine; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2014-11-27

    Major depressive disorder is associated with very high recurrence rates, and specific vulnerability factors that increase the risk for repeated episodes should be identified. Impaired executive functions have repeatedly been found in remitted populations. The current study included both neutral and emotional executive tasks, and we expected to find impaired performance in unmedicated previously depressed women compared to controls. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the executive functions inhibition and shifting would be related to the ability to apply cognitive reappraisal and to avoid unhealthy rumination. Inhibition and shifting data derived from neutral and emotional computerized tasks, and questionnaire data on emotion regulation and trait rumination, were obtained from previously depressed (n = 109) and never-depressed women (n = 64) and analyzed in independent samples t-tests. A logistic regression analysis investigated the ability of emotion regulation and rumination to predict depression vulnerability. The associations of executive functions to emotion regulation and rumination were investigated in a series of linear regression analyses. Participants on psychotropic medication were excluded from all analyses of executive performance. Previously depressed participants, the majority of which had experienced recurrent episodes, matched control participants on both neutral and emotional executive tasks. However, significantly more rumination and expressive suppression, and less cognitive reappraisal, were found in the previously depressed group. Executive function was unrelated to rumination and emotion regulation in this sample. Previously depressed women whose executive function was intact were characterized by ruminative tendencies and more frequent use of expressive suppression. Trait rumination and expressive suppression are known to increase depression risk, but were unrelated to executive functions in this population. This indicates that unhealthy

  10. The relationship between findings on magnetic resonance imaging and previous history of low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonosu J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Juichi Tonosu,1 Hiroyuki Oka,2 Ko Matsudaira,2 Akiro Higashikawa,1 Hiroshi Okazaki,1 Sakae Tanaka3 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kanto Rosai Hospital, Kawasaki, 2Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings and previous low back pain (LBP in participants without current LBP. Current LBP was defined as LBP during the past month. Previous LBP was defined as a history of medical consultation for LBP. Ninety-one participants without current LBP were included. Sagittal T2-weighted MRI was used to assess the intervertebral space from T12/L1 to L5/S1. These images were classified into five grades based on the Pfirrmann grading system. Furthermore, we evaluated the presence of disk bulging, high-intensity zone, and spondylolisthesis. We compared the MRI findings between groups with (27 participants and without (64 participants previous LBP without current LBP. Intraobserver and interobserver kappa values were evaluated. Participants had an average age of 34.9 years; 47 were female and 44 were male; and their average body mass index was 21.8 kg/m2. Compared to the group of participants without previous LBP, the group of participants with previous LBP had a significantly higher incidence of disk degeneration such as a Pfirrmann grade ≥3, disk bulging, and high-intensity zone in the analyses adjusted by age and sex. There were no significant differences in spondylolisthesis between the groups. An odds ratio of >10 was only found for Pfirrmann grade ≥3, ie, a Pfirrmann grade ≥3 was strongly associated with a history of previous LBP in participants without current LBP. Keywords: disk bulging, low back pain, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, Pfirrmann grading, previous

  11. Natural attenuation is enhanced in previously contaminated and coniferous forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Sari; Romantschuk, Martin; Strömmer, Rauni; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of organic pollutants or their natural analogs in soil is often assumed to lead to adaptation in the bacterial community, which results in enhanced bioremediation if the soil is later contaminated. In this study, the effects of soil type and contamination history on diesel oil degradation and bacterial adaptation were studied. Mesocosms of mineral and organic forest soil (humus) were artificially treated with diesel oil, and oil hydrocarbon concentrations (GC-FID), bacterial community composition (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE), and oil hydrocarbon degraders (DGGE + sequencing of 16S rRNA genes) were monitored for 20 weeks at 16°C. Degradation was advanced in previously contaminated soils as compared with pristine soils and in coniferous organic forest soil as compared with mineral soil. Contamination affected bacterial community composition especially in the pristine mineral soil, where diesel addition increased the number of strong bands in the DGGE gel. Sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA gene fragments and DGGE bands showed that potential oil-degrading bacteria were found in mineral and organic soils and in both pristine and previously contaminated mesocosms. Fast oil degradation was not associated with the presence of any particular bacterial strain in soil. We demonstrate at the mesocosm scale that previously contaminated and coniferous organic soils are superior environments for fast oil degradation as compared with pristine and mineral soil environments. These results may be utilized in preventing soil pollution and planning soil remediation.

  12. Mode of delivery in a subsequent pregnancy following previous instrumental delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Samuel; Steinberg, Netanel; Tannus, Samer; Golan, Abraham; Sadan, Oscar

    2013-05-01

    To assess mode of subsequent delivery in women with previous instrumental vaginal delivery. In this retrospective longitudinal study we followed women who underwent instrumental delivery. The study group included all consecutive parturient women who underwent an instrumental vaginal delivery during a 24-month period (1996-1999). We then identified women who had a subsequent delivery in our center until the end of the year 2010. The control group included women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery from the same time. During the index period we had 349 consecutive successful instrumental vaginal deliveries. Of those, 125 women had a subsequent delivery in our center (35.8%). In subsequent pregnancies, the spontaneous vaginal delivery rate was 76.8% and 90.4%; the instrumental delivery rate was 8.8% and 1.6%; and the cesarean rate was 14.4% and 8.0%, in the instrumental delivery, and spontaneous vaginal delivery groups, respectively (Pinstrumental delivery or a cesarean after having an instrumental delivery in a previous pregnancy was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.4-5.9, Pinstrumental delivery are at an increased risk of requiring either an instrumental delivery or a cesarean section in a subsequent pregnancy compared with women with a previous spontaneous vaginal delivery.

  13. A causal analysis relating previous achievement, attitudes, discourse, and intervention to achievement in biology and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, C. Thomas; Swift, J. Nathan; Schell, Robert E.; Swift, Patricia R.; McCroskery, James H.

    This study described the relationship of 38 variates to achievement in high school biology and chemistry classes. Forty-four teachers prepared audio tape recordings of discussions throughout a nine-month period. Equal-sized groups received treatment consisting of wait time feedback and/or supportive intervention, a form of peer coaching. Other variables were initial measures, which included the variates of class size and previous science grade, pre- and posttest scores on student attitudes and perceptions, and prediscourse and discourse analyses, which included the variates of wait times, actions, and response durations. While previous research has shown that wait time feedback and supportive intervention are effective means of changing teacher behavior, the results of the present study revealed that previous student achievement and the attitudes of students accounted for 70% of the variation in the final examination scores (New York State Regents) on the basis of only the first three weeks of data collection on the variables assessed. Generally, little emphasis on higher-level thinking, wait time, or problem solving was found at the beginning of the school year, and only minimal changes resulted from the application of the treatment variables. Pressures for content coverage and preparation for externally imposed statewide examinations that emphasize memory-level learning augured against the changes that the independent variables were designed to produce.

  14. Dietary self-efficacy predicts AHEI diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Erin Poe; Narayan, K M Venkat; Reilly, Carolyn M; Foster, Jennifer; McCullough, Marjorie; Ziegler, Thomas R; Guo, Ying; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of intrapersonal influences of diet quality as defined by the Health Belief Model constructs in women with recent histories of gestational diabetes. A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used to analyze relationships between diet quality and intrapersonal variables, including perceptions of threat of type 2 diabetes mellitus development, benefits and barriers of healthy eating, and dietary self-efficacy, in a convenience sample of 75 community-dwelling women (55% minority; mean age, 35.5 years; SD, 5.5 years) with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Diet quality was defined by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). Multiple regression was used to identify predictors of AHEI diet quality. Women had moderate AHEI diet quality (mean score, 47.6; SD, 14.3). Only higher levels of education and self-efficacy significantly predicted better AHEI diet quality, controlling for other contributing variables. There is a significant opportunity to improve diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Improving self-efficacy may be an important component to include in nutrition interventions. In addition to identifying other important individual components, future studies of diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus are needed to investigate the scope of influence beyond the individual to potential family, social, and environmental factors. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. Recalcitrant Hypocalcemia after Thyroidectomy in Patients with Previous Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Travis J.; Chen, Yufei; Hodin, Richard A.; Shikora, Scott A.; Hutter, Matthew M.; Gaz, Randall D.; Moore, Francis D.; Lubitz, Carrie C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypocalcemia is a potential complication after thyroidectomy. Patients with previous roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) may be at increased risk for recalcitrant symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. This complication is poorly described and there is no current consensus on optimal management in this unique population. Methods All patients from 2000-2012 who underwent thyroidectomy with history of preceding RYGBP were identified retrospectively. Each of the 19 patients meeting inclusion criteria were matched 2:1 for age, gender, and BMI to a cohort who underwent thyroidectomy without previous RYGBP. The study cohort and matched controls were compared for incidence of symptomatic post-operative hypocalcemia, requirement of intravenous (IV) calcium supplementation, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Results Age, proportion of female patients, and BMI were equivalent between cases (n=19) and controls (n=38). Comparison of primary outcomes demonstrated that the study group had a significantly higher incidence of symptomatic hypocalcemia (42% vs. 0%, p<0.01), administration of IV calcium (21% vs. 0%, p<0.01), and LOS (2.2 vs. 1.2 days, p=0.02). Conclusions Patients with previous RYGBP have higher incidence of recalcitrant symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy resulting in prolonged LOS. In this patient population calcium levels should be closely monitored and early calcium and vitamin D supplementation preemptively initiated. PMID:23978591

  16. Outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in advanced primary congenital glaucoma with previous surgical failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingjing; Lin, Jialiu; Wu, Ziqiang; Xu, Hongzhi; Zuo, Chengguo; Ge, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intermediate surgical results of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in patients less than 7 years of age, with advanced primary congenital glaucoma who have failed previous surgeries. Patients and methods Consecutive patients with advanced primary congenital glaucoma that failed previous operations and had undergone subsequent AGV implantation were evaluated retrospectively. Surgical success was defined as 1) intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥6 and ≤21 mmHg; 2) IOP reduction of at least 30% relative to preoperative values; and 3) without the need for additional surgical intervention for IOP control, loss of light perception, or serious complications. Results Fourteen eyes of eleven patients were studied. Preoperatively, the average axial length was 27.71±1.52 (25.56–30.80) mm, corneal diameter was 14.71±1.07 (13.0–16.0) mm, cup-to-disc ratio was 0.95±0.04 (0.9–1.0), and IOP was 39.5±5.7 (30–55) mmHg. The mean follow-up time was 18.29±10.96 (5–44, median 18) months. There were significant reductions in IOPs and the number of glaucoma medications (PAGV implantation remains a viable option for patients with advanced primary congenital glaucoma unresponsive to previous surgical intervention, despite a relatively high incidence of severe surgical complications. PMID:26082610

  17. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  18. Previous encapsulation response enhances within individual protection against fungal parasite in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Daukste, Janina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-12-01

    Immune defenses of insects show either broad reactions or specificity and durability of induced protection against attacking parasites and pathogens. In this study, we tested whether encapsulation response against nylon monofilament increases between two attempts of activation of immune system in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor, and whether previous exposure to nylon monofilament may also increase protection against an entomopathogenic fungus. We found that survival of beetles subjected to immune activation by nylon implant and subsequent fungal exposure a week later was significantly higher than survival of beetles which had been subjected to fungal infection only. This result suggests that previous immune activation by the nylon implant may be considered as broad spectrum "immune priming" which helps to fight not only the same intruder but also other parasites. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Survival after early-stage breast cancer of women previously treated for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis Frederik Palm; Johansen, Christoffer; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this nationwide, register-based cohort study was to determine whether women treated for depression before primary early-stage breast cancer are at increased risk for receiving treatment that is not in accordance with national guidelines and for poorer survival. Material...... and Methods We identified 45,325 women with early breast cancer diagnosed in Denmark from 1998 to 2011. Of these, 744 women (2%) had had a previous hospital contact (as an inpatient or outpatient) for depression and another 6,068 (13%) had been treated with antidepressants. Associations between previous...... treatment of depression and risk of receiving nonguideline treatment of breast cancer were assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. We compared the overall survival, breast cancer-specific survival, and risk of death by suicide of women who were and were not treated for depression before...

  20. Changes in mammographic features of breast cancer; Comparison with previous films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Tadaharu; Hagiwara, Kei (Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer Detection Center (Japan)); Kimura, Kohzaburo; Kusama, Mikihiro

    1992-11-01

    Mammographic features of 87 breast cancer patients were studied in comparison with their previous survey films. Changes in the mammographic features included microcalcification (28 cases), tumor shadow (35 cases) and intratumorous microcalcifications (6 cases). Seven cases had several extremely high calcifications on the previous films, and three of six cases with clustered and scattered microcalcifications that extended over an entire breast quadrant had increased in number, density and extent. Eight cases in which clustered microcalcifications had increased in number, density and extent suggested a relationship between the increase in the extent of microcalcifications and length of time between visits. In most cases with tumor shadow, a slight localized increase in mammary gland density, irregular margins and strainghtened trabeculae were overlooked because of breast density. (author).

  1. Verbal working memory deficits in current and previous users of MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareing, Michelle; Fisk, John E; Murphy, Philip; Montgomery, Catharine

    2004-06-01

    Previous research suggests that MDMA users are impaired in various aspects of cognitive functioning, however, it remains unclear whether they might experience deficits in established measures of verbal working memory functioning. In the present study current and previous MDMA users were compared with non-users on verbal working memory measures including reading and computation span. Both user groups were found to be impaired on the computation span measure while current users also exhibited impairment in reading span. The MDMA-related deficit on the computation span measure remained significant following the introduction of statistical controls for the potentially confounding effects of cannabis and other drugs. The results are discussed in the context of recent research on executive processes. It is suggested that MDMA may produce differential effects on specific components within a fractionated executive system. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Does previous open renal surgery or percutaneous nephrolithotomy affect the outcomes and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Sarılar, Omer; Toptas, Mehmet; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Muslumanoglu, Ahmet Yaser; Binbay, Murat

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PNL in patients with a history of open renal surgery or PNL by comparing with primary patients and to compare impact of previous open renal surgery and PNL on the success and complications of subsequent PNL. Charts of patients, who underwent PNL at our institute, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into three groups according to history of renal stone surgery. Patients without history of renal surgery were enrolled into Group 1. Other patients with previous PNL and previous open surgery were categorized as Group 2 and Group 3. Preoperative characteristic, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complication rates were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was accepted as completing clearance of stone and residual fragment smaller than 4 mm. Eventually, 2070 patients were enrolled into the study. Open renal surgery and PNL had been done in 410 (Group 2) and 131 (Group 3) patients, retrospectively. The mean operation time was longer (71.3 ± 33.5 min) in Group 2 and the mean fluoroscopy time was longer (8.6 ± 5.0) in Group 3 but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Highest stone clearance was achieved in primary PNL patients (81.62%) compared to the other groups (77.10% in Group 2 and 75.61% in Group 3). Stone-free rate was not significantly different between Group 2 and Group 3. Fever, pulmonary complications, and blood transfusion requirement were not statically different between groups but angioembolization was significantly higher in Group 2. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with renal stones regardless history of previous PNL or open renal surgery. However, history of open renal surgery but not PNL significantly reduced PNL success.

  3. [Randomized study on urinary continence after radical prostatectomy with previous kinesic perineal physiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobía, Ignacio; González, Mariano S; Martínez, Pablo; Tejerizo, Juan C; Gueglio, Guillermo; Damia, Oscar; Martí, Maria I; Giudice, Carlos A

    2008-09-01

    Urinary incontinence is one of the main complications after radical prostatectomy (RP). Preoperative kinetic physiotherapy could be useful as a preventive treatment of these complication. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the usefulness of preoperative perineal kinetic physiotherapy for early recovery of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 38 patients were divided into groups of 19 before radical prostatectomy. The first group (K) received preoperative kinesic treatment whereas the second group (NK) did not (control group). Urinary continence was evaluated at 14, 30 and 60 days after catheter retrieval. There were not epidemiological or tumor biology differences between groups. The percentages of continent patients in group K at 14, 30 and 60 days were 47.36%, 47.36% and 78.9% respectively, whereas in the NK group where 47.36%, 47.36%, and 89.4% respectively (p > 0.05). Kinesic perineal exercises before radical prostatectomy did not diminish the times of urinary continence recovery or its appearance.

  4. Clinical trials in traumatic brain injury. What can we learn from previous studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppenberg, E M; Choi, S C; Bullock, R

    1997-10-15

    Many compounds have now been tested that were expected to ameliorate the secondary ischemic brain damage after severe head injury. Thus far, none of these have been clearly successful. This review is an attempt to identify factors that could be responsible for some of these failures. Recommendations are made that could help to avoid these pitfalls in the future. The usefulness and criteria for use of animal models for traumatic brain injury to depict human head injury are discussed. Clearly, it has now become widely accepted that mechanism-driven trials, in which individual pathophysiological mechanisms are targeted, are preferable in this heterogeneous patient population. Other factors, such as the effect of brain penetration, safety and tolerability of the compound, and the interface between the pharmaceutical industry and academics are a major influence in the success of these trials. Furthermore, different ways of analyzing trials such as sequential analysis and newer, alternative end points should be considered. Pharmacological agents will never be the "magic bullet" for a process as heterogenous in pathophysiological mechanisms as traumatic brain injury. This does not imply that the role of neuroprotective compounds will not be important in the future. New approaches in developing, conducting and analyzing these expensive clinical trials must be devised in the future.

  5. In vitro study of microleakage of fissure sealant with different previous treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Urquía, Morales María C; Brasca, N; Girardi, M; Bonnin, C; Ríos, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate microleakeage of a sealant after using three different techniques for conditioning the surface to be sealed. Twenty-four caries-free upper and lower premolars were used, which were preserved in distilled water at room temperature. The structural faults were enlarged using a cylindrical conical diamond (ISO 007). Teeth were randomly assigned into three groups of eight. Group I (control) was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid (Vivadent) for 15 seconds after which the sealant Helioseal F (Vivadent) was applied and cured for 40 seconds. Group II was conditioned in the same way, after which one-step adhesive Te-econom (Vivadent) and the sealant were applied. Group III was conditioned using a self-etching adhesive, Go (SDI), after which the sealant was applied. Adhesive was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions. The samples were thermocycled for 300 cycles between 5 degrees and 55 degreesC and immersed in a 2% methylene blue solution for 48 hs. at standardized temperature of 37 degreesC +/- 1 degree. Then they were rinsed with tap water and ground longitudinally in V-P direction with silica carbide rotatory disks of decreasing grit. The amount of leakage was evaluated under stereoscopic microscope at 40X magnification. The longitudinal penetration of dye into the tooth-sealant interface was scored on a scale of 0 to 3. The results were analyzed by a Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. In Group II, 100% of the samples showed low (50%) or no (50%) leakage. Both the other groups had a higher percentage of specimens with high leakage (scores 2 and 3) (P = 0.000). Group II had the best performance, with significant differences (P = 0.0028) compared to the other experimental groups. Marginal leakage was lowest when the tooth was conditioned with phosphoric acid and subsequent application of an adhesive, prior to sealant.

  6. Effect of previous botulinum neurotoxin treatment on microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhui; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Shah, Aalap; Gardner, Paul; Habeych, Miguel; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Michael

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, intraoperative findings, complications, and outcomes after the first microvascular decompression (MVD) in patients with and without previous botulinum neurotoxin treatment for hemifacial spasm (HFS). The authors analyzed 246 MVDs performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007. One hundred and seventy-six patients with HFS underwent botulinum neurotoxin injection treatment prior to first MVD (Group I), and 70 patients underwent their first MVD without previous botulinum neurotoxin treatment (Group II). Clinical outcome data were obtained immediately after the operation, at discharge, and at follow-up. Follow-up data were collected from 177 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 9 months (mean 54.48 ± 27.84 months). In 246 patients, 89.4% experienced immediate postoperative relief of spasm, 91.1% experienced relief at discharge, and 92.7% experienced relief at follow-up. There was no significant difference in outcomes and complications between Group I and Group II (p > 0.05). Preoperatively, patients in Group I had higher rates of facial weakness, tinnitus, tonus, and platysmal involvement as compared with Group II (p 0.05). No significant differences in complications were noted between the 2 groups. Microvascular decompression is an effective and safe procedure for patients with HFS previously treated using botulinum neurotoxin. Intraoperative monitoring with LSR is an effective tool for evaluating adequate decompression.

  7. Participation in physical activity: perceptions of women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graco, Marnie; Garrard, Jan; Jasper, Andrea E

    2009-04-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Regular physical activity plays an important role in preventing T2DM. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of physical activity among women with previous GDM, in the context of preventing T2DM. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women with previous GDM who had not been diagnosed with T2DM. Data were analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Women perceived diet to be significantly more important for the prevention of T2DM than physical activity. They underestimated the role of physical activity in preventing diabetes, which may have resulted from the lack of information they received following their pregnancy. Women consistently placed the needs of their families before their own, despite acknowledging their future health risks. The most commonly cited constraints on physical activity participation were lack of time, partner support, and appropriate childcare. They identified a need for 'family-friendly' community-based physical activity programs for mothers, more accessible childcare, and more information about the role of physical activity in diabetes prevention. Awareness of the role of physical activity for the prevention of diabetes was low. Physical activity promotion for women with previous GDM needs to be shaped around the opportunities and constraints identified by this population group.

  8. Previous Pregnancies Among Young Women Having an Abortion in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaid, Lisa Ann; Collier, Jacqueline; Platt, Mary Jane

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use national statistics on abortions carried out in England and Wales to more precisely estimate the proportion of young women aged Wales, from 1992 to 2013. Over the past 20 years, the proportion of teenagers in England and Wales having an abortion as a result of a subsequent pregnancy increased by 33% (from .172 in 1992 to .229 in 2013). Most of this increase occurred before 2004, and the proportion now appears to have stabilized. In 2013, 22.9% of the young women aged <20 years who underwent an abortion had had at least one previous pregnancy (either a birth or an abortion). Only a minority (<5% of young women who obtained an abortion) had had more than one previous pregnancy. The findings show that nearly one in four teenagers presenting for an abortion have already been in contact with health services for a previous birth or abortion. Greater policy emphasis must be placed on the accurate identification of the proportion of teenage pregnancies that occur as a result of a subsequent pregnancy and developing more effective "secondary prevention" interventions to help the first-time pregnant and parenting teenagers manage their future reproductive lives and prevent further unplanned pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gestational Diabetes in Korea: Incidence and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Chul Jang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Korean women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM have a 3.5 times greater risk of developing postpartum diabetes than the general population. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in early postpartum is reported as 10-15% in Korean women. A prospective follow-up study on Korean women with GDM showed that approximately 40% of women with previous GDM were expected to develop diabetes within 5 years postpartum. Independent risk factors for the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM are pre-pregnancy body weight, gestational age at diagnosis, antepartum hyperglycemia on oral glucose tolerance test, low insulin response to oral glucose load, and family history of diabetes. Women with postpartum diabetes have greater body mass indexes, body weight, and waist circumferences than women with normal glucose tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis has revealed that waist circumference is the strongest obesity index along with systolic blood pressure and that triglyceride levels are a major independent risk factor for developing diabetes. These results in Korean women with previous GDM underline the importance of postpartum testing in Korean women diagnosed with GDM, and demonstrate that impaired B-cell function, obesity, and especially visceral obesity, are associated with the development of diabetes.

  10. Determinants of multidrug resistance among previously treated tuberculosis patients in Zimbabwe, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchena, G; Shambira, G; Masuka, N; Juru, T; Gombe, N; Takundwa, L; Bangure, D; Tshimanga, M

    2017-11-01

    Zimbabwe. To investigate the determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among previously treated TB patients. A 1:3 case-control study with bivariate analysis and logistic regression. Risk factors for MDR-TB were history of nursing an MDR-TB patient (adjusted OR [aOR] 4.46, 95%CI 2.02-9.88), history of hospitalisation for 3 days (aOR 2.91, 95%CI 1.62-5.23) and history of foreign travel and stay outside Zimbabwe (aOR 2.68, 95%CI 1.46-4.91). Protective factors were previous successful treatment (aOR 0.05, 95%CI 0.02-0.11), history of supervision by a health worker/village health worker (aOR 0.34, 95%CI 0.19-0.60) and having been treated not more than once previously for TB (aOR 0.18, 95%CI 0.08-0.38). No association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and MDR-TB (aOR 1.00, 95%CI 0.53-1.88) was observed. However, among HIV-infected patients, those with CD4 reduce the MDR-TB burden in Zimbabwe.

  11. Effectiveness of sound therapy in patients with tinnitus resistant to previous treatments: importance of adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Alencar de Barros Suzuki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The difficulty in choosing the appropriate therapy for chronic tinnitus relates to the variable impact on the quality of life of affected patients and, thus, requires individualization of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of using sound generators with individual adjustments to relieve tinnitus in patients unresponsive to previous treatments. METHODS: A prospective study of 10 patients with chronic tinnitus who were unresponsive to previous drug treatments, five males and five females, with ages ranging from 41 to 78 years. Bilateral sound generators (Reach 62 or Mind 9 models were used daily for at least 6 h during 18 months. The patients were evaluated at the beginning, after 1 month and at each 3 months until 18 months through acuphenometry, minimum masking level, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, visual analog scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The sound generators were adjusted at each visit. RESULTS: There was a reduction of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory in nine patients using a protocol with a customized approach, independent of psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus. The best response to treatment occurred in those with whistle-type tinnitus. A correlation among the adjustments and tinnitus loudness and minimum masking level was found. Only one patient, who had indication of depression by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, did not respond to sound therapy. CONCLUSION: There was improvement in quality of life (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, with good response to sound therapy using customized settings in patients who did not respond to previous treatments for tinnitus.

  12. Bone mass, size and previous fractures as predictors of prospective fractures in an osteoporotic referral population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Fredrik; Nordström, Anna; Björnstig, Ulf; Nordström, Peter

    2009-10-01

    The influence of bone mass, bone size and previous low energy fractures upon prospective fractures has not been investigated in a referral osteoporotic population. We investigated the association between bone mass, bone size, previous fractures, body constitution, and prospective validated fractures in 5701 women and 1376 men, aged 30 years and older. Bone mass measurements of the femoral neck were collected at a single study center in Sweden. Most of the subjects were measured on suspicion of osteoporosis. Data on validated low energy retrospective and prospective fractures in the cohort were collected from the corresponding health care district. Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) and estimated volumetric BMD (vBMD, g/cm(3)) were shown to be good independent predictors for fracture in both women and men (Hazard ratio per standard deviation decrease (HR)=1.27-1.52, pBone size did not predict prospective fractures in either sex (HR=0.91-0.99, p>0.05), and bone size completely explained the higher BMD in men than in women. In women, retrospective low energy fractures (HR=1.78, pfractures after adjusting for age and BMD. In conclusion, we show that in a large osteoporotic referral population, age, BMD and previous fractures are independent predictors of prospective low energy fractures. These results add additional strength to the recent change in focus towards a multivariate analysis when assessing the future risk of fracture.

  13. Determination of the Boltzmann constant with cylindrical acoustic gas thermometry: new and previous results combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.; Lin, H.; Gillis, K. A.; Mehl, J. B.; Moldover, M. R.; Zhang, K.; Duan, Y. N.

    2017-10-01

    We report a new determination of the Boltzmann constant k B using a cylindrical acoustic gas thermometer. We determined the length of the copper cavity from measurements of its microwave resonance frequencies. This contrasts with our previous work (Zhang et al 2011 Int. J. Thermophys. 32 1297, Lin et al 2013 Metrologia 50 417, Feng et al 2015 Metrologia 52 S343) that determined the length of a different cavity using two-color optical interferometry. In this new study, the half-widths of the acoustic resonances are closer to their theoretical values than in our previous work. Despite significant changes in resonator design and the way in which the cylinder length is determined, the value of k B is substantially unchanged. We combined this result with our four previous results to calculate a global weighted mean of our k B determinations. The calculation follows CODATA’s method (Mohr and Taylor 2000 Rev. Mod. Phys. 72 351) for obtaining the weighted mean value of k B that accounts for the correlations among the measured quantities in this work and in our four previous determinations of k B. The weighted mean {{\\boldsymbol{\\hat{k}}}{B}} is 1.380 6484(28)  ×  10-23 J K-1 with the relative standard uncertainty of 2.0  ×  10-6. The corresponding value of the universal gas constant is 8.314 459(17) J K-1 mol-1 with the relative standard uncertainty of 2.0  ×  10-6.

  14. Medication abortion failure in women with and without previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlendorf, Christine E; Fox, Edith E; Ali, Rose F; Anderson, Nora C; Reed, Reiley D; Lichtenberg, E Steve

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association between previous cesarean delivery and medication abortion failure and the association between parity and failure. Data were abstracted from 2035 consecutive charts of women who underwent medication abortion in 2011. All women were at 63 days gestation or less and received mifepristone 200mg orally and misoprostol 800 mcg buccally. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the relationship between failure, defined as requiring either curettage or additional medication, and prior cesarean delivery. We also examined the relationship between failure and parity. Follow-up was available on 1609 (79%) patients. Overall, 4.5% of patients experienced failure. Neither cesarean delivery nor parity was associated with failure; 6.5% of women with prior cesarean delivery experienced failure, compared to 3.7% of nulliparous women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-3.87]. With regard to parity, 4.7% of women with two or more previous births experienced failure, compared to 3.7% of nulliparous women (aOR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.54-2.14). We did not find significant associations between prior cesarean delivery and failure or parity and failure. A previous study of patients who had received a less effective regimen reported significant associations between cesarean delivery and failure and parity and failure. While our results do not rule out the possibility of modest associations due to our limited statistical power, they are reassuring relative to previous findings. Our results suggest that if there are differences in women's odds of medication abortion failure by obstetric history, such differences are unlikely to be large. Providers and patients may factor this information into decision making about methods of pregnancy termination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical Validation of Adjusted Corneal Power in Patients with Previous Myopic Lasik Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Camps

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To validate clinically a new method for estimating the corneal power (Pc using a variable keratometric index (nkadj in eyes with previous laser refractive surgery. Setting. University of Alicante and Medimar International Hospital (Oftalmar, Alicante, (Spain. Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. This retrospective study comprised 62 eyes of 62 patients that had undergone myopic LASIK surgery. An algorithm for the calculation of nkadj was used for the estimation of the adjusted keratometric corneal power (Pkadj. This value was compared with the classical keratometric corneal power (Pk, the True Net Power (TNP, and the Gaussian corneal power (PcGauss. Likewise, Pkadj was compared with other previously described methods. Results. Differences between PcGauss and Pc values obtained with all methods evaluated were statistically significant (p<0.01. Differences between Pkadj and PcGauss were in the limit of clinical significance (p<0.01, loA [−0.33,0.60] D. Differences between Pkadj and TNP were not statistically and clinically significant (p=0.319, loA [−0.50,0.44] D. Differences between Pkadj and previously described methods were statistically significant (p<0.01, except with PcHaigisL (p=0.09, loA [−0.37,0.29] D. Conclusion. The use of the adjusted keratometric index (nkadj is a valid method to estimate the central corneal power in corneas with previous myopic laser refractive surgery, providing results comparable to PcHaigisL.

  16. Retrospective analysis on malignant calcification previously misdiagnosed as benign on screening mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Su Min [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Chae, Eun Young; Choi, Woo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the morphology and distribution of calcifications initially interpreted as benign or probably benign, but proven to be malignant by subsequent stereotactic biopsy, and to identify the reason for misinterpretation or underestimation at the initial diagnosis. Out of 567 women who underwent stereotactic biopsy for calcifications at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2014, 167 women were diagnosed with malignancy. Forty-six of these 167 women had previous mammography assessed as benign or probably benign which was changed to suspicious malignancy on follow-up mammography. Of these 46 women, three women with biopsy-proven benign calcifications at the site of subsequent cancer were excluded, and 43 patients were finally included. The calcifications (morphology, distribution, extent, associated findings) in the previous and follow-up mammography examinations were analyzed according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and assessment category. We classified the patients into two groups: 1) group A patients who were still retrospectively re-categorized as less than or equal to BI-RADS 3 and 2) group B patients who were re-categorized as equal to or higher than BI-RADS 4a and whose results should have prompted previous diagnostic assessment. In the follow-up mammography examinations, change in calcification morphology (n = 27, 63%) was the most frequent cause of assessment change. The most frequent previous mammographic findings of malignant calcification were amorphous morphology (n = 26, 60%) and grouped distribution (n = 36, 84%). The most frequent calcification findings at reassessment were amorphous morphology (n = 4, 9%), fine pleomorphic calcification (n = 30, 70%), grouped distribution (n = 23, 53%), and segmental calcification (n = 12, 28%). There were 33 (77%) patients in group A, and 10 patients (23%) in group B. Amorphous morphology and grouped distribution were the most frequent

  17. Obinutuzumab: a novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Arpita

    2014-10-01

    To review and summarize data on obinutuzumab, which was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2013 for use in combination with chlorambucil for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A PubMed literature search (August 2002 to March 2014) was conducted using the terms obinutuzumab, GA101, anti-CD20 antibody, and CLL. Data were also obtained through the FDA briefing documents and American Society of Hematology abstracts. The literature search was limited to human studies published in English. Priority was placed on trials of obinutuzumab in previously untreated CLL. Obinutuzumab is a novel glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, with a higher affinity for CD20 epitope, leading to superior cytotoxicity compared with rituximab. The FDA approval was based on a phase III, randomized trial of chlorambucil monotherapy (n = 118), chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab (n = 333), or rituximab (n =330) in previously untreated elderly CLL patients. Obinutuzumab was administered intravenously as 1000 mg on days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1 and day 1 for subsequent cycles. Median progression-free survival was 26.7 months in the chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab arm. The incidence of grade 3 or higher adverse events in the obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil arm was as follows: neutropenia (33%), infusion-related reactions (20%), thrombocytopenia (10%), and infections (7%). Obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil is a safe and effective new treatment option for previously untreated elderly CLL patients. It should become the new preferred therapy for these patients with significant comorbidities who are not candidates for fludarabine-based therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Obinutuzumab for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia: overview and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Carolyn J; Stewart, Douglas A

    2015-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common lymphoproliferative disorder in the Western world and predominantly affects older people. Until recently, most studies in CLL focused on younger patients in whom intensive therapy with the addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide was shown to improve survival. Obinutuzumab is a novel type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recently demonstrated an overall survival advantage when combined with chemotherapy in previously untreated older patients with CLL and comorbidities. Obinutuzumab was superior to rituximab in this same study in terms of response rates and progression-free survival. Several preclinical and early phase clinical studies also support the efficacy of obinutuzumab. The most frequent adverse event noted with obinutuzumab is infusion-related reactions, which occur more frequently than with rituximab and are typically restricted to the first cycle of therapy. Based on these results, obinutuzumab should be considered the gold standard mAb for combination with chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with CLL and comorbidities. The marked efficacy of obinutuzumab with a weak chemotherapy backbone implies significant potency of this mAb, making it the ideal partner for combination studies with other agents in CLL.

  19. Impact of previous virological treatment failures and adherence on the outcome of antiretroviral therapy in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ballif

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral treatment (cART has been very successful, especially among selected patients in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of cART on the population level in a large national cohort. METHODS: Characteristics of participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study on stable cART at two semiannual visits in 2007 were analyzed with respect to era of treatment initiation, number of previous virologically failed regimens and self reported adherence. Starting ART in the mono/dual era before HIV-1 RNA assays became available was counted as one failed regimen. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for virological failure between the two consecutive visits. RESULTS: Of 4541 patients 31.2% and 68.8% had initiated therapy in the mono/dual and cART era, respectively, and been on treatment for a median of 11.7 vs. 5.7 years. At visit 1 in 2007, the mean number of previous failed regimens was 3.2 vs. 0.5 and the viral load was undetectable (4 previous failures compared to 1 were 0.9 (95% CI 0.4-1.7, 0.8 (0.4-1.6, 1.6 (0.8-3.2, 3.3 (1.7-6.6 respectively, and 2.3 (1.1-4.8 for >2 missed cART doses during the last month, compared to perfect adherence. From the cART era, odds ratios with a history of 1, 2 and >2 previous failures compared to none were 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.5, 2.8 (1.7-4.5 and 7.8 (4.5-13.5, respectively, and 2.8 (1.6-4.8 for >2 missed cART doses during the last month, compared to perfect adherence. CONCLUSIONS: A higher number of previous virologically failed regimens, and imperfect adherence to therapy were independent predictors of imminent virological failure.

  20. Detection of mumps virus genotype H in two previously vaccinated patients from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Alberto; García, Alí A; Barrón, Blanca L

    2016-06-01

    Infections caused by mumps virus (MuV) have been successfully prevented through vaccination; however, in recent years, an increasing number of mumps outbreaks have been reported within vaccinated populations. In this study, MuV was genotyped for the first time in Mexico. Saliva samples were obtained from two previously vaccinated patients in Mexico City who had developed parotitis. Viral isolation was carried out in Vero cells, and the SH and HN genes were amplified by RT-PCR. Amplicons were sequenced and compared to a set of reference sequences to identify the MuV genotype.

  1. NREL Triples Previous Estimates of U.S. Wind Power Potential (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently released new estimates of the U.S. potential for wind-generated electricity, using advanced wind mapping and validation techniques to triple previous estimates of the size of the nation's wind resources. The new study, conducted by NREL and AWS TruePower, finds that the contiguous 48 states have the potential to generate up to 37 million gigawatt-hours annually. In comparison, the total U.S. electricity generation from all sources was roughly 4 million gigawatt-hours in 2009.

  2. Effect of previous exhaustive exercise on metabolism and fatigue development during intense exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    (HI; approximately 3 min) or low (LO; approximately 2 h) intensity. Compared with CON, performance during EX2 was reduced (P... during a repeated high-intensity exercise lasting 1/2-2 min.......The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...

  3. Previous medical history of diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is complex and most likely includes genetic and environmental factors. This study was conducted to evaluatethe role of previous medical history of diseases in ADHD children and their parents during theearlier years of the ADHD children's lives. Methods: In this case-control study, 164 ADHD children attending to Child and AdolescentPsychiatric Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, compared with 166 normal children selected in a random-cluster method from primary and guidance schools. ADHDrating scale (Parents version and clinical interview based on schedule for Schedule forAffective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version(K-SADS were used to diagnose ADHD cases and to select the control group. Two groupswere compared for the existence of previous medical history of diseases in children andparents. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression model were used for data analysis. Results: The frequency of maternal history of medical disorders (28.7% vs. 12.0%; P = 0.001was significantly higher in children with ADHD compared with the control group. The frequency of jaundice, dysentery, epilepsy, asthma, allergy, and head trauma in the medicalhistory of children were not significantly differed between the two groups. Conclusion: According to this preliminary study, it may be concluded that the maternal historyof medical disorders is one of contributing risk factors for ADHD.

  4. The importance of previous fracture site on osteoporosis diagnosis and incident fractures in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Suzanne N; Lix, Lisa M; Leslie, William D

    2014-07-01

    Previous fracture increases the risk of subsequent fractures regardless of the site of the initial fracture. Fracture risk assessment tools have been developed to guide clinical management; however, no discrimination is made as to the site of the prior fracture. Our objective was to determine which sites of previous nontraumatic fractures are most strongly associated with a diagnosis of osteoporosis, defined by a bone mineral density (BMD) T-score of ≤ -2.5 at the femoral neck, and an incident major osteoporotic fracture. Using administrative health databases, we conducted a retrospective historical cohort study of 39,991 women age 45 years and older who had BMD testing with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Logistic regression and Cox proportional multivariate models were used to test the association of previous fracture site with risk of osteoporosis and incident fractures. Clinical fractures at the following sites were strongly and independently associated with higher risk of an osteoporotic femoral neck T-score after adjustment for age: hip (odds ratio [OR], 3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-4.21), pelvis (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.66-3.0), spine (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.77-2.62), and humerus (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.49-2.02). Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for age and femoral neck BMD, showed the greatest increase in risk for a major osteoporotic fracture for women who had sustained previous fractures of the spine (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.72-2.53), humerus (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.44-2.01), patella (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.10-2.18), and pelvis (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.04-2.02). In summary, our results confirm that nontraumatic fractures in women are associated with osteoporosis at the femoral neck and that the site of previous fracture impacts on future osteoporotic fracture risk, independent of BMD. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B, bad (Group D, and minimal handling (Group C conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport.

  6. Protein Supplement Usage Among Male University Students: Comparisons Between Current and Previous Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youngmo; Choi, Jinkyung

    2018-02-01

    Interest in specialized dietary supplements is leading market growth, and protein supplements are popular for increasing muscle mass among young males. Therefore, this study investigated the attitudes toward and satisfaction with protein supplements to identify detailed consumer behaviors related to the consumption of protein supplements. The study sample includes male university students in their 20s in South Korea. In total, 223 responses were entered for analysis. Questions related to attitudes, satisfaction, and future behavioral intentions were asked using 5-point Likert scales. The responses were divided into two groups, current and previous users, to identify significant differences in terms of attitudes, satisfaction, and future behavioral intentions. A descriptive analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple regression were run. The majority of respondents prefer the powdered form of supplements in bulk with a price range between 30,000 won and 60,000 won. Online shopping was preferred, while word of mouth and friends/family were considered credible information sources. The most common side effects experienced were problems with digestion and hives, although more than 78% did not experience side effects. In comparison between current and previous users in terms of attitudes and satisfaction, the following areas showed significances. Regarding attitudes, the importance of brand, preference for products from overseas, the search for nutritional facts, and reading carefully all product information were significant, while regarding satisfaction, price, effectiveness, and ease of consumption were significant. All significances showed that current users had more positive attitudes and greater satisfaction. Overall, consumers' satisfaction regarding ease of consumption influenced future behavioral intentions. The market for protein supplements has been growing, so measuring consumers' attitudes and satisfaction would help attract potential consumers. In

  7. Efficacy and safety of retreatment with nivolumab in metastatic melanoma patients previously treated with nivolumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Motoo; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kondo, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hiroki; Nonomura, Yumi; Kaku, Yo; Matsumoto, Shigemi; Muto, Manabu

    2017-11-01

    Nivolumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against programmed death-1 that has been shown to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. However, the efficacy of nivolumab and other agents in melanoma remains limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retreatment with nivolumab in metastatic melanoma patients who previously progressed on nivolumab. A retrospective review was performed on eight consecutive metastatic melanoma patients retreated with nivolumab who progressed on previous nivolumab. These patients received nivolumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Best responses to each treatment were assessed using RECIST 1.1. Of eight metastatic melanoma patients, three patients received chemotherapy before first nivolumab. The median first nivolumab treatment period was 4.1 months. During first nivolumab, 3 (37.5%) patients achieved a partial response and 3 (37.5%) patients achieved stable disease as their best response. First nivolumab was discontinued due to disease progression in seven patients and grade 3 colitis in 1 patient. Patients were subsequently treated with ipilimumab (n = 6), vemurafenib (n = 1), or no other medical treatment (n = 1). The median treatment period between first and second nivolumab was 3.0 months. Four patients received radiation therapy between first and second nivolumab. The median second nivolumab treatment period was 4.3 months. Among the eight patients who received second nivolumab, 2 (25%) patients achieved a partial response and 3 (37.5%) patients achieved stable disease as their best response. Second nivolumab was discontinued due to disease progression in seven patients. One patient continues to receive second nivolumab. Among the four patients treated with ipilimumab and radiotherapy between first and second nivolumab, the response rate was 50% and the disease control rate was 75%. This study showed that retreatment with nivolumab is an option for select metastatic melanoma

  8. Effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ilknur; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Biri, Aydan; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in 204 patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes. Patients with poor obstetric history (pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal death, placental abruption, recurrent pregnancy loss) and having hereditary thrombophilia were included in this study. Poor obstetric outcomes were observed more frequently in patients who had not taken anticogulant therapy compared with treated group. Live birth rate, gestational age at birth and Apgar scores were significantly higher in the treated group when compared with the untreated group. There were no significant differences in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery and admission rates to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) had higher gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, live birth rate and a lower abortion rates when compared with controls; in contrast, no significant difference was observed in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. There were no significant differences between control group and both LMWH only and ASA only groups in terms of gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. Only LMWH group had higher live birth rate as compared with control group. The use of only ASA did not seem to affect the perinatal complication rates and outcomes. In conclusion, anticoagulant therapy with both LMWH and ASA seems to provide better obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes.

  9. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes.

  10. Prognostic value of a previous medical or surgical admission in outpatients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Artacho, P; Rodríguez-López, I; Pérez Peña, C; González Del Castillo, J; Calvo, E; Martín-Sánchez, F J

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether an earlier medical (MA) or surgical (SA) admission in the previous three months is a factor associated with mortality at 30 days in outpatients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Observational, retrospective cohort study on adult patients diagnosed with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism in a tertiary hospital over a period of 6 years. The study included 870 patients with a mean age of 72.7 years: 10.6% (92) had a prior MA, 4.9% (43) had a SA and 12.9% (112) died within the first 30 days. The MA group showed a higher frequency of simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) of high risk (≥1) (MA 90.2% vs SA 65.1% vs no prior admission 67.0%; p<0.001) and mortality at 30 days (MA 20.7% vs SA 7.0% vs no prior admission 12.9%; p=0.038). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a simplified PESI≥1 was the only independent risk factor for mortality at 30 days. The severity of the acute episode, as assessed by the simplified PESI scale, is independently associated with mortality at 30 days in outpatients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism. An earlier MA in the previous 3 months usually involves greater severity in the acute episode. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  11. Jumping performance differences among elite professional handball players with or without previous ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setuain, I; Millor, N; Alfaro, J; Gorostiaga, E; Izquierdo, M

    2015-10-01

    Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent strength and jumping capacity alterations may be observed among athletes who have suffered anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The aim of this study was to examine unilateral and bilateral jumping ability differences between previously ACL-reconstructed rehabilitated elite handball athletes and sex, age and uninjured sport activity level-pairs of control players. It was a Cross-sectional study with one factor: previous ACL injury. We recruited 22 male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) and 21 female (6 ACL-reconstructed and 15 uninjured control players) elite handball players who were evaluated 6.2±3.4 years after surgical ACL reconstruction. A battery of jump tests, including both bilateral and unilateral maneuvers, was performed. Two-tailed unpaired (intergroup comparison) and paired (intragroup comparison) t-tests were performed for mean comparisons. The P-value cut-off for significance was set at handball athletes demonstrated both lower vertical bilateral drop jump (VBDJ) contact times and lower UTHD scores for the injured leg several years after injury. These deficits could contribute to an increase in ACL re-injury risk.

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Human Airway Cilia Identifies Previously Uncharacterized Proteins of High Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Kevin; Bustamante-Marin, Ximena; Yin, Weining; Goshe, Michael B; Ostrowski, Lawrence E

    2017-04-07

    Cilia are essential to many diverse cellular processes. Although many major axonemal components have been identified and studied, how they interact to form a functional axoneme is not completely understood. To further our understanding of the protein composition of human airway cilia, we performed a semiquantitative analysis of ciliary axonemes using label-free LC/MSE, which identified over 400 proteins with high confidence. Tubulins were the most abundant proteins identified, with evidence of 20 different isoforms obtained. Twelve different isoforms of axonemal dynein heavy chain were also identified. Absolute quantification of the nontubulin components demonstrated a greater than 75-fold range of protein abundance (RSPH9;1850 fmol vs CCDC103;24 fmol), adding another level of complexity to axonemal structure. Of the identified proteins, ∼70% are known axonemal proteins. In addition, many previously uncharacterized proteins were identified. Unexpectedly, several of these, including ERICH3, C1orf87, and CCDC181, were present at high relative abundance in the cilia. RT-PCR analysis and immunoblotting confirmed cilia-specific expression for eight uncharacterized proteins, and fluorescence microscopy demonstrated unique axonemal localizations. These studies have provided the first quantitative analysis of the ciliary proteome and have identified and characterized several previously unknown proteins as major constituents of human airway cilia.

  13. Association of Aortic Valve Sclerosis with Previous Coronary Artery Disease and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Carvalho Marmelo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aortic valve sclerosis (AVS is characterized by increased thickness, calcification and stiffness of the aortic leaflets without fusion of the commissures. Several studies show an association between AVS and presence of coronary artery disease. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between presence of AVS with occurrence of previous coronary artery disease and classical risk factors. Methods: The sample was composed of 2,493 individuals who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between August 2011 and December 2012. The mean age of the cohort was 67.5 ± 15.9 years, and 50.7% were female. Results: The most frequent clinical indication for Doppler echocardiography was the presence of stroke (28.8%, and the most common risk factor was hypertension (60.8%. The most prevalent pathological findings on Doppler echocardiography were mitral valve sclerosis (37.1% and AVS (36.7%. There was a statistically significant association between AVS with hypertension (p < 0.001, myocardial infarction (p = 0.007, diabetes (p = 0.006 and compromised left ventricular systolic function (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Patients with AVS have higher prevalences of hypertension, stroke, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, diabetes and compromised left ventricular systolic function when compared with patients without AVS. We conclude that there is an association between presence of AVS with previous coronary artery disease and classical risk factors.

  14. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C.

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes. PMID:28049284

  15. A Single Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Dose Improves B Cell Memory in Previously Infected Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Scherer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although licensed human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines are most efficacious in persons never infected with HPV, they also reduce infection and disease in previously infected subjects, indicating natural immunity is not entirely protective against HPV re-infection. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the B cell memory elicited by HPV infection and evaluate whether vaccination merely boosts antibody (Ab levels in previously infected subjects or also improves the quality of B cell memory. Toward this end, the memory B cells (Bmem of five unvaccinated, HPV-seropositive subjects were isolated and characterized, and subject recall responses to a single HPV vaccine dose were analyzed. Vaccination boosted Ab levels 24- to 930-fold (median 77-fold and Bmem numbers 3- to 27-fold (median 6-fold. In addition, Abs cloned from naturally elicited Bmem were generally non-neutralizing, whereas all those isolated following vaccination were neutralizing. Moreover, Ab and plasmablast responses indicative of memory recall responses were only observed in two subjects. These results suggest HPV vaccination augments both the magnitude and quality of natural immunity and demonstrate that sexually active persons could also benefit from HPV vaccination. This study may have important public policy implications, especially for the older ‘catch-up’ group within the vaccine's target population.

  16. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  17. Clinical outcomes of the addition of eccentrics for rehabilitation of previously failed treatments of golfers elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Timothy F; Nicholas, Stephen J; Schmitt, Brandon M; Mullaney, Michael; Hogan, Daniel E

    2014-05-01

    Eccentric training of the wrist extensors has been shown to be effective in treating chronic lateral epicondylosis. However, its efficacy in the treatment of medial epicondylosis has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a novel eccentric wrist flexor exercise added to standard treatment for chronic medial epicondylosis in patients who did not respond to previous therapeutic interventions for this disorder. 20. Patients (13 men, 7 women; age 49±12 yr) with chronic medial epicondylosis who had failed previous treatment for this disorder (physical therapy 7, cortisone injection 7, PRP 1, NSAIDS 15) were prescribed isolated eccentrics in addition to wrist stretching, ultrasound, cross-friction massage, heat and ice. The specific isolated eccentric wrist flexor strengthening exercise performed by the patients involved twisting a rubber bar (Flexbar, Hygenic Corportation, Akron OH) with concentric wrist flexion of the noninvolved arm and releasing the twist by eccentrically contracting the wrist flexors of the involved arm (3 × 15 twice daily). A DASH questionnaire was recorded at baseline and again after the treatment period. Treating clinicians were blinded to baseline DASH scores. Treatment effect was assessed using paired t-test. Based on previous work it was estimated that with a sample of 20 patients there would be 80% power to detect a 13 point improvement in DASH scores (ptennis (2), basketball (1), weight lifting (1), and general activities of daily living (2). There was a significant improvement in outcomes following the addition of isolated eccentrics (Pre DASH 34.7±16.2 vs. Post DASH 7.9±11.1, p<.001). For the 18 patients involved in sports, the sports module of the DASH score improved from 73.9±28.9 to 13.2±25.0, p<.001). Physical therapy visits ranged from 1-22 with an average of 12±6 and, average treatment duration of 6.1±2.5 wks (range 1-10). Home exercise program compliance was recorded for each

  18. Relationship of Blood Pressure and Erectile Dysfunction in Men Without Previously Diagnosed Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Arto; Kaipia, Antti; Venermo, Maarit; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korhonen, Päivi

    2017-11-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual disorder that affects all age groups and has a close association with essential hypertension. To characterize the relation of blood pressure and ED in detail. A cross-sectional population-based study of 45- to 70-year-old men without previously diagnosed hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, renal disease, or diabetes was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in southwestern Finland. A total of 665 men with at least one cardiovascular risk factor were studied. ED was defined by the five-item International Index of Erectile Function. We found a U-shaped association between diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of ED. The average age of the study subjects was 56 ± 6 years and 52% had ED. After adjustment for age, cohabitation status, education, fasting plasma glucose level, waist circumference, and prevalence of depressive symptoms, the curve relating DBP to the prevalence of ED was U-shaped with a nadir of DBP 90 mm Hg. Our findings emphasize the importance of blood pressure measurement in the physical examination of men with ED. This was a cross-sectional study, which prevents the evaluation of causality between ED and hypertension. However, this community-based study population is well defined and the anthropologic measurements were made by trained medical staff. We found a U-shaped correlation between ED and DBP, which confirms the link between ED and hypertension. Heikkilä A, Kaipia A, Venermo M, et al. Relationship of Blood Pressure and Erectile Dysfunction in Men Without Previously Diagnosed Hypertension. J Sex Med 2017;14:1336-1341. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impaired insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism in glucose-tolerant women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Vestergaard, H; Kühl, Carl Erik

    1996-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes.......Our purpose was to investigate insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes....

  20. High mortality and poor morbidity after hip fracture in patients with previous vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yong-Chan; Baek, Ji-Hoon; Ko, Young-Bong; Park, Sang-Min; Song, Sang-Heon

    2015-09-01

    Although vertebral fracture in patients is a predictor of subsequent hip fracture, no study has assessed the mortality and functional outcome in hip fracture patients with previous vertebral fracture. Between September 2009 and December 2012, we evaluated 246 patients over 50-years-of-age diagnosed with femoral neck or intertrochanteric fractures who underwent surgery. The patients were categorized into two groups and two subgroups. Group Ia comprised 150 patients with previous vertebral fracture at the time of hip fracture. Group Ib comprised 96 patients with no vertebral fracture. Group IIa consisted of 76 patients fracture. Group IIb comprised 69 patients fracture. The mortality rate and functional outcome of osteoporotic hip fracture patients with and without vertebral fractures were compared. The cumulative mortality rate at 6 and 12 months post-fracture was 19 and 23 % in Group Ia and 6 and 7 % in Group Ib, respectively. In subgroup analysis, the cumulative mortality rate at 6 and 12 months was 13 and 17 % in Group IIa and 3 and 4 % in Group IIb, respectively. Shut-in patients at the final follow-up included 51 of 103 (49.5 %) patients in Group Ia and 19 of 83 (22.9 %) patients in Group Ib. In subgroup analysis, the shut-in patients included 18 of 58 (31.0 %) patients in Group IIa and 10 of 62 (16.1 %) patients in Group IIb. Previous vertebral fracture was associated with a poor functional outcome and increased mortality in patients with hip fracture.

  1. Probability of high-risk colorectal neoplasm recurrence based on the results of two previous colonoscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Won; Han, Seungbong; Lee, Ji Young; Chang, Hye-Sook; Choe, Jaewon; Choi, Yunsik; So, Hoonsub; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho; Byeon, Jeong-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for the surveillance colonoscopy interval are largely based on the most recent colonoscopy findings. We aimed to evaluate differences in the probability of high-risk neoplasm recurrence according to the two previous colonoscopy findings. This was a retrospective cohort study from a tertiary-care center. A total of 4,143 subjects who underwent three or more colonoscopies for screening or surveillance purposes from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled. We compared the probability of high-risk neoplasm detection on follow-up colonoscopies after the second colonoscopy based on risk categories in both the second and first colonoscopies. At the final colonoscopy, 370 participants (8.9 %) had high-risk neoplasms. In patients with a normal second colonoscopy, the probability of high-risk neoplasm recurrence was different between those with normal, low-risk, and high-risk findings at the first colonoscopy (3.8, 6.8, and 17.7 %, respectively). The hazard ratio of a high-risk neoplasm at the final colonoscopy for patients with a normal second and low-risk first colonoscopy over a normal second and normal first colonoscopy was 3.07 (95 % CI 2.04-4.64, P neoplasm at the final colonoscopy for patients with a normal second and high-risk first colonoscopy over a normal second with normal first colonoscopy was 7.88 (95 % CI 4.90-12.67, P neoplasm recurrence differs according to the two previous colonoscopy findings. Therefore, surveillance intervals could be adjusted not just only by the most recent colonoscopy findings but also by considering two previous colonoscopy findings.

  2. Previous Preterm Birth and Current Maternal Complications as a Risk Factor of Subsequent Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the association between previous preterm birth and the risk of stillbirth. Methods. This population-based retrospective cohort study analyzed live births and stillbirth records in Missouri (1989–1997. The main outcome of interest was stillbirth occurrence while the exposures were prior preterm birth. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression. Results. Women who had a previous preterm birth have 63% increased odds of stillbirth in singleton pregnancies and 75% increased odds in twins as compared to those who did not have a preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.41–1.88 and AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.20–2.56, respectively. The most significant risk factor for stillbirth in singleton pregnancies was uterine bleeding (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 5.13–6.76. In twin pregnancies, it was the condition hydramnios/oligohydramnios (AOR = 4.72, 95% CI = 3.70–6.02. Eclampsia was associated with a heightened risk of stillbirth in singletons (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.41–4.12, but not in twins (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.13–7.00. Black mothers were more likely than white to experience stillbirth (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.99–2.22 for singletons and AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.27–1.79 for twins. Conclusion. Stillbirth is a vital public health issue and its etiology is not well understood. Previous history of preterm birth was found to be associated with future stillbirth. Targeted early medical and obstetric care and interventions among women with preterm birth history may potentially reduce the likelihood of stillbirth.

  3. Female Sexual Dysfunction in the Late Postpartum Period Among Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Taymur, Bilge Dogan; Taymur, Bulent; Akca, Gizem; Tug, Niyazi

    2017-04-01

    To compare the status of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) between women with a history of previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those with follow-up of a healthy pregnancy, using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Cross-sectional study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from September to December 2015. Healthy sexually active adult parous females were included. Participants were asked to complete the validated Turkish versions of the FSFI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Student's t-test was used for two-group comparisons of normally distributed variables and quantitative data. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for two-group comparisons of non-normally distributed variables. Pearson's chi-squared test, the Fisher-FreemanHalton test, Fisher's exact test, and Yates' continuity correction test were used for comparison of qualitative data. The mean FSFI scores of the 179 participants was 23.50 ±3.94. FSFI scores and scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05), according to a history of GDM and types of FSD (none, mild, severe). HADS scores and anxiety and depression types did not statistically significantly differ according to the history of GDM (p>0.05). An association could not be found in FSFI scores between participants with both the history of previous GDM and with healthy pregnancy; subclinical sexual dysfunction may be observed in the late postpartum period among women with a history of previous GDM. This may adversely affect their sexual health.

  4. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland, western Norway, with a survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Godske Bjørklund

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Bjørklund BG. 2009. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland western Norway with a u survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway. Fauna Norvegica29: 11-54. A total of 156 species (or subspecies o rotifers, mostly non-planktonic, have been identified from freshwater or slightly brackish-water localities in the county of Hordaland; 83 are new to Norway and 24 others are new to the county. One hundred of the species were collected from the two valleys of Eksingedalen and Teigdalen in spring and summer 1967. Samples were taken on the shallow shores of lake-like parts of the rivers, and in pools, tarns and small lakes. Forty more or less euryhaline fresh­water rotifers were also collected during studies of slightly brackish-water localities around Bergen in 1963-1969. A number of freshwater rotifers were collected at several localities in and around Bergen in 1968-1970, and on the western part of Hardangervidda. Of those so far identified ,23 are new to Norway and 8 more are new to the county. They are therefore included in the species list. A few additional ones are referred to in the taxonomical notes. All the species are listed with localities and habitat categories, or, in the case of the last-mentioned ones, just the district where they were collected. The paper includes notes, measurements and ,in most cases, figures regarding 44 little known, variable or taxonomically problematical species, especially in the genera Cephalodella and Trichocerca. Comments are given on the distribution , abundance and diversity of the species. The paper presents asurvey of previous investigations on rotifers in Norway, listing 200 previously recorded freshwater (a few euryhaline rotifers, giving other names, the authors who recorded the finds and, in most cases, the counties where the species were collected. 

  5. [Anemia in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a comorbity more common than previously thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotte, M; Guiot, J; Beguin, Y; Louis, R

    2016-11-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is traditionally associated with polycythemia which results from chronic hypoxemia. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that anemia may be more frequent than expected in patients with COPD. In this retrospective study, we investigated the prevalence of hemoglobin disorders in a cohort of 100 patients with stable, moderate to severe COPD (II to IV GOLD classification). We identified 31 % patients with anemia while only 15 % had polycythemia. Anemia was more frequent in male patients. We also demonstrated a negative correlation between hemoglobin and CRP levels (R=-0.56, p inferior to 0.0001). COPD patients with anemia had experienced a higher rate of hospitalizations for exacerbation in the previous year than those with polycythemia (p inferior to 0.05). Anemia is a frequent comorbidity in COPD; it is associated with systemic inflammation and a propensity to hospitalization for exacerbation.

  6. Cheilitis in acne vulgaris patients with no previous use of systemic retinoid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Lajevardi, Vahideh; Talebi, Shahin; Azizpour, Arghavan

    2017-08-01

    Isotretinoin is commonly used in the treatment of acne vulgaris. While one of the more common side-effects is cheilitis, we have observed an increased incidence of cheilitis prior to the commencement of systemic isotretinoin. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cheilitis among acne vulgaris patients. A non-interventional cross-sectional study of patients with acne vulgaris. Patients with previous use of systemic retinoids were excluded. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of cheilitis. Of a total of 400 patients, 134 (34%) had evidence of cheilitis at initial presentation. Two-thirds (63%) were female (P acne excorie, compared with only 8% of patients with no signs of cheilitis. Our findings suggest that cheilitis is quite common among acne vulgaris patients even before treatment with isotretinoin. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  7. The search for a higher power among terminally ill people with no previous religion or belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Margery

    2012-08-01

    In a palliative care setting, there is evidence from the practice of spiritual care delivery to suggest that some terminally ill patients may seek, with varying degrees of openness and articulation, to connect with a higher power, or God, despite having expressed no previous interest in religion or belief. Developing a better understanding of the thoughts and feelings of such patients requires insight into the initial triggers of their search. In this small qualitative study involving six patients, fear, hope, and a natural connection are posited as possible prompts. The results highlight the complexity of ambivalent feelings toward a transcendent being that can be the focus of anger and blame while simultaneously offering a source of comfort and hope for an afterlife. Moreover, the study revealed something of the extent to which health professionals may feel limited in facilitating necessary discussion by a need to protect patients and themselves from entering an unfamiliar and complex area.

  8. Standardized mortality in eating disorders--a quantitative summary of previously published and new evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Møller-Madsen, S.; Isager, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Ten eating disorder (ED) populations were reviewed using the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) presenting new evidence for several studies. In eight of the ten samples, strong evidence (in one sample weak evidence and in one sample no evidence) supports an hypothesis of elevated SMR. We found...... of follow-up had a highly significant inverse effect on SMR; maximal SMR was 30 for female AN patients in the first year after presentation. A statistically significant increase in SMR was documented for at least up to 15 years after presentation. One study indicated a treatment effect on SMR. New evidence...... on causes of death suggests there are more deaths from suicide and other and unknown causes and fewer deaths related to ED than previously reported. Our findings have both research and clinical implications, with the most important clinical implication being the need for vigorous and well-directed treatment...

  9. Standardized mortality in eating disorders--a quantitative summary of previously published and new evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Møller-Madsen, S.; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Ten eating disorder (ED) populations were reviewed using the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) presenting new evidence for several studies. In eight of the ten samples, strong evidence (in one sample weak evidence and in one sample no evidence) supports an hypothesis of elevated SMR. We found...... of follow-up had a highly significant inverse effect on SMR; maximal SMR was 30 for female AN patients in the first year after presentation. A statistically significant increase in SMR was documented for at least up to 15 years after presentation. One study indicated a treatment effect on SMR. New evidence...... on causes of death suggests there are more deaths from suicide and other and unknown causes and fewer deaths related to ED than previously reported. Our findings have both research and clinical implications, with the most important clinical implication being the need for vigorous and well-directed treatment...

  10. 78 FR 11567 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150 airplanes. This AD was prompted by...: 2013-03-23 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd...

  11. 77 FR 44432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Astra SPX, 1125 Westwind Astra, and Gulfstream 100... new AD: 2012-15-06 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft...

  12. 77 FR 64767 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel... Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes...

  13. 76 FR 70040 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream G150 airplanes; and...: 2011-23-07 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd...

  14. 76 FR 1349 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously... airworthiness directive (AD): 2010-26-54 Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by...) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type...

  15. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  16. Mifepristone vs balloon catheter for labor induction in previous cesarean: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chanderdeep; Soni, Anjali; Gupta, Amit; Verma, Ashok; Verma, Suresh

    2017-08-01

    To compare oral mifepristone (400 mg) with trans-cervical balloon catheter for induction of labor (IOL) in post date women with previous one cesarean section (CS). In this randomized trial, post date pregnant women (gestation 40 weeks 5 days), with previous one low segment CS (no previous vaginal delivery) were induced either with oral mifepristone (400 mg) or balloon catheter [Foley's catheter (16 Fr); bulb filled with 30 ml normal saline]. They were re-assessed 24 and 48 h later. If at any time Bishop Score was >6; amniotomy was done, followed by oxytocin infusion. Primary outcome of the study was labor onset after first manoeuvre. Secondary outcomes were cervical ripening, need of oxytocin, vaginal delivery and CS, in two groups. From June 2012 to September 2015, we enrolled 107 women. Out of these, 57 received oral tablet mifepristone (400 mg) and 50 were inserted with balloon catheter. Labor onset after first manoeuvre was statistically significantly more in mifepristone group (37/57 vs. 13/50, respectively; p value 0.000). Bishop Score after 24 h was better in balloon catheter (p value 0.000). More women with balloon catheter required oxytocin for IOL (37/50 vs. 20/57, respectively; p value 0.000) along with higher dose [840 (320) mU vs 560 (120) mU, respectively, p value 0.000]. Failure of induction was statistically significantly higher in balloon catheter group (8 out of 50 vs. 2 out of 57, respectively, p value 0.043). There was no statistically significant difference in normal delivery or CS in either group (p value 0.242 and 0.331, respectively). Oral mifepristone (400 mg) is associated with statistically significantly higher incidence of labor onset in post date pregnant women with previous one CS, as compared to balloon catheter. Both methods are primarily for cervical ripening and oxytocin should not be delayed in the absence of onset of labor. Clinical Trials Registry-India, www.ctri.nic.in , CTRI/2012/05/003634.

  17. Training "Rule-of-(E)": Further Investigation of a Previously Successful Intervention for a Spelling Rule in Developmental Mixed Dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Coltheart, Max

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a single case treatment study conducted with R.F.L., a young man with developmental mixed dysgraphia. The intervention focused on teaching spelling rules and was a replication of a previous successful study. The results of the present study provided further insights into the mechanism that operates to update faulty lexical…

  18. The evolution of avian wing shape and previously unrecognized trends in covert feathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Clarke, Julia A

    2015-10-07

    Avian wing shape has been related to flight performance, migration, foraging behaviour and display. Historically, linear measurements of the feathered aerofoil and skeletal proportions have been used to describe this shape. While the distribution of covert feathers, layered over the anterior wing, has long been assumed to contribute to aerofoil properties, to our knowledge no previous studies of trends in avian wing shape assessed their variation. Here, these trends are explored using a geometric-morphometric approach with landmarks describing the wing outline as well as the extent of dorsal and ventral covert feathers for 105 avian species. We find that most of the observed variation is explained by phylogeny and ecology but shows only a weak relationship with previously described flight style categories, wing loading and an investigated set of aerodynamic variables. Most of the recovered variation is in greater primary covert feather extent, followed by secondary feather length and the shape of the wing tip. Although often considered a plastic character strongly linked to flight style, the estimated ancestral wing morphology is found to be generally conservative among basal parts of most major avian lineages. The radiation of birds is characterized by successive diversification into largely distinct areas of morphospace. However, aquatic taxa show convergence in feathering despite differences in flight style, and songbirds move into a region of morphospace also occupied by basal taxa but at markedly different body sizes. These results have implications for the proposed inference of flight style in extinct taxa. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Vaginal delivery after previous caesarean section for failure of second stage of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, V H; Halfwerk, M G; Brouwer, W K

    1998-10-01

    To determine the outcome of subsequent labour in primiparous women after a caesarean section for delay in descent in the second stage of labour in cephalic presentations with or without trial of instrumental vaginal delivery. Retrospective follow up study. Medical Centre Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. All primiparous parturients who delivered after prior caesarean section during the second stage of labour in the period 19861998. Data concerning the outcome of the first subsequent delivery were gathered from delivery notes and patients charts. The group of women was subdivided into those with or without trial of instrumental vaginal delivery during the previous labour. Of 132 women, 29 (22%) underwent a planned repeat caesarean section. Of the 103 women who were allowed a trial of labour, 82 (80%) were successful in having a vaginal delivery, and 21 (20%) had a second caesarean section. Of the 74 women with a failed trial of instrumental delivery during the previous labour, 19 had a planned repeat caesarean section and 41 of the remaining 55 (75%) had a successful trial of labour. In women with a cephalic presentation who had an arrest of descent in the second stage of labour during their first delivery, the chances of vaginal delivery in their next pregnancy are high, even after a failed instrumented vaginal delivery, and a trial of labour can usually be pursued.

  20. Does a previous surgical experience interfere on psychic stress in patients submitted to major surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the impact of stress in patients undergoing major surgeries under general anesthesia, relating their physical and psychic reactions to the different stages of stress. METHODS: we studied 100 adult patients of both genders, who were divided into two groups: Group 1 - 22 patients without experience with surgery; Group 2 - 78 patients previously submitted to medium and major surgery. To investigate the stress, we used the Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults, developed by Lipp, the day before the procedure and two days and seven days after the operation. The comparison of groups with respect to gender, pain, and percentage of stress were performed using the Chi-square test, and for the age variable the Student's t test was used. Differences were considered significant at p<0.05. RESULTS: the groups were not homogeneous as for the overall percentage of stress on the three measurements. G1 had decreased postoperative stress, whilst in G2 it increased. Psychological symptoms of stress prevailed in both groups. CONCLUSION: previous surgery reduced preoperative stress but did not affect postoperative emotional disorders.

  1. Reliability of Squat Movement Competency Screen in Individuals With a Previous Knee Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Suzi; Liberatore, Mark

    2017-09-05

    Movement screens are a common method of assessing movement efficiency either against a specific criterion of segments/joint(s) motion (segmental method), or a summary label of general quality of the whole movement (overall method). While not as commonly utilized within clinical practice as the segmental method, the overall method is less time consuming to perform and more reliable. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the "overall" method approach during a squat in individuals with a previous knee joint injury. Cross-sectional, clinical measurement. Two-dimensional video recordings of five squat trials were recorded for 16 participants with a history of a major knee joint injury(s) and were visually rated by three novice and three expert raters. Weighted quadratic Kappa was used to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the squat movement competency screen. Good inter-rater reliability for the expert and novice groups was observed. Intra-rater reliability was very good between analysis sessions for one expert rater. The overall method is a reliable method that enables allied health professionals of different levels of clinical experience to utilize a framework to assess movement quality during a squat in patients with a previous knee joint injury.

  2. Prevalence and titers of yellow fever virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Simões, Marisol; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Medeiros, Carlos Roberto de; Braga, Patrícia Emilia; Neves, Maria Angélica Acalá; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Kallas, Esper Georges; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam

    2017-04-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged  60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. previously vaccinated healthy persons aged  18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. 46 persons aged  60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear.

  3. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  4. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis, E-mail: gkotsikoris@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Zygomalas, Apollon, E-mail: azygomalas@upatras.gr [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Patras (Greece); Papas, Theofanis, E-mail: pfanis@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Maras, Dimitris, E-mail: dimmaras@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Pavlidis, Polyvios, E-mail: polpavlidis@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Andrikopoulou, Maria, E-mail: madric@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Tsanis, Antonis, E-mail: atsanis@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Radiology, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Alivizatos, Vasileios, E-mail: valiviz@hol.gr [Department of General Surgery and Artificial Nutrition Unit, “Agios Andreas” General Hospital of Patras (Greece); Bessias, Nikolaos, E-mail: bessias@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates.

  5. Internal Jugular Vein Catheterization with Seldinger Technique, previous Needle Puncture: Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizo G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization (CVC is a common procedure performed daily for its outnumbered indications, complication rates range are up to 15%. The previous puncture with a fine needle with the Seldinger technique can reduce even more the possible complications, guaranteeing a high percentage of success. The objective was to determine the number of CVC per puncture with Seldinger technique performed by general surgery residents and identify number and type of mechanical complications, related to the residence year. A descriptive transversal cut study has been carried out, between March and November of 2014. A number of 243 patients were evaluated, observing that 41% of the cases were to measure CVP and hemodynamic monitoring; 76% of the punctures were done by 1º and 2º year residents, presenting only 10% on mechanic complications, most frequently on arterial puncture. In conclusion, previous puncture with needle with the Seldinger technique is safer, more secure, lower cost, and reduces the number of complications, it is a variant puncture under ultrasound guidance.

  6. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  7. Radioiodine treatment of recurrent hyperthyroidism in patients previously treated for Graves' disease by subtotal thyroidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Laurberg, P

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy is often employed for treatment of patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, after previous thyroid surgery. Little is known about the outcome of this treatment compared to patients with no previous surgery. A total of 20 patients who had received surgical...... treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism 1-46 years previously and with relapse of the hyperthyroidism, and 25 patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and no previous thyroid surgery were treated with radioiodine, following the same protocol. Early after treatment the previously operated patients...

  8. The effects of previous open renal stone surgery types on PNL outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Ucpinar, Burak; Sarilar, Omer; Erbin, Akif; Yanaral, Fatih; Sahan, Murat; Binbay, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to demonstrate the effect of insicion of renal parenchyma during open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) outcomes. Patients with history of ORSS who underwent PNL operation between June 2005 and June 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to their type of previous ORSS. Patients who had a history of ORSS with parenchymal insicion, such as radial nephrotomies, anatrophic nephrolithotomy, lower pole resection, and partial nephrectomy, were included in Group 1. Other patients with a history of open pyelolithotomy were enrolled in Group 2. Preoperative characteristics, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complications were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was defined as complete clearance of stone(s) or presence of residual fragments smaller than 4 mm. The retrospective nature of our study, different experience level of surgeons, and lack of the evaluation of anesthetic agents and cost of procedures were limitations of our study. 123 and 111 patients were enrolled in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups. In Group 1, the mean operative time was statistically longer than in Group 2 (p=0.013). Stone-free status was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p=0.027). Complication rates were similar between groups. Hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion was the most common complication in both groups (10.5% vs. 9.9%). Our study demonstrated that a history of previous ORSS with parenchymal insicion significantly reduces the success rates of PNL procedure.

  9. Is Previous Tubal Ligation a Risk Factor for Hysterectomy because of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Moradan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Post tubal ligation syndrome (PTLS is a term used to describe a variety of post tubal ligation side effects or symptoms. These include increased menstrual bleeding and hysterectomy. Whether or not post tubal syndrome is a real entity, it has been a subject of controversy in the medical literature for decades. Numerous studies have reported conflicting conclusions about these symptoms. In this study the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among sterilized women was compared with the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among non-sterilized female population of the same age.Methods: This study was carried out on 160 women, 38-52 years, who underwent hysterectomy in Amir University Hospital, Semnan, Iran, from September 2008 to September 2011. After gathering of data from medical records, in this study, the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among sterilized women was compared with the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among nonsterilized female population for the same age.Results: The mean age of the study group was 44/4±5/7 and the mean age of the control group was 45/2±5/3, (p=0.424.The mean parity of the study group was 3/8±1/8 and the mean parity of the control group was 3/5±1/4, (p=0.220. So, in regard to age and parity, two groups were matched. Hysterectomies were performed for 160 cases and abnormal uterine bleeding was the cause of hysterectomy in 67 cases. Among 67 cases, 19 cases (37.3% had previous tubal sterilization + hysterectomy (study group and 48 cases (44% were not undergoing tubal sterilization but had hysterectomy for abnormal bleeding causes (control group. Statistical analyses showed that there were not significant differences between two groups, (RR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.56-1.28; p=0.418.Conclusion: The result of this study showed that previous tubal sterilization is not a risk factor for undergoing hysterectomy because of abnormal uterine bleeding.

  10. Reinterpretation in visual imagery is possible without visual cues: a validation of previous research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamermans, Kevin L; Pouw, Wim; Mast, Fred W; Paas, Fred

    2017-12-14

    Is visual reinterpretation of bistable figures (e.g., duck/rabbit figure) in visual imagery possible? Current consensus suggests that it is in principle possible because of converging evidence of quasi-pictorial functioning of visual imagery. Yet, studies that have directly tested and found evidence for reinterpretation in visual imagery, allow for the possibility that reinterpretation was already achieved during memorization of the figure(s). One study resolved this issue, providing evidence for reinterpretation in visual imagery (Mast and Kosslyn, Cognition 86:57-70, 2002). However, participants in that study performed reinterpretations with aid of visual cues. Hence, reinterpretation was not performed with mental imagery alone. Therefore, in this study we assessed the possibility of reinterpretation without visual support. We further explored the possible role of haptic cues to assess the multimodal nature of mental imagery. Fifty-three participants were consecutively presented three to be remembered bistable 2-D figures (reinterpretable when rotated 180°), two of which were visually inspected and one was explored hapticly. After memorization of the figures, a visually bistable exemplar figure was presented to ensure understanding of the concept of visual bistability. During recall, 11 participants (out of 36; 30.6%) who did not spot bistability during memorization successfully performed reinterpretations when instructed to mentally rotate their visual image, but additional haptic cues during mental imagery did not inflate reinterpretation ability. This study validates previous findings that reinterpretation in visual imagery is possible.

  11. Groin Problems in Male Soccer Players Are More Common Than Previously Reported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harøy, Joar; Clarsen, Ben; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of surveillance studies in soccer have used a time-loss injury definition, and many groin problems result from overuse, leading to gradually increasing pain and/or reduced performance without necessarily causing an absence from soccer training or match play. Thus, the mag......BACKGROUND: The majority of surveillance studies in soccer have used a time-loss injury definition, and many groin problems result from overuse, leading to gradually increasing pain and/or reduced performance without necessarily causing an absence from soccer training or match play. Thus...... surveillance method developed to capture acute and overuse problems. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: We registered groin problems during a 6-week period of match congestion using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire. A total of 240 players from 15 teams...... for senior male soccer players. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of groin problems among male soccer players during a period with match congestion. Time-loss definition as used in previous injury surveillance studies captured only one-third of the male groin problems registered with the new method...

  12. Opinion leaders vs audit and feedback to implement practice guidelines. Delivery after previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J; Enkin, M; Anderson, G M; Hannah, W J; Vayda, E; Singer, J

    1991-05-01

    A randomized controlled trial with 76 physicians in 16 community hospitals evaluated audit and feedback and local opinion leader education as methods of encouraging compliance with a guideline for the management of women with a previous cesarean section. The guideline recommended clinical actions to increase trial of labor and vaginal birth rates. Charts for all 3552 cases in the study groups were audited. After 24 months the trial of labor and vaginal birth rates in the audit and feedback group were no different from those in the control group, but rates were 46% and 85% higher, respectively, among physicians educated by an opinion leader. Duration of hospital stay was lower in the opinion leader education group than in the other two groups. The overall cesarean section rate was reduced only in the opinion leader education group. There were no adverse clinical outcomes attributable to the interventions. The use of opinion leaders improved the quality of care.

  13. Does a previous surgical experience interfere on psychic stress in patients submitted to major surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Daian, Márcia Rodrigues; Petroianu, Andy

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the impact of stress in patients undergoing major surgeries under general anesthesia, relating their physical and psychic reactions to the different stages of stress. we studied 100 adult patients of both genders, who were divided into two groups: Group 1 - 22 patients without experience with surgery; Group 2 - 78 patients previously submitted to medium and major surgery. To investigate the stress, we used the Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults, developed by Lipp, the day before the procedure and two days and seven days after the operation. The comparison of groups with respect to gender, pain, and percentage of stress were performed using the Chi-square test, and for the age variable the Student's t test was used. Differences were considered significant at pdisorders.

  14. Children and adolescents previously treated with glucocorticoids display lower verbal intellectual abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara Krøis; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak

    2015-01-01

    /kg (range 21-723) and the mean time that had elapsed since treatment was three-and-a-half (standard deviation 2.2) years. Intellectual abilities were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and memory performance and behavioural problems with a pattern recognition memory task......AIM: Perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids has been associated with adverse cerebral effects, but little is known about their effect on cognitive development and exposure later in childhood. This study examined intellectual abilities, memory and behavioural problems in children previously treated...... and the Child Behaviour Check List. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups in pattern recognition memory, perceptual organisation index or behavioural problems, but patients had a significantly lower verbal comprehension index and this difference was present in both disease groups...

  15. Vaginal prostaglandin gel to induce labour in women with one previous caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agnew, G

    2012-02-01

    This retrospective study reviewed the mode of delivery when vaginal prostaglandins were used to induce labour in women with a single previous lower segment caesarean section. Over a 4-year period, PGE 2 gel was used cautiously in low doses in 54 women. Induction with PGE 2 gel was associated with an overall vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) rate of 74%, which compared favourably with the 74% VBAC rate in women who went into spontaneous labour (n = 1969). There were no adverse outcomes recorded after the prostaglandin inductions but the number reported are too small to draw any conclusions about the risks, such as uterine rupture. We report our results because they may be helpful in assessing the chances of a successful VBAC in the uncommon clinical circumstances where prostaglandin induction is being considered.

  16. [Assessment of central hemodynamic properties of the arterial wall in women with previous preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polónia, Jorge; Olival, Catarina; Ribeiro, Sílvia; Silva, José A; Barbosa, Loide

    2014-06-01

    We investigated viscoelastic properties of the arterial wall in women with previous preeclampsia (PE) compared to those with normal pregnancy (NP). In a cross-sectional study 45 women with previous PE and 55 with NP were included, matched for age (PE 38±6 vs. NP 38±5 years, NS) and body mass index: (PE 25±4 vs. NP 26±4 kg/m(2), NS) studied, respectively, 76±34 and 86±48 months after delivery. We assessed arterial distensibility - pulse wave velocity (PWV, Complior) and reflected waves (augmentation pressure [AP], mmHg) and augmentation index (AIx) - in the central pressure wave and blood pressure (BP) on 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). PE showed higher (p<0.01) peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP): PE 131±18 vs. NP 121±19, and central SBP: PE 122±18 vs. NP 110±19 mmHg, with less amplification of central-peripheral pressure: PE 10±4 vs. NP 12±5, p=0.041, and higher (p<0.05) AP: PE 10±3 vs. NP 8±2, and AIx: PE 26±5 vs. NP 20±5 mmHg, but PE and NP did not differ in pulse wave velocity. On ABPM, PE (n=39) vs. NP (n=33) had higher nighttime SBP: PE 121±10 vs. NP 108±10 mmHg and lower percentage nocturnal SBP fall: PE 11±6 vs. NP 18±11%, both p<0.02. During follow-up, the need for antihypertensive medication was seven times higher in PE than in NP. Women with previous PE have a greater risk of hypertension, higher nighttime BP values, blunted nocturnal BP fall and changes in central pressure suggestive of increased reflected waves and peripheral vascular resistance. These factors may contribute to their higher cardiovascular risk after pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in advanced primary congenital glaucoma with previous surgical failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jingjing Huang,1 Jialiu Lin,1 Ziqiang Wu,2 Hongzhi Xu,3 Chengguo Zuo,1 Jian Ge1 1State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Department of Glaucoma, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Center for Advanced Eye Care, Carson City, NV, USA; 3Institute of Child Health Policy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intermediate surgical results of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV implantation in patients less than 7 years of age, with advanced primary congenital glaucoma who have failed previous surgeries.Patients and methods: Consecutive patients with advanced primary congenital glaucoma that failed previous operations and had undergone subsequent AGV implantation were evaluated retrospectively. Surgical success was defined as 1 intraocular pressure (IOP ≥6 and ≤21 mmHg; 2 IOP reduction of at least 30% relative to preoperative values; and 3 without the need for additional surgical intervention for IOP control, loss of light perception, or serious complications.Results: Fourteen eyes of eleven patients were studied. Preoperatively, the average axial length was 27.71±1.52 (25.56–30.80 mm, corneal diameter was 14.71±1.07 (13.0–16.0 mm, cup-to-disc ratio was 0.95±0.04 (0.9–1.0, and IOP was 39.5±5.7 (30–55 mmHg. The mean follow-up time was 18.29±10.96 (5–44, median 18 months. There were significant reductions in IOPs and the number of glaucoma medications (P<0.001 postoperatively. The IOPs after operation were 11.3±3.4, 13.6±5.1, 16.3±2.7, and 16.1±2.6 mmHg at 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months, respectively. Kaplan–Meier estimates of the cumulative probability of valve success were 85.7%, 71.4%, and 71.4% at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Severe surgical complications, including erosion of tube, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, choroidal detachment, and delayed suprachoroidal hemorrhage, occurred in 28

  18. Panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and a possible medical syndrome previously linked to chromosome 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Ardesheer; Ponniah, Kathryn; Strug, Lisa J; Hodge, Susan E; Fyer, Abby J; Weissman, Myrna M

    2008-03-15

    Several studies have identified increased medical problems among individuals with panic disorder (PD). We previously found that specific conditions--interstitial cystitis (IC), mitral valve prolapse (MVP), migraines, and thyroid disorders--aggregated non-randomly among panic families (we called this the "PD syndrome") and that families with and without the syndrome were genetically distinguishable on chromosome 13. We present data from a new case-control study that replicates and extends the syndrome phenotype clinically. Probands with a definite diagnosis and family history of PD (n=219), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=199), or both (n=173) and 102 control subjects with no personal/family history of anxiety were interviewed with the SADS-LA diagnostic instrument. Medical history was obtained via medical checklist and the family history screen; IC symptoms were assessed with criteria developed by the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Subjects and interviewers were unaware of the syndrome hypothesis; final best-estimate diagnoses were blind to syndrome data. Probands with PD or SAD, as compared with control subjects, were five or more times as likely to report IC symptoms and twice as likely to report MVP and migraines (other genitourinary and cardiovascular problems were not elevated). First-degree relatives of probands with PD or SAD were also at increased risk for IC, MVP, thyroid problems, and headaches, regardless of whether the proband reported the same condition. These findings are consistent with previous data supporting a PD syndrome and further suggest that this syndrome might include other anxiety disorders well.

  19. Budget impact analysis of empagliflozin in T2D patients with a previous cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Budget impact analysis of empagliflozin in T2D patients with a previous cardiovascular diseaseIntroductionThe EMPA-REG OUTCOME study demonstrated that empagliflozin is effective in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in T2D patients with high risk linked to a previous cardiovascular condition. The objective of this study is the budget impact analysis of the use of empagliflozin in this population in Italy.MethodsThe analysis was conducted from the cost perspective of the Italian NHS with a 3-year time horizon. The target population, defined as T2D patients with a known cardiovascular disease, was estimated based on epidemiologic and market data. An uptake of empagliflozin growing from 10% to 30% was considered to add up or substitute combinations of metformin, insulin, glitazones and DPP-4. The uptake of 80-100% was considered to substitute sulfonylureas and repaglinide. Costs, including drugs, glycaemia monitoring, management of severe hypoglycaemia events, and cardiovascular and renal events, were estimated based on published literature and current tariffs.ResultsThe target population was estimated in 243,693 in the first year. The incremental cost for drugs (17.6 million Euro is entirely offset by the savings in glycaemia monitoring (8.1 million Euro, cardiovascular and renal events (8.8 million Euro and severe hypoglycaemic events (3.1 million Euro, with a net saving of 2.3 million Euro, approximately corresponding to -0.7% of the total expenditure. The cumulative budget impact in the 3 years was 4.9 million Euro (-0.5%.ConclusionsThe progressive adoption of empagliflozin to treat T2D patients with known cardiovascular disease in Italy, would provide significant clinical benefit without entailing additional expense for the Italian NHS.

  20. [Influence of previous psychiatric disorders on postoperative course in patients undergoing bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella Romero, Francisco; Alfaro Martínez, José Joaquín; Molina Pacheco, Elena; Lomas Meneses, Amparo; Salas Saiz, María Angeles; García Gómez, Angélica; García Arce, Llanos

    2010-01-01

    Presurgical evaluation of patients undergoing bariatric surgery includes, among others, a psychological/psychiatric evaluation. Psychiatric disorders that did not contraindicate surgery may persist and influence on weight loss and postoperative clinical course, hindering the success of the procedure. The aim of our study was to analyze the postoperative evolution of our series of patients with and without psychiatric symptoms before surgery. Retrospective analysis of 109 patients undergoing bariatric surgery with duodenal switch from 2003 to 2008 (follow up > 6 months). We studied weight changes, immediate and delayed complications of surgery and nutritional deficiencies in post-surgical follow-up in patients with previous psychiatric disorders (group 1, n = 17) compared with patients without psychiatric disorders (group 2, n = 92). Patients in group 1 showed a greater tendency for weight gain. They regained a 9.4% of the initial excess weight lost between 18 months after surgery and 36 months after surgery, while patients in group 2 regained only 0.2% in the same period (p nutritional deficiencies were common in both groups, mainly soluble vitamins, iron and zinc. During postoperative follow-up, we found 3.1 +/- 1.6 nutritional deficiencies per patient in group 1 and 2.5 +/- 1.7 in group 2 (p = 0.04). More than three nutritional deficiencies were found in 8 patients in group 1 (52.9%) compared to 23 patients in group 2 (25%) (p = 0.03). The presence of previous psychiatric disorders may be a predictor of a less positive outcome in morbidly obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery. Copyright 2010 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Is parental competitive ability in winter negatively affected by previous springs' family size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, Rienk W; Ubels, Richard; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive behavior cannot be understood without taking the local level of competition into account. Experimental work in great tits (Parus major) showed that (1) a survival cost of reproduction was paid in environments with high levels of competition during the winter period and (2) experimentally manipulated family size negatively affected the ability of parents to compete for preferred breeding boxes in the n